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Sample records for broiler starter diet

  1. Effects of time of change from broiler starter to broiler finisher diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of time of change from broiler starter ration (BSR) to broiler finisher ration (BFR) on growth performance and economy of gain of meat- type chickens. Six hundred Abor Acres broiler chickens were used in an 8-week study in which same starter and finisher diets were fed but at ...

  2. Poultry viscera and bone meal in broiler pre-starter and starter diets

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    Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier

    2012-04-01

    . Mortality was not affected by treatments in either of the assays. Viscera and bone meal can be used at 3 or 4% inclusion in broiler pre-starter and starter diets.

  3. Digestible Threonine Levels in the Starter Diet of Broilers Derived from Breeders of Different Ages

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    CBGS Tanure

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible threonine supplementation in the starter diet on the performance, intestinal parameters, and nutrient metabolism of broilers derived from breeders of different ages. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb chicks, derived from 38-or 49-week-oldbreeders, were housed in experimental battery cages until 21 days of age and fed four different threonine levels (800, 900, 1,000, or 1,100 mg/kg in the starter feed. A completely randomized experimental design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (breeder age x threonine levels was applied, totaling eight treatments with five replicates of 12 birds each. Broilers from older breeders fed 800 mg digestible threonine/kg of diet presented higher weight gain, with a positive linear effect. There was also an interaction between breeder age and threonine levels for the weight gain of 21-d-old broilers supplemented at maximum level of 1,003 mg Thr/kg diet during the starter phase. There was no effect of breeder age or threonine levels on nutrient metabolism during the period of 17-21 days. There was no influence of breeder age or threonine levels in the starter diet on intestinal morphometric measurements, absorption area, or percentage of goblet cells.

  4. Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets

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    AM Kessler

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO, acid corn oil (ACO, linseed oil (LO or coconut fat (CoF. Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA x (2 n6:n3 ratios x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC. Performance responses and dry matter (DMM, crude protein (CPM, and crude fat (CFM metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS, acid soybean oil (ASO, or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO. Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.

  5. Effects of starter diet supplementation with arginine on broiler production performance and on small intestine morphometry

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    Alice E. Murakami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of starter diet (days 1 to 21 supplemented with arginine (Arg on the production performance and duodenum and jejunum mucosa morphometry of broilers were studied. Male Cobb broiler chickens (990 were randomly assigned to one of five treatments in a complete random design. Measurements of 33 chicks per treatment were made in six repetitions. The treatments consisted of a basal diet with 1.390% digestible Arg (no supplementation and four dietary levels (1.490%, 1.590%, 1.690%, and 1.790%, providing a relationship with lysine of 1.103; 1.183; 1.262; 1.341 and 1.421%, respectively. From the age of 22 days on, all birds received conventional grower diet. The data were submitted to regression analysis by polynomial decomposition of the degrees of freedom in relation to the levels of Arg. The Arg supplementation increased (P0.05 in the growth phase (days 22 to 42 in the absence of the Arg supplementation. The supplementation of Arg over of NRC recommendation during the starter phase may be necessary for the expression of the maximal weight gain potential in birds. No effect (P<0.05 of Arg dietary supplementation was observed either on small intestine weight and length at any age. However, the duodenum villus:crypt ratio increased and the crypt depth decreased in the first week in response to increasing dietary Arg. It is concluded that broiler Arg dietary supplementation in the starter diet improved production performance and small intestine morphometry, especially in the first week.

  6. TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

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    A FASUYI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

  7. Different sodium levels and electrolyte balances in pre-starter diets for broilers

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    A Maiorka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment with 400 one-day-old male chicks (Ross was conducted to evaluate the effects of different Na levels (0.10, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.46% and different cation/anion balances (Na+K-Cl (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 meq/kg in pre-starter diets on broiler performance. The corn and soybean-based diets had 22% crude protein and 2,900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and were fed ad libitum. Performance data showed a positive quadratic effect of increasing Na levels on feed and water consumption, weight gain and feed conversion. Na+K-Cl also had a quadratic influence on feed intake and weight gain. None of the effects tested affected the amount of water measured in excreta. Derivatives of obtained regression equations pointed to optimal Na levels of 0.45% for water consumption, 0.40% for feed intake and weight gain and 0.38% for feed conversion. As to the effect of dietary Na+K-Cl balances on performance, regression equation values were 174 meq/kg for feed consumption and 163 meq/kg for weight gain. These results show that both Na level and Na+K-Cl balance interfere on broiler performance.

  8. Assessment of the nutrient contents of broiler starter and finisher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, estimated chemical scores of analyzed diets revealed a generally high trend, methionine plus cystine appeared limiting in the broiler starter diets compared with recommended levels for birds aged 1-3 weeks; threonine, valine or isoeucine may be limiting in some broiler finisher diets when compared with ...

  9. Effect of Digestible Protein and Sulfur Amino Acids in Starter Diet on Performance and Small Intestinal (Jejunum Morphology of Broilers

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    Avisa Akhavan khaleghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Protein is an essential constituent of all tissues of animal body and has major effect on growth performance of the bird. A better understanding of the nutritional requirements of amino acids allows a more precise nutrition, offering the possibility for the formulator to optimize the requirement of at least minimum levels of crude protein by essential amino acids requirements, generating better result and lower costs for the producer. Methionine + Cystine (total sulfur amino acid = TSSA perform a number of functions in enzyme reactions and protein synthesis. Methionine is an essential amino acid for poultry and has an important role as a precursor of Cystine. Methionine is usually the first limiting amino acid in most of the practical diets for broiler chicken. The efficiency of utilization of dietary nutrients partly depends on the development of the gastro intestinal tract. Material and methods A 2×3 factorial arrangement in a CRD experiment was conducted to study the effect of digestible protein (DP and sulfur amino acids (DSAA during the starter period on performance and small intestinal (jejunum villous morphology. A total number of 300 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 30 groups with 10 chicks each. Treatments consisted of two dietary levels of DP (19.5 and 21.5% and three dietary levels of DSAA (0.94, 1.02 and 1.1% that were fed for 10 days. For Each group and treatment, Feed Intake (FI, Weight Gain (WG and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were calculated and all the data were statistically analyzed by the SAS software. Results and Discussions The effects of different levels of protein and digestible sulfur amino acids on the mean feed intake, feed conversion ratio and daily weight gain are shown in the Table 3. Increase in the percentage of digestible sulfur amino acids, increased the levels of feed intake and feed conversion ratio in the starter period but, had no effect on the WG. Adding the DSAA

  10. Assessment of the Nutrient Contents of Finished Broiler Starter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, all test broiler starter diets had superior (P<0.05) CP and amino acids profile compared with the NRC recommendation for broilers aged 3-6 weeks. ... It was opined that the limitation has the potential of affecting the performance of birds, especially if not compensated for by other amino acids that were surplus in the ...

  11. Growth performance and immunity status of starter broiler birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM + GM) on growth performance and serum parameters of starter broiler birds. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve groups of fifteen chicks with ...

  12. Performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28 day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler birds fed sweet potato meal. Three hundred and five (305) Anak broilers of one week old were randomly assigned to five treatment diets. Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 contain 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% levels of ...

  13. Performance and carcass characteristics of starter broiler chicks fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) one week old unsexed Cobb starter broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five experimental treatment diets of 24 birds each in a completely randomize design. The birds were divided into three replicates of 8 birds each, and were offered experimental diets contained 0.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and ...

  14. Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases

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    Rodrigo Santana Toledo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environments (clean and dirty environment, with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.

  15. Different Levels of Digestible Methionine on Performance of Broiler Starter

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    WL Bryden

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein and amino acid supply is the most expensive component of poultry diets. Therefore several efforts made by the industry to minimize the cost of the protein portion of the diet. Accordingly, there has been a recent move to use digestible amino acid values in the formulation of poultry diets. The efficiency of protein utilization depends to a large extent on the amino acid composition of the diet. The study was conducted to determine the digestible methionine requirement of broilers during the starter periods. One hundred and seventy five (175 chicks were allocated to 5 treatments with five replicates of seven chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed experimental diets from one day old to 21 days of age. Dietary treatments included 5 titrated levels each of digestible methionine (3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 g/kg diet added to a basal diet. The allowance of digestible methionine, rather than digestible sulphur amino acids was used in formulating the diets. Supplemental synthetic DL-Methionine which were considered to be 100% digestible were added to diets to obtain the concentration of the digestible amino acid. Each week until the conclusion of the trial, birds were individually weighed, feed intake per pen was measured, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was computed. This study suggested that the digestible methionine requirement for broiler starter is 4.7 g/kg for optimal body weight gain and 4.6 g/kg for optimal feed conversion ratio. (Animal Production 12(1: 6-11 (2010Key Words: amino acid, broiler, digestible, methionine, starter

  16. ffects of different levels of digestible arginine and protein in starter diets containing ideal amino acids ratio on Eperformance, carcass traits and serum parameters in broiler chickens

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    Mostafa Gholami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition and health during the first days of life has critical effect on broiler chickens performance. It is well known that diet formulation based on digestible nutrients is superior to formulation based on total nutrients. The suitable supply of essential amino acids in broilers’ diets requires proper knowledge on their metabolic effects in the body. The excessive or unbalanced intake of essential and non-essential amino acids can be harmful to broilers’ metabolism, due to amino acid antagonisms. Arginine is an essential amino acid for broilers since the urea cycle is not functional in birds. Arginine involves in the synthesis of ornithine, a precursor of polyamines that have a key role in cell division, DNA synthesis, nitric oxide (NO synthesis, and cell cycle regulation. Also, arginine increases the release of insulin, growth hormone, and IGF-A and luteinizing hormone (LH in the blood stream. On the other hand, in corn- soybean meal based diets arginine is the fifth limiting amino acid after methionine, lysine, threonine, and valine. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of different digestible arginine (DA and digestible protein (DP levels of starter diets (1-10 d based on ideal amino acids ratio on performance, carcass traits and serum parameters in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Four handed day-old male broiler chickes (Ross 308 were distributed in 10 treatments of 4 replicates (floor pens each. The experiment was designed as a 2×5 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were formulated with five levels of digestible arginine (1.05, 1.18, 1.31, 1.44 and 1.57% and 2 levels of digestible protein (18 and 20%. Chicken were fed with experimental diets during 1 to 10 days of age, and then received similar diets formulated according to Ross 308 (2009 recommendations. All birds had free access to feed and water during the whole rearing period. Temperature was

  17. Valor nutricional do milho termicamente processado, usado na ração pré-inicial para frangos de corte Nutritional value of heat processed corn in formulating broiler pre-starter diet

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    E.R. Freitas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos um ensaio de metabolismo para determinar o valor nutricional do milho termicamente processado (MP e não-processado (MNP e outro de desempenho para comparar o uso desses alimentos em dietas pré-iniciais para frangos de corte. Não foram observadas diferenças entre a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, do extrato etéreo, da proteína bruta e do amido e valores de energia metabolizável aparente dos tipos de milho avaliados. A energia metabolizável aparente corrigida do MP (3.537kcal/kg de MS foi maior (PA digestibility trial was carried out to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of heat-processed corn (PC and not processed corn (NPC. A trial was also carried out to evaluate the effect of PC and NPC in pre-starter diet on broiler performance from 1 to 42 days of age. The dry matter (DM, ether extract, crude protein and starch digestibilities and apparent metabolizable energy for PC were similar (P>0.05 to those observed for NPC. The corrected apparent metabolizable energy of PC (3,537kcal/kg of DM was higher than NPC (3,411kcal/kg of DM. The treatments in the performance trial were T1- diet formulated with NPC, T2- diet formulated with PC, and T3 - isometric substitution of NPC for PC in T1 diet. The broiler fed on NRC diets showed lower feed consumption and weight gain:feed consumption ratio from 1 to 7 days of age than broiler fed on PC diets. The isometric substitution of NPC for PC in the pre-starter diet did not affect the performance of birds. No treatment effect on broiler performance from 1 to 42 days of age was also observed.

  18. Performance And Economic Analysis Of Broiler Starter Fed Dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial involving 300, day-old Hubbard broilers was carried out in a completely randomized design to evaluate the performance and economic analysis of broiler starters fed dried rumen digesta meal at dietary levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% respectively. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ...

  19. Tempo de fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial para frangos de corte com diferentes pesos ao alojamento Period of feeding a pre-starter diet for broiler chickens with different body weights at housing

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    Gilson Alexandre Gomes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial (DPI e do peso ao alojamento sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte. Utilizaram-se 960 frangos machos, linhagem comercial Cobb-500, alojados em 32 boxes, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, composto de dois pesos ao alojamento (42 e 46 g e quatro períodos de fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial (0, 1 a 7, 1 a 10 e 1 a 14 dias de idade, durante 49 dias. Os programas alimentares compreenderam três ou quatro fases (pré-inicial e/ou inicial; engorda; final e as dietas fornecidas eram à base de milho e farelo de soja. De modo geral, aves mais pesadas ao alojamento apresentaram, ao longo de todo o período experimental, maior consumo de ração (CR e ganho de peso (GP. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na conversão alimentar (CA dos animais. Considerando todo o período experimental, as aves alimentadas com a dieta pré-inicial durante sete dias apresentaram maior consumo de ração e ganho de peso, porém, menor rendimento de carcaça. O peso ao alojamento determina o desempenho e o oferecimento da dieta pré-inicial durante sete dias beneficia o desempenho das aves.The effects of feeding a pre-starter diet (PSD and weight at housing on performance and carcass characteristics broilers were evaluated. A total of 960 day-old male chickens, commercial line Cobb-500, was housed in 32 floor pens as a completely randomized design in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement [weight at housing (42 and 46 g and periods of feeding pre- starter diet (0, 1 to 7, 1 to 10 and 1 to 14 days old for 49 days. The feeding regimes contained three or four phases (pre-starter and/or starter; grower; finisher diets and diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Overall, birds with heavier weights at housing showed, throughout the trial period, greater feed consumption and weight gain. No differences were observed for feed conversion of

  20. Nutrient Retention and Haematological Indices of Broiler Starters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 285. ABSTRACT: Studies were ... protein on nutrient retention and haematological parameters of broilers at the starter phase. Apparent crude protein, crude fibre .... digestibility of GNC, which was earlier reported by Oluyemi and Roberts ...

  1. Performance of broilers fed increased levels energy in the pre-starter diet and on subsequent feeding programs having with acidulated soybean soapstock supplementation

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    SL Vieira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate broiler responses to increases in feed energy (2,870, 3,000 and 3,100 kcal ME/kg and the inclusion of Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS when compared to Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO in feeds from placement to 7 days of age. From 7 to 42 days ASS or DSO were included in diets that contained similar energy and nutrient levels. Metabolizable energy values used to formulate the diets for ASS and DSO were 8,351 and 7,701 kcal ME/kg in the first week and 9,314 and 8,559 kcal ME/kg afterwards, respectively. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and were fed to 1,600 one-d-old male broiler chicks randomly placed in 40 floor pens. No differences in performance due to fat source were seen at 7 days. However, the increase in energy levels to 3,100 kcal ME/kg reduced feed intake, whereas feed conversion was improved with energy at 3,000 kcal ME/kg. Live performance, and the yields of carcass and commercial cuts were not affected by the type of fat included in the feeds from 7 to 42 days, except for increased body weight at 21 and 35 days with ASS supplementation. Litter moisture at 7, 21, 35 and 42 days was not affected by any of the factors and there were no residual effects of treatments at 21, 35 and 42 days of age. On the other hand, body weight at 35 days was affected by the interaction of diets fed in the first week with those provided afterwards. The results showed that ME values used for DSO and ASS are adequate and that ASS may be used as fat source in broiler feeds from placement to 42 days of age.

  2. Níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phases

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    Luziane Moreira dos Santos

    2011-11-01

    carried out with broilers to evaluate levels of calcium and available phosphorus (aP in diets supplemented with 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet. Each experiment consisted of a performance and a metabolic assay, and was conducted in a factorial schedule (3 × 4 + 1, with three aP levels (0.42, 0.37, 0.32% in the pre-starter phase and 0.39, 0.34, 0.29% in the starter phase, four calcium levels (0.94, 0.84, 0.74, 0.64% in the pre-starter phase and 0.88; 0.78, 0.68, 0.58% in the starter phase plus a control diet. The control corresponded to the only diet without phytase and contained 0.47% of aP and 0.94% of calcium (pre-starter phase or 0.44% of aP and 0.88% of calcium (starter phase. In the performance assays, at 7 and 21 days of age the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn of the feed, and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC were determined. Calcium levels influenced the feed intake, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and in the starter phase they influenced bone ash, AMEn and DMDC. The aP levels influenced the content of tibia ash, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and bone ash and DMDC in the starter phase. By adding 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet, it is possible to reduce, respectively, the calcium and aP levels to 0.64% and 0.37% in the pre-starter phase, and to 0.58% and 0.29% in the starter phase, since this reduction does not cause a negative effect on performance or bone mineralization of broilers in the evaluated periods.

  3. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B1 in Starter Broiler Chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Justin; Li, Wei; Bailey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg) both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4). After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin. PMID:26343723

  4. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B1 in Starter Broiler Chicks

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    Justin Fowler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4. After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin.

  5. Comparative Performance Of Broiler Chicks fed Diets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Part of the soaked seeds were sun-dried and milled. The remaining part were cooked, sun-dried and milled. The second batch was cracked, soaked in water for 48 hours and cooked before sun drying and milling. Both meals were analyzed for their proximate composition and included in broiler starter diets at 20% dietary ...

  6. Methionine in Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    levels of heat treated velvet beans on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers was also investigated. There was no beneficial effect of .... All diets were prepared and fed in mash form. Birds were fed ad libitum from wooden ..... The results of this study showed no in- fluence of diet on the sizes of giblets, viscera.

  7. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. N., Onu

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80 mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

  8. Níveis de arginina e lisina digestíveis na dieta de frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial Digestible arginine and lysine levels in pre-starter broiler diet

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    José Henrique Stringhini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho, a digestibilidade e retenção de nutrientes e o desenvolvimento de órgãos de frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias de idade alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de lisina e arginina digestíveis. Um total de 352 pintos AgRoss machos foram distribuídos em um arranjo fatorial 2 ´ 3 composto de dois níveis de lisina digestível (1,056 e 1,305% e três níveis de arginina digestível (1,305; 1,459 e 1,613%, com quatro repetições de 11 aves. O ganho de peso diário não foi afetado pelas dietas, porém, houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de arginina sobre a conversão alimentar de 1 a 7 dias e de 1 a 21 dias de idade e efeito linear sobre o consumo de alimento no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. O peso relativo do proventrículo + moela reduziu à medida que o nível de arginina digestível aumentou para o nível de 1,305% de lisina digestível aos 14 dias de idade. Os valores do coeficiente de digestibilidade dos nutrientes e retenção de MS e N foram melhores nos menores níveis de lisina digestível. Os níveis de 1,40 a 1,46% de arginina digestível podem ser utilizados em dietas para frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial, mas, à medida que aumenta o conteúdo de lisina da dieta, deve-se manter a relação desse aminoácido com arginina.The performance, digestibility and retention of nutrients and the development of digestive organs of broiler chicks in pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days old fed diets with different levels of digestible lysine and arginine. A total of 352 day old AgRoss male chicks was allotted to 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (level of digestible lysine [1.056 and 1.305%] and levels of digestible arginine [1.305, 1.459 and 1.613%] and four replicates of 11 chicks. Daily weight gain was not affected by diets but there was a quadratic effect of arginine levels on feed:gain ratio from 1 to 7 and from 1 to 21 days old and linear effect on feed intake from 1 to 21 days old

  9. The feeding value of mango seed kernal meal in broiler diets | Faniyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % levels (w/w) in broiler starter and finisher diets in an eight week feeding trial. 120 day - old broiler chicks were used for the experiment. 30 chicks were randomly assigned to each of the four treatments in a completely randomised design.

  10. Efeito do peso inicial dos pintos e do período da dieta pré-inicial sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte Effect of one-day chicks weight and pre-starter diets on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Stringhini

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de dietas pré-iniciais, por diferentes períodos, para frangos de corte criados a partir de pintos com diferentes pesos ao primeiro dia. No aviário experimental da Escola de Veterinária da UFG, 280 pintos de um dia foram distribuídos, em baterias aquecidas, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições de doze aves, em um esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (peso do pinto, maior e menor que 40g, e programas de fornecimento de ração pré-inicial, 1 a 7, 1 a 10 e 1 a 14 dias. O desempenho dos pintos não foi influenciado pelo período de fornecimento das dietas, mas o peso dos pintos no alojamento influenciou o consumo de ração das aves. Não foi observado efeito dos tratamentos no consumo de nutrientes para o período de fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial, mas os pintos com menor peso no alojamento proporcionaram menor consumo de nutrientes e de energia. Com base nos resultados obtidos, é possível concluir que peso do pinto inferior a 40 g influencia uma redução significativa no consumo e mostra uma tendência de pior peso dos frangos ao final do experimento. Os parâmetros morfométricos avaliados não foram afetados pelos tratamentos.This research was carried out to evaluate the use of pre-starter diets, through different periods to broilers with different first day weights. Two hundred and eighty one-day old chicks were allotted in brooded battery cages, in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and four replicates in a factorial design 2 x 3, (chicks weight - higher or lower than 40 g, and pre-starter periods of feeding, 1 to 7; 1 to 10 and 1 to 14 days. The performance was not influenced by pre-starter diets periods, but the first-day weight of chicks reduced feed intake and live weight at 42 days of age. For energy and nutrient intake no effect was observed for pre-starter periods, but for the light chicks, the values of

  11. DIGESTIBLE VALINE REQUIREMENTS IN LOW-PROTEIN DIETS FOR BROILERS CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Three experiments were carried out to evaluate the levels of digestible valine in diets with reduced crude protein on the performance, carcass yield and muscle fiber diameter of male broilers during the pre-starter (1 to 8 d of age, starter (9 to 21 d of age and grower phases (21 to 42 d of age. A total of 1,080 chickens in the pre-starter phase, 900 in the starter phase and 864 in the grower phase were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments, consisting of a control positive diet (C+ and diets with 2 percentage points (p.p. reduction of crude protein level and five graded levels of digestible valine (Val, with six replicates of 30, 25 and 24 birds per experimental unit, respectively. The recommended level of TID Val in the low-protein diets for broilers in the pre-starter, starter and grower stages were 1.028; 0.905 and 0.789%, respectively. The reduction of 2 percentage points of the crude protein level in diets based on corn and soybean meal impaired (p ≤0.05 the feed conversion ratio in the starter and grower stages. Likewise, the reduced-protein diets decreased (p ≤0.05 muscle fiber diameter, but did not affect (p> 0.05 carcass and parts yields, or abdominal fat percentage at 42 days.

  12. Growth performance, carcass yield and intestinal microflora populations of broilers fed diets containing thepax and yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Boostani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the probiotic thepax and yogurt (as probiotic on the growth response and intestinal microflora results of broiler chickens. Two hundred forty day-old Ross 308 broilers were equally distributed into 12 floor pens and reared for 42 day. The treatments consisted of yogurt (10, 5 and 2.5% during starter, grower and finisher periods in the drinking water, respectively and thepax (1000, 500, 250 g/ton-1 in the starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively, resulting three experimental diets and a control group. Each dietary treatment was fed ad-libitum to four replicate group of 20 birds at the beginning of rearing period. Birds and feed were weighed on days 21 and 42. The results of experiment indicate that diets containing feed additives improved broiler performance. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio improved significantly more (p < 0.05 with the thepax treatment compared with the control broilers during the total rearing period. The highest (p < 0.05 carcass and thigh values were recorded for broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax and yogurt, respectively. The lowest abdominal fat pad value was obtained in broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax. On d 21, thepax and yogurt significantly reduced (p < 0.05 cecal Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens populations compared with the control group. In conclusion, thepax and yogurt improved broilers growth response and conferred intestinal health benefits to chickens by improving their microbial ecology.

  13. Noodle Waste As Substitute For Yellow Corn in Broiler Diet and Its Effect on Carcass Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Widodo; Osfar Sjofjan; Akhmad Zaenal Wijaya

    2012-01-01

    Experiment aimed to investigate the effect of noodle waste as corn substitute in broiler diet on carcass quality including carcass weight, carcass percentage, abdominal fat percentage, breast meat depositition and cholesterol concentration. The materials used for this experiment were 100 one-day-old Lohmann broiler chicks. Feedstuffs used consisted of concentrate, rice polishing and yellow corn formulated to meet nutrient requirements during starter and finisher periods and given ad libitum. ...

  14. Addition of Amylase from Aspergillus Awamori to the Diet of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HS Morgado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were performed to evaluate the hematological and blood biochemistry parameters, biometry of digestive organs, enzyme activities, protein content and absolute weight of the pancreas of broilers fed pre-starter and pre-starter diets supplemented or not with amylase from Aspergillus awamori. In total, 120 male Cobb chicks were housed in heated cages in each experiment. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (feed with and without amylase and six replicates per treatment of 10 birds each was applied. The data were subjected to analysis of variance using the F-test at 5% probability level. The dietary amylase addition did not affect hematological and blood biochemistry parameters and the biometry of the gastrointestinal tract of 7- and 21-d-old broilers, nor the absolute weight, enzyme activities or protein concentration of the pancreas of 7-d-old broilers. However, the inclusion of amylase in the diet reduced amylase activity and pancreatic protein concentration in 21-d-old broilers. The application of amylase to broiler chicken pre-starter and starter feeds is not justified given the pancreatic amylase activity and protein concentrations.

  15. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  16. Performance of broiler chickens served heat-treated fluted pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The broiler starters were fed the same starter diet, while broiler finishers were equally fed the same finisher diet. Water and feeds were served ad-libitum. The FPLE is a valuable protein and mineral supplement for broiler chickens. One to five minutes heat treatment of FPLE reduced the concentrations of phytate and tannin ...

  17. Growth promoting effects of prebiotic yeast cell wall products in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to investigate the growth promoting effects of supplementing different sources and concentrations of prebiotic yeast cell wall (YCW) products containing mannanoligosaccharides in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge. Through a series ...

  18. Effect of different electrolyte balances in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UM Arantes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, tibial density and mineral content, Na, K ,and Cl serum levels, and dry matter content of the litter of broilers fed diets with different levels of dietary electrolyte balances. Two experiments were carried out: during the starter phase (7 to 21 days of age, 960 broilers and during the growe phase (22 to 38 days of age, 816 broilers. In both experiments, a completely randomized design with four treatments based on dietary electrolyte balance values (200, 240, 280 and 320 mEq/kg of diet with four replicates was applied. Birds and diets were weighed when birds were seven, 14 and 21 days of age in the first experiment, and 22 and 38 days of age in the second experiment in order to determine weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion and mortality rate were evaluated. On days 21 and 38, the left tibia of two birds per replicate was collected to determine bone density and the serum was used for Na and K analysis. Litter dry matter content was also determined on days 21 and 38 . There was no effect of dietary electrolyte balance values on broilers performance between 7 and 14, 7 and 21, or 22 and 38 days of age, tibial bone density and mineral content, or on Na, K and Cl serum levels. Litter dry matter was linearly reduced as dietary electrolyte balance value increased. Diets with 200 mEq/kg may be recommended for broilers from 7 to 38 days of age with no negative influence on the evaluated parameters.

  19. Water intake and digestive metabolism of broilers fed all-vegetable diets containing acidulated soybean soapstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.

  20. Efeito da Proteína Bruta e de Diferentes Balanços Eletrolíticos das Dietas Sobre o Desempenho de Frangos no Período Inicial Effect of Crude Protein and Diferent Balance Eletrolytic of the Diets on Broilers Performance During the Starter Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Borges

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos utilizando-se 520 pintos machos de um dia para avaliar o efeito da proteína bruta (PB e do balanço eletrolítico (Na + K- Cl sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte no período inicial. O Experimento I (1 a 7 dias de idade das aves foi realizado em baterias, utilizando-se 160 pintos machos "Cobb", no Experimento II (1 a 21 dias foram utilizados 360 pintos machos "Aviam Farms" que foram alojados em um galpão experimental dividido em box. Nos dois experimentos as aves foram aquecidas com lâmpadas infravermelhas e receberam água e ração à vontade. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, em um esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (PB x balanço eletrolítico - BE, com 5 repetições e 8 aves por unidade experimental no Experimento I e fatorial 2 x 3 (PB x BE, com 3 repetições e 20 aves por unidade experimental no Experimento II. Os níveis de K foram mantidos constantes, oscilando-se o Na e o Cl para obter os balanços eletrolíticos desejados. Os parâmetro de desempenho (consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar foram analisados no final de cada fase experimental. Em ambos os experimentos não houve interação entre PB e BE. Os níveis de 21,0 e 23,5% de PB não afetaram o desempenho das aves. Em dietas pré-iniciais e iniciais o melhor desempenho foi atingido com 260 mEq/kg.Two experiment were carried out using 520 one-day old male broilers to evaluate the effect of crude protein and of electrolytic balance ( Na+K-Cl in starter diet on broilers performance. The experiment I (1 to 7 days of age was accomplished in batteries, being used 160 one-day old male 'Cobb", in the experiment II (1 to 21 days of age, used 360 one-day old male "Avian Farms" that were housed in an shed experimental, divide in box. In the two experiments, the birds were heated with infrared lamps and they received water and ration at large. Experimental designs were completely randomized factorial 2x2 (proteins levels and

  1. Effects of feed access after hatch and inclusion of fish oil and medium chain fatty acids in a pre-starter diet on broiler chicken growth performance and humoral immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamot, D.M.; Klein, van der S.A.S.; Linde, van de I.B.; Wijtten, P.J.A.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.; Lammers, A.

    2016-01-01

    Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are

  2. Herbal extracts in diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Goulart Petrolli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding herbal extracts for broilers on performance and histology of the intestinal mucosa and its effects on the profiting from the metabolizable energy of experimental diets. For so, two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, the inclusion of different herbal extracts in diets on performance and intestinal histology of broilers was evaluated, and in experiment II, the values of apparent metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy corrected by the nitrogen balance of the experimental diets were studied. Treatments consisted of: positive control diet; positive control + avilamycin; negative control; negative control + 100 ppm of a complex containing three different herbal medicines (pepper, cinnamon and oregano; negative control + 75 ppm garlic extract; negative control + 150 ppm garlic extract. In the performance experiment, which comprised the period of 1 to 40 days of age, 960 male broilers were distributed in a randomized block design, with six treatments and eight replicates, with 20 birds per experimental unit. In experiment II, the method adopted was the traditional of total excreta collection with male broiler chicks in the age of 14 to 24 days, in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and eight replicates with five birds per experimental unit. The intestinal villus height was improved with addition of the composite containing the three herbal extracts; however, crypt depth and villus/crypt ratio were not affected. The use of herbal extract in diets for broilers promotes performance similar to that with the use of antibiotics. Herbal extracts can be incorporated into diets replacing antibiotics without compromising the metabolizable energy of diets, performance or intestinal mucosa for broilers in the period of 1 to 40 days of age.

  3. Noodle Waste As Substitute For Yellow Corn in Broiler Diet and Its Effect on Carcass Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Widodo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiment aimed to investigate the effect of noodle waste as corn substitute in broiler diet on carcass quality including carcass weight, carcass percentage, abdominal fat percentage, breast meat depositition and cholesterol concentration. The materials used for this experiment were 100 one-day-old Lohmann broiler chicks. Feedstuffs used consisted of concentrate, rice polishing and yellow corn formulated to meet nutrient requirements during starter and finisher periods and given ad libitum. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design in five replications with five chicks each. The treatments were  0 % noodle waste in diet (P0, 10 % noodle waste in diet (P1,  20 % noodle waste in diet (P2 and 30 % noodle waste in diet, respectively.The variables measured were carcass weight (g/bird, carcass percentage (%, abdominal fat pad percentage (%, deposition of breast meat percentage (% and meat cholesterol (mg/100g. The results showed that carcass weight and deposition of breast meat percentage were significantly influenced (P0.05 affected by the treatments. The best result was achieved by 20% noodle waste (P2 in diet. The conclusion of this experiment is that utilization of noodle waste as corn substitute in broiler diet is up to 20 % (33.33 % replacing corn.   Keywords: noodle waste, diet, carcass quality, broiler

  4. THE EFFECTS OF PHYTASE SUPPLEMENTATIONS IN PREDICTING THE NON-PHYTATE PHOSPHORUS REQUIREMENT OF BROILERS IN STARTER PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rateh Wulandari

    2017-05-01

    This study was aimed to observe the requirements of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP with phytase supplementation in starter phase broiler. A total number of 1000 broiler (500 males and 500 females were divided into 5 dietary treatments for 21 days rearing period. The treatment diets (P1-P5 were basal diets with 0.67% Calcium (Ca and 60 FTU phytase that combined with NPP at different levels, i.e.: 0.420% (P1; 0.345% (P2; 0.270% (P3; 0.195% (P4; 0.120% (P5. The basal diet was a corn-soybean based diet that contained 0.097% Ca and 0.124% Phosphorus (P. The data were subjected to a one-way ANOVA using complete randomized design. Response variables that observed in current study were: feed intake, nett gain, feed convertion ratio, average body weight, mortality and toe ash. Measurement of responses due to the reduction of NPP supplementation on average body weight and toe ash were then followed subsequently by generating equation for quadratic curve y = ax2+bx+c to determinate the NPP requirement. Determination of the maximum response was done through ymaks = -b/2a. Results showed that based on average body weight, estimation of NPP requirement with phytase supplementation were 0.317% for the 0-10 days; 0.314% for the 11-21 days; and 0.315% for the the 0-21 days rearing periods. Based on toe ash content, estimation of NPP requirement with phytase supplementation was 0.990% (toe for the 21 days rearing period.

  5. Methionine in Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    natural ventilation and coffee husks as litter material. Experimental diets (Table 5) were ini- tiated at the ... Oyster shells. 1.00. 1.00. 1.00. 1.00. Bone meal. 2.00. 2.00. 2.00. 2.00. Salt. 0.50. 0.50. 0.50. 0.50. Bromix (vitamins). 0.50. 0.50. 0.50. 0.50. Methionine. 0.10. 0.20. 0.30. Calculated analysis. Methionine. 0.35. 0.45. 0.55.

  6. Effect of different amino acids density diets on lysine, methionine and protein efficiency in Arian broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Nasr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages provided by amino acid (AA densities to broiler performance have been well documented, but little research has been reported on comparing the effect of different densities, i.e. high, medium, standard and low amino acid levels (HAA, MAA, SAA, and LAA, on protein and energy efficiency in broiler. This study evaluated the effects of the four different amino acid densities in a completely randomized experimental design on 800 male (10 replicates per treatment broilers. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In broilers receiving HAA, there had been a significant increase in body weight at Day 42. Feeding broilers with HAA diets significantly increased protein and energy intake in the grower period and during the overall study period (0-42 days of age (P<0.05. There was a significant difference in efficiency of lysine and methionine during all time periods (P<0.05 and HAA levels were significantly higher than SAA. Protein efficiency ratio (PER and energy efficiency ratio (EER were not affected by an increase in AA density. AA levels had a significant effect on production efficiency factor (PEF. The results of this study suggest that additional lysine and methionine at 120% and other AA at 110% of National Research Council recommendations in starter and grower diets significantly improved body weight and PEF.

  7. Evaluation of the use of probiotic (Bacillus subtilis C-3102 as additive to improve performance in broiler chicken diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Oliveira Nunes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the use of probiotic based upon Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (BS in broiler diets containing or not conventional additive growth-promoter (AGP. A total of 1,824 one-day-old chicks of the Cobb-500 strain were used and distributed into 48 plots (1.50 × 2.00 m. A completely randomized design with four treatments and 12 repetitions was adopted. The treatments evaluated were: 1- Negative Control - AGP-free diet (NC; 2 - Positive Control, with AGP halquinol 30 mg/kg diet (PC; 3 - NC + BS (3x10(5 cfu/g diet; and 4 - PC + BS (3x10(5 cfu/g diet. The diets were on corn, soybean meal and meat and bone meal basis, formulated according to the nutrient allowances of the Strain Cobb Guide, following a feed program with three diets (starter, grower and finisher. At 21 and 42 days of age, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated, and carcass yield characteristics were determined at 42 days of age. Throughout the trial period (starter and total phases, better feed conversion was found for broilers fed diet with both additives (AGP and BS combined. At the end of the experiment (1 to 42 days, the highest weight gain also occurred in broilers fed diets with a combination of the two additives. In present study, the use of BS or AGP alone in diets did not affect the performance of broilers. The carcass yield was not influenced by the use of the additives and beneficial effects of supplementation of BS and AGP combined in the diet on broiler performance were observed.

  8. Evaluation of supplementary stevia (Stevia rebaudiana, bertoni) leaves and stevioside in broiler diets: effects on feed intake, nutrient metabolism, blood parameters and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteh, J O; Onagbesan, O M; Tona, K; Decuypere, E; Geuns, J M C; Buyse, J

    2008-12-01

    A perennial schrub, stevia, and its extracts are used as a natural sweetener and have been shown to possess antimicrobial properties. Stevia contains high levels of sweetening glycosides including stevioside which is thought to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Little is known about the nutritional value of the schrub in livestock. This study determined the potential use of the shrub as a prebiotic animal feed supplement in light of the recent ban on the use of antibiotics in animal feed and the role of its constituent stevioside in the effects of the shrub. Male Cobb broiler chicks were fed a basal broiler diet without antibiotic but with performance enhancing enzyme mix (positive control), a basal diet without antibiotic and enzymes (negative control), or diets in which 2% of the negative control diet was replaced with either dried ground stevia leaves or 130 ppm pure stevioside during 2 week starter and 2 week grower periods. Body weight gains, feed conversion, abdominal fat deposition, plasma hormone and metabolites and caecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured in the broilers at 2 and 4 weeks of age. There was no significant effect of the treatments on feed intake during the starter period but birds fed diet supplemented with stevia leaves and stevioside consumed more feed (p growth promoters are beneficial to the broilers only during the starter stage and that inclusion of stevia leaves or stevioside has no beneficial effect on the performance of broilers.

  9. Evaluation of cysteamine associated with different energy patterns in diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Oliveira Nunes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating cysteamine (CS supplementation in broiler chick diets with different energy density patterns. A total of 980 chicks of the Cobb 500 strain at one day of age were allocated into 28 plots. A completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 7 replications, was adopted. The factors under study were the supplementation (or absence of cysteamine (60 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of feed in the starter and growth/finishing phases, respectively and two patterns of apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen balance (AMEn in the diets. The energy levels (Mcal/kg of feed practiced in pattern 1 were 3.00; 3.10; and 3.20, and for pattern 2, they were 3.05; 3.20; and 3.30 in the starter, growth and finishing phases, respectively. The diets were on the basis of corn and soybean meal with a feeding program with three diets. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, feasibility and carcass yield were evaluated. There was no interaction between the CS supplementation and AME patterns in the diet upon the performance and/or carcass characteristic evaluated. Broilers fed the diet supplemented with CS presented improved feed conversion along the rearing cycle, but feed intake and weight gain were not affected by the supplementation of CS. The highest pattern of energy density (2 provided increased weigh gain in the starter phase of rearing and better feed conversion of the birds over the whole rearing period. The carcass yield was not influenced by the cysteamine supplementation and/or energy levels studied.

  10. Utilization of Rice Offal in Practical Ration of Broilers. | Maikano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of various graded levels of rice offal diets on broilers were investigated in two experiments, a starter phase and a finisher phase. In each experiment, rice offal was fed at graded levels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% in a completely randomized design. In experiment one (starter phase) day old chicks were fed with starter ...

  11. The effect of addition high rape cake and phytase on nutritive value of diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszkiewicz Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high rape cake content and phytase added to phosphorus and calcium deficient diets on the nutritive value for broiler chickens. Two experiments were performed: a growth experiment on four groups of one-day-old broilers Ross 308, 30 birds per group (6 replications x 5 birds and a digestibility experiment on 60 chickens divided into four groups of 20 birds (4 replications of 5 birds. The digestibility of the starter diets were evaluated on chickens at 7 days of age and of grower diets at 28 days of age. The diets used in the digestibility tests were the same for the growth trial. In the growth experiment four diets were prepared for the due periods: starters (1-21 day and growers (22-49 day of chicken life. The control diet (SBM did not contain rape cake, while experimental diets contained 15% (starters and 20% (growers rape cake of Lirajet cultivar. The experimental diet denoted RC HP had P and Ca contents equal the control diet (phosphorus about 7.5 g and calcium about 10 g.kg-1, while the diet denoted as RC LP contained less P and Ca (5.8 g and 6.8 g.kg-1 respectively than the control and RC HP diets. The diet denoted RC LP+ Phy was supplemented with an enzyme preparation containing phytase at a quantity of 875 FYT.kg-1. Application of 15% of rape cake into starter and 20% into grower diets (RC HP allowed for similar body weights and feed conversion ratio as the control group, whereas reduction of phosphorus and calcium content in the starter diet (RC LP significantly decreased body weight at day 21. The addition of phytase to the starter diet with low level of phosphorus and calcium showed the tendency to improve body weight in this period. Application of rape cake into starter and grower diets had poor effects on fat digestibility in all groups, whereas supplementation of grower diets with a low level of phytase phosphorus and calcium improved the digestibility of total phosphorus in

  12. Growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers on acidified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion of acidifer in a blood meal based diet on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. One hundred and eighty un-sexed 4-week old broiler chicks raised on a common starter diet were randomly distributed into four experimental diets of 3 replicates and ...

  13. Effect Of Palm Oil Supplementation On The Performance Of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of palm oil supplementation on the performance of broiler starter birds fed palm kernel meal based diets. One hundred and twenty (120) one-week-old Anak broilers were randomly assigned to five (5) treatment diets, each treatment diet was replicated four times at ...

  14. Is the nutritional value of grains in broiler chickens' diets affected by environmental factors of soybean (Glycine max) growing and the variety of maize (Zea maize) in Benin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    by soybean grains to supply mainly the dietary energy did not show an adverse effect of the diet on these variables. However, the variety of maize affected significantly the feed cost and the economic feed efficiency at starter phase. It can be concluded that under the particular conditions...... of this experiment, the environmental factors did not change significantly the nutritional value of soybean grains in chickens' diets. The grain of local variety of white maize were suitable at all ages, whereas the grains of DMR-ESRW were more economic in grower than starter broiler chickens feeding....

  15. Serum biochemical indices of Finisher Broiler Chickens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4 week feeding trial was conducted using 180 five-week old Hubbard broiler chickens to determine the effect of feeding variously processed roselle(Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds on serum biochemical indices with a view to determining the potential of roselle seed as an alternative to soybeans. Five broiler finisher diets were ...

  16. Live performance and processing yields of broilers fed diets with tiamulin and salinomycin combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combined application of tiamulin (TIA and salinomycin (SAL in broiler diets fed from 1 to 42 d of age. One thousand and two hundred Cobb x Cobb 500 male broilers were housed in 48 floor pens and fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 66 ppm of SAL combined or not with TIA at 30 or 20 and 20 or 15 ppm, respectively, in the starter (1-21 d and grower feeds (22-42 d; however, TIA was withdrawn from the feeds 7 days before slaughter. The experimental design was completely randomized with 3 treatments and 16 replicates of 25 birds each. Broilers were weekly evaluated for live performance whereas carcass yield, abdominal fat and commercial cuts were assessed at 42 d using 6 birds randomly taken from each pen. Results obtained at the end of the study demonstrated that body weight gain was not affected (P > 0.05 by the treatments, whereas feed intake was reduced (P 0.05 by the treatments. Live performance and post-slaughter yields data obtained in this study did not indicate that combinations of TIA with SAL could be detrimental. In fact, an improvement in feed conversion was observed at the lowest dose of TIA.

  17. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing DAS-68416-4 soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Dunville, Christina M; Juberg, Daland R; Fletcher, Dale W; Cromwell, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    Broiler chickens are a fast growing monogastric animal commonly used to evaluate the equivalence between transgenic and non-transgenic grains as part of the human safety assessment process. While commonly viewed like other livestock feeding trials, such studies are performed with transgenic crops with input traits (that are not designed to improve nutrition) to aid regulatory authorities in evaluating safety. Studies of this type are actually more similar to toxicology studies in purpose, with sensitive endpoints like growth used to detect metabolic perturbations. DAS-68416-4 soybean expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme which inactivates 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and provides DAS-68416-4 soybeans tolerance to this herbicide. DAS-68416-4 also expresses the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes which confers tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicides. A 6-week broiler study was conducted with diets containing toasted DAS-68416-4 soybean meal (40, 36, and 32% in starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively) to evaluate nutritional wholesomeness and safety compared with conventional comparators. Toasting soybean meal is required to inactivate endogenous antinutrients making soybean suitable for consumption by monogastric animals like broiler chickens. Toasting was found to denature both the AAD-12 and PAT proteins rendering them non-detectable by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Broiler growth and performance parameters were measured over a 6-week period of exposure to diets containing different sources of toasted soybean meal, and results indicate that DAS-68416-4 soybean is nutritionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

  18. Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    mulberry leaf powder compared to other diets during week 1 and 2. No mortality was recorded in broilers fed diet containing up to 30% mulberry leaf powder. In conclusion, this study showed that mulberry leaf powder can substitute up to 30% of commercial feed without any adverse effect on the feed intake, growth, FCR ...

  19. Performance of broiler chicken fed varied nutrient density diets supplemented with direct fed microbial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dietary response of different isolated strains (Direct fed microbial- DFM of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast isolated from leopard feces (Panthera leo was studied as probiotic in poultry broiler birds reared as per varied mineral densities viz. calcium and phosphorus. Various treatments consisted of T0 (Control, culture medium, T1 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered standard formulated diet D1, T2 - Control (Culture medium offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2, T3 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2. Growth results obtained during the starter phase (1st to 3rd week exhibited higher gain in live body weight and lower feed conversion ratio, both by DFM supplemented treatment T1 offered standard formulated diet D1 and treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 compared to respective control T0 and T2. The obtained results revealed a significantly higher growth performance in treatment T1 compared to its control T0 where a higher growth in treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 supplemented with isolated DFM compared to its control T2 was exhibited. Treatment groups T1 and T3 supplemented with isolated DFM exhibited a better intestinal micro flora balance, effective colonization and higher count in the intestinal tract with higher calcium and phosphorus retention in the digestibility studies. Thus, it was found that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to improve biological growth performance of poultry broiler birds offered both standard formulated diet D1, as well as mineral deficient diet D2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002

  20. Sesame meal as the first protein source in piglet starter diets and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sesame meal as the first protein source in piglet starter diets and advantages of a phytase: a digestive study. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... total trypsin activity (TTA) and specific trypsin activity (STA), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AAs), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of ...

  1. EFFECTS OF INCLUSION OF HULL-LESS BARLEY AND ENZYME SUPPLEMENTATION OF BROILER DIETS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, NUTRIENT DIGESTION AND DIETARY METABOLISABLE ENERGY CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davood SHARIFI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were conducted to study the effect of inclusion of hull-less barley and exogenous enzyme to broiler diet on the growth performance, apparent metabolisable energy (AME and Nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens. The experiments were 3×4 factorial arrangements with three levels of enzyme (0, 300 and 600 g/ton and four levels of hull-less barley inclusion (0, 10, 20 and 30% in diet. The digestion trial was performed in battery cage with 648 male broiler chickens where twelve experimental diets were fed to the chickens from 15-21 (starter and 35-45 (finisher days of age. In the growth trial, the experimental diets were fed to 960 broiler chicks distributed in 48 pens for a 7-week feeding trial on growing (0-3 weeks, grower (4-5 weeks and finisher (6-7 weeks periods. Results showed that increasing the amount of hull_less barley inclusion decreased feed intake and live-weight gain both in the starter and grower period (P<.0.01 but, did not significantly influence in finisher period. At the overall rearing period (0-49 days, increasing amount of hull-less barley in diet significantly decreased feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (p<0.01. Increasing in hull-less barley inclusion rate, increased relative weight of gastrointestinal track, liver and ceca (P<0.01 but, did not influence the relative weight of abdominal fat and gizzard as well as the rate of mortality. Hull-less barley inclusion in diet decreased dietary AME and ileal and total tract digestibility of organic matter, crude protein, crude fat and starch in the starting period (p<0.01. The hull-less barley inclusion, however, did not significantly influence the nutrient digestibility (exclude crude fat and AME in the finishing period. Enzyme supplementation did not show improvement in growth performance and nutrient digestibility in broilers. Increasing the amount of hull-less barley in the diet had the most negative effect on nutrient digestion of broilers at

  2. Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Broiler Chicken Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Broiler Chicken Fed High Fibre Sunflower Seed Cake Diets. ... 05) differences were in liveweight, plucked and dressing percentages at the starter and finisher phases. Reduction in abdominal fat deposition was obtained at the starter and finisher phases while gizzard weights ...

  3. Assessment of postcrumble addition of limestone and calcium-specific appetite in broilers during the starter phase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Angel, R.; Kim, S.-W.; Jiménez-Moreno, E.; Proszkowiec-Weglarz, M.; Iglesias, B. F.; Wilkinson, S. J.; Cowieson, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    A study was done to determine whether broilers can regulate Ca intake when limestone is provided separately or mixed with a crumbled feed of variable Ca and P content, and the influence of this on performance and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of Ca and P (AIDP). Twelve crumbled diets were fed from 10 to 20 d of age (8 replicates, 8 broilers/replicate). Diets A to D contained 0.28% nonphytate P (nPP) and 0.27, 0.51, 0.77, and 1.02% Ca, respectively. Diets E to H contained 0.48% nPP and 0.41, 0.51, 0.77, and 1.02% Ca, respectively. A large particle size limestone was mixed manually to the crumbled diet on a daily basis to achieve 1.02% total Ca in diets A to H. Diets I to L had the same Ca and nPP as diets A to D, but limestone was provided in a separate feeder to assess spatial importance of limestone supply. Limestone consumption, provided in a separate feeder, decreased as Ca concentration increased in the crumble diet (P limestone was added to diets containing 0.28% nPP postcrumble, Ca intake (6.38 g/bird), tibia ash (717 mg/bone), and AIDP (39.78%) were not affected by crumbled diet Ca concentration or consumed Ca. Broilers fed diets containing 0.48% nPP and limestone mixed with the crumble, Ca intake changed (5.96, 6.93, 6.59, and 6.04 g/bird for crumble diet with 0.41, 0.51, 0.77, and 1.02% Ca, respectively). Increasing Ca concentration in the crumble from 0.41 to 1.02% resulted in greater tibia ash (875 mg/bone) but lower AIDP (P limestone was provided ad libitum, the ability of broilers to select for Ca was not sufficient to meet their requirement when crumble Ca was less than 0.77%. The AIDP was highest in birds fed the 0.27% Ca concentration diet. PMID:25085931

  4. Effect of a multienzyme complex in wheat-soybean meal diet on digestibility of broiler chickens under different rearing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuensanta Hernández

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a multienzyme complex containing protease and carbohydrase enzymes on the performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens under different rearing conditions from 1 to 42 d of age. Two experimental starter and finisher wheat-soybean meal based diets were used in a two-phase feeding programme, as follows: control diet (C; control diet plus 0.05% multienzyme complex of protease and carbohydrase enzymes (Allzyme Vegpro (VP. At location 1, broilers were raised in battery cages located in an experimental pen, without contact with litter. At location 2, broilers were raised in floor pens built in a commercial farm, and had contact with litter. At location 3, broilers were raised in commercial farms. In general, no differences in growth performance, feed intake or feed conversion ratio were observed in broiler chickens fed on the different diets at location 1. Only, the average daily feed intake from 22 to 42 d was significantly higher in the VP group compared with the C treatment (P<0.01. In addition, the final body weight of the VP group was numerically greater than that of the birds fed with the control diet, although the inclusion of the multienzyme complex did not cause significant effects. However, the ileal digestibilities of dry matter and crude protein were enhanced (P<0.05 by VP in the case of broilers in floor pens (+2.5% and +2.7% for DM and CP, respectively and in the commercial farm (+4.4% and +6% for the DM and CP, respectively at 42 d of age, as well as faecal digestibity of the VP diet in experimental pen. It seemed that the effectiveness of the multienzyme complex on digestibility was higher when conditions of hygiene were poorer and stress was frequent. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that the multienzyme complex of protease and carbohydrase enzymes might be effective for improving nutrient digestibility in broilers fed with a wheat-soybean meal based diet under

  5. Effect of super dosing of phytase on growth performance, ileal digestibility and bone characteristics in broilers fed corn-soya-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manobhavan, M; Elangovan, A V; Sridhar, M; Shet, D; Ajith, S; Pal, D T; Gowda, N K S

    2016-02-01

    A feeding trial was designed to assess the effect of super dosing of phytase in corn-soya-based diets of broiler chicken. One hundred and sixty-eight day-old broilers were selected and randomly allocated to four dietary treatment groups, with 6 replicates having 7 chicks per treatment group. Two-phased diets were used. The starter and finisher diet was fed from 0 to 3 weeks and 4 to 5 weeks of age respectively. The dietary treatments were consisted of normal phosphorus (NP) group without any phytase enzyme (4.5 g/kg available/non-phytin phosphorus (P) during starter and 4.0 g/kg during finisher phase), three low-phosphorus (LP) groups (3.2 g/kg available/non-phytin P during starter and 2.8 g/kg during finisher phase) supplemented with phytase at 500, 2500, 5000 FTU/kg diet, respectively, to full fill their phosphorus requirements. The results showed that super doses of phytase (at 2500 FTU and 5000 FTU/kg) on low-phosphorus diet improved feed intake, body weight gain, ileal digestibility (serine, aspartic acid, calcium, phosphorus), blood P levels and bone minerals such as calcium (Ca), P, magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) content. It could be concluded that super doses of phytase in low-phosphorus diet were beneficial than the normal standard dose (at 500 FTU/kg) of phytase in diet of broiler chicken. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P

    2009-01-01

    up to age of 26 days. Addition of NaB to milk replacer and starter diet had no effect on daily growth rate, but reduced the weight loss observed in C calves in first 11 days of age. Additionally, the NaB calves weighed more at the end of the study and tended to have higher growth rate in the whole...... in neonatal calves....

  7. Effects of folic acid supplementation on the performance of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) day- old broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of graded levels of folic acid supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens. The study was carried out using complete randomized design. Commercial starter and finisher diets were used for the experiment which lasted for eight weeks. The folic ...

  8. The relationship between guanidino acetic acid and metabolisable energy level of diets on performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the effects on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens of 2 levels of guanidino acetic acid (GAA in a commercial form (CreAMINO® and 4 levels of metabolisable energy. The eight dietary regimens were tested for starter (0-10 d, grower (11-22 d and finisher (23-35 d periods on a total of 200 male ROSS 308 broiler chickens in a factorial arrangements of treatments (2×4, with experimental diet fed to 5 replicate pens with 4 birds each. The results revealed a positive effect for CreAMINO® supplementation on feed conversion ratio (FCR for the starter, grower, finisher and cumulative periods (P<0.05, 0.05, 0.01 and 0.001, respectively; feed conversion was significantly improved in the treatment with CreAMINO® supplementation vs unsupplemented group. During the grower period, a significant difference in FCR was observed for metabolisable energy (ME level (P<0.01. When examining the cumulative period of the trial (0 to 35 days of age, two-way interaction was significant for feed intake and body weight gain. Birds receiving the control level of energy, 75 or 50 kcal/kg lower ME than the control, consumed less feed when supplemented with CreAMINO®. Birds receiving 25 kcal/kg lower ME or the control energy levels gained more weight when supplemented with CreAMINO®. In summary, GAA (as CreAMINO improved FCR of broilers in each period as well as cumulatively, while ME level also affected FCR. CreAMINO® supplementation to reduced-energy diets showed FCR improvements, while the best performance was detected for the diet with 50 kcal/kg lower ME.

