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Sample records for broiler starter diet

  1. Soybean Oil and Beef Tallow in Starter Broiler Diets

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    VB Fascina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the energy values of soybean oil (SBO and tallow (T combined in different ratios, and to evaluate their effects on the performance, body composition, and serum lipid levels of starter broilers. In experiment I, a digestibility trial was performed to determine the energy value of the SOB and T mixtures using 100 12 - to 21 -day-old broilers. In experiment II, 930 one-day-old broilers were used. Treatments consisted of the inclusion of 4% SBO and T inclusions at the following ratios: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. Each treatment included six replicates. In experiment I, AME and AMEn linearly increased (P<0.01, as SBO participation in the mixture increased. In experiment II, the different lipid ratios quadratically influenced (P<0.01 body weight and weight gain at 21 days of age, increasing up to the ratio of 65.87:34.13. Serum lipids linearly decreased (P<0.05 as SOB inclusion in the diet increased. It was concluded that AME and AMEn of SBO and T at ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 were 7.882 and 7.542, 8.384 and 8.076, 8.701 and 8.385, 8.801 and 8.727, and 9.478 and 9.271 kcal/kg, respectively. The best performance with no detrimental effect on carcass yield was obtained with the mixture of 75% SBO with 25% T. The highest dietary soybean oil level reduced serum lipid levels of 21-day-old broilers.

  2. Exogenous enzymes in pre-starter broiler diets based on corn and soybean meal

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    RB Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A fibrolytic enzyme complex was added to the pre-starter diet. Broiler chicks were randomly distributed into five treatments, consisting of a diet with no enzyme addition and four test diets supplemented with 100, 200, 300 and 400g/T of an enzyme complex. The dietary inclusion of the enzyme complex increased weight gain, and the dose of 300g/T improved weight gain and worsened feed conversion ratio.

  3. Digestible Threonine Levels in the Starter Diet of Broilers Derived from Breeders of Different Ages

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    CBGS Tanure

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible threonine supplementation in the starter diet on the performance, intestinal parameters, and nutrient metabolism of broilers derived from breeders of different ages. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb chicks, derived from 38-or 49-week-oldbreeders, were housed in experimental battery cages until 21 days of age and fed four different threonine levels (800, 900, 1,000, or 1,100 mg/kg in the starter feed. A completely randomized experimental design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (breeder age x threonine levels was applied, totaling eight treatments with five replicates of 12 birds each. Broilers from older breeders fed 800 mg digestible threonine/kg of diet presented higher weight gain, with a positive linear effect. There was also an interaction between breeder age and threonine levels for the weight gain of 21-d-old broilers supplemented at maximum level of 1,003 mg Thr/kg diet during the starter phase. There was no effect of breeder age or threonine levels on nutrient metabolism during the period of 17-21 days. There was no influence of breeder age or threonine levels in the starter diet on intestinal morphometric measurements, absorption area, or percentage of goblet cells.

  4. Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets

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    AM Kessler

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO, acid corn oil (ACO, linseed oil (LO or coconut fat (CoF. Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA x (2 n6:n3 ratios x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC. Performance responses and dry matter (DMM, crude protein (CPM, and crude fat (CFM metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS, acid soybean oil (ASO, or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO. Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.

  5. Effects of starter diet supplementation with arginine on broiler production performance and on small intestine morphometry

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    Alice E. Murakami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of starter diet (days 1 to 21 supplemented with arginine (Arg on the production performance and duodenum and jejunum mucosa morphometry of broilers were studied. Male Cobb broiler chickens (990 were randomly assigned to one of five treatments in a complete random design. Measurements of 33 chicks per treatment were made in six repetitions. The treatments consisted of a basal diet with 1.390% digestible Arg (no supplementation and four dietary levels (1.490%, 1.590%, 1.690%, and 1.790%, providing a relationship with lysine of 1.103; 1.183; 1.262; 1.341 and 1.421%, respectively. From the age of 22 days on, all birds received conventional grower diet. The data were submitted to regression analysis by polynomial decomposition of the degrees of freedom in relation to the levels of Arg. The Arg supplementation increased (P0.05 in the growth phase (days 22 to 42 in the absence of the Arg supplementation. The supplementation of Arg over of NRC recommendation during the starter phase may be necessary for the expression of the maximal weight gain potential in birds. No effect (P<0.05 of Arg dietary supplementation was observed either on small intestine weight and length at any age. However, the duodenum villus:crypt ratio increased and the crypt depth decreased in the first week in response to increasing dietary Arg. It is concluded that broiler Arg dietary supplementation in the starter diet improved production performance and small intestine morphometry, especially in the first week.

  6. TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

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    A FASUYI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

  7. Different sodium levels and electrolyte balances in pre-starter diets for broilers

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    A Maiorka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment with 400 one-day-old male chicks (Ross was conducted to evaluate the effects of different Na levels (0.10, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.46% and different cation/anion balances (Na+K-Cl (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 meq/kg in pre-starter diets on broiler performance. The corn and soybean-based diets had 22% crude protein and 2,900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and were fed ad libitum. Performance data showed a positive quadratic effect of increasing Na levels on feed and water consumption, weight gain and feed conversion. Na+K-Cl also had a quadratic influence on feed intake and weight gain. None of the effects tested affected the amount of water measured in excreta. Derivatives of obtained regression equations pointed to optimal Na levels of 0.45% for water consumption, 0.40% for feed intake and weight gain and 0.38% for feed conversion. As to the effect of dietary Na+K-Cl balances on performance, regression equation values were 174 meq/kg for feed consumption and 163 meq/kg for weight gain. These results show that both Na level and Na+K-Cl balance interfere on broiler performance.

  8. Valine, isoleucine, arginine and glycine supplementation of low-protein diets for broiler chickens during the starter and grower phases.

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    Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Duarte, C R A; Eyng, C; Oliveira, C A L; Janeiro, V

    2014-01-01

    1. Two experiments were performed to study the supplementation of valine, isoleucine, arginine and glycine (Val, Ile, Arg, Gly) in low-protein diets for broiler chickens in the starter (1-21 d; Exp. 1) and grower (22-42 d; Exp. 2) phases. 2. A low-crude protein (CP) diet was formulated to meet the requirements of all amino acids (AA) supplied by the control diet except for Val, Ile, Arg and Gly. The other experimental diets were obtained by the isolated or combined supplementation of the studied AA in the low-CP diet. 3. Growth, serum parameters and litter characteristics were taken in both of the experiments. Carcass measurements were taken in Experiment 2. 4. In the starter and grower phases, low-CP diets without supplementation resulted in birds with a poorer weight gain and feed conversion than those of the birds that received the control diet. 5. In the starter phase, individual supplementation with Val and Gly, but not Ile and Arg, restored the weight gain of the birds, while diets with the addition of Val + Gly, Val + Ile + Arg, Val + Ile + Gly and Val + Ile + Arg + Gly restored their feed conversion. 6. In the grower phase, weight gain was re-established at the same rate as the control diet for the diets supplemented with Val + Ile, Val + Ile + Arg, Val + Ile + Gly and Val + Ile + Arg + Gly. However, the feed conversion was restored only in birds that received the diet supplemented with all studied AA. 7. The supplementation of Val and Gly in low-CP diets was sufficient to avoid adverse effects in the performance and serum parameters of broilers in the starter phase. However, birds in the grower phase required the combined supplementation of Val, Ile, Arg and Gly, to prevent compromised performance.

  9. Effect of Digestible Protein and Sulfur Amino Acids in Starter Diet on Performance and Small Intestinal (Jejunum Morphology of Broilers

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    Avisa Akhavan khaleghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Protein is an essential constituent of all tissues of animal body and has major effect on growth performance of the bird. A better understanding of the nutritional requirements of amino acids allows a more precise nutrition, offering the possibility for the formulator to optimize the requirement of at least minimum levels of crude protein by essential amino acids requirements, generating better result and lower costs for the producer. Methionine + Cystine (total sulfur amino acid = TSSA perform a number of functions in enzyme reactions and protein synthesis. Methionine is an essential amino acid for poultry and has an important role as a precursor of Cystine. Methionine is usually the first limiting amino acid in most of the practical diets for broiler chicken. The efficiency of utilization of dietary nutrients partly depends on the development of the gastro intestinal tract. Material and methods A 2×3 factorial arrangement in a CRD experiment was conducted to study the effect of digestible protein (DP and sulfur amino acids (DSAA during the starter period on performance and small intestinal (jejunum villous morphology. A total number of 300 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 30 groups with 10 chicks each. Treatments consisted of two dietary levels of DP (19.5 and 21.5% and three dietary levels of DSAA (0.94, 1.02 and 1.1% that were fed for 10 days. For Each group and treatment, Feed Intake (FI, Weight Gain (WG and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were calculated and all the data were statistically analyzed by the SAS software. Results and Discussions The effects of different levels of protein and digestible sulfur amino acids on the mean feed intake, feed conversion ratio and daily weight gain are shown in the Table 3. Increase in the percentage of digestible sulfur amino acids, increased the levels of feed intake and feed conversion ratio in the starter period but, had no effect on the WG. Adding the DSAA

  10. The Antibody and Organ Immune Responses of Broiler Starter Fed Diets with Graded Levels of Digestible Lysine

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    N. G. A. Mulyantini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate broiler immune responses during the starter phase to graded levels of digestible lysine. This experiment used 175 mixed sex broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age. Seven chicks were selected and allocated to each floor pens. Chicks were fed experimental diets from one day old to 21 days of age. Dietary treatments included the following levels of digestible lysine: 6.0, 8.0, 10.0, 12.0 and 14.0 g/kg diet. Supplemental synthetic L-Lysine-HCl which was considered to be 100% digestible was added to diets to obtain the concentration of the digestible amino acid. At 21 days of age, two chickens from each pen with body weights close to the pen mean were selected for evaluation of immunological variables. Immune organs (spleen and bursa, cellular immune response (skin test, and antibody production against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV were determined. Blood samples (plasma were taken from the same birds to determine antibody titer against IBV. The birds were euthanized, and immune organs (spleen and bursa were removed, and weighed individually. The results showed that spleen and bursa weight of birds fed diet containing 6.0 g/kg digestible lysine was significantly lower than those given diet containing 10 to 14 g/kg of digestible lysine. Toe web thickness of chickens fed diet containing 6.0 g/kg digestible lysine was significantly lower than the birds fed diets containing 14 g/kg digestible lysine. In conclusion, diet containing 8.0 g/kg appeared to have greatest potential to modulate immune response among other levels. However increasing levels of lysine did not have significant effect on antibody production.

  11. Subsequent growth performance and digestive physiology of broilers fed on starter diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma as a substitute for meat meal.

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    Beski, S S M; Swick, R A; Iji, P A

    2015-01-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), in lieu of meat meal, in the starter diet on performance and digestive physiology of broiler chickens between hatch and 35 d of age. Four levels of SDPP (0, 5, 10 or 20 g/kg) were included in the starter diets in lieu of meat meal on either wheat- or maize-based diets. Over the first 10 d, and throughout the 35-d experimental period, birds gained more body weight with increasing concentrations of SDPP regardless to the type of grain used. Inclusion of SDPP in the starter diet markedly improved feed per gain in the starter phase and across the 35-d study. There was no significant effect of the type of grain and its interaction with SDPP on the body weight gain and feed per gain for the two assessed periods. At d 10, the relative weight of the gizzard+proventriculus, spleen and liver increased with increasing concentrations of SDPP. At 24 d of age, the grain and SDPP inclusion significantly interacted, depressing the weight of bursa and spleen in birds that received the highest concentration of SDPP in the maize-based diet. Birds fed on the maize-based diets had higher relative weight of pancreas than those on the wheat-based diets. Increasing concentrations of SDPP in the starter diet improved the activities of maltase, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase at 24 d of age. The interaction of grain and SDPP concentration was significant for sucrase activity in birds on the wheat-based diets. Chickens on maize-based diets had higher alkaline phosphatase and maltase activities than those on wheat-based diets. Chicks that were offered SDPP-containing starter diets had longer villi, deeper crypts and lower villi/crypt than the control at 24 d of age regardless of the grain type used. Furthermore, longer villi and larger villi/crypt were found in chicken groups fed on wheat-based diets than those on maize-based diets. Chickens on maize-based diets had higher

  12. Influence of an Escherichia coli-derived phytase on nutrient utilization in broiler starters fed diets containing varying concentrations of phytic acid.

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    Ravindran, V; Morel, P C H; Partridge, G G; Hruby, M; Sands, J S

    2006-01-01

    The influence of an Escherichia coli-derived phytase, on nutrient utilization was investigated in broilers fed starter diets containing different concentrations of phytate. The study was conducted as a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement of treatments with 3 concentrations of phytic acid (10.4, 11.8, and 13.6 g/kg; equivalent to 2.8, 3.3, and 3.8 g of phytate P/kg) and phytase (0, 500, 750, and 1,000 FTU/kg). One unit of phytase (FTU) is defined as the quantity of enzyme that releases 1 micromol of inorganic phosphorus/min from 0.00015 mol/L of sodium phytate at pH 5.5 at 37 degrees C. The dietary phytic acid concentrations were manipulated by the inclusion of rice bran. Increasing dietary concentrations of phytic acid resulted in reductions (P phytate concentrations. Apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of protein and most amino acids were influenced by phytate (P phytate concentrations, but the trend in responses to increasing phytase additions was different at different phytate concentrations as shown by significant phytate x phytase interactions (P phytate concentration, the ileal digestibility coefficients increased with increasing phytase supplementation. At the medium and high phytate concentrations, the greatest responses were observed at 500 FTU/kg of phytase, with little improvement attributable to further additions. Ileal digestibility of P was lowered (P phytate concentrations and increased (P phytate x phytase interaction (P phytate concentrations. These data demonstrate the anti-nutritive effects of phytic acid and the potential of microbial phytase to improve energy utilization and the availability of P and amino acids in broilers fed starter diets.

  13. Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases

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    Rodrigo Santana Toledo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environments (clean and dirty environment, with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.

  14. ffects of different levels of digestible arginine and protein in starter diets containing ideal amino acids ratio on Eperformance, carcass traits and serum parameters in broiler chickens

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    Mostafa Gholami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition and health during the first days of life has critical effect on broiler chickens performance. It is well known that diet formulation based on digestible nutrients is superior to formulation based on total nutrients. The suitable supply of essential amino acids in broilers’ diets requires proper knowledge on their metabolic effects in the body. The excessive or unbalanced intake of essential and non-essential amino acids can be harmful to broilers’ metabolism, due to amino acid antagonisms. Arginine is an essential amino acid for broilers since the urea cycle is not functional in birds. Arginine involves in the synthesis of ornithine, a precursor of polyamines that have a key role in cell division, DNA synthesis, nitric oxide (NO synthesis, and cell cycle regulation. Also, arginine increases the release of insulin, growth hormone, and IGF-A and luteinizing hormone (LH in the blood stream. On the other hand, in corn- soybean meal based diets arginine is the fifth limiting amino acid after methionine, lysine, threonine, and valine. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of different digestible arginine (DA and digestible protein (DP levels of starter diets (1-10 d based on ideal amino acids ratio on performance, carcass traits and serum parameters in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Four handed day-old male broiler chickes (Ross 308 were distributed in 10 treatments of 4 replicates (floor pens each. The experiment was designed as a 2×5 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were formulated with five levels of digestible arginine (1.05, 1.18, 1.31, 1.44 and 1.57% and 2 levels of digestible protein (18 and 20%. Chicken were fed with experimental diets during 1 to 10 days of age, and then received similar diets formulated according to Ross 308 (2009 recommendations. All birds had free access to feed and water during the whole rearing period. Temperature was

  15. Valor nutricional do milho termicamente processado, usado na ração pré-inicial para frangos de corte Nutritional value of heat processed corn in formulating broiler pre-starter diet

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    E.R. Freitas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos um ensaio de metabolismo para determinar o valor nutricional do milho termicamente processado (MP e não-processado (MNP e outro de desempenho para comparar o uso desses alimentos em dietas pré-iniciais para frangos de corte. Não foram observadas diferenças entre a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, do extrato etéreo, da proteína bruta e do amido e valores de energia metabolizável aparente dos tipos de milho avaliados. A energia metabolizável aparente corrigida do MP (3.537kcal/kg de MS foi maior (PA digestibility trial was carried out to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of heat-processed corn (PC and not processed corn (NPC. A trial was also carried out to evaluate the effect of PC and NPC in pre-starter diet on broiler performance from 1 to 42 days of age. The dry matter (DM, ether extract, crude protein and starch digestibilities and apparent metabolizable energy for PC were similar (P>0.05 to those observed for NPC. The corrected apparent metabolizable energy of PC (3,537kcal/kg of DM was higher than NPC (3,411kcal/kg of DM. The treatments in the performance trial were T1- diet formulated with NPC, T2- diet formulated with PC, and T3 - isometric substitution of NPC for PC in T1 diet. The broiler fed on NRC diets showed lower feed consumption and weight gain:feed consumption ratio from 1 to 7 days of age than broiler fed on PC diets. The isometric substitution of NPC for PC in the pre-starter diet did not affect the performance of birds. No treatment effect on broiler performance from 1 to 42 days of age was also observed.

  16. Tempo de fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial para frangos de corte com diferentes pesos ao alojamento Period of feeding a pre-starter diet for broiler chickens with different body weights at housing

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    Gilson Alexandre Gomes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial (DPI e do peso ao alojamento sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte. Utilizaram-se 960 frangos machos, linhagem comercial Cobb-500, alojados em 32 boxes, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, composto de dois pesos ao alojamento (42 e 46 g e quatro períodos de fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial (0, 1 a 7, 1 a 10 e 1 a 14 dias de idade, durante 49 dias. Os programas alimentares compreenderam três ou quatro fases (pré-inicial e/ou inicial; engorda; final e as dietas fornecidas eram à base de milho e farelo de soja. De modo geral, aves mais pesadas ao alojamento apresentaram, ao longo de todo o período experimental, maior consumo de ração (CR e ganho de peso (GP. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na conversão alimentar (CA dos animais. Considerando todo o período experimental, as aves alimentadas com a dieta pré-inicial durante sete dias apresentaram maior consumo de ração e ganho de peso, porém, menor rendimento de carcaça. O peso ao alojamento determina o desempenho e o oferecimento da dieta pré-inicial durante sete dias beneficia o desempenho das aves.The effects of feeding a pre-starter diet (PSD and weight at housing on performance and carcass characteristics broilers were evaluated. A total of 960 day-old male chickens, commercial line Cobb-500, was housed in 32 floor pens as a completely randomized design in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement [weight at housing (42 and 46 g and periods of feeding pre- starter diet (0, 1 to 7, 1 to 10 and 1 to 14 days old for 49 days. The feeding regimes contained three or four phases (pre-starter and/or starter; grower; finisher diets and diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Overall, birds with heavier weights at housing showed, throughout the trial period, greater feed consumption and weight gain. No differences were observed for feed conversion of

  17. Performance of broilers fed increased levels energy in the pre-starter diet and on subsequent feeding programs having with acidulated soybean soapstock supplementation

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    SL Vieira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate broiler responses to increases in feed energy (2,870, 3,000 and 3,100 kcal ME/kg and the inclusion of Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS when compared to Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO in feeds from placement to 7 days of age. From 7 to 42 days ASS or DSO were included in diets that contained similar energy and nutrient levels. Metabolizable energy values used to formulate the diets for ASS and DSO were 8,351 and 7,701 kcal ME/kg in the first week and 9,314 and 8,559 kcal ME/kg afterwards, respectively. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and were fed to 1,600 one-d-old male broiler chicks randomly placed in 40 floor pens. No differences in performance due to fat source were seen at 7 days. However, the increase in energy levels to 3,100 kcal ME/kg reduced feed intake, whereas feed conversion was improved with energy at 3,000 kcal ME/kg. Live performance, and the yields of carcass and commercial cuts were not affected by the type of fat included in the feeds from 7 to 42 days, except for increased body weight at 21 and 35 days with ASS supplementation. Litter moisture at 7, 21, 35 and 42 days was not affected by any of the factors and there were no residual effects of treatments at 21, 35 and 42 days of age. On the other hand, body weight at 35 days was affected by the interaction of diets fed in the first week with those provided afterwards. The results showed that ME values used for DSO and ASS are adequate and that ASS may be used as fat source in broiler feeds from placement to 42 days of age.

  18. Níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phases

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    Luziane Moreira dos Santos

    2011-11-01

    carried out with broilers to evaluate levels of calcium and available phosphorus (aP in diets supplemented with 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet. Each experiment consisted of a performance and a metabolic assay, and was conducted in a factorial schedule (3 × 4 + 1, with three aP levels (0.42, 0.37, 0.32% in the pre-starter phase and 0.39, 0.34, 0.29% in the starter phase, four calcium levels (0.94, 0.84, 0.74, 0.64% in the pre-starter phase and 0.88; 0.78, 0.68, 0.58% in the starter phase plus a control diet. The control corresponded to the only diet without phytase and contained 0.47% of aP and 0.94% of calcium (pre-starter phase or 0.44% of aP and 0.88% of calcium (starter phase. In the performance assays, at 7 and 21 days of age the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn of the feed, and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC were determined. Calcium levels influenced the feed intake, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and in the starter phase they influenced bone ash, AMEn and DMDC. The aP levels influenced the content of tibia ash, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and bone ash and DMDC in the starter phase. By adding 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet, it is possible to reduce, respectively, the calcium and aP levels to 0.64% and 0.37% in the pre-starter phase, and to 0.58% and 0.29% in the starter phase, since this reduction does not cause a negative effect on performance or bone mineralization of broilers in the evaluated periods.

  19. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B1 in Starter Broiler Chicks

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    Justin Fowler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4. After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin.

  20. Performance of broilers fed digestible amino acids based diets obtained from cecectomized roosters and broilers

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    Alexandre Barbosa de Brito

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of broilers fed ration formulated based on digestible amino acids obtained with cecectomized roosters and broilers at different ages. A total of 300 Ag Ross 508 broiler chicks aging one to 21 days was distributed into 30 experimental units of ten broilers each (five birds of each sex in six batteries of galvanized steel. All diets were based on corn, soybean meal and full-fat corn germ meal, considering the values of diges tible amino acids obtained from 45-week-old roosters and broilers of 21 and 42 days of age. Two rearing phases were adopted, a pre-starter phase (one to seven days and a starter phase (eight to 21 days. The following performance variables were evaluated: average weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain relation and mortality. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized design with three forms of determination of digestible amino acids content and ten repetitions of ten birds. The use of digestible amino acids based diets determined for broiler chicks at 21 days of age resulted in better performance of bro ilers in starter phase. The digestible amino acid values of each ingredient can vary according to the age of the birds during the determination procedure.

  1. Níveis de arginina e lisina digestíveis na dieta de frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial Digestible arginine and lysine levels in pre-starter broiler diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Stringhini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho, a digestibilidade e retenção de nutrientes e o desenvolvimento de órgãos de frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias de idade alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de lisina e arginina digestíveis. Um total de 352 pintos AgRoss machos foram distribuídos em um arranjo fatorial 2 ´ 3 composto de dois níveis de lisina digestível (1,056 e 1,305% e três níveis de arginina digestível (1,305; 1,459 e 1,613%, com quatro repetições de 11 aves. O ganho de peso diário não foi afetado pelas dietas, porém, houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de arginina sobre a conversão alimentar de 1 a 7 dias e de 1 a 21 dias de idade e efeito linear sobre o consumo de alimento no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. O peso relativo do proventrículo + moela reduziu à medida que o nível de arginina digestível aumentou para o nível de 1,305% de lisina digestível aos 14 dias de idade. Os valores do coeficiente de digestibilidade dos nutrientes e retenção de MS e N foram melhores nos menores níveis de lisina digestível. Os níveis de 1,40 a 1,46% de arginina digestível podem ser utilizados em dietas para frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial, mas, à medida que aumenta o conteúdo de lisina da dieta, deve-se manter a relação desse aminoácido com arginina.The performance, digestibility and retention of nutrients and the development of digestive organs of broiler chicks in pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days old fed diets with different levels of digestible lysine and arginine. A total of 352 day old AgRoss male chicks was allotted to 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (level of digestible lysine [1.056 and 1.305%] and levels of digestible arginine [1.305, 1.459 and 1.613%] and four replicates of 11 chicks. Daily weight gain was not affected by diets but there was a quadratic effect of arginine levels on feed:gain ratio from 1 to 7 and from 1 to 21 days old and linear effect on feed intake from 1 to 21 days old

  2. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. N., Onu

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80 mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

  3. Influence of tallow and calcium concentrations on the performance and energy and nutrient utilization in broiler starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancharoenrat, P; Ravindran, V

    2014-06-01

    The influence of tallow and Ca concentrations on the performance, apparent ileal digestibility, and total tract retention of N, Ca, P, and AME in broiler starter diets fed corn-soy-based diets was examined. The experimental design was a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating 3 inclusion levels of tallow (0, 40, and 80 g/kg) and 3 dietary concentrations of Ca (7, 10, and 13 g/kg). Nine treatment diets were formulated to meet the requirements for major nutrients for broiler starters, except for AME and Ca concentrations. The results showed that increasing tallow inclusion increased (P 0.05) feed to gain to 10 g/kg of Ca but lower (P tallow, increasing Ca concentrations decreased (P tallow containing 13 g/kg of Ca showed lower (P tallow containing 7 g/kg of Ca showed the lowest (P tallow compared with those with 0 and 80 g/kg of tallow. Birds fed diets containing 7 g/kg of Ca had similar (P > 0.05) fat retention to that of 10 g/kg of Ca, but higher (P tallow containing 7 g/kg of Ca had higher (P tallow diets, 7 g/kg of Ca had the highest (P tallow had the highest ileal digestibility of fat (P tallow compared with those of 0 and 80 g/kg of tallow. High dietary Ca concentrations adversely affected the performance and the utilization of energy, N, Ca, and P in broiler starters.

  4. Efeito do peso inicial dos pintos e do período da dieta pré-inicial sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte Effect of one-day chicks weight and pre-starter diets on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Stringhini

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de dietas pré-iniciais, por diferentes períodos, para frangos de corte criados a partir de pintos com diferentes pesos ao primeiro dia. No aviário experimental da Escola de Veterinária da UFG, 280 pintos de um dia foram distribuídos, em baterias aquecidas, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições de doze aves, em um esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (peso do pinto, maior e menor que 40g, e programas de fornecimento de ração pré-inicial, 1 a 7, 1 a 10 e 1 a 14 dias. O desempenho dos pintos não foi influenciado pelo período de fornecimento das dietas, mas o peso dos pintos no alojamento influenciou o consumo de ração das aves. Não foi observado efeito dos tratamentos no consumo de nutrientes para o período de fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial, mas os pintos com menor peso no alojamento proporcionaram menor consumo de nutrientes e de energia. Com base nos resultados obtidos, é possível concluir que peso do pinto inferior a 40 g influencia uma redução significativa no consumo e mostra uma tendência de pior peso dos frangos ao final do experimento. Os parâmetros morfométricos avaliados não foram afetados pelos tratamentos.This research was carried out to evaluate the use of pre-starter diets, through different periods to broilers with different first day weights. Two hundred and eighty one-day old chicks were allotted in brooded battery cages, in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and four replicates in a factorial design 2 x 3, (chicks weight - higher or lower than 40 g, and pre-starter periods of feeding, 1 to 7; 1 to 10 and 1 to 14 days. The performance was not influenced by pre-starter diets periods, but the first-day weight of chicks reduced feed intake and live weight at 42 days of age. For energy and nutrient intake no effect was observed for pre-starter periods, but for the light chicks, the values of

  5. DIGESTIBLE VALINE REQUIREMENTS IN LOW-PROTEIN DIETS FOR BROILERS CHICKS

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    GR Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Three experiments were carried out to evaluate the levels of digestible valine in diets with reduced crude protein on the performance, carcass yield and muscle fiber diameter of male broilers during the pre-starter (1 to 8 d of age, starter (9 to 21 d of age and grower phases (21 to 42 d of age. A total of 1,080 chickens in the pre-starter phase, 900 in the starter phase and 864 in the grower phase were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments, consisting of a control positive diet (C+ and diets with 2 percentage points (p.p. reduction of crude protein level and five graded levels of digestible valine (Val, with six replicates of 30, 25 and 24 birds per experimental unit, respectively. The recommended level of TID Val in the low-protein diets for broilers in the pre-starter, starter and grower stages were 1.028; 0.905 and 0.789%, respectively. The reduction of 2 percentage points of the crude protein level in diets based on corn and soybean meal impaired (p ≤0.05 the feed conversion ratio in the starter and grower stages. Likewise, the reduced-protein diets decreased (p ≤0.05 muscle fiber diameter, but did not affect (p> 0.05 carcass and parts yields, or abdominal fat percentage at 42 days.

  6. Growth performance, carcass yield and intestinal microflora populations of broilers fed diets containing thepax and yogurt

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    A Boostani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the probiotic thepax and yogurt (as probiotic on the growth response and intestinal microflora results of broiler chickens. Two hundred forty day-old Ross 308 broilers were equally distributed into 12 floor pens and reared for 42 day. The treatments consisted of yogurt (10, 5 and 2.5% during starter, grower and finisher periods in the drinking water, respectively and thepax (1000, 500, 250 g/ton-1 in the starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively, resulting three experimental diets and a control group. Each dietary treatment was fed ad-libitum to four replicate group of 20 birds at the beginning of rearing period. Birds and feed were weighed on days 21 and 42. The results of experiment indicate that diets containing feed additives improved broiler performance. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio improved significantly more (p < 0.05 with the thepax treatment compared with the control broilers during the total rearing period. The highest (p < 0.05 carcass and thigh values were recorded for broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax and yogurt, respectively. The lowest abdominal fat pad value was obtained in broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax. On d 21, thepax and yogurt significantly reduced (p < 0.05 cecal Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens populations compared with the control group. In conclusion, thepax and yogurt improved broilers growth response and conferred intestinal health benefits to chickens by improving their microbial ecology.

  7. Addition of Amylase from Aspergillus Awamori to the Diet of Broiler Chickens

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    HS Morgado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were performed to evaluate the hematological and blood biochemistry parameters, biometry of digestive organs, enzyme activities, protein content and absolute weight of the pancreas of broilers fed pre-starter and pre-starter diets supplemented or not with amylase from Aspergillus awamori. In total, 120 male Cobb chicks were housed in heated cages in each experiment. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (feed with and without amylase and six replicates per treatment of 10 birds each was applied. The data were subjected to analysis of variance using the F-test at 5% probability level. The dietary amylase addition did not affect hematological and blood biochemistry parameters and the biometry of the gastrointestinal tract of 7- and 21-d-old broilers, nor the absolute weight, enzyme activities or protein concentration of the pancreas of 7-d-old broilers. However, the inclusion of amylase in the diet reduced amylase activity and pancreatic protein concentration in 21-d-old broilers. The application of amylase to broiler chicken pre-starter and starter feeds is not justified given the pancreatic amylase activity and protein concentrations.

  8. Phytogenic additives and organic acids in broiler chicken diets

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    Vitor Barbosa Fascina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment evaluated the influence of isolated or associated phytogenic additives (PA and organic acids (OA on nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments (with or without PA × with or without OA + antibiotic performance enhancer and anticoccidial. In the first experiment, two metabolic tests were conducted to determine the metabolizability coefficients of the nutrients of starter and growth diets. In the second experiment, 2520 one-day-old chicks were housed in 40 experimental units to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics. The phytogenic additives and organic acids, isolated or associated, improve the nutrient digestibility of the diet and replace the growth- promoting antibiotics. The use of organic acids isolated or associated with phytogenic additives in broiler diets improves broiler performance in comparison with free antibiotic performance enhancer at 42 days of age. Isolated or associated phytogenic additives and organic acids provided better carcass characteristics.

  9. Effects of Betaine Supplementation to Methionine Deficient Diet on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broilers

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    H. Sun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The efficacy of Methionine (Met sparing effect of Betaine (BET has been shown to be associated with dietary compositions, animal physiological stage and living conditions. This study was to determine the extent to which dietary Met could be replaced by BET in broiler chickens under the feeding conditions specific to Chinese poultry industry.Approach: A total of 900 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were fed three corn-soybean meal-based starter rations (d 1-21 and grower rations (d 22-42 for a total of 42 days. Met levels in the diets were: Diet 1, Met content at the recommended level (Control; diet 2, Met level at 85% of the Control supplemented with BET at the level of 400 (starter or 300 (grower mg kg-1 DM; Diet 3, Met level at 75% of the Control supplemented with BET at the level of 600 (starter or 500 (grower mg khg-1 DM. The broilers were raised in a temperature controlled house with 3 pens (replicates per dietary treatment. Results: In general, treatment had no effect on body weight, feed intake or feed efficiency. Concentrations of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the serum of broilers fed Diet 3 were higher (pConclusions/Recommendations: Supplementation of BET to replace up to 25% of total dietary Met did not affect the growth performance but improved the carcass quality of the broilers. BET could be used to spare 25% of the total Met in broiler diet that was formulated based on the Feeding Standard of China.

  10. Accuracy of Nonlinear Formulation of Broiler Diets: Maximizing Profits

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    CA Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutritionists need to make commercial decisions about the optimal nutrient content broiler feeds. In order to demonstrate that broiler prices may influence dietary nutrient density, this study developed quadratic feed intake and weight gain equations, according to broiler sex and feeding phase, to be applied in a nonlinear feed formulation model. Four hundred and eighty Cobb broilers were allotted to a completely randomized experimental with six treatments, each with four replicates of 10 birds each, from 1 to 56 days old. Treatments consisted of diets containing 2800, 2900, 3000, 3100, 3200, or 3300 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg and constant nutrient to ME ratio. A nonlinear version of the PPFR feed formulation software (http://www.fmva.unesp.br/ppfr was developed with the objective of optimizing energy density and bird performance. According to the results, when the models are applied in the PPFR nonlinear spreadsheet, the most favorable nutrient density content is defined by mathematical models, as optimized by the Excel Solver tool by means of cost/benefit comparisons and as a function of rearing phase (starter, grower, and finisher and sex. This contradicts the recommendations of genetic company manuals and published requirement tables, whose goal is to maximize weight gain and do not necessarily guarantee maximum economic efficiency.

  11. Growth promoting effects of prebiotic yeast cell wall products in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to investigate the growth promoting effects of supplementing different sources and concentrations of prebiotic yeast cell wall (YCW) products containing mannanoligosaccharides in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge. Through a series ...

  12. Water intake and digestive metabolism of broilers fed all-vegetable diets containing acidulated soybean soapstock

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    SL Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.

  13. PERFORMANCE OF BROILER WITH DIFFERENT STARTER WEIGHT, FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH METHIONINE DESEMPENHO DE FRANGOS COM DIFERENTES PESOS INICIAIS ALIMENTADOS COM RAÇÃO PRÉ-INICIAL SUPLEMENTADA COM METIONINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Gonzáles

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available in this study the effect of starter chick weight at hatch and the level of dietary methionine supplementation of diets were evaluated. a total of 1,984 males chicks (agross with two initial weights (40 and 45 g were used. these birds were fed a pre starter diets supplemented with different levels of methionine (0,455 %; 0,507 %; 0,559 % e 0,611 %. all the diets had the same amount of metabolizable energy and crude protein. the birds were randomly distributed in a factorial design (two body weights and four levels of methionine. four replicate and 62 birds per replicate were used. these results showed that the interaction between initial weight and methionine levels was not statistically significant. The methionine levels did not affect the performance and the carcass yield of the birds at 47 days. chicks with the initial different weight were similar at 47 days and the supplementation of the methionine in pre starter diets did not affect the performance of the birds.
    KEY-WORDS: carcass yield, feed intake, feed-to-gain ratio, wieght gain.

    avaliou-se o efeito do peso do pinto e da suplementação
    de metionina na ração pré-inicial sobre o desempenho
    e rendimento de carcaça de frangos. foram utilizados
    1.984 pintos machos, com dois pesos iniciais de 40 e 45 g. as rações experimentais eram fareladas e isocalóricas e isoprotéicas, variando os níveis de metionina apenas na ração pré-inicial (0,455 %; 0,507 %; 0,559 % e 0,611%. o delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (dois pesos x quatro níveis de metionina, quatro repetições e 62 aves por parcela. não houve interação entre o peso do pinto e os níveis de metionina em todas variáveis (P>0,05. A metionina não influenciou o desempenho nem rendimento de carcaça e de cortes (p>0,05. pintos com pesos de 40 e 45g foram semelhantes com relação ao desempenho e rendimento de carcaça ou partes, aos 47 dias, e os níveis diferentes de metionina

  14. Efeito da Proteína Bruta e de Diferentes Balanços Eletrolíticos das Dietas Sobre o Desempenho de Frangos no Período Inicial Effect of Crude Protein and Diferent Balance Eletrolytic of the Diets on Broilers Performance During the Starter Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Borges

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos utilizando-se 520 pintos machos de um dia para avaliar o efeito da proteína bruta (PB e do balanço eletrolítico (Na + K- Cl sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte no período inicial. O Experimento I (1 a 7 dias de idade das aves foi realizado em baterias, utilizando-se 160 pintos machos "Cobb", no Experimento II (1 a 21 dias foram utilizados 360 pintos machos "Aviam Farms" que foram alojados em um galpão experimental dividido em box. Nos dois experimentos as aves foram aquecidas com lâmpadas infravermelhas e receberam água e ração à vontade. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, em um esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (PB x balanço eletrolítico - BE, com 5 repetições e 8 aves por unidade experimental no Experimento I e fatorial 2 x 3 (PB x BE, com 3 repetições e 20 aves por unidade experimental no Experimento II. Os níveis de K foram mantidos constantes, oscilando-se o Na e o Cl para obter os balanços eletrolíticos desejados. Os parâmetro de desempenho (consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar foram analisados no final de cada fase experimental. Em ambos os experimentos não houve interação entre PB e BE. Os níveis de 21,0 e 23,5% de PB não afetaram o desempenho das aves. Em dietas pré-iniciais e iniciais o melhor desempenho foi atingido com 260 mEq/kg.Two experiment were carried out using 520 one-day old male broilers to evaluate the effect of crude protein and of electrolytic balance ( Na+K-Cl in starter diet on broilers performance. The experiment I (1 to 7 days of age was accomplished in batteries, being used 160 one-day old male 'Cobb", in the experiment II (1 to 21 days of age, used 360 one-day old male "Avian Farms" that were housed in an shed experimental, divide in box. In the two experiments, the birds were heated with infrared lamps and they received water and ration at large. Experimental designs were completely randomized factorial 2x2 (proteins levels and

  15. Performance, abdominal fat deposition and bone characteristics of broilers fed diets containing different lipid sources

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    A Potença

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance, abdominal fat yield, and bone parameters of broiler chickens fed diets containing different lipid feedstuffs as energy source. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 1, a completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 49 birds each one was applied. Broilers were fed starter diets formulated with different lipid sources: soybean oil (SO, cottonseed oil (CO, poultry offal oil (PO, and beef tallow (BT. During the finisher phase (21 to 42 days of Experiment 1, each initial treatment was divided in two experimental groups: one fed the same fat ingredient as the previous period, and the other fed SO as energy source. Thus, during this period, a completely randomized design with seven treatments, four replicates, and 43 broilers per experimental unit was tested. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 2, all broilers were fed with the same soybean oil-supplemented diet. The experimental groups were divided during the finisher phase (21 to 42 d in a completely randomized design with five treatments groups with six replicates of 30 birds each. During this period, treatments consisted of diets formulated with SO, rapeseed oil (RO, sunflower oils (SFO, PO, or BT as lipid sources. No effects (P>0.05 of the treatments on any of the studied parameters were observed in either experiment. Results suggest that there is no influence of animal or vegetable dietary lipid sources on performance, abdominal fat deposition, or tibia density and strength in broilers.

  16. Effect of different amino acids density diets on lysine, methionine and protein efficiency in Arian broiler

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    Javad Nasr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages provided by amino acid (AA densities to broiler performance have been well documented, but little research has been reported on comparing the effect of different densities, i.e. high, medium, standard and low amino acid levels (HAA, MAA, SAA, and LAA, on protein and energy efficiency in broiler. This study evaluated the effects of the four different amino acid densities in a completely randomized experimental design on 800 male (10 replicates per treatment broilers. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In broilers receiving HAA, there had been a significant increase in body weight at Day 42. Feeding broilers with HAA diets significantly increased protein and energy intake in the grower period and during the overall study period (0-42 days of age (P<0.05. There was a significant difference in efficiency of lysine and methionine during all time periods (P<0.05 and HAA levels were significantly higher than SAA. Protein efficiency ratio (PER and energy efficiency ratio (EER were not affected by an increase in AA density. AA levels had a significant effect on production efficiency factor (PEF. The results of this study suggest that additional lysine and methionine at 120% and other AA at 110% of National Research Council recommendations in starter and grower diets significantly improved body weight and PEF.

  17. Nutritional Balance of broilers fed diets containing two calcium levels and supplemented with different phytase levels

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    DCZ Donato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different calcium and phytase levels on the nutritional balance of broilers.A total of 108 male AG Ross 308 broilers were used in each of the replicates phases used in the study: starter (1-21 days, grower (29-35 days and finisher (36-42 days. A completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three phytase levels (0, 600 or 1200 FTU/kg and two calcium levels (0.94 and 0.66%; 0.84 and 0.59%; e 0.78 and 0.54% in the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, totaling six treatments with six replicates each.The experimental feeds also contained reduced available phosphorus levels and minimum crude protein level.The method of total excreta collection was applied to determine dry matter, nitrogen, gross energy, calcium, and phosphorus nutritional balance.Reducing dietary calcium levels to 0.66, 0.59, and 0.54%, and using 0.27, 0.22, and 0.20% available phosphorus, 18.50, 17.50, and 16.00% crude protein, and 600 FTU phytase/kg in the diets of the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, allow higher nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium retention in broilers.During the grower phase, there was positive linear effect of increasing phytase levels in high-calcium diets on AMEn utilization, and the optimal phytase levels for low-calcium diets was 598.71 FTU/kg.In the finisher phase, the best AMEn utilization was obtained with the high-calcium diets.

  18. Evaluation of the use of probiotic (Bacillus subtilis C-3102 as additive to improve performance in broiler chicken diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Oliveira Nunes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the use of probiotic based upon Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (BS in broiler diets containing or not conventional additive growth-promoter (AGP. A total of 1,824 one-day-old chicks of the Cobb-500 strain were used and distributed into 48 plots (1.50 × 2.00 m. A completely randomized design with four treatments and 12 repetitions was adopted. The treatments evaluated were: 1- Negative Control - AGP-free diet (NC; 2 - Positive Control, with AGP halquinol 30 mg/kg diet (PC; 3 - NC + BS (3x10(5 cfu/g diet; and 4 - PC + BS (3x10(5 cfu/g diet. The diets were on corn, soybean meal and meat and bone meal basis, formulated according to the nutrient allowances of the Strain Cobb Guide, following a feed program with three diets (starter, grower and finisher. At 21 and 42 days of age, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated, and carcass yield characteristics were determined at 42 days of age. Throughout the trial period (starter and total phases, better feed conversion was found for broilers fed diet with both additives (AGP and BS combined. At the end of the experiment (1 to 42 days, the highest weight gain also occurred in broilers fed diets with a combination of the two additives. In present study, the use of BS or AGP alone in diets did not affect the performance of broilers. The carcass yield was not influenced by the use of the additives and beneficial effects of supplementation of BS and AGP combined in the diet on broiler performance were observed.

  19. Cottonseed oil in diets for growing broilers

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    Vânia de Sousa Lima Aguiar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three levels of crude cottonseed oil on performance, organ weights, and blood parameters of growing broilers. Carcass and cut yields after 33 and 42 days of age and the economic viability of the diets were also evaluated. Male broilers of the Ross line were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (0, 2, 4, and 6% inclusion of cottonseed oil, with and without ferrous sulfate with five replicates. In the period from 22 to 33 days, quadratic and increasing linear effects were observed on feed intake and weight gain, respectively. Feed conversion during the same period was better with the addition of ferrous sulfate. The addition of ferrous sulfate caused a reduction in heart weight. From 22 to 42 days, carcass and cuts yield, organ weight, and intestine length were not influenced by the levels of oil or by the addition of ferrous sulfate. Supplementation with iron salts provided a lower red blood cell count and increased mean cell volume. Balanced diets formulated with up to 6% of crude cottonseed oil for broilers from 22-33 and 22-42 days of age do not affect their performance or the weight of their organs. Supplementation with ferrous sulfate improved feed conversion up to 33 days. Diets formulated with 4% cottonseed oil supplemented with ferrous sulfate are economically viable in the period from 22 to 42 days.

  20. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler starters...... assigned to 10 dietary treatments. Birds were also provided with a source of Ca in a separate feed trough. Increasing dietary Ca concentration decreased (P supplemented......, but the total Ca intake in phytase-supplemented diets were similar (P > 0.05). Birds fed 1.3 g Ca/kg diet showed the lowest (P 0.05) to the diets with 4.3 g Ca/kg. No significant (P > 0.05) effect of dietary Ca concentration on the CAID of starch, fat and GE was found...

  1. Evaluation of cysteamine associated with different energy patterns in diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Oliveira Nunes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating cysteamine (CS supplementation in broiler chick diets with different energy density patterns. A total of 980 chicks of the Cobb 500 strain at one day of age were allocated into 28 plots. A completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 7 replications, was adopted. The factors under study were the supplementation (or absence of cysteamine (60 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of feed in the starter and growth/finishing phases, respectively and two patterns of apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen balance (AMEn in the diets. The energy levels (Mcal/kg of feed practiced in pattern 1 were 3.00; 3.10; and 3.20, and for pattern 2, they were 3.05; 3.20; and 3.30 in the starter, growth and finishing phases, respectively. The diets were on the basis of corn and soybean meal with a feeding program with three diets. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, feasibility and carcass yield were evaluated. There was no interaction between the CS supplementation and AME patterns in the diet upon the performance and/or carcass characteristic evaluated. Broilers fed the diet supplemented with CS presented improved feed conversion along the rearing cycle, but feed intake and weight gain were not affected by the supplementation of CS. The highest pattern of energy density (2 provided increased weigh gain in the starter phase of rearing and better feed conversion of the birds over the whole rearing period. The carcass yield was not influenced by the cysteamine supplementation and/or energy levels studied.

  2. The effect of addition high rape cake and phytase on nutritive value of diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszkiewicz Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high rape cake content and phytase added to phosphorus and calcium deficient diets on the nutritive value for broiler chickens. Two experiments were performed: a growth experiment on four groups of one-day-old broilers Ross 308, 30 birds per group (6 replications x 5 birds and a digestibility experiment on 60 chickens divided into four groups of 20 birds (4 replications of 5 birds. The digestibility of the starter diets were evaluated on chickens at 7 days of age and of grower diets at 28 days of age. The diets used in the digestibility tests were the same for the growth trial. In the growth experiment four diets were prepared for the due periods: starters (1-21 day and growers (22-49 day of chicken life. The control diet (SBM did not contain rape cake, while experimental diets contained 15% (starters and 20% (growers rape cake of Lirajet cultivar. The experimental diet denoted RC HP had P and Ca contents equal the control diet (phosphorus about 7.5 g and calcium about 10 g.kg-1, while the diet denoted as RC LP contained less P and Ca (5.8 g and 6.8 g.kg-1 respectively than the control and RC HP diets. The diet denoted RC LP+ Phy was supplemented with an enzyme preparation containing phytase at a quantity of 875 FYT.kg-1. Application of 15% of rape cake into starter and 20% into grower diets (RC HP allowed for similar body weights and feed conversion ratio as the control group, whereas reduction of phosphorus and calcium content in the starter diet (RC LP significantly decreased body weight at day 21. The addition of phytase to the starter diet with low level of phosphorus and calcium showed the tendency to improve body weight in this period. Application of rape cake into starter and grower diets had poor effects on fat digestibility in all groups, whereas supplementation of grower diets with a low level of phytase phosphorus and calcium improved the digestibility of total phosphorus in

  3. Effect of supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 to broiler diets on growth performance, nutrient retention, caecal microbiology and small intestinal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sinol; Ingale, S L; Kim, Y W; Kim, J S; Kim, K H; Lohakare, J D; Kim, E K; Kim, H S; Ryu, M H; Kwon, I K; Chae, B J

    2012-08-01

    Present study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 on growth performance, apparent nutrient retention, caecal microbial population and intestinal morphology in broilers. Three hundred and twenty day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four treatments on the basis of BW in a randomized complete block design. Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 0-21) and finisher (d 22-35). Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0% (control), 0.15%, 0.30% and 0.45% B. subtilis LS 1-2. Supplementation of increasing levels of B. subtilis LS 1-2 showed linear improvement (PLS 1-2 showed decrease in caecal Clostridium and Coliform count (linear, PLS 1-2 increased (linear, PLS 1-2 can be used as a growth promoter in broiler diets and can improve intestinal microbial balance and gut health of broilers.

  4. Effect of super dosing of phytase on growth performance, ileal digestibility and bone characteristics in broilers fed corn-soya-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manobhavan, M; Elangovan, A V; Sridhar, M; Shet, D; Ajith, S; Pal, D T; Gowda, N K S

    2016-02-01

    A feeding trial was designed to assess the effect of super dosing of phytase in corn-soya-based diets of broiler chicken. One hundred and sixty-eight day-old broilers were selected and randomly allocated to four dietary treatment groups, with 6 replicates having 7 chicks per treatment group. Two-phased diets were used. The starter and finisher diet was fed from 0 to 3 weeks and 4 to 5 weeks of age respectively. The dietary treatments were consisted of normal phosphorus (NP) group without any phytase enzyme (4.5 g/kg available/non-phytin phosphorus (P) during starter and 4.0 g/kg during finisher phase), three low-phosphorus (LP) groups (3.2 g/kg available/non-phytin P during starter and 2.8 g/kg during finisher phase) supplemented with phytase at 500, 2500, 5000 FTU/kg diet, respectively, to full fill their phosphorus requirements. The results showed that super doses of phytase (at 2500 FTU and 5000 FTU/kg) on low-phosphorus diet improved feed intake, body weight gain, ileal digestibility (serine, aspartic acid, calcium, phosphorus), blood P levels and bone minerals such as calcium (Ca), P, magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) content. It could be concluded that super doses of phytase in low-phosphorus diet were beneficial than the normal standard dose (at 500 FTU/kg) of phytase in diet of broiler chicken.

  5. Comparison of 3 phytases on energy utilization of a nutritionally marginal wheat-soybean meal broiler diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D; Wu, S B; Choct, M; Swick, R A

    2015-11-01

    The net energy (NE) value may be a better measure than apparent metabolizable energy (ME) of the effect of supplemental phytase on energy utilization in broilers. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of 3 microbial phytases supplemented at an unconventionally high level (1,000 FTU/kg feed) on performance and NE of broilers using the indirect calorimetric method (IC). Four treatments included: 1) Control, formulated to be deficient in ME (12.35 MJ/kg in the starter diet; 12.56 MJ/kg in the grower diet), calcium (0.72% in the starter diet; 0.60% in the grower diet), and available phosphorus (0.25% in the starter diet; 0.20% in the grower diet); 2) control + intrinsically thermostable phytase A; 3) control + intrinsically thermostable phytase B; and 4) control + coated phytase C. A completely randomized design was employed. A total of 384 male broiler chicks were used, and each treatment had 6 replicates with 16 birds per replicate. The birds were reared until d 21 in floor pens with hardwood shavings. Thirty-two birds (8 birds per treatment) were randomly selected to determine heat production and NE (from 25-28 d) following a 3-d acclimatization in the respiratory chambers. Performance results at d 21 showed that supplementation with either of the 3 phytases improved body weight (P diet (P < 0.05). It may be concluded that the negative effects imposed by calcium and available phosphorus down-specification can be compensated by phytase supplementation in general, and intrinsically thermostable phytases improve the ME and NE value. However, phytase did not reduce heat production, heat increment, or increase NE:ME in birds.

  6. Influence of separate feeding of calcium on nutrient digestibility, energy utilisation and performance of young broilers fed pelleted wheat-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Dalen, van A.B.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Ravindran, V.

    2015-01-01

    Six broiler starter diets, based on wheat and soybean meal, were formulated to contain 1.1 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g calcium (Ca)/kg. All diets were equivalent in respect of total and non-phytate phosphorus contents (5.4 and 3.0 g/kg, respectively). The influence of dietary treatments on the gro

  7. Inclusion of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler diets: a meta-analysis of effects on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Umar Faruk, M; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Bastianelli, D

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted (i) to evaluate broiler response to partial or total substitution of corn by sorghum and millet and (ii) to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by cottonseed meal in broiler diet. The database included 190 treatments from 29 experiments published from 1990 to 2013. Bird responses to an experimental diet were calculated relative to the control (Experimental-Control), and were submitted to mixed-effect models. Results showed that diets containing millet led to similar performance as the corn-based ones for all parameters, whereas sorghum-based diets decreased growth performance. No major effect of the level of substitution was observed with millet or cottonseed meal. No effect of the level of substitution of sorghum on feed intake was found; however, growth performance decreased when the level of substitution of corn by sorghum increased. Cottonseed meal was substituted to soybean meal up to 40% and found to increase feed intake while reducing growth performance. Young birds were not more sensitive to these ingredients than older birds since there was no negative effect of these ingredients on performance in the starter phase. Results obtained for sorghum pointed out the necessity to find technological improvements that will increase the utilization of these feedstuffs in broiler diet. An additional work is scheduled to validate these statistical results in vivo and to evaluate the interactions induced with the simultaneous inclusions of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler feeding.

  8. Live performance and processing yields of broilers fed diets with tiamulin and salinomycin combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combined application of tiamulin (TIA and salinomycin (SAL in broiler diets fed from 1 to 42 d of age. One thousand and two hundred Cobb x Cobb 500 male broilers were housed in 48 floor pens and fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 66 ppm of SAL combined or not with TIA at 30 or 20 and 20 or 15 ppm, respectively, in the starter (1-21 d and grower feeds (22-42 d; however, TIA was withdrawn from the feeds 7 days before slaughter. The experimental design was completely randomized with 3 treatments and 16 replicates of 25 birds each. Broilers were weekly evaluated for live performance whereas carcass yield, abdominal fat and commercial cuts were assessed at 42 d using 6 birds randomly taken from each pen. Results obtained at the end of the study demonstrated that body weight gain was not affected (P > 0.05 by the treatments, whereas feed intake was reduced (P 0.05 by the treatments. Live performance and post-slaughter yields data obtained in this study did not indicate that combinations of TIA with SAL could be detrimental. In fact, an improvement in feed conversion was observed at the lowest dose of TIA.

  9. Phytogenic additives and glutamine plus glutamic acid in broiler diets

    OpenAIRE

    VC Pelícia; AC Stradiotti; PC Araujo; MK Maruno; FB Carvalho; AC Pezzato; JR Sartori

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of phytogenic additives (PAs) and glutamine plus glutamic acid (Gln/Glu), associated or not, in replacement of antibiotic growth promoters and anticoccidials (AGP/AC) on the performance and carcass yield of broilers. Five hundred male Cobb broilers were housed in an experimental house and randomly distributed into five treatments, with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet ...

  10. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P;

    2009-01-01

    Rumen development is an important factor determining early solid feed intake and performance in cattle. A popular trend towards early weaning of newborn dairy calves necessitated looking for ways of accelerating the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. The present study aimed to determine...... the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in rearing calves. Fourteen bull calves (5-day-old) were randomly allocated to two groups: Control (C) and NaB. The later received 0.3 % NaB in milk replacer and starter diet. Animals were in experiment...

  11. Performance of broiler chicken fed varied nutrient density diets supplemented with direct fed microbial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dietary response of different isolated strains (Direct fed microbial- DFM of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast isolated from leopard feces (Panthera leo was studied as probiotic in poultry broiler birds reared as per varied mineral densities viz. calcium and phosphorus. Various treatments consisted of T0 (Control, culture medium, T1 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered standard formulated diet D1, T2 - Control (Culture medium offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2, T3 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2. Growth results obtained during the starter phase (1st to 3rd week exhibited higher gain in live body weight and lower feed conversion ratio, both by DFM supplemented treatment T1 offered standard formulated diet D1 and treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 compared to respective control T0 and T2. The obtained results revealed a significantly higher growth performance in treatment T1 compared to its control T0 where a higher growth in treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 supplemented with isolated DFM compared to its control T2 was exhibited. Treatment groups T1 and T3 supplemented with isolated DFM exhibited a better intestinal micro flora balance, effective colonization and higher count in the intestinal tract with higher calcium and phosphorus retention in the digestibility studies. Thus, it was found that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to improve biological growth performance of poultry broiler birds offered both standard formulated diet D1, as well as mineral deficient diet D2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002

  12. Starch digestibility, energy utilization, and growth performance of broilers fed corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Santiago, G O; Kindlein, L; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-amylase and β-xylanase supplementation of corn-soy diets, formulated with or without supplemental phytase, on growth performance, energy utilization, and starch digestibility in broiler chickens. A total of 336 slow-feathering, Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 6 treatments having 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post-hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until d 25. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 control diets (basal = corn-soy diet without added phytase or PHY = corn-soy diet formulated with 1,000 phytase units/kg) and 3 carbohydrase supplementations (0, 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg, or 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg + 100 fungal β-xylanase units/kg) was used from d 14 to 25. Excreta were collected from 21 to 24 d and all birds were euthanized at 25 d for jejunum and ileum content collection. Samples of feed, excreta, and jejunal and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of total tract retention and ileal apparent digestibility. No interactions between diet and carbohydrase were observed. Broilers fed diets formulated with phytase or supplemented with amylase + xylanase had higher BW gain (BWG) and lower FCR (P amylase and amylase + xylanase, respectively. Starch digestibility in the jejunum and ileum was increased (P amylase + xylanase. Results from this experiment show that corn-soy diets having phytase and supplemented with amylase and xylanase led to increased growth performance, AMEn, and starch digestibility in broilers. Furthermore, the efficacy of exogenous amylase and xylanase was independent of the presence of microbial phytase.

  13. Effects of Diets with Graded Levels of Canola Meal on the Growth Performance, Meat Qualities, Relative Organ Weights, and Blood Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BK An

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of canola meal (CM on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and Infectious bronchitis virus, and blood profiles of broiler chickens. In total 600 day-old feather-sexed Ross male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatments with six replicates of 20 birds each for 35 days. Treatments consisted of five experimental diets containing 0 (control, 3, 5, 10, or 15% canola meal (CM. Final body weight (BW was not affected by the dietary treatments. Daily BW gain (DWG and feed intake linearly decreased as dietary CM inclusion increased during the starter phase (p<0.0001, but not during the grower and total rearing periods. Chicks fed the diet with 15% CM presented the lowest DWG during the starter phase. Breast meat yield of CM-fed chicks linearly decreased as CM inclusion level increased (p=0.0014. Dietary CM supplementation did not influence organ relative weights, except for the spleen, meat quality, or blood profile. The results suggest that the CM may replace soybean meal (SBM with no detrimental effects on overall growth performance or physiological responses of broiler chickens. However, it is recommended that supplementing excess amount of CM into broilers' diet should be taken into account in practical diet formulation as it could impair growth performance at early age and lower breast meat yields.

  14. Effects of Supplemental Fat to Low Metabolizable Energy Diets on Cholesterol and Triglyceride Contents of Broiler Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Rezaei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Modern diets high in Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA and low in Monounsaturated (MUFA and Polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids are mostly blamed for the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Since dietary fatty acids are absorbed by monogastric animals and deposited in their tissues without significant modification, considerable potential exists for the manipulation of the fatty acid profile of poultry meat and eggs. In the present study, effects of different sources and levels of supplemental fat to low energy diets on energy and protein intake and efficiency during grower and finisher periods and cholesterol and Triglyceride (TG contents of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks were investigated. Approach: One hundred and eighty 1 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 15 pens containing 12 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 5 dietary treatments of 2 sources (soybean oil and beef tallow and 2 levels of fat (20 and 40 g kg-1 in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement. There was also a control treatment (without supplemental fat in this experiment. All chicks were fed with a commercial starter diet from 1-10 day, where-after fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Results: There were significant differences in energy and protein intake and energy and protein efficiency among treatments in all phases of the experiment (p-1 soybean oil that compared to other groups. The effect of different sources and levels of supplemental fat on cholesterol and TG contents of thigh and breast meat of broiler chicks in 42 day of age was significant (p-1 soybean oil significantly decrease levels of cholesterol in thigh and breast meat (pConclusion: Supplementation of broiler diets with 20 g kg-1 soybean oil improved energy efficiency, decreased cholesterol content of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks in comparison

  15. The effect of feed wetting and fermentation on the performance of broiler chick

    OpenAIRE

    Uchewa E.N.; Onu P. N.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed wetting and fermented feed on the performance of broiler chicks. Four experimental diets were used in the study. Diet 1, was a conventional commercial broiler starter feed. Diet 2 was a commercial broiler starter feed in a 1:1.2 dilution with water. Diet 3, was a water diluted commercial feed inoculated with Bactocell™ and fermented for 24 hours at 35oC in an incubator. Diet 4 was fermented feed add...

  16. Effect of a multienzyme complex in wheat-soybean meal diet on digestibility of broiler chickens under different rearing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuensanta Hernández

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a multienzyme complex containing protease and carbohydrase enzymes on the performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens under different rearing conditions from 1 to 42 d of age. Two experimental starter and finisher wheat-soybean meal based diets were used in a two-phase feeding programme, as follows: control diet (C; control diet plus 0.05% multienzyme complex of protease and carbohydrase enzymes (Allzyme Vegpro (VP. At location 1, broilers were raised in battery cages located in an experimental pen, without contact with litter. At location 2, broilers were raised in floor pens built in a commercial farm, and had contact with litter. At location 3, broilers were raised in commercial farms. In general, no differences in growth performance, feed intake or feed conversion ratio were observed in broiler chickens fed on the different diets at location 1. Only, the average daily feed intake from 22 to 42 d was significantly higher in the VP group compared with the C treatment (P<0.01. In addition, the final body weight of the VP group was numerically greater than that of the birds fed with the control diet, although the inclusion of the multienzyme complex did not cause significant effects. However, the ileal digestibilities of dry matter and crude protein were enhanced (P<0.05 by VP in the case of broilers in floor pens (+2.5% and +2.7% for DM and CP, respectively and in the commercial farm (+4.4% and +6% for the DM and CP, respectively at 42 d of age, as well as faecal digestibity of the VP diet in experimental pen. It seemed that the effectiveness of the multienzyme complex on digestibility was higher when conditions of hygiene were poorer and stress was frequent. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that the multienzyme complex of protease and carbohydrase enzymes might be effective for improving nutrient digestibility in broilers fed with a wheat-soybean meal based diet under

  17. Piperine as a phytogenic additive in broiler diets.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic additive in chicken broiler diet. Seven‑day‑old male chicks were randomly allocated in four experimental treatments (n = 24), with four replicates (n = 6). The piperine was added to diets at concentrations of 0, 60, 120, and 180 mg kg‑1 for 35 consecutive days. The following were evaluated: biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters; performance and carcass yield. Histomorphom...

  18. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Steenfeldt, S.; Bootwalla, S.M.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler starter

  19. Energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal and corn-based diets supplemented with xylanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Carvalho, P S; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased levels of a β-xylanase on energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soy diets. A total of 480 slow feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 10 treatments having 8 replicates of 6 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until 25 d. Two experimental diets, a conventional corn/soy-based basal diet (CS) and the basal diet in which 40% of the diet was displaced by corn (CN), were fed as-is or supplemented with 50, 100, 150, or 200 fungal β-xylanase units (FXU)/kg. Dietary treatments were distributed factorially as a 2 × 5 arrangement. Samples of feed, excreta, and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy, and total tract retention of protein and lipid. No interactions between diet and xylanase were observed. The CS diets had higher (P energy utilization and nutrient digestibility when compared to the CN diets. AMEn and IDE were improved (P energy utilization and digestibility of crude protein and dry matter increased with xylanase supplementation in corn/soy-based diets. When xylanase was tested in the CS diet, 92 and 124 FXU/kg maximized the energy release effect; however, the maximum energy response in the CN diet or corn was not achieved until 200 FXU/kg.

  20. Addition of enzyme to starter and grower diets for ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, D; Burrows, H; Adeola, O

    2002-12-01

    The growth performance and nutrient utilization responses of White Pekin ducks to a commercial enzyme preparation were investigated. The enzyme contained 4,000 units amylase, 12,000 units protease, and 1,600 units xylanase per gram. Twelve pens of 10 ducks were fed diets based on corn and soybean meal and wheat middlings. The diets contained the enzyme mixture at 0, 0.375, or 0.5 g/kg in a growth study for 42 d. At the end of growth study, four ducks from each of eight pens per diet were retained and continued their respective diets containing 2.5 g Cr2O3/kg for 7 d. Intestinal content was sampled to determine ileal digestibilities of energy, nitrogen, and amino acids. One duck from each pen was selected at the end of the growth study and was fitted with retainer rings around the vent for the attachment of an excreta collection apparatus; these ducks were maintained on their respective diets containing 2.5 g Cr2O3/ kg to determine dietary nitrogen, amino acids, and energy retention. Results from the performance study showed a 6 to 8% increase (P ducks fed diets containing the enzyme preparation at 0.5 g/kg, but ileal digestibility of energy was not affected by enzyme supplementation of diets. Apparent nitrogen retention was greater (P ducks that received enzyme at 0.5 g/kg diet than in ducks fed diets without the enzyme. Energy retention (AME and AMEn) of diets was not affected by the addition of enzyme to diets. Excreta amino acid digestibilities were found to be consistently higher than ileal estimates. The mean ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients in diets with enzyme at 0, 0.375, and 0.5 g/kg were 86.94, 88.82, and 88.87%, respectively. The addition of enzyme improved (P growth performance, nitrogen, and amino acid retention of White Pekin ducks.

  1. The interaction between maternal and post-hatch n-3 fatty acid supplementation in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated whether offspring from n-3-supplemented breeders have an enhanced performance and immune organ weight when fed a post-hatch n-3-enriched diet in comparison with their control-fed counterparts and the importance of timing of omega-3 supplementation. Therefore, 480 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment). The control diet (CON) was a basal diet, rich in n-6 fatty acids (FA). The three other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). At 33 weeks of age, eggs were incubated to obtain 1440 offspring. They were set up according to their maternal diet and sex in 48 pens of 30 chicks each (12 pens per maternal treatment: six male and six female). Half of the offspring were given a post-hatch control diet, whereas to other half received an n-3-supplemented diet. Zootechnical performance was followed for starter, grower and finisher phase, and at the end of each phase two, chicks per pen were sacrificed to determine the weight of the immune organs. No interaction was found between maternal and post-hatch n-3 treatment for zootechnical performance. An interaction arose between the maternal and post-hatch n-3 supplementation for proportional bursa weight at day 1 and day 14 and proportional liver weight at day 14, but effects on immune organ weight were rather limited. Offspring post-hatch n-3 supplementation did not enhance maternal n-3 supplementation.

  2. Effect of phytase supplementation on apparent phosphorus digestibility and phosphorus output in broiler chicks fed low-phosphorus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ren Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.

  3. Piperine as a phytogenic additive in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica da Silva Cardoso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic additive in chicken broiler diet. Seven‑day‑old male chicks were randomly allocated in four experimental treatments (n = 24, with four replicates (n = 6. The piperine was added to diets at concentrations of 0, 60, 120, and 180 mg kg‑1 for 35 consecutive days. The following were evaluated: biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters; performance and carcass yield. Histomorphometric analyses were also carried out. The addition of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine did not alter broiler body weight and feed conversion, whereas 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine interfered positively in both parameters from 36 to 42 days of age and significantly increased the absorption surface of the duodenum and the ileum. No macroscopic alteration in organ size and color was observed in the broilers fed diets with the evaluated concentrations of piperine. The supplementation of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine is toxic to liver tissue and reduces the absorption surface of the jejune. The diet supplemented with 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine is safe.

  4. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control, or conventional reference soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Lucas, D; Davis, S; Nemeth, M

    2007-12-01

    A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. Soybean meal produced from 6 conventional soybean varieties was included in the study to provide comparison measurements for broilers fed meal derived from conventional soybeans. It has been found that MON 89788 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 33% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 30% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, adjusted feed conversion, or any measured carcass and meat quality parameters. Comparison of all performance, carcass, and meat quality parameters measured showed no differences (P > 0.05) between birds fed the MON 89788 soybean meal diet and the population of birds fed the control and 6 conventional reference soybean meal diets. It is concluded that the diets containing soybean meal produced from MON 89788 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing soybean meal produced from the control and conventional reference soybean varieties when fed to broilers.

  5. Effect of l-glutamic acid supplementation on performance and nitrogen balance of broilers fed low protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, R M; Costa, F G P; Givisiez, P E N; Freitas, E R; Goulart, C C; Santos, R A; Souza, J G; Brandão, P A; Lima, M R; Melo, M L; Rodrigues, V P; Nogueira, E T; Vieira, D V G

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein reduction and supplementation of l-glutamic acid in male broiler diets. A total of 648 chicks of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and six replications with eighteen birds per experimental unit. The study comprised pre-starter (1-7 days), starter (8-21 days), growth (22-35 days) and final (36-45 days) phases. The first treatment consisted of a control diet formulated according to the requirements of essential amino acids for each rearing phase. The second and third treatments had crude protein (CP) reduced by 1.8 and 3.6 percentage points (pp) in relation to the control diet respectively. In the fourth treatment, l-glutamic acid was added to provide the same glutamate level as the control diet, and in the last two treatments, the broilers were supplemented with 1 and 2 pp of glutamate above that of the control diet respectively. The reduction in CP decreased the performance of broilers and the supplementation of l-glutamic acid did not influence performance when supplied in the diets with excess of glutamate. The lowest excreted nitrogen values were observed in the control diet, and treatments 2 and 3, respectively, in comparison with treatments with the use of l-glutamic acid (5 and 6). Retention efficiency of nitrogen was better in the control diet and in the treatment with a reduction of 1.8 pp of CP. It was verified that the serum uric acid level decreased with the CP reduction. A reduction in CP levels of up to 21.3%, 18.8%, 18.32% and 17.57% is recommended in phases from 1 to 7, 8 to 21, 22 to 35 and at 36 to 42 days, respectively, with a level of glutamate at 5.32%, 4.73%, 4.57%, 4.38%, also in these phases.

  6. Heat-resistant bacterial phytase in broiler pelleted diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TC de F Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of a heat-resistant bacterial phytase added to pelleted diets on mineral digestibility, live performance, carcass traits, and bone quality of broilers. Three treatments were evaluated: Positive control; negative control, with 0.10 points reduction in calcium level and 0.15 points reduction in available phosphorus level; and negative control + phytase at 500 FTU/kg. Mineral digestibility and bone quality results demonstrated that the evaluated phytase resisted pelleting as it increased the utilization of the minerals present in the diet.

  7. Desempenho de pintos de corte alimentados com rações contendo milho pré-gelatinizado Performance of broiler chicks fed pre-gelatinized corn in pre-starter and starter feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Stringhini

    2009-09-01

    corn for broilers from one to 21 days of age. In the first experiment, the metabolism of pre-gelatinized corn, corn starch and corn germ meal was assessed by the total excreta collection method from 4 to 7 days of age and values of apparent (AME and corrected metabolizable energy (CAME and the results were, respectively: 3370, 3379.7, 3259.1 kcal/kg de AME and 3299.8, 3369.7, 3051.6 kcal/kg for CAME. The inclusion level of pre-gelatinized corn was evaluated in pre-starter (1 to 7 days of age - Experiment 2 and starter (8 to 21 days of age - Experiment 3 broiler rations. Broiler performance from one to seven days of age was not affected by pre-gelatinized corn in the feed. A quadratic effect for the dry matter digestibility coefficient (minimum point of 28.6% inclusion and nitrogen (minimum point of 31.7% inclusion and negative linear negative on the ether extract digestibility coefficient. From 8 to 21 days of age, broiler performance was affected linearly and negatively for final weight, weight gain and feed intake and quadratic for feed-to-gain ratio (maximum point of 34.3% inclusion. For the dry matter, nitrogen and ether extract digestibility coefficients, there was a positive linear effect for pre-gelatinized corn included in substitution of corn. Pre-gelatinized corn was a good alternative for pre-starter ration, but, in spite of the better digestibility coefficient results, performance got worse as pre-gelatinized corn increased in diets from 8 to 21 days of age. Pre-gelatinized corn was a good alternative as energetic ingredient for first week chick feed, but, in the starter phase it did not promote good performance despite the good digestibility indexes obtained.

  8. Natural zeolites in diet or litter of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter.

  9. Growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks to various levels of crude fiber and protein in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion of crude fiber in diet is important for duck growth, but there is a limit in its use in order for the ducks to grow normally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks under different levels of crude fiber and protein in diets. Four hundreds and twenty day old ducklings were allocated into 7 treatments with 6 replications and each replication consisted of 10 ducks. The treatments were the factorial combinations of crude fiber content of 6 or 9% and protein content of 19, 21, or 23%; and BR-1 (starter diet as positive control. The variables observed were: feed intake, weekly body weight, and percentage of carcass production. The results showed that all variables observed were not significantly affected by CF content, but highly significantly affected by crude protein levels in diet. Protein content of 19 or 21% in diet resulted in a better performance for EPMp ducks. The inclusion of high CF in diet did not affect carcass percentage, except for reduced abdominal fat. The study implies that administration of high CF (6 or 9% with a protein content of 19 or 21% in the diet are still acceptable to EPMp ducks at 12 weeks.

  10. Phytogenic additives and glutamine plus glutamic acid in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Pelícia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of phytogenic additives (PAs and glutamine plus glutamic acid (Gln/Glu, associated or not, in replacement of antibiotic growth promoters and anticoccidials (AGP/AC on the performance and carcass yield of broilers. Five hundred male Cobb broilers were housed in an experimental house and randomly distributed into five treatments, with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD; CD+AGP/AC; CD+Gln/Glu; CD+PAs; CD+Gln/ Glu+PAs. Diets were formulated only with plant feedstuffs, i.e., they did not contain any animal byproducts. Performance data were collected for the accumulated periods of 1-7, 1-21, and 1-42 days of age. Carcass yield and parts yield were determined at 42 days of age. Treatments did not influence performance during none of the evaluated periods. The greatest carcass yield (p<0.05 was obtained in birds in the treatments CD+Gln/Glu and CD+Gln/Glu+PAs relative to CD, but not different from birds in the AGP+AC and PAs treatments, which were not different from the CD treatment. Birds fed the CD+Gln/Glu diet presented greater breast yield (p<0.05 compared with those in the CD and AGP/AC treatments, but there was no difference in comparison with the other treatments. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the dietary supplementation with phytogenic additives and with glutamine plus glutamic acid does not affect the performance, but improves carcass yield and breast yield of broilers.

  11. The effect of microbial phytase and myo-inositol on performance and blood biochemistry of broiler chickens fed wheat/corn-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowieson, A J; Ptak, A; Mackowiak, P; Sassek, M; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, E; Zyla, K; Swiatkiewicz, S; Kaczmarek, S; Józefiak, D

    2013-08-01

    A total of 1,200 Ross broiler chickens were used in 2 separate feeding studies to explore the effect of myo-inositol (MYO) and phytase on performance and blood biochemistry of broilers fed diets formulated to be either adequate or insufficient in Ca and digestible P (dP). Supplementation of diets that were formulated to be insufficient in Ca and dP with MYO resulted in improved BW gain and feed conversion ratio in both experiments. However, these effects were most pronounced in the finisher phase, and moderate negative effects were observed during the starter period. Supplementation of the diet with microbial phytase improved BW gain and feed conversion ratio to a similar extent as was observed with MYO, and there was a degree of subadditivity between the 2 additives. Blood glucose concentrations were increased by both MYO and phytase, though possibly by different mechanisms, because insulin concentrations were not directly relatable to circulating glucose levels, especially when both MYO and phytase were applied simultaneously. The increase in blood glucose concentrations with MYO and phytase was most pronounced in the diet with a lower Ca and dP concentration. It can be concluded that dietary supplementation with MYO or phytase was effective in improving performance of commercial broiler chickens. However, further work is required to explore complex ontogenetic effects of MYO and possible involvement of both MYO and phytase in Na-dependent transport mechanisms.

  12. Effect of commercial diets quality on bio-economic performances of broilers in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, F M; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C A A M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the quality of commercial poultry feeds in Benin. The performances of 396 unsexed broilers chickens Ross 308 fed with a control diet (R1) and five commercial diets (R2 to R6) were evaluated. Broilers fed commercial diets showed significantly low (P ....001) body weight gain (BWG) and economic feed efficiency (EFE) and significantly high (P control diet was 1662 g versus 838 to 1041 g for broilers fed commercial diets. In R1 diet, overall FC...... was 388 Fcfa/kg BWG, and EFE was 2.7 Fcfa BWG/Fcfa feed. These values represented respectively 50 to 64% and 1.6 to 2.0 times the FC and the EFE recorded in commercial diets. A deficiency in crude protein and metabolisable energy, combined with high contents of crude fibre and total ash was found in some...

  13. The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMI Caires

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments with 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium and amino acids (methionine, cystine, lysine, and threonine, The following treatments were applied: T1. Control (corn and soybean diet; T2. Inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM; T3. Inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM; T4. Inclusion of 5% feather meal (FM; T5. Inclusion of 5% poultry offal meal (OM; T6. Combination of meat and bone meal, feather meal, offal meal, and blood meal. Broiler weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, livability and carcass yield were evaluated. At 35 days of age, it was verified that the combination of the four animal meals compromised weight gain. Broiler performance at 42 days of age was influenced by treatments, and the worst weight gain and true feed conversion were observed in birds fed diets with the combination of the four animal meals. The inclusion of 5% BM negatively affected the weight gain. It is concluded that MBM, FM, and OM inclusion can be individually used with no negative influence on broiler performance or carcass yield. In addition, it reduces feed costs.

  14. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions.During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70% (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.

  15. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions. During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70 % (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.

  16. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance.

  17. Accuracy of Nonlinear Formulation of Broiler Diets: Maximizing Profits

    OpenAIRE

    CA Gonçalves; MA de Almeida; JA Faria-Júnior; MF Pinto; Garcia-Neto,M

    2015-01-01

    Nutritionists need to make commercial decisions about the optimal nutrient content broiler feeds. In order to demonstrate that broiler prices may influence dietary nutrient density, this study developed quadratic feed intake and weight gain equations, according to broiler sex and feeding phase, to be applied in a nonlinear feed formulation model. Four hundred and eighty Cobb broilers were allotted to a completely randomized experimental with six treatments, each with four replicates of 10 bir...

  18. Biological value of bone-precipitated dicalcium phosphate in turkey starter diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T W; Douglas, J H; Lapjatupon, W; Struwe, F J; Gonzalez, N J

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relative biological value (RBV) of phosphorus from two bone-precipitated dicalcium phosphates (DCP-BP) in turkey starter diets. An estimated 40,000 metric tons of DCP-BP are produced annually in the United States as a by-product of gelatin production. The two DCP-BP sources were compared to commercial feed phosphates. Two bioassay experiments of 21-d duration were conducted with female turkeys. Phosphate sources were each fed at three levels (.18, .24, and .36% added total phosphorus) in a corn-soybean meal diet. Calcium level was maintained constant at 1.0% in all diets by adjusting the level of ground limestone. Four replicate pens of six poults were randomly assigned at 1 d of age to each level of each phosphorus source in each bioassay. The reference standard was United States Pharmacopeia (USP) grade calcium phosphate, dibasic dihydrate. Data representing three response criteria (weight gain, gain:feed ratio, and tibia ash percentage at 21 d) were combined to calculate a biological value (BV) for each test source and the reference standard phosphate. A RBV was then computed for each test source. The RBV of the two DCP-BP sources were 98.8 and 99.1, as compared to 100.0 for the reference standard, and 86.7, 87.1, and 88.4 for three commercial, thermochemically produced defluorinated phosphates. The RBV of one commercial mono-dicalcium phosphate, and three di-monocalcium phosphates were: 96.4, and 91.2, 94.7, and 101.5, respectively. The two DCP-BP sources compared favorably to commercial feed phosphates, and would be satisfactory supplements in diets for starting chicks, poults, pigs, and other species.

  19. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Furlan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diets have negative effects on broiler performance when environmental temperature is high, because during heat stress, low food intake associated to a low diet protein induce amino acid deficiencies. Other studies have shown that broilers fed low-protein diets increase their energy requirement for maintenance with higher heat production. Thus, with the growth of broiler industry in tropical areas more challenges need to be faced by the farmers. So, both the ambient and nutritional conditions ought to be well managed to avoid negative effects on poultry production once they can affect the metabolism (body heat production under low temperature and body heat dissipation under high temperature with consequence on poultry performance (meat and eggs.

  20. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karadas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105, with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet; T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast; T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate; T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB; T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB;T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rRed;T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rYellow; T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r; and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r. Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05.

  1. Do Low-Density Diets Improve Broiler Breeder Welfare During Rearing and Laying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Enting, H.; Voorst, van A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Low-density diets may improve welfare of restricted fed broiler breeders by increasing feed intake time with less frustration of feed intake behavior as a result. Moreover, low-density diets may promote satiety through a more filled gastrointestinal tract, and thus feelings of hunger may be reduced.

  2. Whole scrapings of cassava root in diets for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Hosmylton Carvalho Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including whole cassava root scrapings (WCS in diets of broilers on performance and the metabolizability of dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy and on nitrogenous balance. Four hundred female and 100 male broilers from Ross strain were used in the performance and metabolism studies, respectively. In both studies, broilers were allotted in completely randomized block design with five treatments and four replicates. The experimental unit was represented for twenty birds per box for performance study and five birds per metabolic cage for metabolism study. The treatments consisted of diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% WCS inclusion. Up to 5.1% WCS can be included in the diet of broilers from 1 to 21 without compromising feed conversion and productive efficiency index. Dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of the diets are not influenced by the inclusion of whole cassava root scrapings up to 20% in diets of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age.

  3. Effects of Diet Dilution during the Finishing Period on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the response of broiler to diet dilution during the finishing period. Sixty 29-day-old commercial Avian male broiler chicks were assigned to two groups randomly, with 30 broilers each. Birds were offered a conventional finishing diet or with 10% dilution diet with ground rice hulls from 29 to 49 days of age. The result showed that there were no significant differences between the effects of diet dilution and the control on final body weight, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. Diet dilution led to a reduction in abdominal fat weight, whereas carcass and breast muscle weight were not affected.

  4. Intestinal Structure and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with a Synbiotic Containing Enterococcus faecium and Oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageha Awad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of the synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO [a combination of Enterococcus faecium, a prebiotic (derived from chicory and immune modulating substances (derived from sea algae], with a dose of 1 kg/ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets on the intestinal morphometry and nutrient absorption. The general performance was improved (P < 0.05 by the dietary inclusion of synbiotic compared with the controls. Furthermore, the addition of synbiotic increased (P < 0.001 the villus height/crypt depth ratio and villus height in ileum. However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of synbiotic compared with control. The addition of glucose in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (P ≤ 0.001 in short-circuit current (Isc in jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in both synbiotic and control groups. However, in jejunum the percentage of Isc increase after glucose addition was higher for synbiotic group (333 % than control group (45 %. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO increased the growth performance and improved intestinal morphology and nutrient absorption.

  5. The Effect of Low-Density Diets on Broiler Breeder Development and Nutrient Digestibility During the Rearing Period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, H.; Veldman, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Aar, van de P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4 treatment

  6. Use of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation and molecular structure, in broiler chicken diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarrasa, E; Codony, R; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation and molecular structure, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils in broiler chicken diets. For this purpose, 144 one-d-old female broiler chickens were randomly distributed in 48 cages. Birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with 6% of native palm oil ( PN: ), acid palm oil ( PA: ), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- ( MAG: ) and diacylglycerols ( DAG: ) ( PEL: ), re-esterified palm oil high in MAG and DAG ( PEH: ), native soybean oil ( SN: ), acid soybean oil ( SA: ), re-esterified soybean oil low in MAG and DAG ( SEL: ), or re-esterified soybean oil high in MAG and DAG ( SEH: ), which resulted in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. Digestibility balances showed that the degree of saturation of fat generally exerted a greater impact than did the fat molecular structure. The dietary utilization of S sources was higher than that of P sources. However, the increased sn-2 saturated fatty acid ( SFA: ) content of EL oils in the starter period and the increased MAG and DAG content of EH oils in the grower-finisher period yielded favorable effects on the SFA apparent absorption, especially in those birds fed re-esterified palm oils. The excreta acylglycerol and free fatty acid composition was mainly composed of free fatty acids, and their amount almost paralleled the results observed for SFA apparent absorption. For growth performance, birds fed S exhibited better feed conversion ratios and lower abdominal fat-pad weights than did those fed P. The fatty acid composition of abdominal adipose tissue was also mainly affected by the degree of saturation of dietary fat sources. We concluded that re-esterified oils, mainly from P sources, can be used in broiler chicken diets as alternative fat sources since they show similar or even higher total fatty acid apparent absorption than do their corresponding native and acid oils, with

  7. Carcass and cut yields and meat qualitative traits of broilers fed diets containing probiotics and prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108 in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2 and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2. There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The results showed that the carcass and cut yields, color (L* - lightness, a* - redness, and b* - yellowness, pH, cooking losses, shearing force and sensory analysis were not affected by the use of different growth promoters at 42 days of age. It was concluded that growth promoters supplemented to the diet did not affect the studied quantitative and qualitative parameters of the carcass and breast meat of broiler chickens.

  8. Performance and Haematological Characteristics of Broiler Finisher FedMoringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Obakanurhe Oghenebrorhie; Okpara Oghenesuvwe

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects ofMoringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on the performance and haematology of broiler finisher using 120 Cobb chicks of 4 weeks old broiler chicks. The birds were assigned randomly into four dietary treatments containing MOLM at 0, 6%, 8%, and 10% (treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4) inclusion levels, respectively, in a complete randomized design experiment. The effect of the dietary treatments on the growth performance and blood parameters of the broiler finisher was determined. MOLM at a rate of 6% (T2), 8% (T3), and 10% (T4) of the diets (as fed basis) to replace 3.2%, 5.6% and 8.6% of the crude protein (CP) of the control diet. The daily feed, dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed MOLM diets were higher (p0.05) among treatments. The results indicated that at 10% in the diets of broiler finisher chick, MOLM could be substituted with expensive conventional protein sources without any deleterious effects on performance and blood parameters of broiler finisher chicken.

  9. Effectiveness of dietary xylo-oligosaccharides for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Hai-qing; LU Lin; XU Guo-hui; XIAO Lin; CHEN Xiao-gang; XIA Rui-rui; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on growth performance, meat quality, immune functions, duodenal morphology and intestinal microbial populations of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 450 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were ran-domly alocated by bodyweight to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicate cages (15 broilers per cage) for each of 5 treatments in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed the basal corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg of XOS kg–1 of diet, respectively, for an experimental duration of 42 days. The results showed that supple-mentation of XOS affected feed conversion rate (feed/gain, F/G) during days 22–42 and 1–42 (P0.05) on al other measured indices. The chicks fed the diet supplemented with 100 mg of XOS kg–1 had the lowest (P<0.05) F/G and drip loss in thigh muscle. The drip loss in thigh muscle decreased linearly (P=0.003) as the supplemented XOS increased. Duodenal crypt depth decreased (P<0.05) at the supplemental level of 75 mg of XOS kg–1. The results indicate that dietary supplementations of 75 and 100 mg of XOS kg–1 are beneifcial to broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

  10. Effect of a novel microbial phytase on production performance and tibia mineral concentration in broiler chickens given low-calcium diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Walk, C L; Ghosh, T K; Bedford, M R; Haldar, S

    2013-01-01

    1. In a 42-d feeding trial, 264 one-d-old, as hatched, Cobb 400 broiler chickens (6 pens per group, n = 11 per pen in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement) were fed on two concentrations of dietary calcium (Ca) (9.0 and 7.5 g/kg in starter, 7.5 and 6 g/kg in grower phases) and supplemental phytase (0 and 500 U/kg diet). 2. During d 0-21, the high Ca + phytase diet improved body weight. During d 0-42, feed intake was increased by the low Ca diet and decreased by phytase supplementation. Feed conversion ratio during d 0-21 was improved by the high Ca + phytase diet. 3. At d 42, Ca in duodenal digesta was reduced by low dietary Ca and supplemental phytase. High dietary Ca reduced P in duodenal and jejunal digesta. Phytase reduced digesta P and increased serum P concentration. 4. Relative tibia length decreased with low dietary Ca and increased with phytase. The robusticity index of tibia was improved by the low Ca diet and phytase supplementation. Phytase supplementation increased tibia ash and concentrations of Ca, magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in tibia. The low Ca diet increased Mg, Mn and Fe and reduced Cu and Zn in tibia. 5. It was concluded that 7.5 g Ca/kg during weeks 0-3 and 6 g Ca/kg during weeks 3-6 sustained broiler performance and bone ash, while phytase supplementation facilitated tibia mineralisation, particularly during the grower phase.

  11. Selection for growth performance in broiler chickens associates with less diet flexibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Pauwels

    Full Text Available Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01 negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently.

  12. In take, performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed diets containing dried cassava peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.

  13. Effect of low-density diets on broiler breeder and offspring performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, H.

    2005-01-01

    Restricted feeding of broiler breeders is required to obtain good reproductive performance. Current practical feed restriction levels can result in hunger feeling and chronic stress, particularly during the rearing period. On the basis of literature data, low-density diets might improve bird welfare

  14. Corn texture and particle size in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Benedetti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of corn texture and the particle size on broiler performance, carcass yield, nutrient digestibility, and digestive organ morphometrics. In Experiment I, 720 male Cobb chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting two corn textures (dented and hard and three corn particle sizes, was applied, with four replicates of 30 birds each. Corn particle size was classified according to geometric mean diameter (GMD as fine - 0.46 mm; medium - 0.73 mm, and coarse - 0.87 mm. In Experiment II, 120 broiler chicks were used to evaluate corn digestibility during the periods of 16 to 22 days and 35 to 41 days of age, using the method of total excreta collection. In Experiment I, corn particle size influenced body weight, average weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of 21-day-old birds. Corn texture and particle size did not affect the performance of 42-day-old broilers or carcass traits. In Experiment II, there was no influence of corn texture and particle size on digestive organ weights. Dented corn increased nitrogen excretion in the first trial, and hard corn improved dry matter digestibility in the second metabolic trial. Corn with fine particle size promotes better performance of broilers at 21 days of age. Hard corn results in higher dry matter digestibility and lower nitrogen excretion, and consequently higher production factor in 42-day-old broilers.

  15. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2011-01-01

    diets compared to feed A was detectable in the intestinal contents, with high fibre feed staying longer in the digestive system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dustbathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The onset of lay was delayed......, but the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders. Key...

  16. Glutamine and nucleotide supplementation in broiler diets in alternative breeding system

    OpenAIRE

    Zavarize, K C [UNESP; Sartori,José Roberto; Pelícia, V C [UNESP; Pezzato, Antonio Celso [UNESP; Araujo, P C; Stradiotti, A C [UNESP; Madeira, L A [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing glutamine and nucleotides on growth performance and development intestinal morphology in broiler chicks. In the trial, 600 male broiler chicks distributed in randomized blocks in a 3x2 factorial arrangement (consisting of a uniform basal diet supplemented with: 0.0, 0.5 or 1.0% glutamine, and 0.0 or 0.04% nucleotides), for a total of 6 treatments with 25 birds each. Means of performance (weight, weight gain, feed intake, fee...

  17. Use of enzymes in diets with different percentages of added fat for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.P. Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the extent to which the removal of fat source, and consequently its compounds, such as linoleic acid, can affect the performance of broilers. We used 600 male Cobb 500 day old chicks. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and six replicates of 20 birds each. The treatments were: (T1 diet - positive control (PC, which met the nutritional needs; (T2 diet - negative control (CN, a reduction of 100kcal/kg and low linoleic acid content; (T3: diet - negative control reformulated for low linoleic acid content and a set of Quantum phytase XT and Econase XT 25 (BAL + QFit-Eco, (T4: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to an intermediate value between the value of the diet and diet CP and CN to use a set of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (IAL + QFit-Eco and (T5: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to a value similar to that of the positive control diet and joint use of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (AAL + QFit-Eco. The joint use of Quantum Phytase and Econase promoted improvement in the performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days. The greatest weight gain was obtained with diets containing percentages of total fat and linoleic acids. Dietary supplementation with enzymes resulted in higher levels of calcium in the tibia, whatever the percentage of linoleic studied.

  18. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Fat Metabolites of Broilers Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad EL-QUB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of olive oil sediment (OOS with soybean oil soap stock (SOY traditionally used in poultry rations, on broilers growth performance, dressing proportions, carcass cut, blood lipid metabolites and meat quality (i.e. water holding capacity, WHC; colony forming unit, CFU. A total of 416 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were divided into 2 experimental treatments of 208 birds in each. Each treatment was composed of 8 replicates with 26 birds in each. Oil supplements were added (day 22 to the finishing diets at a level of 30 g/kg diet. Chicks fed the OOS had a better (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared to those of the SOY fed birds. Similar effect of OSS on the dressing proportions was observed. Carcasses of broilers fed the OOS had higher (p < 0.05 WHC compared to that of SOY fed broilers. The OOS resulted in more than 100 % improvement in WHC compared to the traditionally used SOY. Carcasses of SOY fed broilers had more (p < 0.05 CFU count compared to that of birds fed OOS diets. Levels of all tested blood metabolites at day 28 and 35 compared to the baseline levels (day 21, prior to oil supplementation, were significantly affected by the type of oil.

  19. The effect of feeding calcium- and phosphorus-deficient diets to broiler chickens during the starting and growing-finishing phases on carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, J P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Edwards, H M

    2006-11-01

    There is considerable data on the effect of reducing inorganic Ca and P in broiler finisher diets on carcass quality. However, there is limited information on the effect of reducing dietary Ca and P during the different phases of growout. Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 35 d in floor pens. In both experiments, at least 4 replicates per treatment (50 chicks per replicate) were used. Corn-soybean meal and soybean oil-based diets deficient in Ca and P were fed. During the starter phase (ST), from 0 to 18 d, chicks were fed a 23% CP diet containing 0.60% Ca and 0.47% total P (tP). During the grower-finisher phase (GF), from 19 to 35 d, birds were fed a 19% CP diet containing 0.30% Ca and 0.37% tP. A combination of 1,000 phytase units/kg of Natuphos phytase and 5 microg/kg of 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (P + 1alpha) was supplemented to some of the feed during the ST and GF. Diets containing adequate Ca and P were also fed during the ST (0.90% Ca and 0.68% tP) and GF (0.80% Ca and 0.67% tP). The level of tibia ash and the incidence of bone disease were measured at 18 and 35 d. At the end of the experiments, birds were processed and evaluated for muscle hemorrhages and broken bones. In both experiments, broilers fed diets that were not P + 1alpha supplemented demonstrated poor bone mineralization, considerable leg problems, and a high incidence of broken bones after processing. Broilers fed P + 1alpha throughout had more broken clavicles and femurs compared with birds fed the adequate diets. Day-18 tibia ash was significantly correlated to broken tibias and femurs during processing. Day-35 tibia ash was better correlated to bloody breast meat than to broken bones. It is concluded that carcass quality depends on the levels of Ca and P fed and the age of the bird. Tibia ash, traditionally used as an indication of bone strength, was better correlated to the incidence of bloody breasts.

  20. Insights into Broilers' Gut Microbiota Fed with Phosphorus, Calcium, and Phytase Supplemented Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda-Molina, Daniel; Vital, Marius; Sommerfeld, Vera; Rodehutscord, Markus; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia

    2016-01-01

    Phytase supplementation in broiler diets is a common practice to improve phosphorus (P) availability and to reduce P loss by excretion. An enhanced P availability, and its concomitant supplementation with calcium (Ca), can affect the structure of the microbial community in the digestive tract of broiler chickens. Here, we aim to distinguish the effects of mineral P, Ca, and phytase on the composition of microbial communities present in the content and the mucosa layer of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler chickens. Significant differences were observed between digesta and mucosa samples for the GIT sections studied (p = 0.001). The analyses of 56 individual birds showed a high microbial composition variability within the replicates of the same diet. The average similarity within replicates of digesta and mucosa samples across all diets ranged from 29 to 82% in crop, 19–49% in ileum, and 17–39% in caeca. Broilers fed with a diet only supplemented with Ca had the lowest body weight gain and feed conversion values while diets supplemented with P showed the best performance results. An effect of each diet on crop mucosa samples was observed, however, similar results were not obtained from digesta samples. Microbial communities colonizing the ileum mucosa samples were affected by P supplementation. Caeca-derived samples showed the highest microbial diversity when compared to the other GIT sections and the most prominent phylotypes were related to genus Faecalibacterium and Pseudoflavonifractor, known for their influence on gut health and as butyrate producers. Lower microbial diversity in crop digesta was linked to lower growth performance of birds fed with a diet only supplemented with Ca. Each diet affected microbial communities within individual sections, however, no diet showed a comprehensive effect across all GIT sections, which can primarily be attributed to the great variability among replicates. The substantial community differences between digesta

  1. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  2. Proportion of insoluble fibre in the diet affects behaviour and hunger in broiler breeders growing at similar rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Thodberg, Karen; Malmkvist, Jens

    2011-01-01

    With a view to alleviate the feeling of hunger in broiler breeders, different types of fibre sources were used in high-fibre diets to increase feed quantity while limiting growth to industry recommended levels. Using scatter feeding, three diets (C1: commercial control diet, 1 × fibre content, 80...

  3. Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor, L.) as a possible alternative to soybean meal in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Piccolo, G; Gasco, L; Marono, S; Loponte, R; Vassalotti, G; Mastellone, V; Lombardi, P; Attia, Y A; Nizza, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with Tenebrio molitor larvae (TML) meal in broiler diets. A total of 80 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were divided into two groups fed on two isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for protein source (SBM vs. TML). Up to 62 d of age, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and European efficiency factor (EEF) were calculated. At 62 d, blood samples were collected from 16 birds/group for evaluation of blood profiles. Feed intake was not different between groups considering the entire period of the trial. The FCR was more favourable in the TML than SBM group from 46 d of age and in the entire period of the trial (4.13 vs. 3.62). The PER was higher in the SBM than in the TML group (1.92 vs. 1.37) while the EEF was higher in broilers fed on the TML diet (132.6 vs. 156.2). Albumin-to-globulin ratio was higher in broilers fed on SBM than in the other group (0.44 vs. 0.30). aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher in TML than SBM (195.1 vs. 178.6 U/l and 82.07 vs. 46.71 U/l, respectively). Uric acid was higher in broilers fed on SBM than TML (5.40 vs. 4.16 mg/dl). TML did not affect feed intake and growth rate of broilers from 30 to 62 d of age when compared to an isoproteic and isoenergetic SBM diet, but FCR of the TML group was more favourable than that of the SBM group. The lowest albumin-to-globulin ratio in broilers fed on TML suggests a higher immune response, probably due to the prebiotic effects of chitin.

  4. Millet and corn oil in sorghum-based diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Rodrigues Bueno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of millet and corn oil additions to sorghum-based diets on the performance, carcass yields and prime cuts (i.e., wings, breasts, thighs and drumsticks and the relative weights of edible offal (i.e., gizzard, heart, and liver of broiler chickens. A total of 684 Hubbard Flex chickens, including 342 broilers of each sex, were housed. The design was completely randomized, and the following diets were supplied: A sorghum and soybean meal + soybean oil (control; B sorghum and soybean meal + corn oil; and C sorghum and soybean meal + millet and soybean oil. Six replicates with 38 birds each (19 males and 19 females were evaluated regarding each experimental diet. At 14, 21, 35 and 42 days of age, the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and viability of the chickens were evaluated. At 42 days, the live weight, carcass yield, prime cuts and relative weight of the edible offal were measured. The dietary inclusion of either millet or corn oil did not affect any of the parameters. In conclusion, additions of millet and corn oil to sorghum-based diets of broilers do not compromise poultry performance.

  5. Escherichia coli phytase improves growth performance of starter, grower, and finisher pigs fed phosphorus-deficient diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendza, J A; Dilger, R N; Adedokun, S A; Sands, J S; Adeola, O

    2005-08-01

    Corn-soybean meal-based diets, consisting of a high-P control (HPC) containing supplemental dicalcium phosphate (DCP), a basal diet containing no DCP, and the basal diet plus Escherichia coli phytase at 500 or 1,000 phytase units per kilogram (FTU/kg; as-fed basis) were fed to evaluate growth performance in starter, grower, and finisher pigs. Pigs were blocked by weight and gender, such that average weight across treatments was similar, with equal numbers of barrows and gilts receiving each treatment in each block. In Exp. 1, 48 pigs with an average initial BW of 11 kg, housed individually, with 12 pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 3 wk. Overall ADG and G:F were increased linearly (P < 0.05) by dietary phytase addition. Final BW and plasma P concentrations at 3 wk also increased linearly (P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, 128 pigs with an average initial BW of 23 kg, housed four pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase in response to phytase was noted for ADG and G:F in all three 2-wk periods, as well as overall (P < 0.05). Percentage of bone ash also showed a linear increase (P < 0.01). In Exp. 3, 160 pigs (53 kg), housed five pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase was detected for final BW, as well as ADG and G:F in the first and second 2-wk periods, and overall (P < 0.01). Twenty-four 15-kg individually housed pigs were used to evaluate total-tract nutrient digestibility in Exp. 4. Daily absorption of P linearly increased (P < 0.05) with phytase supplementation. Results of this research indicate that E. coli phytase is effective in liberating phytate P for uptake and utilization by starter, grower, and finisher pigs.