  9. Starch digestibility, energy utilization, and growth performance of broilers fed corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Santiago, G O; Kindlein, L; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-amylase and β-xylanase supplementation of corn-soy diets, formulated with or without supplemental phytase, on growth performance, energy utilization, and starch digestibility in broiler chickens. A total of 336 slow-feathering, Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 6 treatments having 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post-hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until d 25. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 control diets (basal = corn-soy diet without added phytase or PHY = corn-soy diet formulated with 1,000 phytase units/kg) and 3 carbohydrase supplementations (0, 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg, or 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg + 100 fungal β-xylanase units/kg) was used from d 14 to 25. Excreta were collected from 21 to 24 d and all birds were euthanized at 25 d for jejunum and ileum content collection. Samples of feed, excreta, and jejunal and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of total tract retention and ileal apparent digestibility. No interactions between diet and carbohydrase were observed. Broilers fed diets formulated with phytase or supplemented with amylase + xylanase had higher BW gain (BWG) and lower FCR (P < 0.05) when compared with birds fed diets without carbohydrases. Relative to the basal diet, AMEn was increased (P < 0.01) by 70 kcal/kg and 99 kcal/kg when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase and amylase + xylanase, respectively. Starch digestibility in the jejunum and ileum was increased (P < 0.05) by 3.5% and 2.4%, respectively, when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase + xylanase. Results from this experiment show that corn-soy diets having phytase and supplemented with amylase and xylanase led to increased growth performance, AMEn, and starch digestibility in broilers. Furthermore, the efficacy of

  10. Changes in immune and metabolic gut response in broilers fed β-mannanase in β-mannan-containing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, R J; Lee, J T; Latham, R; Carter, B; Kogut, M H

    2017-12-01

    β-galactomannans found in soy-based broiler feed are known to cause physiological effects that are hypothesized to be related to gut inflammation. Previous studies have shown that the incorporation of β-mannanase in the diet or as a supplement results in improvements to certain performance parameters related to gut health and feed conversion. Using kinome analysis, we characterized the mechanism of β-galactomannan activity and supplementation with β-mannanase on the gut of commercial broilers to understand the mode of action. Two doses of β-mannanase (200 and 400 g/ton of feed) with and without inclusion of additional β-galactomannan (3,000 ppm) were tested at 3 time points (d 14, d 28, and d 42 post hatch). Broilers were fed starter (d 0 to 14), grower (d 15 to 28), and finisher diets (d 29 to 42). Jejuna were collected from birds from each treatment condition and time point. Cluster analysis of the kinome data showed that birds clustered first by age, then predominantly by whether β-mannanase had been included in the diet. Biological pathway analysis showed that the inclusion of additional β-galactomannan into the diet resulted in increased signaling related to immune response, relative to our normal control diet (with reduced soybean meal). The addition of β-mannanase to the enhanced β-galactomannan diet eliminated the majority of this immune-related signaling, indicating that the feed-induced immune response within the jejuna had been eliminated by the addition of β-mannanase. We also saw changes in specific metabolic and gut function pathways in birds fed β-mannanase. These observed changes in β-mannanase-fed birds are likely the mechanism for the enhanced performance and feed conversion observed in birds given β-mannanase in their diets. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Effect of phytase supplementation on apparent phosphorus digestibility and phosphorus output in broiler chicks fed low-phosphorus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ren Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.

  12. Piperine as a phytogenic additive in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica da Silva Cardoso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic additive in chicken broiler diet. Seven‑day‑old male chicks were randomly allocated in four experimental treatments (n = 24, with four replicates (n = 6. The piperine was added to diets at concentrations of 0, 60, 120, and 180 mg kg‑1 for 35 consecutive days. The following were evaluated: biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters; performance and carcass yield. Histomorphometric analyses were also carried out. The addition of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine did not alter broiler body weight and feed conversion, whereas 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine interfered positively in both parameters from 36 to 42 days of age and significantly increased the absorption surface of the duodenum and the ileum. No macroscopic alteration in organ size and color was observed in the broilers fed diets with the evaluated concentrations of piperine. The supplementation of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine is toxic to liver tissue and reduces the absorption surface of the jejune. The diet supplemented with 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine is safe.

  13. Interactive effects of dietary adaptation period length and titration diet type on apparent ileal phosphorus digestibility and phosphorus retention in growing broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, K R; Cattley, R C; Masey O'Neill, H V; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different corn titration diets and dietary adaptation period length (DAPL) on intestinal histology, apparent ileal P digestibility (AIPD), and apparent P retention (APR) in Ross × Ross 708 male broilers from 20 to 24 d of age. It was hypothesized that purified ingredients in nutrient-deficient titration diets may affect P availability with varying DAPL. In experiment 1, 1,152 broilers were utilized in a 3 × 3 factorial treatment structure with 3 diets (control, 25% corn titration diet [25CTD], or 75% corn titration diet [75CTD]) and 3 DAPL (0, 24, or 72 h). Experiment 2 was conducted with 576 broilers as a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement with 4 diets (control, 25CTD, 75CTD, or nitrogen-free diet [NFD]) and 3 DAPL (24, 48, or 72 h). All diets contained purified ingredients except for the control diet, which had the same formulation as the common starter and served as a control for DAPL. The NFD diet was fed as a highly purified protein-free diet. Broilers were fed a common diet until 19 d of age and then transferred to experimental diets at 20 d of age. In experiment 1, diet type did not affect (P > 0.05) intestinal histology. However, diet type and DAPL each influenced (P.≤.0.001) diet AIPD. Higher (P.≤.0.001) AIPD was measured for the control diet compared with the 75CDT, and the 25CTD had the lowest AIPD. Following a 24 h DAPL, AIPD was higher (P.≤.0.001) than after a DAPL of 0 or 72 h. In experiment 2, diet type × DAPL interactions (P.≤.0.001) were observed for APR of the control diet, 75CTD, and NFD, but not the 25CTD. Because APR of the control diet was affected by varying DAPL, factors other than differences in diet type may have been responsible for inconsistencies in the measure of P availability. Furthermore, no clear evidence was observed that broilers were able to adapt to P-deficient diets by increasing APR or AIPD. In conclusion, a standard DAPL should be established as a means to

  14. Performance of broilers fed diets with different dietary electrolyte balance under summer conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LMO Borgatti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed diets with different Dietary Electrolyte balances (DEB during the summer season. A total of 1,280 one-day-old Ross sexed chicks were distributed in 32 experimental units according to a randomized block design in a 4x2 factorial arrangement (4 levels and 2 sexes and 4 replicates per treatment (40 birds per replicate. Feed program consisted of 3 phases (1-21, 22-42, 43-49 days of age. Experimental diets were formulated based on corn and soybean meal and adjusted to 210, 250, 290 and 330 mEq/kg of Na + K - Cl through the addition of sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate and ammonium chloride. Weekly measurements of body weight gain and feed intake were done, and at 49 days, birds were slaughtered to evaluate the dressing percentage and parts yield. Weight gain during the starter phase increased linearly (p<0.01 as DEB increased. Different DEB levels did not affect feed intake or mortality. Carcass characteristics were not affected by treatments. Dietary electrolytic balance influenced weight gain and feed gain ratio from 1 to 21 days, and best results were observed when diets contained 290 and 330 mEq/kg.

  15. The Effect of Utilization Bentonite and Zeolite in the Broiler Diets on Performance and Fecal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wihandoyo Wihandoyo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety six commercial strain were conducted from 14 to 42 days of age to evaluate the affect of utilization zeolite and on performance of broiler and fecal characteristics. Birds were divided into four  treatment diets (4 replicates of 7 birds each: K (control, KB (K+ 1% bentonite,  KZ (K+ 1% zeolite, KBZ (K+ 1% Z+ 1% B. The birds were fed initially for two weeks a commercial starter ration and followed by treatment  diets 15 to 42 days of age. All the diets were formulated to have 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal. ME and 0.91% Ca and 0.69% P for control and 0.34% treatments. Body weights and feed intakes were measured on a weekly basis. The manure from each group was sampled on weekly basis and the  moisture content, pH and ammonia production was determined. The results showed the utilization zeolite and bentonite or both significant differences (P<0.05 on pH and (P<0.01 fecal ammonia content, but not on feces water content, final body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, and carcass. (Animal Production 3(1: 1-4 (2001

  16. Utilization of Rice Offal in Practical Ration of Broilers. | Maikano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... two (finisher phase), broilers were fed with the finisher diets from 5-8 weeks and tolerated 15% rice offal inclusion in their diets with significant growth. In all experiments there was increase in feed intake as the level of rice offal increased. Keywords: Rice offal, chicken diets, starter phase, finisher phase. The Zoologist Vol.

  17. Growth response of broiler chickens to finisher diets containing high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of including high amounts of wheat bran (WB) in finisher diets on growth performance and economy of gain of broiler chickens. The WB contained g kg-1 of dry matter, 894.3; crude protein, 193.5; ether extract, 42.1; crude fibre, 97.1; ash, 49.5; neutral detergent fibre, 503.8; acid detergent ...

  18. Effect of l-glutamic acid supplementation on performance and nitrogen balance of broilers fed low protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, R M; Costa, F G P; Givisiez, P E N; Freitas, E R; Goulart, C C; Santos, R A; Souza, J G; Brandão, P A; Lima, M R; Melo, M L; Rodrigues, V P; Nogueira, E T; Vieira, D V G

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein reduction and supplementation of l-glutamic acid in male broiler diets. A total of 648 chicks of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and six replications with eighteen birds per experimental unit. The study comprised pre-starter (1-7 days), starter (8-21 days), growth (22-35 days) and final (36-45 days) phases. The first treatment consisted of a control diet formulated according to the requirements of essential amino acids for each rearing phase. The second and third treatments had crude protein (CP) reduced by 1.8 and 3.6 percentage points (pp) in relation to the control diet respectively. In the fourth treatment, l-glutamic acid was added to provide the same glutamate level as the control diet, and in the last two treatments, the broilers were supplemented with 1 and 2 pp of glutamate above that of the control diet respectively. The reduction in CP decreased the performance of broilers and the supplementation of l-glutamic acid did not influence performance when supplied in the diets with excess of glutamate. The lowest excreted nitrogen values were observed in the control diet, and treatments 2 and 3, respectively, in comparison with treatments with the use of l-glutamic acid (5 and 6). Retention efficiency of nitrogen was better in the control diet and in the treatment with a reduction of 1.8 pp of CP. It was verified that the serum uric acid level decreased with the CP reduction. A reduction in CP levels of up to 21.3%, 18.8%, 18.32% and 17.57% is recommended in phases from 1 to 7, 8 to 21, 22 to 35 and at 36 to 42 days, respectively, with a level of glutamate at 5.32%, 4.73%, 4.57%, 4.38%, also in these phases. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Ileal microbiota composition of broilers fed various commercial diet compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; van der Vossen, J M B M; Schuren, F H J; Verstegen, M W A; de Oliveira, J E; Montijn, R C; Hendriks, W H

    2013-10-01

    Microbiota plays a role in the release and absorption of nutrients from feed components, thereby affecting digesta composition and moisture content of the excreta. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of 5 different diets varying in ingredients (medium-chain fatty acids, nonstarch polysaccharides, and starch) on the microbiota composition of ileal digesta of broiler chickens and excreta DM content. Each treatment was repeated 6 times in cages each containing 18 Ross 308 broilers, with growth performance measured from 0 to 34 d of age and excreta DM and ileal microbiota composition analyzed at 34 d of age. Microbiota composition was evaluated using a novel ribosomal RNA microarray technology containing 370 different probes covering various genera, groups of microbial species, and individual species of the chicken gut microbiota, of which 321 had a signal above the background threshold. Replacing part of the animal fat and soybean oil in the wheat-based diet with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA; 0.3% C10 and 2.7% C12) improved feed efficiency compared with the other dietary treatments. This coincided with a suppression of gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum of the Firmicutes, including Lactobacillus species, and species belonging to the family of the Enterococcaceae and Micrococcaceae, whereas the gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family of the Enterobacteriaceae were promoted. None of the other diets used in the present study notably changed the ileal digesta bacteria composition. Excreta DM content was not affected by dietary treatment. The variation between individual birds per dietary treatment was more pronounced than variation caused by feed composition, with the exception of the digesta microbiota of the birds fed the MCFA diet. It is concluded that a diet with MCFA significantly changes the ileal microbiota composition, whereas the effect of the other diets on the composition of the microbiota and excreta DM content

  20. Efficiency of sepiolite in broilers diet as uranium adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovic, Branislava M.; Lazarevic-Macanovic, Mirjana; Krstic, Nikola [University of Belgrade, Department of Radiology and Radiation Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanovic, Milijan [University of Belgrade, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgrade (Serbia); Janackovic, Djordje [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Serbia); Stojanovic, Mirjana [University of Belgrade, Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Row Materials, Belgrade (Serbia); Mirilovic, Milorad [University of Belgrade, Department of Economics and Statistics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-05-15

    The use of phosphate mineral products in animal nutrition, as a major source of phosphor and calcium, can lead to uranium entering the food chain. The aim of the present study was to determine the protective effect of natural sepiolite and sepiolite treated with acid for broilers after oral intake of uranium. The broilers were contaminated for 7 days with 25 mg/uranyl nitrate per day. Two different adsorbents (natural sepiolite and sepiolite treated with acid) were given via gastric tube immediately after the oral administration of uranium. Natural sepiolite reduced uranium distribution by 57 % in kidney, 80 % in liver, 42 % in brain, and 56 % in muscle. A lower protective effect was observed after the administration of sepiolite treated with acid, resulting in significant damage of intestinal villi in the form of shortening, fragmentation, and necrosis, and histopathological lesions on kidney in the form of edema and abruption of epithelial cells in tubules. When broilers received only sepiolite treated with acid (no uranyl nitrate), shortening of intestinal villi occurred. Kidney injuries were evident when uranium concentrations in kidney were 0.88 and 1.25 μg/g dry weight. It is concluded that adding of natural sepiolite to the diets of broilers can reduce uranium distribution in organs by significant amount without adverse side effects. (orig.)

  1. Heat-resistant bacterial phytase in broiler pelleted diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TC de F Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of a heat-resistant bacterial phytase added to pelleted diets on mineral digestibility, live performance, carcass traits, and bone quality of broilers. Three treatments were evaluated: Positive control; negative control, with 0.10 points reduction in calcium level and 0.15 points reduction in available phosphorus level; and negative control + phytase at 500 FTU/kg. Mineral digestibility and bone quality results demonstrated that the evaluated phytase resisted pelleting as it increased the utilization of the minerals present in the diet.

  2. Natural zeolites in diet or litter of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter.

  3. Phytase in broiler diets with reduced nonphytate phosphorus levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Barbosa de Moraes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the inclusion of phytase in diets with reduced nonphytate phosphorus (NPP levels in relation to the performance and carcass yield of broilers and litter characteristics. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement – two phytase levels (0 and 25U/kg and three NPP levels (100, 85 and 70% of the requirement, in a total of six treatments with fi ve replicates. The reduction of the NPP to 70% of the requirement decreased the weight gain and feed intake and increased the feed:gain ratio. Phytase inclusion increased the weight gain and the feed intake at 21 days. The NPP x phytase interaction was signifi cant with regard to the weight gain at 42 days. The reduction of NPP to 70% diminished the feed intake at 42 days and increased the liver and heart relative weight. Nitrogen content was lower in the litter of broilers fed diets with phytase and decreased phosphorus content, due to the NPP reduction in the diets. It was concluded that diets with 85% of NPP, supplemented with 25U/kg of phytase, can be used with no negative effect on performance or carcass and litter characteristics.

  4. Energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal and corn-based diets supplemented with xylanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Carvalho, P S; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased levels of a β-xylanase on energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soy diets. A total of 480 slow feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 10 treatments having 8 replicates of 6 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until 25 d. Two experimental diets, a conventional corn/soy-based basal diet (CS) and the basal diet in which 40% of the diet was displaced by corn (CN), were fed as-is or supplemented with 50, 100, 150, or 200 fungal β-xylanase units (FXU)/kg. Dietary treatments were distributed factorially as a 2 × 5 arrangement. Samples of feed, excreta, and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy, and total tract retention of protein and lipid. No interactions between diet and xylanase were observed. The CS diets had higher (P < 0.05) energy utilization and nutrient digestibility when compared to the CN diets. AMEn and IDE were improved (P < 0.05) by 192 and 145 kcal/kg, respectively, when diets were supplemented with 100 FXU/kg xylanase. The xylanase added to the CN diet led to quadratic increases (P < 0.05) in IDE (Y = - 0.014x(2) + 2.570x + 3,155; r(2) = 0.60) and in AMEn (Y = - 0.016x(2) + 3.982x + 3,155; r(2) = 0.68). Crude protein digestibility and AMEn were linearly increased (P < 0.05) when xylanase was added to the CN diet. In conclusion, energy utilization and digestibility of crude protein and dry matter increased with xylanase supplementation in corn/soy-based diets. When xylanase was tested in the CS diet, 92 and 124 FXU/kg maximized the energy release effect; however, the maximum energy response in the CN diet or corn was not achieved until 200 FXU/kg. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Sweet lupins as a feedstuff for broilers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the feeding value of sweet white lupins (Lupinus a/bus variety. Buttercup) for broilers up to 8weeks of age. Two isocaloric and isonitrogenous starter (0- 4weeks) and finisher. (4 - 8 weeks) diets were formulated with one containing no lupins and the other 400 g lupins/kg.

  6. Performance, litter quality and gaseous odour emissions of broilers fed phytase supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishchal K. Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of graded levels of phytase on performance, bone characteristics, excreta/litter quality and odorant emissions was examined using 720 Ross 308 male d-old broilers. A 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed with 6 replicates of 15 birds per pen. Factors were: diets-positive and negative control (PC, NC; phytase – 0, 500, 1,000, 1,500 FTU/kg. The PC was formulated to meet the 2014 Ross 308 nutrient specifications, whereas the NC was formulated with lower Ca (−1.4 g/kg, available P (−1.5 g/kg, Na (−0.3 g/kg, dLys (−0.2 g/kg and MEn (−0.28 MJ/kg equivalent to nutrient matrix values for 500 FTU/kg phytase in the starter, grower and finisher periods (i.e., downspec diet. On d 24, phytase decreased FCR by 1.6, 4.3 and 4.6 points at inclusion levels of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 FTU/kg, respectively (P  0.05. Solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS analysis of gaseous emissions on d 39 indicated no difference in the emission of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, volatile fatty acids and phenols between treatments (P > 0.05. The results indicate that phytase has greater benefits when formulated using nutrient matrix values as compared with adding it over the top in an already nutrient sufficient diet. The later method would be expected to increase feed costs without concomitant performance benefits.

  7. Nutrient density of prestarter diets from one to ten days of age affects intestinal morphometry, enzyme activity, serum indices and performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ficinine V. Ivanovich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 480 day-old Cobb 500 broilers were used to investigate the effects of different levels of digestible amino acids (DAA; 100%, 107% and 114% of Cobb recommendations and ME (3,000 or 2,900 kcal/kg of prestarter diet on mixed sex broilers performance, enzyme activity, small intestine morphology, and serum metabolites. Broilers were randomly allotted to 6 treatments, where each treatment applied to 4 pens with 20 birds in each. The birds were subjected to their respective treatment diets from 1 to 10 days of age. This was followed by feeding common starter and finisher diets for the last 29 days. The enzyme activity of the pancreas was measured at 10 days of age. Morphometric indexes of jejunum were measured at 10 days of age and the end of the feeding period. Our results showed that the body weight (BW increased as the DAA density of the prestarter diet increased from 100% to 114% over the first 10 days and the entire period of the study. Birds fed 114% DAA presented a better feed conversion ratio on day 10 (P  0.05; however, the activity of pancreatic protease increased as the DAA level increased from 100% to 114% (P < 0.05. The villus width and villus surface area (VSA increased as the DAA level increased from 100% to 114% on day 10 (P < 0.05. At 10 days of age, crypt depth was the lowest in the birds fed plenty DAA prestarter diets (P < 0.05. It was found that dietary treatments at 39 days of age did not affect intestinal morphology. The results of the present work indicate that DAA level of 114% of Cobb recommendations and energy level of 2,900 kcal/kg diet may be recommended for starting broiler chicks.

  8. Humic acid and enzymes in canola-based broiler diets: Effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of humic acid and enzymes on bone development, histomorphology of internal organs and the incidence of rickets in broiler chickens fed canola-based diets. In the study, Cobb 500 broiler chicks were used and the following five dietary treatments ...

  9. Weight Gain Of Broiler Chicks Fed A Maize-Soya bean Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of substituting synthetic methionine with sodium sulphate and sodium sulphite in a maize-soyabean diet fed to broiler chicks. Two hundred and forty (240) unsexed Hubbard day old broiler chicks were fed iso-caloric and iso-trogenous maize-soyabean ...

  10. Replacement of fish meal with maggots in broiler diets: Effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replacement of fish meal with maggots in broiler diets: Effects on performance and nutrient retention. JO Atteh, FD Ologbenla. Abstract. The effects of replacing O, 33.3, 66.7 or 100% of dietary fish meal (9%) with housefly maggots (Musca domestica. Linn) was investigated using broilers from day old to 5 weeks of age.

  11. Effect of Production Phase on Growth, Enzyme Activities and Feed Selection of Broilers Raised on Vegetable Protein Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Hossain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study consisted of two experiments, conducted to assess the impact of phase at which vegetable protein (VP diets are introduced to broiler chicks, and preference of birds for diets based on soybean or canola meal (CM. Two hundred and ten day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed into five dietary groups in the main experiment. One group was fed on animal protein (AP diet all through to 21 days of age; two other groups were started on AP diet for 7 days and then switched to diets containing soybean meal (AP-SBM or AP-CM, while two other diets (SBM-AP and CM-AP were started on one of the VP diets for 7 days and then switched to AP diet. A sub-experiment on thirty birds raised on a commercial diet to 7 days was used in a feed selection test to quantify the preference of birds for the diets containing mainly CM or SBM. Chicks were reared under similar care and management conditions and the diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Results of the main experiment showed that chicks on CM-AP diet ate more (p<0.05 than those on the other diets up to day 7. Body weight gain was highest (p<0.001 on the AP-SBM diet while birds on the CM-AP diet weighed the least at 7 d. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, mortality, bone growth, visceral organ development, and activities of digestive enzymes were similar between the groups from hatch to 21 days of age. Results of the second sub-experiment showed that chicks preferred the CM-based diets to the SBM-based diets at 8 to 14 d (p<0.001 and 15 to 21 d (p<0.01 when given a choice. Overall, the birds were not affected by the nature of the starter diet although they tended to prefer the canola to soybean diets.

  12. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Performance and meat quality of broiler chickens that are fed diets supplemented with Agaricus brasiliensis mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2014-12-01

    This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality.

  14. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    , and the higher water content of their litter may have affected their thermoregulation. In exp. II, four diets based on different fibre sources were given to broiler breeders from day 12 to 19 weeks of age to increase feed quantity. Diet A (commercial control diet: 10.7MJ/kg), B (42% dietary fibre (DF); 7.25MJ...

  15. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions. During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70 % (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.

  16. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Furlan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diets have negative effects on broiler performance when environmental temperature is high, because during heat stress, low food intake associated to a low diet protein induce amino acid deficiencies. Other studies have shown that broilers fed low-protein diets increase their energy requirement for maintenance with higher heat production. Thus, with the growth of broiler industry in tropical areas more challenges need to be faced by the farmers. So, both the ambient and nutritional conditions ought to be well managed to avoid negative effects on poultry production once they can affect the metabolism (body heat production under low temperature and body heat dissipation under high temperature with consequence on poultry performance (meat and eggs.

  17. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karadas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105, with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet; T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast; T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate; T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB; T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB;T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rRed;T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rYellow; T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r; and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r. Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05.

  18. Repeatability estimates of growth traits in arbor acre broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) Arbor Acre broiler chickens fed four different diets containing 0 (control), 4, 6, and 8% (unconventional) probiotics enhanced Moringa Oleifera seed meal (PEMOSM) were used to estimate repeatability (R) of growth traits during the starter (0-4 weeks) and finisher phases (5-7weeks). The traits considered ...

  19. Intestinal Structure and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with a Synbiotic Containing Enterococcus faecium and Oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageha Awad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of the synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO [a combination of Enterococcus faecium, a prebiotic (derived from chicory and immune modulating substances (derived from sea algae], with a dose of 1 kg/ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets on the intestinal morphometry and nutrient absorption. The general performance was improved (P < 0.05 by the dietary inclusion of synbiotic compared with the controls. Furthermore, the addition of synbiotic increased (P < 0.001 the villus height/crypt depth ratio and villus height in ileum. However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of synbiotic compared with control. The addition of glucose in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (P ≤ 0.001 in short-circuit current (Isc in jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in both synbiotic and control groups. However, in jejunum the percentage of Isc increase after glucose addition was higher for synbiotic group (333 % than control group (45 %. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO increased the growth performance and improved intestinal morphology and nutrient absorption.

  20. Do Low-Density Diets Improve Broiler Breeder Welfare During Rearing and Laying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Enting, H.; Voorst, van A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Low-density diets may improve welfare of restricted fed broiler breeders by increasing feed intake time with less frustration of feed intake behavior as a result. Moreover, low-density diets may promote satiety through a more filled gastrointestinal tract, and thus feelings of hunger may be reduced.

  1. Modeling and bio-economic analysis of broilers' performance in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to model bio-economic variables in broilers feeding. During 7 weeks, 120 broilers Red Bro were fed with diets containing soybean meals from solvent (Ss) or expeller (Se) processing. At grower phase (d 22 to d 49) the diets were switched for half of broilers in each...... the feed conversion ratio (FCR), the feed cost (FC) and the economic feed efficiency (EFE). The model II showed that at starter phase the interaction between diet and age had a significant effect on DFI, DWG, FCR, F and EFE. At grower phase, there was no interaction effect. The age affected significantly...

  2. Whole scrapings of cassava root in diets for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Hosmylton Carvalho Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including whole cassava root scrapings (WCS in diets of broilers on performance and the metabolizability of dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy and on nitrogenous balance. Four hundred female and 100 male broilers from Ross strain were used in the performance and metabolism studies, respectively. In both studies, broilers were allotted in completely randomized block design with five treatments and four replicates. The experimental unit was represented for twenty birds per box for performance study and five birds per metabolic cage for metabolism study. The treatments consisted of diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% WCS inclusion. Up to 5.1% WCS can be included in the diet of broilers from 1 to 21 without compromising feed conversion and productive efficiency index. Dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of the diets are not influenced by the inclusion of whole cassava root scrapings up to 20% in diets of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age.

  3. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing combined trait insect-protected and glyphosate-tolerant corn (MON 89034 x NK603), control, or conventional reference corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M; Lucas, D; Nemeth, M; Davis, S; Hartnell, G

    2007-09-01

    A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing lepidopteran-protected corn combined with glyphosate-tolerant corn (MON 89034 x NK603) with those of broilers fed diets containing corn grain from the conventional control (similar genetic background to the test corn) and 6 conventional corn hybrids. It has been found that MON 89034 produces the Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 insecticidal proteins that protect corn plants from feeding damage caused by European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) and other lepidopteran insect pests. In addition, NK603 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. The traditional breeding of plants that express the individual traits produced MON 89034 x NK603. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 57% wt/wt corn grain) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 59% wt/wt corn grain) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). Weight at d 0 and 42, feed intake, feed conversion, and all measured carcass and meat quality parameters were not different (P > 0.05) for birds fed MON 89034 x NK603 and control corn diets. In addition, comparisons of the MON 89034 x NK603 diet to the population of the control and 6 reference corn diets showed no difference (P > 0.05) in any performance, carcass, or meat quality parameter measured. In conclusion, the diets containing MON 89034 x NK603 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing the control or conventional reference corn grain when fed to broilers.

  4. The Effect of Low-Density Diets on Broiler Breeder Development and Nutrient Digestibility During the Rearing Period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, H.; Veldman, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Aar, van de P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4

  5. Energia metabolizável e relação energia:proteína bruta nas fases pré-inicial e inicial de frangos de corte Metabolizable energy and energy:protein ratio for male broiler chicks to pre-starter and starter phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Helena Nascimento

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da energia e da relação energia: proteína da ração sobre o desempenho e qualidade da carcaça de frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial. Foram utilizados 900 pintos de corte, com peso médio de 41 g, distribuídos ao acaso em 45 boxes, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3, sendo três níveis de EMAn (2.850; 3.000 e 3.150 kcal e três relações EM: PB (125; 136,9 e 151,5 kcal/%PB, resultando em nove tratamentos com cinco repetições de 20 aves. De 1 a 7 dias, a melhor conversão alimentar (CA foi obtida com 3.150 kcal EM e relação EM: PB de 125 (25,2 %PB. No período de 1 a 21 dias, a redução da relação EM: PB (aumento da PB em todos os níveis de EM melhorou o ganho de peso (GP e a CA. As aves não ajustaram claramente o consumo pela densidade energética da ração. Rações com relação EM: PB de 136,9 (21,91% PB e EM de 3.000 kcal atenderam às exigências de frangos de corte para ótimo crescimento na fase inicial, enquanto a relação 151,5 foi inadequada. A redução da relação EM: PB diminuiu a gordura abdominal e melhorou a qualidade da carcaça de frangos de corte na fase inicial.This work was undertaken to evaluate of dietary energy and energy: crude protein ratio on performance and carcass quality of broiler chicks in the pre-starter and starter phases. Were used 900 one day old male broiler chicks, weight of 41 g, allotted in a completely randomized design in 45 boxes, in factorial 3 X 3, with three ME levels (2,850; 3,000 and 3,150 kcal and three ME: CP ratio (125.0, 136.9 and 151.5 kcal/%CP, resulting in nine treatments with five replicates of 20 birds. From 1 to 7 days, better feed conversion ratio was obtained with 3,150 kcal ME and ME: CP ratio of 125 (25,2% CP. From 1 to 21 days, when ME: CP ratio decreased (increase of CP, within of ME levels, improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The broiler chicks feed intake was not clearing affect by dietary ME

  6. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avizyme 1500TM) on the performance and nutrient digestibility by broiler finishers was investigated. A total of 120 d-old broiler chickens was assigned to four treatments each having two replicates of 15 birds in a 2 x 2 factorial block design.

  7. Meat Quality Attributes of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Supplemented with Silver Nanoparticles Coated on Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi SR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the meat quality attributes of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with silver nanoparticles coated on zeolite. A total of 375 one-day-old broilers was assigned in a completely randomized design to 1 of 5 treatment groups including: basal diet, basal diet supplemented with 1% zeolite, and basal diet supplemented with one of the three levels of zeolite coated with 25, 50 and 75 ppm nanosilver. On d 42, five birds per treatment were slaughtered to assess the meat quality attributes of breast and thigh. Breast meat quality attributes were not influenced by the dietary treatment. Birds fed basal diet supplemented with 50 and 75 ppm nanosilver had higher levels of water-holding capacity than those  fed on diets containing 1% zeolite (P. Thigh muscle of birds fed basal diet supplemented with 50 and 75 ppm nanosilver had a higher L* value than the control diet (P.  For b* values, thigh muscle of birds fed the control diet were significantly higher than those of birds fed zeolite coated with 75 ppm nanosilver diet. The highest value of hardness, gumminess, and chewiness for breast meat were recorded by birds fed zeolite coated with 75 ppm nanosilver diet. The highest values of gumminess and chewiness of broiler chickens thigh muscle were observed in the group of birds receiving zeolite diets without nanosilver supplementation (P. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with silver nanoparticles coated on zeolite improved water-holding capacity of thigh muscle; although, further studies are needed to provide strong evidences to the exact mechanisms of action for silver nanoparticles coated on zeolite.

  8. Carcass and cut yields and meat qualitative traits of broilers fed diets containing probiotics and prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108 in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2 and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2. There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The results showed that the carcass and cut yields, color (L* - lightness, a* - redness, and b* - yellowness, pH, cooking losses, shearing force and sensory analysis were not affected by the use of different growth promoters at 42 days of age. It was concluded that growth promoters supplemented to the diet did not affect the studied quantitative and qualitative parameters of the carcass and breast meat of broiler chickens.

  9. Physiological and health-related response of broiler chickens fed diets containing raw, full-fat soya bean meal supplemented with microbial protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdaw, M M; Perez-Maldonado, R A; Iji, P A

    2017-10-10

    A 2 × 3 factorial study (protease: 0 or 1,5000 PROT/kg and raw full-fat soya bean meal [RSBM] replacing the commercial SBM at 0, 45 and 75 g/kg of diet) was conducted to examine the performance of broilers. Phytase (2000 FYT/kg) was uniformly added to each diet, each also replicated six times, with eight birds per replicate. Birds were raised in climate-controlled rooms using sawdust as the bedding material and offered starter, grower and finisher diets. Feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) were reduced (p  .05) mortality, footpad dermatitis or intestinal lesions in birds. At day 24, the weight, length, width and strength of tibia bone were reduced in chickens that received an elevated level of RSBM (75 g/kg of diet), but this was not significant at day 35. At day 24 (p diet, but P content was not affected. On days 24 (p diets. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Eucalyptus leaves powder, antibiotic and probiotic addition to broiler diets: effect on growth performance, immune response, blood components and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, H; Mazhari, M; Esmaeilipour, O

    2018-01-18

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of eucalyptus powder (EP), virginiamycin and probiotic on performance, immunity, blood components and carcass traits of broiler chickens. A total of 250, 1-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to five treatments with five replicates and 10 chicks each, as a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of: basal diet (BD), BD+0.25% EP, BD+0.5% EP, BD+0.01% of diet probiotic (Protexin), BD+0.02% of diet antibiotic (virginiamycin). Dietary supplementation did not affect feed intake, BW gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) during starter and grower phases, but BWG and FCR were affected during the finisher and whole periods (P<0.05).The highest BWG and lowest FCR were obtained in birds fed with virginiamycin and 0.5% EP. Dietary supplementation significantly increased the relative weight of carcass and breast (P<0.05). Treatments had no effect on relative weights of internal organs and small intestine except for bursa that increased by treatments. Relative length of jejunum also increased by treatments (P<0.05). Antibody production against sheep red blood cells did not changed in primary titer (day 35), but it significantly increased in secondary titer (day 42) by 0.5% EP. White blood cell counts were increased and cholesterol decreased by dietary supplementation (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study showed that 0.5% EP served as a useful replacement for antibiotic and would improve performance and immune response of broiler chickens.

  11. Feed can be a source of Campylobacter jejuni infection in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M B R; Fonseca, B B; Melo, R T; Mendonça, E P; Nalevaiko, P C; Girão, L C; Monteiro, G P; Silva, P L; Rossi, D A

    2017-02-01

    1. The aim was to determine the importance of a contaminated diet as a possible cause of Campylobacter jejuni infection in broilers. 2. This study evaluated the viability of C. jejuni in both starter and finisher diets and the interference from other mesophilic bacteria in this viability. 3. Starter and finisher samples of broiler diet were deliberately contaminated with 3 or 5 log CFU·g-1 of C. jejuni (NCTC 11351) and then maintained at two different storage temperatures (25°C or 37°C) for 3 or 5 d. 4. C. jejuni survived during this period and, when inoculated at 103 CFU·g-1, multiplied with greater proliferation at a storage temperature of 37°C. There was no relationship between the amount of mesophilic bacteria and C. jejuni viability. 5. This study highlights the importance of the diet in the epidemiology of C. jejuni in broilers.

  12. Growth and physiological responses of broiler chickens to diets containing raw, full-fat soybean and supplemented with a high-impact microbial protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammo M. Erdaw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the change and function of the pancreas, and small intestine in relation to growth performance of broilers on diets supplemented with raw soybean meal (RSBM and protease. Samples of test ingredients and diets, after mixing and prior to being used were also assessed on contents of anti-nutritional factors. Methods A 3×3 factorial study was used, with three levels of RSBM (commercial soybean meal [SBM] was replaced by RSBM at 0, 10%, or 20% and protease (0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 g/kg. Each treatment was replicated six times with nine birds per replicate. Birds were housed in cages, in climate-controlled room and fed starter, grower and finisher diets. Results Levels of trypsin inhibitors in the diets, containing varying levels of RSBM ranged between 1,730.5 and 9,913.2 trypsin inhibitor units/g DM. Neither RSBM nor protease supplementation in diets significantly affected (p>0.05 the body weight of broilers in the entire periods (0 to 35-d. Increasing the level of RSBM in diets increased the weight of the pancreas at d 10 (p<0.000, d 24 (p<0.001, and d 35 (p<0.05. Increasing levels of RSBM in the diets reduced the apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein (CP, and amino acid (AA at d 24. Increasing level of RSBM in the diets decreased (p<0.01 pancreatic protein content, but this was increased (p<0.05 when protease was added to the diets (0 to 10-d. Increasing the level of protease improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes, including trypsin (p<0.05, chymotrypsin (p<0.01, and general proteolytic enzymes (p<0.05. Conclusion The commercial SBM could be replaced at up to 20% by RSBM for broilers. Although protease supplementation slightly improved the digestive enzymes, and the ileal digestibilities of CP and AA, the CP and AA were negatively affected by increasing RSBM.

  13. EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF MULTI-STRAIN PROBIOTIC ON BROILER GROWTH PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Anjum, A. G. Khan, A. Azim and M. Afzal1

    2005-01-01

    The effects of a multi-strain probiotic (protexin) on broiler growth performance, carcass parameters and economic efficiency were studied. For this purpose, 270 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into three experimental groups A, B and C, with 90 chicks in each group having three replicates. Group A was fed commercial broiler diet without supplementation of protexin (control) and groups B and C were fed diets containing protexin 100 and 110g/t in starter and 50 and 55 g/t in finish...

  14. Use of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla in the diet of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Nishibori, M

    2017-05-01

    The experiments were carried out to measure the effect of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla on growth performance, profitability and lipid profiles of blood of broiler chickens to produce safe and cost effective broilers. In experiment 1, 240 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; D1 (control), D2 (D1 with 1 mL multivitamin/liter water), D3 (D1 with 1 mL acidifier/liter water), D4 (D1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 2 mL acidifier/liter water) having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication. In experiment 2, 150 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; T1 (control), T2 (5% Azolla in the diet), T3 (7% Azolla in the diet) and T4 (T1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 1 mL acidifier/liter water) having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication in control, and 10 chicks/replication in the remaining dietary treatment groups for 35 days. In experiment 1, the highest live weight was observed in D4 (p0.05). The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p0.05). However, evidently but not significantly, the highest net profit was obtained in D2 followed by D4, D1, and D3, respectively. In experiment 2, the highest live weight (p0.05). In conclusion, Azolla and acidifier reduced lipid profiles of broiler chickens. Considering net profit and lipid profiles, 5% Azolla may be the suitable dietary group for producing safe and profitable broilers. However, more studies are needed to confirm this study prior to suggesting using Azolla in the poultry industry.

  15. Use of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla in the diet of broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Nishibori, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The experiments were carried out to measure the effect of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla on growth performance, profitability and lipid profiles of blood of broiler chickens to produce safe and cost effective broilers. Methods In experiment 1, 240 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; D1 (control), D2 (D1 with 1 mL multivitamin/liter water), D3 (D1 with 1 mL acidifier/liter water), D4 (D1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 2 mL acidifier/liter water) having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication. In experiment 2, 150 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; T1 (control), T2 (5% Azolla in the diet), T3 (7% Azolla in the diet) and T4 (T1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 1 mL acidifier/liter water) having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication in control, and 10 chicks/replication in the remaining dietary treatment groups for 35 days. Results In experiment 1, the highest live weight was observed in D4 (p0.05). The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p0.05). However, evidently but not significantly, the highest net profit was obtained in D2 followed by D4, D1, and D3, respectively. In experiment 2, the highest live weight (p0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, Azolla and acidifier reduced lipid profiles of broiler chickens. Considering net profit and lipid profiles, 5% Azolla may be the suitable dietary group for producing safe and profitable broilers. However, more studies are needed to confirm this study prior to suggesting using Azolla in the poultry industry. PMID:27507178

  16. In take, performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed diets containing dried cassava peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.

  17. Use of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla in the diet of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The experiments were carried out to measure the effect of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla on growth performance, profitability and lipid profiles of blood of broiler chickens to produce safe and cost effective broilers. Methods In experiment 1, 240 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; D1 (control, D2 (D1 with 1 mL multivitamin/liter water, D3 (D1 with 1 mL acidifier/liter water, D4 (D1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 2 mL acidifier/liter water having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication. In experiment 2, 150 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; T1 (control, T2 (5% Azolla in the diet, T3 (7% Azolla in the diet and T4 (T1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 1 mL acidifier/liter water having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication in control, and 10 chicks/replication in the remaining dietary treatment groups for 35 days. Results In experiment 1, the highest live weight was observed in D4 (p0.05. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR (p0.05. However, evidently but not significantly, the highest net profit was obtained in D2 followed by D4, D1, and D3, respectively. In experiment 2, the highest live weight (p0.05. Conclusion In conclusion, Azolla and acidifier reduced lipid profiles of broiler chickens. Considering net profit and lipid profiles, 5% Azolla may be the suitable dietary group for producing safe and profitable broilers. However, more studies are needed to confirm this study prior to suggesting using Azolla in the poultry industry.

  18. Incorporation of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Leaf Powder in diet of broilers for quality meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Lanjewar

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum leaf powder on meat cholesterol and serum lipid profile of broiler from day old to 42nd day of age. One hundred fifty day old chicks were distributed into three experimental groups of 50 birds which were further divided into five replicates of 10 birds each. The control (T1  group was fed with standard broiler diet and T2 and T3 were fed standard broiler diet plus tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 0.5% and 1% respectively. All the birds were reared under standard managemental conditions. The observations were recorded for cholesterol content of meat and serum lipid profile of broilers. Supplementation of tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 1% for 42 days showed the significant decrease (P<0.01 in breast muscle and thigh muscle cholesterol. Group T2 showed the significant reduction in thigh muscle cholesterol but not in breast muscle cholesterol. The average serum total cholesterol was reduced significantly (P<0.01 in T3 group but not in T2. The average serum HDL cholesterol was increased significantly (P<0.01 in T2 and T3. The average serum triglycerides were significantly reduced in T2 and T3. But higher reduction obtained in birds fed with 1% tulsi leaf powder in diet. The average serum LDL cholesterol was significantly reduced (P<0.01 in T3 followed by T2   group. The study concluded that supplementation of tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 1% in broiler diet for 42 days reduced meat and blood cholesterol levels of broiler. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 340-342

  19. Profil Perlemakan Darah Ayam Broiler yang Diberi Pakan Tepung Daun Kayambang (Salvinia Molesta)

    OpenAIRE

    Meliandasari, Destriana; DWILOKA, BAMBANG; SUPRIJATNA, EDJENG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of alternative local feed ingredients kayambang leaf meal (Salvinia molesta) as a fibrous protein source in broiler diet composition on the production performance and blood lipid. The study used one hundred broiler chickens at 15 days old unsex with average weight 500 ± 6,99 g. The study used experimental completely randomized design with four treatments and five replications. Ration treatment was arranged for starter and finisher periods incl...

  20. Evaluation of Kola-Pod Husk Meal in Broiler Finisher Diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is the world's largest producer of kola nut. The pod husk, which constitutes over 50% of the kola fruit, has been a farm waste to date. Its crude protein content which is similar to that of maize suggests that it is possible to partially replace maize with pod husk meal (KPHM) in broiler finisher diets. In this study, KPHM ...

  1. an evaluation of high lysine maize in the diets of broilers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    per ton of high lysine maize, would be a conservative estimate of the additional value of this improved maize variety. This confirms the result obtained by Nieuwoudt et al. (1978) regarding the value of opaque - 2 maue diets for broilers. Experiment 2. The gain in body mass over the 49 day period, together with food intake ...

  2. Effect of low-density diets on broiler breeder and offspring performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, H.

    2005-01-01

    Restricted feeding of broiler breeders is required to obtain good reproductive performance. Current practical feed restriction levels can result in hunger feeling and chronic stress, particularly during the rearing period. On the basis of literature data, low-density diets might improve bird

  3. Replacement value of poultry visceral offal meal in the diet of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the replacement value of poultry visceral offal meal (PVOM) substituting for fish meal (FM) on an equal protein basis in the diets or unsexed Ross-strain broiler chickens from day-old to 8 weeks of age. One hundred and fifty birds were allotted in groups of 10 into 15 equidimeosional ...

  4. High levels of maize in broiler diets with or without microbial enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mbhuiya3

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... Microbial enzymes are now routinely included in broiler chicken diets to improve the digestion of ... dietary ingredients were Soycomil R 65% (as protein source), vitamin mineral premix and vegetable oil. All ... The experiment was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the University of New England.

  5. Humic acid and enzymes in canola-based broiler diets: Effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUUser

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... acids, including humic acids, have variable physical and chemical properties that allow them to influence gastronomic ... enzymes and humic acid salts inclusion in canola-based diets on organ and bone development in broilers is scarce. ..... As observed in other studies, the type of rickets could not be.

  6. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed diets containing genetically modified canola meal from event DP-Ø73496-4, near-isogenic canola meal, or commercial canola meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Rice, D; Smith, B; Hong, B; Delaney, B; Iiams, C

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) canola (Brassica napus L.) line containing event DP-Ø73496-4 (hereafter referred to as 73496 canola) was produced by the insertion of the glyphosate acetyltransferase (gat4621) gene derived from Bacillus licheniformis. Expression of the GAT4621 protein present in 73496 canola plants confers in planta tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glyphosate. The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional performance of broiler chickens fed canola meal from 73496 canola seed with that of broiler chickens fed non-GM canola meal in a 42-d feeding trial. Diets were prepared using meal processed from seed from unsprayed 73496 plants or from plants sprayed with an in-field application of glyphosate herbicide [73496(S)]. For comparison, additional diets were produced with canola meal obtained from the non-GM near-isogenic control or non-GM commercial reference DuPont Pioneer brand varieties 42H72, 42H73, 46A65, and 44A89. Diets were fed to Ross 708 broilers (n = 120/group, 50% male and 50% female) in 3 phases: starter and grower phases containing 10 or 20% canola meal, respectively, and a finisher phase with a common corn-soybean meal diet without any canola meal. No statistically significant differences were observed in growth performance measures or organ and carcass yields between broilers consuming diets produced with canola meal from unsprayed or sprayed 73496 seed and those consuming diets produced with canola meal from control seed. Additionally, all performance, organ, and carcass measures from control, 73496, and 73496(S) canola treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from the reference canola groups. It was concluded from these results that meal processed from 73496 canola seed (unsprayed plants or plants sprayed with glyphosate) was nutritionally equivalent to meal processed from non-GM near-isogenic control canola seed. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Effects of lysolecithin supplementation in low-energy diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, viscosity and intestinal morphology of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, G A; Poutahidis, T; Chalvatzi, S; Di Benedetto, M; Hardas, A; Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Arsenos, G; Fortomaris, P D

    2018-01-16

    1. The study aimed to investigate the effect of lysolecithin supplementation in low-energy diets on growth, nutrient digestibility and intestinal mucosa characteristics of broilers. 2. A total of 800 one-d-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of 10 replicates of 20 broilers each. Broilers were fed with 4 different diets: (i) HE: positive control group broilers received a diet with unaltered energy; (ii) LE: negative control group broilers received a diet with lower energy of about 0.27 MJ/kg; (iii) LElys500: broilers received a diet similar to LE supplemented with 500 g/tn lysolecithin product (Lysoforte Booster Dry TM ); and (iv) LElys300: broilers received a diet similar to LE supplemented with 300 g/tn lysolecithin product. The experimental period was 42 d. 3. Body weight gain in treatments HE was higher than LE during the overall experimental period, while LElys500 and LElys300 had intermediate values. Feed conversion ratio was lower in HE and LElys500 than LE group, while the LElys300 had intermediate values. Fat digestibility was improved in both LElys 500 and LElys300 compared to the HE group. Apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn) was higher in HE, LElys500 and LElys300 than LE. Ileum viscosity at 42 d was also affected, being higher in LE group compared to HE. At 28 d mucosal thickness was lower both in LElys500 and LElys300 compared to HE and LE, while no difference occurred between treatment proliferation patterns of duodenal epithelial cells. 4. These findings indicated that lysolecithin supplementation at 500 g/tn of feed in low-energy diets maintained broiler performance. Supplementation of reformulated low-energy diets induced an increase in digesta viscosity. Lysolecithin supplementation resulted in variable alterations in the duodenum mucosal morphology.

  8. Characterization of starter kimchi fermented with Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 and its cholesterol-lowering effects in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Se Yeon; Choi, Eun A; Lee, Jae Joon; Chang, Hae Choon

    2015-10-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria and kimchi have been demonstrated previously. However, the kimchi fermentation process still relies on naturally present microorganisms. To obtain functional kimchi with consistent quality, we validated the capacity of Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture to control kimchi fermentation. Moreover, cholesterol-lowering effects of starter kimchi as a health-promoting product were explored. Bacteriocin production by Lc. kimchii GJ2 was highly enhanced in the presence of 5% Lactobacillus sakei NJ1 cell fractions. When kimchi was fermented with bacteriocin-enhanced Lc. kimchii GJ2, Lc. kimchii GJ2 became overwhelmingly predominant (98.3%) at the end of fermentation and maintained its dominance (up to 82%) for 84 days. Growing as well as dead cells of Lc. kimchii GJ2 showed high cholesterol assimilation (in vitro). Rats were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet supplemented with starter kimchi. The results showed that feeding of starter kimchi significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Additionally, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor and triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in liver and epididymal adipose tissue decreased significantly in rats fed starter kimchi. Kimchi fermented with Lc. kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture has efficient cholesterol-lowering effects. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Use of enzymes in diets with different percentages of added fat for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.P. Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the extent to which the removal of fat source, and consequently its compounds, such as linoleic acid, can affect the performance of broilers. We used 600 male Cobb 500 day old chicks. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and six replicates of 20 birds each. The treatments were: (T1 diet - positive control (PC, which met the nutritional needs; (T2 diet - negative control (CN, a reduction of 100kcal/kg and low linoleic acid content; (T3: diet - negative control reformulated for low linoleic acid content and a set of Quantum phytase XT and Econase XT 25 (BAL + QFit-Eco, (T4: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to an intermediate value between the value of the diet and diet CP and CN to use a set of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (IAL + QFit-Eco and (T5: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to a value similar to that of the positive control diet and joint use of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (AAL + QFit-Eco. The joint use of Quantum Phytase and Econase promoted improvement in the performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days. The greatest weight gain was obtained with diets containing percentages of total fat and linoleic acids. Dietary supplementation with enzymes resulted in higher levels of calcium in the tibia, whatever the percentage of linoleic studied.

  10. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P oil cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  11. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Alters Oxidative Stability and Alleviates Plasma Cholesterol Content in Meat of Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Suriya Kumari Ramiah; Goh Yong Meng; Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4°C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatt...

  12. Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor, L.) as a possible alternative to soybean meal in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Piccolo, G; Gasco, L; Marono, S; Loponte, R; Vassalotti, G; Mastellone, V; Lombardi, P; Attia, Y A; Nizza, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with Tenebrio molitor larvae (TML) meal in broiler diets. A total of 80 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were divided into two groups fed on two isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for protein source (SBM vs. TML). Up to 62 d of age, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and European efficiency factor (EEF) were calculated. At 62 d, blood samples were collected from 16 birds/group for evaluation of blood profiles. Feed intake was not different between groups considering the entire period of the trial. The FCR was more favourable in the TML than SBM group from 46 d of age and in the entire period of the trial (4.13 vs. 3.62). The PER was higher in the SBM than in the TML group (1.92 vs. 1.37) while the EEF was higher in broilers fed on the TML diet (132.6 vs. 156.2). Albumin-to-globulin ratio was higher in broilers fed on SBM than in the other group (0.44 vs. 0.30). aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher in TML than SBM (195.1 vs. 178.6 U/l and 82.07 vs. 46.71 U/l, respectively). Uric acid was higher in broilers fed on SBM than TML (5.40 vs. 4.16 mg/dl). TML did not affect feed intake and growth rate of broilers from 30 to 62 d of age when compared to an isoproteic and isoenergetic SBM diet, but FCR of the TML group was more favourable than that of the SBM group. The lowest albumin-to-globulin ratio in broilers fed on TML suggests a higher immune response, probably due to the prebiotic effects of chitin.

  13. The effect of Boswellia serrata resin diet supplementation on production, hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yasiry, A R M; Kiczorowska, B; Samolińska, W; Kowalczuk-Vasilev, E; Kowalczyk-Pecka, D

    2017-11-01

    Boswellia serrata resin (BSR), exhibiting a variety of therapeutic properties, is applied in Asian traditional medicine. These properties can be used in poultry production as well. Application of the resin as a phytobiotic in broiler chicken rearing can increase the productivity and improve meat quality. However, the optimum and maximum levels of BSR in broiler diets need to be assessed. The study determined the effect of different levels of supplementation of BSR (directly derived, unprocessed) in diets for broiler chickens on the production traits, selected slaughter analysis parameters, nutrient digestibility and selected hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters. In total, 200 1-day-old broiler chickens were assigned randomly to four treatments with five replicate cages of 10 broiler chickens/cage (five females and five males). The experiment lasted 6 weeks, and the broiler chickens were fed diets containing 0% (control), 3% (BSR3), 4% (BSR4) or 5% (BSR5). In the broiler chickens receiving diets with addition of resin BSR3 and BSR4, there was an increase in (Pbroiler chicken.

  14. Níveis de proteína e de arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte Protein and digestible arginine levels in pre-starter broiler rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Schaitl Thon

    2010-05-01

    21 days of age. A total of 600 Cobb chicks was assigned to a block randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 4 levels of digestible arginine (1.363; 1.463; 1.563 and 1.663% and two levels of crude protein (20 and 22% with eight treatments, each one with five replicates of 15 broilers each. For the experiment, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, gastrointestinal biometry, digestibility and retention of dry matter and nitrogen were evaluated. The highest weight gain from 1 to 14 days old was obtained with the 22% crude protein feed. The levels of digestible arginine had a quadratic effect in feed conversion from 1 to 10 days old. The esophagus and crop weights were higher for broilers fed 20% crude protein based diet; however, there was a quadratic effect of the digestible arginine levels on the intestine length at the age of 10 days and on the esophagus + crop weight at 3 days of age. At 14 days of age, there was interaction among crude protein and digestible arginine levels for liver relative weight, which showed quadratic response to 20% of crude protein, and for intestine length, whose highest value was obtained with 22% of crude protein and 1.603% of digestible arginine. Nitrogen balance and retention were the highest for levels of 22% of crude protein. The level of 1.363% of digestible arginine meets nutritional requirements of pre-starter broilers.

  15. Use of semi-leafless peas (Pisum sativum L with enzyme addition in diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erja Koivunen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the effects of dietary pea inclusion and the addition of Avizyme 1200 -enzyme cocktail on broiler performance, intestinal viscosity and organoleptic quality of meat. The experimental design was a 4 × 2 factorial, the factors being dietary pea inclusion (0, 150, 300 and 450 g kg-1 in the diets fed from day 9 to day 38 and the addition of Avizyme 1200 enzyme cocktail including amylase, protease and xylanase during the entire experiment. The growth of birds improved (p ≤ 0.018 with pea inclusion in a cubic manner. Feed conversion ratio (FCR of the birds fed on unsupplemented diets improved along pea inclusion, while pea inclusion impaired the FCR on the birds on enzyme cocktail supplemented diets (p ≤ 0.006. The use of the enzyme cocktail improved the body weight, body weight gain and FCR of the broilers and decreased intestinal viscosity (p 0.05. In conclusion, 450 g kg-1 peas can be used in the broiler grower diets without negative effects on the bird performance. The use of enzyme cocktail improves bird performance.

  16. Use of Lippia rotundifolia and Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oils, individually or in combination, in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Lorena Azevedo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia rotundifolia microencapsulated essential oils on broiler performance and carcass yield. One hundred and fifty mixed-sex Cobb broiler chicks were used, from one day up to 42 days of age, in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and three replicates of ten birds each. The treatments were: negative control (basal diet, positive control (diet with enramycin and salinomycin, and three diets with microencapsulated essential oils from lemongrass, L. rotundifolia, and combination with 50% of both. The performance and carcass yield were not affected by the treatments. The intestine absolute weight was lower in the combination treatment compared with the negative control treatment and the lemongrass essential oil. The intestine relative weight was higher in the treatments with lemongrass and L. rotundifolia essential oils in relation to the combination. The liver relative weight was lower with the lemongrass essential oil and the combination compared with the treatment with the L. rotundifolia essential oil. The trial could not find results enough to recommend the use of the lemongrass and L. rotundifolia essential oils as an additive in broiler diets.

  17. Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oil in the diet of broilers as balancing the intestinal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Eler Amorim Dias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Dias G.E.A., de Carvalho B.O., Medeiros, P.T. deM., Sousa F.D.deR., Gomes A.V.daC., de Souza M.M.S. & de Lima C.A.R. [Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oil in the diet of broilers as balancing the intestinal microbiota.] Óleo essencial de orégano (Origanum vulgare L. na dieta de frangos de corte como equilibrador da microbiota intestinal. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:108-114, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia, Instituto de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: giselleeler@gmail.com The effectiveness of the use of oregano essential oil as an zootechnical additive in broiler diets was evaluated. 300 male broiler chickens were distributed in delineation in blocks at random, five treatments and six repetitions of 10 birds. The treatments consisted of diets with different levels of oregano essential oil (300, 600 and 900 mg/kg ration, a negative control (with no antimicrobial and a positive control with the antibiotic colistin sulfate. Samples were collected from the ileum at 40 days of age with the objective of determining the count of total coliform and identifying enterobacteria. The digestibility assay was constituted of 8 adaptation days to the diet and 4 days for collecting. There was reduction (P<0.05 at the count of total coliform in chickens treated with antibiotic or oregano. There were no differences between treatments in dry matter apparent metabolization coefficients, apparent metabolizable energy and apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen balance. The treatment with higher level of oregano resulted at a higher nitrogen apparent metabolization coefficient. The oregano essential oil may be utilized in diets of broilers as zootechnical additive balancing the intestinal microbiota.