  6. Inclusion of sunflower meal, with or without enzyme supplementation, in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FC Tavernari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of the dietary inclusion of different dietary sunflower meal (SFM levels (0% and 20%, with or without the supplementation of an enzyme complex (EC (cellulase, β-glucanase, xylanase, and phytase on broiler performance, carcass and cuts yields, economics, and dietary AMEn values. A randomized block experimental design, with a 2x2 factorial arrangement of eight replicates of 20 birds each, was used to test performance. A completely randomized experimental design with a 2x2 factorial arrangement of eight replicates of four birds each was used to test metabolism. No interaction effects between SFM and EC were observed on performance. Although SFM significantly reduced feed intake in the starter phase and total period, weight gain was not different in these phases. Feed: gain ratio improved with the use of SFM in all phases, probably due to the dietary inclusion of oil, which may have improved digestibility. There was a significant increase in weight gain with the use of EC in the starter phase, which is possibly explained by the immature digestive system of birds at this age. There were no SFM or EC significant effects on carcass or cuts yields. There was no significant effect of the addition of EC on dietary AMEn values; however, EC significantly improved the apparent metabolizability coefficients of phosphorus and calcium.

  7. Heat processing of barley and enzyme supplementation of diets for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, M I; Latorre, M A; García, M; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G

    2003-08-01

    The influence of heat processing (HP) of barley and enzyme supplementation (ES) of the diet on digestive and performance traits of broilers to 21 d was studied. There were four treatments arranged factorially with two barley-processing treatments (raw or heated), two levels of ES (0 or 500 ppm), and five replicates per treatment. Chicks fed HP barley grew faster than broilers fed raw barley until 8 d of age, but the effect disappeared thereafter. In general, ES improved broiler performance at all ages. Intestinal viscosity was increased by HP of barley (P viscosity caused by ES was greater for HP than for raw barley diets (HP x ES; P starch and neutral detergent fiber, retention increased linearly with age (P < or = 0.01), but for the remaining nutrients the retention decreased from d 4 to 8 and then increased until d 21 (P < or = 0.001). Also, the beneficial effects of HP on retention of nutrients were more pronounced at younger ages (HP x age; P < or = 0.05). Both HP (P < or = 0.001) and ES (P < or = 0.01) increased liver weight, and enzymes reduced the weights of pancreas (P < or = 0.05) and small intestine (P < or = 0.001). Villus height was improved by HP (P < or = 0.001) and ES (P < or = 0.01), but villus surface area was only improved by enzymes (P < or = 0.01). It was concluded that broiler performance is improved by HP of barley at early ages and by ES of the diet throughout the trial. Also, HP and ES increased apparent retention of nutrients, AMEn of the diet, and villus height.

  8. Effect of Diets with Different Energy and Protein Levels on Breast Muscle Characteristics at Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Marcu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper was studied the effect of dietary energy and protein levels on breast muscle characteristics at broiler chickens, which were sacrificed at 42 days old. The genetic material was represented by broiler chickens that belonged to the „Ross-308” hybrid, with three groups (LC-control group, L1 and L2 experimental groups. In the growth periods (starter, growing and finishing have received compound feed ad libitum, with different energy and protein levels (LC-was conforming to recommendations of Aviagen Company; L1-higher with 10%; L2-lower with 10%. After evisceration, from each group were sampled breasts from 10 carcasses (five per sex and were determined: muscle mass, meat:bones ratio, chemical composition of meat, pH value (after evisceration up to 24 h of refrigeration and the thickness of myocytes in the superficial pectoral muscle. For these characteristics, highest values were obtained at L1 group, and the lowest values were at L2 group. At the L1 group, high levels of dietary proteins and energy has significantly influenced: muscle mass, meat:bones ratio, chemical composition of meat (water, proteins and lipids, pH value and the thickness of myocytes in the superficial pectoral muscle, as compared with LC and L2.

  9. THE EFFECT OF SAUROPUS ANDROGYNUS LEAVES EXTRACT PLUS TURMERIC POWDER ON FAT DEPOSITION, CARCASS QUALITY AND BLOOD PROFILE IN BROILERS FED LOW PROTEIN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Santoso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Sauropus androgynus leavesextract (SALE plus turmeric powder (TP on carcass quality and blood profile in broilers fed lowprotein diets. Sixty broilers aged 14 days were divided to 5 treatment groups as follows: 1 Broilers fed19% protein diet without SALE plus TP as control (P0; 2 Broilers fed 17% protein diet supplementedto 4.5 g SALE/kg diet plus 0.5% TP (P1; 3 Broilers fed 17% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 gSALE/kg diet plus 1% TP (P2; 4 Broilers fed 15% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 g SALE/kg dietplus 0.5% TP (P3 and; 5 Broilers fed 15% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 g SALE/kg diet plus 1%TP (P4. Supplementation of SALE plus TP significantly affected body weight gain, feed intake, proteinintake, thigh meat haemorrhage and fat deposition (P<0.05. No significantly different was observed oncarcass odor, shank color, breast meat haemorrhage, leg and breast weight, meat cholesterol, fatty liverscore and tocixity (P>0.05. In conclusion suplementation of SALE plus TP had no beneficial effect onreducing fat deposition in broilers fed low protein diets, but it reduced blood uric acid but increasedblood glucose concentration.

  10. Effects of energy level in finisher diets and slaughter age of on the performance and carcass yield in broiler chickens

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    R de Albuquerque

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Male broilers were used to evaluate the effects of different energy levels in finisher diets and age of slaughter on performance, production pattern and carcass yield. Experimental design was a 2x3 factorial arrangement: energy level (ME in the finisher diet (3,200 and 3,600 kcal ME/kg and age of slaughter (42, 49 and 56 days, resulting in six treatments with four replicates. The finisher diet was fed only in the last week of the growing period. Characteristics evaluated were feed consumption (FC, body weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC, energy intake (EI, caloric conversion (CC, efficiency production index, production pattern, and carcass yield. The results showed better WG and CC for broilers fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg finisher diet. Broilers slaughtered at 42 and 49 days of age had better performance and higher annual production than broilers slaughtered at 56 days of age. Carcass yield was influenced by slaughter age and better breast yield was seen at 49 and 56 days than at 42 days of age. It was concluded that 3,200 kcal ME/kg induced the best overall performance. Poultry houses were efficiently used when broilers were slaughtered at 42 days of age. Meat:bone ratio was improved for broilers slaughtered at 49 and 56 days of age.

  11. Thymus vulgaris L., Glycyrrhiza glabra or Combo® enzyme in corn vs. barley-based broiler diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Kalantar; Mostafa Rezaei; Jalal Salary; Hamid Reza Hemati Matin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris) or Glycyrrhizaglabra (G. glabra) in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1), the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount), Combo ® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively) in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6) based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively.Results:The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05). All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05). Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05). All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.

  12. Thymus vulgaris L., Glycyrrhiza glabra or Combo® enzyme in corn vs. barley-based broiler diets

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    Majid Kalantar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris or Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1, the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount, Combo® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6 based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively. Results: The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05. All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05. Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05. All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05. Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.

  13. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaisrani, S N; van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2015-09-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2×2×2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (Pcarbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P>0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P=0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet.

  14. The Effect of Low-Density Broiler Breeder Diets on Performance and Immune Status of their Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, H.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Winden, van S.C.L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Aar, van de P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of low-density broiler breeder diets on offspring performance and mortality were studied using 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb 500 breeders. Breeder treatments involved 4 experimental groups and a control group with normal density diets (ND, 2,600 kcal of AME/kg during rearing and 2,800 kcal

  15. Níveis de proteína e de arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte Protein and digestible arginine levels in pre-starter broiler rations

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    Mônica Schaitl Thon

    2010-05-01

    21 days of age. A total of 600 Cobb chicks was assigned to a block randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 4 levels of digestible arginine (1.363; 1.463; 1.563 and 1.663% and two levels of crude protein (20 and 22% with eight treatments, each one with five replicates of 15 broilers each. For the experiment, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, gastrointestinal biometry, digestibility and retention of dry matter and nitrogen were evaluated. The highest weight gain from 1 to 14 days old was obtained with the 22% crude protein feed. The levels of digestible arginine had a quadratic effect in feed conversion from 1 to 10 days old. The esophagus and crop weights were higher for broilers fed 20% crude protein based diet; however, there was a quadratic effect of the digestible arginine levels on the intestine length at the age of 10 days and on the esophagus + crop weight at 3 days of age. At 14 days of age, there was interaction among crude protein and digestible arginine levels for liver relative weight, which showed quadratic response to 20% of crude protein, and for intestine length, whose highest value was obtained with 22% of crude protein and 1.603% of digestible arginine. Nitrogen balance and retention were the highest for levels of 22% of crude protein. The level of 1.363% of digestible arginine meets nutritional requirements of pre-starter broilers.

  16. Effect of dietary feed additives on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens.

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    Alonge EO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary feed additives on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens was evaluated. 180 day-old Arbor acre broiler chicks were weighed and randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with 3 replicates of 12 birds each. Broiler starter diet (2855.7 kcal/kg ME; 23.01% and finisher diet (2911 kcal/kg; 20.71% CP were formulated. Dietary treatments were control diet (basal diet without additives, OXYT diet (basal diet with oxytetracycline at 600 ppm as antibiotic, GRO-UP diet (basal diet with probiotic at 500 ppm, MOS-500 diet (basal diet with mannan oligosaccharide at 500 ppm and MOS-1000 diet (basal diet with mannan oligosaccharide at 1000 ppm. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. At the end of weeks 4 and 8, blood samples were collected and analyzed. The haematological and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens fed diets containing feed additives at the starter phase were not statistically significant (P> 0.05. At the finisher phase, there were no significant (P> 0.05 differences in all the parameters measured except in the heterophils and eosinophils where birds fed the control diets had the lowest value among all treatments. Serum globulin values were significantly (P< 0.05 different as birds fed diets containing OXYT (antibiotics recorded the lowest value among all treatments. The inclusion of prebiotics and probiotics in the diets of broiler chickens elicited no adverse effect on haematological and serum biochemical parameters, thus, they can be used as replacement for antibiotics.

  17. Nutritive value of full-fat sunflower seeds in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, R K; Purushothaman, M R

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive value and inclusion level of sunflower seed (SFS) in broiler diets. SFS contained 38.7% ether extract (EE), 16.9% CP, 14.9% crude fiber (CF), 3.5% ash, 0.57% lysine, and 0.46% methionine (89.2% DM basis). The AME (kcal/ kg) content of SFS in roosters was 5,225 and in broilers at 4, 18, and 35 d of age was 3,493, 5,132, and 5,162, respectively. The CP, EE, and CF digestibilities were 80.4, 71.2, and 11.4%, respectively. In an isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet containing SFS at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%, SFS up to 20% did not affect weight gain and feed consumption, but the feed conversion ratio was improved (P density lipoprotein cholesterol content, muscle cholesterol content, dressing percentage, liver weight, and giblet weight (as % live weight) were comparable among all treatment groups. Abdominal fat was increased in birds fed 20% SFS. Percentage skin was decreased in broilers fed > or = 10% SFS.

  18. Effects of guanidinoacetic acid diet supplementation on semen quality and fertility of broiler breeder roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapeh, Ramin Shahabi; Zhandi, Mahdi; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Akhlaghi, Amir

    2017-02-01

    Decreased semen quality and fertility rate is a common feature in broiler breeder roosters. This decrease is associated with dysfunction of Sertoli cells and defective spermatogenesis. Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), as a precursor of creatine, plays an important role in the proper functioning of Sertoli cells and energy metabolism in sperm. Twenty, 29-wk-old broiler breeder roosters (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups and fed diets supplemented with different levels of GAA, including 0 (GAA-0), 600 (GAA-600), 1200 (GAA-1200), and 1800 (GAA-1800) mg GAA/kg of diet for 26 successive weeks. During a 24-wk period, the seminal characteristics were weekly evaluated. At the end of experiment, sperm penetration and fertility rates were determined, using 68 artificially inseminated age-matched broiler breeder hens of the same strain (for 2 weeks). Semen concentration (P = 0.003), total sperm number (P = 0.005) and sperm forward motility (P = 0.01) were increased by GAA-1200 group. Also, sperm plasma membrane functionality was marginally affected (P = 0.06) in roosters received all levels of GAA. Sperm abnormality and plasma membrane integrity were not affected by dietary GAA. The highest number of sperm penetration holes was recorded for the GAA-1200 group (P = 0.08). Interestingly, fertility rate was increased by the feeding of all levels of GAA (P = 0.01). In conclusion, dietary GAA was associated with improvement in most of the rooster's seminal characteristics and fertility rate, suggesting a potential for using GAA to attenuate the age-related sub-fertility in commercial broiler breeder roosters.

  19. Effects of yeast culture in broiler diets on performance and immunomodulatory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Zhang, H J; Yu, S H; Wu, S G; Yoon, I; Quigley, J; Gao, Y P; Qi, G H

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental yeast culture (Diamond V XP Yeast Culture; YC) in broiler diets on performance, digestibility, mucosal development, and immunomodulatory functions. One-day-old Arbor Acres chicks (n = 960) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 g/kg of YC in the diet for 42 d. Each treatment consisted of 12 replicates of 20 broilers each. Nutrient digestibility was determined on d 15 and 35 by total fecal collection. On d 21 and 42, 12 birds per treatment were sacrificed to evaluate gut morphology and secretory IgA. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine by eye drop on d 7 and 28 and antibody titer was determined on d 14, 21, 35, and 42. Dietary supplemental YC at 2.5 g/kg improved average daily gain and feed conversion during grower and overall periods (P Yeast culture supplementation increased digestibility of Ca (linear and quadratic, P = 0.01) and P (linear, P = 0.01) on d 35, but did not affect (P > 0.05) protein retention and energy digestibility. Villus height to crypt depth ratios in the duodenum and jejunum (d 42) and ileum (d 21) were increased (P Yeast culture increased antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus (linear, P intestinal mucosal morphology of broilers. Growth performance was optimized at 2.5 g/kg of YC in the present study. Immune function could be modified with dietary YC supplementation.

  20. Effect of xylanase and cellulase supplementation on growth performance, volatile fatty acids and caecal bacteria of broiler chickens fed with palm kernel meal-based diet

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of xylanase and cellulase supplementation in palm kernel meal (PKM) based diet on growth performance, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the caecal bacterial populations of broiler chickens were investigated. Seventy five day old male Cobb broiler chicks were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups receiving T1 (20% PKM-based diet without enzyme), T2 (20% PKM-based diet with xylanase) and T3 (20% PKM-based diet with cellulase). Each enzyme was supplemented ...

  1. Valine needs in starting and growing Cobb (500) broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernari, F C; Lelis, G R; Vieira, R A; Rostagno, H S; Albino, L F T; Oliveira Neto, A R

    2013-01-01

    Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10.7 and 9.40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5.5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested.

  2. Performance of broilers fed during 21 days on mash or pellet diets containing whole or ground pearl millet grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TR Torres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 20% whole-grain or ground pearl millet (PM in mash and pelleted diets on the performance, carcass traits, and organ weights of broilers reared until 21 days of age. A randomized block experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (diets containing corn and soybean meal, whole-grain PM, or ground PM x mash or pelleted diets, with five replicates per treatment and 10 birds per experimental unit, was applied. Diets were analyzed for mean geometric diameter, geometric standard deviation, pellet hardness, and density. Broiler performance, carcass yield, and organ weights were evaluated. On day 21, one bird with the average weight of each experimental unit was sacrificed for carcass evaluation. It was concluded that both as whole-grain and ground PM can be added to the diet of broilers up to 21 days of age. The dietary inclusion of PM results in higher abdominal fat deposition. Broilers fed the pelleted diets presented lower feed intake, better feed conversion ratio, lower gizzard and heart percentages, and higher carcass weight.

  3. Assessment of a bacterial 6-phytase in the diets of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Kong, C; Fru-Nji, F; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2013-08-01

    Two 21-d broiler experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of a bacterial 6-phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and intestinal molecular markers. Two hundred forty birds in 5 treatments (experiment 1) or 256 birds in 4 treatments (experiment 2) were used. The treatments included a negative control diet that was marginally deficient in P (NC) or NC plus tricalcium phosphate, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units/kg (experiment 1), and NC or NC plus monocalcium phosphate, 500 or 1,000 phytase units/kg (experiment 2). In both experiments, excreta were collected on d 19 to 21, whereas birds and feed were weighed and ileal digesta collected on d 21. For experiment 1, mucosa scraping was collected from the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum from all birds for quantification of expression level of gut level inflammatory cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb). In both experiments, tricalcium phosphate, monocalcium phosphate, and phytase supplementation improved (P phytase supplementation (experiment 1) and there was an increase (P phytase supplementation (experiment 2). Diets did not affect the expression of gut level cytokines, Toll-like receptors, or the mucin gene. Phytase supplementation tended to decrease (P phytase was effective in enhancing growth of broilers receiving low-P diets as well as in increasing efficiency of P utilization and phytic acid degradation.

  4. Monobutyrine: a novel feed additive in the diet of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rapaccini

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present work was to validate the monoglyceride of butyric acid (MB as an alternative to antibiotics as growth promoters in the diet of broiler chickens. The approach is a kind of prolongation of previous works, in which a blend of mono-, di- and tri-glycerides of butyric acid have been previously tested.The results indicated that MB was very efficient in limiting the mortality of birds challenged with Eimeria spp., but did not appreciably impair the performance of unchallenged birds. In conclusion, the metabolisable energy content of MB appeared comparable with that of soybean oil and MB a reliable coccidiostat.

  5. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  6. The potential of snail (Pila leopoldvillensis meal as protein supplement in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcelo, PM.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical analysis revealed that raw golden snail meal (R. GSM had 53.22 %, 6.01 % and 0.49 % crudeprotein, calcium and phosphorus respectively. The cooked golden snail meal (C. GSM had 52.25 % CP, 6.51 % Ca and 0.41 % P. Birds fed with fish meal (control had significantly the highest feed conversion ratio followed by the birds fed the (C. GSM (P 0.05. The gain in weight of the birds fed the (C. GSM had comparable gain in weight with the birds fed the control diet. There were no significant differences observed in a second experiment because the somme feed ingredients had compensated for the deficiency of the nutrients to meet the requirements of the birds. Results reveal that the ingredients of golden snail meal in broiler diets is just as good as incorporating the imported fish meal.

  7. Use of organometallic chelates in broiler diet: effect on the performance and bone structure. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagina Chiofalo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On 26,000 Ross 508 broiler chickens (two groups of 13,000 per pen the effect of dietary substitution with in organic trace minerals or organometallic chelates on performances and bones tructure c trace minerals or organometallic chelates on performances and bone structure was studied. Treatments consisted of a commercial diet integrated with 0.5% of a vitamin-mineral premix containing inorganic trace minerals (CTR or organometallic chelates (MHA using Methionine Hydroxy Analog. Production performance was measured during the 52 d trial period and bone structure was evalu- ated at the slaughter (52 d. Significant (P=0.038 higher values were observed in the finishing period (41 to 52 d for the body weight of the treated group (3560 g vs. 3358 g. The same trend was observed for the ADG (MHA 87.6 g/d vs. CTR 71 g/d; P<0.05. Concerning ash percentage significant higher values were observed in the CTR group for femur (49.01% vs. 51.45%; P<0.01 and tibia (53.87% vs. 49.79%; P<0.001; femur showed also higher values for bone radiopacity (MHA 0.21 px vs. CTR 0.26 px; P=0.035. MHA group showed significant higher value for morphometric measures of the femur and tibia. Results suggest that organometallic chelates can be included in the diet without compromising broiler performance.

  8. Effects of diet acidification and xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, duodenal histology and gut microflora of broilers fed wheat based diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esmaeilipour, O.; Moravej, H.; Shivazad, M.; Rezaian, M.; Aminzadeh, S.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2012-01-01

    1. The objective of this experiment was to study the influences of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient digestibility, digesta viscosity, duodenal histology, and gut microflora of broilers fed on a wheat based diet. 2. The experiment was carried out as a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement

  9. Effect of lipid sources and inclusion levels in diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Polycarpo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the interactions and effects of 2 and 4% addition levels of poultry slaughterhouse fat (chicken tallow and soybean oil in diets for broiler chickens. Two experiments were carried out using one-day-old male Cobb chicks in an entirely random design with a 2x2 factorial scheme. In the first experiment, 560 chicks were used to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics. In the second experiment, 100 chicks were used to determine the nutrient digestibility, dietary energy utilization and the lipase and amylase pancreatic activity. There was no interaction between the fat sources and the addition levels for any of the analyzed variables, except for the digestibility coefficient of dry matter (DCDM, which was higher in diets added with 2% soybean oil when compared to chicken tallow. The addition of 4% fat in the diet, regardless of fat source, improved the digestibility coefficient of ethereal extract (DCEE and increased weight gain and feed intake. Moreover, in the initial phase, the addition of 4% fat to the diet increased lipase activity when compared to diets with 2% addition, and a positive correlation between DCEE and pancreatic lipase activity was observed. In conclusion, there is no interaction between fat sources and addition levels, except for DCDM. Carcass characteristics are not influenced by any of the studied factors. The addition of 4% fat increases pancreatic lipase activity and improves DCEE, resulting in greater weight gain, regardless of the tested fat source, making chicken tallow a great alternative to soybean oil.

  10. Effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on some blood parameters and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Attar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on serum cholesterol and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six 1-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 12 pens containing 13 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 4 dietary treatments of 2 levels of protein (low and high and 2 levels of prebiotic (0 and 0.2% in a completely randomised design with factorial arrangement. There were no significant differences in serum HDL and LDL levels among treatments. Significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora between the high protein diet without prebiotic and the low protein diet containing prebiotic (P<0.05. The results of the present experiment showed that the addition of prebiotic to broiler diets containing 90% of the NRC protein recommendation significantly affects serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks (P<0.05.

  11. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Carum copticum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falaki M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of dietary Carum copticum essential oil (CCEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics and intestinal microflora of broiler chickens. A total of 240 Cobb broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments, each with four replicates of 12 birds. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of CCEO at 150, 250, 350 mg/kg or antibiotic Virginiamycin at 200 mg/kg. Treatments were fed from 0 to 42 d of age. Body weight gain decreased linearly (P=0.035 with increasing CCEO while Virginiamycin increased body weight gain at 1 to 10 d compared to the control treatment (P 0.05. There were no differences in carcass characteristics among broiler chickens fed the control, CCEO and Virginiamycin diets (P > 0.05. Lactic acid bacteria in the cecum and ileum at 42 d of age were not influenced by the treatments (P > 0.05 but there was a linear increase of the log numbers of E. coli in the ileum (P=0.02 with increasing CCEO (P < 0.05. In conclusion, supplementing CCEO to diet at 150 mg/kg improve the growth performance, decrease undesirable intestinal bacteria in broiler chickens and is an adequate alternative to antibiotics.

  12. Phytate utilization and phosphorus excretion by broiler chickens fed diets containing cereal grains varying in phytate and phytase content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor digestibility of phytate P by poultry leads to supplementation of poultry diets with inorganic P thereby increasing feed costs and also increasing the excretion of P by the birds. In order to quantify phytate utilization and P excretion by poultry, eighty, 12 day-old, male broiler chicks, weig...

  13. Fatty Acid Digestion and Deposition in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Either Native or Randomized Palm Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Lobee, H.W.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that randomization of palm oil would increase its digestibility, especially that of its palmitic acid (C16:0) component, with subsequent changes in the fatty acid composition in body tissues. Broiler chickens were fed diets containing either native or randomized palm oil. D

  14. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets.

  15. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  16. Extratos vegetais em dietas para frangos de corte Plant extracts in diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricila Vetrano Rizzo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o fornecimento de misturas de extratos vegetais nas dietas de frangos de corte. Utilizaram-se 1.350 aves distribuídas em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições e cinco dietas, uma sem aditivos e outras quatro, cada uma contendo um dos aditivos: 10 ppm de avilamicina; 200 ppm de um produto contendo óleos essenciais de cravo, tomilho, canela e pimenta; 100 ppm de um produto comercial composto de óleos essenciais sintéticos de orégano e canela e óleo-resina de pimenta microencapsulados; 500 ppm de um produto comercial constituído de óleo de eucalipto, óleo essencial de canela-da-china, folhas de boldo-do-chile e sementes de feno-grego na fase inicial e 1.200 ppm nas fases de crescimento e final. Aos 21 e 42 dias, foram avaliadas as variáveis de desempenho e aos 44 dias de idade, as características de carcaça. Dos 27 aos 30 dias de idade, foi realizado o ensaio de metabolismo pelo método de coleta total de excretas e determinadas a energia metabolizável e a digestibilidade da proteína bruta das dietas. As dietas com misturas de extratos vegetais não tiveram efeito significativo sobre o desempenho se comparadas à dieta sem aditivo e à dieta com antibiótico. A ausência de desafio na criação e a utilização de dietas com ingredientes de alta digestibilidade podem ter contribuído para que as aves expressassem todo o seu potencial, tornando indetectável a melhora ocasionada pela inclusão de qualquer dos aditivos. Dietas contendo misturas de extratos vegetais promovem desempenho semelhante ao obtido com dietas contendo antibiótico.The trial was carried out to evaluate different blends of plants extracts in broilers diets. It was used 1,350 broilers distributed in a randomized block design with six replicates and five diets, one without additive and the four others, each containing one of the following additives: 10 ppm of avilamycin; 200 ppm of a product containing essential oils of carnation, thyme

  17. The association between cytokines and intestinal mucosal immunity among broilers fed on diets supplemented with fluorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Liu, Juan; Wu, Bangyuan; Deng, Yubing

    2013-05-01

    Fluorine (F) bioaccumulation has been reported in the organs and tissues of organisms, including intestine. The intestinal mucosa is very important to the immune development. Meanwhile, cytokines are present in the normal intestinal mucosal and play an important role in the immune function. Thus, changes of the cytokine contents are related to the state of intestinal mucosal immunity. In this study, we investigated the changes in contents of cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induced by dietary high F in the mucosa of different parts of intestines (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 280 one-day-old healthy avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (F 22.6 mg/kg) or the same basal diet supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg F/kg (high F groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. The experimental data showed that the contents of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the intestinal mucosa were significantly decreased in the high F groups II and III when compared with those of the control group from 14 to 42 days of age. It was concluded that dietary F in the range of 800-1,200 mg/kg significantly reduced the contents of aforementioned cytokines in the intestinal mucosa of broilers, which could impact the function of intestinal mucosal immunity through the pathways that decreased the lymphocyte population and/or lymphocyte activation.

  18. Intestinal development and function of broiler chickens on diets supplemented with clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q J; Zhou, Y M; Wu, Y N; Wang, T

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group), or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group), respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p0.05) influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity.

  19. Litter characteristics and pododermatitis incidence in broilers fed a sorghum-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMC Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of footpad dermatitis and quality of broilers litter fed with sorghum grain and diets based in corn. It was used 544 male and female chicks, distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments and eight replications. The chicken feed was formulated and produced from corn, soybean meal and sorghum grain. In the formulation were kept constant levels of energy and protein in accordance with the following treatments: A. Control (diet based on corn and soybean meal; B. Grain sorghum (Whole Sorghum + soybean meal. At 35 and 42 days were evaluated mineral matter (A %, calcium (Ca%, phosphorus (P%, pH and dry matter (DM % of the poultry litter. To evaluate the footpad dermatitis were evaluated eight feet per treatment by visual analysis. At 35 and 42 days of age DM % MM (%, Ca (% P (% and pH of poultry litter no difference (p>0.05 was found between the treatments and the type of ingredient in the birds' diet is not related (p>0.05 with the incidence of footpad dermatitis. The incidence of footpad dermatitis and the quality of the litter weren't influenced by the type of the ingredient used in diet.

  20. Simultaneous inclusion of sorghum and cottonseed meal or millet in broiler diets: effects on performance and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Bastianelli, D; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Umar Faruk, M

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (Pdiets compared with the control diet, whereas a combination of cottonseed meal and sorghum in the same diet did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (Pdiets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (Pdiets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (Pdiet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two experiments suggest that broiler growth performance was not affected by the dietary level of sorghum, millet or cottonseed meal. Nutrient digestion can, however, be affected by these feed ingredients.

  1. Fatty acid and energy metabolism in broiler chickens fed diets containing either beef tallow or an oil blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsuthavas, S; Yuangklang, C; Vasupen, K; Mitchaothai, J; Alhaidary, A; Mohamed, H E; Beynen, A C

    2011-04-01

    The hypothesis tested was that the feeding of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) results in more whole-body fatty acid oxidation than the feeding of saturated fatty acids (SFA). It was reasoned that the increased fatty acid oxidation would be associated with enhanced whole-body energy expenditure and stimulated de novo fatty acid synthesis. To put the hypothesis to the test, broiler chickens were fed diets containing either beef tallow as source of SFA or an oil blend as source of n-6 PUFA. The broilers either had free access to their diet or were fed a restricted amount. Seven-day-old, male broiler chickens were used; they were kept individually in cages from 1 to 4 weeks of age. In the birds fed ad libitum, the n-6 PUFA diet reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI), but did not significantly affect average daily weight gain (ADG) and the feed:conversion ratio (FCR). The lower ADFI on the n-6 PUFA diet was associated with a higher apparent digestibility of total fatty acids. The ratio of deposition in the body to intake of digestible total PUFA, which reflected n-6 PUFA, was significantly decreased by the n-6 PUFA diet, pointing at preferentially increased n-6 PUFA oxidation on the n-6 PUFA diet. The ratio for n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was higher than 1.0, which agrees with net de novo synthesis, but the n-6 PUFA diet induced a lower value than did the SFA diet. Feeding either the n-6 PUFA or SFA diet did not influence energy expenditure expressed as percentage of energy intake. This study supports the idea that dietary n-6 PUFA instead of SFA are preferentially oxidized, but no proof was obtained for enhanced energy expenditure and contrary to the hypothesis put forward, the n-6 PUFA diet depressed de-novo fatty acid synthesis.

  2. The effect of dietary phosphorus level and phytase supplementation on growth performance, bone-breaking strength, and litter phosphorus concentration in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Johnston, S; Gaston, L; Southern, L L

    2008-05-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effects of feeding different P levels with and without phytase supplementation on broiler growth performance, bone-breaking strength (BBS), and litter P concentration. An experiment with 4 trials was conducted with 7,840 Ross x Ross straight-run broilers. For each trial, 1,960 broilers were allotted on d 0 to treatments, with 7 replications each and with 70 broilers per replication. The broilers were fed a 4-period feeding program consisting of starter (0 to 14 d), grower (14 to 32 d), finisher (32 to 41 d), and withdrawal (41 to 50 d) periods. For each trial, the same pen was used continuously for each treatment-replication combination, and the litter was not removed between trials. Broilers were fed a control diet [0.43, 0.40, 0.36, or 0.32% nonphytate P (nPP)] in the starter, grower, finisher, and withdrawal periods, respectively, a low Ca and P (LCaP) diet with a 0.05% reduction in nPP in each period, and these 2 diets supplemented with phytase at 600 phytase units/kg (nPP and Ca were reduced by 0.094% in diets with phytase). Diet did not affect (P > 0.10) broiler performance in the starter or withdrawal periods. Generally, both phytase addition and the LCaP diet decreased some aspects of growth performance during the grower and finisher periods. There was no main effect of phytase on BBS, but BBS was decreased in the broilers fed the LCaP diet with phytase addition (nPP x phytase, P < 0.01) in the grower period, and BBS was decreased in the finisher (P < 0.02) and withdrawal (P < 0.01) periods for broilers fed the LCaP diet. Total P, soluble P (SP), and reactive soluble P (RSP) were decreased (P < 0.04) in the litter of broilers fed the LCaP diets. Total P, SP, and RSP were decreased (P < 0.01) in the litter of broilers fed phytase. These data indicate that phytase supplementation at 600 phytase units/kg reduces growth in some periods, has no effect on BBS, and reduces total P, SP, and RSP in the litter.

  3. Effect of fermented noni leaf (Morinda citrifolia L. in diets on cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Syahruddin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken meat is very nutritious. It is sometimes blamed to cause strock attack and coronary heart disease in human, because of high fat and cholesterol contents in the chicken meat. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of fermented noni leaf levels in diets on the cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with eight experimental diets containing 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21% of fermented noni leaf powder. All diets were formulated to contain 22% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates with ten chickens per replicate. Two hundred and forty day old unsex broiler chicks Arbor Acress were fed ad lib. for eight weeks and then sacrificed. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and cholesterol content of carcass were taken as variable responses. Data were analyzed based on analysis of variance and orthogonal comparisons. Results showed that feed consumption, daily weight gain, FCR and carcass content were not affected by the levels of fermented noni leaf in the diet. However, cholesterol content of broiler carcass was significantly (P < 0.05 affected by the dietary treatments. Cholesterol content of the carcass was reduced processed 26.18% 73.06 to 53.76 mg/100g mg/100g chicken meat. The lowest cholesterol level was obtained by feeding the chickens with diets containing 21% fermented noni leaf.

  4. Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Growth in Grain-Based Diet Improves Broiler Chicken Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mateus P; Marcante, Rafael C; Santana, Thiago T; Tanaka, Henrique S; Funari, Pascoal; Alberton, Luiz R; Faria, Eliete V; Valle, Juliana S; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-01-01

    Many alternative compounds have been tested to improve poultry performance but few of them have previously used mycelial-colonized substrate to partially replace standard diet in broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate broiler chicken production, health, and meat sensory characteristics, with partial replacement of the standard diet by Pleurotus ostreatus-colonized substrate. One hundred fifty 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were given standard diet partially replaced by 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 g·kg⁻¹ of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate and randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates, with 10 birds per replicate, totaling 30 birds. The replacement of the standard diet by 10 g·kg⁻¹ of colonized substrate increased (P≤0.05) chicken body mass up to 57% at 21 days, and up to 28% at 42 days. In general, partial replacement of standard diet by colonized substrate increased hematocrits and typical lymphocytes, and reduced low density lipoproteins. Also, it reduced chicken production period up to 21% and there is no meat taste alteration. The use of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate in chicken feeding is an alternative method to improve broiler chicken production.

  5. Effect of diet supplemented with propolis extract and probiotic additives on performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research focused on the effects of propolis extract and probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1 × 109 CFU per 1 g of bearing medium on performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition of broiler chickens. The experiment was performed with 360 one day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of mixed sex. The chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n = 120 pcs chicks per group, namely, control (C and experimental (E1, E2. Each group consisted of 3 replicated pens with 40 broiler chickens per pen. The experiment employed a randomized design, and dietary treatments were as follows: 1. basal diet with no supplementation as control (group C, 2. basal diet plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixture (group E1, 3. basal diet plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. Besides, the groups were kept under the same conditions. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostats. As regards performance of broilers, all the investigated parameters were improved after addition of the supplements, especially after probiotic supplementation. However, neither propolis extract nor probiotic in diet of broiler chickens had any significant effect (p ≥0.05 on performance. Meat composition was evaluated as proximate composition (dry matter, crude protein, fat and ash, cholesterol content and energy value in the most valuable parts of chicken meat (breast and thigh muscles. The statistically significant results (p ≤0.05 were attained in fat, ash and cholesterol content, as well as energy value in both breast and thigh muscles after the propolis supplementation. To sum up, the present study demonstrated the promising potential of propolis extract and probiotic to enhance the performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition under conditions of the experiment with, however, statistical significance of results in a few

  6. GLUTAMIC ACID IMPROVES BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND INTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY OF BROILER CHICKENS SUBMITTED TO HEAT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Porto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 1% dietary glutamic acid on the body weight, intestinal morphometry, and anti-Newcastle antibody titers of broiler chickens submitted to heat stress. One-d-old male broiler chicks (n=120 were distributed according to a 2 x 2 factorial design with two environmental temperatures (thermoneutral or heat stress and two diets (with 0 or 1% glutamic acid. Heat stress temperature was constantly maintained (24h/day 5 ºC higher than the thermoneutral temperature. Diets supplied the nutritional requirements of broilers in the pre-starter (1 to 7d and starter (8 to 21d phases. Birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease on d 7 via eye drop. On days 5, 10, 15, and 20, individual body weight was determined, serum samples were collected from five birds, and duodenum samples were collected from four birds per treatment. Serum anti-Newcastle antibody titers were determined by enzyme immunoassay and transformed into log10. Villus height, crypt depth, and villus: crypt ratio were measured in the duodenum. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Chronic heat stress negatively affected body weight and intestinal morphometry during the pre-starter and starter phases, but had no effect on antibody titers. Dietary glutamic acid supplementation (1% improved body weight and intestinal integrity of birds submitted to heat stress when compared with non-supplemented and heat-stressed birds.

  7. A comparison of growth and development patterns in diverse genotypes of broilers. 1. Male broiler growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddish, J M; Lilburn, M S

    2004-07-01

    Selection for breast muscle yield and BW in commercial broilers has resulted in genotypes far different from broilers processed in the past. When comparative studies with commercial lines are conducted, it is often difficult to differentiate between carcass effects resulting from direct genetic selection vs. correlated effects that partially reflect genetic changes in BW. The objective of the present experiment was to compare growth and development characteristics of male broilers from commercial lines exhibiting similar rates of BW gain based on a percentage of 8-wk BW but exhibiting different carcass traits. Male broilers from 2 commercial genotypes exhibiting increased breast muscle yield (A and B) were compared with broilers from a commercial line that was "unimproved" with respect to conformation (C). All birds were fed a commercial-type broiler starter diet throughout the study and were processed at 8 wk of age for carcass comparisons. No differences were observed among lines for breast-free BW or weight of the abdominal fat pad. The absolute and relative weights of pectoralis major and pectoralis minor breast muscles were heavier in lines A and B than C (P A > B; P C >A; P C; P A = B, P A = B, P development between commercial genotypes with similar growth patterns.

  8. Mananoligossacarídeos em dietas para frangos de corte Mannanoligosaccharides in diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nei André Arruda Barbosa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar dietas contendo mananoligossacarídeos (MOS como aditivo alternativo aos promotores de crescimento por meio do estudo da morfometria do intestino e do desempenho de frangos de corte. Para tanto, 1280 pintos de corte foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (controle negativo, CN: dieta isenta de antibiótico; controle positivo, CP: dieta contendo antibiótico e duas dietas, MOS 1 e MOS 2, nas quais foram adicionadas ao CN duas fontes distintas de MOS e oito repetições, sendo a unidade experimental composta por 40 aves. Para submeter as aves ao desafio sanitário, foi formulada uma dieta basal com milho, farelo de soja e farinha de carne e ossos. Adotou-se cama reutilizada, limpeza dos bebedouros duas vezes por semana e oferta semanal de água contaminada com cama. Foram avaliadas altura de vilo e profundidade de cripta do duodeno, jejuno e íleo, consumo da dieta, peso médio, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar das aves. Houve melhora na profundidade de cripta no jejuno e na altura de vilo no íleo das aves alimentadas com dietas contendo MOS. A adição de MOS, independente da fonte, resultou em melhor conversão alimentar em relação às aves do CN, sendo similares às aves do CP. Os mananoligossacarídeos podem ser utilizados como aditivo alternativo aos promotores de crescimento em dietas para frangos de corte, porém, dependendo da fonte, esta pode acarretar em pequenas diferenças no desempenho das aves.This study aimed to evaluate mannan oligosaccharides (MOS as an alternative additive to growth promoters in broiler diets by studying the morphology of the intestine and the performance. For this purpose, 1280 broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (negative control, NC: diet free of antibiotics; positive control, PC: diet with antibiotic and two diets, MOS 1 and MOS 2, in which were added to NC two distinct sources of MOS

  9. Comparison of broiler meat quality when fed diets supplemented with neutralized sunflower soapstock or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekel, A Y; Demirel, G; Midilli, M; Yalcintan, H; Ekiz, B; Alp, M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat type and level on broiler meat quality. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 types of fat including neutralized sunflower soapstock (NSS) and soybean oil (SO) at 3 levels of fat inclusion (2, 4, and 6%) was used with 5 replicates per treatment using 750 one-day-old broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. At the end of the study (d 36), 10 broilers from each replication were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Six carcasses from each replicate were used for meat quality evaluation. With the exception of 3 responses [breast meat lightness (L*) at 1 and 2 d, and redness (a*) at 5 d], there were no interactions between fat source and level. Breast meat pH at 15 min was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. However, breast meat pH at 24 h postmortem was decreased (P < 0.01) in broilers fed the NSS. Breast meat cooking loss, shear force, and color did not differ between fat sources. Breast meat cooking loss decreased (P < 0.05) when the dietary levels of fat increased. Thigh meat TBA reactive substances were not different due to dietary fat source and level. Breast meat and skin L* value significantly decreased when the dietary levels of fat increased. Breast meat a* value was highest for the 6% fat fed birds on d 2 (P < 0.05) and d 5 (P < 0.01). Higher dietary fat levels decreased the b* values of breast meat except d 5. Breast skin yellowness (b*) value was higher (P < 0.01) for the SO-fed birds compared with NSS-fed birds. Thigh meat of the birds fed the NSS was lighter (P < 0.05) than that of the birds fed SO diets except d 5. Overall, data suggest that NSS can be used as an alternative fat source to SO with little effect on meat quality.

  10. Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin, Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooge DM

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20% or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14% was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg, three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg. Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2, and increased body weight (Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

  11. Response of broiler chickens to addition of bacitracin methylene disalicylate and roxarsone to diets containing halofuginone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldroup, P W; Hellwig, H M; Johnson, Z B; Fell, R V; Grant, R J; Damron, B L; Hebert, J A; Siccardi, F J; Primo, R A

    1987-10-01

    Studies were conducted at six locations over a 7-yr period to evaluate the response of broiler chickens to bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) and roxarsone in the presence of diets containing 3 ppm halofuginone/kg feed. Treatments consisted of a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with 0 or 55 mg BMD and 0 or 50 mg roxarsone/kg feed. These additives were fed beginning with day-old chicks and were removed 6 days before termination of the study, which varied in length from 48 to 56 days among locations. Body weights were significantly improved (P less than .05) by the addition of either BMD or roxarsone with a significant interaction (P less than .05) between BMD and roxarsone. Roxarsone improved body weights only in the presence of BMD. Feed utilization was significantly (P less than .05) improved by addition of either BMD or roxarsone, with no interaction between the two products.

  12. Fiber and nonstarch polysaccharide content and variation in common crops used in broiler diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    AX, but β-glucan can also be present mainly in rye and wheat brans. The CW composition of seeds and grains of protein crops and feedstuffs are different from that of cereals. The main CW polymers are pectic substances (homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan type I and II, xylogalacturonan......The current paper reviews content and variation in fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) of common crops used in broiler diets. The cereal grain is a complex structure, and its cell walls (CW) differ in their composition and hence properties. Arabinoxylan (AX), mixed linkage (1→3; 1→4)-β......-glucan (β-glucan), cellulose, and the noncarbohydrate component lignin are the predominant polymers in cereals. They occur in different proportions depending on the species and tissue type. Rye, triticale, wheat, corn, and sorghum are all rich in AX, whereas barley and oats contain a high level of β...

  13. Effects of diet type and ingredient composition on rate of passage and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochell, S J; Applegate, T J; Kim, E J; Dozier, W A

    2012-07-01

    This experiment evaluated rate of passage (ROP) and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AIAAD) of 4 diets varying in ingredient composition fed to broilers from 14 to 22 d of age. Two hundred and 88 Ross × Ross 708 chicks (12 birds per cage; 0.45 m(2) per bird) were randomly assigned to 24 cages (6 replicate cages per treatment) at 1 d of age. Experimental diets were 1) corn-soybean meal-based (CSM) diet containing porcine meat and bone meal (MBM; 5% inclusion), 2) CSM diet containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 5% inclusion), 3) semipurified (SP) diet containing MBM (38% inclusion), and 4) SP diet containing DDGS (76% inclusion). Diets were formulated to contain 20% CP and were adequate for vitamins and minerals. Experimental diets were provided from d 14 to 22. On d 18, a total excreta collection was conducted every hour for 12 h from 0800 to 1900 h to determine ROP, and AIAAD was determined on d 22. Time of 1% TiO(2) excretion (T1), 50% TiO(2) excretion (T50), and mean retention time (MRT) were used to express ROP. The SP-MBM diet reached T1 (P MBM, CSM-MBM, and CSM-DDGS diets, which resulted in values of 5.48, 5.62, and 5.58 h, respectively. In general, the AIAAD values were higher (P MBM. Based on T50 and MRT, SP diets containing DDGS had a faster ROP in broilers than CSM diets or SP diets containing MBM.

  14. Thesis Abstract Levels and forms of vitamin D in broilers diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Bertechini, A G

    2016-05-09

    This study aimed to evaluate the concentration effects of two vitamin D isoforms, cholecalciferol (D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) in broilers diets on performance, bone and physiological features of these birds. Of a total of 1920 one-day-old male chicks Cobb-500 were used from commercial hatchery, reared under bed creation systems. The animals were distributed in six treatments and eight replicates with 40 birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. The following vitamin D supplementation levels were applied: 70 and 87.5 μg/kg feed in initial phase; 56 and 70 μg/kg feed during the growth phase, and 35 and 47.35 μg/kg of feed in final phase of creation, obtained from two forms (D3 and 25-OHD3). The treatments consisted of supplementation of two levels from each isolated source and their associations (60% D3 + 40% 25-OHD3) according to the study phases. In the metabolism assay, 480 birds (14 and 35 days of age) were separated to be used for evaluation of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) retention and excretion during the periods of 19 to 21 days and 40 to 42 days of age. The diets were based on corn and soybean meal, with supplementation of phytase (500 FTU/kg). The performance, bone characteristics, plasma levels, bone radiographic density, carcass yield, and P and Ca retention were evaluated. In the initial creation phase, we observed an increased P excretion by broilers fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05). In addition, the association between the two vitamin D isoforms resulted in higher retention of Ca and P than the birds fed diets supplemented only with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05), and higher P retention when compared to birds fed diets supplemented with 25-OHD3 (P < 0.05). Dietary supplemental 25-OHD3 at 87.5 μg/kg resulted in higher plasma levels of Ca in relation to the same supplemented source with 70 μg/kg at 21 days of age (P < 0.05). In the final phase, the birds fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 presented the

  15. By-product of Tropical Vermicelli Waste as a Novel Alternative Feedstuff in Broiler Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungcharoen, P; Therdthai, N; Dhamvithee, P; Attamangkune, S; Ruangpanit, Y; Ferket, P R; Amornthewaphat, N

    2013-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine physical and chemical properties of vermicelli waste (VW) and effect of VW inclusion levels on growth performance of broilers. In experiment 1, VW samples were randomly collected from vermicelli industry in Thailand to analyze nutritional composition. Vermicelli waste contained 9.96% moisture, 12.06% CP, 32.30% crude fiber (CF), and 0.57% ether extract (EE), as DM basis. The ratio of insoluble:soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) was 43.4:8.9. A total of 120 chicks (6 pens per treatment and 10 chicks per pen) were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet or 20% VW substituted diet to determine the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen retention (AMEn) of VW. The AMEn of VW was 1,844.7±130.71 kcal/kg. In experiment 2, a total of 1,200 chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for 42-d growth assay. There were 300 chicks with 6 pens per treatment and 50 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments contained 0%, 5%, 10%, or 15% VW, respectively. All diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. From 0 to 18 d of age chicks fed VW diets had higher (pviscosity (p<0.05) and intestinal villus height of chicks (p< 0.001). For apparent total tract digestibility assay, there were 4 metabolic cages of 6 chicks that were fed experimental treatment diets (the same as in the growth assay) in a 10-d total excreta collection. Increasing VW inclusion levels linearly decreased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of DM and CF.

  16. HISTOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF BROILERS FED DIETS CONTAINING INSOLUBLE FIBER FROM RICE HULL MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossaporn Incharoen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available These two experiments were aimed to determine the effects of diets containing high levels of insoluble fiber from Rice Hull Meal (RHM on performance and intestinal histological variables of broilers. In the first experiment, 150 10-day-old Hubbard male broiler chicks were randomly allocatted to three treatments and fed diets containing RHM at 0, 50 and 100 g kg-1 until 42 days old. Body weight gain was significantly higher (p-1 RHM group than the control birds, resulting in a decreasing feed conversion ratio. In the second experiment, 64 14-day-old birds were assigned into 4 groups and fed diets containing RHM at 0, 100, 200 or 300 g kg-1. Tissue sampling procedures of each group were conducted at 42 days old. There were no considerable differences in carcass characteristics, intestinal weight and length, villus area, crypt depth or mucosa thickness. Increases (p-1 groups. Epithelial cells seem to demonstrate similar histological changes. Nonetheless, segmented filamentous bacteria adhered to the ileal epithelial cells in the dietary RHM groups. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that RHM can be used as a source of insoluble fiber in broiler diets at 100 g kg-1 to improve performance without any adverse effects on carcass characteristics, gastrointestinal tract and histological variables of the intestinal villi and epithelial cells.

  17. Effect of dietary probiotic and high stocking density on the performance, carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress indicators of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Özcan; Köksal, Bekir H; Tatlı, Onur; Sevim, Ömer; Ahsan, Umair; Üner, Aykut G; Ulutaş, Pınar A; Beyaz, Devrim; Büyükyörük, Sadık; Yakan, Akın; Önol, Ahmet G

    2015-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary probiotic supplementation and stocking density on the performance, relative carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 480) were allocated to 4 experimental groups for 42 d. Each treatment had 8 replicates of 15 chicks each. Two groups were subjected to a high stocking density (HSD) of 20 birds/m² and the other 2 groups were kept at low stocking density (LSD) of 10 birds/m². A basal diet supplemented with probiotic 1 and 0.5 g/kg of diet (in starter and finisher diets, respectively) was fed to 2 treatments, one with HSD and the other with LSD, thereby making a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between stocking density (LSD and HSD) and dietary probiotic (supplemented and unsupplemented) for all the variables. Feed intake and weight gain were significantly low and feed conversion ratio was poor in broilers at HSD. Dietary probiotic significantly enhanced the feed intake and weight gain in starter phase only. Dietary probiotic supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on total aerobs, Salmonella sp., and Lactobacilli populations in the intestines of broilers. However, HSD reduced the Lactobacilli population only (P probiotic did not affect the relative carcass yield and weight of lymphoid organs. Serum malondialdehyde, corticosterone, nitric oxide, and plasma heterophil:lymphocyte ratio were not affected either by stocking density or dietary probiotic supplementation. In conclusion, HSD negatively affected the performance and intestinal Lactobacilli population of broilers only, whereas probiotic supplementation enhanced the performance of broilers during the starter phase only. Total aerobes, Salmonella, Lactobacilli carcass yield, and stress indicators of broilers were not affected by the dietary supplementation of probiotic under the conditions of the present study.

  18. Efeito dos níveis de metionina naração, do peso inicial e da idade dos pintos de corte sobre a digestabilidade da ração pré-inicail - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.2260 Effectt of diet levels of methionine and initial weigt of broiler chicks on the digestibility of pre starter rations - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.2260

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barelos Café

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento avaliou os níveis de metionina da ração pré-inicial, o peso do pintos no primeiro dia e idade da ave sobre a digestibilidade da ração. Foram utilizados 320 pintos de corte com pesos inicias de 38 e 45 gramas, alimentados com rações com diferentes níveis de metionina (0,455%; 0,507; 0,599% e 0,611%. O delineamento foi em parcelas subdivididas ( 4 níveis de metionina x 2 pesos inicias em função da idade ( 2-4; 4-6; 6-8 dias. O método utilizado foi o de colheita total das excretas. Os níveis de metionina na ração, assim com o peso inicial dos pintos não afetou (p 0,05 como aumento da idade das aves. Pintos com pesos de 38 e 45g no primeiro dia têm a mesma capacidade de aproveitamento do alimento.This experiment evaluated the methionine levels of pre started diets and one day chick weight on the digestibility of ration. Three hundred and twenty chicks at initial weight of 38 and 45g fed with rations at different methionine levels (0,455%; 0,507; 0,599% e 0,611% were used in split plot experimental desing (4 levels od menthionine and two initial chick weight by age 2-4; 4-6 and 6-8 days. Results showed that the levels of menthionine and the weight of chicks did not effect the digestibility of diets improved with chick age increase. Chicks weighting 38 and 45g had the same ability to digest the feed.