  18. Insect and legume-based protein sources to replace soybean cake in an organic broiler diet: Effects on growth performance and physical meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Leiber, Florian; Gelencsér, Tobias; Stamer, Andreas; Amsler, Zivile; Wohlfahrt, Jens; Früh, Barbara; Maurer, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Protein sources other than soybean for the diets of poultry are needed for agricultural systems in temperate regions to help avoid some negative social and ecological impacts of large-scale soybean imports from overseas. The aim of the present study was to test the suitability of alternative protein sources in diets for slow-growing organic broiler chicken. Four experimental broiler diets were tested against a commercial feed for organic broiler chicken fattening (control), containing 255 ...

  19. Evaluation of Dietary Glycerin Inclusion During Different Broiler Rearing Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Freitas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of different levels of glycerin on the performance, litter moisture, pododermatitis incidence, and carcass and parts yield of broilers. In total, 1,610 broilers were reared in 35 pens with 46 birds each. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments with seven replicates was applied. The experimental treatments were: T1: control diet; T2: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T3: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T4: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 7-42 days of age; T5: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 7-42 days of age. The diets containing glycerin fed since the pre-starter period improved broiler weight gain and feed conversion ratio, but did not influence feed intake or livability. At the end of the experiment, the production efficiency index of the broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was significantly reduced compared with the other treatments. Litter moisture in the pens of broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was higher compared to the other treatments since day 21.Diets containing 10% glycerin, both for the entire rearing period (1-42 days or only after the pre-starter phase (7-42 days, influenced broiler performance and incidence of severe pododermatitis, reducing the production efficiency indexes at 42 days. Glycerin may be added up to 5% in broiler´s diets with no effect on performance, litter moisture and carcass yield, indicating that this co-product of the biodiesel industry can be used as an alternative feedstuff for broilers.

  20. Performance of Broiler Chicks fed Cottonseed and Soybean Meal Based Diets and Determination of the Optimum Supplemental Lysine in Starts Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    goulam reza zabuli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the optimal level of supplemental lysine in a corn-soybean mealcottonseed meal starter diet. Three hundred and sixty day-old male chicks (Ross 308 were used in a completely randomized design (15 birds per each pen. A basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1994 recommendations except for lysine. Graded levels of supplemental lysine (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5% of diet were added to the basal diet at the expense of corn starch. At 14d of age, performance and carcass attributes including body weight gain (BGW, feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed intake (FI, breast meat yield (BMY, and thigh yield (TY were assessed. The results showed that lysine supplementation significantly improved BGW, FCR, FI, BMY, and TY. To determine the optimum level of supplemental lysine, modeling approach was applied and inflection point in spline models was considered as an optimum point. Using linear broken-line model, inflection points for BWG, FC, BMY, TY were 0.24, 0.26, 0.35, and 0.22% of diet, respectively. These values in quadratic broken-line model were 0.39, 0.15, 0.52, and 0.33% of diet, respectively. In conclusion, the usage of cottonseed meal in starting broiler chicks may increase the needed supplemental lysine in the diet due to low amino acid digestibility of cottonseed meal. Although the optimum level of supplemental lysine depends on response criteria and statistical model, required supplemental lysine for BMY was higher than others.

  1. Effect of Diets with Different Energy and Protein Levels on Breast Muscle Characteristics at Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Marcu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was studied the effect of dietary energy and protein levels on breast muscle characteristics at broiler chickens, which were sacrificed at 42 days old. The genetic material was represented by broiler chickens that belonged to the „Ross-308” hybrid, with three groups (LC-control group, L1 and L2 experimental groups. In the growth periods (starter, growing and finishing have received compound feed ad libitum, with different energy and protein levels (LC-was conforming to recommendations of Aviagen Company; L1-higher with 10%; L2-lower with 10%. After evisceration, from each group were sampled breasts from 10 carcasses (five per sex and were determined: muscle mass, meat:bones ratio, chemical composition of meat, pH value (after evisceration up to 24 h of refrigeration and the thickness of myocytes in the superficial pectoral muscle. For these characteristics, highest values were obtained at L1 group, and the lowest values were at L2 group. At the L1 group, high levels of dietary proteins and energy has significantly influenced: muscle mass, meat:bones ratio, chemical composition of meat (water, proteins and lipids, pH value and the thickness of myocytes in the superficial pectoral muscle, as compared with LC and L2.

  2. Citrus Peel Oils Supplementation in Broiler Diet: Effects on Performance, Jejunum Microflora and Jejunum Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Erhan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to determine citrus peel oils (orange, lemon, bergamot as food supplementation in different levels on performance, microflora and morphology in broilers. The trial consisted of 1-day-old male and female Ross 308 chicks (250 male 250 female. The study consisted of 10 groups in total and each group was replicated five times. Experimental diets were prepared by adding orange, lemon and bergamot peel oil levels (1,2 and 3 mL/kg to basal diet. It was observed that the supplementation of citrus peel oils to the diet improved significantly the feed conversion rate. Especially the lowest feed intake and the best feed conversion ratio were received from broilers which were fed 3 mL/kg of orange peel oil. The study shows that the count of Escherichia coli (E.coli and lactic acid bacteria in the jejunum decreased significantly with the supplementation of bergamot peel oil to broilers diets. Citrus peel oil, in contrast to bergamot peel oil, significantly increased lactic acid bacteria count. The highest lactic acid bacteria count was determined in birds fed 3 mL/kg with orange peel oil. In the result of this study, both the length and density of villi and the density of blood and lymphatic capillary in the jejunum increased significantly by dietary 3 mL/kg orange peel oil supplementation. Finally, our results indicate that, especially 3 mL/kg orange peel oil has positive effects on performance, jejunum microflora, and jejunum morphology. It could be advised to supply broilers feed with 3 mL/kg orange peel oil as feed additives.

  3. On the use of a probiotic (Bacillus subtilis - strain DSM 17299 as growth promoter in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Opalinski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of a probiotic (Bacillus subtilis, strain DSM 17299 in broiler diets on feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio. The experiment included 1,200 male Ross broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. Birds were randomly allocated to 4 treatments, with 10 replicates of 30 birds. The following treatments were applied: T1 - Negative Control (basal diet, with no added growth promoter; T2 - Negative Control + Bacillus subtilis (8 x 10(5 CFUs/g feed; T3 - Negative Control + Bacillus subtilis (3 x 10(5 CFUs/ g de feed and T4 - Positive Control (avilamycin + anticoccidial from 1 to 35 days of age. At 21, 35, and 42 days of age, there was an increase of antibiotic-free diet intake as compared to the diets with growth promoters (p0.05. The use of growth promoter did not improve weight gain at the studied ages. There was a marked improvement in the feed conversion ratio of broilers fed the diet with antibiotics and of broilers fed the diet with added B. subtilis. It is concluded that the Bacillus subtilis probiotic can be used as a growth promoter in broiler diets.

  4. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2011-01-01

    diets compared to feed A was detectable in the intestinal contents, with high fibre feed staying longer in the digestive system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dustbathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The onset of lay was delayed......, but the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders. Key...... at 19 weeks. From 19-30 weeks all groups were fed the same commercial pre-layer and layer diets. Similar growth rates were obtained on different quantities of food (eg. 75, 100, 110 and 92 g feed/bird/d in week 16 for A, B, C and D, respectively). The higher amounts of food offered on the high fibre...

  5. The effect of dietary protein level on performance characteristics of coccidiosis vaccinated and nonvaccinated broilers following mixed-species Eimeria challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J T; Eckert, N H; Ameiss, K A; Stevens, S M; Anderson, P N; Anderson, S M; Barri, A; McElroy, A P; Danforth, H D; Caldwell, D J

    2011-09-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of starter diet protein levels on the performance of broilers vaccinated with a commercially available live oocyst coccidiosis vaccine before subsequent challenge with a mixed-species Eimeria challenge. Data indicated that an increasing protein concentration in the starter diet improved broiler performance during coccidiosis vaccination. Prechallenge performance data indicated that vaccination could decrease BW and increase feed conversion ratio. The time period most important for the observed effects appeared to be between 13 and 17 d of age. This reduction in performance parameters of vaccinated broilers compared with nonvaccinated broilers was eliminated by the conclusion of the experiments (27 d) in the diet groups with higher protein. Vaccination was effective at generating protective immunity against Eimeria challenge, as evidenced by increased (P coccidiosis in commercially reared broilers. More important, these findings suggest that reduced protein concentration of starter diets can lead to significant losses in broiler performance when using a vaccination program to prevent coccidiosis.

  6. 100% Organic Poultry Feed: Can Algae Replace Soybean Expeller in Organic Broiler Diets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Gerrard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current EU regulations allow 5% of feed for organic poultry to come from non-organic production. This is due to concerns about a 100% organic diet meeting the requirements for specific amino acids such as methionine. This exception is due to end on 31st December 2017. While this may match consumer expectations, protein sourced from global organic production may have a negative impact on perceptions of organic poultry in other ways. Soybean is a commonly used ingredient in poultry feed but soybean production has negative environmental and social impacts. Consumers may also prefer organic poultry to have been fed on locally produced feed and, indeed, this would be in line with organic principles. Preliminary feasibility feed trials were carried out during a summer and a winter season using organic broilers in the UK to test three 100% organic feeds: a control diet with globally sourced ingredients including soybean expeller, a diet based on locally sourced (i.e. within Europe organic ingredients, and a diet based on locally sourced organic ingredients and algae (a good source of methionine. The results of the summer feed trial showed that there were no significant differences in broiler weight gains. In the winter feed trial differences were found. There was a significant difference (P = 0.034 in weight gain between the local feed (lower weight gain and the local feed with algae but no significant difference between the control diet with soybean and the two local diets. These preliminary feed trials indicate that there is no significant impact on broiler performance or animal welfare parameters when replacing soybean with European protein sources, possibly including algae, suggesting that, although the research is still at a very early stage, such feeds may be a viable option for 100% organic poultry feed in the future.

  7. Citrus Peel Oils Supplementation in Broiler Diet: Effects on Performance, Jejunum Microflora and Jejunum Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Erhan, MK; Bölükbaşı, ŞC

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was carried out to determine citrus peel oils (orange, lemon, bergamot) as food supplementation in different levels on performance, microflora and morphology in broilers. The trial consisted of 1-day-old male and female Ross 308 chicks (250 male 250 female). The study consisted of 10 groups in total and each group was replicated five times. Experimental diets were prepared by adding orange, lemon and bergamot peel oil levels (1,2 and 3 mL/kg) to basal diet. It was observed...

  8. Valine needs in starting and growing Cobb (500) broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernari, F C; Lelis, G R; Vieira, R A; Rostagno, H S; Albino, L F T; Oliveira Neto, A R

    2013-01-01

    Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10.7 and 9.40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5.5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested.

  9. Performance efficiency of broiler chicks fed diets with different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dressing percentage and cut–up yield percentage (P<0.05) together with organoleptic test score of the birds. Palm oil and tannia tuber meal diets tended to give better performances among the experimental chicks than the corn based diet, being the control. Journal of Applied Chemistry and Agricultural Research Vol.

  10. Slimming starters. Intake of a diet-congruent food reduces meal intake in active dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Nicola J; Finlayson, Graham; Hetherington, Marion M

    2013-12-01

    Dietary restraint is known to break down in the face of tempting foods. Previous research suggests exposure to cues associated with slimming such as images or odours act as prompts to restrict intake of a tempting snack in dieters. The effects of consuming diet-congruent foods on subsequent intake of a meal have not yet been investigated. Thus, using a repeated measures design 26 female participants (dieters or non-dieters) consumed a diet-congruent (100 kcal salad), hedonic (100 kcal garlic bread) or neutral (0 kcal water) preload. A lexical decision task measured the salience of diet and hedonic thoughts and participants were then offered pizza as a main meal. Appetite sensations were measured throughout the study. Compared to the hedonic and neutral preload, a diet-congruent preload reduced dieters' entire meal intake by 21%. In contrast, non-dieters consumed 9% more in the hedonic preload condition compared to the neutral preload, yet showed no differences between the diet-congruent and other conditions. Salad lowered participants desire to eat and increased fullness compared to garlic bread and water preloads. Dieters were also less hungry after the salad compared to the garlic bread and water preloads. Consuming a diet-congruent first course may prompt lower intake at a meal, in part due to facilitating resolve to refrain from overeating a tempting second course. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The Effect of Low-Density Broiler Breeder Diets on Performance and Immune Status of their Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, H.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Winden, van S.C.L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Aar, van de P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of low-density broiler breeder diets on offspring performance and mortality were studied using 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb 500 breeders. Breeder treatments involved 4 experimental groups and a control group with normal density diets (ND, 2,600 kcal of AME/kg during rearing and 2,800 kcal

  12. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat. PMID:23391137

  13. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Faqir Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15% and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.

  14. Fatty acids composition of broiler chickens fed diets with probiotics and malic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the influence of probiotics and vinegar on fatty acid profile in broiler chickens. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. No significant different of saturated, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids between the treatments was observed.

  15. Performance and digestive function of broiler chickens given grit in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihus, B; Itani, K; Borg, K; Larsson, E C; Ao, R; Sudubilige, A; Fuerjiafu, B; Liu, H; Hetland, H; Sanson, G; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Józefiak, D

    2017-10-01

    1. A series of experiments were carried out to study the effect of grit on broiler performance, gizzard development and fate of grit in the digestive tract. 2. In Experiment 1, performance, gizzard weight and content of grit in the gizzard of broiler chickens given access to granite-type grit was investigated. In Experiment 2, the effect of grit stones on performance and gizzard development was assessed in diets with or without whole wheat. 3. In Experiment 3, the effect of grit in the form of zeolite, granite or marble on gizzard development and digestive tract grinding and passage was studied in diets with or without whole wheat. 4. Grit stones had no effect on performance of broiler chickens, which may be explained by the fact that grit stones did not stimulate gizzard development to the same extent as with other structural materials. 5. The lack of stimulation is at least partly due to the fact that a majority of the grit stones eaten pass through the small intestine without being retained in the gizzard. 6. Grit in the form of marble reduced feed intake and weight gain.

  16. Effects of guanidinoacetic acid diet supplementation on semen quality and fertility of broiler breeder roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapeh, Ramin Shahabi; Zhandi, Mahdi; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Akhlaghi, Amir

    2017-02-01

    Decreased semen quality and fertility rate is a common feature in broiler breeder roosters. This decrease is associated with dysfunction of Sertoli cells and defective spermatogenesis. Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), as a precursor of creatine, plays an important role in the proper functioning of Sertoli cells and energy metabolism in sperm. Twenty, 29-wk-old broiler breeder roosters (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups and fed diets supplemented with different levels of GAA, including 0 (GAA-0), 600 (GAA-600), 1200 (GAA-1200), and 1800 (GAA-1800) mg GAA/kg of diet for 26 successive weeks. During a 24-wk period, the seminal characteristics were weekly evaluated. At the end of experiment, sperm penetration and fertility rates were determined, using 68 artificially inseminated age-matched broiler breeder hens of the same strain (for 2 weeks). Semen concentration (P = 0.003), total sperm number (P = 0.005) and sperm forward motility (P = 0.01) were increased by GAA-1200 group. Also, sperm plasma membrane functionality was marginally affected (P = 0.06) in roosters received all levels of GAA. Sperm abnormality and plasma membrane integrity were not affected by dietary GAA. The highest number of sperm penetration holes was recorded for the GAA-1200 group (P = 0.08). Interestingly, fertility rate was increased by the feeding of all levels of GAA (P = 0.01). In conclusion, dietary GAA was associated with improvement in most of the rooster's seminal characteristics and fertility rate, suggesting a potential for using GAA to attenuate the age-related sub-fertility in commercial broiler breeder roosters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Arachidonic Acid-enriched Oil Diet Supplementation on the Taste of Broiler Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Takahashi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the relationship between the arachidonic acid (AA content and the taste of broiler meat, the effects of AA-enriched oil (AAO supplements on the fatty acid content and sensory perceptions of thigh meat were evaluated. Four types of oil, including corn oil (CO, a 1:1 mixture of AAO and palm oil (PO (1/2 AAO, a 1:3 mixture of AAO and PO (1/4 AAO, and a 1:7 mixture of AAO and PO (1/8 AAO were prepared. Each type of oil was mixed with silicate at a ratio of 7:3, and added to the diet at a final proportion of 5% of fresh matter. Broiler chickens were fed these diets for 1 wk before slaughter. In thigh meat, the AA content of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups was significantly higher than that of the CO group. The AA content in thigh meat (y, mg/g increased linearly with increasing dietary AAO content (x, g/100 g of diet, according to the equation y = 0.5674+0.4596× (r2 = 0.8454. The content of other fatty acids was not significantly different among the 4 diet groups. Sensory evaluation showed that the flavor intensity, umami (L-glutamate taste, kokumi (continuity, mouthfulness, and thickness, and aftertaste of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups were significantly higher than that of the CO group. There were significant positive correlations between AA content in thigh meat and the flavor intensity, total taste intensity, umami, and aftertaste. These data suggest that the taste of broiler meat can be improved by the amount of dietary AA supplementation.

  18. Use of probiotics in diets of animal or vegetable origin for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the use of probiotics in diets whit ingredients of animal or vegetable origin in production variables of broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. Materials and Methods. Were used 1056 one-day-old chicks, male, of lineage Ross 308, divided in to an experimental randomized design in 2X4 factorial arrangement, two origin of diet (animal or vegetable and four promoters (antibiotic, two probiotics and a negative control whit 6 replicates and 22 birds per unit. Results. At 7 days old there was a difference (p<0.05 in daily food intake, weight and weight gain and 14 days for weight, weight gain and mortality among diets. The feed conversion of 1-7 days did interaction (p<0.05 between types of diet and promoters. There was a difference (p<0.05 for weight and weight gain at 14 days of age between promoters. At 21 days of age presented mortality difference (p<0.05 for the type of diets; weight, weight gain, daily feed together and feed conversion showed difference for developers. At 28, 35 and 42 days old mortality and productive efficiency index showed difference (p<0.05 between the types of diets. Conclusions. The type of diet and growth promoter did not affect production variables, however, the viability improvement animal diets.

  19. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseedmeal in the diets of broiler chickens*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Cun-xi; Zhang, Wen-ju; Wang, Yong-qiang; Liu, Yan-feng; Ge, Wen-xia; Liu, Jian-cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis, and a second experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (Pbroiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets. PMID:26055906

  20. Fatty acid composition, fat deposition, lipogenic gene expression and performance of broiler fed diet supplemented with different sources of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Jannatara; Loh, Teck Chwen; Akit, Henny; Foo, Hooi Ling; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

    2017-09-01

    The present study assessed the effect of feeding palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and their combination on performance, fat deposition, fatty acid composition and lipogenic gene expression of broilers reared for 42 days. A total of 144 1-day-old broilers (Cobb500) were randomly allotted into four treatment diets with each having six replicates of six chicks in each replicate following a completely randomized design. Live weight gain and feed efficiency was significantly (P diet supplemented with SO and the combination of SO and PO down-regulated gene expression of key hepatic lipogenic enzymes of fatty acids synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). These findings suggest that the diet containing the combination of 2% PO and 4% SO may reduce hepatic lipogenesis, as well as lower abdominal fat content of broilers. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Ileal microbiota composition of broilers fed various commercial diet compositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven-Hangoor, E. van der; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der; Schuren, F.H.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Oliveira, J.E. de; Montijn, R.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiota plays a role in the release and absorption of nutrients from feed components, thereby affecting digesta composition and moisture content of the excreta. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of 5 different diets varying in ingredients (medium-chain fatty acids,

  2. Response of broiler chickens to diets containing artificially dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mbhuiya3

    quality such as denaturation of heat-labile vitamins and damage to proteins via an ... Four basal diets were formulated to meet minimum National Research Council .... (P <0.01, R2 = 0.25) by drying temperature but the trend was dependent.

  3. Response of broiler chickens to diets containing artificially dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mbhuiya3

    supplementation with enzymes significantly improved LW only on the diets containing sun-dried grains (731 ... The digestibility of cereal grains is influenced by the starch component, especially the ratio between amylose ... Due to the amorphous nature of its structure, amylopectin is more readily digested than the amylose.

  4. Response of broiler chickens to diets containing artificially dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mbhuiya3

    The populations of lactic acid and lactobacilli bacteria in the ileal content were reduced on diets containing ... how much of these processes occur during routine production and processing of maize. Due to the amorphous .... containing anaerobic broth for the enumeration of microbial populations. The McCartney bottles and ...

  5. Performance of broilers fed during 21 days on mash or pellet diets containing whole or ground pearl millet grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TR Torres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 20% whole-grain or ground pearl millet (PM in mash and pelleted diets on the performance, carcass traits, and organ weights of broilers reared until 21 days of age. A randomized block experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (diets containing corn and soybean meal, whole-grain PM, or ground PM x mash or pelleted diets, with five replicates per treatment and 10 birds per experimental unit, was applied. Diets were analyzed for mean geometric diameter, geometric standard deviation, pellet hardness, and density. Broiler performance, carcass yield, and organ weights were evaluated. On day 21, one bird with the average weight of each experimental unit was sacrificed for carcass evaluation. It was concluded that both as whole-grain and ground PM can be added to the diet of broilers up to 21 days of age. The dietary inclusion of PM results in higher abdominal fat deposition. Broilers fed the pelleted diets presented lower feed intake, better feed conversion ratio, lower gizzard and heart percentages, and higher carcass weight.

  6. Effects of Guanidinoacetic Acid Supplementation to Broiler Diets With Varying Energy Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Heger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the response of broiler chickens to guanidinoacetic acid (GAA added to diets with different energy levels during fattening to 35 days of age. Ross 308 male chicks were allotted to 10 treatments, each consisting of six replicates of 140 birds/pen. Five maize-soyabean meal isonitrogenous diets with decreasing AMEn levels (100, 99, 98, 97 and 96% of requirement with or without supplements of 0.6 g/kg CreAMINO® containing a minimum of 96% GAA were formulated. The criteria of response were feed intake, body weight gains, feed conversion ratio and carcass, breast meat, leg meat and abdominal fat yields. Supplementation of broiler diets with 0.06% GAA resulted in a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in voluntary feed intake. With decreasing AMEn level, voluntary feed intake and consequently protein and amino acid intakes increased which was manifested by improved growth performance (P < 0.01. GAA supplements significantly (P < 0.001 improved feed conversion ratio and efficiency of AMEn utilization and significantly (P < 0.01 increased breast meat yield. With decreasing AMEn level, the effects of GAA supplementation tended to diminish.

  7. The use of mustard meal as a protein source in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piched Sangsrijun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustard meal (MM from an essential oil extraction plant was dried under the sun or in a gas-heated pan. Its crude protein, ether extract and fiber contents on dry matter (DM basis were 30-32, 19-22 and 12- 13%, respectively. The metabolizable energy values of the sun dried and the gas dried meals were 2.89 and 2.44 kcal/g DM, respectively. The meal obtained from either the sun or the gas drying process was incorporated into broiler diets at 0, 10, 20 or 30% through the whole 6 weeks of experimental period. It was found that body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency decreased with the increasing levels of MM. The overall performance indicated that MM could be incorporated in broiler diet at 10% during 2-7 weeks of age without any adverse effects. Since older chicks can tolerate higher level of fiber and toxic substances from MM, the incorporation of MM to the diet fed only during week 7 can be up to 20%, which is corresponding to the substitution of 62% soybean meal. No significant differences among groups on carcass quality (i.e. dressing percentage and the weight of liver, pancreas and abdominal fat were observed. However, the thyroid gland was found to enlarge with the increasing levels of MM.

  8. Composition of diet modifies colonization dynamics of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, A; Hess, C; Pál, L; Wágner, L; Awad, W A; Husvéth, F; Hess, M; Dublecz, K

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of diet composition on colonization dynamics of Camp. jejuni and on related physiological parameters in the chicken intestine. A total of 54 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into three isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary groups: maize-based (MB), wheat-based (WB) diet and wheat-based diet with NSP-degrading enzyme supplementation (WBES). Chickens were orally infected with 10(8)  CFU Camp. jejuni on day 14, and samples (n = 6) were collected on 7, 14 and 21 days postinfection (DPI), respectively. Colony forming units of Camp. jejuni of caecum and jejunum, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, pH values of the caecum, jejunal histomorphology and viscosity of jejunal chymus were measured. In case of WBES diet, lower Camp. jejuni colonization 14 DPI, higher jejunal viscosity, higher total SCFA concentrations in the caecum and enhanced jejunal histomorphology were observed compared to those measured in chickens fed MB diet. The WBES diet altered Camp. jejuni colonization dynamics in the chicken intestine which resulted by higher SCFA concentrations in the caecum and by the change of gut morphology. Our study proves that diet composition can modify Camp. jejuni colonization depending on sampling time point postinfection. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. The effects of mineral adsorbents added to broilers diet on breast meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanović Đorđe G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of these investigations was to determine the influence of mineral adsorbents “Minazel” and “Minazel Plus” added into broiler diet, on the carcass quality and nutritional, technological and sensory properties of breast meat. The examination was done on Cobb 500 provenience divided into 4 groups: control group C (fed without addition of mineral adsorbent, experimental group E I (0.5% of Minazel, experimental group E II (0.2% of Minazel Plus, experimental group E III (0.3% of Minazel Plus. The results showed that the broilers fed with the addition of mineral adsorbents, had a higher (P < 0.01 mass of chilled carcass “ready to grill“ and breast mass, than the broilers of the control group. Based on the parameters and criteria for defining the quality of chicken breast meat (pHu and L* it can be concluded that meat of all groups had in average "normal" quality. According to the results of sensory analyzed roasted breast meat, meat of experimental groups had preferable smell and tenderness. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46012

  10. Daily energy intake of broiler chickens is altered by proximate nutrient content and form of the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latshaw, J D

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was designed to test the ability of broiler chickens to equalize daily energy intake when proximate components of the diet were changed. A factorial arrangement was used to test effects of protein, fat, and fiber content in the diet. The simplest diet contained only corn and soybean meal to provide energy and protein. Protein contents were calculated to be 16.4, 18.2, and 20.0%, with added protein from a combination of corn gluten meal, fish meal, and peanut meal. Hydrolyzed fat was added at 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% of the diets. A combination of alfalfa meal, oats, and wheat middlings was used to increase the fiber of the corn soy diet by approximately 2 and 4%. The 36 combinations were fed as mash. In addition, 8 of the diets were fed as pellets. All diets were fed for 12 d from the time broilers reached approximately 1.2 kg. A total excreta collection was used to determine ME, and carcass analysis provided fat and energy content. When fed mash, only sex had a significant effect on grams of feed eaten per day. Sex and dietary fat content affected gain per day. Sex, fat, and fiber altered the kcal of ME eaten per day. Broilers fed 5% added fat ate approximately 10% more energy per day than those fed no added fat, and broilers fed 4% added fiber ate approximately 20% less ME than those fed no added fiber. A comparison of results from mash and pellets showed that only sex and form affected gain per day, feed per day, and kilocalories of ME eaten per day. For the mash and pellets, protein, fat, fiber, and several interactions affected the ME per gram; however, the ME per gram was similar for pellets and mash. The results suggest that the diet composition and form have a significant effect on the energy intake of broiler chickens.

  11. Monobutyrine: a novel feed additive in the diet of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rapaccini

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present work was to validate the monoglyceride of butyric acid (MB as an alternative to antibiotics as growth promoters in the diet of broiler chickens. The approach is a kind of prolongation of previous works, in which a blend of mono-, di- and tri-glycerides of butyric acid have been previously tested.The results indicated that MB was very efficient in limiting the mortality of birds challenged with Eimeria spp., but did not appreciably impair the performance of unchallenged birds. In conclusion, the metabolisable energy content of MB appeared comparable with that of soybean oil and MB a reliable coccidiostat.

  12. Fiber and nonstarch polysaccharide content and variation in common crops used in broiler diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    The current paper reviews content and variation in fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) of common crops used in broiler diets. The cereal grain is a complex structure, and its cell walls (CW) differ in their composition and hence properties. Arabinoxylan (AX), mixed linkage (1→3; 1→4)-β......, and arabinogalactans type I and II), xyloglucans, and cellulose, but there are significant differences in the composition of the parenchymatous (cotyledon) tissues and that of the hulls. In the hulls, cellulose is the predominant polysaccharide, followed by acidic xylans and pectic substances. The implications...

  13. Effect of broiler breeder feeding programme and feeder space change at photostimulation using maize- or wheat-based diets on broiler progeny growth performance and leg health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio-Balcazar, P; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Osborne, J; Brake, J

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diet type, maternal feeding programme at 29 weeks of age and breeder feeder space change at photostimulation on broiler progeny performance and leg health at 6 weeks of age. 2. Fast-feathering Cobb 500 broiler breeders were fed on either maize- or wheat-based diets that had been formulated to have similar nutrient composition during growing and layer phases. Two feeding programmes, fast or flow, were used from 14 to 29 weeks of age. At 22 weeks, 69 females from each pen were placed in a layer house where feeder space was either similar to that in rearing (6.3 to 6.5 cm/female) or was increased from 6.3 to 8.4 cm/female. Eggs produced at 32 and 44 weeks of age were collected and incubated for two broiler experiments. A total of 16 male and 16 female one-d-old chicks were placed in floor pens in two experiments, respectively, with 6 and 4 replicate pens. Broiler gait scores and leg problem prevalence were evaluated at 6 weeks of age. 3. Data were analysed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with diet type, feeding programme and feeder space change as main factors. 4. The wheat diet increased the probability of observing crooked toes in broiler progeny compared to the use of maize, but only when breeders were fed according to the fast feeding programme and given similar feeder space as during rearing. 5. Breeders given more feeder space in the laying period produced progeny with more locomotion problems compared with those provided similar feeder space, but only when maize was used and the slow feeding programme was applied to the breeders. 6. The maternal feeding programme interacted with other factors to influence progeny leg health, but it did not solely influence walking ability or leg problems of progeny. 7. In conclusion, an increased probability of observing walking impairment of broiler progeny was detected when breeders were given greater feeder space at photostimulation rather than no change and fed

  14. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  15. Use of larvae meal as protein source in broiler diet: Effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Loponte, R; Marono, S; Piccolo, G; Parisi, G; Iaconisi, V; Gasco, L; Nizza, A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of insect meal from larvae ( larvae meal [TML]) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits of broilers. A total of eighty 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were homogenously divided into 2 groups (each consisting of 8 replicates of 5 birds). Up to 62 d of age, the groups were fed 2 isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for the ingredient used as the main protein source: the control group was fed a corn-SBM-based diet, whereas in the TML group, the SBM was completely replaced by TML. Broiler growth performance was measured during the trial. At 62 d of age, 2 broilers per replicate (16 per group) were slaughtered and apparent ileal digestibility coefficients and carcass and meat traits were determined. The use of TML as the main protein source in the broiler diet had no significant effect on most growth performance and carcass traits and chemical and physical properties of meat, the latter being important for marketing purposes. The feed conversion ratio in the entire experimental period (from 30 to 62 d) was improved in the TML group compared with the SBM group ( digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, and CP in broilers fed the SBM diet were greater ( digestive system in broilers fed SBM had a lower ( protein source for growing broilers and also when used as principal protein contributor to the diet.

  16. Influence of diets containing raw or heat processed cowpea on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ); T2 (20% of raw cowpea) and T3 (20% of roasted cowpea). The results ... Data suggest that 20% of raw Mozambican cowpeas can be incorporated into broiler starter diets with no negative effects on growth or feed conversion. Key words: ...

  17. The potential of snail (Pila leopoldvillensis meal as protein supplement in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcelo, PM.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical analysis revealed that raw golden snail meal (R. GSM had 53.22 %, 6.01 % and 0.49 % crudeprotein, calcium and phosphorus respectively. The cooked golden snail meal (C. GSM had 52.25 % CP, 6.51 % Ca and 0.41 % P. Birds fed with fish meal (control had significantly the highest feed conversion ratio followed by the birds fed the (C. GSM (P 0.05. The gain in weight of the birds fed the (C. GSM had comparable gain in weight with the birds fed the control diet. There were no significant differences observed in a second experiment because the somme feed ingredients had compensated for the deficiency of the nutrients to meet the requirements of the birds. Results reveal that the ingredients of golden snail meal in broiler diets is just as good as incorporating the imported fish meal.

  18. Effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on some blood parameters and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Attar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on serum cholesterol and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six 1-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 12 pens containing 13 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 4 dietary treatments of 2 levels of protein (low and high and 2 levels of prebiotic (0 and 0.2% in a completely randomised design with factorial arrangement. There were no significant differences in serum HDL and LDL levels among treatments. Significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora between the high protein diet without prebiotic and the low protein diet containing prebiotic (P<0.05. The results of the present experiment showed that the addition of prebiotic to broiler diets containing 90% of the NRC protein recommendation significantly affects serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks (P<0.05.

  19. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Carum copticum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falaki M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of dietary Carum copticum essential oil (CCEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics and intestinal microflora of broiler chickens. A total of 240 Cobb broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments, each with four replicates of 12 birds. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of CCEO at 150, 250, 350 mg/kg or antibiotic Virginiamycin at 200 mg/kg. Treatments were fed from 0 to 42 d of age. Body weight gain decreased linearly (P=0.035 with increasing CCEO while Virginiamycin increased body weight gain at 1 to 10 d compared to the control treatment (P 0.05. There were no differences in carcass characteristics among broiler chickens fed the control, CCEO and Virginiamycin diets (P > 0.05. Lactic acid bacteria in the cecum and ileum at 42 d of age were not influenced by the treatments (P > 0.05 but there was a linear increase of the log numbers of E. coli in the ileum (P=0.02 with increasing CCEO (P < 0.05. In conclusion, supplementing CCEO to diet at 150 mg/kg improve the growth performance, decrease undesirable intestinal bacteria in broiler chickens and is an adequate alternative to antibiotics.

  20. Fatty Acid Digestion and Deposition in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Either Native or Randomized Palm Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Lobee, H.W.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that randomization of palm oil would increase its digestibility, especially that of its palmitic acid (C16:0) component, with subsequent changes in the fatty acid composition in body tissues. Broiler chickens were fed diets containing either native or randomized palm oil.

  1. Essential oils improved weight gain, growth and feed efficiency of young dairy calves fed 18 or 20% crude protein starter diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Falahati, R; Poorhamdollah, M; Heidari, S R; Pezeshki, A

    2018-01-17

    The objective was to evaluate interactions between starter protein (180 vs. 200 g/kg, DM basis) and a mixture of essential oils (EOs; containing thymol, eugenol, vanillin, limonene and guaiacol) on growth, metabolic and ruminal functions of Holstein dairy calves. In a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design, 48 calves, 3 days old (averaging BW 42.7 ± 1.9 kg), were allocated into groups fed the following diets: (i) 180 g/kg CP with no EO (180P-NEO); (ii) 180 g/kg CP with EO (180P-EO); (iii) 200 g/kg CP with no EO (200P-NEO); and (iv) 200 g/kg CP with EO (200P-EO). The EO was supplemented as 1 g/kg of starter DM. Calves were fed ad libitum starter diet and were weaned at day 59 of age, but diets continued until day 80. There were no interactive effects of CP and EO on intake and growth. Pre-weaning feed efficiency tended to be increased for 200P-EO (p = .09). Average daily gain and feed efficiency during pre-weaning period as well as weaning weight were increased (p Post-weaning blood urea nitrogen concentration tended to be lower in 180P vs. 200P (p = .08). Ruminal short-chain fatty acids concentration was greatest in 200P-EO. The EO increased both butyrate (p = .02) and propionate proportions (p = .01) and reduced acetate proportional ratio (p feed efficiency of dairy calves, irrespective of dietary protein content. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Effect of two microbial phytase preparations on phosphorus utilisation in broilers fed maize-soybean meal based diets

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    J. VALAJA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the effect of two microbial phytases, Aspergillus niger (FINASEâ FP-500, 291 PU (phytase units/g and Trichoderma reesei phytase (FINASEâ P, 5880 PU/g on phosphorus (P and calcium (Ca utilisation and ileal P and Ca digestibility in broiler chickens fed diets based on maize and soybean meal. A total of 96 Ross broiler chickens housed four birds to a cage were used. Four dietary treatments consisted of a positive control supplemented with dicalcium phosphate (17 g/kg, a negative control without inorganic P, basal diet without inorganic P supplemented with Aspergillus niger phytase (2.6 g/kg and basal diet without inorganic P supplemented with Trichoderma reesei phytase (0.13 g/kg. Both phytases provided 750 PU/kg feed. P retention per unit intake was lowest and P excretion highest in birds fed the positive control diet with inorganic P (P

  3. Effects of diet acidification and xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, duodenal histology and gut microflora of broilers fed wheat based diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esmaeilipour, O.; Moravej, H.; Shivazad, M.; Rezaian, M.; Aminzadeh, S.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2012-01-01

    1. The objective of this experiment was to study the influences of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient digestibility, digesta viscosity, duodenal histology, and gut microflora of broilers fed on a wheat based diet. 2. The experiment was carried out as a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement

  4. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  5. Partial replacement of triticale for corn grain in starter diet and its effects on performance, structural growth and blood metabolites of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeinoddini, H R; Alikhani, M; Ahmadi, F; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of different inclusion rates of dietary triticale replacing corn grain in starter rations of dairy calves on feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency, skeletal growth, fecal score, and selected blood and ruminal parameters. In all, 30 4-day-old Holstein calves (15 female and 15 male) were blocked by gender and birth weight, and then randomly allotted to three treatment groups (n=10 calves/treatment) and received either a corn-based diet without triticale (T0), or a diet containing 16% (T16) or 32% (T32) triticale (25% and 50% corn replaced by triticale, respectively) for 10 weeks. Calves were weaned on day 43 of study and remained on the study until day 70. During post-weaning period, calves fed T32 had the lowest starter intake (1.78 kg/day; P=0.02). In contrast, ADG was not affected in pre-weaning and overall periods, but calves fed T32 had a lower ADG (P=0.04) as compared with calves fed T0 in post-weaning period. No dietary effect was detected for feed efficiency. Dietary treatment did not affect heart girth and body length; however, height at wither and hip at weaning increased in calves fed triticale compared with T0. No detectable effects were observed in serum glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate. No difference was detected in blood urea nitrogen on day 35 either but on day 50 and day 70 the greatest concentration was recorded for calves fed T16. Compared with the control, ruminal ammonia concentration was increased for calves fed T32 (4.34 v. 7.50 mmol/l) and T16 (4.01 v. 8.12 mmol/l) on day 35 and day 50. No difference was detected in ruminal pH on day 35 or day 50; however, calves fed T32 had the lowest pH (6.11) at 70 days. No significant effect was detected in days scoured, respiratory score and general appearance. Under our experimental conditions, it appears that triticale at 16% dry matter (i.e. replacing corn grain up to 25%) in the starter diet does not have adverse effects on

  6. The effect of dietary phosphorus level and phytase supplementation on growth performance, bone-breaking strength, and litter phosphorus concentration in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Johnston, S; Gaston, L; Southern, L L

    2008-05-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effects of feeding different P levels with and without phytase supplementation on broiler growth performance, bone-breaking strength (BBS), and litter P concentration. An experiment with 4 trials was conducted with 7,840 Ross x Ross straight-run broilers. For each trial, 1,960 broilers were allotted on d 0 to treatments, with 7 replications each and with 70 broilers per replication. The broilers were fed a 4-period feeding program consisting of starter (0 to 14 d), grower (14 to 32 d), finisher (32 to 41 d), and withdrawal (41 to 50 d) periods. For each trial, the same pen was used continuously for each treatment-replication combination, and the litter was not removed between trials. Broilers were fed a control diet [0.43, 0.40, 0.36, or 0.32% nonphytate P (nPP)] in the starter, grower, finisher, and withdrawal periods, respectively, a low Ca and P (LCaP) diet with a 0.05% reduction in nPP in each period, and these 2 diets supplemented with phytase at 600 phytase units/kg (nPP and Ca were reduced by 0.094% in diets with phytase). Diet did not affect (P > 0.10) broiler performance in the starter or withdrawal periods. Generally, both phytase addition and the LCaP diet decreased some aspects of growth performance during the grower and finisher periods. There was no main effect of phytase on BBS, but BBS was decreased in the broilers fed the LCaP diet with phytase addition (nPP x phytase, P < 0.01) in the grower period, and BBS was decreased in the finisher (P < 0.02) and withdrawal (P < 0.01) periods for broilers fed the LCaP diet. Total P, soluble P (SP), and reactive soluble P (RSP) were decreased (P < 0.04) in the litter of broilers fed the LCaP diets. Total P, SP, and RSP were decreased (P < 0.01) in the litter of broilers fed phytase. These data indicate that phytase supplementation at 600 phytase units/kg reduces growth in some periods, has no effect on BBS, and reduces total P, SP, and RSP in the litter.

  7. Extratos vegetais em dietas para frangos de corte Plant extracts in diets for broilers

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    Pricila Vetrano Rizzo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o fornecimento de misturas de extratos vegetais nas dietas de frangos de corte. Utilizaram-se 1.350 aves distribuídas em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições e cinco dietas, uma sem aditivos e outras quatro, cada uma contendo um dos aditivos: 10 ppm de avilamicina; 200 ppm de um produto contendo óleos essenciais de cravo, tomilho, canela e pimenta; 100 ppm de um produto comercial composto de óleos essenciais sintéticos de orégano e canela e óleo-resina de pimenta microencapsulados; 500 ppm de um produto comercial constituído de óleo de eucalipto, óleo essencial de canela-da-china, folhas de boldo-do-chile e sementes de feno-grego na fase inicial e 1.200 ppm nas fases de crescimento e final. Aos 21 e 42 dias, foram avaliadas as variáveis de desempenho e aos 44 dias de idade, as características de carcaça. Dos 27 aos 30 dias de idade, foi realizado o ensaio de metabolismo pelo método de coleta total de excretas e determinadas a energia metabolizável e a digestibilidade da proteína bruta das dietas. As dietas com misturas de extratos vegetais não tiveram efeito significativo sobre o desempenho se comparadas à dieta sem aditivo e à dieta com antibiótico. A ausência de desafio na criação e a utilização de dietas com ingredientes de alta digestibilidade podem ter contribuído para que as aves expressassem todo o seu potencial, tornando indetectável a melhora ocasionada pela inclusão de qualquer dos aditivos. Dietas contendo misturas de extratos vegetais promovem desempenho semelhante ao obtido com dietas contendo antibiótico.The trial was carried out to evaluate different blends of plants extracts in broilers diets. It was used 1,350 broilers distributed in a randomized block design with six replicates and five diets, one without additive and the four others, each containing one of the following additives: 10 ppm of avilamycin; 200 ppm of a product containing essential oils of carnation, thyme

  8. Anti-obesity effect of kimchi fermented with Weissella koreensis OK1-6 as starter in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-A; Tirupathi Pichiah, P B; Yu, J-J; Oh, S-H; Daily, J W; Cha, Y-S

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of kimchi (Korean traditional fermented vegetable) fermented either without starter culture or with a specific starter culture, Weissella koreensis OK1-6. C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups (n = 7); normal diet, HF (high-fat diet), HF-KC (high-fat diet containing 3% kimchi manufactured without starter) and HF-KCO (high-fat diet containing 3% kimchi manufactured with the starter culture W. koreensis OK1-6). After 12 weeks of dietary intervention, the mice were killed, and serum and tissue samples were examined. Serum and hepatic lipid profile, insulin, leptin concentration and expression level of lipid anabolic genes like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, liver X receptor α and SREBP2 were significantly decreased (kimchi fermented with the starter W. koreensis OK1-6 has anti-obesity effects in HF-induced obese mice. These results may contribute to nutraceutical and food industries in developing functional food and probiotics based therapies for the treatment and prevention of obesity. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Does the pelleting process affect the nutritive value of a pre-starter diet for suckling piglets? Ex vivo studies on mineral absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A; Nieto, Rosa; Aguilera, José F; Navarro, M Pilar; Seiquer, Isabel

    2010-04-15

    The effects of pelleting on the extent of the Maillard reaction (MR) and on calcium, magnesium and zinc solubility and absorption were analysed in a conventional pre-starter diet for suckling piglets. Development was tested measuring colour, absorbance (280/420 nm), fluorescence, residual free lysine, furosine, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural contents before and after pelleting. Fluorescence, absorbance and mineral solubility were also measured after in vitro digestion of diets. The effects on mineral absorption were tested using Caco-2 cells. MR indexes confirmed the development of the reaction during the pelleting of this particular diet compared with the meal diet. The CIE-Lab colour parameters showed a decrease in luminosity (L*) and progress of the colour to the red zone (a*) in the pelleted diet. A 36% decrease in free lysine content was observed. Significant correlations were observed between fluorescence intensity and furosine levels, HMF and furfural. The pelleting process did not modify calcium and magnesium solubility after in vitro digestion, but soluble zinc increased. The efficiency of calcium and zinc transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers was greater in the pelleted diet. Evidence of MR development is shown, resulting in various nutritional consequences. Optimisation of pelleting could result in a better formulation of diets for feedstuffs. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. EFFECTS OF ARGININE AND VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTED DIETS ON THE IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BROILERS CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jesús Chan Diaz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of arginine and vitamin E supplementation in broiler chicken diets on the immune response during post-vaccine stress, a trial was conducted with 700 chicks (1 day-old which were distributed into 28 floor-pens and fed one of four dietary treatments (with 7 replicates randomly assigned: T1 = control diet (1.31 % of arginine and 10 IU of vitamin E/kg of feed; T2 = T1 + 0.3 % of arginine; T3 = T1 + 70 IU of vitamin E; T4 = T1 + 0.3 % of arginine + 70 IU of vitamin E. At 12 days of age, all birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (ND, infectious bronchitis, avian influenza (AI and fowl pox. The traits evaluated were: post-vaccine reaction at days 14, 16, 18, 21 and 23; antibody titers against ND and AI, and relative lymphoid organs weight at days 11, 19 and 26; and the performance were recorded weekly. Chickens fed T2, T4 (at day 16, and T3 (at day 21 had lesser (p≤0.05 post-vaccine reaction than birds fed T1. The antibody titers against ND (at day 11 was higher (p≤0.05 in chickens fed T4 (3.1, T3 (2.7 and T2 (2.7 compared to T1 (1.6; meanwhile, for AI titers no differences were found. There were no differences, neither for immune organs weight, nor for performance. In conclusion, arginine and vitamin E supplementation in broiler chicken diets reduced the post-vaccine stress and improved the immune response without affecting the performance.

  11. Comparison of broiler meat quality when fed diets supplemented with neutralized sunflower soapstock or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekel, A Y; Demirel, G; Midilli, M; Yalcintan, H; Ekiz, B; Alp, M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat type and level on broiler meat quality. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 types of fat including neutralized sunflower soapstock (NSS) and soybean oil (SO) at 3 levels of fat inclusion (2, 4, and 6%) was used with 5 replicates per treatment using 750 one-day-old broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. At the end of the study (d 36), 10 broilers from each replication were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Six carcasses from each replicate were used for meat quality evaluation. With the exception of 3 responses [breast meat lightness (L*) at 1 and 2 d, and redness (a*) at 5 d], there were no interactions between fat source and level. Breast meat pH at 15 min was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. However, breast meat pH at 24 h postmortem was decreased (P meat cooking loss, shear force, and color did not differ between fat sources. Breast meat cooking loss decreased (P meat TBA reactive substances were not different due to dietary fat source and level. Breast meat and skin L* value significantly decreased when the dietary levels of fat increased. Breast meat a* value was highest for the 6% fat fed birds on d 2 (P meat except d 5. Breast skin yellowness (b*) value was higher (P birds compared with NSS-fed birds. Thigh meat of the birds fed the NSS was lighter (P birds fed SO diets except d 5. Overall, data suggest that NSS can be used as an alternative fat source to SO with little effect on meat quality.

  12. Intestinal Development and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with Clinoptilolite

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    Q. J. Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group, or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group, respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05 effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p0.05 influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity.

  13. Litter characteristics and pododermatitis incidence in broilers fed a sorghum-based diet

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    CMC Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of footpad dermatitis and quality of broilers litter fed with sorghum grain and diets based in corn. It was used 544 male and female chicks, distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments and eight replications. The chicken feed was formulated and produced from corn, soybean meal and sorghum grain. In the formulation were kept constant levels of energy and protein in accordance with the following treatments: A. Control (diet based on corn and soybean meal; B. Grain sorghum (Whole Sorghum + soybean meal. At 35 and 42 days were evaluated mineral matter (A %, calcium (Ca%, phosphorus (P%, pH and dry matter (DM % of the poultry litter. To evaluate the footpad dermatitis were evaluated eight feet per treatment by visual analysis. At 35 and 42 days of age DM % MM (%, Ca (% P (% and pH of poultry litter no difference (p>0.05 was found between the treatments and the type of ingredient in the birds' diet is not related (p>0.05 with the incidence of footpad dermatitis. The incidence of footpad dermatitis and the quality of the litter weren't influenced by the type of the ingredient used in diet.

  14. Simultaneous inclusion of sorghum and cottonseed meal or millet in broiler diets: effects on performance and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Bastianelli, D; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Umar Faruk, M

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (Pdiets compared with the control diet, whereas a combination of cottonseed meal and sorghum in the same diet did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (Pdiets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (Pdiets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (Pdiet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two experiments suggest that broiler growth performance was not affected by the dietary level of sorghum, millet or cottonseed meal. Nutrient digestion can, however, be affected by these feed ingredients.

  15. Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin, Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooge DM

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20% or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14% was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg, three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg. Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2, and increased body weight (Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

  16. Effect of diet supplemented with propolis extract and probiotic additives on performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research focused on the effects of propolis extract and probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1 × 109 CFU per 1 g of bearing medium on performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition of broiler chickens. The experiment was performed with 360 one day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of mixed sex. The chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n = 120 pcs chicks per group, namely, control (C and experimental (E1, E2. Each group consisted of 3 replicated pens with 40 broiler chickens per pen. The experiment employed a randomized design, and dietary treatments were as follows: 1. basal diet with no supplementation as control (group C, 2. basal diet plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixture (group E1, 3. basal diet plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. Besides, the groups were kept under the same conditions. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostats. As regards performance of broilers, all the investigated parameters were improved after addition of the supplements, especially after probiotic supplementation. However, neither propolis extract nor probiotic in diet of broiler chickens had any significant effect (p ≥0.05 on performance. Meat composition was evaluated as proximate composition (dry matter, crude protein, fat and ash, cholesterol content and energy value in the most valuable parts of chicken meat (breast and thigh muscles. The statistically significant results (p ≤0.05 were attained in fat, ash and cholesterol content, as well as energy value in both breast and thigh muscles after the propolis supplementation. To sum up, the present study demonstrated the promising potential of propolis extract and probiotic to enhance the performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition under conditions of the experiment with, however, statistical significance of results in a few

  17. Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Growth in Grain-Based Diet Improves Broiler Chicken Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mateus P; Marcante, Rafael C; Santana, Thiago T; Tanaka, Henrique S; Funari, Pascoal; Alberton, Luiz R; Faria, Eliete V; Valle, Juliana S; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-01-01

    Many alternative compounds have been tested to improve poultry performance but few of them have previously used mycelial-colonized substrate to partially replace standard diet in broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate broiler chicken production, health, and meat sensory characteristics, with partial replacement of the standard diet by Pleurotus ostreatus-colonized substrate. One hundred fifty 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were given standard diet partially replaced by 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 g·kg⁻¹ of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate and randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates, with 10 birds per replicate, totaling 30 birds. The replacement of the standard diet by 10 g·kg⁻¹ of colonized substrate increased (P≤0.05) chicken body mass up to 57% at 21 days, and up to 28% at 42 days. In general, partial replacement of standard diet by colonized substrate increased hematocrits and typical lymphocytes, and reduced low density lipoproteins. Also, it reduced chicken production period up to 21% and there is no meat taste alteration. The use of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate in chicken feeding is an alternative method to improve broiler chicken production.

  18. Effect of fermented noni leaf (Morinda citrifolia L. in diets on cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass

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    Erman Syahruddin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken meat is very nutritious. It is sometimes blamed to cause strock attack and coronary heart disease in human, because of high fat and cholesterol contents in the chicken meat. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of fermented noni leaf levels in diets on the cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with eight experimental diets containing 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21% of fermented noni leaf powder. All diets were formulated to contain 22% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates with ten chickens per replicate. Two hundred and forty day old unsex broiler chicks Arbor Acress were fed ad lib. for eight weeks and then sacrificed. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and cholesterol content of carcass were taken as variable responses. Data were analyzed based on analysis of variance and orthogonal comparisons. Results showed that feed consumption, daily weight gain, FCR and carcass content were not affected by the levels of fermented noni leaf in the diet. However, cholesterol content of broiler carcass was significantly (P < 0.05 affected by the dietary treatments. Cholesterol content of the carcass was reduced processed 26.18% 73.06 to 53.76 mg/100g mg/100g chicken meat. The lowest cholesterol level was obtained by feeding the chickens with diets containing 21% fermented noni leaf.

  19. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF SELENIUM IN DIET ON LIVER FUNCTION AND BODY WEIGHT OF BROILER CHICKENS

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    Zdenko Stanko Kanački

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main biological role of selenium is performed via enzyme glutathione peroxidase, and includes the participation in the defense mechanism of the cell membrane from the peroxide damage. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of added selenium in foods in varying amounts and from various sources (organic and inorganic selenium. The experiment was conducted on the broilers, and the following parameters were monitored: body weight, total serum protein and the activity of the liver enzymes AST and ALT. The study demonstrated that organically-bound selenium had the most pronounced protective property, while both forms of selenium did not significantly affect the growth and concentration of the total serum protein. Therefore, this research suggests economic benefits of organic selenium in the diet of broiler chickens. Key words: selenium, body weight, liver function, broiler chickens

  20. Mananoligossacarídeos em dietas para frangos de corte Mannanoligosaccharides in diets for broilers

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    Nei André Arruda Barbosa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar dietas contendo mananoligossacarídeos (MOS como aditivo alternativo aos promotores de crescimento por meio do estudo da morfometria do intestino e do desempenho de frangos de corte. Para tanto, 1280 pintos de corte foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (controle negativo, CN: dieta isenta de antibiótico; controle positivo, CP: dieta contendo antibiótico e duas dietas, MOS 1 e MOS 2, nas quais foram adicionadas ao CN duas fontes distintas de MOS e oito repetições, sendo a unidade experimental composta por 40 aves. Para submeter as aves ao desafio sanitário, foi formulada uma dieta basal com milho, farelo de soja e farinha de carne e ossos. Adotou-se cama reutilizada, limpeza dos bebedouros duas vezes por semana e oferta semanal de água contaminada com cama. Foram avaliadas altura de vilo e profundidade de cripta do duodeno, jejuno e íleo, consumo da dieta, peso médio, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar das aves. Houve melhora na profundidade de cripta no jejuno e na altura de vilo no íleo das aves alimentadas com dietas contendo MOS. A adição de MOS, independente da fonte, resultou em melhor conversão alimentar em relação às aves do CN, sendo similares às aves do CP. Os mananoligossacarídeos podem ser utilizados como aditivo alternativo aos promotores de crescimento em dietas para frangos de corte, porém, dependendo da fonte, esta pode acarretar em pequenas diferenças no desempenho das aves.This study aimed to evaluate mannan oligosaccharides (MOS as an alternative additive to growth promoters in broiler diets by studying the morphology of the intestine and the performance. For this purpose, 1280 broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (negative control, NC: diet free of antibiotics; positive control, PC: diet with antibiotic and two diets, MOS 1 and MOS 2, in which were added to NC two distinct sources of MOS

  1. Thesis Abstract Levels and forms of vitamin D in broilers diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Bertechini, A G

    2016-05-09

    This study aimed to evaluate the concentration effects of two vitamin D isoforms, cholecalciferol (D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) in broilers diets on performance, bone and physiological features of these birds. Of a total of 1920 one-day-old male chicks Cobb-500 were used from commercial hatchery, reared under bed creation systems. The animals were distributed in six treatments and eight replicates with 40 birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. The following vitamin D supplementation levels were applied: 70 and 87.5 μg/kg feed in initial phase; 56 and 70 μg/kg feed during the growth phase, and 35 and 47.35 μg/kg of feed in final phase of creation, obtained from two forms (D3 and 25-OHD3). The treatments consisted of supplementation of two levels from each isolated source and their associations (60% D3 + 40% 25-OHD3) according to the study phases. In the metabolism assay, 480 birds (14 and 35 days of age) were separated to be used for evaluation of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) retention and excretion during the periods of 19 to 21 days and 40 to 42 days of age. The diets were based on corn and soybean meal, with supplementation of phytase (500 FTU/kg). The performance, bone characteristics, plasma levels, bone radiographic density, carcass yield, and P and Ca retention were evaluated. In the initial creation phase, we observed an increased P excretion by broilers fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05). In addition, the association between the two vitamin D isoforms resulted in higher retention of Ca and P than the birds fed diets supplemented only with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05), and higher P retention when compared to birds fed diets supplemented with 25-OHD3 (P < 0.05). Dietary supplemental 25-OHD3 at 87.5 μg/kg resulted in higher plasma levels of Ca in relation to the same supplemented source with 70 μg/kg at 21 days of age (P < 0.05). In the final phase, the birds fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 presented the

  2. Evaluating the nutritive profile of three insect meals and their effects to replace soya bean in broiler diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Khan, R U; Alam, W; Sultan, A

    2017-11-03

    This study was conducted to evaluate the comparative effect of maggot meal, silkworm meal and mealworm as dietary protein source on the production performance and some aspects of meat quality in broilers. In this regard, maggot meal was reared on chicken offal and poultry waste. Silkworm meal was obtained from silk industry, while mealworm was developed through beetles rearing. A total of 120-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups where soya bean meal (M0) was replaced with maggot meal (M1), silkworm meal (M2) and mealworm (M3) respectively. Each group was further divided into three replicates. The study was carried out for a period of 5 weeks. Diets containing mealworm significantly reduced overall feed consumption and resulted into higher weight gain (p feed conversion ratio (FCR) was recorded for birds fed with mealworm diet (p meat were higher (p insect meal is rich in essential nutrients and could be successfully used in broiler ration without compromising acceptability. In the light of this study, mealworm is the best choice in broiler ration, in comparison with maggot and silkworm. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Steenfeldt, S.; Bootwalla, S.M.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler

  4. By-product of Tropical Vermicelli Waste as a Novel Alternative Feedstuff in Broiler Diets

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    P. Rungcharoen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine physical and chemical properties of vermicelli waste (VW and effect of VW inclusion levels on growth performance of broilers. In experiment 1, VW samples were randomly collected from vermicelli industry in Thailand to analyze nutritional composition. Vermicelli waste contained 9.96% moisture, 12.06% CP, 32.30% crude fiber (CF, and 0.57% ether extract (EE, as DM basis. The ratio of insoluble:soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP was 43.4:8.9. A total of 120 chicks (6 pens per treatment and 10 chicks per pen were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet or 20% VW substituted diet to determine the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen retention (AMEn of VW. The AMEn of VW was 1,844.7±130.71 kcal/kg. In experiment 2, a total of 1,200 chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for 42-d growth assay. There were 300 chicks with 6 pens per treatment and 50 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments contained 0%, 5%, 10%, or 15% VW, respectively. All diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. From 0 to 18 d of age chicks fed VW diets had higher (p<0.001 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared with those fed the control diet. No difference was observed during grower and finisher phase (19 to 42 d. Chicks fed VW diets had lower relative weight of abdominal fat (p<0.001 but higher relative weight of gizzard (p<0.05 than those of chicks fed the control diet. Increasing VW inclusion levels increased ileal digesta viscosity (p<0.05 and intestinal villus height of chicks (p< 0.001. For apparent total tract digestibility assay, there were 4 metabolic cages of 6 chicks that were fed experimental treatment diets (the same as in the growth assay in a 10-d total excreta collection. Increasing VW inclusion levels linearly decreased (p<0.05 apparent total tract digestibility of DM and CF.

  5. Effect of using the Matrix Values for NSP-degrading enzymes on performance, water intake, litter moisture and jejunal digesta viscosity of broilers fed barley-based diet

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    Seyed Adel Moftakharzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have evaluated the effect of three multi-enzymes nutrient matrix values and compared the results with that fed barley and the corn diets without enzyme. In entire period, addition of all enzymes to the barley-based diet significantly (p 0.05. Litter moisture and water to feed ratio at 15, 25, and 33 days of age significantly decreased by addition of all enzymes (p < 0.05. In conclusion, considering nutrient matrix values for all used enzymes improved performance of broilers and can be used in formulating diets commercial broiler diets based on barley.

  6. Introduction of a Greenhouse as an Alternative Housing System to a Conventional House and Its Impact on Broiler Performance and Blood and Carcass Variables

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    Khajali F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the growth performance as well as blood and carcass variables of two broiler strains reared in a conventional broiler house and a modified greenhouse equipped with cooling pads and tunnel ventilation system. Eight hundred day-old chickens of two commercial strains (Ross  308 and Lohmann were selected and placed in  8 floor pens (4 pens of  50 broilers for each strain in each housing system. The pens were located randomly throughout the modified greenhouse or the conventional broiler house (two-way ANOVA design. The broilers were provided a standard starter and grower diets  ad libitum. The environmental conditions (i.e.  temperature, relative humidity, lighting program and ventilation rate were kept  similar between the two houses. The results showed that the birds in the greenhouse consumed significantly (P

  7. INCLUSION OF ANNATTO SEED BY-PRODUCT IN DIETS CONTAINING SORGHUM FOR SLOW-GROWTH BROILERS

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    Davyd Herik Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum is used as a source of energy alternative to corn, however, its low pigments content are considered hindrance to the use of this feedstuff for poultry. The inclusion of annatto seed by-product (ASB may solve this problem. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ASB inclusion in diets containing sorghum as the main source of energy on performance, carcass traits, meat color, and economic viability in the production of slow-growth broilers. A total of 420 sexed chicks of the Carijó Pesadão line were distributed in a completely randomized design according to a 2 × 7 factorial arrangement, with three replicates of 10 birds per treatment. Studied factors were two sexes (males and females and seven diets, wherein one had corn as source of energy and the others contained sorghum plus inclusion of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15% of ASB. Irrespective of the sex, diets did not affect feed intake (g/bird, feed conversion (g/g, yields (% of carcass, breast and drumstick+thigh, percentage of abdominal fat, or relative weight of the liver. However, the inclusion of ASB influenced the color parameters of the meat making it more pigmented and improved the economic viability parameters. In diets for slow-growth birds containing sorghum as the main source of energy, ASB can be included up to 15%, and meat pigmentation problems can be reduced with total substitution of corn by sorghum with inclusion of ASB from 3%.

  8. EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF MULTI-STRAIN PROBIOTIC ON BROILER GROWTH PERFORMANCE

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    M. I. Anjum, A. G. Khan, A. Azim and M. Afzal1

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a multi-strain probiotic (protexin on broiler growth performance, carcass parameters and economic efficiency were studied. For this purpose, 270 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into three experimental groups A, B and C, with 90 chicks in each group having three replicates. Group A was fed commercial broiler diet without supplementation of protexin (control and groups B and C were fed diets containing protexin 100 and 110g/t in starter and 50 and 55 g/t in finisher diets, respectively. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. The results showed that weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly (p<0.05 improved in chicks fed on protexin-supplemented diets compared to control diets. Weight gain of the chicks fed on diet C was significantly (p<0.05 better than chicks on diet B. Feed conversion ratio was non-significantly different in both the protexin-supplemented groups. Differences in feed intake, meat composition, dressing percentage and empty organ weights among all the diets were non-significant. However, abdominal fat content was reduced significantly (P<0.05 in supplemented groups. The study suggests that protexin supplementation is beneficial for better weight gains, feed efficiency and economic efficiency in broiler chicks.

  9. Quality of broiler meat of the free-range type submitted to diets containing alternative feedstuffs

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    P.B. Faria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work had the intention of investigating the effect of the use of alternative feeds as part replacers in diet-formulating, evaluating the characteristic physicochemical alterations and centesimal composition of the free-range chicken. In the experiment a total of 192 (one hundred and ninety-two birds of the Pescoço Pelado (Label Rouge strain arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD formed by 4 treatments (Treatment 1 (Control, Treatment 2 (10% of the inclusion of rice bran, Treatment 3 (10% of the inclusion of ground cassava leaf and Treatment 4 (10% of the inclusion of ground leucaena hay with 8 replicates per treatment were used. The results revealed greater values of b* (yellow, Saturation (C* and pH for broiler meat with inclusion of ground cassava leaf and leucaena, while for the other variables of physicochemical composition, no influences of the treatments were not found. For centesimal composition the treatments showed greater values of moisture in relation to the control treatment. For sex, only a difference for the content of b* and C* was found, with higher values for female. The use of the alternative feedstuffs has not revealed marked influences on the chemical composition and quality parameters of free-ranging chicken’s meat with the use of replacement up to 10% in the diets.

  10. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf and tuber concentrate in diets for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eruvbetine, D; Tajudeen, I D; Adeosun, A T; Olojede, A A

    2003-02-01

    Experiment 1 was conducted to determine the nutritive quality of cassava tuber leaf concentrate prepared either by mixing cassava tubers and leaves together before grinding or grinding them separately before mixing. Three mixing proportions of 50:50, 60:40 and 80:20 were used. Samples were subjected to either sundrying or oven drying. Physical examination of samples, proximate analysis and cyanide content of each of the samples were determined. In experiment 2 the sample of highest nutritive value was selected for inclusion in four diets at levels of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% respectively. A total of 120 day-old broilers were divided into four groups and each group further into three subgroups. The four experimental diets were fed to each of the groups for a period of 9 weeks. Growth parameters, carcass characteristics and haematological parameters were also determined. Results showed that in experiment 1 the grinding together of cassava tubers and leaves in the proportion of 50:50 before sun-drying gave the best texture, highest CP content with low HCN content. Inclusion of 10% cassava concentrate gave good performance in terms of growth and feed conversion, with no detrimental effects on haematological parameters and carcass characteristics.

  11. Performance and carcass characteristics of free-range broiler chickens fed diets containing alternative feedstuffs

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    PB Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD, with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings, abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.

  12. Effect of different energy to protein ratios in starter diet with dehydrated food waste, superworms and unfertilized eggs on growth performance of village chickens

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    Nadia, N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted using 144 day-old chicks of Arabian strain village chicken to determine the effect of dietary protein and energy ratios in starter diets with dehydrated food waste, superworms and unfertilized eggs on growth performance in closed confinement system. Dehydrated food waste was the main energy source, superworms and unfertilized eggs were the main protein sources. Six experimental diets were formulated to have 3 energy to protein ratios (134, 150 and 164 with 150 energy to protein ratio as the control.. Every ratio had two different protein sources with the same inclusion level. Each treatment had 2 replicates with 12 birds each in a complete randomized design. Feed and water were provided ad libitum from 0 - 42 d. Proximate analysis of the main ingredients in the diet showed dehydrated food waste had 4,500.54 kcal/kg of gross energy and 25.18% of crude protein while superworms and unfertilized eggs had crude protein of 46.54 and 46.33%, respectively. The study showed that a single diet of energy:protein ratio of 134 kcal ME/kg protein supported optimum growth rate of Arabian strain village chicken from 1 to 42 d of rearing. Feed conversion ratio improved with increasing dietary energy level. These findings have implications on ration formulation for village chickens in Malaysia.

  13. Effects of the inclusion of sunflower hulls in the diet on growth performance and digestive tract traits of broilers and pullets fed a broiler diet from zero to 21 d of age. A comparative study1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiaeitalab, M V; Cámara, L; Mirzaie Goudarzi, S; Jiménez-Moreno, E; Mateos, G G

    2017-03-01

    The effects of including 3% sunflower hulls (SFH) in the diet on growth performance, nutrient retention (TTAR), and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits were studied in chicks from zero to 21 d of age. Four treatments that resulted from the combination of 2 chicken lines (female broilers vs. brown pullets) and 2 levels of SFH (zero vs. 3%) were used. The control diet contained 2,980 kcal AMEn/kg, 1.25% digestible Lys, and 8.7% neutral detergent fiber. The experimental diet included 3% SFH at the expense (wt:wt) of the whole diet. Growth performance, TTAR of nutrients, and the AMEn of the diet were greater (P = 0.097 to P absolute terms, all the organs of the GIT were heavier (P < 0.001) and the small intestine and cecum were longer (P < 0.001) in broilers than in pullets. At 21 d of age, however, the relative weight (% BW) of all the organs of the GIT (P < 0.001) and the relative length (cm/kg BW) of the small intestine and cecum (P < 0.01) were greater in pullets. Gizzard pH (P < 0.001), total short chain fatty acids concentration in the cecum (P = 0.098), and villus height (P < 0.001) and crypt depth (P < 0.05) of the ileum mucosa were higher in broilers. The inclusion of SFH increased (P < 0.05) the AMEn content of the diet but did not affect bird performance, moisture content of the excreta, or the concentration and profile of fatty acids in the cecum. Dietary SFH increased gizzard weight and reduced gizzard pH (P < 0.001) at both ages. In conclusion, broilers had better growth performance, nutrient retention, and ileum absorptive capacity than pullets. The inclusion of 3% SFH at the expense of the control diet did not have any negative effect on chick performance and, in fact, increased gizzard weight, reduced gizzard pH, and improved the energy content of the diet. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  15. Effect of dietary probiotic supplementation on carcass traits and haematological responses of broiler chickens fed shea butter cake based diets

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    Paschal Chukwudi Aguihe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day study was conducted to investigate probiotic supplementation on shea butter cake (SBC based diets of broilers on the carcass traits and haematological indices. A total of 280, 1-day old Arbor acres strain broiler chicks were divided into 7 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Diet 1 (control diet has no SBC and probiotic supplementation while remaining 6 diets contained 5, 10, and 15% levels of SBC each with (+ or without (- probiotic supplementation. The results showed that carcass parameters and prime cuts weights increased (p 0.05 except for liver and bursa weight. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin contents were higher (p < 0.05 in birds fed probiotic-SBC diets than the group without probiotic supplementation compared to those on control diet. In conclusion, supplementation of multi-strain probiotic improved carcass traits, prime cut-parts and relative organ weights without any adverse effect on the blood parameters up to 15% inclusion level.

  16. Effects of Some Plant Extracts in Triticale-Based Broiler Diets on Growth Performance, E.Coli Counts in Intestine and Blood Parameters

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    Ergun Demir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of using plant essential oils in triticale-based broiler diets as alternative to antimicrobial growth promotors (AGPs on growth, E.coli counts in small intestine and blood parameters. 720 male broiler chicks were randomly distributed to nine experimental groups with four replicates. The control group received the triticale-soybean meal basal diet. In the other treatment groups the basal diet was supplemented with one of the following; flavomycin, enzyme, flavomycin+enzyme, enzyme+thyme oil, enzyme+fennel oil, enzyme+bay leaf oil, enzyme+thyme oil+fennel oil and enzyme+thyme oil+fennel oil+bay leaf oil. Results showed that the weight gain and feed intake were not influenced by the treatments (P>0,05. The use of the combination of plant extracts significantly improved the feed conversion. Use of plant extracts in triticale-based broiler diets as an alternative to AGPs had no regular effect on E.coli count in small intestine segments (P>0,05. Feeding broiler chickens with the enzyme+thyme oil supplemented diets increased eritrocyte level in serum (P0,05 by the treatments. In conclusion, these plant ectracts can be also used with enzyme in triticale-based broiler diets as alternative to AGPs.

  17. Response of broiler chickens to different dietary crude protein and feeding regimens

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    JO Oyedeji

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Five isocaloric (3200kcal/kg diets were used in an experiment designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP and feeding regimens on broiler performance. Day-old broilers were randomly distributed into four groups using a completely randomized design. Each group was replicated three times with ten broiler chicks per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Broilers in group 1 received 23% CP from 0 to 3 weeks, 20% CP from 3 to 6 weeks and 18% CP from 6 to 8 weeks, while broilers in group 2 received 23% CP between 0 and 6 weeks and 18% CP between 6 and 8 weeks. Besides, broilers in group 3 were fed 23% CP from 0 to 4 weeks and 16% CP from 4 to 8 weeks, whereas group 4 was given 18% CP from 0 to weeks. Water was supplied ad libitum for broilers in the different dietary groups. A metabolic trial was carried out on the third week of the experiment using a total collection method. Proximate analyses of diets and faecal samples were performed according to the methods outlined by the Association Of the Official Analytical Chemists. Results at market age showed that broiler performance with respect to feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio and water intake were not significantly influenced by CP regimens (p>0.05. Furthermore, CP regimens did not significantly influence broilers liveability (p>0.05. Protein retention, fat utilization and available fiber were not significantly influenced among treatments (p> 0.05. Economic data showed that cost to benefit ratio of producing broilers was comparable among broilers for all CP regimens used in this trial (p>0.05. It was concluded that a single diet of 18% CP and 3200kcal/kg metabolizable energy would be most suitable and convenient for farmers who are engaged in on-farm feed production for broilers as compared with the standard feeding regimens of broiler starter and broiler finisher diets.

  18. Leucine and valine supplementation of low-protein diets for broiler chickens from 21 to 42 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Duarte, C R A; Nascimento, G R; Garcia, E R M; Sakamoto, M I; Nunes, R V

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the requirements and interactions between the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu and Val levels in low-protein diets, and their effects on performance, serum characteristics, carcass yield and diameter of muscle fibers of broiler chickens from d 21 to 42 posthatch. A total of 1,500 21-day-old Cobb 500 male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 5 × 5 factorial arrangement for a total of 25 treatments with 3 replicates of 20 birds each. Treatments consisted of 5 SID Leu levels (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, or 1.8%) and 5 SID Val levels (0.52, 0.67, 0.82, 0.97, or 1.12%). At 42 d of age, there was interaction (P < 0.05) between the SID levels of Leu and Val on feed intake and weight gain. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of Leu and Val levels on feed conversion, with minimal point estimated at the levels of 1.19 and 0.86%, respectively. Dietary Leu supplementation reduced linearly (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of triglycerides and β-hydroxybutyrate. Dietary Leu increased (P ≤ 0.05) the fiber diameters of the pectoralis major muscle and breast yield at the levels of 1.24 and 1.13%, respectively, while the thigh yield was improved with the level of 0.71% Val. Abdominal fat decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of dietary Leu and Val. The SID Leu and Val levels needed to optimize weight gain and feed conversion in low-CP diets for broiler chickens from d 21 to 42 posthatch were estimated at 1.15 and 0.86%, and 1.19 and 0.86%, respectively. The supplementation of Leu and Val can reduce the abdominal fat deposition in birds fed low-CP diets during the grower phase. Leu and Val interactions can influence the performance but not the serum characteristics, carcass yield and diameter of muscle fibers of broilers fed low-protein diets. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the dietary Leu content to estimate the ideal level of Val in low-CP diets for optimum broiler

  19. Fiber and nonstarch polysaccharide content and variation in common crops used in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-09-01

    The current paper reviews content and variation in fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) of common crops used in broiler diets. The cereal grain is a complex structure, and its cell walls (CW) differ in their composition and hence properties. Arabinoxylan (AX), mixed linkage (1→3; 1→4)-β-glucan (β-glucan), cellulose, and the noncarbohydrate component lignin are the predominant polymers in cereals. They occur in different proportions depending on the species and tissue type. Rye, triticale, wheat, corn, and sorghum are all rich in AX, whereas barley and oats contain a high level of β-glucan. The AX from rye, wheat, and triticale and β-glucan from barley and oats are to a large extent soluble, whereas the solubility of AX found in corn and sorghum is lower than the other cereals. The ratio of arabinose to xylose gives a crude indication of the AX structure, which varies between the endosperm, the aleurone and the outer grain layers as well as between the same tissues from different grains. Varietal differences in AX structure of the endosperm are also identified. From the analysis of the released oligomers after hydrolysis with a specific (1→3,1→4)-β-d-glucan hydrolase, it is found that the ratio of trisaccharides (degree of polymerization 3) and tetrasaccharides (degree of polymerization 4) varies depending on the source, being higher in barley than in oats but lower than in wheat. The molecular weight of β-glucan is higher than that of AX, and both polymers contribute to the viscosity of the extract. However, because AX molecules are more resistant to degradation than β-glucan, the use of AX rich grains in broiler diets is usually more problematic than those containing high concentrations of β-glucan. The cereal coproducts (brans and hulls) are concentrated sources of cellulose, lignin, and insoluble AX, but β-glucan can also be present mainly in rye and wheat brans. The CW composition of seeds and grains of protein crops and feedstuffs are

  20. Evaluation of meat quality after application of different feed additives in diet of broiler chickens

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    Peter Haščík

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of natural feed additives, namely bee pollen extract, propolis extract and probiotic preparation, on technological properties of meat in order to evaluate the meat quality of Ross 308 broiler chickens.  The feeding of chickens (180 pcs lasted for a period of 42 days. The experiment was carried out without segregation between the genders. The chickens were randomly divided into 4 groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, whereas the other three groups were fed diets supplemented with natural additives, i.e. bee pollen extract at level of 400 mg.kg-1 of feed mixture, propolis extract at level of 400 mg.kg-1 of feed mixture, and probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1.109 CFU per 1 g of bearing medium in an amount of 3.3 g added to water (for 30 pcs chickens until 21 days of age, for 20 pcs chickens from 22nd to 42nd day of age given to group E1, group E2 and group E3, respectively. The feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostatics. During the whole period of experiment, the broiler chickens had ad libitum access to feed and water. The following technological properties were examined: cooling loss (after 24 h of storage at 4 °C, freezing loss (after 3 months of storage at -18 °C, roasting loss (performed on roasted meat that was stored at -18 °C for 3 months before thawing, colour parameters based on CIELab system (the L*, a*, b* values of raw breast and thigh muscle, and tenderness (as shear force of roasted breast and thigh muscle. We have made a finding, that the examined additives had only little impact on meat quality in most of the investigated parameters, except the significant increase (p ≤0.05 in redness (a* values and the slight decrease in roasting loss and shear force determination after propolis extract supplementation. Therefore, it may be inferred that propolis extract has been shown as the most appropriate

  1. Efeito da utilização de farelo de girassol na dieta sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte Effect of different levels of sunflower meal in diets on the performance of broiler chickens

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    Fernando de Castro Tavernari

    2009-09-01

    , and the feed:gain ratio. Two birds per replication were slaughtered at 42 days of age for carcass evaluation. Feed intake was linearly reduced in the starter phase (y = 1185.1 - 2.1x; R² = 0.97, with sunflower meal inclusion in the basal diet, and the feed:gain ratio linearly improved in the total period (y = 1.6404 - 0.0018x; R² = 0.62, whereas a quadratic effect on the feed:gain ratio was observed in the starter phase (y = 1.3943 - 0.0069x + 0.0002x²; R² = 0.96. No significant differences were observed for carcass yield and cuts. The best economic performances were achieved when the birds were fed diets containing 5% sunflower meal in the starter phase, and 0% in the grower phase and total period. The inclusion of 20% sunflower meal in the diet of broilers up to 42 days of age did not show harmful effects on performance.

  2. Inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the diet of broiler breeders on performance and incubation parameters

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    Vinicius Duarte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of a diet containing canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3 on the production and reproductive performances of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aged 53 to 61 weeks. The study included 36,000 Cobb 500 female and 3,600 male broiler breeders aging 51 weeks. The birds were housed in three poultry houses divided into four plots, totaling 12 experimental units each containing 3,000 females and 300 males. The birds received the following treatments: control diet (without the studied additives or the control diet with the addition of 60mg kg-1feed of 25-(OH-D3 and canthaxanthin feed (6mg of canthaxanthin and 2,760,000IU of 25-(OH-D3 per kg of feed per the supplier's recommendations. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block design with two treatments and six replicates. The results were subjected to analysis of variance followed by the F-test. The treatments had no effect on egg production, usability of eggs and number of incubatable eggs per bird housed. The inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-(OH-D3 in the diet reduced embryonic mortality while increasing egg yolk pigmentation, hatching percentage, and number of viable chicks produced per bird. Therefore, the use of 60mg kg-1of 25-(OH-D3 plus canthaxanthin is recommended in the diet of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aging 53 to 61 weeks to improve important reproductive traits that have great economic impacts on poultry farms

  3. Impact of thyme powder (Thymus vulgaris L.) supplementation on gene expression profiles of cytokines and economic efficiency of broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Fardos A M; Awad, Ashraf

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the impact of thyme powder supplementation on broiler diets with respect to cytokine and mucin2 gene expressions. It was also our aim to evaluate the growth performance, blood biochemical and hematological profiles, and economic efficiency of the diet. A total of 120 1-day old chicks (Cobb 500) were divided into four groups on the basis of the diet. One group received a basal diet (control) while the others received a basal diet supplemented with 2, 5, or 8 g/kg of thyme powder. At 42 days of age, the chickens were weighed and euthanized, and then blood and tissue samples were collected for the purpose of analysis. Results obtained clearly indicated that thyme supplementation of the diet, especially at 5 g/kg, resulted in a significant increase in body weight and caused the increased body weight gain and feed intake (P ˂ 0.05) as well as augmented WBC and lymphocyte count and IgG and NO levels (P ˂ 0.001). The economic evaluation showed that birds fed on 8 g/kg thyme yielded the lowest net revenue and highest feed cost to produce 1 kg of live weight compared to the other treatments, while birds fed on 2 and 5 g/kg thyme did not differ significantly from values obtained for the controls. The lipid profile of the broilers was affected by thyme supplementation at 2 and 5 g/kg as represented by a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels as well as low density lipoprotein levels, which is known to be associated with a corresponding increase in high-density lipoprotein (P ˂ 0.001). Furthermore, supplementation of thyme downregulated the pro-inflammatory mediators and increased the expression of mucin2 mRNA in the jejunum of chickens. It can be concluded that thyme supplementation in the diet of broilers at 5 g/kg has the potential to favorably influence productive performance via an improvement in the immune status of the broiler.

  4. Impact of feeding chromium supplemented flaxseed based diet on fatty acid profile, oxidative stability and other functional properties of broiler chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Nasir Akbar; Tyagi, Praveen K; Biswas, A K; Tyagi, Pramod K; Mandal, A B; Sheikh, Sajad A; Deo, Chandra; Sharma, Divya; Verma, A K

    2017-11-01

    A total of 240 broiler chicken of same hatch with uniform weight were used in a biological experiment with completely randomized design to investigate the effects of incorporating organic chromium (Cr) in flaxseed meal based diet on the fatty acid profile, oxidative stability and functional properties of broiler chicken meat. Five diets were formulated as per the recommendations of BIS (Nutrient requirements for poultry 13: 9863, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1992) in which flaxseed meal was used to replace 10% of soyabean in basal diet and four levels of Cr (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg diet) as Cr-picolinate were used. The results revealed that flaxseed feeding significantly increased the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, including MUFA, PUFA, ω-3, ω-6 fatty acids and ω-3:ω-6 and PUFA:SFA ratios, whereas, significant decline was seen in saturated fatty acids and no effect of Cr was observed on the fatty acid profile of broiler chicken. Flaxseed feeding significantly reduced the cholesterol and fat percentage of meat, whereas, significant progressive reduction was observed with increasing Cr levels. The combination of 10% flaxseed with 1.0 mg Cr/kg diet increased the final pH of broiler meat. The addition of flaxseed significantly reduced water holding capacity, extract release volume and antioxidant potential of broiler meat, whereas, increasing Cr supplementation progressively increased them. Flaxseed feeding significantly increased the drip loss and lipid peroxidation of broiler meat, whereas, Cr supplementation decreased them. It was concluded that inclusion of 10% flaxseed and 1.5 mg Cr/kg diet results in desirable fatty acid profile, oxidative stability and functional properties of broiler chicken meat.

  5. Skeletal response to diet with soya bean seeds used as primary source of protein in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowski, B; Charuta, A; Radzki, R; Bieńko, M; Toczko, R

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted using 120 commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The experimental diets, differing only in protein source, either solvent-extracted soya bean meal (SBM) or traditional (non-genetically modified) full-fat soya bean seeds (FFS), were prepared using practical corn-based formulation designed to meet nutritional requirements of broilers. Performance parameters were monitored weekly. Also, the subjects were evaluated daily for overt changes in skeletal anatomy and gait physiology. Randomly selected chickens from each group (seven males and seven females) were euthanized at 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks of age, and bone specimens were collected for further study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined in tibiotarsal bones. Broilers fed FFS diet showed retarded growth rate and decreased feed intake (both p beans contain factors that have some specific detrimental effects on skeletal system of chickens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Ranjan Sarangi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 1-day-old Vencobb broiler chickens of either sex were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each consisting of three replicates and each replicate having 30 birds for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were (1 control group with basal diet, (2 basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (at 400 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration, (3 basal diet supplemented with probiotic (at 100 g/tonne of starter ration and 50 g/tonne of finisher ration, and (4 basal diet supplemented with synbiotic(at 500 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration. The birds were provided with ad-libitum feed and drinking water during the entire experimental period. Results: The highest body weight observed in asynbiotic group, which was non-significantly (p>0.05 higher than thecontrol group. Prebiotic and probiotic groups showed lower body weight than synbiotic and control groups. A total feed intake did not show any significant (p>0.05 difference between experimental groups. There were no significant (p>0.05 differences in feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens in prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic groups as compared with control group. There was no significant (p>0.05 difference in the carcass traits with respect to dressing percentage, carcass percentage, heart weight, liver weight and gizzard weight, wing percentage, breast percentage, back percentage, thigh percentage, and drumstick percentage in Cobb broilers under study. Conclusion: The growth performance and percentage of carcass yield did not show any significant increase by the dietary inclusion of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic compared with unsupplemented control in a commercial broiler chicken.

  7. Diet density during the first week of life: Effects on energy and nitrogen balance characteristics of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamot, D M; Sapkota, D; Wijtten, P J A; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to determine effects of diet density on growth performance, energy balance, and nitrogen (N) balance characteristics of broiler chickens during the first wk of life. Effects of diet density were studied using a dose-response design consisting of 5 dietary fat levels (3.5, 7.0, 10.5, 14.0, and 17.5%). The relative difference in dietary energy level was used to increase amino acid levels, mineral levels, and the premix inclusion level at the same ratio. Chickens were housed in open-circuit climate respiration chambers from d 0 to 7 after hatch. Body weight was measured on d 0 and 7, whereas feed intake was determined daily. For calculation of energy balances, O2 and CO2 exchange were measured continuously and all excreta from d 0 to 7 was collected and analyzed at d 7. Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased linearly (P = 0.047 and P density. Gross energy (GE) intake and metabolizable energy (ME) intake were not affected by diet density, but the ratio between ME and GE intake decreased linearly with increasing diet density (P = 0.006). Fat, N, and GE efficiencies (expressed as gain per unit of nutrient intake), heat production, and respiratory exchange ratio (CO2 to O2 ratio) decreased linearly (P density increased. Energy retention, N intake, and N retention were not affected by diet density. We conclude that a higher diet density in the first wk of life of broiler chickens did not affect protein and fat retention, whereas the ME to GE ratio decreased linearly with increased diet density. This suggests that diet density appears to affect digestibility rather than utilization of nutrients. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Effect van varkensvleesmeel in vleeskuikenvoer op technische resultaten, slachtrendementen, strooiselkwaliteit, voetzoollaesies en darmgezondheid = Effect of pork meat meal in broiler diets on performance, slaughter yields, litter quality, foot pad dermatitis and gut health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harn, van J.; Molenaar, R.J.; Veldkamp, T.

    2010-01-01

    Wageningen UR Livestock Research has conducted an experiment to determine the effect of inclusion of graded levels of pork meat meal (PMM) in broiler diets on performance, processing yields, litter quality, foot pad lesions and gut health. Inclusion of PMM in broiler diets corresponding to 10% of

  9. WELFARE OF BROILERS INGESTING A PRE-SLAUGHTER HYDRIC DIET OF LEMON GRASS

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    AFB Royer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe pre-slaughter period is considered critical in broiler production. Several factors contribute to increase the birds' stress, such as handling, harvesting, and transportation, negatively affecting their welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratusStapf to the drinking water of broilers during the pre-slaughter period on their behavior, blood cortisol, and surface temperature. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD, Dourados, MS, Brazil. In total, 2594 broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates per treatment. Treatments consisted of three different lemon grass levels (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf used in the form of an infusion (0, 0.1, and 5 g per L of water, sex (male or female, and genetic strain (Ross(r 308 or Cobb(r 500. The infusion was offered when birds were 42 days old. On that day, blood was collected for blood cortisol level determination, broiler surface temperature was recorded, and an ethogram was applied to register broiler behavior. Blood cortisol level and broiler surface temperature were not affected by treatments (p>0.05. The behavior of beak opening was different between the genetic strains (p<0.05, being more frequent in Ross(r 308 broilers. Lemon grass water content did not affect broilers' surface temperature when consumed during the pre-slaughter period.

  10. Evaluation of vegetable protein in canine diets: Assessment of performance and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility using a broiler model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacco, D C; Lowe, J A; Wiseman, J; White, G A

    2018-02-01

    Recent technological advances in the human food industry with respect to meat processing have decreased the availability of animal proteins to the pet food industry which typically formulates diets with an excess of animal protein. In the long term, this is not sustainable; thus, alternative protein sources need to be investigated. This study examined three canine diets, comparing a typical animal protein-based diet (control) with two experimental diets where the animal protein was substituted in part with vegetable protein (formulated based either on total protein or amino acid content) using a broiler model. Each diet was fed to six cages each containing two birds from day 15, 18 cages in total (36 birds). Excreta were collected from days 19 to 21. On day 23, birds were euthanized and weighed, and their ileal digesta were collected and pooled for each cage. In addition, one leg per cage was collected for evaluation of muscle mass. Results showed no significant difference in animal performance (feed intake or live weight gain) or muscle to leg proportion across the diets. Birds fed the control diet and the diet balanced for amino acid content exhibited the greatest coefficients of apparent metabolizability for nitrogen (p animal with vegetable protein generally had greater ileal digestibility of amino acids compared to birds fed the control (animal protein) diet. Analysis of excreta showed no dietary difference in terms of dry matter content; however, birds fed the diet balanced for total protein and the diet balanced for amino acid content had significantly greater excreta nitrogen than the control (p = .038). Overall, the study suggests vegetable proteins when formulated based on amino acid content are a viable alternative to animal proteins in canine diets. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic and synbiotic on growth performance, organ weights, and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Abdel-Raheem, S; Böhm, J

    2009-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of synbiotic and probiotic on broiler performance, carcass yield, organs weights, and histomorphological measurements of small intestine. Six hundred 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control, 2) basal diets supplemented with synbiotic (1 kg of Biomin IMBO/ ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets), 3) basal diets supplemented with probiotic (1 kg of a homofermentative and a heterofermentative Lacto-bacillus sp./ton of feed). The BW, average daily weight gain, carcass yield percentage, and feed conversion rate were significantly (P 0.05). However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementations compared with control. In conclusion, synbiotic or probiotic displayed a greater efficacy as growth promoters for broilers. Furthermore, the dietary supplementations resulted in an increase in the villus height and crypt depth of intestinal mucosa of broilers. The increase in the villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio was associated with improvement of growth performance for both synbiotic and probiotic. This indicates that the synbiotic and probiotic can be used as a growth promoter in broiler diets and can improve the gut health. These products show promising effects as alternatives for antibiotics as pressure to eliminate growth-promotant antibiotic use increases.

  12. Effects of oregano essential oil supplementation to diets of broiler chicks with delayed feeding after hatching. Morphological development of small intestine segments

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    Şenay Sarıca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil (OEO on the morphological development of small intestine of broilers with different feeding times (immediate, 24, 48 or 72 h posthatching delayed feeding from d 0 to 14. The diets were supplemented with: no, 250 or 500 mg/kg of the OEO (OEO250 and OEO500, respectively. Fasting for 72 h significantly increased the weight and length of small intestine segments of broilers on d 14. The OEO250 and OEO500 significantly increased the jejunum villus height of chickens fed immediately and the duodenum villus height of broilers fasted for 48 h. The duodenum villus surface area of chickens fasted for 48 h and the ileum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h were significantly increased by the OEO250. The OEO500 significantly enhanced the duodenum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h and their ileum villus surface area fasted for 48 h. The crypt depths of small intestine segments of broilers fasted for 72 h were significantly reduced by OEO250 and OEO500. In conclusion, the dose of phenolic compounds in OEO reaching the small intestine might be enough for protecting the intestinal epithelial cells from damages of toxins and for removing the negative effects of delayed feeding on the morphological development of all the small intestine segments of broiler chicks on d 14.

  13. The effect of low-density diets on broiler breeder development and nutrient digestibility during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, H; Veldman, A; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J

    2007-04-01

    Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4 treatments. The control treatment was a normal density diet (ND; 2,600 kcal/kg). Treatments 2 and 3 had a 12 and 23% lower nutrient density than ND (LD12 and LD23, respectively) through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal. Treatment 4 also had a 12% lower nutrient density than ND but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP)). Total daily intake of energy, digestible lysine, calcium, retainable phosphorus, sodium, and linoleic acid was kept constant in the low-density dietary treatments. Animal performance and development of the intestinal tract and reproductive tract were determined in addition to digestibility and feed passage rate. The LD12(OP) provided a lower AME and nutrient digestibility than calculated and was related to lower live weights. Birds given LD23 and LD12(OP) showed a faster ovarian and oviduct development between wk 24 and 26 compared with ND. At 22 wk of age, LD23 and LD12(OP) diets resulted in higher empty jejunum and ileum weights. Low-density diets did not affect intestinal tract contents and decreased mean retention time of the contents. It was concluded that low-density diets can affect live weight and development of digestive and reproductive tracts.

  14. Chemical and Physical Predictors of the Nutritive Value of Wheat in Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. E. Ball

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish relationships between chemical and physical parameters of wheat with performance and digestibilities of feed components in broiler chickens fed on wheat-based diets. Ninety-four wheat samples were selected for inclusion in four bird trials. Birds were housed in individual wire metabolism cages from 7 to 28 d and offered water and feed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI, liveweight gain (LWG and gain:feed were measured weekly. A balance collection was carried out from 14 to 21 d for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, ME:gain, dry matter retention, oil and neutral detergent fibre (NDF digestibility. At 28 d the birds were humanely killed, the contents of the jejunum removed for determination of in vivo viscosity and the contents of the ileum removed for determination of ileal dry matter, starch and protein digestibility. When wheat parameters were correlated with bird performance data, it was found that specific weight was not significantly (p>0.05 related to bird performance. Bird DMI, LWG and gain:feed were best correlated (p<0.05 with the rate of starch digestion, although the coefficients of correlation (r were still low (0.246 to 0.523. A negative relationship (p<0.01 between AME and total (r = −0.432 and soluble (r = −0.304 non starch polysaccharide (NSP was observed in this study. Thousand grain weight (TG was positively correlated with DMI (r = 0.299, LWG (r = 0.343 and gain:feed (r = 0.371. When establishing multiple regression relationships, correlation coefficients greater than 0.8 were achieved for DMI, LWG, gain:feed and ileal crude protein digestibility. However, the economics involved in determining the parameters involved in the regressions make the process impractical.

  15. The addition of charcoals to broiler diets did not alter the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K M; Bourassa, D V; Davis, A J; Freeman, M E; Buhr, R J

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In Experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% Aromabiotic (medium chain fatty acids). The ceca from seeders and penmates were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4, and 6 wk, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 3 wk, charcoal fed chicks had significantly lower cecal recovery (37% lower) of Salmonella via direct plating but no differences at wk 4 or 6. At 6 wk, broilers fed Aromabiotic had no recovery of Salmonella from ceca with direct plating and significantly, 18%, lower recovery with enrichment. In Experiment 2, the treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, 2 seeders were challenged with Salmonella and commingled with penmates and ceca sampled at 1 and 2 wk, and ceca from 5 penmates/pen at 3 to 6 wk. Weekly, the pH of the crop and duodenum was measured from 1 penmate/pen and the litter surface sampled. At the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that penmates had colonized at 1 and 2 wk. Cecal Salmonella showed no differences except at 4 wk, when activated bamboo charcoal had a 18% lower recovery of Salmonella (enrichment) compared to the control (88%). Similar to Experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 wk with direct plating reoccurred. The pH of the duodenum and the crop were not different among treatments. Crop pH (6.0) for all treatments were significantly higher at wk 1 compared to wk 2 to 6. Charcoals had minimal effect on Salmonella recovery in the ceca, but following defeathering, broilers fed charcoals had significantly lower Salmonella

  16. Graded levels of sugar syrup in broiler rations and its effect on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary energy for chickens normally includes cereal grains and fat. This innovative study investigated the effect of replacing part of the corn and fat in broiler chicken rations with graded levels of sugar syrup on growth performance and biochemical parameters. Experimental treatments consisted of feeding a corn-soy basal diet alone, or with graded levels of sugar syrup in increments of 5%, 10% and 15%. All starter diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Body weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization of chicks fed the control diet alone were not significantly (P < 0.05 different from chicks fed diets supplemented with either 5% or 15% sugar syrup. Supplementation of sugar syrup to broiler diets had no significant effect on blood glucose, creatinine, total protein, or liver enzymes. Adding 5% sugar syrup to broiler rations significantly decreased blood cholesterol and triglycerides in chickens fed the sugar syrup diet compared with birds fed the control diet. In conclusion, the results shows sugar syrup can be used in poultry ration to replace part of the corn as a source of energy. These results allowed the authors to recommend the safe usage of sugar syrup in broiler rations.

  17. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Jianhong Wang; Xiaoxiao Wang; Juntao Li; Yiqiang Chen; Wenjun Yang; Liying Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and ...

  18. Effect of dietary probiotic and high stocking density on the performance, carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress indicators of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Özcan; Köksal, Bekir H; Tatlı, Onur; Sevim, Ömer; Ahsan, Umair; Üner, Aykut G; Ulutaş, Pınar A; Beyaz, Devrim; Büyükyörük, Sadık; Yakan, Akın; Önol, Ahmet G

    2015-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary probiotic supplementation and stocking density on the performance, relative carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 480) were allocated to 4 experimental groups for 42 d. Each treatment had 8 replicates of 15 chicks each. Two groups were subjected to a high stocking density (HSD) of 20 birds/m² and the other 2 groups were kept at low stocking density (LSD) of 10 birds/m². A basal diet supplemented with probiotic 1 and 0.5 g/kg of diet (in starter and finisher diets, respectively) was fed to 2 treatments, one with HSD and the other with LSD, thereby making a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between stocking density (LSD and HSD) and dietary probiotic (supplemented and unsupplemented) for all the variables. Feed intake and weight gain were significantly low and feed conversion ratio was poor in broilers at HSD. Dietary probiotic significantly enhanced the feed intake and weight gain in starter phase only. Dietary probiotic supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on total aerobs, Salmonella sp., and Lactobacilli populations in the intestines of broilers. However, HSD reduced the Lactobacilli population only (P < 0.05). Relative breast yields were significantly higher in broilers reared at LSD than HSD. Thigh meat yield was higher in broilers in HSD group compared to LSD. Dietary probiotic did not affect the relative carcass yield and weight of lymphoid organs. Serum malondialdehyde, corticosterone, nitric oxide, and plasma heterophil:lymphocyte ratio were not affected either by stocking density or dietary probiotic supplementation. In conclusion, HSD negatively affected the performance and intestinal Lactobacilli population of broilers only, whereas probiotic supplementation enhanced the performance of broilers during the starter phase only. Total aerobes, Salmonella, Lactobacilli carcass yield, and stress indicators

  19. The effect of different levels of propolis in diets on performance, gastrointestinal morphology and some blood parameters in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shaddel-Tili

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of propolis in diets on performance, carcass characteristics, gastrointestinal morphology and some blood parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 224 one day-old Ross 308 chicks were randomly allocated to one of the 16 floor pens in a completely randomised design (four treatments, four replicate groups, 14 chicks in each group. Dietary treatments consisted of 4 different levels of propolis powder including zero (control, 500, 1500, 2000 ppm in the diet throughout the entire experimental period (42 days. The feed was offered ad libitum. All the chickens were grown up in the same environmental and management conditions. Body weight gain, food intake and feed conversion ratio were measured at the end of each period, also, the production index was calculated at 42 days of age. At the end of experimental period, two chicks from each pen were selected and after blood sample collection were slaughtered and dissected manually. Haematological and biochemical parameters as well as carcass characteristics, gastrointes-tinal morphology were determined. The use of 2000 parts per million propolis powder in diet im-proved body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and production index at all experimental periods (P<0.05. High dietary levels of propolis powder in diets increased the relative weight of crop, thighs and length of gizzard compared to other treatments, and decreased the relative weight of livers of broiler chickens (P<0.05. PCV and heterophil counts were significantly increased (P<0.05. It is suggested that the supplementation of propolis powder to poultry diets had a positive effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood parameters

  20. Dietary supplementation of L-glutamine and L-glutamate in broiler chicks subjected to delayed placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, I; Shakeri, M; Soleimani, A F

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary glutamine (Gln) + glutamic acid (Glu) supplementation on growth performance and physiological stress response in broiler chickens subjected to 24 h delay in placement. Equal number of day-old broiler chicks were assigned to either immediate placement or with 24 h delay in placement with no access to feed and water. Chicks from each placement group were fed either standard starter diet (control) or standard starter diet +1% AminoGut (AG; mixture of 10% Gln and 10% Glu) from 1 to 21 d. Blood and duodenal samples were collected at 21 d for analysis of serum levels of ceruloplasmin (CER), ovotransferin (OVT) and α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP), duodenal heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression, and villi length and crypt depth. Results showed that delayed placement for 24 h was detrimental to weight gain during the starter phase (1 to 21 d) but not thereafter. AG supplementation was not able to eliminate that reduction in weight gain and feed intake during the starter stage. However, the observed enhancement in villi length and crypt depth at d 21 resulted in improvement of FCR and weight gain during the finisher stage (22 to 42 d) and consequently the overall period (1 to 42 d). Broiler chickens supplemented with AG also showed lower mortality rate, and higher AGP, OVT, CER, and HSP 70 expression compared to their control counterparts. Based on AGP, OVT, CER, and HSP 70 expression, there is no indication that delayed placement was physiologically stressful to the broiler chickens at 21 d of age. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Effects of low protein diet and low protein diet supplemented with synthetic essential amino acids on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Kazuki; Ishida, Aiko; Ashihara, Akane; Katsumata, Masaya

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the effects of a low crude protein (CP) diet and a low CP diet supplemented with synthetic essential amino acids (EAA) on the meat quality of broiler chickens. Twenty-one-day-old chickens were assigned to one of three diets: control, low CP (LCP), or low CP supplemented with EAA (ELCP). The chickens received these diets for 10 days. The shear force value (SFV) and free glutamate content of the Pectoralis major muscle were measured as indicators of the meat toughness and taste. The collagen and crude fat content of the muscle and the cross-sectional area of myofibers were measured to evaluate the effects of the LCP and ELCP diets on meat toughness. The SFV of the ELCP group was 47% lower than that of the control group (Pcontent were not affected by the dietary treatment. The cross-sectional area was lower in the LCP and ELCP groups (Pcontent of muscle was not affected by the dietary treatment. Thus, a low CP diet supplemented with EAA is an effective means of producing tender meat. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Performance, gut morphology and microbiology effects of a Bacillus probiotic, avilamycin and their combination in mixed grain broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wealleans, A L; Sirukhi, M; Egorov, I A

    2017-10-01

    1. This study aimed to determine the effect of avilamycin (AGP) and a multi-strain Bacillus probiotic (DFM) on the performance, gut histology and microbiology of broilers fed on a mixed grain diet. 2. A total of 800 chicks were allocated to four treatments: a control diet, control+AGP, control+DFM, or control+AGP+DFM. Bodyweight, feed intake and FCR were measured at d 0, 21 and 42. Samples were taken at d42 to determine villus height (VH), crypt depth (CD) and ratio (VH:CD). Mucosal E. coli and Lactobacilli counts were measured at d42. 3. At d42, DFM and AGP+DFM significantly increased weight over the control, with AGP returning an intermediate value. FCR followed a similar pattern. DFM and AGP+DFM significantly increased VH and CD in all gut sections compared to the control. 4. DFM and AGP+DFM reduced E. coli counts compared to control, with AGP reducing caecal counts only, while Lactobacilli counts were increased. 5. Divergent histology and microbiology between treatments highlight the different modes of action of AGP and DFM for improving broiler growth and feed efficiency.

  3. Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.

  4. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  6. Nutritional evaluation of almond cashew nut by-products in diets for slow-growing broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. V. Fernandes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility and energy value of almond cashew nut by-products for slow-growing broiler chickens. Seventy-six chickens (males and females were allocated in a completely randomized design to four treatments: a control diet and the same diet in which the conventional ingredients were replaced with 30% (kg/kg almond cashew nut film, almond cashew nut meal or almond cashew nut mass. The animals were housed in individual cages adapted for excreta collection. The apparent digestibility coefficients of film, full meal and almond mass were, respectively, 81.3, 87.3 and 86.2% for dry matter; 32.1, 71.2 and 56.7% for crude protein (CP; 82.7, 92.6 and 92.8% for ether extract; 10.9, 29.9 and 34.7% for neutral detergent fiber; 7.7, 17.9 and 19.6% for acid detergent fiber; 41.9, 57.2 and 66.7% for coefficient of gross energy metabolism (CGEM; 1,189, 2,648 and 3,719 kcal/kg for apparent metabolizable energy (AME; 8.1, 19.9 and 12.9% for digestible protein, and 3.9, 15.2 and 6.3% for mineral matter (MM. The CP and MM apparent digestibility coefficients of full meal were higher than those of film and almond cashew nut mass, while the latter exhibited higher apparent digestibility of fiber, CGEM and AME compared to the other by-products. The inclusion of almond cashew nut by-products in diets for slow-growing broiler chickens results in lower nutrient digestibility, except for ether extract, neutral detergent fiber and AME, in diets containing 30% almond cashew nut mass.

  7. The effect of dehulling and a-glactosidase supplementation on the ileal digestibility of lupin based diets in broiler chickens and adult roosters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieczkowska, A.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Smulikowski, S.

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred fifty six broiler chickens, 22-days-old, allocated to four groups of four replicate pens with 16 birds each, and six adult ileostomized roosters were used. Four diets containing maize starch and 550 g/kg whole or 458 g/kg dehulled lupin seeds (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Amulet) as the only

  8. Broiler performance on finisher diets containing different levels of either Pleurotus ostreatus-fermented dried cocoa pod husk or dried cocoa pod husk supplemented with enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemawor, Francis; Oddoye, Emmanuel Okpoti Kofi; Dzogbefia, Victoria P; Oldham, John H; Donkoh, Armstrong

    2010-06-01

    The purpose was to investigate the feeding value of fibrous cocoa pod husk (CPH) either fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus or supplemented with fibre-degrading multi-enzymes (Viscozyme L + Pectinex 5XL) before inclusion in diets for 3-week-old finishing broilers. Growth performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets containing 100, 200 or 300 g kg(-1) of the P. ostreatus-fermented CPH or 100, 200 or 300 g kg(-1) of the enzyme-supplemented CPH as well as a normal broiler finisher diet (control), were investigated in a 35-day feeding trial setup as a completely randomised design, with the seven treatments replicated three times. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) among treatments for some of the parameters measured including growth-related indices, percent weights of abdominal fat, intestine, and gizzard. It was concluded that P. ostreatus-fermented dried CPH up to a level of 200 g kg(-1) and enzyme-supplemented dried CPH up to a level of 100 g kg(-1) could be included in broiler finisher diets without any deleterious effects.

  9. Effects of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient retention, and characteristics of gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed low-phosphorus wheat-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esmaeilipour, O.; Shivazad, M.; Moravej, H.; Aminzadeh, S.; Rezaian, M.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient retention, jejunal viscosity, and size and pH of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed a low-P wheat-based diet. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels

  10. THESIS-ABSTRACT Supplementation levels of exogenous alpha-amylase in broilers diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, H B; Silva, M I A; Mesquita, F R

    2017-08-17

    This study aimed to evaluate the supplementation levels of an exogenous alpha-amylase in broilers diets and compare two indicators in determining the diets energy. The experiment was divided into two parallel evaluations, being one of performance and the other of metabolism. In performance assay, 1,700 one-day-old Cobb-500 male chicks were used. The animals were distributed in 50 experimental plots and evaluated five treatments with ten replicates in a completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments were: a positive control (PC), a negative control (NC) and three alpha-amylase supplementation levels 200, 400 and 600 g/t, and the NC was formulated with 50 and 90 kcal of energy reduction in relation to the PC to the phases from 1 to 21 days and from 22 to 42 days, respectively. In the metabolism assay were used 240 animals, 150 birds for stage from 14 to 21 days and 90 birds to stage from 35 to 42 days of age and the treatments were the same as the performance assay, with six replicates per treatment in CRD. All diets of metabolism test contained the digestibility indicators Lipe ® (eucalyptus purified lignin) and chromic oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ), in concentrations of 0.05 and 1.0%, respectively. In the period from 1 to 21 days old, no significant differences were observed in weight gain (WG) (P > 0.05), however, feed intake (FI) was found higher by using 200 ppm of enzyme (P 0.05), but were observed lower FI and better FC to PC treatment (P 0.05), but there was lower FI and better FC for the PC treatment (P < 0.05). The AMEn (apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance), determined using the total collection, reaffirmed the values ​​calculated for the PC and NC with intermediate data obtained from the enzyme use (200, 400 and 600 ppm). Comparing the total collection using Lipe ® and Cr 2 O 3 , a correlation was observed only for the PC results, that were always higher, and for the NC results, that were lower for the three methodologies. For IDE

  11. Improving the lipid nutritive value of poultry meat through the incorporation of a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in the diet for broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, P I P; Prates, J A M; Crespo, J P; Crespo, D G; Mourão, J L; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Chaveiro-Soares, M A; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A

    2008-08-01

    Dehydrated forages are assumed to be good sources of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds (vitamin E homologs and beta-carotene). The effects of including a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in a typical diet for broiler chicken, on performance, meat quality, and fatty acid composition were evaluated. One hundred sixty 1-d-old male commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) were housed in 20 battery brooders. During the 28-d growth period, the animals were fed ad libitum with a typical maize-soybean high-energy feed having access or not to a dehydrated leguminous-based forage provided in a separate feeder. The results revealed that dehydrated forage intake (which was 11.1% of the total intake) had no impact in broiler performance (P > 0.05). The capacity of ingested forage to modulate broiler meat fatty acid profile and the meat content in total cholesterol, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and beta-carotene was investigated in broiler chicks slaughtered at d 28. Dehydrated forage consumption had no effect on the lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds and cholesterol contents of broiler meat but had a significant effect on meat fatty acid profile. Although forage intake did not affect the linoleic acid and ALA contents in poultry meat, the levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic (P = 0.004), docosapentaenoic (P = 0.010), and docosahexaenoic (P = 0.007)] in breast meat were significantly higher in animals consuming leguminous biomass, which suggest a higher conversion of ALA into its derivatives in these birds. Overall, the data confirms that incorporation of a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in the diet for broiler chicks results in more favorable polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3 nutritional ratios for animals slaughtered at earlier stages of grow.

  12. Effects of a diet containing genetically modified rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) on broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeyang; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Minhong; Feng, Jinghai; Xiong, Yandan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein on broiler chicken. The genetically modified (GM) Bt rice was compared with the corresponding non-GM rice regarding performance of feeding groups, their health status, relative organ weights, biochemical serum parameters and occurrence of Cry1Ab/1Ac gene fragments. One hundred and eighty day-old Arbor Acres female broilers with the same health condition were randomly allocated to the two treatments (6 replicate cages with 15 broilers in each cage per treatment). They received diets containing GM rice (GM group) or its parental non-GM rice (non-GM group) at 52-57% of the air-dried diet for 42 days. The results show that the transgenic rice had a similar nutrient composition as the non-GM rice and had no adverse effects on chicken growth, biochemical serum parameters and necropsy during the 42-day feeding period. In birds fed the GM rice, no transgenic gene fragments were detected in the samples of blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, jejunum, ileum, duodenum and muscle tissue. In conclusion, the results suggest that Bt rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein has no adverse effects on broiler chicken. Therefore, it can be considered as safe and used as feed source for broiler chicken.