  19. Response of broiler chickens to dietary supplementation with roxarsone and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in diets containing narasin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldroup, P W; Hellwig, H M; Johnson, Z B; Krueger, W F; Moore, R W; Charles, O W; Duke, S; Primo, R A; Trammell, J H; Fell, R V

    1988-01-01

    Six trials were conducted at different locations to examine the response of broiler chickens to roxarsone and bacitracin in the form of bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) in the presence of the anticoccidal narasin. All diets contained narasin (80 mg/kg) and were fortified with a factorial arrangement of roxarsone (0 to 50 mg/kg) and BMD (0 or 55 mg/kg). Broilers were grown to market weights with narasin and roxarsone removed from the diets for the final 5 days. Addition of both roxarsone and BMD resulted in significant (P less than .05) improvements in body weight and feed utilization. Response to roxarsone for feed utilization was influenced to some extent by the presence or absence of BMD. Although the response to roxarsone was always positive, the degree of response was lessened by the presence of BMD. This resulted in a significant (P less than .10) interaction between roxarsone and BMD for feed utilization but not for body weight.

  20. Study on inclusion of probiotic, prebiotic and its combination in broiler diet and their effect on carcass characteristics and economics of commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Saiyed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In today era, broiler industry facing a problem of price hiking of feed of broiler, also in competitive era there should be lower feed cost, lower feed conversion ratio, low feed consumption yet good body weight at marketable age. Materials and Methods: Day-old commercial broiler chicks (n=200 were distributed randomly into 5 dietary treatment groups viz. control (T1, probiotic in the feed @ 100 g/tonne of feed (T2, prebiotic in the feed @ 500 g/tonne of feed (T3, probiotic + prebiotic @ 100 g/tonne and 500 g/tonne of feed, respectively (T4 and probiotic + prebiotic @ 50 g/tonne and 250 g/tonne of feed (T5. The growth of broilers and dressing weight along with the weight of giblet (liver without gall bladder, gizzard without serous layer, and heart without pericardium, Kidney, Abdominal fat, Length of Intestine and dressing percentage were measured. Economics in terms of Return Over Feed Cost (ROFC and European Performance Efficiency Index (EPEI was calculated. Results: Among all carcass traits, dressing percentage, abdominal fat weight and abdominal fat percentage (as a percentage of dressed weight were recorded significant (p<0.05 difference among different treatment groups. The income from selling of the birds was significantly (p<0.05 higher in all treatment groups than the control group but there was a non-significant difference between supplemented groups. Feed cost during whole experimental period was significantly (p<0.05 lower in synbiotic supplemented groups (T4 and T5 than other groups. ROFC of all treatment group found significantly (p<0.05 higher than the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the diet supplemented with synbiotic (100% level was most efficient in terms of EPEI and synbiotic (50% level in terms of ROFC. Hence, as feed supplement, synbiotic has a beneficial effect over probiotic and prebiotic when used alone.

  1. Effects of different phosphorus sources in the diet on bone composition and stability (breaking strength) in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemme, A; Spark, M; Wolf, P; Paschertz, H; Kamphues, J

    2005-01-01

    In two fattening trials (in each 100 broilers kept in four groups with 25 animals) as well as in a balance trial (four groups with four broilers in a group) the effects of inorganic phosphorus sources [monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (dihydrate; DCP) and defluorinated phosphate (DFP)] in broiler diets were examined. The four diets contained up to 9 g calcium and 6 g phosphorus per kg and comparable energy and nutrient contents. Controls were fed a commercial diet with Ca-Na-phosphate as inorganic phosphorus source supplemented by phytase. In both fattening trials body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion were proved as well as the calcium and phosphorus levels in serum, the breaking strength of tibia or humerus and the femur mineralization (ash content in the fat free dry matter). Furthermore, in the balance trial the retention of calcium and phosphorus was determined by calculation (intake minus excretion) as well as by analysis of body composition. On a high performance level (that was only slightly influenced by the different treatments), the addition of DFP resulted in significantly reduced phosphorus availability (estimated by analysis of the whole carcass: control/MCP/DCP/DFP: 48.6/46.0/45.7/35.5%). The significantly reduced phosphorus level in serum (1.77 +/- 0.20/1.77 +/- 0.24/1.73 +/- 0.28 1.34 +/- 0.33 mmol/l) indicates the lower phosphorus retention in broilers given DFP. Furthermore, the crude ash content (582 +/- 17.6/580 +/- 18.6/563 +/- 15.2/547 +/- 29.7 g/kg fat free DM) and the breaking strength of bones (in right tibia in trial 2: 232 +/- 82.4/227 +/- 51.5/232 +/- 41.7/196 +/- 655 N) were lowest when given DFP. For diagnostic purposes it is of special interest that the phosphorus levels in the serum reflected markedly the different concentrations of available phosphorus in the diet.

  2. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  3. Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum B1 on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, and short chain fatty acid profiles in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Q; Zeng, X F; Zhu, J L; Wang, S; Liu, X T; Hou, C L; Thacker, P A; Qiao, S Y

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum B1 on broiler performance, cecal bacteria, and ileal and cecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA). The study also determined whether it was necessary to feed Lactobacillus throughout the entire growth period or if the beneficial effects could be obtained by supplementation during the starter or finisher period only. Experiment 1 was conducted with 72 broilers assigned to 2 treatments (N=6). One treatment was the basal diet (Con), and the other was the basal diet supplemented with 2×10(9) cfu/kg L. plantarum B1 (Wh). In experiment 2, 144 one-day-old broilers were assigned to 4 treatments (N=6) including a basal diet (Con), the basal diet supplemented with 2×10(9) cfu/kgL. plantarum B1 during d one to 21 only (St), the basal diet supplemented with L. plantarum B1 during d 22 to 42 only (Fn), and, finally, the basal diet supplemented with L. plantarum B1 from d one to 42 (Wh). Experiment 1 showed that L. plantarum B1 enhanced broiler average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). In experiment 2, during the starter period, broilers in the Wh and St treatments had higher ADG (Pplantarum B1 also increased (Pplantarum B1 had no effect on intestinal morphology. In conclusion,L. plantarum B1 plays a positive role in broilers. Supplementation during the finisher period or the entire growth period is superior to supplementation during the starter period only.

  4. Quality of broiler meat of the free-range type submitted to diets containing alternative feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Faria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work had the intention of investigating the effect of the use of alternative feeds as part replacers in diet-formulating, evaluating the characteristic physicochemical alterations and centesimal composition of the free-range chicken. In the experiment a total of 192 (one hundred and ninety-two birds of the Pescoço Pelado (Label Rouge strain arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD formed by 4 treatments (Treatment 1 (Control, Treatment 2 (10% of the inclusion of rice bran, Treatment 3 (10% of the inclusion of ground cassava leaf and Treatment 4 (10% of the inclusion of ground leucaena hay with 8 replicates per treatment were used. The results revealed greater values of b* (yellow, Saturation (C* and pH for broiler meat with inclusion of ground cassava leaf and leucaena, while for the other variables of physicochemical composition, no influences of the treatments were not found. For centesimal composition the treatments showed greater values of moisture in relation to the control treatment. For sex, only a difference for the content of b* and C* was found, with higher values for female. The use of the alternative feedstuffs has not revealed marked influences on the chemical composition and quality parameters of free-ranging chicken’s meat with the use of replacement up to 10% in the diets.

  5. Butyric acid glycerides in the diet of broiler chickens: effects on gut histology and carcass composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Martini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to verify the effects of butyric acid glycerides, as a supplemental ingredient in the diet, on live performance of broiler chickens and on the morphology of their small intestine, since short chain fatty acids are known as selective protection factors against intestinal microbial parasites, potent growth promoters of the gut wall tissues, also in terms of immune modulation response. An experiment was carried out on 150 Ross 308 female chickens, allotted to 5 treatments, over a 35 d ays period: the control, with soybean oil as the energy supplement, and 4 treatments with increasing amounts (0.2, 0.35, 0.5, 1% mixed feed of a mixture of butyric acid glycerides (mono-, di- and tri- glycerides. Treated animals showed a higher live weight at slaughtering (P<0.05 with a better feed conversion rate. The carcase characteristics were not influenced, but the small intestine wall resulted slightly modified with shorter villi, longer microvilli (P<0.01 and larger crypts depth in jejunum (P<0.01, only with lowest concentration of the supplement (0.2%. It is concluded that butyric acid glycerides are an efficient supplement to broilers’ diets, deserving particular attention as a possible alternative to antimicrobial drugs, which have been banned in Europe.

  6. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M M; Iji, P A

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (pproduction was highest (pproduction, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase.

  7. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dongjean; Kang, Sang S; Kim, Dong W; Kim, Sang H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2011-01-01

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed. In this study, the protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets were assessed in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Chickens were fed a regular diet supplemented with ground Aloe vera throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 2 days prior to infection with 1 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or loss between the Aloe vera-supplemented and unsupplemented groups with or without E. maxima infections. Fecal oocyst shedding decreased significantly (p Aloe vera as compared to the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the Aloe vera-supplemented group showed significantly fewer intestinal lesions (p Aloe vera could be used an alternative treatment for controlling avian coccidiosis.

  8. Effects of the inclusion of sunflower hulls in the diet on growth performance and digestive tract traits of broilers and pullets fed a broiler diet from zero to 21 d of age. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiaeitalab, M V; Cámara, L; Mirzaie Goudarzi, S; Jiménez-Moreno, E; Mateos, G G

    2016-08-30

    The effects of including 3% sunflower hulls (SFH) in the diet on growth performance, nutrient retention (TTAR), and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits were studied in chicks from zero to 21 d of age. Four treatments that resulted from the combination of 2 chicken lines (female broilers vs. brown pullets) and 2 levels of SFH (zero vs. 3%) were used. The control diet contained 2,980 kcal AMEn/kg, 1.25% digestible Lys, and 8.7% neutral detergent fiber. The experimental diet included 3% SFH at the expense (wt:wt) of the whole diet. Growth performance, TTAR of nutrients, and the AMEn of the diet were greater (P = 0.097 to P absolute terms, all the organs of the GIT were heavier (P < 0.001) and the small intestine and cecum were longer (P < 0.001) in broilers than in pullets. At 21 d of age, however, the relative weight (% BW) of all the organs of the GIT (P < 0.001) and the relative length (cm/kg BW) of the small intestine and cecum (P < 0.01) were greater in pullets. Gizzard pH (P < 0.001), total short chain fatty acids concentration in the cecum (P = 0.098), and villus height (P < 0.001) and crypt depth (P < 0.05) of the ileum mucosa were higher in broilers. The inclusion of SFH increased (P < 0.05) the AMEn content of the diet but did not affect bird performance, moisture content of the excreta, or the concentration and profile of fatty acids in the cecum. Dietary SFH increased gizzard weight and reduced gizzard pH (P < 0.001) at both ages. In conclusion, broilers had better growth performance, nutrient retention, and ileum absorptive capacity than pullets. The inclusion of 3% SFH at the expense of the control diet did not have any negative effect on chick performance and, in fact, increased gizzard weight, reduced gizzard pH, and improved the energy content of the diet.

  9. Carcass, organ and organoleptic characteristics of broilers fed yeast treated raw soya bean and full fat soya bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Onwumelu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carcass, Organs andOrganoleptic Characteristics of broilers fed yeast treated raw soya bean (RSBand full fat soya bean (FFSB were studied using one hundred and eighty day oldchicks. Standard poultry management techniques were applied and experimenteddiets provided ad libitum. Fifteen diets consisting of various proportions ofFFSB, RSB and yeast were formulated for the starter phase (0- 28 days andfinisher phase (29-56 days, respectively. The diets in each phase wereformulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous with the starter dietscontaining approximately 2900 kcal/kg ME and 23% crude protein, and thefinisher diets containing approximately 3000 kcal/kg and 20% crude protein. Thecarcass and organs studied include weights after defeathering, cut- up partswhich include thighs drumstick, shanks, wings, neck, back, breast head, andorgans such as heart, liver, spleen and gizzard. The lengths of theproventriculus, small intestine, colon and caeca were also measured. The studyshowed that RSB at the levels fed with and without yeast inclusion had nolethal effect on broiler chickens. However, higher performance may be achievedwhen RSB is fed at 25 % with 6 g/kg yeast inclusion at starter phase and at 25% without yeast or 75 % with 12 g/kg yeast inclusion. The study therefore,further maintained that inclusion of RSB with or without yeast in the diets ofbroilers can equally produce broiler with good weight comparable with feedingFFSB or conventional diets; feeding 75 % FFSB + 25 % RSB without yeastinclusion is capable of increasing the proportion of the broilers’ head andshank; RSB inclusion in broiler diets cause increase in the weight of thegizzard, pancreas as well as on the abdominal fat, and feeding FFSB and RSBwith or without east inclusion do not exert any noticeable effect on theorganoleptic ualities tenderness, flavour and in general acceptability ofbroilers. However, RSB enhances the juiciness of broilers

  10. Relative bioavailability of tribasic zinc sulfate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-xiang; MA Xin-yan; LU Lin; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the relative bioavailability of tribasic zinc (Zn) sulfate relative to Zn sulfate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-d-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were randomly assigned by body weight of birds to one of seven treatments involving a 2×3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn kg–1) and two Zn sources (tribasic Zn sulfate and Zn sulfate) plus a control with no added Zn for an experimental phase of 14 d. Plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas metalothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed at 6 or 14 d of age post-hatching. The results showed that plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA increased linearly (P<0.002) as dietary Zn concentration increased at 6 or 14 d of age. The R2 for a linear model was greater on d 6 than on d 14 for the above 4 responsive criteria, and among these indices, the iftting of the tibia ash Zn concentration was the best (R2=0.99). Therefore, based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regressions of the above 4 indices of the birds at 6 d of age on daily intake of dietary Zn, the bioavailabilities of tribasic Zn sulfate relative to Zn sulfate (100%) were 95.6% (P=0.18), 83.5% (P=0.01), 87.9% (P=0.53), and 75.9% (P=0.38) for the tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, plasma Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA, respectively. The results indicated that generaly, Zn from tribasic Zn sulfate was as available as Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.

  11. Performance and carcass characteristics of free-range broiler chickens fed diets containing alternative feedstuffs

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    PB Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD, with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings, abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.

  12. Nutritive value of the meat and bone meals from cattle or pigs in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, P; Versteegh, H A; van der Honing, T Y; Kogut, T J; Jongbloed, A W

    2001-08-01

    The nutritive value of meat and bone meals (MBM) was assessed for broilers. The MBM was produced according to the revised (pressure) processing system ordered by the European Union (EC 96/449). Three batches of MBM from cattle (MBMcattle) and three from pigs (MBMpig) with different ash contents (224, 306, 387, and 209,293, 430 g/kg, respectively) were tested for digestibility at a 10% inclusion level. The MBMcattle and MBMpig with the lowest ash (224 and 209 g/kg, respectively) were tested also at 20% inclusion. A basal diet (corn-soybean meal) was used as a control. Two-week-old broiler chickens were used in four replicates per treatment (14 to 32 d of age). The AMEn of MBM was high (10.51 to 13.04 MJ/kg DM). Species origin had no significant effect, whereas more ash and a higher inclusion level decreased the AMEn. The factors investigated showed no significant effect on the excretal digestibility of CP or on total AA. Excretal digestibility of total amino acids (AA) ranged from 60 to 65%. The ileal digestibility of CP and AA of MBMpig with 209 g/kg ash was also tested at 10 and 20% inclusion. Excretal digestibility was significantly higher than ileal digestibility of CP (63.8 and 55.8%, respectively) and total AA (60.9 and 56.2%, respectively). The 20% inclusion level resulted in a lower digestibility for both methods. The digestibility of CP was measured by four different in vitro techniques, based on pepsin digestibility. The data showed a large variation and did not correlate at all with the in vivo digestibility values.

  13. Response of broiler finishers to diets containing graded levels of processed castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, A O; Okorie, A U

    2009-04-01

    A 4-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of dehulled and cooked castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal on the performance of broiler finishers. Castor oil bean seeds were dehulled and detoxified by cooking in two stages at 100 degrees C for 50 min per cooking. Sixty 6-week-old broiler birds (Anak strain) were randomly divided into four groups of 15 birds each. The groups were fed four isocaloric (2.90 Mcal of metabolizable energy/kg) and isonitrogenous (21% crude protein) diets containing 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% dehulled and cooked castor oil bean meal (CBM) for 4 weeks. Results showed that there were significant (p 0.05) different from the ADWG of birds on 10% CBM diet. Birds fed diets containing10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and non-significant (p > 0.05) ADWG. Birds fed 20% CBM diet had the least (p 0.05) PCV values. Birds fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and significantly (p < 0.05) lower heamoglobin than birds fed 20% CBM diets. There were also significant (p < 0.05) differences among treatments in dry matter (DM), nitrogen, ether extract (EE) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) retention. Birds fed 0% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher retention of DM, nitrogen and NFE than birds on 10%, 15% and 20% CBM diets. Birds fed 10% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher DM, nitrogen and NFE retention than birds on 15% and 20% CBM diets. The lowest retention of DM, nitrogen and NFE was recorded at the 20% CBM inclusion level. Birds fed 0% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher EE retention than birds on 15% and 20% CBM diets. The lowest EE retention was observed at the 20% CBM inclusion level. The results of the study indicate that up to 10% dehulled and cooked CBM can be included in broiler finisher rations for optimum performance.

  14. Effects of Some Plant Extracts in Triticale-Based Broiler Diets on Growth Performance, E.Coli Counts in Intestine and Blood Parameters

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    Ergun Demir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of using plant essential oils in triticale-based broiler diets as alternative to antimicrobial growth promotors (AGPs on growth, E.coli counts in small intestine and blood parameters. 720 male broiler chicks were randomly distributed to nine experimental groups with four replicates. The control group received the triticale-soybean meal basal diet. In the other treatment groups the basal diet was supplemented with one of the following; flavomycin, enzyme, flavomycin+enzyme, enzyme+thyme oil, enzyme+fennel oil, enzyme+bay leaf oil, enzyme+thyme oil+fennel oil and enzyme+thyme oil+fennel oil+bay leaf oil. Results showed that the weight gain and feed intake were not influenced by the treatments (P>0,05. The use of the combination of plant extracts significantly improved the feed conversion. Use of plant extracts in triticale-based broiler diets as an alternative to AGPs had no regular effect on E.coli count in small intestine segments (P>0,05. Feeding broiler chickens with the enzyme+thyme oil supplemented diets increased eritrocyte level in serum (P0,05 by the treatments. In conclusion, these plant ectracts can be also used with enzyme in triticale-based broiler diets as alternative to AGPs.

  15. Introduction of a Greenhouse as an Alternative Housing System to a Conventional House and Its Impact on Broiler Performance and Blood and Carcass Variables

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    Khajali F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the growth performance as well as blood and carcass variables of two broiler strains reared in a conventional broiler house and a modified greenhouse equipped with cooling pads and tunnel ventilation system. Eight hundred day-old chickens of two commercial strains (Ross  308 and Lohmann were selected and placed in  8 floor pens (4 pens of  50 broilers for each strain in each housing system. The pens were located randomly throughout the modified greenhouse or the conventional broiler house (two-way ANOVA design. The broilers were provided a standard starter and grower diets  ad libitum. The environmental conditions (i.e.  temperature, relative humidity, lighting program and ventilation rate were kept  similar between the two houses. The results showed that the birds in the greenhouse consumed significantly (P

  16. The effect of low-density broiler breeder diets on performance and immune status of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, H; Boersma, W J A; Cornelissen, J B W J; van Winden, S C L; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J

    2007-02-01

    Effects of low-density broiler breeder diets on offspring performance and mortality were studied using 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb 500 breeders. Breeder treatments involved 4 experimental groups and a control group with normal density diets (ND, 2,600 kcal of AME/kg during rearing and 2,800 kcal of AME/kg during laying). In treatment 2, nutrient densities were decreased by 12% (LD12) and 11% (LD11) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively, whereas in treatment 3, nutrient densities were decreased by 23% (LD23) and 21% (LD21) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively. The nutrient density in these treatments was decreased through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal in the diets. Treatment 4 included diets with the same nutrient densities as in treatment 2 but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP) and LD11(OP)). In treatment 5, the same low-density diet was given to the breeders as in treatment 2 during the rearing period, but it was followed by a normal density diet during the laying period (LD12-ND). Treatments were applied from 4 to 60 wk of age. On low-density diets, offspring showed an increased 1-d-old weight. As compared with offspring of breeders that received ND, the d 38 live weight of chickens from 29-wk-old breeders fed LD11 was improved. Mortality was reduced in offspring from 60-wk-old parent stock given low-density diets. The IgM titers in 35-d-old offspring from eggs with a lower-than-average weight were reduced when 29-wk-old broiler breeders were fed low-density diets. In offspring from eggs with a higher-than-average weight from 60-wk-old parent stock given LD11 or LD21 diets, IgM titers were higher compared with ND. It was concluded that low-density broiler breeder diets can improve offspring growth rates, reduce mortality, and reduce or increase immune responses, depending on breeder age and egg weight.

  17. Feeding high-moisture corn grain silage to broilers fed alternative diets and maintained at different environmental temperatures

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    VC Cruz-Polycarpo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the dietary substitution of dry corn by high-moisture corn grain silage (HMCGS were evaluated on the performance, nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical parameters of broilers reared in an alternative production system and submitted to different environmental temperatures. A total of 288 one-day-old male Cobb chicks were distributed according to a randomized block design in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral or cold and four levels of HMCGS in substitution of dry corn (0%, 20%, 40% or 60%. The acid analysis showed that the evaluated HMCGS contained average percentage values of ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid (expressed in 100% of dry matter of 0.7690, 2.7320 and 0.0249%, respectively. Propionic and butyric acids were not detected. Dry corn and HMCGS presented pH values of 5.8 and 3.3, respectively. The inclusion of HMCGS reduced dietary pH, as shown by the values of 5.7, 5.4, 5.1 and 4.8 recorded for the diets containing 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% of HMCGS, respectively. There was no significant interaction between diets and environmental temperature. HMCGS may replace up to 40% dry corn in broiler diets when performance, triglyceride levels, and HDL-cholesterol ratio is considered, and up to 60% when nutrient digestibility is evaluated. High environmental temperature impairs broiler performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemistry, demonstrating the influence of environmental temperature on broiler metabolism and performance.

  18. Inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the diet of broiler breeders on performance and incubation parameters

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    Vinicius Duarte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of a diet containing canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3 on the production and reproductive performances of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aged 53 to 61 weeks. The study included 36,000 Cobb 500 female and 3,600 male broiler breeders aging 51 weeks. The birds were housed in three poultry houses divided into four plots, totaling 12 experimental units each containing 3,000 females and 300 males. The birds received the following treatments: control diet (without the studied additives or the control diet with the addition of 60mg kg-1feed of 25-(OH-D3 and canthaxanthin feed (6mg of canthaxanthin and 2,760,000IU of 25-(OH-D3 per kg of feed per the supplier's recommendations. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block design with two treatments and six replicates. The results were subjected to analysis of variance followed by the F-test. The treatments had no effect on egg production, usability of eggs and number of incubatable eggs per bird housed. The inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-(OH-D3 in the diet reduced embryonic mortality while increasing egg yolk pigmentation, hatching percentage, and number of viable chicks produced per bird. Therefore, the use of 60mg kg-1of 25-(OH-D3 plus canthaxanthin is recommended in the diet of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aging 53 to 61 weeks to improve important reproductive traits that have great economic impacts on poultry farms

  19. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal and soybean meal in laying hens and broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Abd El-Hack, M E; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 7 meat and bone meal (MBM) and 3 soybean meal (SBM) samples in broilers (Ross 708) and laying hens (Hy-line W36). All 10 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21-d-old broiler chickens and 30- or 50-wk-old laying hens. Standardization was accomplished by correcting for basal ileal endogenous amino acid losses using a nitrogen-free diet. Broilers were reared in cages from d 0 to 16 on a standard broiler starter diet adequate in all nutrients and energy; thereafter, they were allotted to treatments using a randomized complete design with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds each. For the laying hens, 6 replicate cages of 6 birds each (542 cm(2)/bird) were used. Each treatment diet, which was fed for 5 d, was semipurified, with MBM or SBM being the sole source of amino acids in each diet. Ileal endogenous amino acid losses were not different between broilers and the 2 groups of laying hens. Meat and bone meal from different locations varied widely in digestibility. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD in 4 of the 7 MBM samples. In 2 of the 3 SBM samples, broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD for most of the nonessential amino acids. Generally, hens had 6.4 and 7.7% units less Met and Lys digestibility of all MBM samples after standardization. Dry matter digestibility values of the SBM samples were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Likewise, broilers had 4.1 and 1.5% units more Met and Lys digestibility of all the SBM samples evaluated compared with those from laying hens. The results of these experiments suggest that differences exist in the digestive capabilities of laying hens and broilers, which indicates that species-specific nutrient digestibility values or adjustments may be needed.

  20. Relative bioavailability of zinc-methionine chelate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Haiqing; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Zhang, Xueyuan; Li, Hua; Lu, Yufei; Luo, Xugang

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the bioavailability of the organic Zn-methionine chelate relative to inorganic Zn source (ZnSO4•7H2O) for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broiler chicks were randomly allotted to one of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn/kg) and two Zn sources (Zn-methionine chelate and Zn sulfate) plus a Zn-unsupplemented control diet containing 29.2 mg of Zn/kg by analysis for an experimental phase of 21 days. Bone and pancreas were collected for testing Zn concentrations and pancreas metallothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) level at 7 or 21 days of age. The results showed that bone and pancreas Zn concentrations and MT mRNA level in pancreas increased linearly (P chelate relative to ZnSO4•7H2O (100%) were 120 and 115%, respectively (P > 0.22). The results indicated that the Zn from the Zn-methionine chelate was just as bioavailable as the Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.

  1. Impact of L-phenylalanine supplementation on the performance of three-week-old broilers fed diets containing ochratoxin A. 2. Effects on hematology and clinical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C A; Gibson, R M; Kubena, L F; Huff, W E; Harvey, R B

    1990-03-01

    Phenylalanine was evaluated for its ability to protect broiler chickens from the toxic effects of ochratoxin A (OA). A completely randomized 2-by-3 factorial design was utilized consisting of 0, .8, and 2.4% supplemental L-phenylalanine (Phe) and of 0 and 4 mg of OA per kg of diet. The basal diet contained 14% protein. Broilers were raised in battery brooders to 3 wk of age, when blood was collected and various hematological parameters were determined. The health status of the broilers was evaluated by assaying serum for various enzyme activities and metabolites using an automated, clinical chemistry analyzer. Adding OA to the broiler diets resulted in an increased concentration of serum hemoglobin as well as increased activity for cholinesterase and gamma glutamyl transferase but in decreased activity for aspartate amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline-phosphatase activity as well as decreased concentrations of total triglyceride and of inorganic phosphorus. Supplemental Phe decreased the concentrations of hemoglobin and serum glucose. The regression slopes for Phe at 4 mg of OA per kg of diet were significant for uric acid, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and cholesterol suggesting that supplemental Phe improved the health status of the broilers fed diets containing OA with respect to these parameters.

  2. Influence of sulfur amino acid levels in diets of broiler chickens submitted to immune stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LL Rubin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Several changes in amino acid levels occur during an infection. As a rule, glycine, taurine and serine levels diminish considerably, while cysteine levels increase. Such changes may be attributed to the intense consumption of sulfur amino acids (SAA- methionine+cysteine during infectious challenge. Methionine plays an important role in humoral and cellular immune responses. It has been suggested that such effect is exerted by intracellular glutathione and cysteine levels. Four-hundred thirty-two day-old Ross male broiler chickens were fed (from 1 to 42 days of age three SAA levels in the diet (0.72, 0.82, and 0.92% from 1 to 21 days of age; 0.65, 0.75, and 0.85% from 22 to 42 days of age and submitted to two immunological stimulus series. Vaccines against Marek's disease, Fowlpox, Infectious Bronchitis and Infectious Bursal disease, Freund's Complete Adjuvant, and avian tuberculin were used as immunological stimuli. The experiment comprised 6 treatments, with 6 replications using 12 birds per replicate. Performance data were collected weekly. Gumboro antibodies were measured by ELISA, and the cellular immune response by the tuberculin test. SAA levels tested did not influence immune response. Nevertheless, the vaccines applied on the 1st day impaired chick performance up to the 21 days of age. The SAA levels generally adopted in poultry husbandry may not be enough to assure weight gain, especially when birds are raised if a low-challenge infectious environment.

  3. Response of broiler chickens to different dietary crude protein and feeding regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO Oyedeji

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Five isocaloric (3200kcal/kg diets were used in an experiment designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP and feeding regimens on broiler performance. Day-old broilers were randomly distributed into four groups using a completely randomized design. Each group was replicated three times with ten broiler chicks per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Broilers in group 1 received 23% CP from 0 to 3 weeks, 20% CP from 3 to 6 weeks and 18% CP from 6 to 8 weeks, while broilers in group 2 received 23% CP between 0 and 6 weeks and 18% CP between 6 and 8 weeks. Besides, broilers in group 3 were fed 23% CP from 0 to 4 weeks and 16% CP from 4 to 8 weeks, whereas group 4 was given 18% CP from 0 to weeks. Water was supplied ad libitum for broilers in the different dietary groups. A metabolic trial was carried out on the third week of the experiment using a total collection method. Proximate analyses of diets and faecal samples were performed according to the methods outlined by the Association Of the Official Analytical Chemists. Results at market age showed that broiler performance with respect to feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio and water intake were not significantly influenced by CP regimens (p>0.05. Furthermore, CP regimens did not significantly influence broilers liveability (p>0.05. Protein retention, fat utilization and available fiber were not significantly influenced among treatments (p> 0.05. Economic data showed that cost to benefit ratio of producing broilers was comparable among broilers for all CP regimens used in this trial (p>0.05. It was concluded that a single diet of 18% CP and 3200kcal/kg metabolizable energy would be most suitable and convenient for farmers who are engaged in on-farm feed production for broilers as compared with the standard feeding regimens of broiler starter and broiler finisher diets.

  4. Methionine+cystine requirement of broiler chickens fed low-density diets under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Usama; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the M+C requirement of straight-run broiler chickens (Hubbard x Hubbard) during the period 4-21 (Exp. 1) and 21-40 (Exp. 2) days of age. Experiments were conducted during summer months (July-August) in open-sided houses, thus exposing chicks to chronic heat stress. Daily min-max temperature averaged 26-37C (Exp. 1) and 23-36C (Exp. 2). M+C deficient basal diets were formulated to contain low-nutrient-density, i.e., 2750 kcal per kg ME, 20.1% CP (Exp. 1), and 2780 kcal per kg ME, 17.0% CP (Exp. 2). Diets were supplemented with DL-methionine to provide total M+C level ranging from 0.64 to 0.89 % (six increments) and 0.54 to 0.79% (six increments), respectively in experiment 1 and 2. Requirements (0.95 of the maximum quadratic response) were found to be 0.77 and 0.75% total M+C, respectively for gain and feed efficiency, during 4-21 days; and 0.67% total M+C for both gain and feed efficiency during 21-40 days of age. Calculated on the digestible M+C basis, the estimates were 0.67 and 0.65% respectively for gain and feed efficiency during 4-21 days of age; and 0.60% for gain and feed efficiency during 21-40 days of age.

  5. EFFECTS OF LYSINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND MINERAL RETENTION OF BROILER CHICKENS FED RAW BENNE SEED BASED DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Akanji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of raw benne seed (RBS, Sesamum indicum with or without lysine supplementation on the performance characteristics and mineral retention of broiler chickens. The feeding trial lasted for 56 days. One hundred and forty unsexed day old  broiler chicks (Marshall strain were used for the study. RBS was incorporated into the diets at 15% and 30% levels and  supplemented with  0%, 0.25% and 0.5% of lysine, respectively. Average  weekly feed intake in birds fed the control diet and 15% RBS based diet supplemented with 0.25 % and 0.5% lysine were not significantly different, but significantly (P<0.05 higher than those fed other diets. Feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were significantly (P<0.05 reduced in birds fed 30% RBS with or without lysine supplementation. At 0.25% and 0.5% lysine supplementation, significant (P<0.05 increases were obtained in the retention of nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and iron in birds fed 15% RBS based diets, but markedly reduced in those fed 30% RBS  based diets. The reductions in the performance characteristics of the birds fed 30% RBS diets with or without lysine can be attributed to interactions in the toxic effects of the higher intakes anti-nutritional factors like tannin, oxalate and phytate.  In conclusion,  the response indices were better enhanced when 15% RBS supplemented with 0.5% lysine was fed to the birds.

  6. WELFARE OF BROILERS INGESTING A PRE-SLAUGHTER HYDRIC DIET OF LEMON GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFB Royer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe pre-slaughter period is considered critical in broiler production. Several factors contribute to increase the birds' stress, such as handling, harvesting, and transportation, negatively affecting their welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratusStapf to the drinking water of broilers during the pre-slaughter period on their behavior, blood cortisol, and surface temperature. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD, Dourados, MS, Brazil. In total, 2594 broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates per treatment. Treatments consisted of three different lemon grass levels (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf used in the form of an infusion (0, 0.1, and 5 g per L of water, sex (male or female, and genetic strain (Ross(r 308 or Cobb(r 500. The infusion was offered when birds were 42 days old. On that day, blood was collected for blood cortisol level determination, broiler surface temperature was recorded, and an ethogram was applied to register broiler behavior. Blood cortisol level and broiler surface temperature were not affected by treatments (p>0.05. The behavior of beak opening was different between the genetic strains (p<0.05, being more frequent in Ross(r 308 broilers. Lemon grass water content did not affect broilers' surface temperature when consumed during the pre-slaughter period.

  7. FATTY ACIDS PROFILE OF MEAT, MUCOSAL sIgA CONCENTRATION AND PRODUCTION INDEX OF BROILER AS A RESPONSE TO CHLORELLA sp. ADMINISTRATION IN THE DIET

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    S. Sugiharto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of different levels of Chlorella sp. in the form ofmeal administrated in the diet of broilers throughout their life upon FA profile of the breast muscle,mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA concentration and production index (PI of broiler. Allotted in 18 pens, thetotal of 90 Ross day old chicks were assigned in completely randomized design by 3 of dietarytreatments (T1: control (basal diet without enrichment of Chlorella sp.; T2: basal diet enriched with 5-gChlorella sp./kg feed; T3: basal diet enriched with 10-g Chlorella sp./kg feed. At d-36, skinless breastmeat was collected for FA determination. Practical standard of vaccination was performed to activateantibodies production and at d-36 gut mucosa was collected for sIgA analysis. Chlorella sp.administration had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the FA profile of breast muscle, mucosal sIgAconcentration and producton index of broiler. In conclusion, the level and ratio between n-3 to n-6polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA as well as the nature of dietary PUFA source determine tissue PUFAcomposition. Beside through eicosanoid, Chlorella sp. may affect mucosal sIgA production throughcytokines mediated effect. Although Chlorella sp. administration does not improve the production indexof broiler, this treatment may produce broiler meat with lower fat content.

  8. Effects of the Physical Form of Diet on the Outcome of an Artificial Salmonella Infection in Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratert, C; Sander, S J; Verspohl, J; Beyerbach, M; Kamphues, J

    2015-03-01

    To prove the hypothesis that the physical form of diet affects the outcome of an artificial infection with Salmonella Enteritidis in broilers, 7-day-old birds were allotted to one of four groups and fed botanically, and nearly also chemically identical diets, differing in grinding and further compaction. In total, two birds from each group (age 14 days) were administered on average 1.06 x 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of Salmonella Enteritidis directly into the crop by gavage and immediately put back as "seeder birds" into their respective groups. The salmonella status of each bird was analyzed by cloacal swabs, and at postmortem examination, cecal content and liver tissue samples were taken. Shedding (measured by cloacal swabs) was reduced significantly (P 2 mm. In this study the physical form of diet affected the outcome of an artificial infection with Salmonella Enteritidis significantly.

  9. The effect of low-density diets on broiler breeder development and nutrient digestibility during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, H; Veldman, A; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J

    2007-04-01

    Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4 treatments. The control treatment was a normal density diet (ND; 2,600 kcal/kg). Treatments 2 and 3 had a 12 and 23% lower nutrient density than ND (LD12 and LD23, respectively) through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal. Treatment 4 also had a 12% lower nutrient density than ND but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP)). Total daily intake of energy, digestible lysine, calcium, retainable phosphorus, sodium, and linoleic acid was kept constant in the low-density dietary treatments. Animal performance and development of the intestinal tract and reproductive tract were determined in addition to digestibility and feed passage rate. The LD12(OP) provided a lower AME and nutrient digestibility than calculated and was related to lower live weights. Birds given LD23 and LD12(OP) showed a faster ovarian and oviduct development between wk 24 and 26 compared with ND. At 22 wk of age, LD23 and LD12(OP) diets resulted in higher empty jejunum and ileum weights. Low-density diets did not affect intestinal tract contents and decreased mean retention time of the contents. It was concluded that low-density diets can affect live weight and development of digestive and reproductive tracts.

  10. Skeletal response to diet with soya bean seeds used as primary source of protein in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowski, B; Charuta, A; Radzki, R; Bieńko, M; Toczko, R

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted using 120 commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The experimental diets, differing only in protein source, either solvent-extracted soya bean meal (SBM) or traditional (non-genetically modified) full-fat soya bean seeds (FFS), were prepared using practical corn-based formulation designed to meet nutritional requirements of broilers. Performance parameters were monitored weekly. Also, the subjects were evaluated daily for overt changes in skeletal anatomy and gait physiology. Randomly selected chickens from each group (seven males and seven females) were euthanized at 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks of age, and bone specimens were collected for further study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined in tibiotarsal bones. Broilers fed FFS diet showed retarded growth rate and decreased feed intake (both p < 0.001). Both BMD and BMC parameters were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in bones of chickens from the FFS group in comparison with the SBM group. The chickens fed the FFS diet showed higher incidence of skeletal pathology including angular deformities and torticollis (both p < 0.01). Of note, cases of torticollis were observed only in FFS group. In many cases, skeletal abnormalities resulted in considerable changes in gait pattern, and in some instances, the pathology of leg bones was so advanced that the affected individuals were unable to walk, but this deformity was not seen in SBM group. From this study, it can be inferred that raw soya beans contain factors that have some specific detrimental effects on skeletal system of chickens.

  11. Effects of oregano essential oil supplementation to diets of broiler chicks with delayed feeding after hatching. Morphological development of small intestine segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Sarıca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil (OEO on the morphological development of small intestine of broilers with different feeding times (immediate, 24, 48 or 72 h posthatching delayed feeding from d 0 to 14. The diets were supplemented with: no, 250 or 500 mg/kg of the OEO (OEO250 and OEO500, respectively. Fasting for 72 h significantly increased the weight and length of small intestine segments of broilers on d 14. The OEO250 and OEO500 significantly increased the jejunum villus height of chickens fed immediately and the duodenum villus height of broilers fasted for 48 h. The duodenum villus surface area of chickens fasted for 48 h and the ileum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h were significantly increased by the OEO250. The OEO500 significantly enhanced the duodenum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h and their ileum villus surface area fasted for 48 h. The crypt depths of small intestine segments of broilers fasted for 72 h were significantly reduced by OEO250 and OEO500. In conclusion, the dose of phenolic compounds in OEO reaching the small intestine might be enough for protecting the intestinal epithelial cells from damages of toxins and for removing the negative effects of delayed feeding on the morphological development of all the small intestine segments of broiler chicks on d 14.

  12. Effects of diet and stress mimicked by corticosterone administration on early postmortem muscle metabolism of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H; Sui, S J; Jiao, H C; Jiang, K J; Zhao, J P; Dong, H

    2007-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of preslaughter physiological states mimicked by long- or short-term administration of corticosterone (CORT) and dietary energy sources on muscle glycogen contents and meat quality of broiler chickens. In experiment 1, the broilers were fed a high lipid diet (LD) or a normal diet (ND) that differed in carbohydrate (3.8%) and lipid (2.5%) contents from 21 d of age. From 28 d of age onwards, 50% of the chickens in each dietary treatment were subjected to CORT treatment (30 mg/kg of diet). At 7 and 11 d after CORT supplementation, musculus pectoralis major was sampled before and immediately after slaughter and analyzed for glycogen, pH, and R-value. In experiment 2, broilers, fed with the LD or ND diet from 21 d of age were subjected to 1 single s.c. injection of CORT (4 mg/kg of BW) for 3 h to mimicked acute stress at 46 d of age. In experiment 3, broiler chickens were supplied with water supplemented with glucose (30 g/L) for 1 wk before slaughter and were then subjected to the same CORT treatment as experiment 2. Blood and muscle samples were respectively obtained before and immediately after slaughter and analyzed for plasma glucose, urate and lactic acid, and muscle variables. Plasma concentrations of glucose and urate were significantly increased by acute CORT administration, whereas the lactic acid was not changed. Neither dietary energy source nor water glucose supplementation had any influence on the plasma variables. Dietary energy source or water glucose supplementation could not alter glycogen stores in musculus pectoralis major. Breast muscle glycogen stores were increased by stress mimicked by long-term CORT administration rather than by acute treatment. Preslaughter stress reactions had no relation to the depletion of breast muscle glycogen during the initial postmortem period. The initial breast muscle pH was significantly decreased by long-term CORT administration. The result suggests that short

  13. WELFARE OF BROILERS INGESTING A PRE-SLAUGHTER HYDRIC DIET OF LEMON GRASS

    OpenAIRE

    AFB Royer; RG Garcia; Borille,R; Santana,; IA Nääs; FR Caldara; ICL Almeida Paz; WM Zeviani; FMS Alves; Sgavioli,S; WS Mariano

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe pre-slaughter period is considered critical in broiler production. Several factors contribute to increase the birds' stress, such as handling, harvesting, and transportation, negatively affecting their welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratusStapf) to the drinking water of broilers during the pre-slaughter period on their behavior, blood cortisol, and surface temperature. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Fede...

  14. Antioxidant efficacy of curcuminoids from turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) powder in broiler chickens fed diets containing aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Nisarani K S; Ledoux, David R; Rottinghaus, Goerge E; Bermudez, Alex J; Chen, Yin C

    2009-12-01

    A 3-week-feeding study (1-21 d post-hatch) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of total curcuminoids (TCMN), as an antioxidant, to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) that contained 2.55 % TCMN was used as a source of TCMN. Six cage replicates of five chicks each were assigned to each of six dietary treatments, which included: basal diet; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN; basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 74 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 222 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1. The addition of 74 and 222 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved weight gain and feed efficiency. Increase (P < 0.05) in relative liver weight in birds fed AFB1 was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the addition of 74, 222 and 444 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet. The inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on serum chemistry in terms of total protein, albumin and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. The decreased antioxidant functions due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN. It is concluded that the addition of 222 mg/kg TCMN to the 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 diet demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity against AFB1.

  15. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance.

  16. Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.

  17. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P oregano essential oil and vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  18. Effects of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient retention, and characteristics of gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed low-phosphorus wheat-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esmaeilipour, O.; Shivazad, M.; Moravej, H.; Aminzadeh, S.; Rezaian, M.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient retention, jejunal viscosity, and size and pH of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed a low-P wheat-based diet. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels

  19. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CANOLA MEAL ON BROILER PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE DURING TWO PHASES OF GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. NASEEM, S. H. KHAN AND M. YOUSAF

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of canola meal in broiler diets during starter (0-4 weeks and finisher (5th week phases of growth. For this purpose, 1905 day-old broiler (Star bro chicks were reared in an environmentally controlled house using completely randomized design. Five different isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental pelleted diets were prepared with five levels viz. 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of canola meal (containing 85% KOH solubility and 36% crude protein, designated as A, B, C, D and E, respectively, for starter phase. Five corresponding finisher diets were used during the finisher phase. The chickens were randomly allocated to five dietary treatment groups having three replicates of 127 birds in each group. Feed intake during 0-4 weeks of age was reduced (P0.05 was found during 5th week of age. Weight gain was higher in chickens fed diets containing 25% canola meal during two stages of growth but difference was not significant (P>0.05 among the treatments. Similarly, during starting phase, feed utilization efficiency was better (P0.05 among the treatments during finishing phase. Dressing percentage and relative weight of liver of chickens among all treated groups were similar (P>0.05. The results indicated that maximum inclusion of canola meal (25% in broiler diets reduced the relative cost per unit weight gain. It may be suggested that canola meal (with 85% KOH solubility can be incorporated upto 25% in broiler diets without any adverse effect on production parameters during starting and finishing stages of growth.

  20. Causes for improvement in nutritive value of broiler chicken diets with whole wheat instead of ground wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihus, B; Juvik, E; Hetland, H; Krogdahl, A

    2004-02-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted with broiler chicks to compare nutritive values of ground and whole wheat diets containing titanium oxide as indigestible marker. 2. In Experiment 1, a wheat and soy isolate based cold-pelleted diet, in which all the wheat was ground in a hammer mill to pass through a 3 mm sieve, was compared with a diet in which about half (375 g/kg) of the ground wheat was taken out of the diet and supplied as whole wheat mixed into the diet after pelleting. 3. In Experiment 2, a diet based on ground wheat and soy isolate which was pelleted after preconditioning (final temperature 81 degrees C) was compared with a diet in which 500 g of the ground wheat was replaced by whole wheat mixed into the diet before pelleting. 4. In Experiment 1, replacement of ground wheat with whole wheat increased apparent metabolisable energy (AME) content and starch digestibility measured at ileal as well as faecal level, while weight gain and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were not affected. Jejunal chyme showed increased amylase activity and bile salt concentration. 5. In Experiment 2, replacement of ground wheat with whole wheat increased dry matter content as well as bile content of gizzard, and stimulated an increase in gizzard as well as pancreas weight. Jejunal amylase and bile concentrations were not significantly affected and neither were growth, FCE or AME. 6. Results from this experiment indicate that the improved feed value sometimes observed with whole wheat may be associated with modulation of digestive processes resulting in increased pancreas and liver secretions.

  1. Substituição de farinhas de origem animal por ingredientes de origem vegetal em dietas para frangos de corte Substitution of animal by-product meals by vegetable ingredients in diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bellaver

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido às exigências de alguns importadores, por motivação cultural ou devido a zoonoses recém acontecidas na Europa, tem havido um direcionamento para fabricação de rações vegetais com base em milho e farelo de soja (FS. Esse direcionamento traz conseqüências na produção e por isso, objetivou-se avaliar a resposta de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO e farinha de vísceras de aves (FV e dietas contendo milho e FS. As dietas foram calculadas para conterem 3.050 e 3.150 kcal EM/kg de ração nas fases inicial e de crescimento, respectivamente, e com os demais nutrientes calculados para atenderem às exigências das aves. A substituição de ingredientes foi testada variando-se os níveis de proteina nas fases inicial e de crescimento respectivamente, da seguinte forma: 1. Dieta com inclusão de 4% de FCO suína e 3% de FV, calculada por proteína ideal, com 22% (inicial e 20 % de PB (crescimento; 2. Dieta semelhante à dieta 1, sem farinhas de origem animal, formulada a base de milho e FS, com PB e lisina digestível semelhantes à dieta 1; 3. Dieta semelhante à dieta 2, com 23% (inicial e 21% de PB (crescimento e lisina digestível semelhante a dieta 1; 4. Dieta semelhante à dieta 2, com 24% (inicial e 22% de PB (crescimento e lisina digestível 6% e 5% superiores à dieta 1. Houve diminuição significativa da matéria seca da cama das aves devido à presença de ingredientes exclusivamente vegetais e aumento do teor de proteína das dietas (P0,05; havendo, porém, maior peso dos pés (PThe demand of some importers due to cultural reasons or to zoonosis that recently emerged in Europe, there has been a trend to manufacture vegetable feeds based on corn and soybean meal (SBM. This influences live production, and therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the response of broilers fed diets containing either meat and bone meal (MBM and offal meal (OM, or vegetable diets based on corn and

  2. Replacement of corn in the diet of broiler chickens using foxtail millet produced by 2 different cultivation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Samie, A H; Edriss, M A; Khorvash, M; Sadeghi, G; Van Kessel, A; Zentek, J

    2011-12-01

    Foxtail millet is well-suited to climatic conditions in semi-arid tropic regions where it is cultivated using both agro-ecologic and conventional cultivation practices. This study evaluated the nutritional value, digestibility, and physiological effects of agro-ecologic and conventionally cultivated foxtail millet in comparison with corn. Chemical and TME(n) analysis of foxtail millet cultivated conventionally and agro-ecologically indicated similar nutritional value. In total, 432 eight-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks, using a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, were randomly assigned to 4 replicate pens for each of 6 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets. Experimental diets were formulated by replacing corn with conventional or agro-ecologic millet at 3 levels (33, 66, or 100% of corn replacement). Body weight at 21 and 42 d of age was higher (P < 0.05) at 100% millet inclusion versus the lower inclusion levels. At 42 d of age, feed intake and feed conversion ratios were also improved (P < 0.05) at the 100% millet inclusion level. Similarly, the apparent ileal digestibility of CP increased (P < 0.05) for 100% millet diets. There were no differences in ileal digestibility of nutrients between millet growth conditions. Millet inclusion level significantly affected small intestinal morphology such that crypt depth was lowest (P < 0.05) in the 100% inclusion group for duodenum, jejunum, and ileum at 28 d of age, and for duodenum and ileum at 42 d of age. The villus crypt ratio was also highest (P < 0.05) in the 100% millet inclusion group for jejunum and ileum at 28 d of age, and duodenum, jejunum, and ileum at 42 d of age. Millet growth condition did not markedly affect small intestinal morphology. Serum antibody responses to Gumboro and Newcastle diseases were not affected by millet inclusion level or growth condition. In conclusion, foxtail millet could be considered as an alternate cereal for inclusion in the diet of broiler chickens. Broiler chicken performance and

  3. Effect of broiler breeders fed with corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin supplementation on production and reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, C E V; Rosa, A P; Londero, A; Giacomini, C B S; Orso, C; Fernandes, M O; Paixão, S J; Bonamigo, D V

    2017-03-04

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin (CX) supplementation on performance in broiler breeders. A total of 440 females with similar body weight (BW) (3.71 ± 0.14 kg) and 60 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 20 pens, randomly distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2). There were 4 diets of 2 ingredients; corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and 2 levels of CX; 6 mg/kg (CX) and 0 mg/kg (NCX) totaling 5 replicate pens of 22 females and 3 males each, from 42 to 65 wk, divided in 2 periods (from wk 42 to 53 and wk 54 to 65). Birds' BW was measured every 28 d and mortality rate was calculated at the end of trial. Egg production (%), egg specific gravity (g/cm3), egg weight (g), yolk weight (%), albumen weight (%), eggshell weight (%) and yolk colorimetric score were measured weekly. Incubation parameters were recorded in 12 incubations to evaluate hatching eggs, hatching (%), hatchability (%), fertility (%), weight of the chicks born and their quality. The BW, mortality, percentage of yolk and albumen weight, fertility and some incubation parameters were not affected (P > 0.05) by diets used. An increase in the egg production, hatching eggs, chicks born and first quality chick by hen at the second period were observed in CX breeder's diets (P = 0.0066; P = 0.0060; P = 0.0368; P = 0.0326). Egg specific gravity and eggshell weight were improved at the first period by SO+CX diet (P = 0.0138; P = 0.0209) and the same effect to egg weight, but at the second period (P = 0.0251). The CX was well absorbed from the diet and effectively transferred to the egg yolk, thereby increasing egg yolk pigmentation in the both periods (P < 0.0001). The CX supplementation in broiler breeder diets improved the productive and reproductive performance (laying% and hatchable eggs) at the second period, also to the both periods improved the egg yolk pigmentation.