  13. Efeito da forma física e do programa alimentar na fase pré-inicial sobre desempenho e características de carcaça de frangos de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1746 Effects physical forms; and feedings programs pré-starter phase in performance and carcass characteristics broiler chicks - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1746

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Rondinelli Gomes de Freitas

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o efeito da forma física e do programa de alimentação na fase pré-inicial (Pi sobre características de desempenho e carcaças de frangos de corte até 42 dias. Foram utilizados 288 pintos de corte, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente causalizado, 2x3 sendo 2 formas físicas da ração (farelada e desintegrada e 3 programas de fornecimento da ração Pi (P1-100g/ave, P2-200g/ave e P3-300g/ave, quatro repetições e 12 aves por parcela. Na fase de 1 a 7 dias houve diferenças entre os tratamentos para ganho de peso (GP e conversão alimentar (CA. Nas fases de 1 a 14, 1 a 21, 1 a 28, os melhores resultados de consumo de ração (CR, proteína bruta (PB e de energia metabolizável (EM foram obtidos no programa P1; para CA o P2 e P3 foram melhor em relação ao P1; na fase de 1 a 35 dias apenas para CR. Não foram verificados efeitos dos tratamentos para variáveis: fator de produção, viabilidade e características carcaças em todas fases. A ração pré-inicial desintegrada proporcionou melhor GP e CA até 7 dias de idade.The objective work was to evaluate the effect physical forms and feedings programs pre-starter phase in performance and carcass characteristics on broiler chicks. Two hundred eighty eight broiler chick, were a randomized arrangement 2x3, two physical forms (crumb and mash and three feedings programs pre-starter (P1-100g/bird, P2-200g/bird and P3-300g/bird with four replicate and 12 unit.In the phase from 1 to 7 days significant it had differences between the treatments for weight gain (WG and feed conversion (FC. In the phases from 1 to 14, 1 to 21 and 1 to 28 days, the better results of feel intake (FI, crude protein (CP and metabolizable energy (ME, were obtained the programs P1, to FC the P2 and P3; in the phase from 1 to 35 days there to FI. No significant difference were observed better treatments for IP, carcass characteristics and viability in all work phase. The

  14. Evaluation of pilot-scale microencapsulation of probiotics and product effect on broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Li, J; Yun, T T; Li, A K; Qi, W T; Liang, X X; Wang, Y W; Liu, S

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pilot-scale production of microencapsulated in a 500-L fermenter using emulsion and gelation and to assess the effect of the products on the growth performance, antioxidant activity, immune function, and cecal microbiota in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of seven hundred 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 7 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers per pen. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) basal diet containing 0.1% Aureomycin (ANT), 3) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P1), 4) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P2), 5) basal diet containing 0.01% empty microcapsules (CAP), 6) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP1), and 7) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP2). The feeding experiment included 2 phases: the starter phase from d 1 to 21 and the grower phase from d 22 to 42. The results showed that a 500-L fermenter could produce 20.73 ± 4.05 kg of microcapsules with an approximate diameter of 549 μm. The feeding experiment showed that ADG of broilers in CAPP1 was significantly ( microencapsulation of microbial cells can be achieved using emulsion and initial gelation and that the dietary administration of microencapsulated can significantly enhance the growth performance, immune function, cecum microbial community, and overall health of broilers.

  15. An early feeding regime and a high-density amino acid diet on growth performance of broilers under subclinical necrotic enteritis challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chake Keerqin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Broilers that have early access to feed have been shown to have enhanced immune system and gut development and heightened resilience against necrotic enteritis (NE. This study examined the effect of early feeding a high amino acid density diet on performance of broilers under a sub-clinical NE challenge model. Ross 308 broilers (n = 576 were assigned to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 feeding regimes (feed access either within 6 h post-hatch or after 48 h post-hatch, 2 diets (control diet or the control diet with an additional 10% digestible amino acids [HAA] and either presence or absence of NE challenge. Oral administrations of Eimeria species (d 9 and a field strain of Clostridium perfringens (d 14 were used to induce NE. Broiler performance was analysed at d 13, 23, 30 and 35. Intestinal lesion score and bacterial count were analysed on d 16. The NE challenge reduced overall bird performance and induced severe intestinal lesions, without causing notable mortality. At d 23 bird weight was significantly lower (P < 0.001 in the challenged birds compared with the unchallenged birds, but by d 30 the challenged birds had recovered and challenge no longer had an impact on bird performance. Birds fed the HAA diet had greater body weight by d 35 and heightened Lactobacillus content in the ileum at d 16 (P < 0.05. Birds that were fed the HAA diet after a period of fasting performed better in terms of feed conversion ratio (FCR under challenge. The findings from this study suggest there are beneficial effects of feeding high amino acid diets to birds in response to external stresses, such as post-hatch fasting and subclinical NE.

  16. Proportion of insoluble fibre in the diet affects behaviour and hunger in broiler breeders growing at similar rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Thodberg, Karen; Malmkvist, Jens

    2011-01-01

    in birds fed C1 and almost none in birds fed L2, whereas birds fed H2 were intermediate. Stereotypic pecking at fixtures was seen twice as frequently in birds fed C1. Birds on diet L2 displayed behavioural signs indicative of discomfort, and the high water usage on this diet created problems with litter......% insoluble fibre (ISF); H2: 2 × fibre content, 89% ISF; and L2: 2 × fibre content, 71% ISF) were each fed to 10 groups of 16 broiler breeder chickens. Similar growth rates were obtained on different quantities of food with all birds reaching commercial target weight at 15 weeks of age. In a hunger test......, birds fed C1 ate significantly faster and showed a higher compensatory feed intake than birds on diets H2 and L2, indicating that the two high-fibre diets did reduce the level of hunger experienced by the birds. Behavioural observations carried out at 14 weeks of age showed high levels of tail pecking...

  17. Growth performance and carcass and meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets containing micronized-dehulled peas (Pisum sativum cv. Spirale) as a substitute of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-07-01

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of diets containing peas on productive traits, carcass yields, and fatty acid profiles (breast and drumstick meat) of broiler chickens. Hubbard strain broiler chicks, divided into 2 groups, received from 14 d to slaughtering age (49 d) a wheat middlings-based diet containing soybean (190 g/kg) or micronized-dehulled peas (400 g/kg) as the main protein source. The inclusion of peas did not significantly change the growth performance of birds. The pea level had no effect on the dressing percentage, the percentage of breast or drumstick muscles, and abdominal fat. The muscles of birds fed the pea diet had significant (P content. Instead, total collagen and water-holding capacity values were higher in the pea treatment. The polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in breast and drumstick muscles was significantly increased with the alternative protein source inclusion, whereas the saturated fatty acid was similar among treatments. The n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the broiler drumstick meat decreased significantly in the pea group. Dietary pea inclusion improved the saturation index of meat without altering atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. It can be concluded that the pea treatment tested had a positive effect on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.

  18. Occurrence of white striping and wooden breast in broilers fed grower and finisher diets with increasing lysine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R F A; Vieira, S L; Kindlein, L; Kipper, M; Cemin, H S; Rauber, S M

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the prevalence and severity of white striping (WS) and wooden breast (WB) in breast fillets from broilers fed diets with increasing digestible Lysine (dLys) from 12 to 28 d (Exp. 1) and from 28 to 42 d (Exp. 2). Trials were sequentially conducted using one-d-old male, slow-feathering Cobb 500 × Cobb broilers, both with 6 treatments and 8 replicates. Increasing dLys levels were equally spaced from 0.77 to 1.17% in Exp. 1 and from 0.68 to 1.07% in Exp. 2. The lowest dLys diet was not supplemented with L-Lysine (L-Lys) in either one of the studies and all other essential amino acid (AA) met or exceeded current commercial recommendations such that their dietary concentrations did not limit broiler growth. Four birds per pen were randomly selected from each replication and processed at 35 and 42 d in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. Deboned breast fillets (Pectoralis major) were submitted to a 3 subject panel evaluation to detect the presence of WS and WB, as well as to provide scores of WS (0-normal, 1-moderate, 2-severe) and WB (0-normal, 1-moderate light, 2-moderate, 3-severe). Increasing the level of dLys had a positive effect on BW, carcass, and breast weight, as well as breast yield. White striping and WB prevalences were 32.3 and 85.9% in Exp. 1 and 87.1 and 89.2% in Exp. 2. Birds fed diets not supplemented with L-Lys had the lowest average WS and WB scores (0.22 and 0.78 in Exp. 1 and 0.61 and 0.68 in Exp. 2). White striping and WB presented linear responses to performance variables in Exp. 1, whereas quadratic responses were observed for all variables in Exp. 2. In conclusion, increasing the level of dLys improved growth performance and carcass traits as well as induced the occurrence and severity of WS and WB lesions. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Xylanase supplementation of a wheat-based diet improved nutrient digestion and mRNA expression of intestinal nutrient transporters in broiler chickens infected with Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuangshuang; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Xu; Li, Changwu; Guo, Yuming

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens has become prevalent in the European Union due to the withdrawal of antibiotics in poultry feed. In an experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 336 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to 4 groups with or without C. perfringens challenge and fed wheat-based diets supplemented with or without xylanase at 5,500 U/kg of diet. The study aimed to investigate effects of xylanase addition on growth performance as well as nutrient digestion and absorption of C. perfringens-infected broilers. Before challenge (d 0-14), xylanase-supplemented birds had greater ADG and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR; P Clostridium perfringens infection decreased AME values and apparent ileal digestibility of DM of diets (P perfringens infection (P perfringens infection and elevated apparent ileal digestibility of CP and mRNA expression of nutrient transporters in challenged birds.

  20. Production performance and immune responses of broilers given single step down diet with inclution of citric acid as acidifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilah .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to examine the effect of lime and citric acid as acidifier with single step down feeding systems on immune response and production performance of broilers. Treatments applied were P0 (normal diet, P1 (single step down diet, P2 (single step down diet + citric acid 0.8%, P3 (single step down diet + lime acid 0.4% (6.9 ml/100g feed P4, (single step down diet + lime acid 0.8% (13.8 ml/100g feed and P5 (single step down diet + lime acid 1.2% (20.7 ml/100g feed. The parameters measured in this research were immune responses (percentage of bursa fabricius, spleen and heterophile lymphocyte ratio/H-L ratio and production performances (muscle protein mass, feed intake and body weight. Research was assigned in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 4 replications (8 birds each. Treatment was given one week until 6 week. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and continued to Duncan test at the level of 5% probability. The results showed that percentage of bursa fabricius were significantly (P < 0.05 different. Treatment P2 (0.13 showed the highest value and significantly different to that of compared to the others P1 (0.08, but the other treatments were the same. Percentages of spleen from treatments P0 and P1 were statistically different as compared to the others. HL ratio was the same among treatments P0, P1 and P3, but it was significantly different from those of treatments P2, P4 and P5. Based on the results of the present study it was concluded that inclusion of citric acid both natural and synthetic forms can improve immune responses and increase muscle protein mass especially due to the inclusion of synthetic citric acid.

  1. Enzimas exógenas em dietas de frangos de corte: desempenho Exogenous enzymes in broilers fed diets: performance

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    Nei André Arruda Barbosa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a eficiência de enzimas exógenas em dietas sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Um total de 1440 pintos de corte machos (Cobb 500® foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x2 (duas dietas com diferentes densidades nutricionais; com e sem a adição enzimática com 8 repetições de 45 aves em cada unidade experimental. As dietas com diferentes densidades nutricionais foram: controle positivo (níveis normais e um controle negativo (com redução de 4,3 e 4,5% de energia metabolizável; 16,7 e 17,7% de cálcio e 35 e 42,7% de fósforo, nas fases inicial e de crescimento, respectivamente. A suplementação enzimática consistiu da combinação das enzimas fitase (100g t-1 e amilase, xilanase e protease (500g t-1. Foi avaliado o desempenho das aves nas fases de 1 a 21 e 1 a 42 dias de idade. Na fase total de criação, as aves alimentadas com a dieta controle negativo com adição enzimática tiveram consumo de ração (5,97%, peso médio (8,47%, ganho de peso (8,64% e conversão alimentar (2,92% melhores (P0,05 ao grupo alimentado com a dieta controle positivo com ou sem enzima. A adição de enzimas exógenas em dieta de frangos de corte com redução de energia metabolizável, cálcio e fósforo, proporciona um consumo de ração, peso vivo médio e ganho de peso similar a uma dieta com níveis nutricionais adequados.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of enzyme efficiency in diets with and without nutrient reduction on the performance of broilers. Thousand and hundred forty male broiler chicks (Cobb 500® were distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments in a factorial 2x2 (two diets with different nutrient densities, with and without enzyme with 8 replications of 45 birds. The diets were: positive control (normal and a negative control (with a reduction of 4.3% and 4.5% of metabolizable energy, 16.7% and 17.7% of

  2. Influence of different protein sources in the broiler diet on the presence of Campylobacter spp. in excreta and caecal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C F; Abd El-Wahab, A; Ahmed, M F E; Hankel, J; Taube, V; Kamphues, J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine possible effects of a different protein supply on the presence of Campylobacter in excreta and caecal content of broiler chickens. Therefore, 220 one-day-old chickens were fed five different diets in the experimental period (day 8 onwards). In the control group (CON; n = 3 boxes), a soya bean-based industrially produced complete diet containing 5-10% whole wheat and coccidiostats was fed, whereas in the remaining groups, four own-made complete diets with four protein sources and combinations (4 × 2 boxes; soya bean meal-based diet = SBM; rapeseed meal-containing diet = RSM; haemoglobin meal-containing diet = HGP; algae-containing diet = ALG) were offered. During the 6-week trial period, data concerning performance parameters, excreta and litter characteristics and microbiological analysis of excreta and caecal content at dissection were collected. The qualitative bacteriological investigation was based on the EN ISO 10272-1:2006, taken from the official collection of analysis methods in accordance with § 64 LFBG. For quantitative bacteriological tests, a 10-fold dilution series was made followed by culture-based quantification methods on approved selective media in duplicate. Comparing the results of the final dissection (day 44/45), nearly all samples of animals receiving the own-made complete diet were Campylobacter positive in the caecal content, whereas only seven of fifteen samples were positive in the CON group. With regard to the CFU in the caecal content, the counts of Campylobacter were significantly lower for animals fed the commercial diet (2.47 ± 3.06 vs. 7.36 ± 0.66 log10  CFU/g). When only the positive animals were evaluated, significant differences were also found between the CON group and the total of the other groups (5.30 ± 2.08 vs. 7.54 ± 1.70 log10  CFU/g). Although significant differences were seen in the results, no final recommendation can be given how to create a diet to

  3. Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Turmeric (Curcuma longa and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Powders on Performance, Organs Relative Weight and Some Immune System Parameters in Broiler Chickens

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    Naderi M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 240 Ross 308 day-old male broiler chicks within a completely randomized design were used in this experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of turmeric powder and cinnamon powder on performance and some immune responses of broiler chickens. Dietary treatments were as follow: a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; basal diet + 10 ppm avilamycin; basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg turmeric powder; basal diet + 7.5 g/Kg turmeric powder; basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg cinnamon powder; and basal diet + 7.5 g/Kg cinnamon powder. During the experiment, feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio were measured in the beginning and the end of starter (0-21 d. and grower (22-42 d. periods. On 21 d. of age, two chicks from each replicate were randomly selected and blood samples were taken. Differential enumeration of heterophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were done. Also, antibody titers against IBV, IBD, and NDV vaccines were measured. Addition of 2.5 g/Kg turmeric powder increased body weight gain in the starter period and improved feed conversion ratio in the starter and entire periods of the experiment, when compared to the control (P. Also, inclusion of 10 ppm avilamycin into diet improved feed conversion ratio in the grower and entire periods of the experiment, comparing to the control (P. Inclusion of turmeric powder at 2.5 g/Kg or 7.5 g/Kg and cinnamon powder at 7.5 g/Kg declined the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P. The results of this study showed that turmeric powder at the level of 2.5 g/Kg would be a potential alternative for antibiotic growth promoters. Also, reducing heterophil to lymphocyte ratio by turmeric and cinnamon powders, introduce them as potential stress alleviators in broiler chickens.

  4. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicken Fed Graded Levels of Sun-Dried Irish Potato Peel Meal

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    Wafar James Raphael

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of substituting different levels of sun-dried Irish potato peel meal (SPPM for maize in diets of broiler chickens. Five diets in which SPPM was replaced with 0 (0SPPM, 25 (25SPPM, 50 (50SPPM, 75 (75SPPM and 100% (100SPPM of maize in starter and finisher diets for a 8 week period using broiler chickens were examined. A total of 300 two weeks old broilers chicks Anak 2000 were randomly allotted to five experimental diets with six pen per treatment and 10 birds chicks per pen. Body weight and feed intake of broilers, and feed conversion ratio were determined at the beginning and 56th day of the experiment respectively. On day 56, four broilers from each pen were selected and slaughtered to determine some carcass characteristics and serum biochemistry. The result of growth performance showed that 100SPPM decreased daily weight gain of chickens when compared to other SPPM levels (P

  5. Haematological parameters, serum lipid profile, liver function and fatty acid profile of broiler chickens fed on diets supplemented with pomegranate seed oil and linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manterys, A; Franczyk-Zarow, M; Czyzynska-Cichon, I; Drahun, A; Kus, E; Szymczyk, B; Kostogrys, R B

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine effect of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) and linseed oil (LO) on haematological parameters, serum lipid profile and liver enzymes as well as fatty acids profile of adipose tissue in broilers. Broilers (n = 400) were fed on diets containing graded PSO levels (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%) with or without 2% LO. After 6 weeks of feeding, 6 male broilers from each group were slaughtered and abdominal fat, liver and blood samples were collected. Mixtures of pomegranate seed oil (0.5%, 1%) with linseed oil increased white blood cell level in broilers. Total cholesterol was elevated after LO supplementation whereas administration of PSO (1.5%) significantly decreased this parameter. PSO administration caused c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration-dependent deposition in adipose tissue. By LO addition α-linolenic acid (ALA) content was enhanced, decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio. PSO and ALA also affected oleic acid proportion in adipose tissue. Neither pomegranate seed oil nor linseed oil had any effect on liver parameters. Pomegranate seed oil had no negative effects on broiler health status and can be considered as a functional poultry meat component.

  6. Desempenho de frangos de corte alimentados com ingrediente de alta digestibilidade nas fases de criação pré-inicial e inicial Performance of broilers fed with highly digestible ingredient in the prestarter and starter raising periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Müller Dallmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dieta, com inclusão de um núcleo energético-proteico (NEP de alta digestibilidade, no desempenho produtivo e características de carcaça de frangos de corte. O NEP constituiu-se de composto de óleo degomado de soja, milho pré-gelatinizado, soja biprocessada, mananoligossacarídeos e peptídeos. O total de 864 pintainhos machos, da linhagem AgRoss 508, com um dia de idade, foram pesados individualmente e distribuídos em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram de suplementos com diferentes teores de NEP, com oito repetições com 27 aves cada: T1, controle, 0% de NEP; T2, 7% de NEP (1-7 dias e 3,5% de NEP (8-21 dias; T3, 14% de NEP (1-7 dias e 7% de NEP (8-21 dias; e T4, 21% de NEP (1-7 dias e 10,5% de NEP (8-21 dias. Aos 21 dias de idade, o peso corporal, ganho de peso, consumo médio de ração, conversão alimentar e rendimento de carcaça e cortes não foram afetados significativamente pelos tratamentos experimentais. A utilização de NEP na dieta de frangos de corte não altera o desempenho das aves e não interfere nas variáveis de características de carcaça.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the diet, with the inclusion of an energetic-protein nucleus (EPN composed of highly digestible ingredients, on the productive performance and carcass traits of broiler chicks. The nucleus was composed by degummed soybean oil, pre-gelatinized corn, twice-processed soybean, mannanoligosaccharides and peptides. The total of 864 male AgRoss 508 broiler, with one day of age, were weighed individually and distributed in a randomized block design. Treatments consisted of: T1, control, 0% EPN; T2, 7% EPN (1-7 days and 3.5% EPN (8-21 days; T3, 14% EPN (1-7 days and 7% EPN (8-21 days; and T4, 21% EPN (1-7 days and 10.5% EPN (8-21 days of age. At 21 days of age, body weight, weight gain, average feed intake, feed conversion and carcass and cut-ups yield were not significantly

  7. Heat stress and vitamin E in diets for broilers as a mitigating measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Santos Dalólio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review aimed to identify the importance of vitamin E dietary supplementation to broilers subjected to heat stress in relation to metabolism, growth performance and quality of animal products and its effects on immune system. Vitamin E is the concentration of tocopherol and tocotrienol, which can be found in natural or synthetic form. This vitamin is essential for the integrity of reproductive, muscular, circulatory, nervous and immune systems of the animals. In order to reduce the harmful effects of high temperatures in poultry production, vitamin E supplementation is a viable alternative for the sector. Some studies indicate its potential antioxidant effect able to modulate inflammatory responses and physiological adjustments to mitigate the undesirable effects of exposure of broilers to high temperatures. Moreover, it has been found increased viability of animals due to the greater activation of the immune system, and improved quality of animal products given to the deposition in tissues with consequent nutritional enrichment of meat products.

  8. Effect of dietary antibiotic, probiotic and prebiotic as growth promoters, on growth performance, carcass characteristics and hematological indices of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashayerizadeh, A; Dabiri, N; Ashayerizadeh, O; Mirzadeh, K H; Roshanfekr, H; Mamooee, M

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was conducted for comparison the effects of antibiotic (flavomycin), probiotic (primalac), prebiotic (Biolex-MB) and mixture ofprobiotic and prebiotic (primalac plus Biolex-MB) as dietary growth promoter on growth performance, carcass characteristics and hematological indices of broiler chickens. Three hundred day old Ross 308 broilers were equally distributed into 30 floor pens and reared for 42 day. A basal diet was formulated covering the recommendations of NRC (1994) for starter (0-21 days) and grower (22-42 days) periods and considered as control diet. Four tested diets were formulated by supplemented the basal control diet with antibiotic (flavomycin), probiotic (primalac), prebiotic (Biolex-MB) and mixture ofprimalac plus Biolex-MB, respectively. Six replicates were used for each treatment. The results of present study showed that all growth promoters used was improved growth indices of Ross 308 broilers. The highest significant (p0.05) value of breast was recorded for broilers fed the diet supplemented with primalac, meanwhile the lower value were showed for birds fed either diet or diet supplemented with Biolex-MB. The percent of carcass and cuts followed the same trend. Hematological parameter including cholesterol was recorded the highest (p>0.05) values groups fed the diets either control or supplemented with flavomycin, meanwhile the lower value was showed for bird fed diet supplemented primalac plus Biolex-MB. Triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) were recorded the highest concentration for bird fed both control and diet supplemented with flavomycin groups while least concentration was found for bird fed diet supplemented with primalac. The results of present study revealed that probiotic and prebiotic as growth promoters can use as alternatives non-antibiotic feed additives to their free harmful side effects on the consumers and to improve broiler chickens growth indices.

  9. Effects of replacing soybean meal with chickpea seeds in the diet on mechanical and thermal properties of tendon tissue in broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszynski, S; Kwiecien, M; Swietlicki, M; Dobrowolski, P; Tatarczak, J; Gladyszewska, B

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency of the musculoskeletal system of broiler chickens, in particular during locomotion and in ensuring its supportive function, depends directly on the adequate function and mechanical endurance of soft tissues, including tendons. However, little is known whether the properties of musculoskeletal soft tissues can be influenced by changes of dietary protein. We substituted soybean meal with raw chickpea seeds as the primary protein source in the diet and studied the effects it had on the mechanical and thermal properties of drumstick tendons in broiler Ross 308 chickens. In the experiment, 160 chicks were divided into 2 groups, receiving in their diet either soybean meal (n = 80) or chickpea seeds (n = 80). The experiment lasted 42 days. The physical condition of the drumstick tendons was analyzed on the basis of a tensile test and the results of thermal denaturation as measured by a differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical evaluation of tendon tensile strength of the broilers fed with chickpea seeds demonstrated an increase in the ultimate strain (for over 22%, P tendon until rupture (for over 57%, P tendon collagen cross-linking as transition onset temperature decreased (from 63.8 to 61.8°C, P tendons and showed that thermal analysis can be a useful tool for studying the effect of nutrition on the development and structural changes in tendons of broiler chickens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Tibiotarsus bone characteristics and tibial dyschondroplasia incidence of broilers fed diets supplemented with leucine and valine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Duarte, C R A; Sakamoto, M I; Aguihe, P C; Pozza, P C; Santos, T C

    2017-11-29

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of standardized ileal digestible (SID) leucine and valine levels on tibiotarsus bone characteristics and the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia of broilers from day 1 to 21 (Experiment I) and day 21 to 42 post-hatch (Experiment II). Each experimental phase was evaluated independently. In both experiments, a total of 1,500 one-day-old Cobb 500 male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized design 5 × 5 factorial arrangement for a total of 25 treatments. The SID leucine and valine levels were ranged from 10.0 to 19.6 g/kg, and 6.0 to 12.0 g/kg from day 1 to 21 post-hatch, respectively, while day 21 to 42 post-hatch ranged from 10.0 to 18.0 g leucine/kg, and 5.2 to 11.2 g valine/kg. Serum calcium and phosphorus, bone concentrations of calcium, phosphorus and ash, diameter and Seedor index of the tibiotarsus were not affected (p > .05) by the treatments at 21 or 42 days of age. There was an interaction (p ≤.06) between the SID levels of leucine and valine on tibiotarsus breaking strength at 21 days, but not at 42 days of age (p > .05). Tibiotarsus breaking strength was maximized in broilers from day 1 to 21 with the dietary levels of leucine and valine at 14.2 and 9.0 g/kg respectively. Dietary leucine levels reduced linearly (p < .05) the hypertrophic zone of tibiotarsus cartilage at 21 days of age. Therefore, leucine and valine supplementation interact positively on bone strength of broilers from day 1 to 21 post-hatch. Leucine can be a useful amino acid for reducing the hypertrophic cartilage zone in broilers from day 1 to 21, but not from day 21 to 42 post-hatch. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of the Dietary Inclusion of a Probiotic, a Prebiotic or their Combinations on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens

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    MA Murshed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A total of 350-one-day old chicks were placed in 70 cages, with 14 cages per treatment. The following five treatment diets were fed for 14 days: T1 = non-supplemented, control diet (CONT; T2 = diet with antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP; T3 = diet with a probiotic (PROB; T4 = diet with a prebiotic(PREB, and T5 = diet with the probiotic and the prebiotic (SYM. The growth experiment was carried out from 1 to 14 days of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and birds were maintained at 24-h light schedule. Diets were formulated to contain 3000 kcalME/kg and 21.5% crude protein, and the test materials were added on top. The cumulative results of1 to 14 days of age revealed that broiler fed the AGP and PREB diets presented the highest BWG (305.5 and 297.3 g, respectively, while those fed the CONT diet had the lowest BWG (273.2 g (p<0.05. On the other hand, the best FCR was obtained in broilers AGP and PROB (1.296 and 1.299 g:g, respectively, while chicks on the CONT and SYM diet had the worst FCR (1.423 and 1.372 g:g, respectively (p<0.01. The results showed broilers fed the non-supplemented diet consistently presented poor performance. It was concluded that PROB or PREB can serve as alternatives to antibiotic in broiler starter feeds, with no performance impairment.

  12. The effect of reduced calorie diets, with and without fat, and the use of xylanase on performance characteristics of broilers between 0 and 42 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, H V Masey; Mathis, G; Lumpkins, B S; Bedford, M R

    2012-06-01

    When decreasing the energy value of broiler diets, nonstarch polysaccharide degrading enzymes, such as xylanase, are often used. In doing so, they are assigned an energy value and considered to contribute energy to the diet. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of decreasing energy in a broiler diet by 100 kCal/kg on performance and whether the expected drop in performance could be recovered with the use of xylanase. Two formulations were used to provide decreased energy diets, both with and without supplementary fat. Six hundred 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were placed in a 2 × 3 full factorial design in 5 randomized complete blocks. The treatments were enzyme dose at 0 or 16,000 U/kg, and the 3 different diets [positive control (PC), negative control 1, without fat (NC1), and negative control 2 with fat (NC2)]. At no point were there any interactions between diet type and enzyme inclusion; where there was an effect of xylanase, it was consistent regardless of the diet type. There was a significant effect of diet type on feed intake between d 0 to 35; NC1 and NC2 had significantly increased feed intake compared with the PC (P = 0.006). The feed conversion ratio was significantly increased in birds fed the negative control diets during 0 to 35 d and 0 to 42 d (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively). However, feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by the addition of enzyme during periods 0 to 35 d and 0 to 42 d. There were no significant main effects between d 0 and 21 (all responses P > 0.1). Liveability was not affected by any of the treatments (P > 0.1). Decreasing energy in broiler diets results in worsened performance. The use of xylanase may improve feed conversion ratio. The use of some fat may help, so the whole diet composition should be considered in conjunction with enzyme dose to achieve the best advantage.

  13. Effect of -based Direct-fed Microbial on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Intestinal Morphology and Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens

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    Xinjian Lei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based direct-fed microbial (DFM on growth performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal morphology and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. A total of two hundred and eighty eight 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allocated to one of four experimental treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was fed to eight replicate cages, with nine birds per cage. Dietary treatments were composed of an antibiotic-free basal diet (control, and the basal diet supplemented with either 15 mg/kg of virginiamycin as antibiotic growth promoter (AGP, 30 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 30 or 60 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 60. Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 1 to 21 and finisher (d 22 to 42. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, morphological parameters of the small intestine and cecal microbial populations were measured at the end of the starter (d 21 and finisher (d 42 phases. During the starter phase, DFM and virginiamycin supplementation improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR; p<0.01 compared with the control group. For the finisher phase and the overall experiment (d 1 to 42 broilers fed diets with the DFM had better body weight gain (BWG and FCR than that of control (p<0.05. Supplementation of virginiamycin and DFM significantly increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP, dry matter (DM and gross energy during both starter and finisher phases (p<0.05 compared with the control group. On d 21, villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were significantly increased for the birds fed with the DFM diets as compared with the control group (p<0.05. The DFM 30, DFM 60, and AGP groups decreased the Escherichia coli population in cecum at d 21 and d 42 compared with control

  14. The effects of a reduced balanced protein diet on litter moisture, pododermatitis and feather condition of female broiler breeders over three generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Lesuisse, J; Schallier, S; Clímaco, W; Wang, Y; Bautil, A; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2017-11-02

    Protein content reduction in broiler breeder diets has been increasingly investigated. However, broiler breeders reared on low protein diets are characterized by a deterioration of the feather condition. Furthermore, polydipsia induced by controlled feed intake increases litter moisture and as a consequence pododermatitis. This project aimed to study the litter moisture, pododermatitis and feather condition of breeders fed with a 25% reduced balanced protein (RP) diet during the rearing and laying period over three successive generations. The experiment started with two treatments for the F0 generation: control (C) group fed with standard C diets and RP group fed with RP diets. The female F0-progeny of each treatment was divided into the two dietary treatments as well, resulting in four treatments for the F1 generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C and RP/RP (breeder feed in F0/F1 generation). The RP diet fed breeders received on average 10% more feed than C diet fed breeders to achieve the same target BW. The female F1-progeny of each treatment were all fed with C diets which resulted in four treatments for the F2 generation: C/C/C, C/RP/C, RP/C/C and RP/RP/C (breeder feed in F0/F1/F2 generation). Litter moisture, footpad and hock dermatitis were recorded at regular intervals throughout the experimental period in all three generations. For the F0 and F1 generation, the pens of breeders receiving C diets had significantly higher litter moisture than the RP diets fed groups (P<0.05), resulting in an elevated footpad dermatitis occurrence (FDO) (P<0.05). No difference was found in the F2 generation. The feather condition was scored during the laying period for each generation. F0 and F1 breeders reared on the RP diets had poorer feather condition than those receiving the C diets (P<0.05). The C/RP breeders had a significantly poorer feather condition than RP/RP breeders (P<0.05). For the F2 generation, RP/RP/C breeders had a significantly better feather condition compared with

  15. Extract Has the Potential to Substitute Antibiotic in Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Han

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to investigate the potential for Forsythia suspensa extract (FSE to substitute for antibiotic in broiler chicken. First, a well-diffusion assay procedure and a 2-fold dilution method were used to determine the bacteriostatic activity of FSE on Escherichia coli K88, staphylococcus aureus, and salmonella was assayed. An inhibitory effect of FSE was observed on the growth of these bacteria. This effect seems to be dose depended, which disappeared after 25.00, 12.50, 1.56 mg/ml. Second, a 42-d trial with 252 broiler chickens (d 1, 38.7±1.1 g BW was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of FSE in broiler chicken. The feeding program consisted of a starter diet from d 1 to 21 and a finisher diet from d 22 to 42. Dietary treatments included were: i NC: negative control fed a corn-soybean meal based diet; ii PC: positive control group fed based diet with chlortetracycline; and iii FC: a test group fed with 100 mg FSE/kg diet. In this study growth performance did not differ among treatments during the starter period. However, dietary supplemental chlortetracycline and FSE increased (p<0.05 average daily gain (ADG, average daily feed intake (ADFI compared with NC during the finisher and overall phase. Apparent digestibility of calcium on d 21, digestibility of energy and calcium on d 42 of FC was greater (p<0.05 than NC. Moreover, cecal Escherichia coli counts for birds from FC were lower (p<0.05 than NC. Dietary FSE supplementation also improved (p<0.05 villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratios in both duodenum and ileum and decreased (p<0.05 crypt depth in the duodenum. Duodenum villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in both duodenum and ileum from the FC group were also greater (p<0.05. Serum growth hormone and IGF-1 were not influenced by different treatments. Apparently, FSE has the potential to substitute for antibiotic in broiler chicken.

  16. Performance of broilers experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and fed diets with addition of lactulosis

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    Eliete Souza Santana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of lactulose on performance as well as its ability to prevent colonization by Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers orally inoculated with this pathogen. The design adopted was completely randomized, with 630 one-day-old male chicks distributed into six treatments, with seven replications and 15 birds per experimental unit. The treatments comprised the following procedures: T1 (control group - no S. Typhimurium inoculation or supply of lactulosis; T2 - only inoculation of S. Typhimurium; T3 - only lactulosis supply; T4 supply of lactulosis and S. Typhimurium inoculation on the first day of life; T5 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours before S. Typhimurium inoculation; and T6 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours after inoculation of S. Typhimurium. Performance variables were evaluated on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th days of age; fragments of the duodenum and jejunum were collected and sent to histomorphometric assessment at 14 days of age, and S. Typhimurium excretion was verified in cloacal swabs on the 10th, 24th and 35th days of age. Performance data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (5% and fecal excretion data were assessed by non-parametric chi-square test. Better weight gain and feed conversion were observed in groups fed lactulosis with or without challenge of S. Typhimurium up to 21 days of age. Reduced duodenum villous height was verified on the 14th day in groups challenged with the pathogen. Reduction of S. Typhimurium fecal excretion was verified in broilers fed lactulosis from the first day of life on and 48 hours before receiving S. Typhimurium directly into the crop. Lactulosis increases broiler performance up to one week after its inoculation, influences duodenum villous height and reduces the fecal excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium.

  17. Effects of ground thyme and probiotic supplements in diets on broiler performance, blood biochemistry and immunological response to sheep red blood cells

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    Seyed A. Hosseini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to study the effects of the aromatic plant thyme, a commercial probiotic (Protexin and avilamycin on broiler performance, blood biochemical parameters and also the antibody response to sheep red blood cells. A total of 750 broilers were assigned into five replicate groups for each of five dietary treatments, namely; control (C, 2.5 mg/kg avilamycin (AB, 0.1 g/kg commercial probiotic (P, 5 g/kg ground thyme (T1, and 7.5 g/kg ground thyme (T2. In general, body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments compared to the control birds (P>0.05. Birds fed the P supplemented treatment had the greatest serum protein levels (P<0.001 and highest albumin levels (P<0.001 when compared with control birds, while the birds fed T2 had the lowest (P<0.001. Dietary supplementation reduced (P<0.001 cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum of broilers, with the effect were more noticeable by P supplements. Moreover, blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations were higher (P<0.001 in birds fed the P-supplemented diet compared to the birds fed the control diets. This study suggests that probiotic supplementation in particular, and to an intermediate extent ground thyme supplementation in diets of broiler, resulted in chicks with favorably improved blood biochemical parameters and mineral utilization, compared to the birds fed diets supplemented with avilamycin or without any supplementation.

  18. Energy and protein levels in diets containing phytase for broilers from 22 to 42 days of age: performance and nutrient excretion

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    Adriano Kaneo Nagata

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of different levels of metabolizable energy and crude protein in diets formulated according to the ideal protein concept with phytase supplementation on performance and nutrient excretion of broilers from 22 to 42 days age. It was used 1,500 Coob lineage broilers at 22 days of age and with initial weight of 833 ± 7g, distributed in completely randomized design in a 3 × 3 + 1 factorial scheme composed of three levels of correct apparent metabolizable energy (2,950; 3,100 and 3,250 kcal/kg, three levels of crude protein (14, 16 and 18% and a control treatment, totaling ten treatments with six repetitions of 25 birds each. All diets, with the exception of the control, were supplemented with phytase. For determination of excretion of pollutants, it was used 180 broilers from the same lineage at 35 days of age,placed in metabolic cages, with ten treatments each one with six repetitions and three birds per experimental unit. The protein and energy levels in diets containing phytase influenced feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and excretion of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, copper and zinc by the birds. The corrected apparent metabolizable energy level in the diets for broilers in the studied period must be increased up to 3,250 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy and the levels of crude protein, calcium and phosphorus must be reduced down to 18, 0.70 and 0.31%, respectively, provided that supplemented with amino acids and phytase to improve the performance and to reduce excretion of pollutants by birds.

  19. Effect of Phytase Superdoses and Citric Acid on Growth Performance, Plasma Phosphorus and Tibia Ash in Broilers Fed Canola Meal-Based Diets Severely Limited in Available Phosphorus

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    Taheri HR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase superdoses alone or in combination with citric acid (CA in canola meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (Pa on growth performance, plasma phosphorus (P, and tibia ash (TA in broilers from 22 to 42 d of age. Two hundreds and eighty 21-d-old male broilers were used in 28 pens of 10 birds per each. The experimental diets consisted of a positive control (PC diet and six negative control (NC diets which consisted of two levels of CA (0 and 20 g/Kg and three levels of phytase (0, 1000 and 4000 U/Kg in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. The PC diet contained 4.3 g/Kg Pa, but all NC diets contained 1.5 g/Kg Pa. Results indicated that the birds fed the PC diet had a significantly higher average daily gain (ADG, plasma P and TA, but a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR than those fed the NC diet. The ADG, FCR and plasma P values in birds fed NC diets supplemented with 4000 U/Kg phytase enzyme (with or without CA significantly reached those of birds fed the PC diet. But, addition of phytase enzyme at 1000 U/Kg only plus CA to the NC diet could significantly improve FCR and plasma P. A significant interaction was observed between phytase and CA for FCR and plasma P. Although TA values in NC + 1000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA were similar to the PC treatment, TA values of NC + 4000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA was greater than that of the PC treatment. Results of this study showed that, in severely limited Pa corn-canola meal-based diets, supplementing 4000 U/Kg phytase or also 1000 U/Kg phytase plus CA will be sufficient to obtain the comparable feed efficiency in broilers to those fed the adequate Pa diet.

  20. Effect of diets containing potato protein or soya bean meal on the incidence of spontaneously-occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis and the physiological response in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, P S; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M; Silva, S S P

    2011-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to compare and explain the incidence of spontaneously occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that were fed on two practical broiler diets that differed in the major protein concentrates (soya bean meal or potato protein concentrates) and examine the relationships between the severity of the disease and the growth performance and physiological responses of the chickens. 2. A total of 840, 20-d-old birds were randomly allocated to 12 pens. Two maize-based nutritionally complete diets that either contained some potato protein or soya bean meal as the major protein supplement were fed for 16 d. Twelve birds were randomly sampled from each pen at the end of the feeding period and their blood sampled and intestinal tracts and livers dissected. 3. The birds fed on the potato protein diet had a significantly 7·7% lower feed intake and a significantly 7·8% lower growth rate compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet. There were no significant differences in feed conversion efficiency or mortality. There were no differences in the determined apparent metabolisable energy concentrations, however, the apparent dry matter digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly higher than that of the soya based diet and the apparent crude protein digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly lower. 4. A significantly higher alpha toxin antibody titre was found in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with those fed on the soya protein diet. There was a significantly increased incidence of hepatic lesions in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with the birds fed on the soya diet. The mean incidence of intestinal necroses tended to be greater in the birds fed on the potato protein diet (23·6%) compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet (15·3%). 5. There was a significant linear relationship between ileal digesta sialic acid concentration and serum alpha toxin

  1. Effect of oleic and conjugated linoleic acid in the diet of broiler chickens on the live growth performances, carcass traits and meat fatty acid profile

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    Stefano Rapaccini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil and CLA enriched olive oil were compared with each other in a growth trial with broiler chickens, as energy supplements to the diet. A commercial CLA blend was used at the level of 1 kg per 100 kg mixed integrated feed. Two hundred and forty commercial hybrid broilers (Ross 308 were randomly subdivided and allotted to 8 pens of 30 birds each. Four pens of birds were fed the olive oil diet and considered the control group; the other 4 pens were fed the olive oil supplemented with CLA and considered the treated group. The experiment lasted 47 days. The live performance of the treated birds resulted different from the performance of the control ones: the final body weight was slightly lighter (2.544 kg vs 2.639 kg; P≤0.05 with a lower feed intake (4.886 kg feed vs 4.998 kg, P≤0.05 and, of course, an almost perfectly overlapping feed/gain ratio (1.90 vs 1.91. The fatty acid composition of the breast fat of the CLA treated birds resulted enriched by the two major CLA isomers, trans 10 cis 12 and cis 9 trans 11, whereas oleic acid and the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic polyunsaturated acids showed a decrease (P≤0.05. CLA appears a recommendable ingredient in the diets of broilers as it improves the beneficial characteristics of poultry meat.

  2. The effect of phytogenic feed additives to substitute in-feed antibiotics on growth traits and blood biochemical parameters in broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudabos, Alaeldein M; Alyemni, Abdullah H; Dafalla, Yousif M; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing concern over the use of antibiotics due to the increased resistance of pathogens in broiler. The present study was designed to find the comparative effect of an antibiotic, and some phytogenic on performance traits, blood biochemical parameters, and antioxidant status during starter phase exposed to Salmonella typhimurium challenge. A total of 560-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to seven treatments (eight replicates). Control (basal diet); T1, infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. typhimurium; T2, infected + avilamycin at the rate of 0.2 g/kg; T3, infected + essential oil of thymol; T4, infected + phytogenic; T5, infected + anti-Salmonella organic acid; and T6, infected + essential oils of thyme, anise, and other components. Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly (P feed additives could be substituted with antibiotics in the feed of broiler exposed to S. typhimurium challenge.

  3. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

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    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  4. Probiotic and prebiotic utilization in diets for free-range broiler chickens

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    K Pelícia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effects of probiotic associated to prebiotic on performance, carcass and cut yields, qualitative traits of meat, development and score of lesions due to coccidiosis in digestive tract of broiler chickens raised in a free-range system during 85 days. One thousand, six hundred and ninety-six day-old male broiler chicks from naked-neck ISA S757-N Label Rouge line were used in a randomized block design with factorial scheme of 4x2 and four repetitions. The effect of four additive (1 - biologic promoter + coccidiosis vaccine; 2 - biologic promoter + anti-coccidiosis; 3 - chemical promoter + coccidiosis vaccine; 4 - chemical promoter + anti-coccidiosis and two breeding systems from 35th day of age (one with no-access to pasture or confined and the other with free-access to pasture or semi-confined on performance parameters, carcass and cut yields, qualitative meat traits, coccidiosis development and lesions in digestive tract were evaluated. There was effect (p<0.05 of additives only on sensorial analysis (meat quality and percentage of large intestine. Breeding systems affected (p<0.05 live weight (LW and LW gains, being the better results observed in semi-confined birds.

  5. Effects of diet, packaging, and irradiation on protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, and color of raw broiler thigh meat during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S; Zhang, W G; Lee, E J; Ma, C W; Ahn, D U

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary treatment, packaging, and irradiation singly or in combination on the oxidative stability of broiler chicken thigh meat. A total of 120 four-week-old chickens were divided into 12 pens (10 birds/pen), and 4 pens of broilers were randomly assigned to a control oxidized diet (5% oxidized oil) or an antioxidant-added diet [500 IU of vitamin E + 200 mg/kg of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)] and fed for 2 wk. After slaughter, thigh meats were separated, ground, packaged in either oxygen-permeable or oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, and irradiated at 0 or 3 kGy. Lipid oxidation (TBA-reactive substances), protein oxidation (carbonyl), and color of the meat were measured at 1, 4, and 7 d of refrigerated storage. The lipid and protein oxidation of thigh meats from birds fed the diet supplemented with antioxidants (vitamin E + BHA) was significantly lower than the lipid and protein oxidation of birds fed the control diet, whereas the lipid and protein oxidation of broilers fed the oxidized oil diet was higher than that of birds fed the control diet. Vacuum packaging slowed, but irradiation accelerated, the lipid and protein oxidation of thigh meat during storage. Dietary antioxidants (vitamin E + BHA) and irradiation treatments showed a stronger effect on lipid oxidation than on protein oxidation. A significant correlation between lipid and protein oxidation in meat was found during storage. Dietary supplementation of vitamin E + BHA and the irradiation treatment increased the lightness and redness of thigh meat, respectively. It is suggested that appropriate use of dietary antioxidants in combination with packaging could be effective in minimizing oxidative changes in irradiated raw chicken thigh meat.

  6. Chemical composition and nutritive value of kapok seed meal for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, D; Asha Rajini, R

    2003-07-01

    1. Mechanically extracted kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seed meal (KSM) contained 324 g crude protein, 97 g ether extract, 289 g fibre, 94 g ash, 128 g available carbohydrates, 3-8 g calcium, 11 g phosphorus, 10.4 g cyclopropenoid fatty acids and 15 g tannins per kg. 2. In a 4 x 2 factorial experiment, KSM was incorporated in broiler starter and finisher feeds at 0, 30, 60 and 90 g/kg, replacing sunflower meal (SFM) w/w; without and with multi-enzyme supplementation. 3. No significant differences were noticed between treatments in body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency, mortality or carcase yields. 4. Multi-enzyme (amylase, endoxylanase, hemicellulase, beta-glucanase, pectinase, phytase and protease) supplementation did not improve the growth performance of broilers fed on the KSM diets.

  7. Effect of different concentrations of aqueous extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale on performance and carcass characteristics of male broiler chickens in wheat-soybean meal based diets

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    Rajab Fakhim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of using different concentrations of ginger extract (Zingiber officinale on performance and carcass characteristics of male broiler chickens. Three hundred one-day-old commercial male broilers (Cobb-500 were randomly allocated in 20 floor pens (15 chicks each. Animals of each pen were supplemented with five different concentrations of ginger and the experiment was performed in quadruplicate. The broilers were fed a wheat-soybean meal based diet containing different concentrations of ginger extract (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% supplemented to drinking water. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured during 1 to 10, 11 to 21, 22 to 42 and 1 to 42 days of age. At 42 days of age, two birds from each pen were selected and after weighing and slaughtered were dissected manually. Carcass yield, liver, abdominal fat and gut weight is expressed as percentage of live body weight. The results showed that there is no significant difference in the feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio between the different treatments except the feed conversion ratio of the period 1 to 10 days of age (p<0.05. Also, different supplemented concentrations of ginger extract to drinking water of broilers influenced the carcass yield (p<0.05.

  8. Subprodutos do maracujá em dietas para frangos de corte = Passion fruit by-products in broiler diets

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    Cristina Kimie Togashi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com 200 frangos de corte machos da linhagem Cobb, a fim de avaliar desempenho, características de carcaça e teores de colesterol em tecidos e soro quando alimentados com rações compostas por milho e farelo de soja suplementadascom diferentes níveis de semente e casca de maracujá. Os tratamentos foram: 4% de casca, 8% de casca, 4% semente e 8% semente. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em modelo fatorial 2x2, com um tratamento adicional, quatrorepetições e dez aves por unidade experimental. Foram utilizados contrastes ortogonais com dois níveis de suplementação e dois subprodutos. As aves foram criadas com as rações experimentais a partir de 22 dias e abatidas aos 42 dias de idade para a coleta de dados. A utilização de subprodutos de maracujá modificou os teores de colesterol nos tecidos sem afetar a maior parte das características de desempenho das aves. A semente e casca de maracujá reduziram o conteúdo de colesterol presente nos músculos do peito e da perna.A trial was performed using two hundred male Cobb broilers to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and cholesterollevels in the tissue and serum, when fed diets based on corn and soybean meal supplemented with different levels of passion fruit seed and peel. The following treatments were evaluated: blank treatment, 4% of peel, 8% of peel, 4% of seed and 8% of seed. A completely randomized experimental design was used with a 2 x 2 factorial scheme with an additional treatment, four repetitions and ten birds per experimental unit. A model of orthogonal contrast was used, withtwo levels of supplementation and two kinds of byproducts. The birds were raised with the experimental diets from 22 to 42 days of age; they were then slaughtered for collection of data. The use of passion fruit by-products modified the cholesterol levels without affecting the majority of the performance characteristics of

  9. Effects of Different Levels of Full Fat Safflower Seed on Performance of 21-42 Days Old Broiler Chickens

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    M Malekian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of full fat safflower seed (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of diet on performance, carcass characteristics and selected blood metabolites of broiler chickens from Arbor Acres Plus strain. The experiment was designed with 350 commercial one-day-old male broiler chickens using completely randomized design with 5 dietary treatments and 5 replications. Prior to the study, a commercial starter diet was fed to broiler chickens for 3 weeks. On day 21 of age 14 birds were allocated to each experimental unit (1.5×1.5 m floor pen. Experimental diets for the five treatments were prepared to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Broiler chickens were provided with feed and water ad libitum. Data on weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency were recorded weekly basis. At the end of the experiment (42 days of age one bird from each replication was selected randomly, blood sample was collected and the birds were slaughtered to determine carcass parameters. Inclusion of full fat safflower seed in experimental diets, did not significantly affect weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency. Breast yield, thighs, empty gastrointestinal tract, liver, gizzard and abdominal fat pad percentages to live weight were not affected by dietary treatments. Serum triglyceride was numerically decreased as the full fat safflower seed was increased in the diets. 20% full fat safflower seed diet significantly decreased total serum cholesterol in compare to control group but other levels had no significant difference with control group. In conclusion, feeding different levels of full fat safflower seed did not show any negative effect on performance, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites of broiler chickens.

  10. Influence of source and level of glycerin in the diet on growth performance, liver characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in broilers from hatching to 21 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalawi, H A; Kimiaeitalab, M V; Obregon, V; Menoyo, D; Mateos, G G

    2014-11-01

    The influence of source and level of inclusion of raw glycerin (GLYC) in the diet on growth performance, digestive traits, total tract apparent retention (TTAR), and apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients was studied in broilers from 1 to 21 d of age. There was a control diet based on corn and soybean meal and 8 additional diets that formed a 2 × 4 factorial with 2 sources of GLYC and 4 levels of inclusion (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10%). The GLYC used were obtained from the same original batch of soy oil that was dried under different processing conditions and contained 87.5 or 81.6% glycerol, respectively. Type of processing of the GLYC did not affect any of the variables studied except DM and organic matter retention (P diet. From d 1 to 21, feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved linearly (L, P ≤ 0.01) as the GLYC content of the diet increased, but ADG was not affected. On d 21, the relative weight (% BW) of the liver and the digestive tract increased (L, P diet increased, but lipid concentration in the liver was not affected. The TTAR of DM and organic matter increased quadratically (Q, P diet increased linearly (L, P diet increased. It is concluded that raw GLYC from the biodiesel industry can be used efficiently, up to 10% of the diet, as a source of energy for broilers from 1 to 21 d of age and that the energy content of well-processed raw GLYC depends primarily on its glycerol content. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets with Bacillus subtilis and malic acid additives

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    Martin Král

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of probiotics and malic acid diet on meat quality was assessed. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. The significant difference (p0.05.

  12. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)

  13. Effects of vitamin E and fish oil inclusion in broiler diets on meat fatty acid composition and on the flavour of a composite sample of breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D Ian

    2010-08-15

    Enriching poultry meat with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) can increase low population intakes of LC n-3 PUFA, but fishy taints can spoil reheated meat. This experiment determined the effect of different amounts of LC n-3 PUFA and vitamin E in the broiler diet on the fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of the breast meat. Ross 308 broilers (120) were randomly allocated to one of five treatments from 21 to 42 days of age. Diets contained (g kg(-1)) 0, 9 or 18 LC n-3 PUFA (0LC, 9LC, 18LC), and 100, 150 or 200 mg LD-alpha-tocopherol acetate kg(-1) (E). The five diets were 0LC100E, 9LC100E, 18LC100E, 18LC150E, 18LC200E, with four pens per diet, except 18LC100E (eight pens). Breast meat was analysed for fatty acids (uncooked) and sensory analysis by R-index (reheated). LC n-3 PUFA content (mg kg(-1) meat) was 514 (0LC100E) and 2236 (9LC and 18LC). Compared with 0LC100E, meat from 18LC100E and 18LC150E tasted significantly different, while 23% of panellists detected fishy taints in 9LC100E and 18LC200E. Chicken meat can be enriched with nutritionally meaningful amounts of LC n-3 PUFA, but > 100 mg dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate kg(-1) broiler diet is needed to protect reheated meat from oxidative deterioration. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Growth Performance, Meat Yield, Oxidative Stability, and Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Broilers Fed Diets Supplemented with a Medicinal Plant and Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Elias Hossain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of Alisma canaliculatum with probiotics (ACP on the growth performance, meat composition, oxidative stability, and fatty acid composition of broiler meat. Sixteen probiotic strains were tested for their levels of acid, bile, and heat tolerance. Among them, Lactobacillus acidophilus KCTC 3111, Enterococcus faecium KCTC 2022, Bacillus subtilis KCTC 3239, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCTC 7928 were selected for use in ACP. Exactly 140 Ross broiler chicks were assigned to four dietary treatments in five replications for 5 wks in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments were NC (Negative control; basal diet, PC (Positive control; basal diet with 0.005% Chlortetracycline, ACP-0.5% (basal diet with 0.5% ACP powder, and ACP-1% (basal diet with 1% ACP powder. According to the results, body weight of the broilers increased, and feed conversion ratio improved in the ACP-0.5% group compared to the NC group (p<0.05. Crude protein content of breast meat was higher (p<0.05 in the ACP-0.5% group, whereas crude fat content of thigh meat was lower (p<0.05 in the supplemented groups. Breast meat absolute and relative weights were both higher (p<0.05 in the ACP groups compared to the control group. Further, ACP diets increased gizzard and decreased large intestine relative weights, whereas kidney relative weight decreased upon the addition of a higher level (1% of ACP (p<0.05. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of breast and thigh meats were reduced (p<0.05 by ACP supplementation compared to control. Regarding the fatty acid composition of breast meat, arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, PUFA, and n6 fatty acid levels decreased (p<0.05 in the ACP groups, whereas the levels of linoleic acid, PUFA, PUFA/SFA, and n6 fatty acid in thigh meat decreased (p<0.05 by ACP and PC diets. It can be suggested based on the study results that ACP-0.5% diet could be an effective feed additive

  15. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Long

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21 and the grower (day 22 to 42 phases. The results showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly improved in broilers fed a diet containing 24 mg/kg octacosanol compared with those fed the control diet in the overall phase (day 1 to 42, p = 0.042. The average daily gain and FCR both showed linear effects in response to dietary supplementation of octacosanol during the overall phase (p = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively. Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet showed a higher eviscerated yield, which increased by 5.88% and 4.26% respectively, than those fed the control diet (p = 0.030. The breast muscle yield of broilers fed with 24 mg/kg octacosanol diet increased significantly by 12.15% compared with those fed the control diet (p = 0.047. Eviscerated and breast muscle yield increased linearly with the increase in dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively. Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet had a greater (p = 0.021 pH45min value in the breast muscle, which was maintained linearly in response to dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.003. There was a significant decrease (p = 0.007 in drip loss value between the octacosanol-added and the control groups. The drip loss showed linear (p = 0.004 and quadratic (p = 0.041 responses with dietary supplementation of octacosanol. These studies indicate that octacosanol is a potentially effective and safe feed additive which may improve feed efficiency and meat

  16. Effect of chick weight, geometric mean diameter and sodium level in prestarter diets (1 to 7 days on broiler perfomance up to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AML Ribeiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven hundred and twenty Ross 308 chicks were raised in a controlled environment room, distributed in a factorial design with 3 hatching chick weights (37, 40 and 44 g, 3 geometric mean diameter (GMD (0.561; 0.783 and 0.997 mm and 4 total sodium levels (Na (0.12; 0.24; 0.36 and 0.48% in the pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days. From 8 to 21 days (d one single basal diet was used for all treatments. The thirty seven-gram chicks had the smallest yolk sack weight at 4d, smallest body weight (BW and feed intake (FI at 7d and 21d, but the same feed conversion (FC than the other groups of hatching weight. Chicks receiving diet with intermediate GMD had the greatest BW and FI at 7d, but at 21d this effect was no longer seen. The diet with finest particle size resulted in birds with the smallest gizzard weight at 7d. The 0.12%Na diet was statistically different from the other Na levels, resulting in chicks at 7d with the worst FC and lowest body weights. At 21d, BW still was the lowest for this group of chicks. Birds with 0.48%Na produced more watery excreta and less dry matter in the carcass at 7d. Water consumption (C H2O was influenced linearly by chick weight up to 0.36%Na level. In the 0.48%Na level, 40 and 44 g chicks had similar C H2O, which was different from 37-g chicks. For best performance, Na values were set from 0.31 to 0.48%. The three studied factors influenced quality of pre-starter diet and consequently chick performance.

  17. Effects of oat hulls and wood shavings on digestion in broilers and layers fed diets based on whole or ground wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, H; Svihus, B; Krogdahl, A

    2003-05-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of inclusion of oat hulls in diets based on whole or ground wheat for broilers. Effects of wood shavings on layers were investigated in a further experiment. 2. Inclusion of oat hulls in wheat-based broiler diets did not affect weight gain. Feed conversion efficiency (FCE), corrected for insoluble fibre contents, was improved by oat hull inclusion. 3. Gizzard size increased with inclusion of oat hulls, whole wheat, wood shavings and grit. 4. Starch digestibility was significantly increased by inclusion of oat hulls for broilers, and by wood shavings for layers. 5. Wood shavings and whole wheat did not affect bile acid concentration of gizzard contents. However, the total amount of bile acids in gizzard increased with access to wood shavings due to an increase in the weight of gizzard contents, indicating an increased gastroduodenal reflux. 6. Fibre concentration was considerably higher in the gizzard contents than in the feed. 7. Duodenal particle size decreased with access to grit. No effect of hulls or whole wheat inclusion was found, indicating that all particles are ground to a certain critical size before leaving the gizzard.

  18. Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) inclusion in diets for male broiler chickens: effects on growth performance, gut morphology, and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasato, I; Gasco, L; De Marco, M; Renna, M; Rotolo, L; Dabbou, S; Capucchio, M T; Biasibetti, E; Tarantola, M; Sterpone, L; Cavallarin, L; Gai, F; Pozzo, L; Bergagna, S; Dezzutto, D; Zoccarato, I; Schiavone, A

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Tenebrio molitor (TM) larvae meal inclusion in diets for broilers. A total of 160 male broiler chicks (Ross 708) at one-day of age were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments: a control (C) group and three TM groups, in which TM meal was included at 50 (TM5), 100 (TM10), and 150 (TM15) g/kg, respectively. The experimental diets were isonitrogenous and isoenergetic. Each group consisted of five pens as replicates (8 chicks/pen). After the evaluation of growth performance and haematochemical parameters, the animals were slaughtered at 53 days and carcass traits were recorded. Morphometric investigations were performed on duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and histopathological alterations were assessed for liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney, and heart. The live weight (LW) showed a linear (12 and 25 days, P 0.05). TM15 birds showed lower villus height (P < 0.05), higher crypt depth (P < 0.05), and lower villus height to crypt depth ratio (P = 0.001) compared with C and TM5. In conclusion, increasing levels of dietary TM meal inclusion in male broiler chickens may improve body weight and feed intake, but negatively affect feed efficiency and intestinal morphology, thus suggesting that low levels may be more suitable. However, no effect on haematochemical parameters, carcass traits, and histological findings were observed in relation to TM meal utilization. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Efficiency of Tribulus terrestris L. as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on performance and immune responses in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Fekri Yazdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of Tribulus terrestris L. (puncture vine as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on growth performance, carcass traits, and immune responses in broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 1 92 one-day-old as hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allocated to four treatment groups, with 4 replicates of 12 birds. The following treatments were applied: basal diet (control, control+4.5 mg flavophospholipol/kg, or control+1 or 5 g puncture vine powder/kg. Vaccines against newcastle, influenza disease, and sheep red blood cells were administered to immunological stimuli. Results: Daily feed intake, internal organ weights, and carcass traits were not influenced by the dietary treatments except for carcass yield that increased in broilers fed diet supplemented with 1 g puncture vine powder/kg at 42nd day. Broilers receiving 1 g puncture vine/kg tended to have a lower feed conversion ratio compared to other groups during starter, finisher and entire experimental period (P>0.05. Broilers receiving 1 or 5 g puncture vine/kg had higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus compared to other groups (P<0.05. Broilers receiving 1 g puncture vine/kg had the highest antibody titer against avian influenza virus and sheep red blood cells at 28 and 31 days of age, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, the overall results of the current study showed that puncture vine powder seems to have the potential to positively influence growth performance and immune responses of broiler chicks.

  20. Evaluation of two mycotoxin binders to reduce toxicity of broiler diets containing ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin contaminated grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A R; Avila, E; Rosiles, R; Petrone, V M

    2003-01-01

    In order to assess ochratoxin A (OA) and T-2 toxin (T-2) binding ability of two commercial sorbents, both in vitro and in vivo trials with broilers were performed. Crude OA and T-2 extracts from contaminated grain were used to assess in vitro binding ability of two sorbents (Zeotek [Zk] and Mycofix [Mx]), by quantifying free mycotoxin through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. For in vivo trial, a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used for this experiment, being the factors: adsorbents (none, Zk, and Mx), OA (0 and 567 parts per billion [ppb]) and T-2 (0 and 927 ppb). OA and T-2 contaminated wheat and corn, respectively, were added to sorghum-soybean meal diets to meet 567 ppb of OA and 927 ppb of T-2. Mycotoxins were fed alone or combined in treatments. After 21 days, blood chemistry, gross, and histological evaluations were performed. Relative weights of liver, kidney, and bursa of Fabricius were obtained. Zk had the highest OA and T-2 in vitro binding ability (100% and 8.67%, respectively). Chickens fed OA with or without sorbents had a lower body weight and feed intake reduction. However, those birds fed T-2 were partly protected by a sorbent. Birds fed both toxins showed toxic additive effects, and no protection of any adsorbent was observed. A significant reduction in plasma proteins, albumin, and globulins was a characteristic observed in all birds fed diets with OA both with or without adsorbents. Uric acid level in blood was increased in all chickens fed OA-contaminated diets. Histological findings observed in birds fed OA-contaminated diets were necrosis of kidney tubular cells, swollen and necrotic hepatocytes, bile ducts hyperplasia, and increased diameter of proventriculus glands. In birds that received T-2 alone, only the liver, with the same kind of lesions, was affected. According to these results, it can be concluded that there is not a relation between in vitro and in vivo trials. OA toxic effects could not be counteracted by any

  1. Behavioral changes and feathering score in heat stressed broiler chickens fed diets containing different levels of propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavioral patterns and feather condition of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four (504) male Ross 708 broiler chicks at 15-day old were randomly allotted to six dietary tr...

  2. Dietary non-phytate phosphorus requirement of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 1 to 21 d of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S B; Liao, X D; Lu, L; Li, S F; Wang, L; Zhang, L Y; Jiang, Y; Luo, X G

    2017-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) level on growth performance, bone characteristics and phosphorus metabolism-related gene expressions, so as to evaluate the dietary NPP requirement of broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 1 to 21 d of age. A total of 540 day-old Arbor Acres male chicks were randomly allocated to one of nine treatments with six replicate cages of 10 birds per cage in a completely randomized design, and fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (containing 0.08% of NPP) supplemented with 0.10, 0.15, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, or 0.50% of inorganic phosphorus in the form of CaHPO4·2H2O, respectively. Each diet contained the constant calcium content of about 1.0%. The results showed that daily weight gain, serum inorganic P, tibia bone strength, tibia ash percentage, tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), middle toe ash percentage, middle toe BMC and BMD were affected (P dietary NPP level, and increased linearly (P dietary NPP levels increased. The gene expression of type IIb sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) in the duodenum was affected (P dietary NPP levels increased. Dietary NPP requirements estimated based on fitted broken-line models (P dietary NPP requirements of broilers, and the dietary NPP requirement is 0.39% for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 1 to 21 d of age. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. THE EFFECT OF DIET CONTAINING HIGH ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID ON OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND HEALTH STATUS OF THE HEART IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Retna Kartikasari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to examine the effect of diet high in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA on omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA and the health status of the heart. Diets were based on a commercial starter diet, with a low level of fat. The experimental diets contained two levels of ALA (2.23 and 19.37%, with the total fat content was approximately 5%. Pure or blended vegetable oils were included at a level of 2.8% in order to produce diets with the desired levels of linoleic acid (LA and ALA. The ratio of LA to ALA of the diets  was  9.75:1 for control diet and 1.37:1 for high ALA diet. Each diet was provided ad libitum for the duration of the 28-d growth period. At 28 days of age, six selected birds from each pen (12 birds per group were weighed individually and hearts were collected for analysis. A ratio of right ventricle mass (RV to total ventricle mass (TV was used to indicate the health status of the heart. Results showed that dietary treatment increased the level of ALA from 0.1% (control diet to 0.5% (P<0.01. Increasing levels of dietary ALA raised the level of n-3 LCPUFA and total n-3 in heart tissues by 4-5-fold. There was no significant difference observed in the level of heart LA, arachidonic acid (AA and total n-6. The increased levels of dietary ALA did not cause changes in the ratio of RV to total TV. In conclusion, it appears clear that based on our data, increasing ALA content in the diet of chickens could potentially be beneficial for the health of the birds; however, further work is necessary.

  4. Energetic values and performace of broilers feeding sorghum and soybean meal based diets supplemented with B-glucanase and B-xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro de Abreu Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grains, brans, and vegetable meals may contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, which increases viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and interfere with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and determine the metabolizable energy of a sorghum-based broiler diet with and without the supplementation of an enzymatic complex. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with 1200 chickens, using sorghum-based feed with and without the addition of 50 g of enzyme-CCE complex (?-glucanase and ?-xylanase, and with two levels of metabolizable energy (ME kg-1: ME; ME + CCE; reduced ME (-50 kcal kg-1; and reduced ME + CCE. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance and the means were compared using a Tukey’s test at the 5% significance level. At 42 and 47 days of age, the living weight of the birds fed with the reduced ME was low, while birds fed with reduced ME + CCE had the same weight as those fed with other energy diets (ME and ME + CCE. Feed conversion was poorest at 47 days of age for the birds on reduced ME diet. In the metabolic test (with fattening diets to determine AME and AMEn, the reduced ME diet had the lowest result, confirming the effect of the addition of enzymes. The addition of CCE to sorghum-based diets provides enough enzymatic activity to increase the metabolizable energy of the diet (50 kcal of AME and influence the growth performance of broilers at the slaughtering age.

  5. Effects of dietary fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. on growth performance, digestibility, and intestinal microbiology and morphology in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hong Mei; Song, Hui; Xing, Ya Li; Niu, Shu Li; Ding, Guo Dong; Jiang, Yun Yao; Liang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (HFC) on growth performance, digestibility, intestinal microbiology, and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. A total of 600 male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into five dietary treatments (20 broilers per pen with six pens per treatment): CON (basal diet), ANT (basal diet supplemented with 5 mg kg(-1) flavomycin) and HFC (basal diet supplemented with 6, 12, and 18 g kg(-1) HFC). The experimental lasted for 42 days. The results revealed that the average daily gain [linear (L), P < 0.01; quadratic (Q), P < 0.01] of broilers increased when the HFC levels increased during the starter (days 1-21), finisher (days 22-42), and the overall experiment period (days 1 to 42). In the small intestinal digesta and the caecum digesta, the Escherichia coli count (L, P < 0.05; Q, P < 0.001) decreased while the Lactobacilli count (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) and Bifidobacteria count (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. The crude protein digestibility of broilers (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. In the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of broilers, the villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. Dietary supplementation with HFC increased gut Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria counts and inhibited E. coli growth, improved nutrient utilisation and intestine villus structure, and thus improved the growth of broilers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. SPSS for starters

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2010-01-01

    This book contains all statistical tests relevant for starters on SPSS. Each test is explained using a data example from clinical practice along with the main tables of results with an accompanying text with interpretations of the results and hints.

  7. The response of broiler chicks to diets supplemented with whole or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    of adaptation to the diets, followed by 4 days of total faecal collection and measurement of feed consumption and growth. Intestinal samples were collected at the end of the trial and used to assess mucosal morphometry and expression of digestive enzymes. Results and Discussion. The extraction of oligosaccharides from ...

  8. Effect of commercial diets quality on bio-economic performances of broilers in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, F M; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C A A M

    2009-01-01

    was 388 Fcfa/kg BWG, and EFE was 2.7 Fcfa BWG/Fcfa feed. These values represented respectively 50 to 64% and 1.6 to 2.0 times the FC and the EFE recorded in commercial diets. A deficiency in crude protein and metabolisable energy, combined with high contents of crude fibre and total ash was found in some...

  9. Effect of dietary calcium concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis incidence in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyuk; Jung, Hyunjung; Pitargue, Franco Martinez; Han, Gi Ppeum; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) incidence in growing broiler chickens. A total of 1,800 21-day-old Ross 308 growing broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicated cages. Six diets were formulated to provide increasing Ca concentrations of 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0 g/kg in diets. The concentrations of NPP in all diets were maintained at 3.0 g/kg, and phytase was supplemented to all diets at the level of 1,000 fytase units (FTU)/kg. At the end of the 14-d feeding trial, birds were euthanized for tibia sampling, and litter samples were collected from 3 areas in the cage. The FPD incidence was measured based on a 6-point scoring system. Dietary Ca concentrations had no effect on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, a tendency (linear, p = 0.05) for decreased feed efficiency was observed as dietary Ca concentrations were increased. The concentrations of Ca and P in the tibia of broiler chickens increased (linear and quadratic, pgrowth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, Ca and P concentrations in the tibia are decreased if dietary Ca concentrations are less than 5.0 g/kg. The FPD incidence for growing broiler chickens may be decreased if less than 9.0 g/kg of Ca is included in diets.

  10. Effect of dietary calcium concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis incidence in growing broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyuk; Jung, Hyunjung; Pitargue, Franco Martinez; Han, Gi Ppeum; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-01-01

    Objective An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) incidence in growing broiler chickens. Methods A total of 1,800 21-day-old Ross 308 growing broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicated cages. Six diets were formulated to provide increasing Ca concentrations of 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0 g/kg in diets. The concentrations of NPP in all diets were maintained at 3.0 g/kg, and phytase was supplemented to all diets at the level of 1,000 fytase units (FTU)/kg. At the end of the 14-d feeding trial, birds were euthanized for tibia sampling, and litter samples were collected from 3 areas in the cage. The FPD incidence was measured based on a 6-point scoring system. Results Dietary Ca concentrations had no effect on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, a tendency (linear, p = 0.05) for decreased feed efficiency was observed as dietary Ca concentrations were increased. The concentrations of Ca and P in the tibia of broiler chickens increased (linear and quadratic, pgrowth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, Ca and P concentrations in the tibia are decreased if dietary Ca concentrations are less than 5.0 g/kg. The FPD incidence for growing broiler chickens may be decreased if less than 9.0 g/kg of Ca is included in diets. PMID:28427257

  11. Effect of Various Levels of Roasted Fullfat Soybean and Methionine on Performance and Blood Parameter of Male Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Teimury

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different levels of roasted fullfat soybean and methionine on performance of broilers,an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design on 312day-old male broilers Ross strain with 6 treatments(three levels roasted soybean 0,8,12 and two levels of DL-methionine 100 and 110% Ross(2007recommendationand 4 replications(13broilers per replicate.The experimental period was 42 days(starter 0-10, grower11-24, finisher25-42and diets were provided isocaloric and isonitrogenous. All birds were fed ad libitum. The same management system was adopted for all birds, reared in 24 floor pens in a poultry house. Feed intake, weight gain and FCR were measured at the end of every period. At the end of production period, broilers were weighed; blood samples (5cc were obtained and slaughtered. The results showed that addition of roasted fullfat soybean to diet had significantly affected weight gain, FCR and feed intake in the finisher period(p

  12. Performance and carbon turnover in fast- and slow-growing broilers submitted to cyclic heat stress and fed on high-protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, D M B; Macari, M; Fernadez-Alarcon, M F; Nogueira, W C L; de Souza, F A; Hada, F H; Lunedo, R; Denadai, J C

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that when using similar protein/amino acid diets and environment temperature conditions, the performance and carbon turnover in muscle and liver tissues, as measured by the incorporation of stable isotopes ((13)C/(12)C), must be different between fast-growing Cobb 500® and slow-growing Label Rouge broilers. For both experiments (Cobb and Label Rouge), 21-d-old birds were distributed in a completely randomised, 3 × 3 factorial design; three environmental temperatures (cyclic heat stress ad libitum, 22°C ad libitum, and 22°C restricted) and three crude protein concentrations (189.1, 210 and 220 g/kg CP) were used. The Cobb 500® had better performance with higher concentrations of crude protein. Cyclic heat stress (a temperature factor), negatively affected this genetic strain's performance. For the Label Rouge birds, the crude protein concentrations in the diet presented inconsistent results and cyclic heat stress did not affect the performance. The carbon turnover rate was affected in the Cobb 500® strain, with a high protein content reducing carbon turnover in the evaluated tissues (liver and muscles). Feed intake had a greater impact on carbon turnover rates than cyclic heat stress. The Label Rouge birds were not affected by the evaluated factors, suggesting that genetic improvement has a leading role on tissue carbon turnover. There is a genetic influence on carbon turnover in the liver and muscle tissues of broiler chickens. In addition, genetically fast-growing broilers are more susceptible to variations in diet composition and environmental temperature than less rapidly growing animals.

  13. Construction of GH16 β-glucanase mini-cellulosomes to improve the nutritive value of barley-based diets for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mónica; Fernandes, Vania O; Ribeiro, Teresa; Serrano, Luís; Cardoso, Vânia; Santos, Helena; Lordelo, Madalena; Ferreira, Luís M A; Fontes, Carlos M G A

    2014-07-30

    Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria organize a comprehensive range of cellulases and hemicellulases in high molecular weight multienzyme complexes termed cellulosomes. Integration of cellulosomal components occurs via highly ordered protein-protein interactions between cohesins and dockerins. This paper reports the production of mini-cellulosomes containing one (GH16-1C) or three (GH16-3C) copies of Clostridium thermocellum glucanase 16A (CtGlc16A). Barley β-1,3-1,4-glucans are known to be antinutritive for monogastric animals, particularly for poultry. GH16-1C and GH16-3C were used to supplement barley-based diets for broilers. The data revealed that the two mini-cellulosomes effectively improved the nutritive value of barley-based diets for broilers. Analysis of mini-cellulosome molecular integrity revealed that linker sequences separating protein domains in scaffoldins and cellulosomal catalytic units are highly susceptible to proteolytic attack in vivo. The data suggest that linker protection could result in further improvements in enzyme efficacy to improve the nutritive value of barley-based diets for monogastric animals.

  14. Evaluation of probiotics in diets with different nutrient densities on growth performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight and breast meat characteristics in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Wang, J P; Yan, L; Huang, Y Q

    2013-01-01

    1. A total of 720 1-d-old broilers were used in a 28 d experiment to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation in diets with different dietary nutrient densities. 2. Birds were randomly allotted to one of the 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (12 replicateswith 15 broilers per replicate) with two levels of nutrient density [high nutrient density (metabolisable energy (ME) 12.7 MJ/kg and crude protein (CP) 230.3 g/kg for 1-7 d; ME 13.2 MJ/kg and CP 220.3 g/kg for 8-28 d) or low nutrient density (ME 12.1 MJ/kg and CP 220.2 g/kg for 0-7 d; ME 12.6 MJ/kg and CP 209.8 g/kg for 8-28 d)] and 0 or 2 g/kg probiotics (1.0 × 10(10) viable spores/g of Bacillus subtilis endospores and 1.0 × 10(9) viable spores/g of Clostridium butyricum). 3. The high-nutrient-density diet increased body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration relative to the low-nutrient-density diet. High-nutrient-density diet reduced water loss ratio of breast muscle, liver and fat relative to body weight compared to low-nutrient density-diet. The inclusion of probiotics increased BWG and feed intake throughout the experiment. Dietary probiotics increased the percentage of blood lymphocytes and relative weight of spleen and bursa of Fabricius when compared to the non-probiotic treatment. The inclusion of probiotics decreased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and lightness (L*) value of breast meat compared to the non-probiotic-supplemented diet. 4. In conclusion, high dietary nutrient density increased growth performance and serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in broiler chickens. The inclusion of probiotics increased growth performance but reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. The positive effect of probiotic supplementation on growth performance was reduced by the high-nutrient-density diet during the first week of life.

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation of Aspergillus originated prebiotic (Fermacto on performance and small intestinal morphology of broiler chickens fed diluted diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarbakht Ansari Pirsaraei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermacto, that it is commercially a fermentation product of Aspergillus orizae, is proven to increase digestion efficiency of the gut. In this experiment, 450 one day old Cobb 500 broiler chicks (mixed-sex were used in a completely randomized design with 3×2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of Fermacto (0, 0.15 and 0.3% for 42 days and two levels of diet dilution using rice hulls (0 and 40% at 10-21 days of age. The treatments consisted of 3 replicates with 25 chicks per each. Administration of Fermacto did not influence feed intake or feed conversion ratio, but the daily weight gain improved. Diluted diets significantly increased body weights and decreased feed intake; however, this manipulation didn’t affect feed conversion ratios. There was no interaction between prebiotic supplementation and experimental diets dilution for performance traits. Diet dilution significantly decreased abdominal fat pad, villi height and increased epithelial thickness and goblet cell numbers. Dietary supplementation using Fermacto significantly decreased the abdominal fat pad and goblet cell numbers but increased the small intestinal villus heights. There were some conflicting observations for different segments of the small intestine. The 0.3% Fermacto inclusion in experimental diets caused more beneficial effects. Contrary to previous reports on more efficiency of Fermacto on low protein diets, this trend is not seen for the whole diluted diets.

  16. Effects of Dietary Forage and Calf Starter Diet on Ruminal pH and Bacteria in Holstein Calves during Weaning Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yo-Han; Nagata, Rie; Ohtani, Natsuki; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Ikuta, Kentaro; Sato, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between ruminal pH and bacteria in calves fed calf starter with and without forage during weaning transition. First, 16 Holstein bull calves were obtained from dairy farms and equipped with rumen cannulas by cannulation surgery. Then, calves (73.5 ± 4.2 kg; mean ± SE) were assigned to groups fed calf starter either with forage (HAY, n = 8) or without forage (CON, n = 8), and all calves were weaned at 8 weeks of age. Ruminal pH was measured continuously, and rumen fluid samples were collected at 7, 8, 9, and 11 weeks of age, namely -1, 0, 1, and 3 weeks after weaning, respectively, to assess volatile fatty acid concentrations and bacterial DNA. The 24-h mean ruminal pH was significantly (P forage alleviates subacute ruminal acidosis due to diurnal changes in ruminal pH. Furthermore, changes in ruminal pH affect the ruminal bacterial diversity and relative abundance, and these changes might have influenced the establishment of fermentative ruminal functions during weaning transition.

  17. Performance and meat quality characteristics of broilers fed fermented mixture of grated cassava roots and palm kernel cake as replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwukaelo, A K; Aladi, N O; Okeudo, N J; Obikaonu, H O; Ogbuewu, I P; Okoli, I C

    2017-11-02

    Performance and meat quality characteristics of broilers fed fermented mixture of grated cassava roots and palm kernel cake (FCP-mix) as a replacement for maize were studied. One hundred and eighty (180), 7-day-old broiler chickens were divided into six groups of 30 birds, and each group replicated thrice. Six experimental diets were formulated for both starter and finisher stages with diets 1 and 6 as controls. Diet 1 contained maize whereas diet 6 contained a 1:1 mixture of cassava root meal (CRM) and palm kernel cake (PKC). In diets 2, 3, 4, and 5, the FCP-mix replaced maize at the rate of 25, 50, 75, and 100%, respectively. Each group was assigned to one experimental diet in a completely randomized design. The proximate compositions of the diets were evaluated. Live weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass weight, and sensory attributes of the meats were obtained from each replicate and data obtained was analyzed statistically. The results showed that live weight, average daily weight gain (ADWG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and FCR of birds on treatment diets were better than those on the control diets (Diets 1 and 6). The feed cost per kilogram weight gained decreased with inclusion levels of FCP-mix. Birds on diet 1 recorded significantly (p  0.05) affected by the inclusion of FCP-mix in the diets. FCP-mix is a suitable substitute for maize in broiler diet at a replacement level of up to 100% for best live weight, carcass weight yield, and meat quality.

  18. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF RAPESEED MEAL AND CANOLA MEAL ON BROILER PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. KHAN, A. AZIM AND M. I. ANJUM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 630 mixed sex day-old broiler chickens were reared for 7 weeks to study the production performance by feeding different levels of rapeseed meal (RSM and canola meal (CM in their diets. The chickens were randomly allocated to seven dietary treatment groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G having three replicates of 30 birds in each group. Group A was fed control diet (soyabean meal, whereas groups B, D and F were fed diets containing 5, 10 and 15 percent RSM which was replaced with CM on weight basis in the diets fed to groups C, E and G, respectively. Experimental diets and fresh water were offered ad libitum. Feed intake during 0-28 days of age was higher (p0.05. The study suggests that RSM up to 5% and CM up to 10% can be incorporated in broiler starter diets and both RSM and CM can be used up to 10% in finisher diets without any adverse effect on production parameters.

  19. Feeding Programs for Broiler Breeders in the Start Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Tremarin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fast-growing Brazilian aviculture requires studies to improve zootechnical performance indexes for broiler breeders. The purpose of this study was to assess different feeding programs for broiler breeders on performance and development of digestive organs. A total of 48,000, 1d-old, Cobb 500 broiler breeders were divided into two sheds with 24,000 birds each. The experiment was randomized in block design, considering each shed a block, with 4 treatments and 6 replications per treatment with 2,000 birds in each. Treatments consisted of: Shed 1 T1 = starter feed; T2 = T1 + probiotics; Shed 2 T3 = pre-starter feed; T4 = T3 + probiotics. The productive performance characteristics (bird weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion, the development of digestive organs (gizzard, proventriculus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and small bowel as well as the small bowel length were assessed weekly for all experimental groups, in samples of 10 birds per treatment. The best feed conversion and weight gain were observed with pre-starter feed in the first 7 days of age, with or without probiotic. Small bowel, gizzard and proventriculus development at 28 days was better for birds on pre-starter feed compared to those on starter feed alone. It is possible to conclude that broiler breeders on pre-starter feed during the first 7 days of age are likely to show better physical and productive performances in the adult phase.

  20. Desempenho de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade alimentados com rações contendo extrato de leveduras e prebiótico e criados em diferentes temperaturas Performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days old fed diets with yeast extract and prebiotic, reared at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Karla Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de frangos criados em diferentes temperaturas e alimentados na fase pré-inicial com ração contendo ou não extrato de leveduras e/ou prebiótico. Foram utilizados 1.440 pintos Cobb 500®, machos de 1 dia de idade, criados em diferentes câmaras climáticas. As rações experimentais foram oferecidas somente na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias, de modo que, a partir do oitavo dia, todas as aves receberam a mesma ração. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 3 × 2 × 2, composto de 3 temperaturas de criação (alta 34 ± 1ºC; controle 32 ± 2ºC; e baixa 27 ± 2ºC, 2 níveis de extrato de levedura (com ou sem e 2 níveis de prebiótico (com ou sem. As temperaturas ambiente alta e baixa prejudicaram o desempenho das aves aos 7 e aos 21 dias de idade. A inclusão de prebiótico na ração pré-inicial melhora o ganho de peso das aves criadas sob baixa temperatura aos 21 dias de idade e aumenta a viabilidade até os 21 dias de idade. A adição do extrato de leveduras melhora a conversão alimentar aos 21 dias de idade.The performance of broilers reared at different temperatures and fed diet with or without yeast extract and/or prebiotic in the starter phase was evaluated. One thousand, four hundred and forty 1-d male Cobb-500® were reared at different climatic chambers. The diets with or without yeast extract or prebiotic were fed only in the starter phase (1 to 7 days, and from the 8th day on all broiler were fed the same commercial diet. It was used a complete randomized experimental design, as a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 3 rearing temperatures (high 34 ± 1ºC, control 32 ± 2ºC and low 27 ± 2ºC, 2 yeast extract level (with or without and 2 prebiotic level (with or without. High and low temperatures decreased the performance of brids at 7 and 21 days old. The inclusion of prebiotic in the pre-starter phase increased weight gain of birds under low

  1. Available phosphorus levels in diets supplemented with phytase for male broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarciso Tizziani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of reduction of the available phosphorus (avP in diets supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone mineralization of broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment. A total of 336 Cobb broilers with an average initial weight of 0.883±0.005 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments - a positive control (0.354 and 0.309% avP without addition of bacterial phytase for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, and another five diets with inclusion of phytase (500 FTU and reduction of the level of avP (0.354, 0.294, 0.233, 0.173, and 0.112%; and 0.309, 0.258, 0.207, 0.156, and 0.106% for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively - eight replicates, and seven birds per cage. The experimental diets were formulated to meet all nutritional requirements, except for avP and calcium. Birds were kept in climatic chambers at a temperature of 32.2±0.4 °C and air humidity of 65.3±5.9%. Phytase acted by making the phytate P available in diets with reduction in the levels of avP, keeping feed intake, weight gain, feed:gain, and carcass characteristics unchanged. Treatments affected ash and calcium deposition and the Ca:P ratio in the bone; the group fed the diets with 0.112 and 0.106%, from 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days of age, respectively, obtained the lowest values, although the phosphorus deposition in the bone was not affected. Diets supplemented with 500 FTU of phytase, with available phosphorus reduced to 0.173 and 0.156%, and a fixed Ca:avP ratio of 2.1:1, meet the requirements of broilers aged 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, reared in a high-temperature environment.

  2. Effect of exogenous xylanase, amylase, and protease as single or combined activities on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broilers fed corn/soy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerah, A M; Romero, L F; Awati, A; Ravindran, V

    2017-04-01

    Two trials (a 42-d performance and a 21-d cohort digestibility) were conducted to evaluate the performance and nutrient digestibility of broilers fed corn diets supplemented with exogenous xylanase, amylase, and protease as single or combined activities. A nutritionally adequate, positive control (PC) diet was formulated. The negative control (NC) diet was formulated to be lower in metabolizable energy (∼86 kcal/kg diet) and digestible amino acids (1 to 2%) compared to PC. The other 4 treatments were based on the NC and they were either supplemented with xylanase (X), amylase (A), protease (P), or a combination of X, A, and P (XAP; to provide 2,000 U of X, 200 U of A, and 4,000 U of P/kg diet). All diets were marginal in AvP and Ca and contained a background of phytase (1,000 FTU/kg). In each trial, male broiler (Ross 308) chicks were allocated to the 5 treatments (10 replicates of 20 birds/pen and 9 replicates of 8 birds/cage for the performance and digestibility trials, respectively). In the digestibility trial, ileal digesta was collected on d21 for the determination of nutrient utilization. Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and means were separated by Tukey's HSD test. Only the XAP improved (P digestibility and apparent ileal digestible energy (AIDE). Both P and XAP improved N retention. The relative improvement in energy digestibility due to enzyme supplementation was greater at the ileal level than that measured in the excreta. The measured changes on AIDE due to supplemental enzymes were much higher than the sum of calculated contributions from starch, fat, and protein. Supplementation of all enzymes reduced (P  0.05) by dietary treatments. Both X and XAP had lower (P  0.05) FCR compared to PC. In conclusion, these results suggest a synergistic effect between X, A and P on broiler performance and nutrient digestibility. In the current study, AIDE measurements appeared to overestimate the enzyme response. Calculation of the energy contribution by

  3. Effects of Adding of Two Commercial Absorbent Materials and Natural Zeolite to the Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 on Broiler Performance and their

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Azimi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding of two commercial absorbent products in feeds and to compare the results with the effect of adding of natural zeolite in reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 on broiler growth, performance and immune system. In this study, 200 one day old Arian 386 broiler chickens were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 4 replications and 10 chicks per each treatment. Experimental groups were as follows: negative control fed basal diet; positive control fed basal diet plus 1 mg aflatoxin B1 kg-1 diet; and three other groups fed 25g/kg Milbond-TX, Polysorb and Zeolite with 1 mg/kg aflatoxin B1, respectively. Feed intake did not significantly differ between the groups. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of birds fed contaminated diets were significantly decreased and increased, respectively but adding of the absorbent materials to contaminated feed caused a significant improvement in body weight gain and feed conversion. Among the internal organs, the spleen relative weights increased by consumption of aflatoxin B1contaminated feed. Aflatoxin B1 use without absorbent materials significantly decreased antibody production against Newcastle disease vaccine in 21 day. In addition, produced antibodies against sheep red blood cells in 35 day of age in birds fed aflatoxin B1 contaminated diets were reduced. The results of this study showed that the adding of natural zeolite and commercial absorbents in feeds contaminated with aflatoxin B1 causes improved performance and immune system compared with the group that received the aflatoxin B1 alone.

  4. Effects of Xylanase Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Non-starch Polysaccharide Degradation in Different Sections of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Broilers Fed Wheat-based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was performed to investigate the effects of exogenous xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility and the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP in different sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT of broilers fed wheat-based diets. A total of 120 7-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to two wheat-based experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 1.0 g/kg xylanase. Each treatment was composed of 6 replicates with 10 birds each. Diets were given to the birds from 7 to 21 days of age. The results showed that xylanase supplementation did not affect feed intake, but increased body weight gain of broiler at 21 day of age by 5.8% (pjejunum>duodenum>>gizzard> caecum. The supplementation of xylanse increased ileal isomaltriose concentration (p<0.05, but did not affect the concentrations of isomaltose, panose and 1-kestose in the digesta of all GIT sections. These results suggest that supplementation of xylanase to wheat-based diets cuts the arabinoxylan backbone into small fragments (mainly arabinose and xylose in the ileum, jejunum and duodenum, and enhances digestibilites of nutrients by decreasing digesta viscosity. The release of arabinose and xylose in the small intestine may also be the important contributors to the growth-promoting effect of xylanase in broilers fed wheat-based diets.

  5. Effects of diet type and enzyme addition on growth performance and gut health of broiler chickens during subclinical Clostridium perfringens challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, W; Slominski, B A; Bruce, H L; Blank, G; Crow, G; Jones, O

    2009-01-01

    The effects of diet type (corn- vs. wheat-based) and multicarbohydrase addition on growth performance, digesta pH and viscosity, intestinal populations of Clostridium perfringens and lactic acid bacteria, and gut lesion score (from 0 to 4, where 0 = no gross lesions, 4 = severe extensive necrosis) of broiler chickens during oral challenge with C. perfringens (none or 10(8) cfu/bird on d 13) were studied in a 39-d experiment. A total of 1,216 male Ross-308 chickens was assigned to 8 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design providing 8 replicate pens per treatment. Diets were formulated to meet the NRC protein requirement but were suboptimal in energy level. When compared with birds fed corn-based diets, chickens fed wheat-based diets had inferior (P growth performance and increased C. perfringens numbers and average lesion score. Increased (P perfringens counts (2.4 vs. 1.5 log(10) cfu/g of digesta) and intestinal lesion score (0.9 vs. 0.4) were observed for challenged birds fed wheat-based diets. No difference in digesta pH and lactic acid bacteria numbers were found among the treatments. Enzyme addition to both the corn- and wheat-based diets increased bird final BW (2.57 vs. 2.51 kg; P growth performance by improving (P growth performance and mitigated the negative effects of C. perfringens challenge.

  6. Subject Review Article : Broiler litter as feed for ruminants - Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, growth rate, milk production and feed efficiency were higher in animals (sheep, goats and cattle) fed broiler litter-based diet than in animals fed control diet (without broiler litter). This paper reviews the nutritional value, health hazard, processing techniques and factors affecting the acceptability of broiler litter as ...

  7. Influence of different energy sources on the performance of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of different energy sources on the performance of broiler chicks. PN Onu, LLC Ugwu, MO Otuma, EN Uchewa. Abstract. An experiment was conducted with 63 day-old Anak broiler chicks to investigate the growth response of broilers fed diets containing different energy sources. Three experimental diets were ...

  8. Comparative Study of Ashwagandha and Commercial Synthetic Compound on Performance of Broilers during Hot Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Shisodiya

    Full Text Available The trial was conducted for a period of six weeks on 225 day old broiler chicks, uniformly distributed into four groups of 75 chicks in each T1, T2 and T3 group. The chicks were fed with standard starter mash which contained crude protein 22.84% and metabolizable energy 2852.5 Kcal / kg (calculated value up to three weeks of age. For next 3 weeks i.e. from 4 to 6 weeks of age with finisher mash which contained crude protein 20% and metabolizable energy 2966 Kcal / kg (calculated value. Group T1 received standard broiler diet. Group T2 and T3 received standard broiler diet supplemented with Ashwagandha and commercial synthetic compound @ 0.05 % of feed respectively. The experimental birds were reared on deep litter system and rice husk was used as litter material.The supplementation of Aswagandha and commercial synthetic compound recorded significant improvement in all studied growth parameter i.e. live body weights, weekly gain in body weights and feed conversion ratio was observed in all the supplemented groups over the control group. However, feed consumption in control group was significantly higher than supplemented group. The economic returns of supplemented groups are more than the unsupplemented group. The net profit per bird was maximum in the commercial synthetic compound supplemented group followed by Ashwagandha supplemented group and lowest was recorded in control group (T1. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 310-311

  9. Modelling broilers' abdominal fat in response to dietary treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarpour, A; Rahmatnejad, E; Khotanlou, H

    2015-04-01

    Neural networks are capable of modelling any complex function and can be used in poultry production. Dietary crude fibre (CF) and exogenous enzymes (exEn) extensively affected abdominal fat (AF) of broilers. Current methods to study AF and its correlation with dietary CF levels and exEn supplements are costly, laborious and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to develop an artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to model data on the response of broiler chickens (AF) to CF and exEn from 0 to 42 days of age. A data set containing eight treatments was divided to the train, validation, and test data set of the ANN models. The information about feeding eight diets at two periods [starter (0-21 days of age) and grower (22-42 days of age)] were used to estimate AF of broilers by ANN-GA. A multilayer feed-forward neural network with different structures was developed using matlab software, and optimal values for the ANN weights were obtained using the genetic algorithm (GA). Crude fibre, and exEn were used as input variables and AF of broilers was output variable. The best model of ANN-GA was determined based on the train root mean square error (RMSE). The best selected ANN-GA showed desirable results, RMSE, 0.1286% and R(2) coefficient, 0.876 for test data. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Effects of diet-induced differences in growth rate on metabolic, histological, and meat-quality properties of 2 muscles in male chickens of 2 distinct broiler breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J P; Zhao, G P; Jiang, R R; Zheng, M Q; Chen, J L; Liu, R R; Wen, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper, the second from a comprehensive study, describes the effects of varying growth rate by feeding at different planes of nutrition with a constant ME:CP ratio on muscle characteristics and meat quality in 2 distinct broiler breeds of male chickens (Arbor Acres, a commercial line; and Beijing-You, a Chinese nonimproved line). Experimental diets, differing on average by 2% CP, were formulated with high-, medium-, or low-nutrient densities for 3 growing phases. Male hatchlings (216 of each breed) were randomly assigned to 6 pens of 12 birds in each treatment. Altered histological characteristics of muscle fibers, early postmortem muscle metabolism, and meat quality were investigated in the pectoralis major and biceps femoris. At their market age, Arbor Acres broilers had significantly higher concentrations of plasma protein and lipid metabolites, ratios of white to red and intermediate fibers, pH, L* and b* values, and lower concentrations of plasma glucose metabolites, muscle-fiber diameter, muscle contents of energy stores, a* value, drip loss, and shear force than the values found for the Beijing-You chickens (P muscle fibers, decreased glycogen reserve, and reduced the rate and extent of acidification in the Arbor Acres chickens, while accelerating transformation of red and intermediate-to-white fibers, enhancing energy stores, and hastening the decrease in pH postmortem in the Beijing-You chickens (P meat quality variables (e.g., shear force, drip loss, and color) were consistent with the histological and biochemical changes caused by the feeding strategy. Together, dietary nutrient density can influence meat quality as a result of altered histological and initial energy and metabolic characteristics of the muscle. Many of the responses to diet are breed and tissue dependent in broiler chickens.

  11. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Effects of methionine source, arginine: lysine ratio and sodium chloride level in the diets of grower broilers reared under high-temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Montanhini Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of methionine sources (DL-methionine 99% powder (DLM or methionine hydroxy analog liquid 88% (HMTBA, arginine:lysine (Arg:Lys ratio and sodium chloride (NaCl content in the diet of broilers on their performance, carcass yield, serum biochemistry, duodenal mucosal morphology, and immune response. Birds were kept under high temperature conditions during the grower phase and were inoculated or not with an antigen. The use of HMTBA promoted better live performance and carcass yield than the use of DLM. Diets with 1.05 Arg:Lys ratio resulted in better live performance, higher carcass and breast meat yields, longer villi, shallower crypts, and stronger immune response when broilers were challenged than the 1.40 ratio. The dietary supplementation of 6.0 g NaCl/kg promoted better growth performance and carcass weight than 2.0 g NaCl/kg. There was no influence of the different methionine sources or NaCl concentrations on any evaluated intestinal morphology parameter or immune response, nor of any interactions between these sources of variation.

  13. Effects of direct-fed microorganisms and enzyme blend co-administration on intestinal bacteria in broilers fed diets with or without antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, T E; Flores, C A; Dunn-Horrocks, S L; Dersjant-Li, Y; Gibbs, K; Awati, A; Lee, J T; Duong, T

    2017-10-25

    Direct-fed microorganisms (DFM) and exogenous enzymes have been demonstrated to improve growth performance in poultry and are potentially important alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP). We investigated the administration of a feed additive composed of a DFM product containing spores of 3 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains and an enzyme blend of endo-xylanase, α-amylase, and serine-protease in diets with or without sub-therapeutic antibiotics in broiler chickens over a 42-d growth period. Evaluation of growth performance determined feed efficiency of broiler chickens which were administered the feed additive was comparable to those fed a diet containing AGPs. Characterization of the gastrointestinal microbiota using culture-dependent methods determined administration of the feed additive increased counts of total Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) relative to a negative control and reduced Clostridium perfringens to levels similar to antibiotic administration. Additionally, greater counts of total LAB were observed to be significantly associated with reduced feed conversion ratio, whereas greater counts of C. perfringens were observed to be significantly associated with increased feed conversion ratio. Our results suggest the co-administration of DFMs and exogenous enzymes may be an important component of antibiotic free poultry production programs and LAB and C. perfringens may be important targets in the development of alternatives to AGPs in poultry production. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Replacing corn with sorghum in the diet alters intestinal microbiota without altering chicken performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, N S; Pereira, R; Bortoluzzi, C; Rafael, J M; Napty, G S; Barbosa, J G M; Sciencia, M C M; Menten, J F M

    2017-10-01

    Sorghum grain can be used to replace corn in broiler diets. However, the effects related to an abrupt change between these grains are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and intestinal health of broilers fed diets containing corn and/or sorghum during different periods of rearing. To accomplish this aim, 2100 male chicks were fed the following experimental diets: C100% (corn-based diet); S100% (sorghum-based diet); C:S50% (diet based on corn and sorghum 1:1); PC-S (corn-based diet in the pre-starter phase and sorghum-based diet in subsequent phases); and PS-C (sorghum-based diet in the pre-starter phase and corn-based diet in subsequent phases). The study was conducted with two simultaneous trials in a randomized block design as follows: a performance trial up to 40 days occurred in floor pens (n = 8), and the metabolism trial occurred in cages (n = 10). Performance, jejunal morphometry, number of goblet cells, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) and the coefficient of apparent metabolizability of dry matter (CMDM) of the diets, and the intestinal microbiota of small intestine and caeca at 10 and 21 days of age (16S gene sequencing) were evaluated. The different experimental diets did not affect performance, jejunal epithelium, AME, AMEn or CMDM. However, the experimental diets altered the percentages of the genera Clostridium, Weissella, Bacillus and Alkaliphilus in the small intestine. In addition, the genera Lactobacillus and Desulfotomaculum in the caeca were altered. The age also affected the microbiota of the intestinal segments. In conclusion, feeding sorghum in place of corn as well as the grain change after the pre-starter phase does not alter broiler performance. However, sorghum alters the intestinal microbiota, resulting in a lower percentage of Clostridium and a higher percentage of Lactobacillus in the small intestine and caeca, respectively. Journal of

  15. Intestinal integrity and performance of broiler chickens fed a probiotic, a prebiotic, or an organic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BCS Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the intestinal integrity, using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the performance of broiler chickens fed additives alternative to antimicrobials. A total of 1080 male chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, with six treatments with six replicates of 30 birds each. The following treatments were evaluated: basal diet (control, basal diet supplemented with an antimicrobial, basal diet supplemented with a probiotic, basal diet supplemented with a prebiotic, basal diet with a symbiotic, and basal diet supplemented with organic acids. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and livability were recorded when broiler chickens were 10, 21, 35, and 42 days old. On day 42, 72 birds were individually weighed and sacrificed. In order to evaluate the morphometrics of the different intestinal wall layers, segments of the small intestine and the cecum were collected from two birds per replicate, and intestinal integrity (SEM was evaluated in the same segments of two birds per treatment. During the starter period (1-21 days old, birds fed the alternative additives presented similar weight gain as those fed the antimicrobial product, but were not different from control birds. Feed conversion ratio of birds fed alternative additives was better than that of the control birds from one to 10 days of age, but not during the remaining rearing period, and was similar to the birds receiving the antimicrobial. The morphometric parameters of the different intestinal wall layers was not influenced by the treatments. During the total rearing period, the evaluated alternative additives did not improve intestinal integrity or broiler performance.

  16. Instant Sublime Text starter

    CERN Document Server

    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  17. Instant Sinatra starter

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.

  18. Instant Prezi starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ladores, Minerva M

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

  19. Instant Apache Maven starter

    CERN Document Server

    Turatti, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

  20. Effect of altering the starter and finisher dietary phases on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of altering the starter and finisher dietary phases on growth performance of broilers. ... Body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) were recorded weekly starting from weeks 3 to 5. The BW, FI ... Treatment effects (P<0.05) were observed on FI and BW at some stage of growth, as well as on FCE at all the stages of growth.

  1. Effect on digestion and performance of dietary protein content and of increased substitution of lucerne hay with soya-bean protein concentrate in starter diets for young rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, S; Gómez-Conde, M S; Pérez de Rozas, A M; Badiola, I; Carabaño, R; De Blas, J C

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of protein source / availability on the intestinal microbiota, digestive traits and nutritional performance of early-weaned rabbits. The effects of supplemental antibiotics in the drinking water were also evaluated. Four isoenergetic and isofibrous diets were formulated: a control diet with a high protein (207 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and lucerne hay content (HPHL), a diet with low crude protein (CP) (179 g/kg DM) and high lucerne hay content (LPHL) and low protein diets in which the lucerne hay in diet LPHL was replaced partially (LPML) or totally (LPLL) with soya-bean protein concentrate. Rabbits, weaned at 25 days (52 per diet), were fed the experimental diets for a 2-week period and thereafter received a commercial diet until 56 days of age. The incidence of mortality was investigated using 70 animals per diet without supplemental medication. The profile of the ileal microbiota was studied at 35 days of age in rabbits treated (18 per diet) or not (12 per diet) with antibiotic. As expected, supplementation with antibiotics effectively reduced fattening mortality rate and microbial biodiversity. However, lowering of also the dietary CP content led to a reduction in the mortality rate ( P treated with (by 80%) or without (by 39%) antibiotics. In addition, there was a reduction ( P < 0.05) in the frequency of Clostridium perfringens in non-medicated animals. Neither jejunal morphology nor growth performance, over the whole fattening period, was affected by dietary CP content of the experimental diets. However, with HPHL, feed efficiency was higher (by 4.8%; P < 0.01) than with LPHL diets. Substitution of lucerne hay with soya-bean meal in low protein diets did not affect apparent faecal or ileal digestibility of DM and CP. However, the ileal digestibility of cystine, alanine, aspartic acid, and proline was lowered ( P < 0.05) with increasing substitution by soya bean. Nevertheless, ileal CP flow, incidence of

  2. Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on live performance of broilers under Clostridium perfringens challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 30-day broiler cage trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS from one commercial product (SAF-Mannan on growth parameters, gut health and control pathogen colonization of broilers under Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens challenge. One hundred, 0-day old male Ross 308 broilers were allocated in 4 experimental treatments for 30 days. The four dietary treatments were T1, standard broiler basal diets without any medication as a control (+CONT; T2, basal diets as in T1 plus C. perfringens challenge (-CONT; T3, enramycin 0.1 g/kg of feed plus C. perfringens challenge (ENRA; T4, SAF-Mannan at 0.5 g/kg in starter and finisher diets plus C. perfringens challenge (SAF. Overall, feed conversion ratio (FCR and body weight gain (BWG in treatments ENRA and SAF were significantly better (P<0.01 than the –CONT treatment, whereas treatment +CONT was intermediate and not different from SAF. Feed intake (FI was not influenced by treatment. SAF-Mannan supplementation was able to lower the ileal C. perfringens count as compared to all other treatments (P<0.05. The changes in C. perfringens count appear in parallel to observed improvement in the cumulative FCR.  The results from this study clearly indicated that SAF-Mannan could act as a replacement for antimicrobial growth promoters in broilers (AGPs. SAF-Mannan level of 0.05% was enough to achieve a response competitive with that of the antibiotic.

  3. Performance, carcass yield, and qualitative characteristics of breast and leg muscles of broilers fed diets supplemented with vitamin E at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FR Leonel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vitamin E supplementation (300 mg/kg diet in the diet of broiler chickens for different periods during rearing on the performance and qualitative traits of breast and leg muscles were evaluated. Seven hundred and twenty day-old chicks were distributed into six treatments: basal diet (25 mg vitamin E/kg diet, and diet supplemented with vitamin E from 1 to 15, 1 to 30, 1 to 45, 14 to 45 and 30 to 45 days of age. Vitamin E content, lipid percentage, TBARS (0 and 3 days of storage, color (*L, *a, *b, and pH were evaluated. There were no differences (p>0.05 among treatments in performance, carcass yield, and cut yields. Qualitative parameters (pH and color presented no differences, although vitamin E positively affected TBARS values at 3 days of storage, mainly in leg muscles. Vitamin E levels in both muscles were higher in the birds supplemented throughout the experiment.

  4. Apparent and standardized ileal nutrient digestibility of broiler diets containing varying levels of raw full-fat soybean and microbial protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdaw, Mammo M; Perez-Maldonado, Rider A; Iji, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Although soybean meal (SBM) is excellent source of protein in diets for poultry, it is sometimes inaccessible, costly and fluctuates in supply. The SBM can partially be replaced by full-fat SBM, but the meals prepared from raw full-fat soybean contain antinutritional factors. To avoid the risk of antinutritional factors, heat treatment is always advisable, but either excessive or under heating the soybean could negatively affect the quality. However, the potential for further improvement of SBM by supplementing with microbial enzymes has been suggested by many researchers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and ileal nutrient digestibility of birds fed on diets containing raw soybeans and supplemented with microbial protease. A 3 × 2 factorial, involving 3 levels of raw full-fat soybean (RFFS; 0, 45 or 75 g/kg of diet) and 2 levels of protease (0 or 15,000 PROT/kg) was used. The birds were raised in a climate-controlled room. A nitrogen-free diet was also offered to a reference group from day 19 to 24 to determine protein and amino acid flow at the terminal ileum and calculate the standardized ileal digestibility of nutrients. On days 10, 24 and 35, body weight and feed leftover were recorded to calculate the body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). On day 24, samples of ileal digesta were collected at least from two birds per replicate. When RFFS was increased from 0 to 75 g/kg of diet, the content of trypsin inhibitors was increased from 1747 to 10,193 trypsin inhibitors unit (TIU)/g of diets, and feed consumption of birds was also reduced (P diets. This study showed that some commercial SBM could be replaced by RFFS in broiler diets, without markedly compromising productivity. The AID and SID of CP and lysine were slightly improved by dietary supplementation of microbial protease.

  5. Effects of dietary forage and calf starter diet on ruminal pH and bacteria in Holstein calves during weaning transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Han KIM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between ruminal pH and bacteria in calves fed calf starter with and without forage during weaning transition. First, 16 Holstein bull calves were obtained from dairy farms and equipped with rumen cannulas by cannulation surgery. Then, calves (73.5 ± 4.2 kg; mean ± SE were assigned to groups fed calf starter either with forage (HAY, n = 8 or without forage (CON, n = 8, and all calves were weaned at 8 weeks of age. Ruminal pH was measured continuously, and rumen fluid samples were collected at 7, 8, 9, and 11 weeks of age, namely 1, 0, 1, and 3 weeks after weaning, respectively, to assess volatile fatty acid concentrations and bacterial DNA. The 24-h mean ruminal pH was significantly (P < 0.05 different between the two groups. Diurnal changes in the 1-h mean ruminal pH were observed throughout the study in the HAY group; however, they were not observed at 0 and 1 weeks after weaning in the CON group. Moreover, the HAY group had significantly (P < 0.05 higher proportions of acetate and butyrate and lower proportion of propionate, and significantly (P < 0.05 lower ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratios were observed in the CON group. The ruminal bacterial diversity indices decreased after -1 week in both groups and increased at 0 and 1 weeks after weaning in the HAY and CON groups, respectively. From the 454 pyrosequencing analysis, significant differences (P < 0.05 were observed in the relative abundance of several phyla (Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes and one genus (Prevotella between the two groups. From quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the HAY group had the higher copy numbers of cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus compared with the CON group. This study demonstrated that feeding of dietary forage alleviates subacute ruminal acidosis due to diurnal changes in ruminal pH. Furthermore, changes in ruminal pH affect the ruminal bacterial diversity and relative

  6. Impact of diet on the efficacy of insulin lispro mix 25 and insulin lispro mix 50 as starter insulin in East Asian patients with type 2 diabetes: Subgroup analysis of the Comparison Between Low Mixed Insulin and Mid Mixed Insulin as Starter Insulin For Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (CLASSIFY Study) randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Qian, Lei; Watada, Hirotaka; Li, Peng Fei; Iwamoto, Noriyuki; Imori, Makoto; Yang, Wen Ying

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetes differs between Asian and Western patients in many ways, and diet is a primary contributor. The present study examined the effect of diet on the efficacy of 25% insulin lispro/75% insulin lispro protamine suspension (LM25) and 50% insulin lispro/50% insulin lispro protamine suspension (LM50) as starter insulin in Chinese and Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control with oral antidiabetic medication. This was a predefined subgroup analysis of a phase 4, open-label, 26-week, parallel-arm, randomized (computer-generated random sequence) trial (21 January 2013 to 22 August 2014). Nutritional intake was assessed from food records kept by participants before study drug administration. Outcomes assessed were changes from baseline in self-monitored blood glucose, 1,5-anhydroglucitol and glycated hemoglobin. In total, 328 participants were randomized to receive twice-daily LM25 (n = 168) or LM50 (n = 160). Median daily nutritional intake (by weight and percentage of total energy) was 230.8 g of carbohydrate (54%), 56.5 g of fat (31%) and 66 g of protein (15%). Improvements in self-monitored blood glucose were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.028) in the LM50 group than in the LM25 group, regardless of nutritional intake. When carbohydrate (by weight or percentage energy) or fat (by weight) intake exceeded median levels, LM50 was significantly more efficacious than LM25 (P ≤ 0.026) in improving 1,5-anhydroglucitol and glycated hemoglobin. Glycemic control improved in both LM25 and LM50 groups, but LM50 was significantly more efficacious under certain dietary conditions, particularly with increased carbohydrate intake. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Product Architecture Compressor Starter.

    OpenAIRE

    Brudevoll, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Developing and designing new product architecture for electrical starters. Questing what system can handle high variety both today and tomorrow's variety. Methods found in literature are applied. In this thesis technology platform is chosen and developed to prototype stage. Software for handling product structure and documentation developed. Solutions to handle generational variations are suggested.