  4. Effects of different yeast cell wall supplements added to maize- or wheat-based diets for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-López, R; Auclair, E; Van Immerseel, F; Ducatelle, R; García, F; Brufau, J

    2010-06-01

    1. Three experiments were carried out to study the effects of two experimental yeast cell wall (YCW) supplements, one from the yeast extract industry and the other from the brewery industry, added to maize or wheat based-diets, on performance and intestinal parameters of broiler chickens (Ross 308). 2. In the first and second experiments, a completely randomised block design with 4 experimental treatments was used: T-1) Negative control, no additives T-2) Positive control, avilamycin group (10 mg/kg feed), T-3) Yeast extract-YCW (500 mg/kg), and T-4) Brewery-YCW (500 mg/kg feed). There were 6 replicates of 20 (experiment 1) and 22 (experiment 2) chicks per treatment. 3. In experiment 1 (wheat based diets), yeast extract-YCW increased BW and daily feed intake (42 d). The effects were comparable to those of avilamycin. In experiment 2 (maize based diet), avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW treatments improved the feed conversion ratio with respect to the negative control group (0 to 14 d). 4. At 24 d, in both experiments, the ileal nutrient digestibility and ileal bacterial counts were not affected by any experimental treatment. In maize diets, lower intestinal viscosity was obtained with avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW than with the negative control. In wheat diets, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW reduced intestinal viscosity. 5. A third experiment was conducted to study the effect of yeast extract-YCW on animal performance, intestinal mucosa morphology and intestinal viscosity. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used; one factor was the dietary yeast extract-YCW supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg feed) and the other the cereal in the diet (maize or wheat). 6. At 43 d, the heaviest BW was in chickens fed on yeast extract-YCW compared to those given the negative control. At 22 d, yeast extract-YCW increased villus height, mucus thickness and number of goblet cells with respect to negative control. 7. Results of these experiments

  5. Arginine, soy isoflavone and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose have protective effects against obesity in broiler breeder hens fed on high-energy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, S; Zaghari, M; Ganjkhanloo, M; Ghaziani, F

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of arginine, soy isoflavone (ISF) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on obesity in broiler breeder hens. 2. A total of 320 Cobb 500 hens, 45 weeks of age, were assigned to 64 floor pens. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomised design in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2 × 2 × 2) with 4 replicates of 5 hens in each pen. Factors included two concentrations of HPMC (0 and 1%), two concentrations of arginine (8.4 and 12 g/kg), two concentrations of ISF (zero and three times more than that present in basal diets) and two contents of energy (11.7 and 14.6 MJ/kg). Performance criteria and blood characteristics of hens were measured during the experimental period. Expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined in the liver at 55 weeks of age. 3. Hens given high-energy diets showed increased BW (body weight), ovary weight and abdominal fat pad and enhanced plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, haemoglobin, haematocrit and low lymphocyte percentages. The expression of malic enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) increased and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) decreased with increasing energy content of diets. Arginine addition decreased TG, cholesterol and A1-c haemoglobin concentration and increased PPARα, PPARγ and iNOS expression. Inclusion of ISF and HPMC decreased BW, egg weight, plasma TG, cholesterol and increased egg production and also enhanced PPARγ and iNOS expression. Significant interactions were observed between energy concentration and ISF and HPMC on BW. 4. The results of the current study revealed that ISF, HPMC and arginine have beneficial effects on controlling the metabolism of obese broiler breeder hens and using a mix of these products minimises the harmful effects of obesity.

  6. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count.

  7. Suplementação de Treonina em Dietas de Frangos de Corte, Variando a Energia e as Relações Energia: Proteína Threonine Supplementation in Broiler Diets Varying Energy and Energy: Protein Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF Reginatto

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos (EXP 1 e 2 foram conduzidos para avaliar relações energia metabolizável:proteína bruta (EM:PB e a adição de treonina (Thr em dietas com alta (A (3.200kcal EM/kg e baixa (B (2.900kcal EM/kg energia, sobre desempenho e composição de carcaças de frangos de corte machos. As relações energia:proteína foram 139 e 160 kcal/%, para as dietas iniciais (1 a 21 dias (EXP 1 e 160 e 181kcal/%, para as de crescimento (22 a 40 dias (EXP 2, nos dois níveis de energia. As dietas com ampla relação EM:PB foram suplementadas, ou não, com Thr a fim de iguala-las às dietas com menor EM:PB. Os níveis de Met+Cys e de Lys foram constantes. As aves receberam uma dieta única após (EXP1, ou antes (EXP2 do fornecimento das dietas experimentais. Nos dois EXP as dietas A proporcionaram melhor desempenho: ganho de peso (GP,consumo de ração e conversão alimentar (CA (pTwo experiments (EXP were carried out to investigate the metabolizable energy:crude protein ratios (ME:CP and threonine addition (Thr in high-energy (H (3.200kcal ME/kg and low-energy (L (2.900kcal ME/kg diets, on the performance and carcass composition of male broiler chickens. The ME:CP ratios were: 139 and 160kcal/% for starter diets (1 to 21 days of age (EXP 1 and 160 and 181kcal/% for grower diets (22 to 40 days(EXP 2, in both energy levels, keeping Met + Cys and Lys constant. Thr was supplemented to equalize its level to the lower EM:PB ratio. All birds received a unique diet after (EXP 1 or before (EXP 2 been fed with the experimental diets. In both EXP feeding H diets resulted in better performance -weight gain (WG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion (FC (p<0,01 at the end of each experimental period. However, in EXP 1, birds fed with L diets during the starter period had better caloric conversion (kcal/kg (CC in the total period (1 to 40 days, as an indicative of accelerated growth. The lower levels of Thr (0.74 and 0.69% for H and L diets, respectively were not

  8. Assessing changes in the composition of broiler litters from commercial poultry units in Northern Ireland following the adoption of phytase in diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, R H; Ball, M E E; George, J

    2014-11-01

    Microbial phytases increase the bioavailability of phytate P in poultry diets, and a survey was undertaken to determine if their use had lowered the P composition of broiler litter in Northern Ireland compared with standard values of litter composition listed in the current United Kingdom fertilizer recommendations. Litter samples were collected from a total of 20 units across Northern Ireland in 2010 and analyzed for DM, N, phosphate (P2O5), potash (K2O), magnesium oxide (MgO), water-soluble P (WSP), ammonium N (NH4N), and uric acid N. Dry matter of litter was positively correlated (P light of the changing composition of broiler litter.

  9. Impact of combined β-glucanase and xylanase enzymes on growth performance, nutrients utilization and gut microbiota in broiler chickens fed corn or wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, P M; Nandha, N K; Kiarie, E; Nyachoti, C M; Khafipour, E

    2016-03-01

    The effects of a xylanase and β-glucanase (XB) blend (2,500 U of xylanase and 250 U of β-glucanase per kg of complete feed) on growth performance, nutrients utilization and digesta microbiota in broiler chickens were investigated. A total of 140 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 replicate cages and fed experimental diets. Diets were based on either corn or wheat without or with supplemental XB. Performance was monitored weekly and excreta were collected from d 17 to 20 for nutrients digestibility and AMEn measurements. On d 21, jejunal contents were collected for viscosity determination whereas ileal and cecal contents were obtained for microbial analysis by Illumina sequencing. Microbial data were analyzed using QIIME and PLS-DA whilst other data were analyzed using SAS. Birds fed wheat diets had higher (P diet whilst birds fed XB had better BWG (4%) and FCR (7%) than birds fed non-XB diets. Birds fed wheat diet had higher (P diet. XB reduced (P diet (-31%) than in corn-based diet (-10%). Birds fed wheat-based diet with XB had higher (3.5%) starch digestibility than birds fed this diet without XB. Janthinobacterium was associated with non-XB corn-based diet, whereas Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Clostridiales, Acidovorax and Blautia were associated with XB corn-based diet in the ileum. A relatively similar microbiome clustering was observed in wheat-based treatments in the cecum. There were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) correlations between selected ileal or cecal bacterial taxa and AMEn. Diet impacted growth performance but XB was efficacious across diet types, implying that degradation of dietary fibrous components by feed enzymes may stimulate performance in young birds. Data provided significant insight on ileal and cecal microbial profile associated with the dietary types and XB; however their functional roles require further investigations.

  10. Possibilities of using MORINGA (Moringa oleifera LEAF MEAL AS A PARTIAL SUBSTITUTE FOR FISHMEAL IN BROILER CHICKENS DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. ZANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-week feeding trial involving 180 2-week old Cobb broiler chicks was conducted to assess the effects of partial replacement of fishmeal with Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf meal on broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned in equal numbers in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD to four dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, and 15% Moringa leaf meal (MLM. Each treatment was replicated three times giving 15 birds per replicate. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. The parameters measured were feed intake, initial weight, final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, carcass traits, hematology, serum biochemistry and meat quality. Final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency significantly (p<0.05 declined with increasing level of MLM. None of the carcass traits measured was significantly affected by addition of MLM. Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH was the only hematological parameter that showed significance (P<0.05 difference in treatment groups. Triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL differed significantly (P<0.05. Also incorporation of MLM significantly (P<0.05 affected the moisture, crude protein and crude fat of the meat of experimental birds. Cost benefit analysis showed that incorporation of MLM resulted in reduced feed cost. However, the net revenue from birds fed diets containing MLM reduced as a result of poor weight gain. Based on the data obtained in this study it is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal when partially used to replace fishmeal may hamper growth rate of broiler chickens. Nonetheless, addition of MLM does not adversely affect mortality, carcass traits and blood variables.

  11. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible.

  12. EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTED DIETS WITH GARLIC ORGANIC EXTRACT AND STREPTOMYCIN SULPHATE ON INTESTINAL MICROFLORA AND NUTRIENTS DIGESTIBILITY IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. DIEUMOU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effects of garlic organic extract and streptomycin sulphate on intestinal microflora and nutrients digestibility in broilers. Forty eight Hubbard line one day-old chicks with equal numbers of males and females were randomly allocated to eight treatment combinations to conduct a 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a completely randomised design. The diets were supplemented with: no supplement (control, garlic organic extract at 40 ppm/kg (GOE 40 ppm, garlic organic extract at 60 ppm/kg (GOE 60 ppm and streptomycin sulphate at 30 ppm/kg (SS 30 ppm administered by oral gavage from day 13 to day 47 of experiment. There were two birds (males or females per experimental unit, replicated three times in twenty four deep litter pens. The colony forming units of Escherichia coli were significantly reduced (P0.05 in nutrients absorption between male and female broilers. Treatment and sex interaction significantly (P<0.05 affected all the parameters studied indicating a synergistic effect of the two factors on nutrients absorption. It could be concluded that GOE even at 40 ppm/kg controlled pathogens and improved nutrients digestibility in birds.

  13. Linking ileal digestible phosphorus and bone mineralization in broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with phytase and highly soluble calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, O; Walk, C L

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the ileal digestibility of P in potassium phosphate, phytase-related ileal digestible P release, bone-mineralization-based ileal digestible P equivalency of phytase, and phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization in broiler chickens at 2 dietary concentrations of highly soluble Ca (HSC). Birds were sorted by BW at d 15 posthatch and assigned to 8 cages per diet with 8 birds per cage. Twelve diets were arranged in a 2 × 6 factorial of HSC at 5 or 6 g/kg and P supply treatment at 6 levels consisting of 4 added P levels (P from KH2PO4 added at 0, 0.7, 1.4, or 2.1 g/kg of diet) or 2 added phytase levels (500 or 1,000 phytase units). On d 24 posthatch, ileal digesta were collected for ileal P digestibility (IPD) determination and the left tibia was collected from the 4 heaviest birds in each cage for bone ash determination. Weight gain, G:F, and tibia ash were higher (P phytase linearly increased (P phytase showed a reduction (P phytase intake indicated that 1,000 units of added phytase released 1.701 or 1.561 g of digestible P in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively. Polynomial regressions of tibia ash on digestible P or phytase intake in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg at 1,000 phytase units gave digestible P equivalency of 1.487 or 1.448 g, respectively. Thus, phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization was 87.4 and 92.8% in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of pilot-scale microencapsulation of probiotics and product effect on broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Li, J; Yun, T T; Li, A K; Qi, W T; Liang, X X; Wang, Y W; Liu, S

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pilot-scale production of microencapsulated in a 500-L fermenter using emulsion and gelation and to assess the effect of the products on the growth performance, antioxidant activity, immune function, and cecal microbiota in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of seven hundred 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 7 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers per pen. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) basal diet containing 0.1% Aureomycin (ANT), 3) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P1), 4) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P2), 5) basal diet containing 0.01% empty microcapsules (CAP), 6) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP1), and 7) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP2). The feeding experiment included 2 phases: the starter phase from d 1 to 21 and the grower phase from d 22 to 42. The results showed that a 500-L fermenter could produce 20.73 ± 4.05 kg of microcapsules with an approximate diameter of 549 μm. The feeding experiment showed that ADG of broilers in CAPP1 was significantly ( microencapsulation of microbial cells can be achieved using emulsion and initial gelation and that the dietary administration of microencapsulated can significantly enhance the growth performance, immune function, cecum microbial community, and overall health of broilers.

  15. Enzimas exógenas em dietas de frangos de corte: desempenho Exogenous enzymes in broilers fed diets: performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nei André Arruda Barbosa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a eficiência de enzimas exógenas em dietas sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Um total de 1440 pintos de corte machos (Cobb 500® foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x2 (duas dietas com diferentes densidades nutricionais; com e sem a adição enzimática com 8 repetições de 45 aves em cada unidade experimental. As dietas com diferentes densidades nutricionais foram: controle positivo (níveis normais e um controle negativo (com redução de 4,3 e 4,5% de energia metabolizável; 16,7 e 17,7% de cálcio e 35 e 42,7% de fósforo, nas fases inicial e de crescimento, respectivamente. A suplementação enzimática consistiu da combinação das enzimas fitase (100g t-1 e amilase, xilanase e protease (500g t-1. Foi avaliado o desempenho das aves nas fases de 1 a 21 e 1 a 42 dias de idade. Na fase total de criação, as aves alimentadas com a dieta controle negativo com adição enzimática tiveram consumo de ração (5,97%, peso médio (8,47%, ganho de peso (8,64% e conversão alimentar (2,92% melhores (P0,05 ao grupo alimentado com a dieta controle positivo com ou sem enzima. A adição de enzimas exógenas em dieta de frangos de corte com redução de energia metabolizável, cálcio e fósforo, proporciona um consumo de ração, peso vivo médio e ganho de peso similar a uma dieta com níveis nutricionais adequados.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of enzyme efficiency in diets with and without nutrient reduction on the performance of broilers. Thousand and hundred forty male broiler chicks (Cobb 500® were distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments in a factorial 2x2 (two diets with different nutrient densities, with and without enzyme with 8 replications of 45 birds. The diets were: positive control (normal and a negative control (with a reduction of 4.3% and 4.5% of metabolizable energy, 16.7% and 17.7% of

  16. Dietary limitation of isoleucine and valine in diets based on maize, soybean meal, and meat and bone meal for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, A; Dozier, W A; Loar, R E; Kidd, M T; Tillman, P B

    2010-08-01

    1. The dietary limitation of isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) was evaluated in broilers. Common diets were given to all broilers from 0 to 28 d of age. Experimental diets were provided from 28 to 42 d of age. 2. The experimental test diet was based primarily on maize, soybean meal, and meat and bone meal, and formulated to satisfy all nutrient recommendations with the exception of Ile and Val. 3. Diets were supplemented with L-Ile and L-Val at either 0·5 or 1·0 g kg⁻¹ of diet, alone or in combination. A diet composed only of commercially available amino acids and formulated to satisfy all nutrient requirements served as a positive control. 4. Body weight gain was depressed by the test diet, but recovered to a weight similar to birds fed on the positive control when Val was added to the test diet either alone or in combination with Ile. Feed efficiency improved when Val and Ile were simultaneously supplemented. 5. Abdominal fat yield was reduced with the combined supplementation of Val and Ile. Breast meat yield appeared to be more sensitive to Ile supplementation than to Val. 6. The results suggest that live performance may be more sensitive to Val, while breast meat yield was maximised with Ile supplementation. However, their combination is required for optimised growth and meat yield.

  17. Heat stress and vitamin E in diets for broilers as a mitigating measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Santos Dalólio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review aimed to identify the importance of vitamin E dietary supplementation to broilers subjected to heat stress in relation to metabolism, growth performance and quality of animal products and its effects on immune system. Vitamin E is the concentration of tocopherol and tocotrienol, which can be found in natural or synthetic form. This vitamin is essential for the integrity of reproductive, muscular, circulatory, nervous and immune systems of the animals. In order to reduce the harmful effects of high temperatures in poultry production, vitamin E supplementation is a viable alternative for the sector. Some studies indicate its potential antioxidant effect able to modulate inflammatory responses and physiological adjustments to mitigate the undesirable effects of exposure of broilers to high temperatures. Moreover, it has been found increased viability of animals due to the greater activation of the immune system, and improved quality of animal products given to the deposition in tissues with consequent nutritional enrichment of meat products.

  18. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    Different types of fibre sources were used in high fibre diets to increase feeding quantity and measure the effect on different parameters in two experiments. In exp. I, three diets (A, commercial control diet; B, high insoluble fibre content; and C, high soluble fibre content) were fed to 10...... significantly more in a hunger test than birds on diets B and C, indicating that these two high-fibre diets did reduce the level of hunger experienced by the birds. Stereotypic pecking was most frequently seen in birds fed A and never observed in birds fed B. Birds on diet C appeared scruffier in their plumage...... fibre feed staying longer in the intestinal system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dust bathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The results from the two experiments show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce...

  19. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (pnutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (pnutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (pnutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens.

  20. Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Turmeric (Curcuma longa and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Powders on Performance, Organs Relative Weight and Some Immune System Parameters in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naderi M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 240 Ross 308 day-old male broiler chicks within a completely randomized design were used in this experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of turmeric powder and cinnamon powder on performance and some immune responses of broiler chickens. Dietary treatments were as follow: a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; basal diet + 10 ppm avilamycin; basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg turmeric powder; basal diet + 7.5 g/Kg turmeric powder; basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg cinnamon powder; and basal diet + 7.5 g/Kg cinnamon powder. During the experiment, feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio were measured in the beginning and the end of starter (0-21 d. and grower (22-42 d. periods. On 21 d. of age, two chicks from each replicate were randomly selected and blood samples were taken. Differential enumeration of heterophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were done. Also, antibody titers against IBV, IBD, and NDV vaccines were measured. Addition of 2.5 g/Kg turmeric powder increased body weight gain in the starter period and improved feed conversion ratio in the starter and entire periods of the experiment, when compared to the control (P. Also, inclusion of 10 ppm avilamycin into diet improved feed conversion ratio in the grower and entire periods of the experiment, comparing to the control (P. Inclusion of turmeric powder at 2.5 g/Kg or 7.5 g/Kg and cinnamon powder at 7.5 g/Kg declined the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P. The results of this study showed that turmeric powder at the level of 2.5 g/Kg would be a potential alternative for antibiotic growth promoters. Also, reducing heterophil to lymphocyte ratio by turmeric and cinnamon powders, introduce them as potential stress alleviators in broiler chickens.

  1. Effects of the Dietary Inclusion of a Probiotic, a Prebiotic or their Combinations on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Murshed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A total of 350-one-day old chicks were placed in 70 cages, with 14 cages per treatment. The following five treatment diets were fed for 14 days: T1 = non-supplemented, control diet (CONT; T2 = diet with antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP; T3 = diet with a probiotic (PROB; T4 = diet with a prebiotic(PREB, and T5 = diet with the probiotic and the prebiotic (SYM. The growth experiment was carried out from 1 to 14 days of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and birds were maintained at 24-h light schedule. Diets were formulated to contain 3000 kcalME/kg and 21.5% crude protein, and the test materials were added on top. The cumulative results of1 to 14 days of age revealed that broiler fed the AGP and PREB diets presented the highest BWG (305.5 and 297.3 g, respectively, while those fed the CONT diet had the lowest BWG (273.2 g (p<0.05. On the other hand, the best FCR was obtained in broilers AGP and PROB (1.296 and 1.299 g:g, respectively, while chicks on the CONT and SYM diet had the worst FCR (1.423 and 1.372 g:g, respectively (p<0.01. The results showed broilers fed the non-supplemented diet consistently presented poor performance. It was concluded that PROB or PREB can serve as alternatives to antibiotic in broiler starter feeds, with no performance impairment.

  2. Effect of diets containing potato protein or soya bean meal on the incidence of spontaneously-occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis and the physiological response in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, P S; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M; Silva, S S P

    2011-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to compare and explain the incidence of spontaneously occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that were fed on two practical broiler diets that differed in the major protein concentrates (soya bean meal or potato protein concentrates) and examine the relationships between the severity of the disease and the growth performance and physiological responses of the chickens. 2. A total of 840, 20-d-old birds were randomly allocated to 12 pens. Two maize-based nutritionally complete diets that either contained some potato protein or soya bean meal as the major protein supplement were fed for 16 d. Twelve birds were randomly sampled from each pen at the end of the feeding period and their blood sampled and intestinal tracts and livers dissected. 3. The birds fed on the potato protein diet had a significantly 7·7% lower feed intake and a significantly 7·8% lower growth rate compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet. There were no significant differences in feed conversion efficiency or mortality. There were no differences in the determined apparent metabolisable energy concentrations, however, the apparent dry matter digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly higher than that of the soya based diet and the apparent crude protein digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly lower. 4. A significantly higher alpha toxin antibody titre was found in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with those fed on the soya protein diet. There was a significantly increased incidence of hepatic lesions in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with the birds fed on the soya diet. The mean incidence of intestinal necroses tended to be greater in the birds fed on the potato protein diet (23·6%) compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet (15·3%). 5. There was a significant linear relationship between ileal digesta sialic acid concentration and serum alpha toxin

  3. Effect of Phytase Superdoses and Citric Acid on Growth Performance, Plasma Phosphorus and Tibia Ash in Broilers Fed Canola Meal-Based Diets Severely Limited in Available Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri HR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase superdoses alone or in combination with citric acid (CA in canola meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (Pa on growth performance, plasma phosphorus (P, and tibia ash (TA in broilers from 22 to 42 d of age. Two hundreds and eighty 21-d-old male broilers were used in 28 pens of 10 birds per each. The experimental diets consisted of a positive control (PC diet and six negative control (NC diets which consisted of two levels of CA (0 and 20 g/Kg and three levels of phytase (0, 1000 and 4000 U/Kg in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. The PC diet contained 4.3 g/Kg Pa, but all NC diets contained 1.5 g/Kg Pa. Results indicated that the birds fed the PC diet had a significantly higher average daily gain (ADG, plasma P and TA, but a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR than those fed the NC diet. The ADG, FCR and plasma P values in birds fed NC diets supplemented with 4000 U/Kg phytase enzyme (with or without CA significantly reached those of birds fed the PC diet. But, addition of phytase enzyme at 1000 U/Kg only plus CA to the NC diet could significantly improve FCR and plasma P. A significant interaction was observed between phytase and CA for FCR and plasma P. Although TA values in NC + 1000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA were similar to the PC treatment, TA values of NC + 4000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA was greater than that of the PC treatment. Results of this study showed that, in severely limited Pa corn-canola meal-based diets, supplementing 4000 U/Kg phytase or also 1000 U/Kg phytase plus CA will be sufficient to obtain the comparable feed efficiency in broilers to those fed the adequate Pa diet.

  4. Effect of diet chestnut tannin supplementation on meat quality, fatty acid profile and lipid stability in broiler rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.

  5. Performance of broilers experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and fed diets with addition of lactulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete Souza Santana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of lactulose on performance as well as its ability to prevent colonization by Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers orally inoculated with this pathogen. The design adopted was completely randomized, with 630 one-day-old male chicks distributed into six treatments, with seven replications and 15 birds per experimental unit. The treatments comprised the following procedures: T1 (control group - no S. Typhimurium inoculation or supply of lactulosis; T2 - only inoculation of S. Typhimurium; T3 - only lactulosis supply; T4 supply of lactulosis and S. Typhimurium inoculation on the first day of life; T5 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours before S. Typhimurium inoculation; and T6 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours after inoculation of S. Typhimurium. Performance variables were evaluated on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th days of age; fragments of the duodenum and jejunum were collected and sent to histomorphometric assessment at 14 days of age, and S. Typhimurium excretion was verified in cloacal swabs on the 10th, 24th and 35th days of age. Performance data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (5% and fecal excretion data were assessed by non-parametric chi-square test. Better weight gain and feed conversion were observed in groups fed lactulosis with or without challenge of S. Typhimurium up to 21 days of age. Reduced duodenum villous height was verified on the 14th day in groups challenged with the pathogen. Reduction of S. Typhimurium fecal excretion was verified in broilers fed lactulosis from the first day of life on and 48 hours before receiving S. Typhimurium directly into the crop. Lactulosis increases broiler performance up to one week after its inoculation, influences duodenum villous height and reduces the fecal excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium.

  6. Effect of oleic and conjugated linoleic acid in the diet of broiler chickens on the live growth performances, carcass traits and meat fatty acid profile

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    Stefano Rapaccini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil and CLA enriched olive oil were compared with each other in a growth trial with broiler chickens, as energy supplements to the diet. A commercial CLA blend was used at the level of 1 kg per 100 kg mixed integrated feed. Two hundred and forty commercial hybrid broilers (Ross 308 were randomly subdivided and allotted to 8 pens of 30 birds each. Four pens of birds were fed the olive oil diet and considered the control group; the other 4 pens were fed the olive oil supplemented with CLA and considered the treated group. The experiment lasted 47 days. The live performance of the treated birds resulted different from the performance of the control ones: the final body weight was slightly lighter (2.544 kg vs 2.639 kg; P≤0.05 with a lower feed intake (4.886 kg feed vs 4.998 kg, P≤0.05 and, of course, an almost perfectly overlapping feed/gain ratio (1.90 vs 1.91. The fatty acid composition of the breast fat of the CLA treated birds resulted enriched by the two major CLA isomers, trans 10 cis 12 and cis 9 trans 11, whereas oleic acid and the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic polyunsaturated acids showed a decrease (P≤0.05. CLA appears a recommendable ingredient in the diets of broilers as it improves the beneficial characteristics of poultry meat.

  7. Interactive effects of phytase and xylanase supplementation with extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn in diets with adequate calcium and nonphytate phosphorus fed to broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, C K; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn (PS) and exogenous enzyme supplementation on N, starch, and energy digestibility in broilers fed diets adequate in Ca and nonphytate P. Broilers were randomly distributed into floor pens (6 replicate pens per treatment) with 28 birds per pen at 1 d of age. Treatments consisting of 4 sources of corn varying in PS (A, 58.1; B, 54.2; C, 53.7; and D, 30.6 mg of BSA equivalent values) with or without phytase (0 and 1,000 phytase units/kg) and xylanase (0 and 16,000 units of xylanase activity/kg) were randomly assigned to each pen. Different sources of corn were provided from 1 to 9 and 24 to 29 d of age. However, enzyme treatments were provided throughout the experiment. From 1 to 9 d of age, no interactions were observed. Apparent ileal N digestibility (AIND) and apparent ileal digestible energy (IDE) of diets with the lowest PS (based on corn D) were lower (P ≤ 0.05) than those of diets with a higher PS. Phytase increased (P ≤ 0.01) AIND and IDE by 5 and 16%, respectively, and xylanase exerted the opposite effect (P ≤ 0.03). From 24 to 29 d of age, phytase and xylanase in combination resulted in reduced (P ≤ 0.05) AIND of diets with a low PS (based on corn D) compared with the basal diet in broilers. Broilers fed diets with the highest or lowest PS (based on corn A or D) had lower (3-way interaction; P ≤ 0.05) IDE when phytase and xylanase were supplemented in combination compared with either enzyme alone. In conclusion, responses to exogenous enzyme supplementation are not constant and are influenced by the source of ingredients as well as the age of broilers. The magnitudes of the responses to phytase on nutrient and energy digestibility were greater at 9 compared with 29 d of age.

  8. Probiotic and prebiotic utilization in diets for free-range broiler chickens

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    K Pelícia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effects of probiotic associated to prebiotic on performance, carcass and cut yields, qualitative traits of meat, development and score of lesions due to coccidiosis in digestive tract of broiler chickens raised in a free-range system during 85 days. One thousand, six hundred and ninety-six day-old male broiler chicks from naked-neck ISA S757-N Label Rouge line were used in a randomized block design with factorial scheme of 4x2 and four repetitions. The effect of four additive (1 - biologic promoter + coccidiosis vaccine; 2 - biologic promoter + anti-coccidiosis; 3 - chemical promoter + coccidiosis vaccine; 4 - chemical promoter + anti-coccidiosis and two breeding systems from 35th day of age (one with no-access to pasture or confined and the other with free-access to pasture or semi-confined on performance parameters, carcass and cut yields, qualitative meat traits, coccidiosis development and lesions in digestive tract were evaluated. There was effect (p<0.05 of additives only on sensorial analysis (meat quality and percentage of large intestine. Breeding systems affected (p<0.05 live weight (LW and LW gains, being the better results observed in semi-confined birds.

  9. Dietas para frangos de corte contendo quirera de arroz Performance of broiler feed with broken rice in diets

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    Berilo de Souza Brum Júnior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o uso da quirera de arroz na dieta de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 240 pintos machos, alojados em galpão, contendo 12 boxes de 2m² de área. Cada box continha comedouro tubular, bebedouro pendular e campânula nos 21 dias iniciais. As aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições, as quais receberam dietas contendo 0, 20 e 40% de inclusão de quirera de arroz. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão e à análise de variância e, quando houve diferença, aplicou-se o teste de Tukey. O ganho de peso, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar de 1-21, 1-35 e 1-42 dias (P>0,05 não foram afetados pela substituição do milho por quirera de arroz. A umidade de cama, o índice de eficiência produtivo, o rendimento de carcaça quente, de fígado, coração, coxa, sobre-coxa e peito não apresentaram diferença (P>0,05. No entanto, os rendimentos de moela, bem como a pigmentação da canela e do bico, diminuíram linearmente com o aumento do nível de quirera de arroz na dieta. Conclui-se que a quirera de arroz pode ser incluída nas dieta, substituindo o milho, para frangos de corte.An experiment was carried to evaluate the performance of broilers fed with diferent levels of broken rice. The experiment was conducted with 240 males broilers chicks, Cobb 500, were distributed in floor pens of 2m² each, with one tubular feeder, one pendular drinker, an electrical brooder and on the top of rice hulls. An entirely randomized experimental design was used, with 3 treatments and 4 replicates with 20 birds each, which received, diets containing 0, 20 and 40% of broken rice. Data were submitted to Analisis of regression. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion to the1- 21, 1- 35 and 1-42 days of age, litter humidity, carcass, liver, breast, thigh and drumstick yield did not present significant difference. The gizzard and the

  10. Nutritional and metabolic impacts of a defatted green marine microalgal (Desmodesmus sp.) biomass in diets for weanling pigs and broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmay, Ricardo; Gatrell, Stephanie; Lum, Krystal; Kim, Jonggun; Lei, Xin Gen

    2014-10-08

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutritional and metabolic impacts of defatted green microalgal (Desmodesmus sp.) biomass (DGM), protease, and nonstarch polysaccharide degrading enzymes (NSPase) in diets for weanling pigs and broiler chicks. Pigs fed 10% DGM for 28 days had growth performance comparable to the controls, but 23-39% lower (P < 0.05) plasma urea nitrogen concentrations. Broilers fed 15% DGM had 16% greater (P < 0.05) gain/feed efficiency than the control (0.78 vs 0.67) over the 42 day period. Supplemental protease (0.06%) decreased (P < 0.03) plasma uric acid concentrations in pigs on day 14, whereas supplemental NSPase showed negative effects in broilers. Dietary inclusions of DGM or enzymes altered (P < 0.05-0.1) hepatic and muscle protein levels of key regulators in the mTOR pathway. In conclusion, weanling pigs and broiler chicks tolerated dietary inclusions of 10 and 15% DGM, respectively, and adding protease might help digestion.

  11. An optimal dietary non-phytate phosphorus level of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 4 to 6 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Lu, L; Li, S F; Wang, L; Zhang, L Y; Liu, S B; Luo, X G

    2016-10-01

    It is imperative to evaluate precise nutrient requirements of animals in order to optimize productivity and minimize feed cost and nutrient excretions. The current non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) recommendation for broilers is based on the papers published 30 years ago. However, today's commercial birds are quite different from those before 30 years. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted with growing male broiler chickens to evaluate an optimal dietary NPP level of broiler chickens fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 4 to 6 weeks of age. The 1-day-old chicks were fed corn-soybean meal diet containing 0.39% NPP from 1 to 3 weeks of age. At 22 days of age, 360 birds were selected and randomly allotted by BW to one of 10 dietary treatments with six replicate cages of six birds per cage for each treatment. Birds were fed the P-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with inorganic P as CaHPO4·H2O ranging from 0.00% to 0.45% with 0.05% increment from 4 to 6 weeks of age. The dietary NPP levels were 0.09%, 0.14%, 0.20%, 0.24%, 0.30%, 0.34%, 0.38%, 0.45%, 0.49% and 0.54%, respectively, and the dietary Ca level was fixed at 0.90% for all treatments. The results showed that average daily gain, serum inorganic P concentration, tibia bone strength, tibia ash percentage and P percentage, tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), middle toe ash percentage and P percentage, middle toe BMC, total body BMC and BMD were affected (P<0.0001) by dietary NPP level, and increased linearly (P<0.0001) and quadratically (P<0.003) as dietary NPP levels increased. Optimal dietary NPP levels estimated based on fitted broken-line models (P<0.0001) of the above indices are 0.21%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.31%, 0.29%, 0.30%, 0.27%, 0.29% and 0.28%, respectively. It is suggested that the total body BMC and BMD, and middle toe ash P and BMC might be new, sensitive and non-invasive criteria to evaluate the dietary NPP requirements

  12. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Immune Function, the Antioxidant Defense System, and Inflammation-Related Genes Expression of Broiler Chickens Fed Aflatoxin Contaminated Diets

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    Yan Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interferon gamma (IFNγ in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6, TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens.

  13. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Immune Function, the Antioxidant Defense System, and Inflammation-Related Genes Expression of Broiler Chickens Fed Aflatoxin Contaminated Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens. PMID:24699046

  14. Effects of lipoic acid on immune function, the antioxidant defense system, and inflammation-related genes expression of broiler chickens fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-04-02

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens.

  15. Meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets with Bacillus subtilis and malic acid additives

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    Martin Král

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of probiotics and malic acid diet on meat quality was assessed. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. The significant difference (p<0.01 was observed for ash, dry matter and fat. In the treatments Tr2 and Tr3 were present the higher percentages of protein, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05.

  16. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

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    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  17. Pengaruh Penambahan Ampas Virgin Coconut Oil dalam Ransum terhadap Performan dan Produksi Karkas Ayam Broiler (The Effect of Virgin Coconut Oil Waste in the Diet of Broiler Chicken on the Performance and Carcass Production

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    Dina Oktaviana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of addition of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO waste on the performance and production of broiler carcass. One hundred and twenty five broiler were divided into 5 treatment groups which were R-O (basal diet, R-0.5 containing (0.5% VCO waste, R-1.0 (1.0% VCO waste, R-1.5 (1.5% VCO waste and R-2.0 (2.0% VCO waste. Each treatments had 5 replications of 5 birds each. The birds were raised for 5 weeks. At the end of experiment, data of production performance such as weight gain, total intake, and feed conversion were taken. The data were analyzed by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with one way analysis. The difference among treatments were tested using Duncan’s new Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The statistical analysis result showed that the addition of VCO waste at level up to 2.0 % did not affect the production performance, carcass weight and carcass percentage. The addition of VCO waste up to level 2.0% increased body weight (P<0.05 and affected the weight and percentage of abdominal fat (P<0.05 (Key words: Broiler chicken, VCO waste, Performance, and Carcass production

  18. Influence of delayed placement and dietary lysine levels on small intestine morphometrics and performance of broilers

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    JRG Franco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment studied the influence of delayed placement (HI and digestible lysine level (DL on the morphometrics of the intestinal mucosa and on the performance of broilers. A total number of 1,705 Cobb 500 male chicks were used in a completely randomized experimental design in a factorial arrangement with four HI (12, 24, 36 and 48h, and two DL level in the starter diet (1.143 and 1.267%, with four replicates and 55 birds per experimental unit. The amino acids methionine-cystine, threonine, and tryptophan were balanced according to the ideal protein (IP concept. Small intestine morphometrics was evaluated using histology slides of the duodenum and jejunum. There was no interaction between HI and DL levels for any of the studied parameters. The 1.143% level of DL promoted better performance results at 21 and 42 days of age, as well as higher duodenum and jejunum crypt depth, and duodenum villi height at 21 days of age. HI negatively influenced the morphometrics of the small intestine during the starter phase, and the performance of broilers up to 42 days of age. There was no effect of the treatments on yolk sac utilization or abdominal fat percentage. It was concluded that the use of 1.143% DL and HI of 12 hours promoted better development of the small intestine mucosa up to 21 days of age, and broiler performance at market age.

  19. Effect of chick weight, geometric mean diameter and sodium level in prestarter diets (1 to 7 days on broiler perfomance up to 21 days of age

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    AML Ribeiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven hundred and twenty Ross 308 chicks were raised in a controlled environment room, distributed in a factorial design with 3 hatching chick weights (37, 40 and 44 g, 3 geometric mean diameter (GMD (0.561; 0.783 and 0.997 mm and 4 total sodium levels (Na (0.12; 0.24; 0.36 and 0.48% in the pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days. From 8 to 21 days (d one single basal diet was used for all treatments. The thirty seven-gram chicks had the smallest yolk sack weight at 4d, smallest body weight (BW and feed intake (FI at 7d and 21d, but the same feed conversion (FC than the other groups of hatching weight. Chicks receiving diet with intermediate GMD had the greatest BW and FI at 7d, but at 21d this effect was no longer seen. The diet with finest particle size resulted in birds with the smallest gizzard weight at 7d. The 0.12%Na diet was statistically different from the other Na levels, resulting in chicks at 7d with the worst FC and lowest body weights. At 21d, BW still was the lowest for this group of chicks. Birds with 0.48%Na produced more watery excreta and less dry matter in the carcass at 7d. Water consumption (C H2O was influenced linearly by chick weight up to 0.36%Na level. In the 0.48%Na level, 40 and 44 g chicks had similar C H2O, which was different from 37-g chicks. For best performance, Na values were set from 0.31 to 0.48%. The three studied factors influenced quality of pre-starter diet and consequently chick performance.

  20. Effects of Different Levels of Full Fat Safflower Seed on Performance of 21-42 Days Old Broiler Chickens

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    M Malekian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of full fat safflower seed (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of diet on performance, carcass characteristics and selected blood metabolites of broiler chickens from Arbor Acres Plus strain. The experiment was designed with 350 commercial one-day-old male broiler chickens using completely randomized design with 5 dietary treatments and 5 replications. Prior to the study, a commercial starter diet was fed to broiler chickens for 3 weeks. On day 21 of age 14 birds were allocated to each experimental unit (1.5×1.5 m floor pen. Experimental diets for the five treatments were prepared to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Broiler chickens were provided with feed and water ad libitum. Data on weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency were recorded weekly basis. At the end of the experiment (42 days of age one bird from each replication was selected randomly, blood sample was collected and the birds were slaughtered to determine carcass parameters. Inclusion of full fat safflower seed in experimental diets, did not significantly affect weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency. Breast yield, thighs, empty gastrointestinal tract, liver, gizzard and abdominal fat pad percentages to live weight were not affected by dietary treatments. Serum triglyceride was numerically decreased as the full fat safflower seed was increased in the diets. 20% full fat safflower seed diet significantly decreased total serum cholesterol in compare to control group but other levels had no significant difference with control group. In conclusion, feeding different levels of full fat safflower seed did not show any negative effect on performance, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites of broiler chickens.

  1. Morphometry of the small intestine from broilers treated with diets added of containing mannan oligosaccharides and enzymatic complex additives

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    Rodrigo Antônio Gravena

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS and enzymatic complex (EC on the morphometry and absorption surface of the small intestine wall in broilers were studied. Seven hundred and fifty birds were used in a completely randomized design and 2 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement – two MOS levels (0 and 0.1% from 1 to 21 days and 0.05% from 22 to 42 days of age, two EC levels (0 and 0.05% and a positive control diet with antibiotics – totaling five treatments with five replicates. Positive control x factorial interaction was significant for the longitudinal muscular thickness and for the absorption surface in the duodenum and ileum, being higher in birds subjected to MOS treatment. MOS x EC interaction was significant for the duodenal mucosa at 21 days and for the jejunum and ileum at 42 days, being lower in birds treated with no additives. The same effect was observed for the duodenal absorption surface at 21 days, and for the ileum at 42 days. MOS inclusion increased (P<0.05, and EC inclusion reduced (P<0.02, the longitudinal muscular thickness of the duodenum at 42 days. MOS addition increased the longitudinal muscular thickness and the mucosa, and this was reflected in the form of a more extensive intestinal absorption surface.

  2. Efficacy of New 6-Phytase from Buttiauxella spp. on Growth Performance and Nutrient Retention in Broiler Chickens Fed Corn Soybean Meal-based Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiarie, E; Woyengo, T; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-10-01

    A total of 420 day-old male Ross chicks were weighed at d 1 of life and assigned to test diets to assess the efficacy of a new Buttiauxella spp. phytase expressed in Trichoderma reesei. Diets were: positive control (PC) adequate in nutrients and negative control (NC) diet (40% and 17% less available phosphorous (P) and calcium (Ca), respectively) supplemented with 6 levels of phytase 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, and 2,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of diet. All diets had titanium dioxide as digestibility marker and each diet was allocated to ten cages (6 birds/cage). Diets were fed for 3 wk to measure growth performance, apparent retention (AR) on d 17 to 21 and bone ash and ileal digestibility (AID) on d 22. Growth performance and nutrient utilization was lower (pPhytase response in NC birds was linear (pphytase at ≥750 FTU resulted in AID of total AA commensurate to that of PC fed birds and at ≥1,000 FTU improved (pphytase and PC diet. In conclusion, the result from this study showed that in addition to increased P and Ca utilization, the new Buttiauxella phytase enhanced growth performance and utilization of other nutrients in broiler chickens in a dose-dependent manner.

  3. Energetic values and performace of broilers feeding sorghum and soybean meal based diets supplemented with B-glucanase and B-xylanase

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    Evandro de Abreu Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grains, brans, and vegetable meals may contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, which increases viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and interfere with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and determine the metabolizable energy of a sorghum-based broiler diet with and without the supplementation of an enzymatic complex. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with 1200 chickens, using sorghum-based feed with and without the addition of 50 g of enzyme-CCE complex (?-glucanase and ?-xylanase, and with two levels of metabolizable energy (ME kg-1: ME; ME + CCE; reduced ME (-50 kcal kg-1; and reduced ME + CCE. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance and the means were compared using a Tukey’s test at the 5% significance level. At 42 and 47 days of age, the living weight of the birds fed with the reduced ME was low, while birds fed with reduced ME + CCE had the same weight as those fed with other energy diets (ME and ME + CCE. Feed conversion was poorest at 47 days of age for the birds on reduced ME diet. In the metabolic test (with fattening diets to determine AME and AMEn, the reduced ME diet had the lowest result, confirming the effect of the addition of enzymes. The addition of CCE to sorghum-based diets provides enough enzymatic activity to increase the metabolizable energy of the diet (50 kcal of AME and influence the growth performance of broilers at the slaughtering age.

  4. Pathology of Bursae of Fabricius in Methionine-Deficient Broiler Chickens

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    Xiaodong Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this 42-day study was to investigate the effects of methionine (Met deficiency on immune function by determining the relative weight, morphological and ultrastructural changes of bursae of Fabricius, cell cycle, and apoptosis of bursa cells. One hundred and twenty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into two groups and fed on a control diet (starter diet, Met 0.50%; grower diet, Met 0.40% and Met-deficient diet (starter diet, Met 0.26%; grower diet, Met 0.28% for six weeks. The relative weight of bursae was decreased with Met deficiency when compared to that of the control group. Lesions were also observed in the Met-deficient group. Histopathologically, the numbers of lymphocytes in the follicles were decreased. Ultrastructurally, the mitochondria of lymphocytes were swollen in the Met-deficient group. As measured by flow cytometry, bursal cells in the G0G1 phase were significantly higher (P < 0.01, and bursal cells in the S, G2M phases and proliferating index were obviously lower (P < 0.01 with Met deficiency than in the control group. Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic cells in the bursae were significantly increased in Met-deficient birds (P < 0.01. It was concluded that Met deficiency restrained the development of the bursae of Fabricius and affected the humoral immunity of the chickens.

  5. Behavioral changes and feathering score in heat stressed broiler chickens fed diets containing different levels of propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavioral patterns and feather condition of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four (504) male Ross 708 broiler chicks at 15-day old were randomly allotted to six dietary tr...

  6. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

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    Mohaddeseh Tousi Mojarrad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days. The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM, T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121ºC, 20 min, T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121ºC, 30 min, T4 (roasted SBM: 120ºC, 20 min and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46ºC, 540 watt, 7 min. Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW, body weight grain (BWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion rate (FCR. Higher BW (p<0.05 and BWG (p<0.05 and lower FCR (p<0.05 were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers.

  7. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)

  8. Jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis) in the diet of broiler breeder pullets: physiological and endocrinological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnouts, S; Buyse, J; Cokelaere, M M; Decuypere, E

    1993-09-01

    The present studies evaluated the ability of jojoba meal (JO) to inhibit feed intake of broiler breeder pullets to limit body weight gain as recommended by the breeder company. A first experiment, using graded levels of JO supplementation (0 to 12%), was conducted to establish appropriate JO supplementation. Adequate reduction of growth rate was obtained with 4% JO supplementation. However, notwithstanding their similar growth rate, 4% JO chickens consumed considerably more feed compared with feed-restricted chickens. The dose-dependent impairment of feed intake with increasing levels of JO supplementation was also associated with increased plasma growth hormone and thyroxine and with decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and triiodothyronine concentrations compared with 0% JO chickens. A second experiment included a pair-fed group. Notwithstanding their similar feed intake, 4% JO chickens gained significantly less body weight compared with their pair-fed counterparts. The 4% JO chickens also had a longer feed transit time per kilogram body weight. Again, circulating levels of the somatotrophic and thyrotrophic hormones were altered according to the dietary treatment. From all these observations, it was concluded that the growth retardation caused by JO supplementation was provoked by an inhibition of appetite linked with the simmondsin content of JO as well as by other antinutritional compounds affecting digestibility.

  9. Fatty acids profile of breast and thigh muscles of broiler chickens fed diets with propolis and probiotics

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    Lenka TREMBECKÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of supplying propolis extract separately and propolis extract together with probiotics based on Lactobacillus fermentum on fatty acids (FA composition of the most valuable parts of chicken carcass. Diets enriched with 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixture and 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixture plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (E1 and E2 groups, respectively were given to broiler chickens throughout a 42-d growth period. After slaughter, the FA profiles of breast and thigh samples were determined. Both supplemented diets decreased the total amount of saturated FA (SFA, mainly because of the myristic (C14:0 and stearic (C18:0 acid contents in both breast and thigh muscles. However, a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05 in SFA was confirmed only in thigh muscle. Supplementation with propolis together with probiotics (E2 significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05 monounsaturated FA (MUFA contents in breast muscle. Particularly oleic acid (C18:1 cis contributed to an overall increase in MUFA. A rise (P ≤ 0.05 in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA in breast muscle was, however, associated with the dietary supplementation of propolis extract separately (E1. A similar trend (P  0.05 for MUFA and PUFA levels was also observed in thigh muscle. Of all PUFAs detected in breast and thigh muscles, linoleic acid (C18:2 cis was found at the highest levels. Its levels varied from 11.34 to 12.02 g*100 g-1 and from 11.05 to 11.82 g*100 g-1 in breast and thigh muscles, respectively. The highest level (P ≤ 0.05 of linoleic acid was observed in group E1. Comparing breast with thigh muscle, the breast was demonstrated to contain more SFA and PUFA, but less MUFA proportions. Although the n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA ratio was similar among the treatments in both breast and thigh muscles, n-6 PUFA:n-3 PUFA ratio has been showed to be a significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05 in thigh muscle, with the lowest

  10. Influence of high dose of phytase and an emulsifier on performance, apparent metabolisable energy and nitrogen retention in broilers fed on diets containing soy oil or tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaefarian, F; Romero, L F; Ravindran, V

    2015-01-01

    The effects of high dose of microbial phytase and an emulsifier on the performance, apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and nitrogen (N) retention in broilers fed on diets containing different fat sources were examined in a 5-week trial. Two fat sources (soy oil and tallow), two inclusion levels of E. coli phytase (500 or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg diet) and two inclusion levels of lysolecithin emulsifier (0 or 3.5 g/kg of diet) were evaluated in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Throughout the 5-week trial, soy oil supplementation improved weight gain and feed per gain compared with tallow, but had no effect on feed intake. The high dose of phytase increased the weight gain and feed intake and lowered the feed per gain during d 1-21, but had no effect on performance parameters over the whole trial period. An effect of emulsifier was observed for feed intake during d 1-21 and over the whole trial period. Addition of emulsifier increased feed intake compared with diets without emulsifier. During weeks 1, 2, 3 and 5, birds fed on soy oil-based diets had higher nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEN) compared with those fed on tallow-based diets. During weeks 2, 3 and 5, the effect of phytase was significant for AMEN, with the high dose increasing the AMEN. During week 2, AMEN was increased with emulsifier addition. During weeks 1, 2, 3 and 5, birds fed on soy oil-based diets had higher fat retention compared with those fed on tallow-based diets. The high dose of phytase improved the retention of fat during week 5 and the addition of emulsifier resulted in higher fat retention during week 1. During weeks 2, 3 and 5, an interaction between fat source × phytase × emulsifier was observed for N retention. In soy oil-based diets, emulsifier plus 1000 FTU/kg phytase increased N retention compared with other groups, while in tallow-based diets, emulsifier addition increased N retention in diets with 500 FTU/kg, but not in 1000 FTU/kg diet. Overall, the

  11. Effects of dietary supplementation of Aspergillus originated prebiotic (Fermacto on performance and small intestinal morphology of broiler chickens fed diluted diets

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    Zarbakht Ansari Pirsaraei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermacto, that it is commercially a fermentation product of Aspergillus orizae, is proven to increase digestion efficiency of the gut. In this experiment, 450 one day old Cobb 500 broiler chicks (mixed-sex were used in a completely randomized design with 3×2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of Fermacto (0, 0.15 and 0.3% for 42 days and two levels of diet dilution using rice hulls (0 and 40% at 10-21 days of age. The treatments consisted of 3 replicates with 25 chicks per each. Administration of Fermacto did not influence feed intake or feed conversion ratio, but the daily weight gain improved. Diluted diets significantly increased body weights and decreased feed intake; however, this manipulation didn’t affect feed conversion ratios. There was no interaction between prebiotic supplementation and experimental diets dilution for performance traits. Diet dilution significantly decreased abdominal fat pad, villi height and increased epithelial thickness and goblet cell numbers. Dietary supplementation using Fermacto significantly decreased the abdominal fat pad and goblet cell numbers but increased the small intestinal villus heights. There were some conflicting observations for different segments of the small intestine. The 0.3% Fermacto inclusion in experimental diets caused more beneficial effects. Contrary to previous reports on more efficiency of Fermacto on low protein diets, this trend is not seen for the whole diluted diets.