  8. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  9. Inclusion levels of sweet potato root meal in the diet of broilers I. Effect on performance, organ weights, and carcass quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford, R. C.; Bartlett, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The amount of corn available for animal and poultry feed has been unpredictable in recent years due to the increased use of corn for ethanol production. As a consequence, there has been an increase in the price of feed, chicken, and chicken products. Researchers are exploring alternative feed sources to substitute for corn in poultry ration. This study evaluated the performance and carcass quality of broilers fed diets containing sweet potato root meal (SPRM). After a complete nutrient analysis of the SPRM, diets were formulated where 0, 10, 20, and 30% of corn was substituted with SPRM. The study utilized 360 1-d-old Cornish X Rock male broiler chickens randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments; 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% SPRM. Body weights and feed intake (FI) were monitored weekly for 7 wk. Birds were slaughtered on d 50 and FI, BW gain, ADG, ADFI, abdominal fat, dressing percentage, and organ weights measured. White (breast) and dark (leg and thigh) meat were evaluated for nutrient content (protein, moisture, fat, and ash). Results showed birds fed 20% SPRM had lower (P birds fed 10, 20, and 30% SPRM than the control. There were no differences in dressing percentage among treatments. Abdominal fat was highest (P birds fed 30% SPRM. Organ weights were similar across treatments except for gizzard which weighed highest (P meat; moisture, protein, fat, and ash were similar across treatments. For dark meat, moisture (P Birds fed the SPRM diets compared well with those fed the control for both performance and nutrient content of meat. PMID:25840965

  10. The interactive effects of glycine, total sulfur amino acids, and lysine supplementation to corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance and serum uric acid and urea concentrations in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2009-07-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the interactive effects of Gly, TSAA, and Lys in corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance of broilers. All experiments were conducted with female Ross x Ross 308 or 708 broilers in brooder batteries from 0 to 18 d posthatching. Treatments had 5 to 8 replications with 5 or 6 broilers per replicate pen. Diets in all experiments were fed without or with Gly (2.32% total Gly + Ser). All diets contained 0.25% l-Lys.HCl except in experiment 1, where no crystalline Lys was added. In experiment 1, the total dietary Lys level was 1.26% with TSAA:Lys of 0.72 and 0.76. Increasing TSAA:Lys increased (P urea N concentrations. Also, increasing TSAA:Lys linearly and quadratically (P < 0.02) increased ADG, ADFI, and G:F. In experiment 4, broilers were fed 2 levels of total dietary Lys (1.26 and 1.35%), 3 levels of TSAA:Lys (0.72, 0.76, and 0.80), and without or with Gly supplementation up to a total of 2.32% Gly + Ser. Glycine addition increased ADG (P < 0.02) and G:F (P < 0.01). The increase in G:F with Gly was not the same for all TSAA:Lys (Gly x TSAA:Lys, P < 0.07). Increasing Lys increased (P < 0.01 to 0.10) ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Glycine addition increased ADG and ADFI more in broilers fed 1.35% Lys than in those fed 1.26% Lys (Lys x Gly, P < 0.09). Glycine addition increased SUA in broilers fed 1.26% Lys but decreased SUA in broilers fed 1.35% Lys (P < 0.01). Glycine addition decreased SUA in broilers fed the TSAA:Lys of 0.80 but not at the other TSAA:Lys (P < 0.08). These data indicate that Gly increased G:F and decreased SUA in diets with 1.35% Lys and excess TSAA.

  11. Impact of second line limiting amino acids' deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, C Basavanta; Gloridoss, R G; Singh, K Chandrapal; Prabhu, T M; Siddaramanna; Suresh, B N; Manegar, G A

    2015-03-01

    To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a 'moderate SLAA deficit' diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a 'high SLAA deficit' diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME), crude protein (CP) and AA were studied. The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (pdeficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  12. Effects of Dietary L-Glutamine or L-Glutamine Plus L-Glutamic Acid Supplementation Programs on the Performance and Breast Meat Yield Uniformity of 42-d-Old Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Ribeiro Jr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed at evaluating four dietary L-Glutamine (L-Gln or L-Gln plus L-Glutamate (L-Glu supplementation programs on the performance, breast yield, and uniformity of broilers. A total of 2,112 one-d-old male Cobb 500(r broilers were distributed according to a randomized block design in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (L-Gln or L-Gln plus L-Glu × 4 supplementation programs, totaling eight treatments with 12 replicates of 22 broilers each. The supplementation programs consisted of the dietary inclusion or not of 0.4% of L-Gln or L-Gln plus L-Glu for four different periods: 0 days (negative control, 9d, 21d, and 42d. Feed intake (FI, g, body weight gain (BWG, g, feed conversion ratio (FCR, kg/kg, coefficient of variation of body weight (CV, %, body weight uniformity (UNIF, %, breast weight (BW, g, breast yield (BY, %, coefficient of variation of breast weight (CVB, breast uniformity (UNIFB, coefficient of variation of breast yield (CVBY, and breast yield uniformity (UNIFBY were evaluated. Birds fed the diets treatments supplemented with L-Gln or L-Gln plus L-Glu for 9d presented 3% higher BWG (p<0.05 compared with the controls. The L-Gln or L-Gln plus L-Glu supplementation until broilers were 21 days old resulted in 14, 10, 16, and 12% improvements (p<0.05 in CV, UNIF, CVBY, UNIFBY, respectively. The supplementation of 0.4% L-Gln (L-Gln 99% or L-Gln plus L-Glu (minimum 95% to pre-starter and starter broiler diets is recommended to improve body weight gain and uniformity.

  13. H9N2-specific IgG and CD4+CD25+ T cells in broilers fed a diet supplemented with organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Kyu; Bae, Suhan; Gu, Min Jeong; You, Sun Jong; Kim, Girak; Park, Sung-Moo; Jeung, Woon-Hee; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Cho, Kyung Jin; Kang, Jung Sun; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2017-05-01

    Organic acids have long been known for their beneficial effects on growth performance in domestic animals. However, their impact on immune responses against viral antigens in chickens is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate immunological parameters in broilers immunized with a H9N2 vaccine and/or fed a diet containing organic acids (citric, formic, and lactic acids). We allotted 1-day-old broilers into 4 groups: control (C), fed a diet supplemented with organic acids (O), administered a H9N2 vaccine (V), and fed a diet supplemented with organic acids and administered a H9N2 vaccine (OV). Blood and spleen samples were taken at 2, 7 and 14 d post vaccination (DPV). At 14 DPV, total and H9N2-specific IgG levels were significantly lower in the OV group than in the V group. However, it was intriguing to observe that at 2 DPV, the percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells was significantly higher in the OV group than in the other groups, indicating the potential induction of regulatory T cells by organic acids. In contrast, at 2 DPV, the percentage of CD4+CD28+ T cells were significantly lower in the OV group than in the other groups, suggesting that CD28 molecules are down-regulated by the treatment. The expression of CD28 on CD4+ T cells, up-regulated by the stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (Iono), was inhibited upon organic acid treatment in OV group. In addition, the proliferation of lymphocytes, stimulated with formalin-inactivated H9N2, was significantly higher in the V group than in the OV group. Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) production was significantly lower in the OV group than in the V group, suggesting that the organic acids inhibited the inflammation caused by the vaccination. Overall, induction of regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells, coinciding with the decrease of H9N2-specific antibodies, was observed in broilers fed organic acids. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF VARYING LEVELS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF MEAL AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR VITAMIN + MINERAL PREMIX IN FINISHER BROILER DIET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty (120 4 weeks old unsexed broiler chicken were used in a twenty eight days feeding trial to evaluate the use of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a replacement for vitamin + mineral premix in finisher broilers. The birds were assigned to four treatment group with three replicates per group .The treatment groups includes T1, T2, T3, and T4 representing 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% inclusion levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a replacement for vitamin + mineral premix. The result of the study showed that average final weight gain, average feed intake and feed conversion ratio differed significantly (P and lt;0.05 in favour of T4 and T3 .The dressing percentage as well as organ (gizzard, liver and heart weights also differed significantly(p and lt;0.05. The study thus indicate that the inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal at 5% and 7.5% can successfully be used to replace vitamin + mineral premix in finisher diet.

  15. Copper in organic proteinate or inorganic sulfate form is equally bioavailable for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Songbai; Lu, Lin; Li, Sufen; Xie, Jingjing; Zhang, Liyang; Wang, Runlian; Luo, Xugang

    2012-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the bioavailability of organic copper (Cu) proteinate relative to inorganic Cu sulfate for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 320 day-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were assigned to one of five treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two levels of added Cu (125 or 250 mg Cu/kg) and two Cu sources (Cu proteinate and Cu sulfate) plus a control with no added Cu for an experimental phase of 42 days. Plasma and liver tissue samples were collected at both 21 and 42 days of age, and bile samples were also obtained at 42 days of age for Cu analyses. The Cu concentrations in liver and bile increased linearly (P 0.17) linear regression relationships were observed between plasma Cu concentrations on days 21 and 42 or log10 liver Cu concentration on day 21 and daily analyzed Cu intake. Therefore, based on the slope ratios from multiple linear regressions of log10 liver and bile Cu concentrations with daily analyzed Cu intake on day 42, when Cu sulfate was set as 100%, the estimated relative bioavailability values of Cu proteinate were 78.8% for log10 liver Cu concentration and 79.3% for log10 bile Cu concentration, respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.08) difference in bioavailability between Cu proteinate and Cu sulfate for broilers chicks in this experiment.

  16. Effects of an Addition of Different Essential Oils and Their Combinations to Diets on Performance and Carcass Characteristics Parameters in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behlül Sevim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of thymus (Thymus vulgaris L., rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and French lavender (Lavandua stoechas L. essential oils and their mixtures on body weight and body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics in broiler. A total of one day old 640 broiler chicks (Ross 308 were used divided into 8 groups each having five replicates, ramdomly. There were 80 chicks in each experimental group. The experimental diets were consisted of control (0 mg/kg, addition to thymus essential oil (50 mg/kg, rosemary essential oil (50 mg/kg, lavandula essential oil (50 mg/kg tymus + rosemary (25+25 mg/kg, tymus + lavandula (25+25 mg/kg, rosemary + lavandula (25+25 mg/kg, tymus + rosemary + lavandula (16.7+16.7+16.7 mg/kg, respectively. Feed and water were provided as ad libitum. Experimental period was six weeks. The according to results that dietary different essential oil and their combinations did not significantly effect on body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and carcass characteristics.

  17. DIGESTIBLE LYSINE LEVELS BASED IN THE IDEAL PROTEIN CONCEPT FOR BROILER CHICKENS IN THE STARTER PERIOD NÍVEIS DE LISINA DIGESTÍVEL EM DIETAS BASEADAS NO CONCEITO DE PROTEÍNA IDEAL PARA FRANGOS DE CORTE NA FASE INICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Eiko Murakami

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in order to evaluate rations with different levels of digestible lysine, maintaining ratio with met+cys, threonine and tryptophan amino acids, for broilers chickens in the starter period (one to 21 days of age. Four hundred male broilers chickens Cobb Vantress were used in experimental design completely randomized with four treatments (1.14%; 1.18%; 1.22% and 1.26% of digestible lysine, four replicates and 25 birds per experimental unit. It was observed quadratic effect (P<0.05 of lysine levels on weight gain and feed conversion of birds, being the better level 1.183% and 1.190% of digestible lysine, respectively. It was not verified effect of treatments on feed intake, abdominal fat, corporal chemical composition, uric acid levels on blood and litter moisture and nitrogen rate. According to the performance results, can be concluded that the digestible lysine requirements for male broiler chickens in the period from 1 to 21 days of age were of 1.19%.

    KEY WORDS: Broiler chickens, digestible lysine, ideal protein.

    O experimento foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar rações com diferentes níveis de lisina digestível, mantendo sua relação com os aminoácidos met+cys, treonina e triptofano, para pintos de corte machos na fase de 1 a 21dias de idade. Utilizaram-se quatrocentos pintos de corte, Cobb Vantress, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos (1,14; 1,18; 1,22 e 1,26% de lisina digestível, quatro repetições e 25 aves por unidade experimental. Observou-se efeito quadrático (P<0,05 dos níveis de lisina sobre o ganho de peso e conversão alimentar das aves, sendo o melhor nível de 1,183% e 1,190% de lisina digestível, respectivamente. Não foi constatado efeito dos tratamentos no consumo de ração, gordura abdominal, composição química corporal, nível de

  18. The effect of arginine dietary supplementation in broiler breeder hens on offspring humoral and cell-mediated immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AE Murakami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of supplementing the diet of broiler breeder hens with arginine (Arg on their offspring's humoral and cell-mediated immune response was evaluated in two experiments. In experiments I and II, breeder hens were fed diets containing graded levels of Arg (0.943, 1.093, 1.243, 1.393 and 1.543% digestible Arg. In experiment I, the offspring was randomly grouped according to the treatment received by the breeder hens, with five levels of Arg in the maternal diet and six replicates, giving a total 30 experimental units. In experiment II, the offspring were grouped in accordance with the treatment received by the breeder hens; however, Arg was added to the starter diet (1.300, 1.450, 1.600, 1.750 and 1.900% digestible Arg and also the growing diet (1.150, 1.300, 1.450, 1.600 and 1.750% digestible Arg. Supplementation of the broiler breeder hen diet did not influence (p > 0.05 the development of the lymphoid organs (cloacal bursa, thymus and spleen of the offspring, whether their diet were supplemented or not. Nevertheless, greater weight and dimensions cloacal bursa were found in the supplemented offspring in comparison with the nonsupplemented offspring. Macrophage phagocytic activity was found to be unaffected (p > 0.05, independently of the Arg supplementation. The offspring fed with supplemented diets showed a linear reduction in the antibody titer against Newcastle Disease (p 0.05 by the breeder hen diet. This study concluded that supplementing the breeder hen diet with arginine is insufficient to improve the humoral and cellular immune response, requiring supplementation of the offspring diet.

  19. Digestibilidade aparente de dietas e metabolismo de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo soja integral processada Apparent digestibility of the diets and metabolism of broilers fed with diets containing heat processed full-fat soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda d’Ávila Carvalho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento para avaliar a digestibilidade aparente de dietas e o metabolismo de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo soja integral (SI processada a vácuo (SIvac ou a vapor (SIvap. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (dieta controle - DC; DC com substituição isométrica de 40% de SIvac ou SIvap; dieta com SIvac e dieta com SIvap. Os tratamentos com substituição isométrica avaliaram a digestibilidade das sojas processadas; os demais, a digestibilidade de dietas contendo ou não soja processada (controle. A ingestão de N foi 23 e 20% menor (P0,05 pelas dietas. A excreção de energia foi 19 e 22% menor (P0,05 para a soja integral processada a vácuo ou a vapor. A soja processada a vácuo ou a vapor é uma alternativa ao farelo de soja e ao óleo vegetal em dietas para frangos de corte.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the apparent digestibility of diets and the metabolism of broilers fed diets containing full-fat soybean (FFS processed by vacuum (FFSvac or by steam (FFSstm. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments (control diet - CD, CD with isometric substitution of 40% FFSvac or FFSstm; diet with FFSvac and diet with FFSstm. The treatments with isometric substitution evaluated the digestibility of processed soybeans; the remains, the digestibility of diets containing either processed soybean or not (control. The N intake was 23 and 20% less (P0.05 by the diets. The excretion of energy was 19 and 22% less (P0.05 for full-fat soybean processed by vacuum or by steam. Full-fat soybean processed by vacuum or by steam is an alternative to soybean meal and to the vegetal oil in the diets for broilers.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFRENT LEVELS OF NDF AND ADF ON NUTRITIVE AND BIOPRODUCTIVE INDICES AND ON DIGESTIVE VISCOSITY AT THE JEJUNUM AND ILEUM LEVEL AT BROILER CHICKENS FED WITH A DIET CONTAINING AN ENZYMATIC MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA TETILEANU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment we have studied the effect of different levels of main cellulose categories (NDF, ADF on nutritive and bioproductive indices and on digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level at broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 44 broiler chickens divided into two experimental groups (V1-5% and V2-15%. In the structure of combined feed was used barley in proportion of 5% for V1-5% and 15% for V2-15%. For both experimental groups were used enzymatic mixture which contained protease and cellulose. The hybrid used was Ross 308. The raising of NDF and ADF levels in broiler diet did not affect significantly the nutritive and bioproductive indices, but was recorded an increase of digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level with 28,31%.

  1. Effects of a dietary antioxidant blend and vitamin E on growth performance, oxidative status, and meat quality in broiler chickens fed a diet high in oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a dietary antioxidant blend (AB) and vitamin E on performance, oxidative status, and meat quality. Cobb 500 male broilers (n = 1,200, d 0) were randomly distributed into 6 treatments with 10 replicate pens. Treatments included 1) HO: high oxidant diet, vitamin E at 10 IU/kg, 3% oxidized soybean oil, 3% polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) source; 2) VE: the HO diet with vitamin E at 200 IU/kg; 3) AOX: the HO diet with AB at 135 mg/kg; 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with vitamin E at 200 IU/kg and AB at 135 mg/kg; 5) SC: standard control; and 6) PC: positive control, the SC diet with AB at 135 mg/kg. From d 0 through d 21, high oxidant diet treatment birds had greater BW, ADG, and ADFI than the SC birds; the AOX birds had better G:F on d 10 and 42, and from d 0 to 42 than SC birds (P birds than the VE treatment birds in all phases (P birds had greater α-1-acid glycoprotein levels on d 10 than SC and PC birds (P birds had a greater level of uric acid than the HO and VE+AOX birds on d 10. Superoxide dismutase expression in the liver was less with the HO treatment compared with the SC treatment on d 7 (P birds, whereas vitamin A concentration was greater in the PC birds compared with the SC birds on d 21 (P < 0.05). Compared with VE and AOX, the HO treatment had greater drip loss (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary addition of AOX was effective in improving growth, moderately restored the whole body antioxidant capability, and reduced drip loss. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis as an alternative to antibiotics as a growth promoter on broiler performance, serum biochemistry, and immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Gheisari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An in vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of ethanolic extract of propolis, on growth performance, carcass traits, serum biochemistry, and humoral immune responses of chickens, as compared with the antibiotic flavophospholipol. Materials and Methods: 312 1-day-old as-hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 4 replicate pens per treatment. The 6 dietary treatments fed for 42 days consisted of a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; control plus 4.5 mg/kg flavophospholipol, and control plus 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg ethanol extracts of propolis, respectively. Results: Neither propolis nor antibiotic affected the performance criteria; however, dietary treatments tended to enhance to enhance body weight and daily feed intake of broiler chickens compared with control group (p>0.05. None of the dietary treatments significantly altered feed: Gain though; broilers fed diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg propolis had better feed: gain values compared with other groups in starter, and grower phases as well as the whole experimental period (p>0.05. Carcass yield and internal organ relative weights were not affected by treatments on day 42, except for abdominal fat pad weight that decreased in broilers supplemented with antibiotic. None of the treatments significantly affected humoral immune function. Dietary treatments failed to induce any significant effect on serum biochemistry (p>0.05; though broilers receiving 100 mg/kg propolis had greater high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower triglyceride concentrations compared with other groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results indicated that addition of ethanolic extract of propolis to routine dietary components of broilers, such as corn and soybean, seems not to have a positive influence on performance criteria.

  3. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  4. Instant Gimp starter

    CERN Document Server

    Amreen, Fazreil

    2013-01-01

    A Starter guide which helps you practically start with GIMP through plenty of examples and screenshots. This is an excellent handbook for anyone who would like to start drawing using their computers. The approach used within this book is objective so that readers from any age will be able to learn the process. The setup is so basic that you will need only a computer and a very minimal amount of computer literacy to start using this book.

  5. Response surface and neural network models for performance of broiler chicks fed diets varying in digestible protein and critical amino acids from 11 to 17 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, H; Golian, A

    2011-09-01

    Central composite design (CCD; 5 levels and 4 factors), response surface methodology (RSM), and artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) were used to evaluate the response of broiler chicks [ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR)] to dietary standardized ileal digestible protein (dP), lysine (dLys), total sulfur amino acids (dTSAA), and threonine (dThr). A total of 84 battery brooder units of 5 birds each were assigned to 28 diets of CCD containing 5 levels of dP (18-22%), dLys (1.06-1.30%), dTSAA (0.81-1.01%), and dThr (0.66-0.86%) from 11 to 17 d of age. The experimental results of CCD were fitted with the quadratic and artificial neural network models. A ridge analysis (for RSM models) and a genetic algorithm (for ANN-GA models) were used to compute the optimal response for ADG and FCR. For both ADG and FCR, the goodness of fit in terms of R(2) and MS error corresponding to ANN-GA and RSM models showed a substantially higher accuracy of prediction for ANN models (ADG model: R(2) = 0.99; FCR model: R(2) = 0.97) compared with RSM models (ADG model: R(2) = 0.70; FCR model: R(2) = 0.71). The ridge maximum analysis on ADG and minimum analysis on FCR models revealed that the maximum ADG may be obtained with 18.5, 1.10, 0.89, and 0.73% dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet, and minimum FCR may be obtained with 19.44, 1.18, 0.90, and 0.75% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet. The optimization results of ANN-GA models showed the maximum ADG may be achieved with 19.93, 1.06, 0.90, and 0.76% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet, and minimum FCR may be achieved with 18.63, 1.26, 0.84, and 0.69% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet. The results of this study revealed that the platform of CCD (for conducting growth trials with minimum treatments), RSM model, and ANN-GA (for experimental data modeling and optimization) may be used to describe the relationship between dietary nutrient concentrations and broiler

  6. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid alters oxidative stability and alleviates plasma cholesterol content in meat of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari Ramiah, Suriya; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4 °C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05).

  7. Use of vitamin d3 and its metabolites in broiler chicken feed on performance, bone parameters and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Flávia Quiles Marques; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Duarte, Cristiane Regina do Amaral; Rojas, Iván Camilo Ospina; Picoli, Karla Paola; Puzotti, Maíra Mangili

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 1α(OH)D3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d) and growth phases (22 to 42 d), respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OH)D3 when compared with the other treatments (p0.05) for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05). All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OH)D3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected.

  8. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Alters Oxidative Stability and Alleviates Plasma Cholesterol Content in Meat of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriya Kumari Ramiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4°C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P<0.05. Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON group. The total CLA increased significantly (P<0.05 in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P<0.05 and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P<0.05. It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC, low density protein (LDL, and HDL (high-density lipoprotein/LDL ratio in chickens (P<0.05.

  9. Use of Vitamin D and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Quiles Marques Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OHD3, 1,25(OH2D3, and 1α(OHD3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d and growth phases (22 to 42 d, respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OHD3 when compared with the other treatments (p0.05 for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05. All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OHD3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected.

  10. Influence of herbal drugs in broiler chicken nutrition on primal carcass cuts quality assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvača Nikola M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this investigation was to determine the effects of herbal drugs such as garlic, black pepper and hot red pepper in broiler chicken nutrition on carcass primal cuts quality. Total of 1200 one-day old Hubbard broilers were totally randomly distributed into eight dietary treatments with four replicates each. Chicks were fed with three dietary mixtures: starter, grower and finisher. Dietary mixtures in the experiments were as follows: T1 (Control diet, T2 (Garlic powder 0.5 g/100g, T3 (Garlic powder 1.0 g/100g, T4 (Black pepper powder 0.5 g/100g, T5 (Black pepper powder 1.0 g/100g, T6 (Hot red pepper 0.5 g/100g, T7 (Hot red pepper 1.0 g/100g and T8 (Mixture of spices in ratio of 1:1:1 in total amount of 0.5 g/100g. Addition of herbal drugs had significant (p0.05, while significant differences in the share of wings and beck (p<0.05 were recorded under the influence of added herbal drugs. It can be concluded that the addition of garlic, black pepper and hot red pepper in broiler chicken nutrition showed positive influence on chicken carcass quality.

  11. PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF BROILERS FED DIETS CONTAINING YEAST EXTRACT DESEMPENHO E CARACTERISTICAS DE CARCAÇAS DE FRANGOS DECORTE RECEBENDO EXTRATO DE LEVEDURAS NA DIETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niédi Zauk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectof a yeast extract product on broiler growth performanceand carcass traits. A total of 810 male Ross broiler chickswere distributed in 27 pens (30 birds per pen in a completelyrandomized design. The animals were fed the experimentaldiets from 1 to 42 days of age. Treatments consisted offeeding a T1 basal corn-soybean meal diet; T2 a dietcontaining 2% yeast extract from 1 to 7 days of age and T3a diet containing 2% yeast extract from 1 to7 and 38 to 42days of age. Better growth performance was observed inbirds fed yeast extract from 1 to 7 and from 38 to 42 days ofage. Carcass traits were not statistically influenced by thedietary treatments. KEY WORDS: Body weight gain, feed conversion, feed intake, organs. Este estudo visou avaliar o efeito da utilização deum extrato de levedura sobre o desempenho e característi-cas de carcaça de frangos de corte. Um total de 810 frangos Ross, machos, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 27 boxes (trinta aves por boxe. As aves receberam as dietasexperimentais de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Os tratamentos consistiram em fornecer uma dieta à base de milho e farelo desoja (T1, uma dieta contendo extrato de levedura de 1 a 7dias (T2 e uma dieta contendo extrato de levedura de 1 a 7e de 38 a 42 dias de idade (T3. Os resultados experimentais indicam que o desempenho produtivo foi melhor ao se fornecer extrato de levedura de 1 a 7 e de 38 a 42 dias de idade.As características de carcaça não foram influenciadas estatisticamente pelas dietas experimentais. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, consumo de ração, órgãos.

  12. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (pcoconut oil level increased (poil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers.

  13. Perfil bioquímico do soro de frangos de corte alimentados com dieta suplementada com alfa-amilase de Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003 Biochemichal serum profile of broilers fed diets suplemented with alfa-amylase from Cryptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Silva Minafra

    2010-12-01

    with activity of 9.58 U/mL and 10.0 U/mL, respectively. A total of 360 Cobb 500 male 1-d broiler chicks with 49.72 ± 0.68 g of initial body weight were used in the experiment. Birds were housed in heated batteries from one to 21 days of age. It was used three diets, each one with five replicates of 12 birds in a complete random design. The first diet (basal was formulated without the addition of enzyme and the other two were supplemented with a-amylase produced by Cryptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003 cultivation. Corn and soybean based diets were formulated in two phases: pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days of age and starter phase (from 8 to 21 days. In pre-starter phase, it was observed the following average values for calcium (6.90 and 5.99 mg/dL, plasma protein (2.0 and 2.5 g/dL and alkaline phosphatase activity (979.98 e 974.66 UI/L for Criptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003, respectively. Diet added with a-amylase obtained from Aspergillus niger HM2003 increased phosphorus serum concentration. In the starter phase, significative results were related to potassium when diets added with a-amylase were evaluated by the two sources. Incorporation of tested enzymes does not provide metabolic changes neither toxicity in the animals.

  14. Performance and internal organ characteristics of finisher broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing maize as a major source of energy with wild yam (Anchomanes difformis) meal (WYM) in the diets of finisher broiler. One hundred and eighty (180) finisher broilers were fed on five experimental diets formulated such that the maize in diet 1 (control) was ...

  15. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers fed with animal fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Murali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in broilers fed with animal fat. Materials and Methods: 80 day-old Cobb commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned into two dietary treatment groups with four replicates of ten chicks each. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The birds in both the control (T1 and treatment group (T2 were fed with a diet having 5% animal fat, while the treatment group (T2 was supplemented with 900 mg of L-carnitine. The birds were fed with standard broiler starter ration up to 4 weeks of age and finisher ration up to 6 weeks of age. Results: The average body weight (g, cumulative feed intake (g and cumulative feed conversion ratio belonging to groups T1 and T2 at 6th week of age were 2091.25 and 2151.11, 3976.49 and 4171.68, 1.97 and 1.96 respectively. The percentage availability of the nutrients of two experimental rations T1 and T2 was 68.23 and 68.00 for dry matter, 58.72 and 55.98 for crude protein, 73.85 and 71.35 for ether extract, 34.19 and 33.86 for crude fiber, 79.18 and 79.59 for nitrogen free extract, 70.24 and 70.03 for energy efficiency and nitrogen balance (g/day were 2.35 and 2.39, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that the supplementation of 900 mg L-carnitine in diet with added animal fat had no effect on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers.

  16. Effect of feed-borne pollution with some mycotoxin combinations on broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, A M; Dorra, T M

    1993-01-01

    Broiler chicks were divided into five groups and fed starter mash from the first day after hatching. The first group feed (control) was mycotoxin free, whereas the mycotoxins sterigmatocystin (350 ppb) and aflatoxin B1 (100 ppb) were added to the second group diet, patulin (100 ppb) and aflatoxin B1 (100 ppb) to the third group feed, penicillic acid (850 ppb) and aflatoxin B1 (100 ppb) to the fourth group, and aflatoxins B2a (0.9 ppb) +G2 alpha (25 ppb) +M1 (0.9 ppb) +M2 (1 ppb) to the fifth group. This contaminated feeding lasted for four weeks followed by another four weeks as recovery period during which all groups fed finishing mash without mycotoxins. At the end of the experiment, the chickens of groups two, three, four and five were significantly lower in body weight and feed conversion and reflected higher mortality rates than those of the control group.

  17. Munin plugin starter

    CERN Document Server

    Brinke, Bart ten

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This hands-on Starter guide will get you up and running with Munin and Munin plugins, giving you the power to monitor, fix, and optimize your networks.This book is great for system administrators who want to improve the monitoring level of their systems. It's assumed that you have some experience with Linux-based systems and know your way around them.

  18. Instant Metasploit starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ranganath, Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Metasploit Starter is a fast-paced introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start as a smart ethical hacker, and defend your world from attacks instantly.This book is designed for security enthusiasts who are more interested in getting hands-on experience rather than reading just theory. It is also for anyone who is aware of the Metasploit framework and wishes to understand it better and start using it inst

  19. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  20. A mixture of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and capsicum oleoresin improves energy utilization and growth performance of broiler chickens fed maize-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, D; Pirgozliev, V; Rose, S P

    2014-04-01

    A total of 210, 1-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were used in an experiment to investigate the effects of a supplementary mixture containing 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum on dietary energy utilization and growth performance. The 2 diets were offered ad libitum to the chickens from 0 to 21 d of age. These included a maize-based control diet and the control diet with 100 g/t of supplementary plant extracts. Dietary apparent ME, N retention (NR), and fat digestibility (FD) coefficients were determined in the follow-up metabolism study between 21 and 24 d of age. Feeding the mixture of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and capsicum increased weight gain by 14.5% (P = 0.009), improved feed efficiency by 9.8% (P = 0.055), and tended to increase (P = 0.062) carcass energy retention and reduce (P = 0.062) total heat loss compared with feeding the control diet. There was a 16.1% increase (P = 0.015) in carcass protein retention but no difference in carcass fat retention. Feeding plant extracts improved dietary FD by 2.1% (P = 0.013) but did not influence dietary NR. Supplementation of plant extract resulted in a 12.5% increase (P = 0.021) in dietary NE for production (NEp), while no changes in dietary ME were observed. The experiment showed that although dietary essential oils did not affect dietary ME, they caused an improvement in the utilization of energy for growth. Plant extracts may affect metabolic utilization of absorbed nutrients. Studies that have focused solely on the effect of plant extracts on ME alone may well have not detected their full nutritional value.

  1. Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni-Enriched Diet on Hepatic Heat Shock Protein and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Heat Stressed Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Flees

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress (HS has been reported to alter fat deposition in broilers, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well-defined. The objectives of the current study were, therefore: (1 to determine the effects of acute (2 h and chronic (3 weeks HS on the expression of key molecular signatures involved in hepatic lipogenic and lipolytic programs, and (2 to assess if diet supplementation with dried Noni medicinal plant (0.2% of the diet modulates these effects. Broilers (480 males, 1 d were randomly assigned to 12 environmental chambers, subjected to two environmental conditions (heat stress, HS, 35°C vs. thermoneutral condition, TN, 24°C and fed two diets (control vs. Noni in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Feed intake and body weights were recorded, and blood and liver samples were collected at 2 h and 3 weeks post-heat exposure. HS depressed feed intake, reduced body weight, and up regulated the hepatic expression of heat shock protein HSP60, HSP70, HSP90 as well as key lipogenic proteins (fatty acid synthase, FASN; acetyl co-A carboxylase alpha, ACCα and ATP citrate lyase, ACLY. HS down regulated the hepatic expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL and hepatic triacylglycerol lipase (LIPC, but up-regulated ATGL. Although it did not affect growth performance, Noni supplementation regulated the hepatic expression of lipogenic proteins in a time- and gene-specific manner. Prior to HS, Noni increased ACLY and FASN in the acute and chronic experimental conditions, respectively. During acute HS, Noni increased ACCα, but reduced FASN and ACLY expression. Under chronic HS, Noni up regulated ACCα and FASN but it down regulated ACLY. In vitro studies, using chicken hepatocyte cell lines, showed that HS down-regulated the expression of ACCα, FASN, and ACLY. Treatment with quercetin, one bioactive ingredient in Noni, up-regulated the expression of ACCα, FASN, and ACLY under TN conditions, but it appeared to down-regulate ACCα and increase ACLY

  2. Lipid stability, antioxidant potential and fatty acid composition of broilers breast meat as influenced by quercetin in combination with α-tocopherol enriched diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shabbir, Muhammad Asim; Shahid, Muhammad

    2015-06-24

    Dietary supplementation of antioxidants is a vital route to affect the oxidative stability and fatty acid profile of broiler meat. The supplementation of feed with antioxidants decreases degradation of lipids in muscles thereby enhances meat stability. The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of dietary quercetin in combination with α-tocopherol on growth performance, antioxidant potential, lipid stability and fatty acid composition in breast meat of birds. Accordingly, one day old 300 Hubbard strain male broiler birds were given three levels of quercetin @100, 200 and 300 mg/kg feed in combination with α-tocopherol @150, 225 and 300 mg/kg feed. The resultant meat was subjected to antioxidant assay, lipid stability, quantification of antioxidants followed by fatty acid profile of broiler breast meat. The results explicated that feed treatments imparted momentous effect on gain in weight, and feed conversion efficiency however, intake of feed in birds affected non-momentously. The highest weight gain recorded in T9 as 2374.67 & 2388 g/bird followed by T8 & T6 2350 & 2353.33 and 2293.33 & 2307 g/bird, respectively whilst the lowest in T0 as 1992.67 & 1999 g/bird during the experimental year 2013 and 2014. The results regarding antioxidant potential revealed that among treatments, T9 exhibited highest values for total phenolic contents (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) & ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) i.e. 158.70 ± 0.84 mg GAE/100 g, 82.40 ± 0.93% and 682 ± 2.11 μmol/Fe(+2/)g, respectively as compared to T0 104.27 ± 1.64 mg GAE/100 g, 54.71 ± 0.64% and 542.67 ± 1.74 μmol/Fe(+2) /g of meat, correspondingly. The TBARS assay indicated that malondialdehydes production in meat increased during storage however, antioxidants deposition varied significantly among treatments. Fatty acid compositional analysis revealed that addition of quercetin with α-tocopherol in the bird's diet decreased the fatty acid generation

  3. The efficacy of Na-butyrate encapsulated in palm fat on performance of broilers infected with necrotic enteritis with gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Eshak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the efficacy of Na-butyrate encapsulated in palm fat on performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with necrotic enteritis (NE with the determination of its protective effect against the changes in the gene expression profiles and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA fragmentation. Materials and Methods: A total of 800 one-day-old male Arbor Acres Plus broiler chickens were randomly allocated into four groups for 5 weeks. Na-butyrate was supplemented at dosages of 1 kg/ton for starter diet, 0.5 kg/ton for grower diet, and 0.25 kg/ton for finisher diet (presence or absence. Birds of groups 1 and 2 were inoculated by crop gavages with 4×108 CFU/ml/bird of Clostridium perfringens in phosphate buffered saline for 4 successive days, from 14 to 17 days of age to produce NE. Results: Addition of Na-butyrate, encapsulated in palm fat, to ration of experimentally infected broilers with NE resulted in increased final body weight, at 35 days of age, reduced total feed consumption, improved feed conversion ratio, reduced cumulative mortality, and increased production number. There were increased intestinal diameter, intestinal length, and significantly increased the weight of bursa of Fabricius(BF with higher hemagglutination inhibition titers against Newcastle disease (ND vaccination versus untreated infected and untreated negative control birds. The results showed increased expression levels of alpha-toxin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the bursa tissues of broilers infected with C. perfringens. However, the expression levels of these genes in broilers treated with Na-butyrate were similar to the non-infected control group. Supplementation of broilers with Na-butyrate increased the expression level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and decreased the DNA fragmentation induced by C. perfringens. Conclusion: Na-butyrate significantly improved chicken broiler body weights, increased relative weights of BF, increased

  4. INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM CONTENT AND OIL SOURCES IN FEED ON CONCENTRATION OF THYROID GLAND HORMONES AND ELECTROLYTE IN BROILER BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to elaborate the influence of designed mixtures used in broilers fattening on the concentration of electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in the blood.. The research was carried out on 120 male Ross 308 hybrid broilers. The fattening lasted for 42 days. During the first three weeks of fattening broilers were fed standard starter diet containing 22% crude protein and 13.90 MJ/kg ME. During the last three weeks of fattening, broilers were divided into 6 experimental groups, each fed specially prepared finisher diets (P1=6% sunflower oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P2=6% linseed oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P3=6% sunflower oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P4=6% linseed oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P5=6% sunflower oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed, P6=6% linseed oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Finisher diet was balanced at 18.02% crude protein and 14.40 MJ/kg ME. It was found out that the type of oil in chicken feed influenced to blood pH (P <0.001, whereas selenium level (P=0.014 in the feed, as well as the oil type and selenium level interaction (P<0.001 influenced the concentration of potassium in the blood. Oil type (P=0.037 influenced the concentration of fT3, which was lower in chickens fed mixtures with addition of linseed oil than in the chickens fed sunflower oil added mixtures. Interaction of selenium content and oil type had influence on differences in concentration of fT4 as well as on the ratio of fT3/fT4, (P<0.001, i.e. P=0.021. The research results indicated that oils supplemented to broiler diets and combined with different organic selenium concentrations affected pH, concentration of some electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in broiler blood, however, all obtained values were within reference range for poultry.

  5. The Effect of Triticale and Enzyme Cocktail (Xylanase & β-Glucanase Replacement in Grower Diet on Performance, Digestive Organ Relative Weight, Gut Viscosity and Gut Morphology of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Zarghi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Corn and wheat are the grains most routinely used in commercial poultry diets. For consumption of these cereals, there are a competition between humans and mono-gastric animals. Due to corn crop limitation in Iran, approximately 50% of the corn required for poultry nutrition is supplied through imports. Since triticale is more resistant to various diseases, dry weather and in similar culture and weather conditions can produce higher yield than wheat, triticale considered as a crop suitable for cultivation in inefficient lands and its culture in the world has being increased. The use of triticale in broiler feed has been limited because of the presence of soluble non-starch polysaccharides components. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different replacement levels of corn by triticale in grower diets with and without exogenous enzyme supplementation on growth performance, relative weight of digestive organs, jejunal morphology, and intestinal viscosity of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods Five hundred 11 d old male broiler chicks (Ross 308, were assigned to a factorial arrangement (5×2 with a completely randomized design with 5 replicates of 10 chicks each. The factors included 5 levels of triticale replacement levels for corn (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% and 2 levels (zero and 0.5 g /kg of diet of enzyme cocktail “Xylanase & β-Glucanase” in the broiler grower diets. The experimental diets were isocalric and isonitrogenous and fed ad-libitum from 11 to 24 d of age. The growth performance as mean body weight at 24 d of age, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were calculated. At 24d of age, one bird from each pen, close to the average pen weight was selected, weighed, and euthanized by cervical dislocation. The gastrointestinal (GI tract organs were emptied and weighed. Approximately 1.5 g of wet weight of the fresh digesta was immediately placed in a micro centrifuge tube and

  6. Quantitative replacement of soybean meal with toasted African yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the result, one can conclude that 25% AYB (treatment II) compared favourably with the control diets 0% AYB in starter broiler diets and is hereby recommended as optimal for quantitative replacement of soybean in broiler starter diet. Key words: Broiler Starter diet, African Yam Bean, Soyabean replacement ...

  7. EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDE DEGRADING ENZYMES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nadeem, M. I. Anjum, A. G. Khan and A. Azim

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broilers chicks fed diets with and without supplementing non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes (NSPDE at the rate of 0.5 g/kg diet. A total of 300 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 12 sets (replicates each comprising 25 chicks and three sets per treatment group, reared on deep litter from 1-42 days post-hatch. Group A was fed diets without NSPDE supplementation, while group B was fed diets supplemented with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg. Group C was fed diets containing 50 kcal/kg less metabolizable energy (ME without NSPDE and group D was fed diets having 50 kcal/kg less ME with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg supplementation. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR from 1-28 days and 1-42 days was significantly (p<0.05 improved in chicks fed NSPDE supplemented diets (groups B and D compared to non-supplemented diets (groups A and C. However, during 29-42 days of growing period enzymes supplementation did not influence feed intake and FCR. Body weight gain, dressing percentage and relative weights of heart, gizzard and shank at 42 days of age was found to be non-significantly different among all groups. However, liver weight reduced significantly (p<0.05 in NSPDE supplemented groups. The study suggested that NSPDE supplementation was beneficial in enhancing feed utilization during the starter phase, while its effects on weight gain, dressing percentage and weights of organs, except liver weight, were found to be non-significant.

  8. Black cumin seeds as phytogenic product in broiler diets and its effects on performance, blood constituents, immunity and caecal microbial population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 3 different levels (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0% of black cumin seeds (BCS on five hundred chicks. A basal diet was supplemented with either 0 (negative control, or 0.1% antibiotic (positive control, or 3 levels of BCS. At day 28 and 42 of age, the 2.5 and 5.0% BCS groups had significantly greater body weight gain (BWG than the 1.25% BCS and the antibiotic group. The same groups had feed efficiency significantly improved (P<0.05 compared to the 1.25% BCS group and the controls. At both ages, measurement of the dressing percentage showed no marked variation between BCS supplementation and antibiotic. The 2.5 and 5.0% BCS groups showed an increase (P<0.05 in total protein and higher (P<0.05 haematological values than the 1.25%, antibiotic or unsupplemented diet group. The activities of blood enzymes were lower (P<0.05 and caecal coliform and Escherichia coli populations decreased (P<0.05 in BCS and antibiotic groups. Serum and tissue cholesterol concentration decreased (P<0.05 as the levels of BCS increased. The geometric means haemagglutination inhibition (HI titres of the BCS and the antibiotic group were always higher than the negative control. The mean lymphoid organs weight/body weight ratio of the negative control was significantly (P<0.05 lower than BCS and antibiotic groups. In conclusion, including up to 2.5 or 5.0% BSC in the diets of broilers has no deleterious effects on their performance, immunity, serum biochemical constituents nor haematological indices. In fact, it may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken meat.

  9. Fontes de Sódio e Relação Sódio: Cloro para Frangos de Corte Sodium Chloride Levels in Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV Fischer da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 2.880 pintos de corte, para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes fontes de sódio (Na+ e relações sódio:cloro (Na+:Cl- na ração. As aves receberam ração e água ad libtum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. O ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e mortalidade não foram influenciados (p>0,05 pela substituição da fonte tradicional de Na e pelas diferentes relações Na:Cl. A umidade da cama foi afetada pela fonte e níveis de Na na ração. Os resultados mostraram que pode-se utilizar o NaHCO3 como fonte parcial à exigência de Na para frangos de corte de 1 a 47 dias de idade.A trial was carried out with 2,880 day old chicks to evaluate different sources of sodium (Na+ and Na+:Cl- ratio in diets. Water and diets were available in "ad libitum" feeding. Experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and six repetitions. The performance (feed intake, body weight, feed conversion and mortality was not affected (P>0.05 by treatments, but different levels and sources of Na+ increased litter moisture. The NaHCO3 can be used in chicken broilers diets in partial substitution of Na for day 1 to 47.

  10. Upgrading the nutritive value of full-fat soyabeans meal for broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted using Anak Red broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of grading the nutritive value of full fat soyabean meal diet based with either fishmeal or Blaick soldier fly larvae meal for broiler production. The average live weight gains of broilers fed an all vegetable protein, fishmeal and larvae meal diets ...

  11. Analysis of the Toll-Like Receptor 2-2 (TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA Expression in the Intestinal Mucosal Immunity of Broilers Fed on Diets Supplemented with Nickel Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangyuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLRs are important innate immune receptors, and TLR2 and TLR4 play an important role in intestinal mucosal innate immunity. It has been found that nickel (Ni can affect the immune system in broilers. The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosal immunity system of broilers induced by dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2 using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR assays. Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet or the same basal diet supplemented with 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Results showed that the TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosa and the cecal tonsil were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 in the 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg groups than those in the control group. It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg could reduce TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosa and cecal tonsil in broilers, implying that the innate immunity in intestinal mucosal immune system could be impaired by pathways involving injured surface epithelium cells or/and the inhibition of the TLR signal transduction.

  12. The chemical characteristics of organic iron sources and their relative bioavailabilities for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L Y; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Luo, X G

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-four organic Fe sources were evaluated by polarographic analysis and via solubility in buffers (pH 5 and 2) and deionized water. Organic Fe sources included 6 Fe-Met complexes (Fe-Met), 10 Fe-Gly complexes, 1 Fe-Lys complex, 4 Fe proteinates, and 3 Fe-AA complexes (Fe-AA). Sources varied considerably in chemical characteristics. Chelation strengths (quotient of formation [Q] values) ranged from weak (Q = 1.08) to extremely strong strength (Q = 8,590). A total of 1,170 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted to 6 replicate cages (15 chicks/cage) for each of 13 treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (4 Fe sources × 3 added Fe levels) plus a control with no added Fe. Dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; 55.8 mg Fe/kg) and the basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, or 60 mg Fe/kg as iron sulfate (FeSO∙7HO); an Fe-Met with weak chelation strength (Fe-Met W; Q = 1.37; 14.7% Fe); an iron proteinate with moderate chelation strength (Fe-Prot M; Q = 43.6; 14.2% Fe); or an iron proteinate with extremely strong chelation strength (Fe-Prot ES; Q = 8,590; 10.2% Fe). The growth performance, Fe concentrations, hematological indices, and activities and gene expressions of 2 Fe-containing enzymes in tissues of broilers at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were determined in the present study. Transferrin saturation in plasma on 14 d; bone Fe on d 7 and 14; liver Fe on d 7, 14, and 21; kidney Fe on d 14; succinate dehydrogenase activities in the liver on d 21 and in the kidney on d 7 and 21; mRNA levels in the kidney and heart on d 14; and mRNA levels in the liver and kidney on d 21 linearly increased ( sources were detected ( sources were closely related to their Q values and organic Fe sources with greater Q values showed higher Fe bioavailabilities.

  13. Multilingual school starters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    Multilingual school starters: social semiotics perspectives on second language and literacy learning in education Helle Pia Laursen The starting point for this paper is the still increasing role of literacy in educational settings. Often primary education is seen as almost being synonymous...... of globalisation. Furthermore, this perception of literacy entails that the student’s possible insights into other ways of adding signs to language than those we know from a specific version of the Latin alphabet, fall outside the interests of research and teaching. From this perspective and with a social semiotic...... a conceptualization of literacy as a set of measurable skills, which can be measured in a specific language. Thus, literacy is perceived as a more or less universal, mental and language-neutral phenomenon; however it is implicitly linked to a given language that in turn is treated as an inherently natural phenomenon...

  14. Effects of diets containing different concentrations of mannanoligosaccharide or antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal development, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurhoo, B; Ferket, P R; Zhao, X

    2009-11-01

    The effects of 2 levels of mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) in feed were compared with antibiotic growth promoters on growth performance, intestinal morphology, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters in broilers raised in a sanitary environment. Dietary treatments included: 1) antibiotic growth promoter-free diet (control), 2) VIRG (diet 1 + 16.5 mg/kg of virginiamycin), 3) BACT (diet 1 + 55 mg/kg of bacitracin), 4) LMOS (diet 1 + 0.2% MOS), and 5) HMOS (diet 1 + 0.5% MOS). Birds were randomly assigned to 3 replicate pens/treatment (n = 55/pen). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly throughout 38 d. At d 14, 24, and 34, a 1-cm segment of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was used in morphological analysis (n = 9 birds/d per treatment). At the same bird ages, cecal contents were assayed for lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli, whereas litter was analyzed for Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli. Carcass yields (breast fillet and tenders, thigh, drumstick, and wing) were determined at d 38. Body weight, feed conversion, and carcass yields did not differ among treatments. In contrast to birds fed VIRG or BACT, LMOS and HMOS consistently increased (P < 0.05) villi height and goblet cell number per villus in all intestinal segments at d 24 and 34. Bifidobacteria concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in LMOS- and HMOS-fed birds at all time points. Birds and litter from all treatments were free of Salmonella. At d 14 and 24, cecal E. coli and Campylobacter counts were not different among treatments. In comparison to birds fed control, at d 34, BACT, LMOS, and HMOS significantly reduced (P < 0.05) cecal E. coli concentrations, whereas Campylobacter counts were reduced (P < 0.05) by VIRG, BACT, and LMOS. Litter bacterial counts were not altered by dietary treatments. In conclusion, under conditions of this study, MOS conferred intestinal health benefits to chickens by improving its morphological

  15. Relative toxicity of gossypol enantiomers in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Lordelo, M.M.; Davis, A.J.; Calhoun, M.C.; Dowd, M.K.; Dale, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Use of cottonseed meal in poultry diets has been avoided in large part because of fear of gossypol toxicity. Gossypol exists naturally as a mixture of 2 enantiomers that exhibit different biological activities. Two experiments were conducted to determine the relative toxicity of gossypol enantiomers on broilers. In the first experiment, 3-d-old broilers were fed a standard diet containing 0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg of gossypol from gossypol acetic acid per kilogram of...

  16. Inclusão da farinha de varredura de mandioca em rações de frangos de corte = Inclusion of cassava waste meal inclusion in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Nataly Ribeiro Barbosa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o desempenho, a viabilidade econômica e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo níveis de inclusão (0,0; 7,5; 15,0; 22,5 e 30,0% de farinha de varredura de mandioca (FVM. Foram utilizados 360 pintainhos de um dia, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocoscasualizados com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições contendo 12 aves por parcela. Os parâmetros avaliados foram o consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, custo da alimentação, renda bruta, margem bruta e rentabilidade. Aos 42 dias, foram abatidos doisfrangos por parcela para avaliação do peso: da carcaça, dos cortes, das vísceras e da gordura total, para determinar o rendimento de carcaça e calcular as porcentagens de cortes, gordura total e vísceras em relação ao peso vivo e carcaça. O peito e as coxas + sobrecoxas foram desossados para calcular os rendimentos de carne. A pigmentação das canelas das aves foi avaliada. Nos parâmetros de desempenho e avaliação econômica, não houve diferença entreos tratamentos. No peso e porcentagem da moela e pigmentação das canelas, houve efeito linear e, no rendimento da carne da coxa + sobrecoxa, houve efeito quadrático. A FVM pode ser incorporada às rações em níveis de 30%.The objective of this work was to evaluate performance, economic viability and carcass traits of broilers fed with diets containing five inclusion levels (0.0; 7.5; 15.0; 22.5 and 30.0% ofcassava waste meal (FVM. Three hundred sixty one-day-old pullets were used, distributed in a randomized block design experiment with five treatments and six replications, containing twelve birds per box. The parameters evaluated were feed intake, weight gain,feed-to-gain ratio, feeding costs, gross income, gross margin and profitability. Two broilers per replication were slaughtered at 42 days in order to evaluate the weights of carcass, main cuts, offal and total fat for carcass

  17. THE EFFECT OF BEE POLLEN ON BROILER BREAST AND THIGH MEAT COLOUR L a b

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Hascík; Ibrahim Elimam; Juraj Cubon; Lenka Trembecká; Jana Tkácová; Miroslav Krocko; Miroslava Kacániová

    2014-01-01

      The present study was aimed to investigate the impact of the addition bee pollen as supplements diet into the broiler feed mixture on broiler breast and thigh meat colour such as L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) values...

  18. Starter cultures for kimchi fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mo-Eun; Jang, Ja-Young; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae-Woong; Choi, Hak-Jong; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2015-05-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean vegetable product that is naturally fermented by various microorganisms present in the raw materials. Among these microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria dominate the fermentation process. Natural fermentation with unsterilized raw materials leads to the growth of various lactic acid bacteria, resulting in variations in the taste and quality of kimchi, which may make it difficult to produce industrial-scale kimchi with consistent quality. The use of starter cultures has been considered as an alternative for the industrial production of standardized kimchi, and recent trends suggest that the demand for starter cultures is on the rise. However, several factors should be carefully considered for the successful application of starter cultures for kimchi fermentation. In this review, we summarize recent studies on kimchi starter cultures, describe practical problems in the application of industrial-scale kimchi production, and discuss the directions for further studies.

  19. Digestibility And Hematological Parameters Of Broiler Chickens Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of replacing synthetic lysine (SL) with blood meal (BM) on apparent nutrients digestibility and hematological responses of broiler chickens. One hundred and fifty (150) unsexed Anak broiler chicks were used. There were five diets with diet (T1) containing 0.10% SL and ...

  20. Sexual dimorphism in the growth pattern of broilers under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and seventy day old broiler chicks were randomly distributed among three dietary treatments (iso-nitrogenous high and low energy straight-run diets and a conventional broiler diet) and two housing conditions (the cage and deep litter) to study the comparative growth patterns between the male and female ...

  1. soya meal or cottonseed meal on broiler production.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of meals of sweat potato and cassava varieties formulated with soya meal or cottonseed meal on broiler ... Growing and finishing chickens consumed more of the soyabean- supplemented diets than diets containing cottonseed meal as ..... sweet potato and a protein supplement to broiler and crossbred poultry. Papua ...

  2. Fontes e níveis de metionina em dietas para frangos de corte Methionine sources and levels in broiler chick diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Tárcio dos Santos Viana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de duas fontes de metionina, DL-metionina e metionina hidroxi análoga (MHA-AL, e de três níveis de suplementação desse aminoácido em dietas comerciais sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 1.232 pintos de corte machos da linhagem Ross, de 1 a 47 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 X 3 (fonte de metionina X nível de suplementação e uma dieta adicional (basal sem suplementação, com oito repetições de 22 aves por unidade experimental. A dieta basal (sem suplementação foi suplementada com 50, 100 e 150% de MHA ou DL-metionina em quantidade equivalente a 65% da quantidade de cada nível de MHA-AL utilizado. Avaliaram-se o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o fator de produção. Em cada nível de suplementação, não houve diferença entre as dietas contendo 100 partes de MHA-AL e 65 partes de DL-metionina, exceto no período de 1 a 10 dias de idade, quando houve diferença significativa no ganho de peso no menor nível de suplementação. Sessenta e cinco partes de DL-metionina equivalem a 100 partes de MHA-AL.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sources of methionine, DL-Methionine (DLM - 99% and Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Free Acid (MHA-FA - 88%, at three different levels of supplementation of this amino acids in commercial diets on the performance of broiler chickens. A total of 1.232 commercial Ross broilers was used, from 01 to 47 days of age, and allotted to a complete randomized design in a 2 X 3 factorial (source methionine X supplementation level arrangement and a additional diet (basal without supplementation, with eight replications of 22 birds per experimental unit. The basal diet was supplemented with 50, 100 and 150% of MHA-FA or DL-methionine in equivalent amount of 65% of the amount of MHA-FA used. Feed intake, weight gain, feed:gain ratio and production factor

  3. Protective Effects of Sporoderm-Broken Spores of Ganderma lucidum on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Capacity and Immune Function of Broiler Chickens Exposed to Low Level of Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and evaluate the effects of sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum (SSGL in relieving aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly divided into four dietary treatments; the treatment diets were: Control (a basal diet containing normal peanut meal; AFB1 (the basal diet containing AFB1-contaminated peanut meal; SSGL (basal diet with 200 mg/kg of SSGL; AFB1+SSGL (supplementation of 200 mg/kg of SSGL in AFB1 diet. The contents of AFB1 in AFB1 and AFB1+SSGL diets were 25.0 μg/kg in the starter period and 22.5 μg/kg in the finisher period. The results showed that diet contaminated with a low level of AFB1 significantly decreased (p < 0.05 the average daily feed intake and average daily gain during the entire experiment and reduced (p < 0.05 serum contents of total protein IgA and IgG. Furthermore, a dietary low level of AFB1 not only increased (p < 0.05 levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation, but also decreased (p < 0.05 total antioxidant capability, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and hydroxyl radical scavenger activity in the liver and spleen of broilers. Moreover, the addition of SSGL to AFB1-contaminated diet counteracted these negative effects, indicating that SSGL has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis.

  4. Effect of Garlic Supplementation to Diet on Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens under High Stocking Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid SHAKERI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the impact of garlic powder (GAR on performance and intestinal morphology when chicken were subjected to different stocking densities. A total 100 one-day old Cobb 500 male chicks were housed in cages as 10 birds/m2 and 15 birds/m2. The chicks received feed as (i basal diet + 0 g/kg garlic powder and (ii basal diet + 5g/kg garlic powder supplementation from 1-42d. At the end of experiment, ten chicks per treatment randomly selected to collect duodenal samples. The results showed significant improvement in body weight and villi length when diet supplemented by GAR. High stocking density (HD had negative impact on growth performance and villi length in basal diet, but chicken supplemented by GAR diet did not affect by HD in the both parameters. In conclusion, diet supplemented by GAR can improve performance and villi length when the chickens were subjected to HD condition.

  5. Apparent and standardized ileal nutrient digestibility of broiler diets containing varying levels of raw full-fat soybean and microbial protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammo M. Erdaw

    2017-10-01

    FCR during 0 to 24 d. Rising levels of RFFS increased the weight of pancreas (P < 0.001 and small intestine (P < 0.001 at day 24. Except for methionine, apparent and the corresponding standardized ileal digestibility of CP and AA were reduced (P < 0.01 by increasing levels of RFFS in diets. Conclusion This study showed that some commercial SBM could be replaced by RFFS in broiler diets, without markedly compromising productivity. The AID and SID of CP and lysine were slightly improved by dietary supplementation of microbial protease.

  6. Effect of the supplementation of vitamins and organic minerals on the performance of broilers under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Laganá

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with vitamins C and E and organic minerals Zn and Se on the performance of 1 to 35 day-old broilers from, kept under cyclic heat stress (25 to 32ºC. Four levels of vitamin-mineral supplementation were used (T1-control diet (60/30 IU of vit E for starter and growing diet, respectively, zero vit. C, 80 ppm of inorganic Zn, 0.3 ppm of inorganic Se; T2-control diet + 100 UI vit E and 300 ppm vit C/kg; T3-control diet + 40 ppm Zn and 0,3 ppm Se/kg; T4-control diet + T2 and T3 levels and two environments - thermoneutral and cyclic heat stress (TN and HS from 14 to 35 days of age. In the period when part of the birds was submitted to HS, from 14 to 35 days, it was observed lower feed intake (FI and better feed conversion (FC for HS birds receiving supplementation compared to the group without supplementation. Evaluating the total period, all the types of supplementation provided lower FI and better FC than the control treatment, but not affected weight gain (WG. The supplementation of vitamins C and E and/or organic minerals Zn and Se improved the performance of birds due to a lower FI resulting in better FC, independently on the environment.

  7. Vitamin E and selenium in broiler breeder diets: Effect on live performance, hatching process, and chick quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, U R A; Dahlke, F; Maiorka, A; Bueno, I J M; Schneider, A F; Surek, D; Rocha, C

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different dietary vitamin E levels and different selenium sources on the productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders. In total 640 females and 64 males between 22 and 52 weeks old were studied. A completely randomized experimental design in factorial arrangement, with 4 treatments of 8 replicates with 20 females and 2 males each, was applied. Treatments consisted of 2 vitamin E levels (30 and 120 mg/kg) and two selenium sources (sodium selenite and zinc-L-selenomethionine). Egg production (rate of lay and eggs per breeder), egg characteristics (egg, yolk, eggshell, and albumen weights), fertility, incubation responses (egg weight loss during incubation, hatchability, and hatching window), and hatchling characteristics (weight and yield) were evaluated. There was no influence of dietary vitamin E levels or selenium sources on egg production (P > 0.05). Mature breeders (47 weeks old) fed zinc-L-selenomethionine and 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed produced heavier eggs and albumen. Hatchability of the eggs of breeders fed 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed was higher than breeders fed 30 mg vitamin at 29 wks. The dietary inclusion of organic selenium also promoted heavier hatchling weight until egg production peak (33 wk), but did not influence hatchling quality or hatching window. It was concluded that the dietary supplementation of zinc-L-selenomethione and vitamin E (120 mg/kg feed) could be used to improve egg characteristics and incubation response. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Desempenho de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo diformiato de potássio Broilers performance fed with diets contend potassium diformiate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Augusto dos Santos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A proibição do uso de antibióticos como aditivos promotores de crescimento causou grandes impactos à avicultura de corte, trazendo consigo a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novos aditivos. Nesse contexto, o diformiato de potássio (DK, um sal de ácido fórmico, surge como uma dessas alternativas. O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a ação do DK sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 1.800 frangos de corte machos da linhagem Ross 308, distribuídos em dois experimentos de 900 aves cada, formados por cinco tratamentos de seis repetições, em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela inclusão de níveis crescentes de DK às dietas (0, 3, 6, 9 e 12kg DK t-1. As aves foram pesadas ao alojamento, aos 21 e aos 42 dias e, posteriormente, os dados obtidos foram submetidos a uma análise de regressão linear. No primeiro experimento, não houve melhoria no desempenho zootécnico das aves, havendo ainda uma redução no consumo alimentar. Da mesma forma, no segundo experimento a adição de DK reduziu linearmente o consumo de ração e ganho de peso, não demonstrando qualquer efeito sobre a conversão alimentar das aves. Conclui-se que doses elevadas de DK causam desequilíbrio ácido-básico das dietas, com efeitos negativos sobre o desempenho das aves.The use of prohibited antibiotics as growth promoters additives caused great impacts on poultry, bringing the need for the development of new additives. The diformiate potassium (DK, a salt of formic acid, is emerging as one of those alternatives. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the action of DK on the performance of broilers. One thousand and eight hundred broilers male of Ross 308 breed, distributed into two trials of 900 birds each, and then randomly separated by five treatments with six replications, in a completely randomized experimental design, The treatments consisted by inclusion of increasing levels

  9. Short communication. Effects of purslane extract on performance, immunity responses and cecal microbial population of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Ghorbani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of purslane extract on performance, cecal microflora composition and immune responses of broiler chickens. One hundred and ninety two 1–day old broiler chicks (Ross 308 were allocated randomly in 4 groups with 4 replicates to receive diets supplemented with 0 (control, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of purslane extract for 42 days. Body weight gain, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly and calculated for starter (1-21 d, grower (22-42 d and overall periods (1-42 d. All diets were isocaloric, isonitrogenous and provided ad libitum. Antibody response against sheep red blood cell (SRBC was measured on d-28 and d-42. At the age of 42 d, eight chicks per treatment killed aseptically for enumeration of cecal bacteria. The results of this experiment indicated that FI increased significantly with inclusion of purslane extract in grower and overall period (p≤0.05. Purslane extract did not affect coliform and Escherichia coli populations but increased Lactobacillus population of cecal content significantly (p≤0.05. There were no significant differences in primary and secondary antibody titer against SRBC and no differences among the treatments for relative weight of thymus and spleen (p>0.05. Relative weight of bursa was affected with inclusion of purslane extract in the diet. Therefore, it was concluded that purslane inclusion had a positive significant effect on cecal microflora composition, but had no effect on immune response of broiler chickens.

  10. NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND PERFORMANCE IN BROILER CONSUMING DIETS FORMULATED WITH DIFFERENT FIBER LEVELS AND SUPLEMENTED WITH ENZYMATIC COMPLEX DIGESTIBILIDADE DOS NUTRIENTES E DESEMPENHO DE FRANGOS DE CORTE CONSUMINDO DIETAS FORMULADAS COM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE FIBRA E SUPLEMENTADAS COM ENZIMAS EXÓGENAS

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Karolina Ratier da Silva; Tatiane Aparecida Ramos; Joseane Crystina Costa Rego; Cátia Chilanti Pinheiro; Marson Bruck Warpechowski

    2008-01-01

    The effects of fiber level and the enzymatic supplementation in diets for broilers were evaluated in two trials. The experimental treatments were diets with high and low fiber level and with enzymatic supplementation (α-galactosidase, cellulase, amylase e protease). In the first trial (14 to 19 days of birds age), 190 broilers were randomly distributed in a 2x2 factorial arrangement (fiber x enzymes), placed in metabolic cages between (9-10 birds/cage, 5 cages per treatment). It was evaluate ...

  11. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2] or soy protein concentrate (SPC for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p0.05 by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control, 57.7 (BF-SBM, 58.5 (YBF-SBM, 52.0 (LF-SBM 1, 56.7 (LF-SBM 2, and 53.3 g/d (SPC, respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001 than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01 feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0.001 lactic acid bacteria, but lowered Coli-form bacteria in cecal contents compared with those fed the control diet. The number of Bacillus spp. was higher (p<0.001 in all

  12. The Influence of Propolis as Supplement Diet on Broiler Meat Growth Performance, Carcass Body Weight, Chemical Composition and Lipid Oxidation Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was aimed to study the effect of the propolis extract as supplement diet on the broiler chickens growth performance, breast and thigh weights, meat chemical composition and lipid oxidation stability. A total of 120 chicks in one day old, which were divided into 4 groups (n = 30 for 42 days.To the experimental groups were added propolis extract in doses of 200 mg.kg−1 (II, 300 mg.kg−1 (III and 400 mg.kg−1 (IV. At the end of the experiment the results were shown that the body weight gain after 21 and 42 days has been increased and there were found significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 between control and experimental groups also the feed intake has been increased and there were (P ≤ 0.05. The FCR was higher in the control group. The carcass body weight breast and thigh weights were increased and there were no significant differences while, the abdominal fat and liver weights were decreased. No significant difference was occurred on chemical composition of breast and thigh muscles, whereasthe muscle moisture tends to increase and fat content and energy value were decreased. Interestingly, thelipid oxidation stability measured as TBARS during the freezing storage for 6 months has been decreasedmalondialdehyde (MDA in the experimental groups and there were found significant (P ≤ 0.05 in the breast musclesbetween control group and experimental groups. From the present study were concluded after administration the propolis extract that broilergrowth performance has been increased and the lipid oxidation (MDA during the freezing storage (−18 °C have been decreased.

  13. Studies on the incorporation of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis) as an alternative protein source in poultry feed and its effect on growth performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivel, Vellingiri; Pugalenthi, Muthiah

    2010-10-01

    The effect of replacement of soybean meal by the velvet bean meal as an alternative protein ingredient on the growth performance of broiler chickens was investigated. The raw seeds of velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. var. utilis (Wall. ex Wight) Baker ex Burck], an under-utilized food legume collected from South India, was found to contain appreciable levels of crude protein (273.2 g/kg DM), lipid (60.61 g/kg DM), neutral detergent fiber (84.3 g/kg DM), and ash content (56.04 g/kg DM). Soaking in 0.2% sodium bicarbonate solution + autoclaving treatment caused a substantial reduction on the levels of various antinutritional compounds such as tannins (84%), L: -Dopa (79%), phytic acid (87%), raffinose (93%), stachyose (83%), verbascose (73%), haemagglutinating activity (84%), trypsin inhibitor activity (77%), and alpha-amylase inhibitor activity (78%) without affecting the nutritional quality of velvet bean seeds. The processed velvet bean meal was incorporated as an alternative protein source by replacing soybean meal protein at 0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% levels in the broiler diets. Replacement of soybean meal protein up to 40% level, which corresponds to the inclusion of velvet bean meal up to 15.7% and 11% in the starter and finisher phase poultry feeds, respectively, exhibited better growth performance of broiler birds without any adverse effects.

  14. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  15. Instant OpenNMS starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hachey, Ghislain

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starters' guide to learning OpenNMS with ease, with a focus on immediate results.Instant OpenNMS Starter is for network administrators of any level with a slight focus on the novice that would enjoy a swift glance at what OpenNMS has to offer. It assumes the reader will have knowledge of basic network operations and protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite.

  16. Instant CloudFlare starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dickey, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

  17. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  18. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseed meal in the diets of broiler chickens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nie, Cun-xi; Zhang, Wen-ju; Wang, Yong-qiang; Liu, Yan-feng; Ge, Wen-xia; Liu, Jian-cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens...

  19. Effect of β-glucanase and xylanase supplementation of barley- and rye-based diets on caecal microbiota of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefiak, Damian; Rutkowski, A; Kaczmarek, S

    2010-01-01

    in the broiler caeca were Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale followed by Bacteroides sp., Lactobacillus sp./Enterococcus sp., Bifidobacterium sp. and Enterobacteriaceae. For both cereal types, the enzyme supplementation significantly decreased the relative amount of Enterobacteriaceae. 4. The T...

  20. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  1. A STARTER-GENERATOR FOR HELICOPTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Lushchyk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative electromagnetic calculations of a commercial starter-generator and a nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator are made. The nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator magnetic fields are shown in start-up and generator rated conditions. The electromagnetic calculation technique is verified and confirmed with experimentally investigated nonsalient-pole-stator machines of other types.

  2. Influence of similarly flavored milk replacers and starters on calf starter consumption and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, N K; Rindsig, R B

    1980-11-01

    One of three commercial feed flavors, butter, milk arome, or maple, was added to a milk replacer and a starter to determine if a flavor association by calves would increase starter consumption and growth. Eighty-five calves were randomized completely to 1 of 16 treatment combinations arranged in a 4 X 4 factorial experiment. Calves received milk replacer from day 6 to weaning at 5 wk. Starter was offered ad libitum from day 6 to 8 wk. Butter and milk arome flavor were added to milk replacer at 500 mg/kg and starter at 750 mg/kg. Maple was added to milk replacer at 990 mg/kg and starter at 1980 mg/kg., Data were subjected to analysis of covariance with sex, breed, date of birth, and birth weight as covariables. There was no effect of flavor in milk replacer on starter consumption or growth as compared to the control milk replacer. Calves fed maple starter consumed more starter to 8 wk and from 6 to 8 wk than did calves fed the control starter. Average daily gain to 5 wk and from 6 to 8 wk was greater for calves fed maple starter, and to 8 wk for calves fed either maple starter or milk arome starter than for calves fed the control starter. Least squares mean for starter consumption (kg) and average daily gain (g) to 8 wk for treatments control, butter, milk arome, and maple starters were 42.2, 367; 46.2, 427; 47.7, 431; and 48.8, 469. Starter consumption (kg) and average daily gain (g) to 8 wk for treatment combinations involving the same flavor were 45.2, 415 for control replacer-control starter; 45.4, 428 for butter replacer-butter starter; 48.9, 484 for milk arome replacer-milk arome starter; and 46.3, 427 for maple replacer-maple starter.

  3. Performance and histological responses of internal organs of broiler chickens fed raw, dehulled, and aqueous and dry-heated kidney bean meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiola, I A; Ologhobo, A D; Gous, R M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of raw and differently processed [aqueous heating, dehulled, and dry heating (toasted)] kidney bean meals on the performance, weights, and histology of internal organs of broiler chicken. The feeding trial lasted for 56 d. Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were used for the study. There were 5 treatment groups of 3 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. Raw and processed kidney bean meals were used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean in the control diet. Data collected were used to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and efficiency of feed utilization. The weights of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and lungs were also recorded and tissue samples of each collected for histological examination. Average daily food intake, average daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization were influenced by the dietary treatments. Average daily food intake and average daily gain in birds fed the control diet and heat-treated kidney bean meals were similar and significantly (Praw or dehulled meals. Feed conversion ratio was significantly (Praw or dehulled meals compared with those fed the control diet. The relative weight of the pancreas was significantly (Praw and dehulled kidney bean meals. The weight of the liver was significantly (Praw and dehulled meals, and the liver was characterized by marked coagulative necrosis and degeneration of the hepatocytes. The structural alterations were attributed to intake of trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins in the processed seeds. In conclusion, aqueous heated kidney bean meal can be used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean meal in broiler starter and finisher diets without any adverse effect on the performance and the internal organs.

  4. Effects of enzymes supplementation on digestibility and energy utilizations of broilers diets with different metabolizable energy level

    OpenAIRE

    Glamočić, D.; Polovinski-Horvatović, M.; Ivković, M.; Beuković, D.; Bjedov, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this 3х2 factorial design trial with three different levels of metabolizable energy (13.4, 13.00, 12.6 MJ/kg), with and without exogenous enzymes (nutrition density was reduced by introducing sunflower meal in different percentage to diet (0, 8 и 16%)), the goal was to investigate the effects of exogenous enzymes Roxazyme G2G (cellulase (endo-1,4-(β-glucanase), β- glucanase (endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase) and xylanase (endo-1,4- β xylanase)) on digestibility a...

  5. Supplementation of broiler diets with all-rac-alpha- or a mixture of natural source RRR-alpha-,gamma-,delta-tocopheryl acetate. 2. Effect on the oxidative stability of raw and precooked broiler meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, C; Skibsted, L H; Jakobsen, K; Bertelsen, G

    1995-12-01

    Oxidative stability of muscle from broilers fed 1) basal feed; 2) basal feed supplemented with 100 mg of a mixture of natural source RRR-alpha-,gamma-,delta-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed; 3) basal feed supplemented with 100 mg of synthetic all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed; 4) basal feed supplemented with 500 mg of a mixture of natural source RRR-alpha-,gamma-,delta-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed; or 5) basal feed supplemented with 500 mg of synthetic all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed, was evaluated during chill and freezer storage by determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The oxidative stability of precooked muscle was investigated in a chill storage experiment and in a model system with accelerated oxidation. The basal feed contained a standard added amount of 46 mg all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Furthermore, the basal feed had a high natural content of vitamin E, resulting in a dietary vitamin E level in the control feed of 72 mg alpha-tocopherol and 69 mg gamma-tocopherol, a level that provided a reasonable oxidative stability for the meat. In spite of this, raising the dietary vitamin E level resulted in improved oxidative stability of broiler muscle during storage. Supplementation of broiler feed with 100 mg all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg, resulting in a total alpha-tocopherol content of 198 mg/kg feed, was found to be sufficient to improve stability of precooked broiler breast and precooked thigh muscles during chill storage, and further to ensure stability of raw meat during chill and freezer storage. The mixture of natural source RRR-alpha-,gamma-,delta-tocopherol was less effective in protecting broiler muscles than the synthetic all-rac-alpha-tocopherol, when compared on a weight basis.

  6. Effects of β-Mannanase on broiler performance, gut morphology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... gut morphology and some blood proteins and leucocytes of broilers provided with diets based on corn and soybean meal. Broiler chickens ... necessary for successful poultry production. Among potential factors reducing ... feed efficiency in broilers (Couch et al., 1967; Ray et al., 1982; Verma and McNab, ...

  7. Efficacy of dimethylglycine as a feed additive to improve broiler production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, I.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Vanrompay, D.; Maenner, K.; Zentek, J.; Iben, C.; Leitgeb, R.; Schiavone, A.; Prola, L.; Janssens, G.

    2014-01-01

    Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a naturally occurring glycine derivative, which is useful as additive to broiler diets as it improves nutrient digestibility and reduces the development of broiler ascites syndrome. This study evaluated the efficacy of dietary DMG to enhance performance of broiler chickens.

  8. Effect of dietary vitamin E on the performance of broilers and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary vitamin E on the performance of broilers and quality of broiler meat during refrigerated and frozen storage. ... Abstract. Experiment 1 was carried out with 220 one-day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of 11 different levels of vitamin E supplementation (viz. 0 to 200 mg a-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet) on the ...

  9. Response Of Finisher Broilers To Antibiotic and Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28 – day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the response of finisher broilers to antibiotic (neocloxin) and enzyme (Roxazyme G) supplemented diets. Three experimental diets were formulated such that diet 1 had neither enzyme nor antibiotic supplementation. Diets 2 and 3 contained antibiotic and enzyme ...

  10. Energy values of canola meal, cottonseed meal, bakery meal, and peanut flour meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Adeola, O

    2017-02-01

    The energy values of canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), bakery meal (BM), and peanut flour meal (PFM) for broiler chickens were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from d 21 to 28 posthatch. The birds were fed a standard broiler starter diet from d 0 to 21 posthatch. In each experiment, 320 birds were grouped by weight into 8 blocks of 5 cages with 8 birds per cage and assigned to 5 diets. Each experiment used a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 4 test diets in which test ingredients partly replaced the energy sources in the reference diet. The test diets in Exp. 1 consisted of 125 g CM, 250 g CM, 100 g CSM, or 200 g CSM/kg. In Exp. 2, the test diets consisted of 200 g BM, 400 g BM, 100 g PFM, or 200 g PFM/kg. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy (MEn) of all the test ingredients were determined by the regression method. The DM of CM, CSM, BM and PFM were 883, 878, 878, and 964 g/kg, respectively and the respective gross energies (GE) were 4,143, 4,237, 4,060, and 5,783 kcal/kg DM. In Exp. 1, the IDE were 2,132 and 2,197 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The ME were 2,286 and 2,568 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The MEn were 1,931 kcal/kg DM for CM and 2,078 kcal/ kg DM for CSM. In Exp. 2, IDE values were 3,412 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,801 kcal/kg DM for PFM; ME values were 3,176 and 4,601 kcal/kg DM for BM and PFM, respectively, and the MEn values were 3,093 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,112 kcal/kg DM for PFM. In conclusion, the current study showed that chickens can utilize a considerable amount of energy from these 4 ingredients, and also provided the energy values of CM, CSM, BM and PFM for broiler chickens. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. The pecking, resting and feeding behaviour of four broiler strains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds were housed 15 per replicate pen and there were two replicates pens for each of the four strains. The birds were fed with commercial broiler starter from 0 - 6 weeks and finisher from 7 - 8 weeks. The criteria of measurements used were the number of birds pecking or resting, feed and water intakes and the weight ...

  12. Response of finishing broiler chickens to supplemental Neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight weeks feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM +GM) on oocyst count, bacteria count and gut morphology of finishing broiler chickens. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve ...

  13. Response of broiler chickens to feed supplemented with claybased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight week study was carried out to evaluate the effects of MFeed®, a nanotechnology growth promoter as feed additive in the diets of broiler chickens. Two hundred, day old Marshal broiler chicks were allotted in a completely randomised design to five dietary treatments supplemented with MFeed® at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ...

  14. Performance, carcass and blood indices of broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suitability of graded levels of sun-dried raw wild cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) corms as partial replacement for maize in the diet of finishing broiler chickens was carried out in a feeding trial that lasted for four weeks. One hundred and twenty (120) four weeks old broilers were used. . The birds were ...

  15. Reduction of Phosphorus Pollution from Broilers Waste through Supplementation of Wheat Based Broilers Feed with Phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Megeed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to reduce phosphorus pollution from broilers waste by supplementing phytase enzyme in broilers fee. Two hundred two-week-old broilers (Hubbard were selected and randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups, one control group (without phytase and two trial groups (group A with 300 U/kg phytase and group B with 600 U/kg phytase. Each group was composed of 5 replicates with 10 chicks. Broilers fed the control diet (without phytase gained weight slower (P 0.05 reduces excreta P and Ca level. Phytase addition did not affect excreta pH. The presence of phytase in feed mixtures significantly (P > 0.05 improves the body weight gain and feed intake of broiler chickens.

  16. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0 was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21 and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42. Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100. Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01. Lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase activities were linearly increased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01. Abdominal fat weight/eviscerated weight (p = 0.05, intermuscular fat width (p<0.01 and subcutaneous fat thickness (p<0.01 showed a significant quadratic relationship, with the lowest value at R75. These results indicated that replacement of 75% of the soybean oil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers.

  17. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  18. Instant MinGW starter

    CERN Document Server

    Shpigor, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

  19. Apparent metabolizable energy of crude glycerin originating from different sources in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, W A; Kerr, B J; Branton, S L

    2011-11-01

    An energy balance experiment was conducted to determine the AME(n) of various crude glycerin samples, and to generate an equation to predict AME(n) of crude glycerin based on its chemical composition. Dietary treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal basal diet with no added glycerin and a basal diet supplemented with 6% glycerin. Crude glycerin samples were obtained from biodiesel production facilities throughout the United States, which use a variety of lipid products as their initial feedstock. Two identical energy balance trials were conducted. In each trial, 864 male broilers (Ross × Ross 708) were fed a common starter diet until 17 d of age when they were switched to 1 of 12 experimental diets (6 replicates per treatment) from 17 to 22 d of age, with a 48-h collection period on d 21 and 22. Nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values of crude glycerin samples were estimated by difference, whereby AME(n) of the basal diet was subtracted from the complete diet containing the test ingredient. The AME(n) of the basal diet and US Pharmacopeia-grade glycerin were determined to be 3,085 and 3,662 kcal/kg, respectively, whereas the AME(n) of the 10 crude glycerin samples ranged from 3,254 to 4,134 kcal/kg. Two crude glycerin samples had high levels of fatty acids compared with the other samples (24 and 35% vs. glycerin samples (3,806 vs. 3,611 kcal/kg, P glycerin samples, the stepwise regression equation to predict AME(n) was determined to be: [AME(n) (kcal/kg) = 1,605 - (19.13 × % methanol) + (39.06 × % fatty acid) + (23.47 × % glycerin)]; (R(2) = 0.25; SE = 379; P ≤ 0.01). These data indicate that glycerin is a good source of energy for broilers, and the AME(n) of glycerin is dependent on fatty acid, methanol, and water contents.

  20. Extrato de orégano como aditivo em rações para frangos de corte Oregan extract as an additive in the broiler diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Hatsumi Fukayama

    2005-12-01

    , anatomic-physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal tract (villy height, crypta depth and villy:crypta ratio, caecum microbiological analysis, and duodenum and caecum pH. One thousand and fourty male Cobb 500 chicks, in two growing phases (1 to 21 and 1 to 42 days old were randomly assigned to six treatments and eight replicates of 30 broilers. The basal diet (BD was fed during the three phases (1 to 21, 22 to 35 and 36 to 42 days old, according to the following treatments: T1 - BD, T2 - BD with antibiotic (25 ppm zinc bacitracin, T3 - BD with 0.025% OE, T4 - BD with 0.050% OE, T5 - BD with 0.075% OE, and T6 - BD with 0.100% OE. No effect of treatments on broiler performance and duodenum and caecum pH in both phases was observed. The immunity system and anatomic-physiological parameters of gastrointestinal tract were not affected by the treatments, during the first phase. At 42 days old, only the spleen weight and villy height were affected by treatments. Decreasing effect on the number of bacteriums in caecum as the dietary level of oregan extract increased showed the antimicrobian effect of oregan extract. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that the use of oregan extract as growth promoter did not differ from the other treatments (antibiotic and control.

  1. The effect of feeding pre-starter on performance efficiency of local chicken (KUB chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in feeding pre-starter diets was carried out on local chicken (KUB chicken raised to the age of 84 days. Four hundred and eighty day-old KUB chicks were allocated to experimental diets of P1 = standard diet without pre-starter; P2 = OASIS® pre-starter for 48 hours feeding; P3 = COBA-1, a mixture of 76.3% yolk powder, 0.76% inulin powder, 7.63 % honey and 15.3% tomato sauce, for 24 hours feeding; P4 = P3 given for 48 hours feeding; P5 = fresh papaya for 24 hours feeding; P6 = P5 for 48 hours feeding; P7 = fasting for 24 hours and P8 = fasting for 48 hours. Following treatment, the chicks were then fed with standard diet, containing 17.5 % crude protein with 2800 kcal ME/kg up to the end of the experiment. Results showed that the group of chicken on pre-starter diet of ripe papaya fruit (P5 and P6, responded better EPEF (European Performance Efficiency Factor value of 442 and 356 g/bird, respectively in chicken of P5 and P6. This better response was due to particularly higher viability and the efficiency in utilization of feed.

  2. Evaluation of the addition of charcoals to broiler diets on the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control, 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charco...

  3. Desempenho produtivo de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorventes Productive performance of broiler breeders fed diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannan as adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uttpatel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e adsorvente à base de glucomananos esterificados. Foram utilizados 300 fêmeas e 40 machos da linhagem Ross 308 alojados em 20 boxes experimentais na fase de 61 a 72 semanas de idade. Da 61ª à 68ª semana, as aves receberam dietas contendo três níveis de aflatoxina (0; 0,500; 0,750 mg/kg em combinação ou não a adsorvente (0,10% e, nas quatro últimas semanas, receberam dietas isentas de aflatoxina e adsorvente. As aves foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (níveis de aflatoxina vs níveis de adsorvente com 4 repetições, cada uma de 15 fêmeas e 2 machos. A partir da 65ª semana, as aves alimentadas com dietas contendo aflatoxina e adsorvente apresentaram menor taxa de postura em relação àquelas que receberam dietas comuns, sem esses aditivos. O peso corporal das matrizes, assim como o peso, o peso específico dos ovos, a eclodibilidade, e a qualidade dos pintos produzidos não são afetados pelos níveis de aflatoxinas e adsorvente presentes na dieta.The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of broiler breeder hens fed diets containing aflatoxins and adsorbent on the basis of esterified glucomannan. It was used 300 Ross 308 females and 40 males broiler breeders, housed in 20 experimental pens in the 61-72 week of age phase. From the 61st to the 68th week, birds were fed diets containing three levels of aflatoxin (0; 0.500; 0.750 mg/kg combined or not to adsorbent (0.10% and on the last four weeks they received diets without aflatoxin and adsorbent. The birds were distributed in a complete randomized design in a factorial scheme (levels of aflotoxin vs levels of adsorbents with 4 replicates, each one with 15 females and 2 males. From the 65th week, birds fed diets with aflotoxin and adsorbent showed lower laying rate

  4. Respostas de frangos de corte fêmeas de duas linhagens a dietas com diferentes perfis protéicos ideais Responses of female broilers from two strain crosses to diets with differing ideal protein profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz Vieira

    2007-12-01

    apresentaram melhor conversão alimentar independentemente do programa alimentar utilizado e que os perfis protéicos ideais médios foram suficientes para maximizar o desempenho tanto sob o ponto de vista de peso corporal quanto de conversão alimentar.This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the performance of two broiler strain crosses fed diets having 3 different ideal protein profiles. One day old Cobb x Cobb 500 and Ross x Ross 308 broiler chicks were in a feeding program of 4 phases from 1 to 7, 7 to 21, 21 to 31 and 31 to 37 days of age and having high (H, medium (M and low (L ideal protein profiles. At 21 days of age, half of the replications fed H and L protein diets changed to L and H, respectively, whereas those receiving M remained all the way to the end in the same protein level. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement having 3 ideal protein levels and 2 strain crosses until 21 days of age and 5 ideal protein levels and 2 strains from 21 to 37 days old was used. Cobb broilers had higher body weight at 21 days of age and better feed conversion until the end of the experiment, whereas Ross broilers showed higher feed intake during all the experimental period. At processing, Ross broilers had higher breast meat yield at 31 days old, but Cobb broilers had higher yield of leg quarters both at 31 and 37 days. At 21 days, H and M diets presented similar live performance; however, both were superior when compared to L diets. Differences in body weigh at 31 and 37 days due to feeding programs were not apparent; however birds fed L diets in both periods had poorer feed conversion and higher feed intake than all the other treatments. The only processing difference due to feeding program was an increased proportion of abdominal fat when birds were fed L diets in one of the two periods. It was possible to conclude that Cobb broilers had better feed conversion independently of the feeding program used and that the M ideal

  5. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Pelícia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD, CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental diets did not contain anticoccidials, and birds were vaccinated against coccidiosis at three days of age. No significant differences were detected among broilers submitted to the different treatments in none of the studied parameters. Under the conditions of this experiment, diets supplemented with nucleotides did not influence broiler performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age, and were not different from the feeds not containing any additive or with AGP.

  6. Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed boiled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed boiled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp) and or black common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) meal diets. HF Defang, A Teguia, J Awah-Ndukum, A Kenfack, F Ngoula, F Metuge ...

  7. The Effect of Physical Form of Feed on Performance and Nutritional Behaviors in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mina toroghian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of physical feed form on performance and nutritional behaviors in broilers. This experiment was done in a completely randomized design with several observational with 3 treatments and 5 replicate. Dietary treatments included off of pellet form, crumble and mash form with similar components for 3 periods starter (0-10 days, grower (11-24 days and finisher (25-42 days were adjusted based on the requirements of Ross 308.The behaviors of eating, drinking, resting, walking. Chicks’ behavior marked in periods recorded. At the end of each period , chicks were weighted and feed intake and daily gain were measured to evaluate of performance. the best feed conversion ratio in the grower and finisher and whole of period was with crumble and pellet diet. increased Mash diet with significant effect eating and walking behavior and crumble resting behavior. Feed conversion ratio was positively correlated with eating , walking and with drinking and resting has negative correlation. According to the results of this experiment, with crumble and pellet form resting behavior increased which have most correlation with feed conversion ratio and it improved feed conversion ratio.

  8. A dose-response study with the feed enzyme beta-mannanase in broilers provided with corn-soybean meal based diets in the absence of antibiotic growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M E; Geronian, K; Knox, A; McNab, J; McCartney, E

    2004-12-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the effects of graded levels of beta-mannanase on performance and body weight uniformity of male broilers provided with diets based on corn and soybean meal and devoid of antibiotic growth promoters or coccidiostats. Four dietary treatments contained 0, 50, 80, and 110 MU of Hemicell/ ton (where 1 MU = 10(6) enzyme activity units, 100 MU/ton is manufacturer's recommendation). Each treatment contained 15 pens with 40 birds/pen. Individual bird weights were determined on d 0, 21, and 42. From 21 to 42 d of age, feed intake for the 80 MU/ton treatment was significantly greater than the 50 MU/ton treatment. beta-Mannanase inclusion at 80 or 110 MU/ton induced improvements (P < 0.05) in weight gain (3.9 to 4.8%) and feed efficiency (3.5 to 3.8%) over the control, whereas inclusion of 50 MU/ton resulted in no significant benefit. There were no significant differences between 80 or 110 MU/ton. The experiment demonstrated that dietary inclusion of beta-mannanase at approximately 50 MU/ton is not sufficient for maximum response. Inclusion at 80 MU/ ton improved broiler gains and feed conversion and increasing to 110 MU/ton resulted in no significant additional response.

  9. Effects of oregano essential oil with or without feed enzymes on growth performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmacioğlu Malayoğlu, H; Baysal, S; Misirlioğlu, Z; Polat, M; Yilmaz, H; Turan, N

    2010-02-01

    1. The study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of enzyme and oregano essential oil at two levels, alone or together, on performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal based diets. 2. The following dietary treatments were used from d 0 to 21. Diet 1 (control, CONT): a commercial diet containing no enzyme or oregano essential oil, diet 2 (ENZY): supplemented with enzyme, diet 3 (EO250): supplemented with essential oil at 250 mg/kg feed, diet 4 (EO500): supplemented with essential oil at 500 mg/kg feed, diet 5 (ENZY + EO250): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 250 mg/kg, and diet 6 (ENZY + EO500): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 500 mg/kg. 3. Birds fed on diets containing ENZY, EO250 and ENZY + EO250 had significantly higher weight gain than those given CONT diet from d 0 to 7. No significant effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, organ weights except for jejunum weight and intestinal lengths was found with either enzyme or essential oil, alone or in combination, over the 21-d growth period. The supplementation of essential oil together with enzyme decreased jejunum weight compared with essential oil alone. 4. Supplementation with enzyme significantly decreased viscosity and increased dry matter of digesta, but did not alter pH of digesta. There was no effect of essential oil alone at either concentration on viscosity, dry matter or pH of digesta. A significant decrease in viscosity of digesta appeared when essential oil was used with together enzyme. 5. The supplementation of essential oil at both levels with or without enzyme significantly increased chymotrypsin activity in the digestive system, and improved crude protein digestibility. 6. The higher concentration of essential oil with and without enzyme significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentrations. No significant effect on immune response

  10. Qualidade óssea de frangos alimentados com dietas com fitase e níveis reduzidos de fósforo disponível = Bone quality of broilers fed diets with phytase and reduced levels of available phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Giusti Bruno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar a composição química e os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn do farelo da castanha de caju (FCC, do farelo de coco (FC e de dois tipos de levedura da cana-de-açúcar (LEV1 e LEV2 para pintos, galos e codornas japonesas. Três ensaios de metabolismo foram realizados utilizando a metodologia de coleta total de excretas. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma ração-referência e quatro rações-teste (40% do subproduto e 60% da ração-referência. Para todos os alimentos avaliados, os valores de EMA e EMAn determinados com codornas e galos foram superiores aos determinados com pintos. Para o FC e LEV2, os valores de EMA e EMAn obtidos com codornas foram inferiores aos obtidos com galos; entretanto, para o FCC, obtiveram-se maiores valores de EMA e EMAn com codornas. Independentemente do tipo de ave, os valores de EM determinados para a LEV1 foram superiores aos da LEV2.It was evaluated the mineral content, density, weight, morphometry and breaking strength of tibiae in broilers fed diets containing phytase and reduced nonphytate phosphorus levels (NPP. The experimental design was completely randomized and factorial arrangement 2 x 3 with two phytase levels (0 and 25U/kg and three NPP levels (100, 85 and 70% of the requirements in a total of six treatments and five replicates. There was no effect of NNP levels and/or phytase on phosphorus and ashes levels, weight, length and diameter. Interaction NPP x phytase was significant to Ca content that was lower in tibiae of birds fed diets with 70% of NPP and with no phytase. Proximal epiphysis density decresead due the reduction of NPP and increased with phytase inclution in the diet. There was effect of the interaction NPP x phytase to diaphysis, distal epiphysis and mean densities. Breaking force decreasead in birds fed diets with 70% of NPP. Diets with 85% of NPP

  11. Bio-Chemical Evaluation of Yam Peel Meal for Broiler Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional properties and inclusion levels of yam peel meal (YPM) in broiler diets were investigated. Four diets in which YPM substituted maize at 0, 25, 50 and 75% were fed to 180 Anak broiler-type chickens over a 63-day period. Results indicated that YPM contained 89.74% dry matter (DM), 12.03% crude protein ...

  12. Effects of β-Mannanase on broiler performance, gut morphology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mannanase on performance, gut morphology and some blood proteins and leucocytes of broilers provided with diets based on corn and soybean meal. Broiler chickens are divided four group and supplied diet which contains 0, 500, 700, or 900 g/ton ...

  13. Supplementation of plant protein with amino acids for broiler production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Azzawi, I.I.

    1964-01-01

    A diet of sesame oilmeal, maize and barley supplemented with adequate lysine 0.50-0.78 (in total 1.18%-1.23% of the diet) was a suitable diet for fast growing chickens to produce broilers weighing approximately 1 kg in 7 weeks. The average feed intake per unit gain in the 7th week was 2.149 for

  14. Avaliação nutricional e energética do farelo de girassol para aves Nutritional and energetic evaluation of sunflower meal in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Tavernari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois ensaios de metabolismo a fim de determinar a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA, por meio do método de coleta total de excretas com frangos, e a energia metabolizável verdadeira (EMV e a digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos do farelo de girassol, por meio do método de alimentação forçada com galos cecectomizados. No primeiro ensaio, foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso com 80 frangos Cobb, distribuídos em dois tratamentos, ração referência (RR e RR mais 20% de inclusão de farelo de girassol e oito repetições e cinco aves por unidade experimental. No segundo ensaio, foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso com 14 galos Leghorn, distribuídos em dois tratamentos, farelo de girassol e jejum, sete repetições e um galo por unidade experimental. O farelo de girassol apresentou 90,0% de matéria seca, 28,1% de proteína bruta, 4.42kcal/kg de energia bruta, 22,4% de fibra bruta, 2,9% de extrato etéreo, 0,8% de fósforo e 0,3% de cálcio. A EMV, a EMV corrigida, a EMA e a EMA corrigida determinadas foram 3.013; 2.200; 2.141 e 1.983kcal/kg, respectivamente. A lisina foi o aminoácido essencial que apresentou a menor digestibilidade e a arginina, a maior.Two experiments were carried out to determine apparent metabolizable energy (AME, by the method of total excreta collection using broilers; and true metabolizable energy (TME and true amino acid digestibility of sunflower meal (SFM, by the method of forced feeding using cecectomized roosters. In the first experiment, a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (reference diet (RD and RD plus 20% SFM inclusion with eight replicates of five birds each, was applied. In the second experiment, a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (SFM vs. fasting with seven replicates of one rooster each, was used. Sunflower meal presented 90,0% dry matter, 28.1% crude protein, 4

  15. Specialized protein products in broiler chicken nutrition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleman S.M. Beski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In poultry nutrition, most attention is given to protein products, due to the importance of protein as a major constituent of the biologically active compounds in the body. It also assists in the synthesis of body tissue, for that renovation and growth of the body. Furthermore, protein exists in form of enzymes and hormones which play important roles in the physiology of any living organism. Broilers have high dietary protein requirements, so identification of the optimum protein concentration in broiler diets, for either maximizing broiler performance or profit, requires more knowledge about birds' requirements for protein and amino acids and their effects on the birds' growth performance and development. It also requires knowledge about the protein sources available that can be used in poultry diets. The broad aim of this review is to highlight the importance of some of the available high-quality specialized protein products of both animal and plant origins which can be explored for feeding broiler chickens. Minimization of the concentration of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs and supplementation with immunologically active compounds are the main focus of gut health-promoting broiler diets. These diet characteristics are influenced by feed ingredient composition and feed processing. The general hypothesis is that these protein products are highly digestible and devoid of or contain less ANFs. Feeding these products to broiler chicks, especially at an earlier age, can assist early gut development and digestive physiology, and improve broiler growth performance and immunity.

  16. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  17. Instant forgedUI starter

    CERN Document Server

    Luiz, Joseandro

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book is a Starter guide to learning ForgedUI. This book will start by unfolding the installation and creating a simple application using Titanium and ForgedUI, followed by taking you through the features to model an engaging UI and generate multi-platform code with Titanium, while covering the best design practice for Apple and Android application development. Last but not least, you will also come across the available resources where you can

  18. SPSS for Starters, Part 2

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this title contained all statistical tests that are relevant for starters on SPSS, and included standard parametric and non-parametric tests for continuous and binary variables, regression methods, trend tests, and reliability and validity assessments of diagnostic tests. The current part 2 of this title reviews multistep methods, multivariate models, assessments of missing data, performance of diagnostic tests, meta-regression, Poisson regression, confounding and interaction, and survival analyses using log tests and segmented time-dependent Cox regression. Methods for asses

  19. Desempenho de frangos de corte oriundos de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorvente Performance of broilers derived from breeder hens fed with diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannan as adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pires Rosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho da progênie de matrizes de corte que consumiram aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorvente por quatro ou oito semanas. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. Em cada estudo foram utilizados 160 machos de 1 dia provenientes de matrizes alimentadas com dietas contendo aflatoxinas e adsorvente. Em ambos os ensaios, foi adotado um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado para avaliação de cinco dietas (tratamentos, cada uma avaliada com quatro repetições de oito aves. Nas dietas fornecidas às matrizes, as aflatoxinas foram adicionadas nos níveis 0; 0,500; ou 0,750 mg/kg de ração em combinação ou não a 0,10% de adsorvente. Os dois ensaios com frangos de corte foram conduzidos em baterias instaladas em unidade experimental climatizada, onde os pintos receberam uma dieta comprovadamente isenta de aflatoxinas durante todo o período experimental. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: peso corporal, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar pelo ganho de peso, proteínas plasmáticas totais, albumina sérica e pesos de fígado e bursa de Fabrícius ao primeiro dia de idade. A adição de até 0,750 mg aflatoxinas/kg e adsorvente durante oito semanas na dieta de matrizes de corte não influencia o desempenho zootécnico nem os parâmetros sanguíneos da progênie das matrizes.The performance of the progeny from breeders hens fed diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannans as a mycotoxins adsorbent during four and eight weeks was evaluated. Two experiments were carried out with broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age. In each study, one hundred and sixty 1-day old male chicks from broiler breeders fed diets with aflatoxins and mycotoxins adsorbent were used. The chicks were allocated in a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments and four replicates of eight birds each. In the diets supplied to the breeder chickens, aflatoxins were added at

  20. Função hepática e renal de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas com aflatoxinas e clinoptilolita natural Hepatic and renal functions in broilers fed on diets with aflatoxins and natural clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Marinho Maciel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os minerais séricos e as funções hepática e renal de frangos de corte, alimentados com dietas com aflatoxinas e dietas com aflatoxinas e argila clinoptilolita natural. Foram utilizados 528 frangos de corte machos, da linhagem Ross, distribuídos em seis tratamentos com quatro repetições cada: T1 - testemunha: ração sem aflatoxina ou clinoptilolita; T2 - ração com 5 ppm de aflatoxinas; T3 - ração com 0,25% de clinoptilolita; T4 - ração com 5 ppm de aflatoxinas e 0,25% de clinoptilolita; T5 - ração com 0,5% de clinoptilolita; e T6 - ração com 5 ppm de aflatoxinas e 0,5% de clinoptilolita. As aves foram submetidas aos tratamentos do 1º ao 42º dia de idade. Foram abatidos 72 animais, e foram analisadas as concentrações séricas de cálcio, fósforo, uréia, creatinina, ácido úrico, colesterol, triglicerídeos e gamaglutamil-transferase (GGT. As aflatoxinas diminuem o nível sérico de colesterol. A clinoptilolita diminui o nível sérico do ácido úrico, quando na concentração de 0,25%. As aflatoxinas com 0,25% de clinoptilolita diminuem os níveis séricos da creatinina, do ácido úrico e do colesterol. As aflatoxinas acrescidas por 0,5% de clinoptilolita diminuem os níveis séricos da creatinina e do colesterol e elevam os de gamaglutamil-transferase.The objective of this study was to evaluate serum minerals and hepatic and renal activities in broiler chicks fed with diets containing aflatoxins and diets with aflatoxins and natural clinoptilolite clay. Five hundred and twenty-eight Ross male broiler chicks were grouped in six treatments with four replications each: T1 - control: diet free from aflatoxins and clinoptilolite; T2 - aflatoxins 5 ppm diet; T3 - 0.25% clinoptilolite diet; T4 - aflatoxins 5 ppm and 0.25% clinoptilolite diet; T5 - 0.5% clinoptilolite diet; and T6 - aflatoxins 5 ppm and 0.5% clinoptilolite diet. The birds were treated from the 1st to the 42nd day of age

  1. Desempenho, balanço e retenção de nutrientes e biometria dos órgãos digestivos de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de proteína na ração pré-inicial Performance, nutrient balance and retention and biometrical measures of digestive organs of broilers fed different dietary protein levels in the pre-starter period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Stringhini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o desempenho, o balanço e a retenção de MS, EE e PB e os parâmetros biométricos do trato gastrintestinal de frangos de corte recebendo diferentes níveis de proteína na ração pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias. No experimento 1, 560 pintos Avian Farms foram distribuídos em baterias segundo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 (cinco níveis de proteína, 18, 20, 22, 24 e 26%, e dois sexos, com dez tratamentos, cada um com quatro repetições de 14 aves. No experimento 2, 1.860 pintos machos e fêmeas Ross foram distribuídos em boxes de 2,0 x 2,5 m, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos (níveis de proteína, 18, 20, 22, 24 e 26%, cada um com seis repetições de 62 aves. No experimento 1, os níveis crescentes de PB da dieta não afetaram significativamente os dados de desempenho, mas o balanço e a quantidade retida do EE promoveram efeito linear positivo. O balanço de proteína não foi afetado, mas a retenção de proteína apresentou efeito linear positivo. A biometria dos órgãos não foi significativamente influenciada aos quatro dias. Nos períodos seguintes, os níveis crescentes de proteína afetaram positivamente o peso relativo do pâncreas. No experimento 2, observou-se, com base nos resultados de desempenho, que os mais altos níveis de proteína na ração pré-inicial atenderam às necessidades nutricionais das aves.Two trials were carried out to evaluate performance, balance and retention of EE, DM and CP and biometrical measures of digestive organs of broiler chicks fed different dietary CP levels in the pre-starter period (1 - 7 d. In the first experiment, 560 one-day-old Avian Farms chicks were allotted to a complete randomized design with ten treatments, with a 5 x 2 (protein levels: 18, 20, 22, 24, and 26% x sex factorial arrangement and four replicates of 14 birds each. In the second experiment, 1,860 one-day-old Ross

  2. Effect of Barley and Enzyme on Performance, Carcass, Enzyme Activity and Digestion Parameters of Broilers

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    majid kalantar

    2016-04-01

    Ross-308 broiler chickens were allocated randomly to 3 treatments with 5 replicates using a CRD statistical design. Treatments were included control, barley and barley+ enzyme. The experimental diets were formulated to have similar contents of crude protein, metabolizable energy, total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. Results and Discussion According to the results, effect of barley with or without enzyme on growth performance at starter, grower and the entire period and also on carcass characteristics, pancreas enzyme activity and measures of ileal acidity and viscosity at the age of 42 were significant (P

  3. Inclusão da levedura de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharomyces cerevisiae em dietas para frangos de corte Inclusion of sugar cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae in broiler chickens diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Glayton Araújo Grangeiro

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento utilizando 672 pintos machos de um dia de idade, da linhagem AGROSS, foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da inclusão da levedura de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, proveniente da indústria de aguardente, em dietas para frangos de corte. As aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, constituído de seis tratamentos com 112 aves/tratamento, sendo oito repetições por tratamento com 14 aves cada. Os tratamentos constaram de seis dietas isoprotéicas (22 e 20% de proteína para as fases inicial e de engorda, respectivamente e isocalóricas (3000 e 3150 kcal EM/kg, para as fases inicial e de engorda, respectivamente formuladas à base de milho e farelo de soja e com níveis crescentes de inclusão de levedura de cana-de-açúcar (LCA. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os seguintes: T1 = Dieta basal (DB; T2 = DB + 1,5% LCA; T3 = DB + 3,0% LCA; T4 = DB + 4,5% LCA; T5 = DB + 6,0% LCA; T6 = DB + 7,5% LCA, totalizando seis níveis de inclusão de levedura. Não foi verificada diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para as variáveis ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, rendimento de carcaça, porcentagem de gordura abdominal e umidade da cama nas diferentes fases de criação das aves. Pode-se concluir que é possível a inclusão de até 7,5% de LCA em dietas para frangos de corte, sem afetar o seu desempenho.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of sugar cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, produced in the sugar cane distillery, in broiler chickens diets. Six hundred and seventy two one day old male broiler chicks, AGROSS line, were alloted to a completely randomized design with six treatments and one hundred and twelve birds per treatment, being eight replicates of fourteen birds per treatment. Treatments consisted of six isoproteic (22 and 20% of crude protein for initial and growing periods, respectively and isocaloric (3000

  4. Performance of broiler chickens offered nutritionally-equivalent diets based on two red grain sorghums with quantified kafirin concentrations as intact pellets or re-ground mash following steam-pelleting at 65 or 97°C conditioning temperatures

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    Ha H. Truong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Liverpool Plains is a fertile agricultural region in New South Wales, Australia. Two sorghums from the 2009 Liverpool Plains harvest, sorghums #3 and #5, were extensively characterised which included concentrations of kafirin and phenolic compounds plus rapid visco-analysis (RVA starch pasting profiles. Diets based on these two sorghums were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic and were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chicks from 7 to 28 days post--hatch as either intact pellets or reground mash following steam-pelleting at conditioning temperatures of either 65 or 97°C. Thus the feeding study consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial array of dietary treatments: two sorghum varieties, two feed forms and two conditioning temperatures. Each of the eight treatments was replicated six times with six birds per replicate cage. Assessed parameters included growth performance, nutrient utilisation, apparent starch and protein (N digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates from the distal jejunum and distal ileum. Intact pellets supported higher (P < 0.001 feed intakes and weight gains by 9.83 and 9.08%, respectively, than reground mash diets. Feed conversion ratios of broilers offered diets steam-conditioned at 97°C were 2.46% inferior (P < 0.001 in comparison to 65°C diets and both apparent metabolizable energy (AME and N-corrected AME (AMEn were compromised. Broilers offered sorghum #3-based diets significantly (P < 0.001 outperformed their sorghum #5 counterparts in terms of weight gain by 3.75% (1,334 versus 1,223 g/bird, FCR by 4.81% (1.524 versus 1.601, AME by 1.06 MJ (13.61 versus 12.55 MJ/kg, ME:GE ratio (ME:GE by 4.81% (0.806 versus 0.769 and AMEn by 1.03 MJ (12.38 versus 11.35 MJ/kg. The inferiority of sorghum #5 appeared to be associated with higher concentrations of kafirin (61.5 versus 50.7 g/kg and conjugated phenolic acids, including ferulic acid (31.1 versus 25.6 µg/g. There were no significant differences in

  5. Óleo essencial de aroeira-vermelha como aditivo na ração de frangos de corte Essential oil from Brazillian red pepper as an additive in broiler diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2011-04-01

    of four (4 treatments and five repetitions, with 15 birds each: diet without growth promoter and without Brazilian red pepper oil (negative control; diet with growth promoter (antimicrobial and anticoccidial - positive control; diet containing only antimicrobial (bacitracin zinc; diet with 0.4% of Brazilian red pepper oil. It was not verified significantly dietary effects on the performance of birds (P>0.05. At 21 days of age, the broilers chicks fed with growth promoter showed greater ratio of villous:crypt which not differs from chickens fed with 0.4% Brazilian red pepper oil (P 0.05. It was concluded that the addition of 0.4% Brazilian red pepper oil resulted an improvement in intestinal absorptive surface of broilers compared with chickens fed with diet without growth promoter.

  6. Interactions between the physical form of starter (mashed versus textured) and corn silage provision on performance, rumen fermentation, and structural growth of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Riasi, A; Soltani, A; Moshiri, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    Introducing forage in the young calf diet during the milk-feeding period stimulates rumen development. It was hypothesized that performance in dairy calves would depend on forage provision and starter physical form such that the textured starter (TS) feed with corn silage (CS) supplementation would benefit calf performance. This study evaluates the effects of the physical form of starter diets and CS supplementation on performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and structural growth of dairy calves. Forty-eight 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves with a mean starting BW of 42.1 kg (SD 2.4) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary CS level (0 or 15% on DM basis) and physical form of starter (mashed vs. textured). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned ( = 12 calves per treatment: 6 males and 6 females) to 4 treatments: 1) a mashed starter (MS) feed with no CS (MS-NCS), 2) a MS feed with CS (MS-CS), 3) a TS feed with no CS (TS-NCS), and 4) a TS feed with CS (TS-CS). The calves had ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 56 of age and remained in the study until d 66. The interaction of the physical form of the starter and CS provision was significant ( 0.05) was detected between the physical form of starter and CS provision with respect to the rumen fermentation parameters and body measurements. Total rumen VFA concentration and the molar proportion of propionate were greater ( < 0.01) in calves fed TS compared with MS-fed calves. In conclusion, independent of the physical form of starter, inclusion of 15% CS in starter diets improves the performance of dairy calves.

  7. Effect of pectin extracted from citrus pulp on digesta characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Karla Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of continuous ingestion of pectin on intestinal viscosity, intestinal transit time, excreta moisture content, nutrient digestibility and energy metabolism of broilers at starter and growth phases. We used 240 one-day-old Cobb male broiler chicks, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of pectin (0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg-1 with six replicates of 10 birds each. The ingestion of pectin supplied in the feed by broilers at the starter phase increased intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduced excreta moisture, improved the use of apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, coefficient of apparent metabolizability, coefficient of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizability, apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein and organic matter; worsened calcium utilization and coefficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter; and did not influence the coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude fat, ash and phosphorus. Pectin ingestion during the growth phase increased intestinal viscosity and apparent digestibility coefficients of ash and organic matter, but decreased the dry matter, crude fat, crude protein and calcium. Intestinal transit time, energy metabolism and apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein showed quadratic behavior according to pectin levels in the feed. Therefore, pectin ingestion by broilers at the starter phase increases intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduces excreta moisture and improves energy utilization, whereas at the growth phase nutrient digestibility is decreased.

  8. Biological performance and gastrointestinal development of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Short paper and poster abstracts: 38th Congress of the South African Society of Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 136. 136. Biological performance and gastrointestinal development of broiler chicks fed diets varying in energy : protein ratio.

  9. Use of mannanoligosaccharides in broiler feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS Flemming

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A study with 2,400 broilers was carried out to compare the effect of the use of mannanoligosaccharides, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall or growth promoter (Olaquindox in the diet on broiler. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal. A completely randomized experimental design was used, and the obtained data were evaluated by analysis of variance and test of Tukey at a level of 5%. The following parameters were measured: feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. It was concluded that the effect of the inclusion of mannanoligosaccharides in the diet on the studied parameters was significantly higher as compared to the inclusion of cell wall or to the control diet, but the effect was not different as compared to the inclusion of growth promoter.

  10. Coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary nutrients from broiler feeds that include oil industry by-products (rapeseeds, grapes, buckthorn, flax and pumpkin meals

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    Tatiana Dumitra PANAITE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day feeding trial was conducted on 120, day-old ROSS 308 chicks assigned to 4 (C; E1; E2; E3 groups. The broilers were housed in three-tier digestibility cages (5 broilers/cage which allowed the daily recording of the feed intake and excreta located in an experimental hall with controlled environmental conditions (27.07±2.750 C; humidity 64,80±9,57%; light regimen 23h. During the starter stage (1-10 days all chicks received a conventional compound feed (C. During the grower and finisher stages, compared to C formulation, the experimental diets different proportions, varying with the stage of development, of rapeseeds and grape meals (E1, buckthorn and flax meals (E2, pumpkin meal (lot E3. The balance study was conducted for 5 days, during weeks 4 and 6. During this period, average weights from each two cages (6 samples/group of feed consumed and excreta voided (dry matter basis were recorded and sampled for: dry matter, nitrogen, fat, fibre, ash and gross energy analysis. The chicks from E1 group had a lower (P≤0.05 coefficient of dietary nitrogen absorption than E2 chicks. The coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary fat varied with the period of development. During the finishing stage, E3 chicks had a higher (P≤0.05 coefficient of fibre absorption than groups C, E1 and E2.

  11. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  12. Leaky gut and mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 does not increase gut permeability in broiler chickens

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    Rosario eGalarza-Seeber

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of 3 concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5 or 1 ppm on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT. In Exp 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers wer