  12. Modification of productive performance and physiological aspects of broilers on the addition of a mixture of cumin and turmeric to the diet

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    Galib A.M. AL-Kassie, Akhil M. Mohseen and Raghad A. Abd-AL-Jaleel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the performance of broilers fed diets supplemented with a mixture of cumin (Cuminum cyminum and turmeric (Curcuma longa. A total of 300 (Arbor-Acres day old chicks were used in this study. Five levels of a mixture cumin and turmeric at the rate of 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% were incorporated into the basal diet for six weeks. Feeding period for all groups was lasted for 42 days. Results revealed that the inclusion of cumin and turmeric mixture at levels of 0.75% and 1% in the diets improved body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. At the same time the cumin and turmeric mixture of 0.75% and 1% depressed the cholesterol, Hb, RBC, WBC, and H/L ratio concentration. It was concluded that the use of mixture containing cumin (Cuminum cyminum and turmeric (Curcuma longa as feed additive at levels 0.75% and 1% enhanced the overall performance of broiler chicks.

  13. Effect of citric acid and microbial phytase enzyme on ileal digestibility of some nutrients in broiler chicks fed corn-soybean meal diets

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    Moslem Bashtani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 270 Ross 308 male broilers were used in a randomized complete block design for a period of five weeks. The experiment included nine treatments, three replicates with 10 birds in each replicate of 3×3 factorial design. Two main factors of citric acid (CA (0, 3 and 6% and a microbial phytase (MP (0, 500 and 1000 IU/kg were used. The results indicated that diets containing 3% CA caused significant increase in P content in tibia ash, ileal digestibility of crude protein, apparent metabolizable energy, total phosphorus and body weight (P

  14. Tolerance and safety evaluation of N,N-dimethylglycine, a naturally occurring organic compound, as a feed additive in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Isabelle D; Verstegen, Martin W A; Maenner, Klaus; Zentek, Jurgen; Meulemans, Godelieve; Janssens, Geert P J

    2012-06-01

    N,N-Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a tertiary amino acid that naturally occurs as an intermediate metabolite in choline-to-glycine metabolism. The objective of the present trial was to evaluate tolerance, safety and bioaccumulation of dietary DMG in broilers when supplemented at 1 g and 10 g Na-DMG/kg. A feeding trial was conducted using 480 1-d-old broiler chicks that were randomly allocated to twenty-four pens and fed one of three test diets added with 0, 1 or 10 g Na-DMG/kg during a 39 d growth period. Production performance was recorded to assess tolerance and efficacy of the supplement. At the end of the trial, toxicity was evaluated by means of haematology, plasma biochemistry and histopathology of liver, kidney and heart (n 12), whereas bioaccumulation was assessed on breast meat, liver, blood, kidney and adipose tissue (n 8). Carcass traits were similar between the control and 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed groups (P>0·05), but the feed:gain ratio was significantly improved at 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed compared with the control or the 10-fold dose (P=0·008). Histological examinations showed no pathological effects and results of haematology and plasma biochemistry revealed similar values between the test groups (P>0·05). Bioaccumulation occurred at the 10-fold dose, but the resulting DMG content in breast meat was comparable with, for instance, wheat bran and much lower than uncooked spinach. In conclusion, DMG at 1 g Na-DMG/kg improved the feed:gain ratio in broilers without DMG being accumulated in consumer parts. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with DMG up to 10 g Na-DMG/kg did not induce toxicity or impaired performance in broilers.

  15. Species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci isolated from broilers infected experimentally with Eimeria spp and fed with diets containing different supplements

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    A.P.V. Cassenego

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistant bacteria in animal can be spread to environment and to humans. Poultry feed and infections caused by Eimeria spp. are important factors in determining the intestinal microbial communities. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of species and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus isolated from broilers fed with different supplements and infected experimentally with Eimeria spp. Broilers were divided in eight groups, fed with diets supplemented with a combination of antimicrobial, ionophore-coccidiostatics, probiotic, essential oil. At 14 days old all birds, except the control, received a solution containing oocysts of Eimeria spp. Samples of cloacal swabs from broilers were collected. A total of 240 Enterococcus sp. strains were isolated, confirmed genus by PCR, classified as species, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened by PCR for the presence of tet(L, tet(M and erm(B genes. The overall distribution of species isolated from fecal samples was E. faecalis (40%, followed by E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarum (10.8%, E. mundtii (10.8%, E. faecium (10.8%, E. columbae (5.8% and E. gallinarum (4.2%. Changes in the composition or frequency of Enterococcus species were observed in all dietary supplementation. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes a range of antibiotics, especially used in humans such as, streptomycin, penicillin, rifampicin and vancomycin. There was no correlation between different supplementation for broilers and antimicrobial resistance and the presence of tet(M, tet(L and erm(B genes. Dietary supplementation had effect on the Enterococcus sp. colonization, but did not have significant effect on the phenotype and genotype of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci.

  16. Available phosphorus levels in diets supplemented with phytase for male broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment

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    Tarciso Tizziani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of reduction of the available phosphorus (avP in diets supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone mineralization of broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment. A total of 336 Cobb broilers with an average initial weight of 0.883±0.005 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments - a positive control (0.354 and 0.309% avP without addition of bacterial phytase for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, and another five diets with inclusion of phytase (500 FTU and reduction of the level of avP (0.354, 0.294, 0.233, 0.173, and 0.112%; and 0.309, 0.258, 0.207, 0.156, and 0.106% for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively - eight replicates, and seven birds per cage. The experimental diets were formulated to meet all nutritional requirements, except for avP and calcium. Birds were kept in climatic chambers at a temperature of 32.2±0.4 °C and air humidity of 65.3±5.9%. Phytase acted by making the phytate P available in diets with reduction in the levels of avP, keeping feed intake, weight gain, feed:gain, and carcass characteristics unchanged. Treatments affected ash and calcium deposition and the Ca:P ratio in the bone; the group fed the diets with 0.112 and 0.106%, from 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days of age, respectively, obtained the lowest values, although the phosphorus deposition in the bone was not affected. Diets supplemented with 500 FTU of phytase, with available phosphorus reduced to 0.173 and 0.156%, and a fixed Ca:avP ratio of 2.1:1, meet the requirements of broilers aged 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, reared in a high-temperature environment.

  17. Effects of microbial phytase, produced by solid-state fermentation, on the performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers fed maize- and wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y B; Ravindran, V; Hendriks, W H

    2003-12-01

    1. The influence of a microbial phytase on the performance, toe ash contents and nutrient utilisation of male broilers fed diets based on maize and wheat was investigated. The experiment was conducted as 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Within the factorial, two diet types (maize-soy or wheat-soy) containing two levels of non-phytate phosphorus (3.0 or 4.5 g/kg) were evaluated and each level of non-phytate phosphorus was supplemented with 0 or 500 PU phytase/kg diet. Each of the 8 dietary treatments were fed to 6 pens of 8 birds from d 1 to 21 post-hatching. 2. Main effects of diet type and phytase were observed for all parameters. Main effect of non-phytate phosphorus was significant only for feed/gain and toe ash contents. Phytase addition improved weight gains irrespective of diet type or non-phytate phosphorus level, but the magnitude of improvement in the phosphorus-deficient wheat-soy diet was greater, resulting in a diet type x non-phytate phosphorus interaction. Responses in toe ash contents were noted only in phosphorus-deficient diets, as indicated by a non-phytate phosphorus x phytase interaction. 3. Phytase addition improved apparent metabolisable energy values of wheat-based diets, but had little effect on the apparent metabolisable energy of maize-based diets as shown by a diet type x phytase interaction. The apparent metabolisable energy was not influenced by dietary non-phytate P. 4. Phytase improved ileal nitrogen digestibility in both diet types, but the responses to added phytase tended to be higher in wheat-based diets, as shown by a diet type x phytase interaction. 5. Increasing the dietary non-phytate phosphorus level reduced phosphorus digestibility and increased excreta phosphorus content. Addition of phytase improved phosphorus digestibility, but the increments were higher in low phosphorus diets resulting in a non-phytate phosphorus x phytase interaction. Phytase addition tended to lower the excreta phosphorus content, but

  18. Effects of Adding of Two Commercial Absorbent Materials and Natural Zeolite to the Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 on Broiler Performance and their

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    J. Azimi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding of two commercial absorbent products in feeds and to compare the results with the effect of adding of natural zeolite in reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 on broiler growth, performance and immune system. In this study, 200 one day old Arian 386 broiler chickens were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 4 replications and 10 chicks per each treatment. Experimental groups were as follows: negative control fed basal diet; positive control fed basal diet plus 1 mg aflatoxin B1 kg-1 diet; and three other groups fed 25g/kg Milbond-TX, Polysorb and Zeolite with 1 mg/kg aflatoxin B1, respectively. Feed intake did not significantly differ between the groups. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of birds fed contaminated diets were significantly decreased and increased, respectively but adding of the absorbent materials to contaminated feed caused a significant improvement in body weight gain and feed conversion. Among the internal organs, the spleen relative weights increased by consumption of aflatoxin B1contaminated feed. Aflatoxin B1 use without absorbent materials significantly decreased antibody production against Newcastle disease vaccine in 21 day. In addition, produced antibodies against sheep red blood cells in 35 day of age in birds fed aflatoxin B1 contaminated diets were reduced. The results of this study showed that the adding of natural zeolite and commercial absorbents in feeds contaminated with aflatoxin B1 causes improved performance and immune system compared with the group that received the aflatoxin B1 alone.

  19. EFFECT OF MAXIGRAIN SUPPLEMENT ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, ECONOMIC INDICES AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF HEAT-STRESS BROILERS FED THREE DIETARY FIBRE SOURCES

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    S.G. ADEMOLA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study determined effects of Maxigrain supplementation to 3 dietary fibres on growth performance, economic indices, tibia ash of broilers raised under daily heat stress (420centigrade of 4 hours. A total of 162 day old broiler chicks of Arbor Acres strain were divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates per treatment of 27 birds. The fibrous ingredients were wheat offal, rice bran and corn bran. These were included in broiler starter and finisher diets at 3% and 20% respectively. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. Birds in groups T1 (wheat offal, T3 (rice bran, T5 (corn bran were fed unsupplemented diets. Diets in T2 (wheat offal, T4 (rice bran and T6 (corn bran were supplemented with Maxigrain® at 100mg/kg. The results showed Maxigrain addition to corn bran– and rice bran–diets significantly (P<0.05 improved feed conversion of heat stress birds. Heat stress chickens fed rice bran Maxigrain diet had better final liveweight and improved compressive strength than those fed enzyme wheat offal diet (final liveweight of 1758.9 versus 1566.67 g per bird and compressive strength of 4.75 versus 3.04 Newton percm2. Heat stress broilers fed rice bran enzyme supplemented diet had the best feed conversion, strongest compressive strength and achieved the highest profit (P<0.05. Birds consumed less of Maxigrain diets. However, the enzyme failed to improve final liveweight of heat stress chickens fed wheat bran diet.

  20. Influence of source and level of glycerin in the diet on growth performance, liver characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in broilers from hatching to 21 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalawi, H A; Kimiaeitalab, M V; Obregon, V; Menoyo, D; Mateos, G G

    2014-11-01

    The influence of source and level of inclusion of raw glycerin (GLYC) in the diet on growth performance, digestive traits, total tract apparent retention (TTAR), and apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients was studied in broilers from 1 to 21 d of age. There was a control diet based on corn and soybean meal and 8 additional diets that formed a 2 × 4 factorial with 2 sources of GLYC and 4 levels of inclusion (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10%). The GLYC used were obtained from the same original batch of soy oil that was dried under different processing conditions and contained 87.5 or 81.6% glycerol, respectively. Type of processing of the GLYC did not affect any of the variables studied except DM and organic matter retention (P < 0.05) that was higher for the 87.5% glycerol diet. From d 1 to 21, feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved linearly (L, P ≤ 0.01) as the GLYC content of the diet increased, but ADG was not affected. On d 21, the relative weight (% BW) of the liver and the digestive tract increased (L, P < 0.01) as the level of GLYC in the diet increased, but lipid concentration in the liver was not affected. The TTAR of DM and organic matter increased quadratically (Q, P < 0.05) and the AME(n) content of the diet increased linearly (L, P < 0.01) with increases in dietary GLYC. Also, the apparent ileal digestibility of DM (L, P < 0.05; Q, P = 0.07) and gross energy (L, P < 0.01) increased as the GLYC content of the diet increased. It is concluded that raw GLYC from the biodiesel industry can be used efficiently, up to 10% of the diet, as a source of energy for broilers from 1 to 21 d of age and that the energy content of well-processed raw GLYC depends primarily on its glycerol content.

  1. The Effect of Organic Acid and Desiccated Ox Bile Supplementation on Performance, Fat Digestibility, Blood Metabolites and Ileal Digesta Viscosity of Broiler Chickens Fed Tallow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alzawqari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different levels of desiccated ox bile (DOB; 0.00, 0.25, and 0.50% and organic acid (OA; 0.00, 0.15, and 0.30% of the diet on performance, fat digestibility, blood metabolites and ileal digesta viscosity in broiler chickens fed diets containing 5% tallow, in a completely randomized design with a 3×3 factorial arrangement and 4 replicates in each treatment, 360 day-old Ross male broiler chickens were used. The isocaloric and isonitrogenous starter and grower diets were fed ad libitum to chickens from 0-21 and 21-42 days of age, respectively. Feed intake (FI, body weight gains (BWG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was measured for starter (7-21d and grower periods (21-42 days of age. Chromic oxide at the rate of 3 g/kg was added to experimental diets to determine fat digestibility at 19-21 and 40-42 days of age. Serum cholesterol (Chol, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and ileal digesta viscosity were measured at 21 and 42 days of age. Addition of DOB significantly increased BWG during 7 to 42d of age and FCR during 7 to 21 was improved. Although fat digestibility significantly increased by supplemental 0.50% DOB and 0.15% OA in the starter period, no interaction was observed between dietary DOB and OA for these parameters. Dietary OA had no effect on blood parameters, but supplemental 0.50% DOB significantly increased blood chemistry. Interaction between DOB and OA showed an increasing effect in Chol and TG at 42 days of age. Digesta viscosity was remained unchanged by dietary treatments. The results of this study indicated that supplementation of DOB in the diet significantly increased BWG and measured blood metabolites. Dietary supplementation of DOB increased fat digestibility of the birds fed diet containing 5% tallow.

  2. Direct supplementation of diet is the most efficient way of enriching broiler meat with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, T; Lordelo, M M; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Costa, P; Lemos, J P C; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Prates, J A M

    2013-01-01

    1. Concentrations of beneficial omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) in poultry meat can be improved by increasing the concentration of n-3 PUFA in poultry diets. 2. A decrease in flavour quality is, however, usually associated with the dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA, which is due to the susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation. 3. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of introducing two different n-3 fatty acid sources (extruded linseed and DHA Gold™, a proprietary algal product rich in docosahexaenoic acid), either separately or together, on broiler productive performance, and meat quality, oxidative stability, sensory traits and LC-PUFA profile. 4. Birds given the algal product displayed better productive performances than animals from other groups. 5. The data revealed an improvement in the fatty acid nutritional value of meat from birds receiving the algal product and an inefficient conversion of α-linolenic acid (LNA) into LC-PUFA. 6. Metabolisation of LNA in vivo is not sufficient to improve meat quality in n-3 LC-PUFA and direct supplementation of the diet with n-3 LC-PUFA is a better alternative to modulate an increase in beneficial fatty acids of broiler meat. 7. The overall acceptability of meat was negatively affected by the dietary supplementation with 7.4% of DHA, in contrast to the supplementation with 3.7% of DHA, which showed to be efficient in improving LC-PUFA meat content without affecting its sensory properties.

  3. Efficiency of microbial phytase supplementation in diets formulated with different calcium:phosphorus ratios, supplied to broilers from 22 to 33 days old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, L de P; Rodrigues, P B; Teixeira, L do V; de Oliveira, E C; Saldanha, M M; Alvarenga, R R; Corrêa, A D; Lima, R R

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was conducted with broilers from 22 to 33 days of age to evaluate the efficiency of six microbial phytases supplemented in diets (1500 FTU/kg) that were formulated with three different calcium:available phosphorus (Ca:P(avail)) ratios (4.5:1.0, 6.0:1.0 and 7.5:1.0). A positive control diet without phytase was formulated with a Ca:P(avail) ratio of 7.5:3.4 to meet the nutritional requirements of the broilers. The P and ash contents of the tibia, magnesium in the plasma, performance, balance and retention of phytate phosphorus (P(phyt)), intake of total P and nitrogen (N), nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy and apparent digestibility of dry matter of the diets were not influenced (p > 0.05) by the type of phytase or the dietary Ca:P(avail) ratio. However, there was an interaction (p phytase type and the Ca:P(avail) ratio for the retention coefficients of total P, Ca and N. Phytase B resulted in the highest Ca deposition in the tibia (p Phytases D, E and F reduced the Ca concentrations in the tibia (p Phytase D increased the P level in the plasma and decreased the total P excretion (p Phytases E and F increased Ca excretion, while phytase A reduced it (p phytase type, increasing the dietary Ca:P(avail) ratio reduced (p phytase A, C, D or E/kg. This diet allows the maintenance of performance and adequate bone mineralization, and it improves the Ca, total P and P(phyt) utilization in addition to reducing the excretion of N and P into the environment.

  4. Effect of calcium level and phytase addition on ileal phytate degradation and amino acid digestibility of broilers fed corn-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerah, A M; Plumstead, P W; Barnard, L P; Kumar, A

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary Ca to available P (AvP) ratio and phytase supplementation on bone ash, ileal phytate degradation, and nutrient digestibility in broilers fed corn-based diets. The experimental design was a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating 4 Ca:AvP ratios (1.43, 2.14, 2.86, and 3.57) and 2 levels of phytase (0 and 1,000 phytase units/kg of feed). The 4 Ca:AvP ratios were achieved by formulating all diets to a constant AvP level of 0.28% and varying Ca levels (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0%). Each treatment was fed to 6 cages of 8 male Ross 308 broilers from 5 to 21 d. At 21 d, digesta from the terminal ileum was collected and analyzed for energy, phytate, P, Ca, and amino acids (AA) to determine digestibility. Digesta pH was measured in each segment (crop, gizzard, duodenum, and ileum) of the digestive tract. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of covariance. There was a significant interaction between dietary Ca:AvP ratio and phytase supplementation for weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). In diets with no phytase, Ca:AvP ratio had a greater effect on WG, FI, and FCR compared with those fed diets without phytase. The orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed that the increase in dietary Ca:AvP ratio significantly decreased WG and FI in a quadratic manner, whereas FCR increased (P Phytase addition increased (P 0.05) between the main factors. Digestibility of AA was positively correlated (P phytase (1,000 phytase units/kg of feed) improved phytate, and P and AA digestibility at all Ca:AvP ratios evaluated in this study.

  5. Desempenho e composição corporal de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de proteína e de aminoácidos ou com livre escolha das dietas Performance and body composition of broilers fed different protein and amino acid levels or free-choice diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valeria Kolling

    2005-02-01

    and body composition of broilers (300 males and 300 females from 1 to 49 days of age, as well as the effect of these factors on the nutrients utilization efficiency. Three isoenergy experimental diets (D were used (3000 and 3150kcal ME/kg for starter and growing phase, respectively varying the levels of crude protein (CP and the first 4 essential amino acids (AA (lysine, methionine+cysteine, threonine and tryptophan: D1, control, with 22%CP; D2: 24%CP and 20% more AA than D1 (HighCP+20%AA and D3, 20% CP and 12% less AA than D1 (LowCP-12%AA. On the growing phase the CP were 20, 22 and 18% for D1, D2 and D3, respectively, keeping the same AA proportion. A fourth diet was defined by free-choice between diets D2 and D3. Birds were alloted in a completely randomized design, in a 2 x 4 factorial (sex x diets scheme and 5 replications of 15 birds each per treatment. Comparative slaughter technique was used for body fat and protein gain. Birds fed LowCP-12%AA diets showed reduced feed conversion, gain and body protein gain, but better protein intake-to-gain ratio. Broilers fed HighCP+20%AA diets had worse protein intake-to-gain ratio, but similar weight gain, cuts or carcass weight to control or free-choice birds. Fat and protein gain were similar among those 3 treatments. Free-choice birds showed the same performance and body composition of the control broilers. LowCP-12%AA diet was worse for broilers in starter phase than in growing phase. Male broilers were more efficient than females using nutrients, specially in the growing phase.

  6. Effects of diets containing different concentrations of mannanoligosaccharide or antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal development, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurhoo, B; Ferket, P R; Zhao, X

    2009-11-01

    The effects of 2 levels of mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) in feed were compared with antibiotic growth promoters on growth performance, intestinal morphology, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters in broilers raised in a sanitary environment. Dietary treatments included: 1) antibiotic growth promoter-free diet (control), 2) VIRG (diet 1 + 16.5 mg/kg of virginiamycin), 3) BACT (diet 1 + 55 mg/kg of bacitracin), 4) LMOS (diet 1 + 0.2% MOS), and 5) HMOS (diet 1 + 0.5% MOS). Birds were randomly assigned to 3 replicate pens/treatment (n = 55/pen). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly throughout 38 d. At d 14, 24, and 34, a 1-cm segment of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was used in morphological analysis (n = 9 birds/d per treatment). At the same bird ages, cecal contents were assayed for lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli, whereas litter was analyzed for Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli. Carcass yields (breast fillet and tenders, thigh, drumstick, and wing) were determined at d 38. Body weight, feed conversion, and carcass yields did not differ among treatments. In contrast to birds fed VIRG or BACT, LMOS and HMOS consistently increased (P microbial ecology. But, there were no additional benefits of the higher MOS dosage.

  7. Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on Salmonella colonization in the ceca of young broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, Y O; Bowers, J B; Hess, J B; McKee, S R

    2010-05-01

    Live poultry is an important vehicle for transmitting Salmonella Typhimurium to humans that have salmonellosis. It is therefore imperative to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium levels in the gastrointestinal tract of live chickens. Glutamine is an established immunonutrient that is capable of alleviating disease conditions in humans and rats. Thus, 2 experiments that used Ross broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation at 1% level of the diet on cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in young broiler chicks. Experiment 1 consisted of i) treatment 1 (control, CN), in which chicks were given an unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet without glutamine supplementation or Salmonella Typhimurium challenge; ii) treatment 2 (CST), in which chicks were given the same diet as CN but challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL at 3 d of age; and iii) treatment 3 (GST), in which chicks were given the unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet supplemented with glutamine at 1% level, and challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu at 3 d of age. Experiment 2 used similar treatments (CN, CST, and GST), except that chicks in CST and GST were challenged with 7.4 x 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL, and a fourth treatment was added. The fourth treatment consisted of chicks that were not challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium but given the same diet as in GST. Duration of each experiment was 14 d. Growth performance of chicks was monitored weekly, and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium concentration was microbiologically enumerated on d 4, 10, or 11 postchallenge. Results showed that glutamine supplementation improved BW and BW gain in experiment 2 (P 0.05). The optimum supplemental level of glutamine that will enhance intestinal resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium colonization should be determined.

  8. Insights on the host stress, fear and growth responses to the deoxynivalenol feed contaminant in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens.

  9. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  10. Diets Containing Fermented Palm Kernel Meal with Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Broiler Chickens

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    Niwat MUANGKEOW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of palm kernel meal (PKM and Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 fermented PKM at various levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens. Four hundred and thirty-two day old Ross-308 broiler chicks were used in a 2 × 4 factorial in completely randomized design with one control. Two kinds of PKM (unfermented and A. wentii fermented PKM in broiler rations were used, each at 10, 20, 30 and 40 %. Increasing level of PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM higher than 20 % significantly decreased feed intake and average weight gain also decreased, while feed efficiency declined. Feed intake of growing broilers during 0 to 21 d of age fed with PKM decreased linearly followed by a quadratic response during the finishing period (22 to 42 d of age while those broilers fed with A. wentii fermented PKM exhibited a quadratic response throughout the 42 d feeding trial. Data show that feed intake and average weight gain response when fed with PKM decreased linearly while when fed with A. wentii fermented PKM it was quadratic and then slowly decreased. The poor performance of the birds fed PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM at high levels might be due to the higher in crude fiber content and the lower nitrogen retention. In the growing period PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM no more than 20 % of the broiler ration should be used while in the finishing period PKM up to 30 % is effective.

  11. SPSS for starters

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2010-01-01

    This book contains all statistical tests relevant for starters on SPSS. Each test is explained using a data example from clinical practice along with the main tables of results with an accompanying text with interpretations of the results and hints.

  12. The effect of beta-glucanase supplementation of barley- and oat-based diets on growth performance and fermentation in broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak, D; Rutkowski, A; Jensen, B B; Engberg, R M

    2006-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether grain type (barley or oats) and ss-glucanase inclusion influence the performance and the gastrointestinal ecosystem of broiler chickens, taking the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids and lactic acid, pH, ileal viscosity, and the weight of the caeca and liver into consideration. 2. The inclusion of beta-glucanase in the oat-based diet improved body weight gains. Enzyme supplementation of barley-based diets improved feed conversion efficiency and reduced intestinal viscosity. 3. Irrespective of the type of cereal, beta-glucanase supplementation increased the lactic acid concentration and lowered the pH of the crop contents. No such changes in fermentation were observed in the contents of the gizzard and ileum. 4. Larger amounts of total dietary fibre and its fractions (arabinoxylans and beta-glucans) in oats decreased the weight of the caeca. 5. Molar ratios of acetate, propionate and butyrate in the caecal chyme were affected by cereal type but not by enzyme supplementation. The barley-based diet increased the butyrate:propionate ratio but the opposite effect was observed with the oat-based diet.

  13. Effect of high-dose phytase supplementation in broilers from 22 to 42 days post-hatch given diets severely limited in available phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, H R; Heidari, A; Shahir, M H

    2015-01-01

    1. Two trials were conducted from 22 to 42 d post-hatch to evaluate the effectiveness of high concentrations of supplemental phytase in maize-soya bean meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (P). Growth performance, plasma P and tibia ash (TA) were measured. 2. Each trial used 220 21-d-old male broilers in 20 pens with 11 birds per pen. Dietary treatments included a positive control [PC, 4.3 g/kg nonphytate P (NPP)], negative control [NC, 2.3 g/kg NPP (Trial 1) or 1.4 g/kg NPP (Trial 2)] and NC plus 1000, 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg of the diet. 3. Birds fed on the PC diet had higher average daily gain (ADG), gain to feed ratio (G:F), plasma P (Trials 1 and 2) and TA (Trial 2) than those fed on the NC. 4. In Trial 1, ADG and G:F values of the NC plus 1000, 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg reached those of the PC. Plasma P values of the NC plus 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg reached that of the PC. Although TA values of the NC, NC + 1000 or NC + 2000 reached that of the PC, TA of the NC + 4000 was more than that of the PC. 5. In Trial 2, ADG and G:F values of the NC plus 4000 phytase U/kg reached those of the PC; nevertheless, plasma P values of the NC diets did not come up to that of the PC. While TA values of the NC, NC + 1000 or NC + 2000 did not reach that of the PC, TA of the NC + 4000 was greater than that of the PC. 6. Results of this study showed that, in the diets with 2.3 and 1.4 g/kg NPP, respectively, 1000 and 4000 phytase U/kg can be sufficient to obtain a comparable performance in broilers to those given diets adequate in available P.

  14. Digestibilidade aparente de dietas e metabolismo de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo soja integral processada Apparent digestibility of the diets and metabolism of broilers fed with diets containing heat processed full-fat soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda d’Ávila Carvalho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento para avaliar a digestibilidade aparente de dietas e o metabolismo de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo soja integral (SI processada a vácuo (SIvac ou a vapor (SIvap. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (dieta controle - DC; DC com substituição isométrica de 40% de SIvac ou SIvap; dieta com SIvac e dieta com SIvap. Os tratamentos com substituição isométrica avaliaram a digestibilidade das sojas processadas; os demais, a digestibilidade de dietas contendo ou não soja processada (controle. A ingestão de N foi 23 e 20% menor (P0,05 pelas dietas. A excreção de energia foi 19 e 22% menor (P0,05 para a soja integral processada a vácuo ou a vapor. A soja processada a vácuo ou a vapor é uma alternativa ao farelo de soja e ao óleo vegetal em dietas para frangos de corte.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the apparent digestibility of diets and the metabolism of broilers fed diets containing full-fat soybean (FFS processed by vacuum (FFSvac or by steam (FFSstm. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments (control diet - CD, CD with isometric substitution of 40% FFSvac or FFSstm; diet with FFSvac and diet with FFSstm. The treatments with isometric substitution evaluated the digestibility of processed soybeans; the remains, the digestibility of diets containing either processed soybean or not (control. The N intake was 23 and 20% less (P0.05 by the diets. The excretion of energy was 19 and 22% less (P0.05 for full-fat soybean processed by vacuum or by steam. Full-fat soybean processed by vacuum or by steam is an alternative to soybean meal and to the vegetal oil in the diets for broilers.

  15. The effects of coarse ground corn, whole sorghum, and a prebiotic on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and cecal microbial populations in broilers fed diets with and without corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, China; Parsons, Carl M

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 21 d of age and evaluated diets containing combinations of fine or coarse ground corn (557 or 1,387 μm, respectively), whole sorghum, 15% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or a prebiotic-type product containing yeast cell wall, lactose, citric acid, and other fermentable carbohydrates. In experiment 1, feed efficiency was decreased (P whole sorghum, whereas broilers receiving diets with 15% DDGS had increased feed efficiency (P whole sorghum diets had increased (P whole sorghum in combination with DDGS can be fed to broilers with no long-term adverse effects on growth performance and nutrient digestibility and that these ingredients can have beneficial effects on AMEn, gizzard size, and cecal microflora in some instances.

  16. Effects of dietary forage and calf starter diet on ruminal pH and bacteria in Holstein calves during weaning transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Han KIM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between ruminal pH and bacteria in calves fed calf starter with and without forage during weaning transition. First, 16 Holstein bull calves were obtained from dairy farms and equipped with rumen cannulas by cannulation surgery. Then, calves (73.5 ± 4.2 kg; mean ± SE were assigned to groups fed calf starter either with forage (HAY, n = 8 or without forage (CON, n = 8, and all calves were weaned at 8 weeks of age. Ruminal pH was measured continuously, and rumen fluid samples were collected at 7, 8, 9, and 11 weeks of age, namely 1, 0, 1, and 3 weeks after weaning, respectively, to assess volatile fatty acid concentrations and bacterial DNA. The 24-h mean ruminal pH was significantly (P < 0.05 different between the two groups. Diurnal changes in the 1-h mean ruminal pH were observed throughout the study in the HAY group; however, they were not observed at 0 and 1 weeks after weaning in the CON group. Moreover, the HAY group had significantly (P < 0.05 higher proportions of acetate and butyrate and lower proportion of propionate, and significantly (P < 0.05 lower ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratios were observed in the CON group. The ruminal bacterial diversity indices decreased after -1 week in both groups and increased at 0 and 1 weeks after weaning in the HAY and CON groups, respectively. From the 454 pyrosequencing analysis, significant differences (P < 0.05 were observed in the relative abundance of several phyla (Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes and one genus (Prevotella between the two groups. From quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the HAY group had the higher copy numbers of cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus compared with the CON group. This study demonstrated that feeding of dietary forage alleviates subacute ruminal acidosis due to diurnal changes in ruminal pH. Furthermore, changes in ruminal pH affect the ruminal bacterial diversity and relative

  17. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal from different sources in broiler chicks and turkey poults with a nitrogen-free or casein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Parsons, C M; Lilburn, M S; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the standardization method and age on standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 4 meat and bone meal (MBM) samples in broiler chicks and turkey poults. The SIAAD were obtained by correcting apparent ileal digestibility (AID) values for basal ileal endogenous amino acid flow obtained from chicks and poults fed a N-free diet or a highly digestible protein diet (HDP; 100 g of casein/kg of diet). Four diets were formulated to contain 20% CP by using MBM as the only source of CP. Each diet was fed to 6 replicate cages of 30 or 8 birds/cage at 5 and 21 d, respectively, for 5 d. With the exception of all-beef MBM, chick AID values on d 21 were higher (P MBM samples in either species. There was no effect of the method of standardization on SIAAD at either age for most amino acids. For chicks, however, standardization of the all-beef MBM sample with HDP resulted in higher (P MBM were higher (P < 0.05) with HDP correction. The CV in SIAAD in chicks between the 2 methods of standardization was higher on d 5 (8.1%) relative to d 21 (5.0%) for all treatments. In poults, greater variability was observed on d 21 (8.2%) relative to d 5 (6.7%). Results from this study showed that at d 21, SI-AAD with either the N-free or the HDP diet resulted in similar digestibility values.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFRENT LEVELS OF NDF AND ADF ON NUTRITIVE AND BIOPRODUCTIVE INDICES AND ON DIGESTIVE VISCOSITY AT THE JEJUNUM AND ILEUM LEVEL AT BROILER CHICKENS FED WITH A DIET CONTAINING AN ENZYMATIC MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA TETILEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment we have studied the effect of different levels of main cellulose categories (NDF, ADF on nutritive and bioproductive indices and on digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level at broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 44 broiler chickens divided into two experimental groups (V1-5% and V2-15%. In the structure of combined feed was used barley in proportion of 5% for V1-5% and 15% for V2-15%. For both experimental groups were used enzymatic mixture which contained protease and cellulose. The hybrid used was Ross 308. The raising of NDF and ADF levels in broiler diet did not affect significantly the nutritive and bioproductive indices, but was recorded an increase of digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level with 28,31%.

  19. Effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based Direct-fed Microbial on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Intestinal Morphology and Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xinjian; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Zhang, Hongyu; Péron, Alexandre; Zhang, Huifang

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal morphology and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. A total of two hundred and eighty eight 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allocated to one of four experimental treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was fed to eight replicate cages, with nine birds per cage. Dietary treatments were composed of an antibiotic-free basal diet (control), and the basal diet supplemented with either 15 mg/kg of virginiamycin as antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), 30 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 30) or 60 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 60). Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 1 to 21) and finisher (d 22 to 42). Growth performance, nutrient utilization, morphological parameters of the small intestine and cecal microbial populations were measured at the end of the starter (d 21) and finisher (d 42) phases. During the starter phase, DFM and virginiamycin supplementation improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR; pvirginiamycin and DFM significantly increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), dry matter (DM) and gross energy during both starter and finisher phases (p<0.05) compared with the control group. On d 21, villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were significantly increased for the birds fed with the DFM diets as compared with the control group (p<0.05). The DFM 30, DFM 60, and AGP groups decreased the Escherichia coli population in cecum at d 21 and d 42 compared with control group (p<0.01). In addition, the population of Lactobacillus was increased in DFM 30 and DFM 60 groups as compared with control and AGP groups (p<0.01). It can be concluded that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM could be an

  20. PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF BROILERS FED DIETS CONTAINING YEAST EXTRACT DESEMPENHO E CARACTERISTICAS DE CARCAÇAS DE FRANGOS DECORTE RECEBENDO EXTRATO DE LEVEDURAS NA DIETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niédi Zauk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectof a yeast extract product on broiler growth performanceand carcass traits. A total of 810 male Ross broiler chickswere distributed in 27 pens (30 birds per pen in a completelyrandomized design. The animals were fed the experimentaldiets from 1 to 42 days of age. Treatments consisted offeeding a T1 basal corn-soybean meal diet; T2 a dietcontaining 2% yeast extract from 1 to 7 days of age and T3a diet containing 2% yeast extract from 1 to7 and 38 to 42days of age. Better growth performance was observed inbirds fed yeast extract from 1 to 7 and from 38 to 42 days ofage. Carcass traits were not statistically influenced by thedietary treatments. KEY WORDS: Body weight gain, feed conversion, feed intake, organs. Este estudo visou avaliar o efeito da utilização deum extrato de levedura sobre o desempenho e característi-cas de carcaça de frangos de corte. Um total de 810 frangos Ross, machos, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 27 boxes (trinta aves por boxe. As aves receberam as dietasexperimentais de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Os tratamentos consistiram em fornecer uma dieta à base de milho e farelo desoja (T1, uma dieta contendo extrato de levedura de 1 a 7dias (T2 e uma dieta contendo extrato de levedura de 1 a 7e de 38 a 42 dias de idade (T3. Os resultados experimentais indicam que o desempenho produtivo foi melhor ao se fornecer extrato de levedura de 1 a 7 e de 38 a 42 dias de idade.As características de carcaça não foram influenciadas estatisticamente pelas dietas experimentais. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, consumo de ração, órgãos.

  1. Results of an international phosphorus digestibility ring test with broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehutscord, M; Adeola, O; Angel, R; Bikker, P; Delezie, E; Dozier, W A; Umar Faruk, M; Francesch, M; Kwakernaak, C; Narcy, A; Nyachoti, C M; Olukosi, O A; Preynat, A; Renouf, B; Saiz Del Barrio, A; Schedle, K; Siegert, W; Steenfeldt, S; van Krimpen, M M; Waititu, S M; Witzig, M

    2016-12-05

    The objective of this ring test was to investigate the prececal phosphorus (P) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) in broiler chickens using the trial protocol proposed by the World's Poultry Science Association. It was hypothesized that prececal P digestibility of SBM determined in the collaborating stations is similar. Three diets with different inclusion levels of SBM were mixed in a feed mill specialized in experimental diets and transported to 17 collaborating stations. Broiler chicks were raised on commercial starter diets according to station-specific management routine. Then they were fed the experimental diets for a minimum of 5 d before content of the posterior half of the ileum was collected. A minimum of 6 experimental replicates per diet was used in each station. All diets and digesta samples were analyzed in the same laboratory. Diet, station, and their interaction significantly affected (P < 0.05) the prececal digestibility values of P and calcium of the diets. The prececal P digestibility of SBM was determined by linear regression and varied among stations from 19 to 51%, with significant differences among stations. In a subset of 4 stations, the prececal disappearance of myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate)-P; InsP6-P) also was studied. The prececal InsP6-P disappearance correlated well with the prececal P digestibility. We hypothesized that factors influencing InsP6 hydrolysis were main contributors to the variation in prececal P digestibility among stations. These factors were probably related to the feeding and housing conditions (floor pens or cages) of the birds in the pre-experimental phase. Therefore, we suggest that the World's Poultry Science Association protocol for the determination of digestible P be should extended to the standardization of the pre-experimental period. We also suggest that comparisons of P digestibility measurements among studies are made only with great caution until the protocol is more refined.

  2. Consequences of phosphorus interactions with calcium, phytase, and cholecalciferol on zootechnical performance and mineral retention in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delezie, E; Maertens, L; Huyghebaert, G

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of calcium (Ca), total phosphorus (Ptot), cholecalciferol, and phytase level in the diet on the performance, tibia ash percentage, and Ca and P retention in broilers until slaughter age. Broilers were randomly assigned to 12 treatments, each with 6 replicates, comprising 3 diets differing in Ca and P level: 1) normal Ca and Ptot level (NN); 2) normal Ca and low Ptot level (NL), 3) low Ca and Ptot level (LL). Broilers were also given 2 levels of cholecalciferol and 2 levels of phytase. The normal levels of Ca and Ptot for the starter, grower, and finisher phases were 0.90, 0.82, 0.74% and 0.67, 0.62, 0.57%, respectively. The low Ca and Ptot levels for the 3 phases were 0.67, 0.60, 0.52% and 0.57, 0.51, 0.46%, respectively. Broilers of the NL treatment obtained the lowest BW, whereas BW of the NN and LL groups were comparable. Cholecalciferol significantly affected the BW, with differences up to 2.6 and 1.2% for the starter and grower phases, respectively. The highest cholecalciferol effect was found in combination with the NN treatment. The percentage of retained Ca increased from 33% to 41% and 48% when the imbalanced diet was replaced by the NN and LL balanced diets, respectively. P release from phytate was 64 and 67% for the NL and LL diets, respectively. Phytase and cholecalciferol had significantly favorable effects on retention values but these effects were dependent on Ca and Ptot levels and their ratio. In conclusion, both diets with the balanced Ca/Ptot ratio resulted in the best performance, highest tibia ash percentage and P release from phytate. A reduction of the Aviagen (2009) recommended P requirements by 25 to 30% and Ca by 15 to 20% over the various phases did not negatively affect performance, bone development, and improved Ca and Ptot retention. The effects of supplementing cholecalciferol and phytase were additive but not significant and no synergism between both was present.

  3. Rastreabilidade de subprodutos de origem animal em dietas com levedura e trigo para frangos Traceability of animal byproducts in diets containing yeast and wheat meal for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gottmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi rastrear a inclussão de farinhas de origem animal em rações para frango de corte com ou sem levedura de cana-de-açúcar e farelo de trigo, por meio da análise do músculo peitoral das aves pelas técnicas dos isótopos estáveis de carbono e nitrogênio. Foram utilizados 210 pintos machos (Cobb, com um dia de idade, distribuídos aleatoriamente em sete tratamentos de 30 aves cada, tendo sido um tratamento controle (dieta vegetal e seis com inclusão de farinha de carne e ossos bovina ou farinha de vísceras de aves na dieta, com ou sem levedura de cana-de-açúcar e farelo de trigo. Aos 42 dias de idade, foram abatidas quatro aves, por tratamento, escolhidas ao acaso, cujo músculo peitoral foi retirado para análise da razão isotópica. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise multivariada. Os tratamentos experimentais diferiram do tratamento controle, e foi identificada a inclusão de farinha de origem animal, pelas técnicas dos isótopos estáveis, mesmo com inclusão de levedura ou farelo de trigo na dieta.The aim of this paper was to trace the presence of meals from animal origin, in diets for broilers with or without yeast and wheat meal, through the analysis of breast muscle, by using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope techniques. Two hundred ten male chicks (Cobb one-day old were randomly distributed to seven treatments (30 birds each, with a control diet (exclusively vegetal, and six diets containing meat and bone meal or poultry offal meal, with or without yeast and wheat meal in their compositions. At 42 days of age, four broilers randomly chosen, by treatment were slaughtered, and their breast muscles were collected for isotopic ratio analysis. The isotopic results were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis of variance. The treatments differed from the control and the inclusion of meals of animal origin was identified by stable isotope techniques, even when there was yeast or

  4. Instant Prezi starter

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    Ladores, Minerva M

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

  5. Instant Apache Maven starter

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    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

  6. Instant Sinatra starter

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    Yates, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.

  7. Instant Sublime Text starter

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    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  8. Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis as an alternative to antibiotics as a growth promoter on broiler performance, serum biochemistry, and immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheisari, Abbasali; Shahrvand, Shekofa; Landy, Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Aim: An in vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of ethanolic extract of propolis, on growth performance, carcass traits, serum biochemistry, and humoral immune responses of chickens, as compared with the antibiotic flavophospholipol. Materials and Methods: 312 1-day-old as-hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 4 replicate pens per treatment. The 6 dietary treatments fed for 42 days consisted of a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control); control plus 4.5 mg/kg flavophospholipol, and control plus 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg ethanol extracts of propolis, respectively. Results: Neither propolis nor antibiotic affected the performance criteria; however, dietary treatments tended to enhance to enhance body weight and daily feed intake of broiler chickens compared with control group (p>0.05). None of the dietary treatments significantly altered feed: Gain though; broilers fed diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg propolis had better feed: gain values compared with other groups in starter, and grower phases as well as the whole experimental period (p>0.05). Carcass yield and internal organ relative weights were not affected by treatments on day 42, except for abdominal fat pad weight that decreased in broilers supplemented with antibiotic. None of the treatments significantly affected humoral immune function. Dietary treatments failed to induce any significant effect on serum biochemistry (p>0.05); though broilers receiving 100 mg/kg propolis had greater high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower triglyceride concentrations compared with other groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results indicated that addition of ethanolic extract of propolis to routine dietary components of broilers, such as corn and soybean, seems not to have a positive influence on performance criteria. PMID:28344411

  9. Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis as an alternative to antibiotics as a growth promoter on broiler performance, serum biochemistry, and immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Gheisari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An in vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of ethanolic extract of propolis, on growth performance, carcass traits, serum biochemistry, and humoral immune responses of chickens, as compared with the antibiotic flavophospholipol. Materials and Methods: 312 1-day-old as-hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 4 replicate pens per treatment. The 6 dietary treatments fed for 42 days consisted of a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; control plus 4.5 mg/kg flavophospholipol, and control plus 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg ethanol extracts of propolis, respectively. Results: Neither propolis nor antibiotic affected the performance criteria; however, dietary treatments tended to enhance to enhance body weight and daily feed intake of broiler chickens compared with control group (p>0.05. None of the dietary treatments significantly altered feed: Gain though; broilers fed diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg propolis had better feed: gain values compared with other groups in starter, and grower phases as well as the whole experimental period (p>0.05. Carcass yield and internal organ relative weights were not affected by treatments on day 42, except for abdominal fat pad weight that decreased in broilers supplemented with antibiotic. None of the treatments significantly affected humoral immune function. Dietary treatments failed to induce any significant effect on serum biochemistry (p>0.05; though broilers receiving 100 mg/kg propolis had greater high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower triglyceride concentrations compared with other groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results indicated that addition of ethanolic extract of propolis to routine dietary components of broilers, such as corn and soybean, seems not to have a positive influence on performance criteria.

  10. Dietary Lipoic Acid Influences Antioxidant Capability and Oxidative Status of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ze Jie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of lipoic acid (LA on the antioxidant status of broilers were investigated. Birds (1 day old were randomly assigned to four groups and fed corn-soybean diets supplemented with 0, 100, 200, 300 mg/kg LA, respectively. The feeding program included a starter diet from 1 to 21 days of age and a grower diet from 22 to 42 days of age. Serum, liver and muscle samples were collected at 42 days of age. For antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in serum, liver and breast muscle significantly increased in chickens fed with LA. The concentration of malondiadehyde (MDA, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, was significantly lower in serum, liver and leg muscle in birds that received LA than in the control group. Treatments with LA significantly increased glutathione (GSH content in liver and increased α-tocopherol content in leg muscle as compared to the control. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with 300 mg/kg LA may enhance antioxidant capability and depress oxidative stress in broilers.

  11. Perfil bioquímico do soro de frangos de corte alimentados com dieta suplementada com alfa-amilase de Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003 Biochemichal serum profile of broilers fed diets suplemented with alfa-amylase from Cryptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Silva Minafra

    2010-12-01

    with activity of 9.58 U/mL and 10.0 U/mL, respectively. A total of 360 Cobb 500 male 1-d broiler chicks with 49.72 ± 0.68 g of initial body weight were used in the experiment. Birds were housed in heated batteries from one to 21 days of age. It was used three diets, each one with five replicates of 12 birds in a complete random design. The first diet (basal was formulated without the addition of enzyme and the other two were supplemented with a-amylase produced by Cryptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003 cultivation. Corn and soybean based diets were formulated in two phases: pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days of age and starter phase (from 8 to 21 days. In pre-starter phase, it was observed the following average values for calcium (6.90 and 5.99 mg/dL, plasma protein (2.0 and 2.5 g/dL and alkaline phosphatase activity (979.98 e 974.66 UI/L for Criptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003, respectively. Diet added with a-amylase obtained from Aspergillus niger HM2003 increased phosphorus serum concentration. In the starter phase, significative results were related to potassium when diets added with a-amylase were evaluated by the two sources. Incorporation of tested enzymes does not provide metabolic changes neither toxicity in the animals.

  12. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Basavanta Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1 corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME, crude protein (CP and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05 in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  13. Performance and histological responses of internal organs of broiler chickens fed raw, dehulled, and aqueous and dry-heated kidney bean meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiola, I A; Ologhobo, A D; Gous, R M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of raw and differently processed [aqueous heating, dehulled, and dry heating (toasted)] kidney bean meals on the performance, weights, and histology of internal organs of broiler chicken. The feeding trial lasted for 56 d. Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were used for the study. There were 5 treatment groups of 3 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. Raw and processed kidney bean meals were used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean in the control diet. Data collected were used to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and efficiency of feed utilization. The weights of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and lungs were also recorded and tissue samples of each collected for histological examination. Average daily food intake, average daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization were influenced by the dietary treatments. Average daily food intake and average daily gain in birds fed the control diet and heat-treated kidney bean meals were similar and significantly (Pkidney had severe congestion of glomeruli and distention of the capillary vessels with numerous thrombi in birds fed raw and dehulled kidney bean meals. The weight of the liver was significantly (Pkidney bean meal can be used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean meal in broiler starter and finisher diets without any adverse effect on the performance and the internal organs.

  14. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (pcoconut oil level increased (poil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers.

  15. Instant OSGi starter

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    Goodyear, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Using a practical approach with explanation where needed, the book will take an in depth look at what OSGi is and what it offers to Java programmers and development standards. ""OSGi Starter"" is intended for the senior Java programmer whom will be joining OSGi based projects, or for Architects looking to broaden their exposure to OSGi as a beneficial framework and runtime software system.

  16. Mucin gene mRNA levels in broilers challenged with eimeria and/or Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Nattrass, Gregory S; Forder, Rebecca E A; McGrice, Hayley A; Wu, Shu-Biao; Hughes, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    The effects of Eimeria (EM) and Clostridium perfringens (CP) challenges on the mRNA levels of genes involved in mucin (Muc) synthesis (Muc2, Muc5ac, Muc13, and trefoil family factor-2 [TFF2]), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-18 [IL-18]), and metabolic processes (cluster of differentiation [CD]36) in the jejunum of broilers were investigated. Two parallel experiments involving 1) EM challenge and 2) EM and CP challenges were conducted. The first experiment was a 2 X 2 study with 12 birds per treatment (N = 48) involving fishmeal substitution (25%) in the diet (FM) and EM challenge. The treatments were: Control (FM-, EM-), Fishmeal (FM+, EM-), EM challenge (FM-, EM+), and fishmeal substitution and EM challenge (FM+, EM+). The second experiment was a 2 X 2 X 2 experiment with six birds per treatment (N = 48) involving fishmeal (FM-, FM+), Eimeria (EM-, EM+), and C perfringens (CP-, CP+). In both arms of the study, male broilers were given a starter diet for the whole period of 16 days, except those assigned to FM+, where 25% of the starter ration was replaced with fishmeal from days 8 to 14. EM inoculation was performed on day 9 and CP inoculation on days 14 and 15. The EM challenge birds were euthanatized for sampling on day 13; postmortem examination and sampling for the Eimeria plus C perfringens challenge arm of the study were on day 16. In the Eimeria challenge arm of the study, fishmeal supplementation significantly suppressed the mRNA levels of TNF-alpha, TFF2, and IL-18 pre-CP inoculation but simultaneously increased the levels of Muc13 and CD36 mRNAs. Birds challenged with Eimeria exhibited increased mRNA levels of Muc13, Muc5ac, TNF-alpha, and IL-18. In the Eimeria and C. perfringens challenge arm, birds exposed to EM challenge exhibited significantly lower mRNA levels of Muc2 and CD36. The mRNA levels of CD36 were also significantly suppressed by CP challenge. Our results showed that the transcription of mucin synthesis

  17. Effect of high-dose phytase and citric acid, alone or in combination, on growth performance of broilers given diets severely limited in available phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, H R; Jabbari, Z; Adibnia, S; Shahir, M H; Hosseini, S A

    2015-01-01

    1. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of high-dose phytase alone or in combination with citric acid (CA) in the diet severely limited in available phosphorus (P) on performance, plasma P and plasma Ca of broilers from 22 to 42 d of age. 2. In Trial 1, 297 21-d-old female chicks were placed into 27 pens and allocated to 9 maize-soybean meal-based dietary treatments, which were a positive control [PC, 4.23 g/kg non-phytate P (NPP)] and 8 negative control (NC, 1.35 g/kg NPP) groups consisting of two concentrations of CA (0 and 20 g/kg) and 4 concentrations of phytase (0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 U/kg) in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. In Trial 2, 192 21-d-old male chicks were placed into 24 pens and allocated to 6 wheat-canola meal-based dietary treatments, which were a PC (4.2 g/kg NPP), a NC (1.68 g/kg NPP) and 4 NC groups consisting of two concentrations of CA (0 and 20 g/kg) and two concentrations of phytase (2000 and 4000 U/kg) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. 3. In both trials, birds fed on the PC had significantly higher average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), plasma P and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and plasma Ca than those of birds fed on the NC. CA supplementation significantly increased ADG and ADFI. There was a significant interaction between CA and phytase on plasma P where CA improved the effect of phytase on plasma P. In Trial 1, phytase addition improved ADG, ADFI, FCR and plasma Ca linearly. 4. Briefly, this research showed the interaction effect between CA and phytase on plasma P when broilers were fed on diets based on maize-soybean meal or wheat-canola meal. The results showed that CA supplementation lowered the concentration of phytase that is needed in low NPP diets to increase plasma P.

  18. Effect of Caffeine and trans-cinnamaldehyde on Growth Performance, Hematology, Stress Hormone, Immunity Response and Blood Parameters in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pournia KH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of caffeine and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC on growth performance, hematological parameters, stress hormones, immune response, and some blood parameters of broiler chickens. Three hundred fifty 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 dietary treatments (five pens/ treatment of 10 male broilers each in a completely randomized design. A basal control corn-soybean meal diet for starter, grower and finisher periods were formulated and supplemented with appropriate levels of caffeine (0.5, 1 and 2% or TC (0.5, 1 and 1.5%. Findings showed that caffeine at level of 2% decreased feed intake (FI, body weight (BW, body weight gain (BWG and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR. TC supplementation had no significant effect on growth performance compare to control diet. Except caffeine which significantly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit at level of 2% in 21 day old chicks (P, caffeine and TC had no significant effects on hematological parameters and stress hormone of  broiler chickens in 21 and 42 d (P>0.05. Similar trend were observed for humeral and cell mediated immunity. Supplementation of 2% of caffeine significantly decreased glucose level in 21 d (P and this effect was not observed for TC levels compare with the control treatment. On the other hand all levels of caffeine and TC at level of 1% significantly decreased cholesterol levels in 21 d compared to control treatment (P. Caffeine and TC levels were not change the blood parameters in 42 d. Findings showed that supplementation of diets with caffeine specially at level of 2% decrease growth performance and neither caffeine nor TC affect the hematological, hormonal and immunity response in broiler chickens.

  19. DIGESTIBLE LYSINE LEVELS BASED IN THE IDEAL PROTEIN CONCEPT FOR BROILER CHICKENS IN THE STARTER PERIOD NÍVEIS DE LISINA DIGESTÍVEL EM DIETAS BASEADAS NO CONCEITO DE PROTEÍNA IDEAL PARA FRANGOS DE CORTE NA FASE INICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Eiko Murakami

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in order to evaluate rations with different levels of digestible lysine, maintaining ratio with met+cys, threonine and tryptophan amino acids, for broilers chickens in the starter period (one to 21 days of age. Four hundred male broilers chickens Cobb Vantress were used in experimental design completely randomized with four treatments (1.14%; 1.18%; 1.22% and 1.26% of digestible lysine, four replicates and 25 birds per experimental unit. It was observed quadratic effect (P<0.05 of lysine levels on weight gain and feed conversion of birds, being the better level 1.183% and 1.190% of digestible lysine, respectively. It was not verified effect of treatments on feed intake, abdominal fat, corporal chemical composition, uric acid levels on blood and litter moisture and nitrogen rate. According to the performance results, can be concluded that the digestible lysine requirements for male broiler chickens in the period from 1 to 21 days of age were of 1.19%.

    KEY WORDS: Broiler chickens, digestible lysine, ideal protein.

    O experimento foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar rações com diferentes níveis de lisina digestível, mantendo sua relação com os aminoácidos met+cys, treonina e triptofano, para pintos de corte machos na fase de 1 a 21dias de idade. Utilizaram-se quatrocentos pintos de corte, Cobb Vantress, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos (1,14; 1,18; 1,22 e 1,26% de lisina digestível, quatro repetições e 25 aves por unidade experimental. Observou-se efeito quadrático (P<0,05 dos níveis de lisina sobre o ganho de peso e conversão alimentar das aves, sendo o melhor nível de 1,183% e 1,190% de lisina digestível, respectivamente. Não foi constatado efeito dos tratamentos no consumo de ração, gordura abdominal, composição química corporal, nível de

  20. Effects of anti-heat diet and inverse lighting on growth performance, immune organ, microorganism and short chain fatty acids of broiler chickens under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seung-Tae; Park, Byung-Sung; Bang, Han-Tae; Kang, Hwan-Ku; Hwangbo, Jong

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the effects of night restricted feeding of extreme heat diet (EHD) containing heat stress resistance nutrients, with inverse lighting program, on their growth performance in broiler chickens exposed to extreme heat stress (33 ± 2°C). EHD 1 contained soy oil, molasses, methionine and lysine. EHD 2 contained all nutrients of EHD 1 and vitamin C additionally. Three hundred broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomized into four dietary treatment groups according to a randomized block design on the day they were hatched. The treatment groups were: T1 (EHD 1, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light), T2 (EHD 2, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light), T3 (EHD 1, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light) and T4 (EHD 2, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light). The body weight gain of the broilers increased most significantly in T2, followed by T1, T4 and T3 (p < 0.05). Weights of the immune system, thymus and bursa of Fabricius recorded higher in T1 and T2 than in T3 and T4. The spleen was higher in T1, T2 and T3 than in T4 (p < 0.05). Blood triglyceride, total cholesterol and blood sugar were higher in T1 and T2 than in T3 and T4 (p < 0.05). LDL-C recorded high in the order of T4, T3, T2 and T1, but HDL-C showed the inverse order (p < 0.05). IgG, IgA and IgM were higher in T1 and T2 than in T3 and T4, however, the corticosterone concentration showed the inverse order (p<0.05). Lactobacillus in feces was higher in T1 and T2 than in T3 and T4, but total aerobic bacteria, E. coli, Coliform bacteria was higher in T4 and T3 than in T2 and T1 (p < 0.05). Contents of acetic acid, propionic acid and total Short chain fatty acid were significantly higher in the order of T2, T1, T3 and T4. Butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid and isovaleric acid were higher in T4 and T3 than in T1 and T2 (p < 0.05).

  1. Influences of an essential oil mixture supplementation to corn versus wheat-based practical diets on growth, organ size, intestinal morphology and immune response of male and female broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye Coven

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diet type, supplementation diet with an essential oil mixture (EOM, and bird gender on the growth performance, carcass yield, internal organ weight, immune response, and small intestine histology of broiler chickens. To do this, a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement was designed. The variables used were: two diet types (based on either wheat or corn, 2 feed additives (with or without EOM, and gender (male or female. EOM supplementation in the diet decreased body weight in corn-fed male birds at Days 21 and 42, but not in those fed the wheat-based diet, signifying a diet x EOM x gender interaction. Cumulative feed intake was not influenced by either the diet type or EOM. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by diet type, whereas EOM improved feed conversion ratio over the 42-day growth period. Feeding birds on wheat decreased the carcass yield while it increased relative small intestine and large intestine weight. Relative weights of liver, bursa fabricius and serum infectious bursal disease (IBD and Newcastle disease (ND titers were not affected by any of the variables studied. EOM supplementation and feeding birds on corn increased jejunal villus height at both 21 and 42 days of age, while bird gender showed no effect. In general, EOM positively influenced body weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion in broiler chickens. Birds receiving the corn-based diet were more efficient in converting feed to body mass as compared to those fed on the wheat-based diet.

  2. Evaluation of a Bacillus direct-fed microbial candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation in broiler chickens fed on a rye-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, J D; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Bielke, L R; Vicente, J L; Wolfenden, R; Menconi, A; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2015-01-01

    1. The effects of the dietary inclusion of a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation were evaluated in broilers consuming rye-based diets. 2. In the present study, control mash rye-based diets (CON) or Bacillus-DFM supplemented diets (TRT) were administered ad libitum to male broilers in three independent experiments. 3. In Experiments 1 and 2 (n = 25/group), liver samples were taken to evaluate bacterial translocation, digesta samples were used for viscosity measurements and the intestinal microbial flora was evaluated from different intestinal sections to enumerate total recovered gram-negative bacteria (TGB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and anaerobic bacteria (TAB). Additionally, both tibias were removed for assessment of bone quality. 4. In Experiment 3, each experimental group had 8 replicates of 20 chickens (n = 160/group). Weekly, body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated. At d 28-of-age, samples were taken to determine bacterial translocation, digesta viscosity and bone quality characteristics. 5. In all experiments, consumption of Bacillus-DFM reduced bacterial translocation to the liver and digesta viscosity. Additionally, DFM supplementation improved BW, bone quality measurements and FCR. Moreover, chickens fed on the Bacillus-DFM diet in Experiments 1 and 2 showed a significant reduction in the number of gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria in the duodenal content compared to control. 6. In summary, chickens fed on a rye-based diet without DFM inclusion showed an increase in bacterial translocation and digesta viscosity, accompanied by reduced performance and bone quality variables relative to the Bacillus-DFM candidate group. Hence, incorporation into the feed of a selected DFM ameliorated the adverse anti-nutritional effects related to utilisation of rye-based diets in broilers chickens.

  3. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers fed with animal fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Murali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in broilers fed with animal fat. Materials and Methods: 80 day-old Cobb commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned into two dietary treatment groups with four replicates of ten chicks each. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The birds in both the control (T1 and treatment group (T2 were fed with a diet having 5% animal fat, while the treatment group (T2 was supplemented with 900 mg of L-carnitine. The birds were fed with standard broiler starter ration up to 4 weeks of age and finisher ration up to 6 weeks of age. Results: The average body weight (g, cumulative feed intake (g and cumulative feed conversion ratio belonging to groups T1 and T2 at 6th week of age were 2091.25 and 2151.11, 3976.49 and 4171.68, 1.97 and 1.96 respectively. The percentage availability of the nutrients of two experimental rations T1 and T2 was 68.23 and 68.00 for dry matter, 58.72 and 55.98 for crude protein, 73.85 and 71.35 for ether extract, 34.19 and 33.86 for crude fiber, 79.18 and 79.59 for nitrogen free extract, 70.24 and 70.03 for energy efficiency and nitrogen balance (g/day were 2.35 and 2.39, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that the supplementation of 900 mg L-carnitine in diet with added animal fat had no effect on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers.

  4. The Effect of Triticale and Enzyme Cocktail (Xylanase & β-Glucanase Replacement in Grower Diet on Performance, Digestive Organ Relative Weight, Gut Viscosity and Gut Morphology of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Zarghi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Corn and wheat are the grains most routinely used in commercial poultry diets. For consumption of these cereals, there are a competition between humans and mono-gastric animals. Due to corn crop limitation in Iran, approximately 50% of the corn required for poultry nutrition is supplied through imports. Since triticale is more resistant to various diseases, dry weather and in similar culture and weather conditions can produce higher yield than wheat, triticale considered as a crop suitable for cultivation in inefficient lands and its culture in the world has being increased. The use of triticale in broiler feed has been limited because of the presence of soluble non-starch polysaccharides components. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different replacement levels of corn by triticale in grower diets with and without exogenous enzyme supplementation on growth performance, relative weight of digestive organs, jejunal morphology, and intestinal viscosity of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods Five hundred 11 d old male broiler chicks (Ross 308, were assigned to a factorial arrangement (5×2 with a completely randomized design with 5 replicates of 10 chicks each. The factors included 5 levels of triticale replacement levels for corn (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% and 2 levels (zero and 0.5 g /kg of diet of enzyme cocktail “Xylanase & β-Glucanase” in the broiler grower diets. The experimental diets were isocalric and isonitrogenous and fed ad-libitum from 11 to 24 d of age. The growth performance as mean body weight at 24 d of age, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were calculated. At 24d of age, one bird from each pen, close to the average pen weight was selected, weighed, and euthanized by cervical dislocation. The gastrointestinal (GI tract organs were emptied and weighed. Approximately 1.5 g of wet weight of the fresh digesta was immediately placed in a micro centrifuge tube and

  5. Perfil lipídico e maciez da carne de coxa e sobrecoxa de frangos de corte alimentados com rações contendo diferentes fontes lipídicas Lipidic profile and tenderness of thigh and drumstick meat of broilers fed diets supplemented with different lipid sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potença Alexandra

    2010-08-01

    diets, eight replicates and 49 birds per experimental unit was used. In the starter phase, birds received diets formulated with soybean oil, cottonseed oil, poultry offal oil, or beef tallow, and during the growing phase, each one of these diets was dismembered in two diets, so one group of birds kept receiving the same oil source used in the previous phase while the other group started to receive soybean oil in the diet. In this phase, it was used a complete random design with seven diets, each one with four replicates. There was an effect of the diets on the profile of the fatty acids in the thigh. In the experiment 2, during the starter phase (from 1 to 21 days of age, the birds received the same diets with 3% of soybean oil, and in the growing phase (from 22 to 42 days of age, they received five diets each one with a lipidic source (soybean, canola oil, sunflower oil, poultry offal oil and beef tallow evaluated in a complete random design with six replicates and 30 birds per experimental unity. It was not observed effect of the diets on pH and shear force. However, diets influence the profile of fatty acids in the thigh because accordingly to the results, the increment of the rations with oil sources promote changes on lipid composition of the broiler thigh meat, so the best profile of fatty acids is observed in the meat of animals fed ration containing soybean oil.

  6. In vitro versus in situ evaluation of the effect of phytase supplementation on calcium and phosphorus solubility in soya bean and rapeseed meal broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, N K; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Burton, E J

    2014-01-01

    1. In vitro assays provide a rapid and economical tool to evaluate dietary effects, but have limitations. In this study, the effect of phytase supplementation on solubility, and presumed availability, of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in soya bean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) based diets were evaluated both in situ and by a two-step in vitro digestion assay that simulated the gastric and small intestine (SI) phases of digestion. 2. Comparison of the in vitro findings to in situ findings was used to evaluate the in vitro assay. Ross 308 broilers (n = 192) were fed on one of 6 SBM or RSM diets supplemented with 0, 500 or 5000 FTU/kg phytase from 0 to 28 d post hatch. The 6 diets and raw SBM and RSM were exposed to a two-step in vitro assay. Ca and P solubility and pH in the gizzard and jejunal digesta and in the gastric and SI phase of in vitro digestion were measured. 3. Both in vitro and in situ analyses detected that Ca solubility was lowest when diets were supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase, compared to the control diets and diets supplemented with 5000 FTU/kg phytase. Phosphorus solubility increased with increasing phytase level. Both methods also identified that mineral solubility plateaus in the gastric phase. 4. Overall relationship of the two methods was strong for both determination of gastric phase Ca and P solubility (r = 0.96 and 0.92, respectively) and also SI phase Ca and P solubility (r = 0.71 and 0.82, respectively). However, mineral solubility and pH were higher when measured in vitro than in situ, and the in situ assay identified an interaction among the effects of phase, protein source and phytase inclusion level on Ca solubility that the in vitro assay did not detect. 5. This two-step in vitro assay successfully predicted phytase efficacy, but to determine detailed response effects in the animal, in situ data is still required.

  7. Fontes de Sódio e Relação Sódio: Cloro para Frangos de Corte Sodium Chloride Levels in Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV Fischer da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 2.880 pintos de corte, para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes fontes de sódio (Na+ e relações sódio:cloro (Na+:Cl- na ração. As aves receberam ração e água ad libtum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. O ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e mortalidade não foram influenciados (p>0,05 pela substituição da fonte tradicional de Na e pelas diferentes relações Na:Cl. A umidade da cama foi afetada pela fonte e níveis de Na na ração. Os resultados mostraram que pode-se utilizar o NaHCO3 como fonte parcial à exigência de Na para frangos de corte de 1 a 47 dias de idade.A trial was carried out with 2,880 day old chicks to evaluate different sources of sodium (Na+ and Na+:Cl- ratio in diets. Water and diets were available in "ad libitum" feeding. Experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and six repetitions. The performance (feed intake, body weight, feed conversion and mortality was not affected (P>0.05 by treatments, but different levels and sources of Na+ increased litter moisture. The NaHCO3 can be used in chicken broilers diets in partial substitution of Na for day 1 to 47.

  8. Effects of dietary inclusion of fermented cottonseed meal on growth, cecal microbial population, small intestinal morphology, and digestive enzyme activity of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Tang, Jiang-wu; Yao, Xiao-hong; Wu, Yi-fei; Wang, Xin; Feng, Jie

    2013-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the feeding value of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) in broilers. In experiment 1, 480 1-day-old male yellow-feathered broilers were allocated into 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates (20 birds per replicate) to examine the effects of FCSM on the growth response of chickens. Experimental feeding was performed for 6 weeks in two phases (starter, days 0 to 21; finisher, days 22 to 42). FCSM was used at 0, 40, 80, and 120 g/kg levels to replace soybean meal in the basal diet. The dietary inclusion of 40 and 80 g/kg FCSM increased (quadratic (Q): pmicrobial populations, intestinal morphology, and digestive enzyme activity of broilers. The number of lactobacilli in the cecal digesta increased at day 21 (pamylase and protease at day 21, as well as protease at day 42. In conclusion, the appropriate inclusion of FCSM improves growth, cecal microflora, intestinal morphology, and digestive enzyme activity in yellow-feathered broilers.

  9. Analysis of the toll-like receptor 2-2 (TLR2-2) and TLR4 mRNA expression in the intestinal mucosal immunity of broilers fed on diets supplemented with nickel chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-01-03

    Toll-like receptor (TLRs) are important innate immune receptors, and TLR2 and TLR4 play an important role in intestinal mucosal innate immunity. It has been found that nickel (Ni) can affect the immune system in broilers. The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosal immunity system of broilers induced by dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet or the same basal diet supplemented with 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Results showed that the TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosa and the cecal tonsil were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg groups than those in the control group. It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg could reduce TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosa and cecal tonsil in broilers, implying that the innate immunity in intestinal mucosal immune system could be impaired by pathways involving injured surface epithelium cells or/and the inhibition of the TLR signal transduction.

  10. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  11. INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM CONTENT AND OIL SOURCES IN FEED ON CONCENTRATION OF THYROID GLAND HORMONES AND ELECTROLYTE IN BROILER BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to elaborate the influence of designed mixtures used in broilers fattening on the concentration of electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in the blood.. The research was carried out on 120 male Ross 308 hybrid broilers. The fattening lasted for 42 days. During the first three weeks of fattening broilers were fed standard starter diet containing 22% crude protein and 13.90 MJ/kg ME. During the last three weeks of fattening, broilers were divided into 6 experimental groups, each fed specially prepared finisher diets (P1=6% sunflower oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P2=6% linseed oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P3=6% sunflower oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P4=6% linseed oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P5=6% sunflower oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed, P6=6% linseed oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Finisher diet was balanced at 18.02% crude protein and 14.40 MJ/kg ME. It was found out that the type of oil in chicken feed influenced to blood pH (P <0.001, whereas selenium level (P=0.014 in the feed, as well as the oil type and selenium level interaction (P<0.001 influenced the concentration of potassium in the blood. Oil type (P=0.037 influenced the concentration of fT3, which was lower in chickens fed mixtures with addition of linseed oil than in the chickens fed sunflower oil added mixtures. Interaction of selenium content and oil type had influence on differences in concentration of fT4 as well as on the ratio of fT3/fT4, (P<0.001, i.e. P=0.021. The research results indicated that oils supplemented to broiler diets and combined with different organic selenium concentrations affected pH, concentration of some electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in broiler blood, however, all obtained values were within reference range for poultry.

  12. EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDE DEGRADING ENZYMES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nadeem, M. I. Anjum, A. G. Khan and A. Azim

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broilers chicks fed diets with and without supplementing non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes (NSPDE at the rate of 0.5 g/kg diet. A total of 300 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 12 sets (replicates each comprising 25 chicks and three sets per treatment group, reared on deep litter from 1-42 days post-hatch. Group A was fed diets without NSPDE supplementation, while group B was fed diets supplemented with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg. Group C was fed diets containing 50 kcal/kg less metabolizable energy (ME without NSPDE and group D was fed diets having 50 kcal/kg less ME with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg supplementation. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR from 1-28 days and 1-42 days was significantly (p<0.05 improved in chicks fed NSPDE supplemented diets (groups B and D compared to non-supplemented diets (groups A and C. However, during 29-42 days of growing period enzymes supplementation did not influence feed intake and FCR. Body weight gain, dressing percentage and relative weights of heart, gizzard and shank at 42 days of age was found to be non-significantly different among all groups. However, liver weight reduced significantly (p<0.05 in NSPDE supplemented groups. The study suggested that NSPDE supplementation was beneficial in enhancing feed utilization during the starter phase, while its effects on weight gain, dressing percentage and weights of organs, except liver weight, were found to be non-significant.

  13. Modeling and bio-economic analysis of broilers' performance in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to model bio-economic variables in broilers feeding. During 7 weeks, 120 broilers Red Bro were fed with diets containing soybean meals from solvent (Ss) or expeller (Se) processing. At grower phase (d 22 to d 49) the diets were switched for half of broilers in each...

  14. Comparison of selenium levels and sources and dietary fat quality in diets for broiler breeders and layer hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Caston, L; Durosoy, S; Schlegel, P

    2008-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out with broiler breeders (experiment 1) and laying hens (experiment 2) to study the effects of Se sources, in interaction with dietary level of Se or dietary fats on performance, Se incorporation into tissues (blood, liver, breast muscle, and egg) and eggs, hatchability, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in tissues and blood. Both experiments involved a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of 3 Se sources (selenite, Se yeast, or B-Traxim Se) and either 2 levels of each source (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg) or 2 fats (fresh or oxidized). Egg production was not affected by Se source or dietary fat in both experiments. Egg production was greater (P Hatchability of eggs from hens fed 0.1 mg/kg of Se was lower (P Selenium in egg, liver, and breast muscle was greater (P Selenium contents in liver and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed Se yeast compared with hens fed other sources of Se. In experiment 1, liver GPX was greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed selenite or Se yeast, whereas plasma GPX was greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed selenite compared with B-Traxim Se or Se yeast. Supplementation with oxidized fat increased (P < 0.05) GPX in blood and liver. B-Traxim Se decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde content in breast muscle of layers. It is concluded that broiler breeders require supplementation of 0.3 mg/kg of Se, and that there are numerous measurable advantages in using organic rather than inorganic sources for both breeders and layers.

  15. Effects of different enzyme complex supplements in corn-soybean feedstuff on growth performance and nutrient utilization of broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hua; WANG Kang-ning

    2008-01-01

    A six-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing different enzyme cocktails in corn-soybean-byproduct diets on broiler chickens' growth performance and nutrient utilization. A total of 630 one-day-old Arbor Acre broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 7 experimental groups with 6 replicates of 15 chicks. The group of chicks serving as the control group were fed a basal diet made of mainly corn and soybean meal, mixed with a little fish meal, rapeseed meal and wheat bran. The other six groups were fed the same basal diet supplemented with each a different enzyme complex at the dosage of 0.75 kg enzyme in 1 t basal diet. At the same time, a metabolic trial was carried out on 42 chicks at the 27 d age. The results showed that the average daily mass gain (ADG) of chicks in the starter phase, age 1 d to 21 d, was improved by all enzyme complex supplements except the cocktail made of 230 IU/g (-amylase, 5.6 kIU/g (-glucanase, 5.3 kIU/g cellulase, 15.5 kIU/g protease and 37.5 kIU/g xylanase. The enzyme cocktail made of 1.6 kIU/g (-amylase, 80 kIU/g protease and 1.6 kIU/g xylanase worked out the most significant difference (P(0.05). Enzyme supplementation decreased the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 2.78% to 3.98% (P(0.05), indicating better utilization of nutritients. In the grower phase at the age from 22 d to 42 d, the enzyme cocktail made of 4.0 kIU/g (-glucanase, 3.8 kIU/g cellulase, 17.8 kIU/g protease, 4.5 kIU/g xylanase and 44 IU/g (-glactase, and that made of 240 IU/g (-amylase, 1.4.6 kIU/g (-glucanase, 2.0 kIU/g cellulase, 5.7 kIU/g protease, 400 IU/g xylanase, 20 IU/g (-glactase and 200 IU/g phytase imporved chicks' ADG and FCR significantly (P(0.05). These two cocktails also were shown to improve ADG and FCR in the entire period of broiler age from 1 d to 42 d. Exogenous digesting enzymes such as protease and amylase benefited the growth and nutrition utilization in young broilers in the starter phase but barely in the grower

  16. Inclusão da farinha de varredura de mandioca em rações de frangos de corte = Inclusion of cassava waste meal inclusion in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Nataly Ribeiro Barbosa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o desempenho, a viabilidade econômica e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo níveis de inclusão (0,0; 7,5; 15,0; 22,5 e 30,0% de farinha de varredura de mandioca (FVM. Foram utilizados 360 pintainhos de um dia, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocoscasualizados com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições contendo 12 aves por parcela. Os parâmetros avaliados foram o consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, custo da alimentação, renda bruta, margem bruta e rentabilidade. Aos 42 dias, foram abatidos doisfrangos por parcela para avaliação do peso: da carcaça, dos cortes, das vísceras e da gordura total, para determinar o rendimento de carcaça e calcular as porcentagens de cortes, gordura total e vísceras em relação ao peso vivo e carcaça. O peito e as coxas + sobrecoxas foram desossados para calcular os rendimentos de carne. A pigmentação das canelas das aves foi avaliada. Nos parâmetros de desempenho e avaliação econômica, não houve diferença entreos tratamentos. No peso e porcentagem da moela e pigmentação das canelas, houve efeito linear e, no rendimento da carne da coxa + sobrecoxa, houve efeito quadrático. A FVM pode ser incorporada às rações em níveis de 30%.The objective of this work was to evaluate performance, economic viability and carcass traits of broilers fed with diets containing five inclusion levels (0.0; 7.5; 15.0; 22.5 and 30.0% ofcassava waste meal (FVM. Three hundred sixty one-day-old pullets were used, distributed in a randomized block design experiment with five treatments and six replications, containing twelve birds per box. The parameters evaluated were feed intake, weight gain,feed-to-gain ratio, feeding costs, gross income, gross margin and profitability. Two broilers per replication were slaughtered at 42 days in order to evaluate the weights of carcass, main cuts, offal and total fat for carcass

  17. Effect of Garlic Supplementation to Diet on Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens under High Stocking Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid SHAKERI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the impact of garlic powder (GAR on performance and intestinal morphology when chicken were subjected to different stocking densities. A total 100 one-day old Cobb 500 male chicks were housed in cages as 10 birds/m2 and 15 birds/m2. The chicks received feed as (i basal diet + 0 g/kg garlic powder and (ii basal diet + 5g/kg garlic powder supplementation from 1-42d. At the end of experiment, ten chicks per treatment randomly selected to collect duodenal samples. The results showed significant improvement in body weight and villi length when diet supplemented by GAR. High stocking density (HD had negative impact on growth performance and villi length in basal diet, but chicken supplemented by GAR diet did not affect by HD in the both parameters. In conclusion, diet supplemented by GAR can improve performance and villi length when the chickens were subjected to HD condition.

  18. Fontes e níveis de metionina em dietas para frangos de corte Methionine sources and levels in broiler chick diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Tárcio dos Santos Viana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de duas fontes de metionina, DL-metionina e metionina hidroxi análoga (MHA-AL, e de três níveis de suplementação desse aminoácido em dietas comerciais sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 1.232 pintos de corte machos da linhagem Ross, de 1 a 47 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 X 3 (fonte de metionina X nível de suplementação e uma dieta adicional (basal sem suplementação, com oito repetições de 22 aves por unidade experimental. A dieta basal (sem suplementação foi suplementada com 50, 100 e 150% de MHA ou DL-metionina em quantidade equivalente a 65% da quantidade de cada nível de MHA-AL utilizado. Avaliaram-se o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o fator de produção. Em cada nível de suplementação, não houve diferença entre as dietas contendo 100 partes de MHA-AL e 65 partes de DL-metionina, exceto no período de 1 a 10 dias de idade, quando houve diferença significativa no ganho de peso no menor nível de suplementação. Sessenta e cinco partes de DL-metionina equivalem a 100 partes de MHA-AL.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sources of methionine, DL-Methionine (DLM - 99% and Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Free Acid (MHA-FA - 88%, at three different levels of supplementation of this amino acids in commercial diets on the performance of broiler chickens. A total of 1.232 commercial Ross broilers was used, from 01 to 47 days of age, and allotted to a complete randomized design in a 2 X 3 factorial (source methionine X supplementation level arrangement and a additional diet (basal without supplementation, with eight replications of 22 birds per experimental unit. The basal diet was supplemented with 50, 100 and 150% of MHA-FA or DL-methionine in equivalent amount of 65% of the amount of MHA-FA used. Feed intake, weight gain, feed:gain ratio and production factor

  19. Effect of supplementation of diets with BMD and Virginiamycin on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and bacterial population in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Singh

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chicks of a commercial strain were fed diets containing Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate @150 g and 200 g/MT and Virginiamycin 500g/MT feed upto 6 weeks of age to evaluate their effects on growth, feed efficiency, carcass characteristics and bacterial population (Salmonella and E. coli. Both BMD and virginiamycin significantly increased (P<0.01 the body weight gains as compare to the control and also improve the feed conversion ratio. The carcass characteristics showed the highest edible weight was recorded in treatment IV where virginiamycin @ 500g/MT feed was incorporated (76.86%, followed by treatment III (71.92%, treatment II (71.41% and the lowest (70.68 in control (T-I. The sample of excreta collected during II, IV and VI week of experiment did not show any incidences of Salmonella in any treatment groups, however, the excreta of six week in all the treatment groups showed the incidences of E. coli. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(5.000: 141-143

  20. Chronic heat exposure alters protein turnover of three different skeletal muscles in finishing broiler chickens fed 20 or 25% protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, S; Chagneau, A M; Peresson, R; Tesseraud, S

    2000-04-01

    Heat-exposed chickens exhibit a lower growth rate and a depressed protein retention which may result from an alteration in protein metabolism. A high-protein diet seems to be beneficial under hot conditions because it tends to improve growth. Effects of high ambient temperature (32 vs. 22 degrees C) and dietary crude protein (25 vs. 20%) on muscle protein turnover were investigated in finishing broiler chickens. At 5-6 wk of age, protein synthesis was measured in vivo in the Pectoralis major, Sartorius and Gastrocnemius muscles (flooding dose of [(3)H]-phenylalanine). Protein breakdown was determined in the same muscles as the difference between protein synthesis and deposition. Chronic heat stress markedly reduced protein synthesis, irrespective of muscle type (P < 0.05). This was mainly related to the lower capacity for protein synthesis (muscle RNA/Protein) (P < 0.01). Chronic heat exposure also decreased protein breakdown in the P. major and Sartorius; this effect was not observed in the GASTROCNEMIUS: Protein synthesis was more affected than breakdown, leading to reduced protein deposition, at least in the P. major and Gastrocnemius muscles. Increasing dietary protein content had no significant impact on muscle protein turnover. Particularly at 32 degrees C, the high-protein diet did not significantly modify either protein synthesis, ribosomal capacity or translational efficiency. However, it favored muscle protein deposition, which was probably related to reduced proteolysis. In conclusion, we showed that chronic heat exposure decreased muscle protein deposition, mainly by reducing protein synthesis. Under these conditions, the impaired protein synthesis was not restored by a 5% higher protein intake.

  1. ANTI-NUTRIENT FACTORS, PERFORMANCE AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY OF BROILER CHICKS FED RAW AND FERMENTED ALCHORNEA CORDIFOLIA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. EMENALOM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine some anti-nutrient factors in differently processed Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia seeds and the effect of the processed seed meals on the performance and blood chemistry of broiler chicks fed from 1 to 35 day of age. Ground and fermented, and dehulled Christmas bush (CB seed meals were analyzed for their anti-nutrient contents whereas ground and sieved (GS, ground-sieved and fermented (GSF and non-sieved and fermented (NSF seed meals were incorporated into starter broiler diets to replace 10% of maize, respectively. Fermented and dehulled CB seed meals contain 574.4 and 21.3mg/100g phytic acid, respectively. Cyanide was not identified in any of the meals. Dehulling eliminated the anthraquinone and tannin contents whereas fermentation only eliminated the tannin content. None of the methods completely eliminated the saponin, cardiac glycoside, flavonoid and alkaloid contents of the seed meals. With GS seed meal, broilers had lower average daily weight gain (P<0.05 than the control group. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 but feed conversion ratio was not different when compared with control. Inclusion of GSF seed meal improved growth and feed intake when compared with the NSF seed meal and by day 35, growth and feed intake were comparable to those of the control birds. Blood plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphates and aspartate aminotransferase increased with GS CB seed meal diet, while serum calcium decreased. Neither raw nor fermented seed meals altered other measures of the blood chemistry. It is concluded that CB seeds contain toxic anti-nutrient compounds and that sieving out the hulls in the ground raw seed meal before fermentation improved the feeding value of the seeds for broilers at 10% replacement for maize.

  2. Protective Effects of Sporoderm-Broken Spores of Ganderma lucidum on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Capacity and Immune Function of Broiler Chickens Exposed to Low Level of Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Jia, Ru; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng; Wang, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and evaluate the effects of sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum (SSGL) in relieving aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly divided into four dietary treatments; the treatment diets were: Control (a basal diet containing normal peanut meal); AFB1 (the basal diet containing AFB1-contaminated peanut meal); SSGL (basal diet with 200 mg/kg of SSGL); AFB1+SSGL (supplementation of 200 mg/kg of SSGL in AFB1 diet). The contents of AFB1 in AFB1 and AFB1+SSGL diets were 25.0 μg/kg in the starter period and 22.5 μg/kg in the finisher period. The results showed that diet contaminated with a low level of AFB1 significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the average daily feed intake and average daily gain during the entire experiment and reduced (p < 0.05) serum contents of total protein IgA and IgG. Furthermore, a dietary low level of AFB1 not only increased (p < 0.05) levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation, but also decreased (p < 0.05) total antioxidant capability, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and hydroxyl radical scavenger activity in the liver and spleen of broilers. Moreover, the addition of SSGL to AFB1-contaminated diet counteracted these negative effects, indicating that SSGL has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis. PMID:27669305

  3. Protective Effects of Sporoderm-Broken Spores of Ganderma lucidum on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Capacity and Immune Function of Broiler Chickens Exposed to Low Level of Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and evaluate the effects of sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum (SSGL in relieving aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly divided into four dietary treatments; the treatment diets were: Control (a basal diet containing normal peanut meal; AFB1 (the basal diet containing AFB1-contaminated peanut meal; SSGL (basal diet with 200 mg/kg of SSGL; AFB1+SSGL (supplementation of 200 mg/kg of SSGL in AFB1 diet. The contents of AFB1 in AFB1 and AFB1+SSGL diets were 25.0 μg/kg in the starter period and 22.5 μg/kg in the finisher period. The results showed that diet contaminated with a low level of AFB1 significantly decreased (p < 0.05 the average daily feed intake and average daily gain during the entire experiment and reduced (p < 0.05 serum contents of total protein IgA and IgG. Furthermore, a dietary low level of AFB1 not only increased (p < 0.05 levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation, but also decreased (p < 0.05 total antioxidant capability, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and hydroxyl radical scavenger activity in the liver and spleen of broilers. Moreover, the addition of SSGL to AFB1-contaminated diet counteracted these negative effects, indicating that SSGL has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis.

  4. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  5. Munin plugin starter

    CERN Document Server

    Brinke, Bart ten

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This hands-on Starter guide will get you up and running with Munin and Munin plugins, giving you the power to monitor, fix, and optimize your networks.This book is great for system administrators who want to improve the monitoring level of their systems. It's assumed that you have some experience with Linux-based systems and know your way around them.

  6. Instant Metasploit starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ranganath, Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Metasploit Starter is a fast-paced introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start as a smart ethical hacker, and defend your world from attacks instantly.This book is designed for security enthusiasts who are more interested in getting hands-on experience rather than reading just theory. It is also for anyone who is aware of the Metasploit framework and wishes to understand it better and start using it inst

  7. Vitamin E and selenium in broiler breeder diets: Effect on live performance, hatching process, and chick quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, U R A; Dahlke, F; Maiorka, A; Bueno, I J M; Schneider, A F; Surek, D; Rocha, C

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different dietary vitamin E levels and different selenium sources on the productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders. In total 640 females and 64 males between 22 and 52 weeks old were studied. A completely randomized experimental design in factorial arrangement, with 4 treatments of 8 replicates with 20 females and 2 males each, was applied. Treatments consisted of 2 vitamin E levels (30 and 120 mg/kg) and two selenium sources (sodium selenite and zinc-L-selenomethionine). Egg production (rate of lay and eggs per breeder), egg characteristics (egg, yolk, eggshell, and albumen weights), fertility, incubation responses (egg weight loss during incubation, hatchability, and hatching window), and hatchling characteristics (weight and yield) were evaluated. There was no influence of dietary vitamin E levels or selenium sources on egg production (P > 0.05). Mature breeders (47 weeks old) fed zinc-L-selenomethionine and 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed produced heavier eggs and albumen. Hatchability of the eggs of breeders fed 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed was higher than breeders fed 30 mg vitamin at 29 wks. The dietary inclusion of organic selenium also promoted heavier hatchling weight until egg production peak (33 wk), but did not influence hatchling quality or hatching window. It was concluded that the dietary supplementation of zinc-L-selenomethione and vitamin E (120 mg/kg feed) could be used to improve egg characteristics and incubation response.

  8. Higher lipid accumulation in broilers fed on saturated fats than in those fed on unsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (Psaturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (Psaturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

  9. The effect of virginiamycin in diets with adequate or reduced dietary calcium or nonphytate phosphorus for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Dennie, T; Southern, L L

    2005-12-01

    Four experiments (EXP) were conducted to evaluate the effects of virginiamycin (Vm) in diets adequate or reduced in Ca or nonphytate P (nPP) levels on growth performance and bone response variables in chicks. All diets were corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) based, and all treatments were replicated 6 or 8 times with 5 or 6 chicks each. In EXP 1 and 2, the dietary treatments were 1) C-SBM with 1.00% Ca and 0.45% nPP (positive control; PC); 2) C-SBM with 0.80% Ca and 0.45% nPP (0.80Ca); 3) C-SBM with 1.00% Ca and 0.35% nPP (0.35nPP); and 4 to 6) Diets 1 to 3 with 11 (EXP 1) or 22 (EXP 2) ppm of Vm. In EXP 1, daily gain (ADG), feed intake (ADFI), bone breaking strength (BBS), milligrams of ash per gram of Ca intake (ASH/Ca), and BBS per gram of Ca (BBS/Ca) or nPP (BBS/nPP) intake were increased in chicks fed Vm (P < 0.04 to 0.07). Chicks fed the 0.35nPP diet with Vm had increased ADG, ADFI, BBS, milligrams of tibia ash (ASH), BBS/Ca, and BBS/nPP (nPP x Vm, P < 0.03 to 0.10). Chicks fed the 0.80Ca diet with Vm had increased ASH, milligrams of ASH per gram of nPP intake (ASH/ nPP), and ASH/Ca (P < 0.01 to 0.09). Tibia ash, BBS, gain:feed (G:F), BBS/nPP, and ASH/nPP were decreased in chicks fed the 0.80Ca diet (P < 0.01 to 0.07). Bone ash percentage (BAP), BBS, BBS/Ca, ASH, and ASH/Ca were decreased in chicks fed the 0.35nPP diets (P < 0.01); ASH/ nPP was increased (P < 0.01). In EXP 2, BAP, ASH, ASH/ Ca, and ASH/nPP were increased in chicks fed Vm (P < 0.02 to 0.07). Chicks fed the 0.80Ca diet had a decreased ASH/nPP (P < 0.04) but an increased BBS/Ca and ASH/ Ca (P < 0.01 to 0.02). Chicks fed the 0.35nPP diet had decreased ADG, ADFI, G:F, BBS, BAP, ASH, ASH/Ca, and BBS/Ca (P < 0.01 to 0.04), but BBS/nPP and ASH/ nPP were increased (P < 0.01 to 0.04). In EXP 3, the dietary treatments were 1) PC; 2) C-SBM with 0.70% Ca and 0.45% nPP (0.70Ca); 3) C-SBM with 1.00% Ca and 0.25% nPP (0.25nPP); 4 to 6) Diets 1 to 3 with 9 ppm of Vm. The addition of Vm to the 0.25nPP diet decreased

  10. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  11. The effect of protease, amylase, and nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzyme supplementation on nutrient utilization and growth performance of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, S A; Rogiewicz, A; Mogielnicka, M; Rutkowski, A; Jones, R O; Slominski, B A

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine if amylase and protease addition would improve nutrient digestion during the first 2 wk of growth. The experimental treatments included a control corn-soybean meal-based diet and diets supplemented with either amylase or amylase plus protease. No effect of enzyme supplementation was observed on BW gain and feed conversion ratio. This was corroborated by similar ileal starch and protein digestibility values, which averaged 96.8, 96.8, and 96.9% and 83.9, 80.1, and 79.6%, respectively, for the control and for the amylase or amylase plus protease supplemented diets. Total tract digestibility of starch averaged 97.8, 97.7 and 97.7% for the 3 diets and was followed by a similar diet with AMEn values of 3,129, 3,129, and 3,106 kcal/kg. In another study, a 2(3) factorial arrangement of 8 dietary treatments was used to evaluate the effect of corn particle size (conventional or coarse vs. fine) and the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide enzyme, amylase, or both on growth performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens from 1 to 21 d of age. Chickens fed a diet containing a conventionally ground corn (geometric mean diameter of 736 µm) showed higher (P starch digestion in the upper gut. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharide enzymes was effective for both diets, with the most pronounced effects observed in feed conversion ratio for the conventional corn-containing diet (1.27 vs. 1.23) and BW gain (750 vs. 789 g/bird) for the fine corn-containing diet. This was followed by the same magnitude of difference in diet AMEn content, which increased from 2,972 to 3,042 and 2,852 to 3,009 kcal/kg following enzyme addition.

  12. Multilingual school starters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    of globalisation. Furthermore, this perception of literacy entails that the student’s possible insights into other ways of adding signs to language than those we know from a specific version of the Latin alphabet, fall outside the interests of research and teaching. From this perspective and with a social semiotic......Multilingual school starters: social semiotics perspectives on second language and literacy learning in education Helle Pia Laursen The starting point for this paper is the still increasing role of literacy in educational settings. Often primary education is seen as almost being synonymous...... with learning to read and write and activities that include literacy play a pivotal role. At the same time, in the Nordic countries, there seems to be a growing tendency to use literacy skills to regulate education through outcome metrics and international comparisons of test scores. This implies...

  13. Selecting appropriate bedding to reduce locomotion problems in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICL Almeida Paz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out at the Poultry Sector of the School of Agrarian Sciences of the Federal University of Grande Dourados to evaluate the incidence of leg problems in broilers reared on two distinct types of bedding material: rice husks or wood shavings, both new and reused. In both trials, a randomized experimental design was applied in factorial arrangement (2 x 2 x 2 using two genetic strains (Cobb® or Ross®; two sexes (male or female, and two litter materials (rice husks or wood shavings. In each trial 1080 one day pullets were reared equally divided in the treatments. The birds were placed in 4.5 m² boxes at a density of 10 birds m-2. All birds were fed diets with equal nutritional density, and water was offered ad libitum. Feeds were divided in three phases: starter diet (1 - 21 days, grower diet (22 - 35 days, and finisher diet (36 - 45 days. On day 45, fifty birds were randomly selected in each experiment to evaluate flock leg problems. The following parameters were analyzed: gait score, incidence of valgus and varus disorder, footpad dermatitis, femoral degeneration, tibial dyschondroplasia, and spondylolisthesis. Ambient temperature during rearing and litter caking and moisture content were recorded in four boxes per treatment. The analytical hierarchy process was used to organize the data into specific criteria. Several criteria, related to the attributes that were determinant according to the statistical analysis, were chosen in order to provide the best input to the process. Results indicated that new wood-shavings bedding was the most appropriate bedding to prevent locomotion problems, followed by new rice husks, reused wood shavings, and reused rice husks. However, when leg problems were associated to sex and genetic strain, male Ross birds strain presented less problems when reared on new rice husks, followed by new wood shavings

  14. Effect of Sugar Cane Extract, Commercial Probiotic and their Mixture on Growth Performance and Intestinal Histology in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oraya Khambualai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As the intestinal function is intimately affected by fed diets, many kinds of natural substances and probiotics have been supplemented to broilers to raise poultry productivity due to activating intestinal function. Besides, the intestinal histology is clearly altered by intestinal functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Sugar Cane Extract (SCE and commercial probiotic (SPB, either alone or in combination, could improve growth performance and how intestinal histological alterations would be observed in these birds. Approach: A total of 64, 7-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups, consisting of 4 replicates of 4 birds each. Commercial mash starter and finisher diets were supplemented with 0.05% SCE, 0.4% SPB, or a mixture of 0.05% SCE and 0.4% SPB (SCE + SPB. Results: Body weight gain was better in all the experimental groups than the control. The greatest improvement was observed in the SCE + SPB group. Most values of villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis in all intestinal segments were higher (pConclusion: The present results of enhanced light microscopic parameters and protuberant epithelial cells in SCE and SPB groups suggest that the intestinal villi and epithelial cells might be hypertrophied by SCE and SPB. The fact that a synergistic effect was observed with regard to growth performance and intestinal histology in the SCE + SPB group suggests that SCE is a good supplement to probiotics.

  15. Effect of β-glucanase and xylanase supplementation of barley- and rye-based diets on caecal microbiota of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefiak, Damian; Rutkowski, A; Kaczmarek, S

    2010-01-01

    in the broiler caeca were Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale followed by Bacteroides sp., Lactobacillus sp./Enterococcus sp., Bifidobacterium sp. and Enterobacteriaceae. For both cereal types, the enzyme supplementation significantly decreased the relative amount of Enterobacteriaceae. 4. The T...

  16. Fermented and unfermented palm kernel cake as broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P Ketaren

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available feed. Two hundred and ten, day-old broiler chicks were used for this study. They were allotted to 6 different diets containing either BIS or FBIS at 3 different levels (5, 10 and 15% and one control diet. The results showed that 5% BIS and 5% FBIS could be used in broiler diet without adversely affecting feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. FCR of those diets were significantly (P<0.05 better than the control diet. Carcass yields were not significantly affected by feeding of BIS nor FBIS. The FBIS diet produced less abdominal fat than the BIS diet.

  17. Effects of Adding of Two Commercial Absorbent Materials and Natural Zeolite to the Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 on Broiler Performance and their

    OpenAIRE

    J. Azimi; M.A Karimi Torshizi; A Allameh; H. Ahari

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding of two commercial absorbent products in feeds and to compare the results with the effect of adding of natural zeolite in reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 on broiler growth, performance and immune system. In this study, 200 one day old Arian 386 broiler chickens were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 4 replications and 10 chicks per each treatment. Experimental groups were as follows: negative control...

  18. Composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei na dieta de frangos de corte Spent mushroom substrate of Agaricus blazei in broiler chicks diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Batista Machado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da substituição de um antibiótico por diferentes níveis do composto exaurido do cogumelo (CEC Agaricus blazei sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram avaliadas sete dietas, seis com adição de CEC (0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0% e uma com antibiótico (avilamicina 10 ppm. Foram utilizados 588 pintos de 1 dia de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições por dieta (três por sexo e 14 aves por unidade experimental. As aves que não receberam qualquer aditivo na dieta apresentaram os piores resultados de desempenho. Níveis de CEC superiores a 0,4% ocasionaram redução gradual no desempenho. O nível de 0,2% de CEC proporcionou o maior ganho de peso e o de 0,21%, a melhor conversão alimentar e o maior consumo de ração. À exceção do rendimento de peito e do rendimento de gordura abdominal, os aditivos não influenciaram os rendimentos de carcaça e dos cortes. O composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei pode ser utilizado como aditivo alternativo ao antibiótico no nível de 0,2% da dieta, pois não prejudicou o desempenho produtivo e o rendimento de carcaça das aves.The effect of the substitution of an antibiotic by different levels of spent mushroom substrate (SMS of Agaricus blazei on the performance of broiler chicks from 1 to 42 days old was evaluated. Seven diets were evaluated, six with SMS addiction (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0% and one with antibiotic (avilamycin 10 ppm. A total of 588 one day old chicks was allotted to a complete randomized design, with six replications per diet (three per sex and 14 birds per experimental unit. The birds fed diet with any additive showed the worst performance results. Levels of SMS above 0.4% caused gradual reduction in the performance. The level of 0.2% of SMS provided the highest value of weight gain and of 0.21% promoted the best feed conversion and the highest value of feed intake

  19. Impact of dietary supplemental methionine sources on sensory measurement of odor-related compounds in broiler excreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, C; Coufal, C D; Niemeyer, P L; Carey, J B; Lacey, R E; Miller, R K; Beier, R C

    2004-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to detect differences in odor characteristics of broiler excreta due to utilization of different supplementary Met sources by a trained human descriptive aroma attribute sensory panel. The 5 treatment groups were no supplemental Met (control group), sodium methioninate aqueous solution, dry Met hydroxy analogue, liquid Met hydroxy analogue, and DL-Met. Two trials were conducted consisting of 5 treatment groups with 3 replications of 13 randomly distributed straight run broiler chicks per pen reared in battery cages. Starter and grower diets were formulated to contain 0.5 and 0.38% Met activity, respectively (except control group, 0.35% Met activity). Excreta were collected for 24 h in litter pans lined with aluminum foil at wk 4, 5, and 6 and analyzed by a trained sensory panel (7 people). Each panelist was given 25 g of manure heated at 27 degrees C for 5 min for sensory analysis. The 13 odor attributes used to determine differences in broiler excreta by the trained sensory panel were ammonia, dirty socks, wet poultry, fermented rotten fruit, hay, musty wet, sharp, sour, urinous, rotten eggs, irritating, pungent, and nauseating. Panelist marked intensities for each attribute ranging from 0 = none and 15 = extremely intense. Each panelist was given 2 replications of each treatment group in a random order each week (total of 10 samples per wk). All data were evaluated by ANOVA using the general linear model procedure of SAS software. No significant differences were observed in BW, feed consumption, or feed conversion among the treatments. The attributes of ammonia, wet poultry, rotten fruit, musty wet, sharp, and pungent differed (P < 0.05) across treatment groups. These findings demonstrate that supplemental Met sources significantly influence odor production in broiler excreta.

  20. Efficacy of dimethylglycine as a feed additive to improve broiler production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, I.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Vanrompay, D.; Maenner, K.; Zentek, J.; Iben, C.; Leitgeb, R.; Schiavone, A.; Prola, L.; Janssens, G.

    2014-01-01

    Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a naturally occurring glycine derivative, which is useful as additive to broiler diets as it improves nutrient digestibility and reduces the development of broiler ascites syndrome. This study evaluated the efficacy of dietary DMG to enhance performance of broiler chickens.

  1. Evaluation of Magnetized Drinking Water on Carcass Yield and Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gilani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water is a vital component of animals and the main medium for biochemical reactions. Basically, water characteristics have a close relation to its molecular structure and it can be affected by external processing such as magnetic field. Some researches indicated that magnetized water resulted in better efficiency in agricultural products compared with the ordinary water. In animal husbandry, it has been reported that magnetized drinking water caused an increased production of milk, mutton, and wool in sheep and more weight gain in geese and egg production and hatchability in turkey. Several reports are available on the application of water magnetization including broiler production. However, some researchers reported that 500 Gauss magnetization for drinking water did not significantly affect performance of broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to scrutinize various aspects of magnetized drinking water in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods A total of 150 male Ross 308 day-old broiler chicks have been assessed in 3 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds each. Ordinary drinking water was considered as control group. One minute magnetized water was the second experimental treatment and three hours magnetized water was the third one. Magnetized water was produced by a commercial magnet namely AQUA CORRECT with 0.65 Tesla (6500 Gauss magnetic field. Magnetization process for 30 liters of tap water has been done daily by magnetic apparatus. These types of water were offered daily to the birds during 42 days. Each pen (1 m2 was equipped with a manual feeder and a manual drinker, and the floor was covered with clean wood shavings. A corn-soybean meal based diet was formulated to meet or exceed the nutrient requirements of all broiler chickens as recommended by Ross 308 broiler rearing guidelines. Drinking water and mesh feed were offered ad libitum throughout the trial. Lighting was continuous, and the temperature was 32

  2. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance and ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amad, A A; Männer, K; Wendler, K R; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2011-12-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effects of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA) containing essential oils of thyme and star anise as lead active components on the growth performance and apparent ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. In total, 528 one-day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatment groups with 6 replicate pens per treatment group (22 birds each). The dietary treatments were a control starter and grower basal diet without PFA or 150, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg of PFA. Body weight, weight gain, and feed intake were not significantly influenced by the feed additive, but the feed conversion ratio during the grower (22-42 d) and overall (1-42 d) periods improved linearly (P < 0.05) by the administration of PFA compared with that of the control diet. The average weights of the liver, heart, kidneys, and spleen were not significantly affected by the PFA. The results of the apparent ileal digestibility of crude ash, CP, crude fat, calcium, and phosphorus showed a linear increase (P < 0.05) related to the increase of PFA dose in the diet. Therefore, the means of digestibility of these nutrients were significantly higher in birds fed the PFA for all categories of age compared with the digestibility of these nutrients in the controls. In conclusion, the mode of action of the tested PFA can be explained by an improvement in the nutrient digestibility in the small intestine. The underlying physiological mechanisms, however, need to be characterized further.

  3. Energy values of canola meal, cottonseed meal, bakery meal, and peanut flour meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Adeola, O

    2017-02-01

    The energy values of canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), bakery meal (BM), and peanut flour meal (PFM) for broiler chickens were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from d 21 to 28 posthatch. The birds were fed a standard broiler starter diet from d 0 to 21 posthatch. In each experiment, 320 birds were grouped by weight into 8 blocks of 5 cages with 8 birds per cage and assigned to 5 diets. Each experiment used a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 4 test diets in which test ingredients partly replaced the energy sources in the reference diet. The test diets in Exp. 1 consisted of 125 g CM, 250 g CM, 100 g CSM, or 200 g CSM/kg. In Exp. 2, the test diets consisted of 200 g BM, 400 g BM, 100 g PFM, or 200 g PFM/kg. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy (MEn) of all the test ingredients were determined by the regression method. The DM of CM, CSM, BM and PFM were 883, 878, 878, and 964 g/kg, respectively and the respective gross energies (GE) were 4,143, 4,237, 4,060, and 5,783 kcal/kg DM. In Exp. 1, the IDE were 2,132 and 2,197 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The ME were 2,286 and 2,568 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The MEn were 1,931 kcal/kg DM for CM and 2,078 kcal/ kg DM for CSM. In Exp. 2, IDE values were 3,412 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,801 kcal/kg DM for PFM; ME values were 3,176 and 4,601 kcal/kg DM for BM and PFM, respectively, and the MEn values were 3,093 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,112 kcal/kg DM for PFM. In conclusion, the current study showed that chickens can utilize a considerable amount of energy from these 4 ingredients, and also provided the energy values of CM, CSM, BM and PFM for broiler chickens.

  4. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  5. Extrato de orégano como aditivo em rações para frangos de corte Oregan extract as an additive in the broiler diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Hatsumi Fukayama

    2005-12-01

    , anatomic-physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal tract (villy height, crypta depth and villy:crypta ratio, caecum microbiological analysis, and duodenum and caecum pH. One thousand and fourty male Cobb 500 chicks, in two growing phases (1 to 21 and 1 to 42 days old were randomly assigned to six treatments and eight replicates of 30 broilers. The basal diet (BD was fed during the three phases (1 to 21, 22 to 35 and 36 to 42 days old, according to the following treatments: T1 - BD, T2 - BD with antibiotic (25 ppm zinc bacitracin, T3 - BD with 0.025% OE, T4 - BD with 0.050% OE, T5 - BD with 0.075% OE, and T6 - BD with 0.100% OE. No effect of treatments on broiler performance and duodenum and caecum pH in both phases was observed. The immunity system and anatomic-physiological parameters of gastrointestinal tract were not affected by the treatments, during the first phase. At 42 days old, only the spleen weight and villy height were affected by treatments. Decreasing effect on the number of bacteriums in caecum as the dietary level of oregan extract increased showed the antimicrobian effect of oregan extract. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that the use of oregan extract as growth promoter did not differ from the other treatments (antibiotic and control.

  6. Utilização de promotores de crescimento para frangos de corte em rações fareladas e peletizadas = Utilization of growth promoter for broiler chickens in mashed and pellets diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Lorençon

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de dietas com diferentes promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 576 pintos da linhagem Cobb 500, machos, alojados em cama reutilizada, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquemafatorial 2 x 3 (forma física da ração x diferentes promotores de crescimento, totalizando 6 tratamentos, com 6 repetições e 16 aves por unidade experimental. As características de desempenho avaliadas foram ganho de peso, peso final, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, mortalidade e o índice de eficiência produtiva. Avaliou-se também o rendimento de carcaça, bem como rendimento em cortes, coração, fígado e gordura abdominal. Os resultados obtidos demonstram não haver efeito dos tratamentos estudados sobre as características de desempenho e rendimento de carcaça.This study evaluated the supplementation effect of diets with different growth promoters on the performance and carcass yield in broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. Five hundred seventy six broilers of the Coob 500 lineage were used, all males, lodged in reused litter, allocated according to a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (physical forms of the ration x growth promoters, totalizing 6 treatments, 6 repetitions per treatment and 16 broilers per experimental unit. The performance parameters evaluated were weight gain, final weight, feed consumption, feed conversion, mortality and index productive efficiency. The carcass yield was also evaluated, as the cuts yield and percentage of abdominal fat at 42 days. The results demonstrated no effect of thetreatments studied on the performance characteristics and carcass yield.

  7. Digestibilidade da ração de frangos de corte suplementados com probióticos e antibiótico Digestibility of broiler chickens diet supplemented with probiotics and antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa da Silva Salles Corrêa

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a digestibilidade da ração de frangos de corte a qual continha ou não antibiótico e probióticos na fase inicial (um a 20 dias e na fase final (21-40 dias. As aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos: Tratamento 1- Dieta Testemunha; Tratamento 2 - Dieta Testemunha + 0,02 % de probiótico 1 (Calsporin 10®, Tratamento 3 - Dieta Testemunha + 2,0% na fase inicial e 0,63% na fase final de probiótico 2 (Estibion aves®; Tratamento 4 - Dieta Testemunha + 0,013% de antibiótico (Bacitracina de Zinco® e 5 repetições de 10 e 8 aves por unidade experimental por fase, respectivamente. Os pintos foram criados em gaiolas de metabolismo. Os resultados demonstram que a digestibilidade de matéria seca, nitrogênio e energia metabolizável aparente não foi afetada pela suplementação de antibiótico e probióticos na dieta de frangos de corte.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the diets digestibility in broiler chickens with and without antibiotic and probiotics, in the initial phase (one to 20 days and finish phase (21 to 40 days. Chickens distributed in a completely randomized design were used in four treatments: Treatment 1- Control diet; Treatment 2 - Control diet + 0.02% probiotic 1 (Calsporin 10®, Treatment 3 - Control diet + 2.0% initial phase and 0.63% finish phase probiotic 2 (Estibion aves®; Treatment 4 - Control diet + 0.013% of antibiotic (Bacitracina de Zinco®, and five repetitions, with ten and eight birds, respectively, were used in each experimental unit, which were kept in metabolism cages. The results demonstrate that the digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and apparent metabolized energy were not affected by the supplementation of antibiotic and probiotics in the broiler chickens diet.

  8. Desempenho produtivo de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorventes Productive performance of broiler breeders fed diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannan as adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uttpatel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e adsorvente à base de glucomananos esterificados. Foram utilizados 300 fêmeas e 40 machos da linhagem Ross 308 alojados em 20 boxes experimentais na fase de 61 a 72 semanas de idade. Da 61ª à 68ª semana, as aves receberam dietas contendo três níveis de aflatoxina (0; 0,500; 0,750 mg/kg em combinação ou não a adsorvente (0,10% e, nas quatro últimas semanas, receberam dietas isentas de aflatoxina e adsorvente. As aves foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (níveis de aflatoxina vs níveis de adsorvente com 4 repetições, cada uma de 15 fêmeas e 2 machos. A partir da 65ª semana, as aves alimentadas com dietas contendo aflatoxina e adsorvente apresentaram menor taxa de postura em relação àquelas que receberam dietas comuns, sem esses aditivos. O peso corporal das matrizes, assim como o peso, o peso específico dos ovos, a eclodibilidade, e a qualidade dos pintos produzidos não são afetados pelos níveis de aflatoxinas e adsorvente presentes na dieta.The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of broiler breeder hens fed diets containing aflatoxins and adsorbent on the basis of esterified glucomannan. It was used 300 Ross 308 females and 40 males broiler breeders, housed in 20 experimental pens in the 61-72 week of age phase. From the 61st to the 68th week, birds were fed diets containing three levels of aflatoxin (0; 0.500; 0.750 mg/kg combined or not to adsorbent (0.10% and on the last four weeks they received diets without aflatoxin and adsorbent. The birds were distributed in a complete randomized design in a factorial scheme (levels of aflotoxin vs levels of adsorbents with 4 replicates, each one with 15 females and 2 males. From the 65th week, birds fed diets with aflotoxin and adsorbent showed lower laying rate

  9. An antimicrobial peptide-A3: effects on growth performance, nutrient retention, intestinal and faecal microflora and intestinal morphology of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S C; Ingale, S L; Kim, J S; Park, Y K; Kwon, I K; Chae, B J

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with an antimicrobial peptide-A3 (AMP-A3) on growth performance, nutrient retention, intestinal microflora and intestinal morphology of broilers. 2. A total of 320-d-old chicks (Ross 308, average BW 44.0 ± 3.4 g) were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments on the basis of initial body weight (BW). The dietary treatments were negative control (NC; basal diet), positive control (PC; basal diet + 15 mg avilamycin/kg diet) and AMP-A3 (basal diet supplemented with 60 or 90 mg/kg AMP-A3). The NC diet was considered as 0 mg/kg AMP-A3 treatment. Experimental diets were given in two phases: starter phase (d 0-21) and finisher phase (d 22-35). 3. The overall BW gain and retention of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE; d 19-21) and crude protein (CP; d 19-21 and d 33-35) were greater in birds fed on the PC and 90 mg/kg AMP-A3 diets than in birds fed on the NC diet. Also, an increase in dietary AMP-A3 linearly improved BW gain and retention of DM, GE (d 19-21) and CP (d 19-21 and d 33-35). 4. Birds fed on the PC and 90 mg/kg AMP-A3 diets had fewer excreta coliforms (d 21 and d 35), total anaerobic bacteria (TAB) and Clostridium spp. (d 35) and ileum and caecum coliforms (d 35) than birds fed on the NC diet. In addition, birds fed on the diet supplemented with increasing levels of AMP-A3 had linearly reduced excreta TAB (d 35), Clostridium spp. and coliforms (d 21 and d 35) and ileum and caecum coliforms (d 35). 5. Birds fed on the PC and 90 mg/kg AMP-A3 diets had greater villus height of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum than birds fed on the NC diet. Moreover, birds fed on increasing levels of AMP-A3 diet had increased (linear) villus height of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. 6. These results indicate that 90 mg/kg AMP-A3 has the potential to improve growth performance, nutrient retention and intestinal morphology and to reduce harmful microorganisms in broilers and can be used as a potential

  10. MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PLASTIC TANK TO VEGETABLE OIL AS A PART OF FEEDING MIXTURES USED FOR CHICKEN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were measured in samples of rapeseed oil, which was used as a feed. First samples were collected during the production process and second after the storage in plastic tank (21 days. The results of measurements are that there is 2.93-10.10 mg PAEs.kg-1 in the oil before storage and 22.73-61.55 mg PAEs.kg-1 after storage. For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of PAEs in animal tissues and organs (muscles, adipose tissue, skin and liver broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were fed by commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate content, or animal fat with high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oil or animal fat. DBP and DEHP were found in all tissues of all chicks. The highest concentration of DBP of 1.28 1.00 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 2.87 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (average of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. doi:10.5219/49

  11. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  12. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  13. Instant CloudFlare starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dickey, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

  14. Instant OpenNMS starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hachey, Ghislain

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starters' guide to learning OpenNMS with ease, with a focus on immediate results.Instant OpenNMS Starter is for network administrators of any level with a slight focus on the novice that would enjoy a swift glance at what OpenNMS has to offer. It assumes the reader will have knowledge of basic network operations and protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite.

  15. Tolerance and safety evaluation of N, N-dimethylglycine, a naturally occurring organic compound, as a feed additive in broiler diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, I.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Maenner, K.; Zentek, J.; Meulemans, G.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    N, N-dimethylglycine (DMG) is a tertiary amino acid that naturally occurs as an intermediate metabolite in choline-to-glycine metabolism. The objective of the present trial was to evaluate tolerance, safety and bioaccumulation of dietary DMG in broilers when supplemented at 1 g and 10 g Na-DMG/kg. A

  16. Respostas de frangos de corte fêmeas de duas linhagens a dietas com diferentes perfis protéicos ideais Responses of female broilers from two strain crosses to diets with differing ideal protein profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz Vieira

    2007-12-01

    apresentaram melhor conversão alimentar independentemente do programa alimentar utilizado e que os perfis protéicos ideais médios foram suficientes para maximizar o desempenho tanto sob o ponto de vista de peso corporal quanto de conversão alimentar.This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the performance of two broiler strain crosses fed diets having 3 different ideal protein profiles. One day old Cobb x Cobb 500 and Ross x Ross 308 broiler chicks were in a feeding program of 4 phases from 1 to 7, 7 to 21, 21 to 31 and 31 to 37 days of age and having high (H, medium (M and low (L ideal protein profiles. At 21 days of age, half of the replications fed H and L protein diets changed to L and H, respectively, whereas those receiving M remained all the way to the end in the same protein level. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement having 3 ideal protein levels and 2 strain crosses until 21 days of age and 5 ideal protein levels and 2 strains from 21 to 37 days old was used. Cobb broilers had higher body weight at 21 days of age and better feed conversion until the end of the experiment, whereas Ross broilers showed higher feed intake during all the experimental period. At processing, Ross broilers had higher breast meat yield at 31 days old, but Cobb broilers had higher yield of leg quarters both at 31 and 37 days. At 21 days, H and M diets presented similar live performance; however, both were superior when compared to L diets. Differences in body weigh at 31 and 37 days due to feeding programs were not apparent; however birds fed L diets in both periods had poorer feed conversion and higher feed intake than all the other treatments. The only processing difference due to feeding program was an increased proportion of abdominal fat when birds were fed L diets in one of the two periods. It was possible to conclude that Cobb broilers had better feed conversion independently of the feeding program used and that the M ideal

  17. Apparent metabolizable energy of crude glycerin originating from different sources in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, W A; Kerr, B J; Branton, S L

    2011-11-01

    An energy balance experiment was conducted to determine the AME(n) of various crude glycerin samples, and to generate an equation to predict AME(n) of crude glycerin based on its chemical composition. Dietary treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal basal diet with no added glycerin and a basal diet supplemented with 6% glycerin. Crude glycerin samples were obtained from biodiesel production facilities throughout the United States, which use a variety of lipid products as their initial feedstock. Two identical energy balance trials were conducted. In each trial, 864 male broilers (Ross × Ross 708) were fed a common starter diet until 17 d of age when they were switched to 1 of 12 experimental diets (6 replicates per treatment) from 17 to 22 d of age, with a 48-h collection period on d 21 and 22. Nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values of crude glycerin samples were estimated by difference, whereby AME(n) of the basal diet was subtracted from the complete diet containing the test ingredient. The AME(n) of the basal diet and US Pharmacopeia-grade glycerin were determined to be 3,085 and 3,662 kcal/kg, respectively, whereas the AME(n) of the 10 crude glycerin samples ranged from 3,254 to 4,134 kcal/kg. Two crude glycerin samples had high levels of fatty acids compared with the other samples (24 and 35% vs. glycerin samples (3,806 vs. 3,611 kcal/kg, P glycerin samples, the stepwise regression equation to predict AME(n) was determined to be: [AME(n) (kcal/kg) = 1,605 - (19.13 × % methanol) + (39.06 × % fatty acid) + (23.47 × % glycerin)]; (R(2) = 0.25; SE = 379; P ≤ 0.01). These data indicate that glycerin is a good source of energy for broilers, and the AME(n) of glycerin is dependent on fatty acid, methanol, and water contents.

  18. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Pelícia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD, CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental diets did not contain anticoccidials, and birds were vaccinated against coccidiosis at three days of age. No significant differences were detected among broilers submitted to the different treatments in none of the studied parameters. Under the conditions of this experiment, diets supplemented with nucleotides did not influence broiler performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age, and were not different from the feeds not containing any additive or with AGP.

  19. Função hepática e renal de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas com aflatoxinas e clinoptilolita natural Hepatic and renal functions in broilers fed on diets with aflatoxins and natural clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Marinho Maciel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os minerais séricos e as funções hepática e renal de frangos de corte, alimentados com dietas com aflatoxinas e dietas com aflatoxinas e argila clinoptilolita natural. Foram utilizados 528 frangos de corte machos, da linhagem Ross, distribuídos em seis tratamentos com quatro repetições cada: T1 - testemunha: ração sem aflatoxina ou clinoptilolita; T2 - ração com 5 ppm de aflatoxinas; T3 - ração com 0,25% de clinoptilolita; T4 - ração com 5 ppm de aflatoxinas e 0,25% de clinoptilolita; T5 - ração com 0,5% de clinoptilolita; e T6 - ração com 5 ppm de aflatoxinas e 0,5% de clinoptilolita. As aves foram submetidas aos tratamentos do 1º ao 42º dia de idade. Foram abatidos 72 animais, e foram analisadas as concentrações séricas de cálcio, fósforo, uréia, creatinina, ácido úrico, colesterol, triglicerídeos e gamaglutamil-transferase (GGT. As aflatoxinas diminuem o nível sérico de colesterol. A clinoptilolita diminui o nível sérico do ácido úrico, quando na concentração de 0,25%. As aflatoxinas com 0,25% de clinoptilolita diminuem os níveis séricos da creatinina, do ácido úrico e do colesterol. As aflatoxinas acrescidas por 0,5% de clinoptilolita diminuem os níveis séricos da creatinina e do colesterol e elevam os de gamaglutamil-transferase.The objective of this study was to evaluate serum minerals and hepatic and renal activities in broiler chicks fed with diets containing aflatoxins and diets with aflatoxins and natural clinoptilolite clay. Five hundred and twenty-eight Ross male broiler chicks were grouped in six treatments with four replications each: T1 - control: diet free from aflatoxins and clinoptilolite; T2 - aflatoxins 5 ppm diet; T3 - 0.25% clinoptilolite diet; T4 - aflatoxins 5 ppm and 0.25% clinoptilolite diet; T5 - 0.5% clinoptilolite diet; and T6 - aflatoxins 5 ppm and 0.5% clinoptilolite diet. The birds were treated from the 1st to the 42nd day of age

  20. Desempenho de frangos de corte oriundos de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorvente Performance of broilers derived from breeder hens fed with diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannan as adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pires Rosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho da progênie de matrizes de corte que consumiram aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorvente por quatro ou oito semanas. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. Em cada estudo foram utilizados 160 machos de 1 dia provenientes de matrizes alimentadas com dietas contendo aflatoxinas e adsorvente. Em ambos os ensaios, foi adotado um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado para avaliação de cinco dietas (tratamentos, cada uma avaliada com quatro repetições de oito aves. Nas dietas fornecidas às matrizes, as aflatoxinas foram adicionadas nos níveis 0; 0,500; ou 0,750 mg/kg de ração em combinação ou não a 0,10% de adsorvente. Os dois ensaios com frangos de corte foram conduzidos em baterias instaladas em unidade experimental climatizada, onde os pintos receberam uma dieta comprovadamente isenta de aflatoxinas durante todo o período experimental. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: peso corporal, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar pelo ganho de peso, proteínas plasmáticas totais, albumina sérica e pesos de fígado e bursa de Fabrícius ao primeiro dia de idade. A adição de até 0,750 mg aflatoxinas/kg e adsorvente durante oito semanas na dieta de matrizes de corte não influencia o desempenho zootécnico nem os parâmetros sanguíneos da progênie das matrizes.The performance of the progeny from breeders hens fed diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannans as a mycotoxins adsorbent during four and eight weeks was evaluated. Two experiments were carried out with broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age. In each study, one hundred and sixty 1-day old male chicks from broiler breeders fed diets with aflatoxins and mycotoxins adsorbent were used. The chicks were allocated in a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments and four replicates of eight birds each. In the diets supplied to the breeder chickens, aflatoxins were added at

  1. Does adding water to dry calf starter improve performance during summer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Khani, M; Omidian, S; Ariana, M; Rezvani, R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether addition of water to starter would improve performance, rumen fermentation parameters, blood metabolites, and behavior in dairy calves. For this purpose, 30 Holstein male calves (3 d of age; 42.0 ± 4.2 kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 starter diets differing in moisture content: (1) 90% dry matter (DM), (2) 75% DM, and (3) 50% DM. Weaning and final body weight values were found to increase linearly with increasing dietary water. Moreover, starter intake increased linearly during the preweaning and overall periods. Average daily gain also increased linearly in calves receiving the 75% and 50% DM diets compared with those receiving the 90% DM diet. However, treatments had no effects on gain-to-feed ratio. Adding water to a starter with 50% DM led to linear increases in both total volatile fatty acids and molar proportions of acetate and propionate in the rumen but it had no effect on the molar proportions of butyrate, isovalerate, or valerate, nor did it have any effect on acetate-to-propionate ratio. Similarly, times spent on eating, ruminating, standing, lying, and nonnutritive oral behavior exhibited no differences across treatments. Finally, addition of water to the starter diet led to no significant changes in the concentrations of selected blood metabolites, respiration rate, or rectal temperature. Results indicate that calves readily accept wetter feeds with a DM content of 50% and that adding water to starter diets improves calf performance during the hot months of summer.

  2. Evaluation of high dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles and supplementation of protease and xylanase in the diets of broiler chickens under necrotic enteritis challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekatain, M R; Antipatis, C; Rodgers, N; Walkden-Brown, S W; Iji, P A; Choct, M

    2013-06-01

    A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a high level of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20%), with or without a combination of protease and xylanase in broiler chickens, under a necrotic enteritis disease challenge. A total of 576 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 experimental treatments, each replicated 6 times, with 12 birds per replicate for 35 d. Oral inoculation of the challenged group with Eimeria spp. occurred on d 9, followed by 3 consecutive inoculations of Clostridium perfringens from d 14 through 16. The disease challenge and DDGS inclusion significantly (P enteritis-related lesions (d 17) were more severe (P enteritis. Supplementation of enzymes did not reveal significant mitigation effect in infected birds but helped the birds fed DDGS to maintain feed intake and BW gain.

  3. Assessment of yeast cell wall as replacements for antibiotic growth promoters in broiler diets: effects on performance, intestinal histo-morphology and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, T K; Haldar, S; Bedford, M R; Muthusami, N; Samanta, I

    2012-04-01

    The study compared the effects of an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and yeast cell wall (YCW) on performance, microbiology and histo-morphology of the small intestine and humoral immune responses in Ross 308 broilers. The treatments (eight replicates/treatment, n = 12/replicate) were negative control (NC, without AGP), positive control (PC, supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate, 400 mg/kg), Y and YCW (supplemented with yeast and YCW, respectively, 1000 mg/kg). Live weight at 42 days improved (p = 0.086) in the PC, Y and YCW groups. Feed conversion ratio was better (p = 0.039) in the YCW group compared with the other groups. Antibiotic growth promoter in the PC group shortened the villi in duodenum (p = 0.044). Mucosal Escherichia coli number was higher in the PC group (p Yeast cell wall -treated birds exhibited better (p yeast and the yeast cell wall may have effects identical to BMD on performance of broilers and thus may constitute an effective replacement strategy in the dietary regimens for broiler chickens.

  4. Uso de fitase em dietas de diferentes granulometrias para frangos de corte na fase inicial Phytase use in diet with different particle size for broiler chicken at initial stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Surek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi avaliada a adição da enzima fitase (500FTU kg-1 em dietas de diferentes granulometrias (Diâmetro Geométrico Médio - DGM para frangos de corte na fase inicial. As aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 (DGM - 680µm e 430µm x 2 (enzima - com ou sem Fitase. As dietas com inclusão de fitase tiveram uma redução de 10,5% de Ca e 22% de P em relação à dieta basal sem fitase. Foram avaliados desempenho (consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar, o coeficiente de metabolizabilidade da matéria seca, a proteína bruta, a energia bruta e também o coeficiente de biodisponibilidade do cálcio e do fósforo. As aves que receberam dietas com DGM 680µm apresentaram maior ganho de peso (798g e melhor conversão alimentar (1,330kg kg-1 quando comparadas às aves alimentadas com dietas de DGM 430µm (780g e 1,390kg para ganho de peso e conversão alimentar, respectivamente (PThe addition of fitase enzyme (500FTU kg-1 was evaluated, in diets of different particle size (Average Geometric Diameter - AGD for broiler chicken at the initial phase. Birds were distributed in a totally randomized experimental design, in factorial model 2 (AGD - 680 µm and 430µm x 2 (enzyme - with or without Fitase. Diets with fitase inclusion presented a reduction of 10.5% of Ca and 22% of P compared to basal diet without fitase. Performance was evaluated (feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion, the metabolisability coefficient of the dry matter, net protein, net energy and also biodisponibility coefficient, calcium and phosphorus. Birds that received diets with AGD 680µm presented greater weight gain (798g and better feed conversion (1,330kg kg-1 when compared to birds fed with diets of DGM 430µm (780g and 1,390kg for weight gain and feed conversion, respectively (P<0.05; higher metabolisability of protein and biodisponibility coefficient of calcium and phosphorus. The

  5. Effect of Different Levels of Zinc on the Performance and Humoral Immunity Response in Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    S Sharbatdar; M Shamse Shargh; A Hesabi Namaghi; S. Hasani; R Hadadian

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and humoral immunity response in broiler chickens with 250 Ross broiler chickens with five experimental treatments consisted of five replicates in a completely randomized design. Treatments were diets containing: basal diet (control) and basal diet plus 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg Zn/kg. Results of the experiment indicated that birds were fed on diets containing 120 mg Zn/kg and control showed the ...

  6. Functional Starters for Functional Yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Mattia P.; Caggianiello, Graziano; Russo, Pasquale; Albenzio, Marzia; Massa, Salvatore; Fiocco, Daniela; Capozzi, Vittorio; Spano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the multifunctionality (microbial starters and probiotics) of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 8328 strains used as microbial starters for the production of yogurt in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The ability of the probiotic strains to survive oro-gastrointestinal stresses was monitored by an in vitro assay simulating the human digestive tract. The transcriptional level of several genes involved in the immune response suggested that the probiotic strains may have a favorable influence on immunomodulation. Overall, this study revealed that the tested Lactobacilli exhibited suitable technological features for yogurt production and might be used to formulate novel food with immunomodulating effects.

  7. Functional Starters for Functional Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia P. Arena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the multifunctionality (microbial starters and probiotics of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 8328 strains used as microbial starters for the production of yogurt in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The ability of the probiotic strains to survive oro-gastrointestinal stresses was monitored by an in vitro assay simulating the human digestive tract. The transcriptional level of several genes involved in the immune response suggested that the probiotic strains may have a favorable influence on immunomodulation. Overall, this study revealed that the tested Lactobacilli exhibited suitable technological features for yogurt production and might be used to formulate novel food with immunomodulating effects.

  8. Functional Starters for Functional Yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Mattia P; Caggianiello, Graziano; Russo, Pasquale; Albenzio, Marzia; Massa, Salvatore; Fiocco, Daniela; Capozzi, Vittorio; Spano, Giuseppe

    2015-02-05

    In this study, we investigated the multifunctionality (microbial starters and probiotics) of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 8328 strains used as microbial starters for the production of yogurt in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The ability of the probiotic strains to survive oro-gastrointestinal stresses was monitored by an in vitro assay simulating the human digestive tract. The transcriptional level of several genes involved in the immune response suggested that the probiotic strains may have a favorable influence on immunomodulation. Overall, this study revealed that the tested Lactobacilli exhibited suitable technological features for yogurt production and might be used to formulate novel food with immunomodulating effects.

  9. Instant MinGW starter

    CERN Document Server

    Shpigor, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

  10. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  11. Feeding a diet contaminated with ochratoxin A for broiler chickens at the maximum level recommended by the EU for poultry feeds (0.1 mg/kg). 2. Effects on meat quality, oxidative stress, residues and histological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzo, L; Cavallarin, L; Antoniazzi, S; Guerre, P; Biasibetti, E; Capucchio, M T; Schiavone, A

    2013-05-01

    The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC indicates that the maximum tolerable level of ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds is 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six 1-day-old male broiler chicks were divided into two groups, a control (basal diet) and an OTA (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The OTA concentration was quantified in serum, liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content were evaluated in the liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The glutathione (GSH) content, and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in the liver and kidney samples. Histopathological traits were evaluated for the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver samples. Moreover, the chemical composition of the meat was analysed in breast and thigh samples. In the OTA diet-fed animals, a serum OTA concentration of 1.15 ± 0.35 ng/ml was found, and OTA was also detected in kidney and liver at 3.58 ± 0.85 ng OTA/g f.w. and 1.92 ± 0.21 ng OTA/g f.w., respectively. The TBARS content was higher in the kidney of the ochratoxin A group (1.53 ± 0.18 nmol/mg protein vs. 0.91 ± 0.25 nmol/mg protein). Feeding OTA at 0.1 mg OTA/kg also resulted in degenerative lesions in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver. The maximum tolerable level of 0.1 mg OTA/kg, established for poultry feeds by the EU, represents a safe limit for the final consumer, because no OTA residues were found in breast and thigh meat. Even though no clinical signs were noticed in the birds fed the OTA-contaminated diet, moderate histological lesions were observed in the liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius.

  12. Effect of dietary levels of methionine + cystine on performance of broiler breeders Efeito dos níveis dietéticos de metionina + cistina no desempenho de matrizes pesadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cezar Gomes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate levels of methionine + cystine levels for broiler breeders from 40 to 60 weeks of age. It was used 288 Cobb broiler breeders, distributed in a randomized experimental design with six levels of methionine+ cystine in the diets (0.39; 0.47; 0.55; 0.63; 0.71 and 0.79%, eight repetitions and six breeders per experimental unit. The diets were isocaloric and isoprotein (2,850 kcal ME/kg and 12.58% CP and oferred at a fixed amount (155 g per bird. For the entire studied period, by using polynomial analysis, it was observed a quadratic effect of methionine + cystine levels on the percentage of egg production, on number of eggs per hen housed, on number of eggs per hen and egg weight. There was also a linear effect on shell weight when it was calculated in relation to egg weight. The total methionine + cystine requirement for broiler breeders was calculated at 0.521% for percentage of egg production and number of eggs per hen, which corresponds to a daily intake of 808 mg of methionine + cystine/day. The digestible methionine + cystine requirement for broiler breeders was estimated at 727 mg for laying percentage and number of eggs per hen.Com o objetivo de avaliar níveis de metionina + cistina para matrizes pesadas de 40 a 60 semanas de idade, conduziu-se um experimento com 288 matrizes da linhagem Cobb-500, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis níveis de metionina + cistina nas dietas (0,39; 0,47; 0,55; 0,63; 0,71 e 0,79%, oito repetições e seis matrizes por unidade experimental. As rações foram isocalóricas e isoproteicas (2.850 kcal EM/kg e 12,58% PB e fornecidas em quantidade fixa (155 g por ave. No período total estudado, por meio de análise polinomial, foi observado efeito quadrático dos níveis de metionina + cistina sobre o percentual de produção de ovos, o número de ovos por ave alojada, o número de ovos por ave e o peso dos ovos. Houve também efeito

  13. Effect of Barley and Enzyme on Performance, Carcass, Enzyme Activity and Digestion Parameters of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid kalantar

    2016-04-01

    Ross-308 broiler chickens were allocated randomly to 3 treatments with 5 replicates using a CRD statistical design. Treatments were included control, barley and barley+ enzyme. The experimental diets were formulated to have similar contents of crude protein, metabolizable energy, total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. Results and Discussion According to the results, effect of barley with or without enzyme on growth performance at starter, grower and the entire period and also on carcass characteristics, pancreas enzyme activity and measures of ileal acidity and viscosity at the age of 42 were significant (P

  14. Effect of graded levels of rapeseed oil in isonitrogenous diets on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, and utilisation of protein, fat and energy in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Zhao, Xin Quan; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2008-01-01

    The effect of feeding 0, 4, 8 and 16% rapeseed oil from 12-42 days of age was studied in broiler chickens on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and development of gastrointestinal tract, protein and energy metabolism. Thirty six female chickens (Ross 208) with initial body weight average 246...... g were allocated to the four groups and kept pair-wise in metabolism cages. The chickens were fed similar amounts of metabolisable energy (ME) per day and similar amounts of essential amino acids relative to ME by adjusting with crystalline amino acids. The chickens were subjected to four balance...

  15. Use of mannanoligosaccharides in broiler feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS Flemming

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A study with 2,400 broilers was carried out to compare the effect of the use of mannanoligosaccharides, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall or growth promoter (Olaquindox in the diet on broiler. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal. A completely randomized experimental design was used, and the obtained data were evaluated by analysis of variance and test of Tukey at a level of 5%. The following parameters were measured: feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. It was concluded that the effect of the inclusion of mannanoligosaccharides in the diet on the studied parameters was significantly higher as compared to the inclusion of cell wall or to the control diet, but the effect was not different as compared to the inclusion of growth promoter.

  16. Bacterial successions in the Broiler Gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Lawley, Blair; Tannock, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    feeding trial was performed with broilers receiving diets based on wheat (WBF), maize (MBF), and maize-based concentrates supplemented with 15% (CKMS-15) or 30% (CKMS-30) crimped kernel maize silage. The aim of the study was to investigate the bacterial community compositions in the contents...

  17. Contribution of protein, starch, and fat to the apparent ileal digestible energy of corn- and wheat-based broiler diets in response to exogenous xylanase and amylase without or with protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Sands, J S; Indrakumar, S E; Plumstead, P W; Dalsgaard, S; Ravindran, V

    2014-10-01

    The ileal energy contribution of protein, starch, and fat in response to 2 exogenous enzyme combinations was studied in 2 digestibility assays with 21- (experiment 1; 432 birds) and 42-d-old (experiment 2; 288 birds) Ross 308 broiler chickens. A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 base grains (corn or wheat), without or with high fiber ingredients (corn distillers dried grains with solubles and canola meal), and 3 enzyme treatments was implemented. Enzyme treatments, fed from 12 to 21 d or 32 to 42 d, were 1) without enzymes, 2) with xylanase from Trichoderma ressei (2,000 U/kg) and amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (200 U/kg; XA), or 3) with XA plus protease from Bacillus subtilis (4,000 U/kg; XAP). All diets contained Escherichia coli phytase (500 FTU/kg). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein, starch, and fat, as well as the apparent ileal digestible energy, were determined using titanium dioxide as inert marker. A generalized mixed model was used to test main effects and 2-way interactions at P starch at 21 and 42 d, and AID of fat at 21 d, with greater effects of enzymes in wheat-based compared with corn-based diets, but significant increments due to enzymes compared with controls in both diet types. Apparent ileal digestibility of fat at 42 d increased with enzyme supplementation compared with the control treatments. The XA and XAP treatments gradually (P starch, fat, and protein were affected differentially by base grain and the presence of fibrous ingredients at 21 and 42 d of age.

  18. Desempenho, balanço e retenção de nutrientes e biometria dos órgãos digestivos de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de proteína na ração pré-inicial Performance, nutrient balance and retention and biometrical measures of digestive organs of broilers fed different dietary protein levels in the pre-starter period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Stringhini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o desempenho, o balanço e a retenção de MS, EE e PB e os parâmetros biométricos do trato gastrintestinal de frangos de corte recebendo diferentes níveis de proteína na ração pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias. No experimento 1, 560 pintos Avian Farms foram distribuídos em baterias segundo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 (cinco níveis de proteína, 18, 20, 22, 24 e 26%, e dois sexos, com dez tratamentos, cada um com quatro repetições de 14 aves. No experimento 2, 1.860 pintos machos e fêmeas Ross foram distribuídos em boxes de 2,0 x 2,5 m, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos (níveis de proteína, 18, 20, 22, 24 e 26%, cada um com seis repetições de 62 aves. No experimento 1, os níveis crescentes de PB da dieta não afetaram significativamente os dados de desempenho, mas o balanço e a quantidade retida do EE promoveram efeito linear positivo. O balanço de proteína não foi afetado, mas a retenção de proteína apresentou efeito linear positivo. A biometria dos órgãos não foi significativamente influenciada aos quatro dias. Nos períodos seguintes, os níveis crescentes de proteína afetaram positivamente o peso relativo do pâncreas. No experimento 2, observou-se, com base nos resultados de desempenho, que os mais altos níveis de proteína na ração pré-inicial atenderam às necessidades nutricionais das aves.Two trials were carried out to evaluate performance, balance and retention of EE, DM and CP and biometrical measures of digestive organs of broiler chicks fed different dietary CP levels in the pre-starter period (1 - 7 d. In the first experiment, 560 one-day-old Avian Farms chicks were allotted to a complete randomized design with ten treatments, with a 5 x 2 (protein levels: 18, 20, 22, 24, and 26% x sex factorial arrangement and four replicates of 14 birds each. In the second experiment, 1,860 one-day-old Ross

  19. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L.; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1–7) and grower diets (days 8–21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and

  20. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  1. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  2. SPSS for Starters, Part 2

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this title contained all statistical tests that are relevant for starters on SPSS, and included standard parametric and non-parametric tests for continuous and binary variables, regression methods, trend tests, and reliability and validity assessments of diagnostic tests. The current part 2 of this title reviews multistep methods, multivariate models, assessments of missing data, performance of diagnostic tests, meta-regression, Poisson regression, confounding and interaction, and survival analyses using log tests and segmented time-dependent Cox regression. Methods for asses

  3. Instant forgedUI starter

    CERN Document Server

    Luiz, Joseandro

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book is a Starter guide to learning ForgedUI. This book will start by unfolding the installation and creating a simple application using Titanium and ForgedUI, followed by taking you through the features to model an engaging UI and generate multi-platform code with Titanium, while covering the best design practice for Apple and Android application development. Last but not least, you will also come across the available resources where you can

  4. Effect of pectin extracted from citrus pulp on digesta characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Karla Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of continuous ingestion of pectin on intestinal viscosity, intestinal transit time, excreta moisture content, nutrient digestibility and energy metabolism of broilers at starter and growth phases. We used 240 one-day-old Cobb male broiler chicks, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of pectin (0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg-1 with six replicates of 10 birds each. The ingestion of pectin supplied in the feed by broilers at the starter phase increased intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduced excreta moisture, improved the use of apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, coefficient of apparent metabolizability, coefficient of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizability, apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein and organic matter; worsened calcium utilization and coefficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter; and did not influence the coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude fat, ash and phosphorus. Pectin ingestion during the growth phase increased intestinal viscosity and apparent digestibility coefficients of ash and organic matter, but decreased the dry matter, crude fat, crude protein and calcium. Intestinal transit time, energy metabolism and apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein showed quadratic behavior according to pectin levels in the feed. Therefore, pectin ingestion by broilers at the starter phase increases intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduces excreta moisture and improves energy utilization, whereas at the growth phase nutrient digestibility is decreased.

  5. Qualidade da carne de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas suplementadas com crômio, criados em diferentes temperaturas ambientais = Meat quality of broiler chicks submeted the supplemented diets with chromium and reared in differents enviromental temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oba

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos. O experimento um objetivou avaliar a composição da carne do peito de frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com crômio (0, 400, 800 e 1.200 μg Cr kg-1 complexado a levedura, criados sob diferentes condições de temperatura (quente, termoneutra e fria. O experimento dois objetivou avaliar a qualidade da carne do peito de frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com crômio (0 e 400 μg Cr kg-1, criados nas mesmas condições do experimento um e desossados em diferentes períodos (0, 5 e 24 horas. Os resultados mostram que as aves criadas em ambiente frio apresentaram a carne com menor porcentagem de matéria mineral e crômio e maior intensidade de vermelho, enquanto as aves criadas em temperatura termoneutra apresentaram carne com menor porcentagem de umidade, e as aves criadas em temperatura quente, carne com maior luminosidade. Já a suplementação de crômio não proporcionou qualquer efeito na composição e na qualidade de carne, enquanto que o aumento no período de desossa proporcionou um menor comprimento de sarcômero, força de cisalhamento e intensidade de amarelo, porém uma maior luminosidade.Two experiments were conducted being the objective of the first experiment to evaluate the the composition of breast meat of broiler chicks fed with diets supplemented with chromium yeast (0; 400; 800and 1,200 μg Cr kg-1 reared in different environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral and cold. The second experiment aimed to evaluate the quality of breast meat of broiler chicks fed with diets supplemented with chromium yeast (0 and 400 μg Cr kg-1, reared in different environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral and cold and deboned in different periods (0, 5 and 24 hours. The results showed that birds reared in cold environmental temperature showed meat with lower mineral matter percentage and chromium and higher values of redness, whereas the birds reared in thermoneutral environment

  6. Desempenho de frangos de corte alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de cálcio suplementadas com fitase Performance of broilers fed diets with different calcium levels and supplemented with phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Carolina Zanardo Donato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito de rações contendo diferentes níveis de cálcio e suplementadas com fitase sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte nas fases inicial (1 a 21 dias, de crescimento (22 a 35 dias e final (36 a 42 dias. Foram utilizados 2.160 pintos de corte machos da linhagem AG Ross 308, de 1 a 42 dias de idade, distribuídos em 6 tratamentos, cada um com 6 repetições. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 × 2, com 3 níveis de fitase (0, 600 e 1.200 ftu/kg e 2 de cálcio (0,94 e 0,66%; 0,84 e 0,59%; e 0,78 e 0,54% para as fases inicial, de crescimento e final, respectivamente. As rações experimentais ainda tinham níveis reduzidos de fósforo disponível e níveis mínimos de proteína bruta. Ao final de cada fase, avaliaram-se o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar e a mortalidade. Houve interação entre os níveis de fitase e de cálcio estudados para ganho de peso, consumo de ração e mortalidade nas três fases avaliadas. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a suplementação de fitase no nível de 1.200 ftu/kg de ração em associação aos menores níveis de cálcio. Nenhum resultado significativo foi observado para conversão alimentar. Os níveis nutricionais de cálcio podem ser reduzidos em 30% em dietas com baixos níveis de fósforo disponível e níveis mínimos de proteína bruta, desde que as dietas sejam suplementadas com 1.200 ftu/kg de fitase.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of diets with different calcium levels and supplemented with phytase on the performance of broiler chickens in initial (1 to 21 days of age, growing (22 to 35 days of age and final (36 to 42 days of age phases. Two thousand one hundred and sixty male broilers from AG Ross 308 line, from 1 to 42 days old were distributed in 6 treatments, with 6 replicates each. A completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial scheme was used

  7. Interactions between the physical form of starter (mashed versus textured) and corn silage provision on performance, rumen fermentation, and structural growth of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Riasi, A; Soltani, A; Moshiri, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    Introducing forage in the young calf diet during the milk-feeding period stimulates rumen development. It was hypothesized that performance in dairy calves would depend on forage provision and starter physical form such that the textured starter (TS) feed with corn silage (CS) supplementation would benefit calf performance. This study evaluates the effects of the physical form of starter diets and CS supplementation on performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and structural growth of dairy calves. Forty-eight 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves with a mean starting BW of 42.1 kg (SD 2.4) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary CS level (0 or 15% on DM basis) and physical form of starter (mashed vs. textured). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned ( = 12 calves per treatment: 6 males and 6 females) to 4 treatments: 1) a mashed starter (MS) feed with no CS (MS-NCS), 2) a MS feed with CS (MS-CS), 3) a TS feed with no CS (TS-NCS), and 4) a TS feed with CS (TS-CS). The calves had ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 56 of age and remained in the study until d 66. The interaction of the physical form of the starter and CS provision was significant ( 0.05) was detected between the physical form of starter and CS provision with respect to the rumen fermentation parameters and body measurements. Total rumen VFA concentration and the molar proportion of propionate were greater ( < 0.01) in calves fed TS compared with MS-fed calves. In conclusion, independent of the physical form of starter, inclusion of 15% CS in starter diets improves the performance of dairy calves.

  8. Peningkatan Performa Ayam Broiler dengan Suplementasi Daun Salam [Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp] Sebagai Antibakteri Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    K.G. Wiryawan; S. Luvianti; W. Hermana; S. Suharti

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of bay leaves (S. polyanthum (Wight) Walp) used in the diet as E. coli antibacteria in improving broiler performances. This experiment used 180 day old chicks (DOC) of Cobb strain which were kept in litter system for five weeks. The experiment used completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications consisting of 10 broilers in each replication. The treatment diets were R0 = control diet, R1 = R0 infected with E....

  9. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Karlsson, Anders H.; Petersen, Mikael A.

    2016-01-01

    1. Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers...... was carried out from 21-25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. 2. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat based feed (WBF), maize based feed (MBF), maize based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). 3....... Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. 5. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed CKMS-30. 6. An improved litter quality in terms of dry matter content and a lower frequency...

  10. Two necrotic enteritis predisposing factors, dietary fishmeal and Eimeria infection, induce large changes in the caecal microbiota of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Biao; Stanley, Dragana; Rodgers, Nicholas; Swick, Robert A; Moore, Robert J

    2014-03-14

    It is widely established that a high-protein fishmeal supplemented starter diet and Eimeria infection can predispose birds to the development of clinical necrotic enteritis symptoms following Clostridium perfringens infection. However, it has not been clearly established what changes these treatments cause to predispose birds to succumb to necrotic enteritis. We analysed caecal microbiota of 4 groups of broilers (n=12) using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons: (1) control chicks fed a control diet, (2) Eimeria infected chicks fed control diet, (3) chicks fed fishmeal supplemented diet and lastly (4) both fishmeal fed and Eimeria infected chicks. We found that the high-protein fishmeal diet had a strong effect on the intestinal microbiota similar to the previously reported effect of C. perfringens infection. We noted major changes in the prevalence of various lactobacilli while the total culturable Lactobacillus counts remained stable. The Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, unknown Clostridiales and Lactobacillaceae families were most affected by fishmeal with increases in a number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that had previously been linked to Crohn's disease and reductions in OTUs known to be butyrate producers. Eimeria induced very different changes in microbiota; Ruminococcaceae groups were reduced in number and three unknown Clostridium species were increased in abundance. Additionally, Eimeria did not significantly influence changes in pH, formic, propionic or isobutyric acid while fishmeal induced dramatic changes in all these measures. Both fishmeal feeding and Eimeria infection induced significant changes in the gut microbiota; these changes may play an important role in predisposing birds to necrotic enteritis.

  11. Desempenho e características da carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com rações de diferentes formas físicas Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed diets of different physical forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Alves de Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    randomized block design with 4 physical forms of feed and 6 repetitions with 10 birds per experimental unit, where each floor represented a block. Treatments consisted of: mash, pelleted, expanded and expanded pelleted diets. Performance indexes were analyzed in the period from 1 to 22 and 1 to 39 days of birds' life. Two birds with an average weight of the group were taken from each repetition and slaughtered at 40 days of age for carcass evaluation. The physical form of ration affected the performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. For the period from 1 to 22 days and from 1 to 39 days, chickens that consumed the mashed food had lower feed intake, weight and weight gain, whereas birds fed pelleted diets showed no difference in weight, weight gain or feed conversion from those fed expanded pelleted diets. The major results for these variables were observed for birds fed pelleted or expanded pelleted diets. Birds fed expanded pelleted diets showed the best results for carcass and cut weight compared with those fed with mesh diet, and this better outcome did not differ from that found for birds fed pelleted diet. The use of rations in pelleted or expanded pelleted physical forms is recommended, for they promote the best animal performance parameters.

  12. Evaluation of the use of probiotics in diets with or without growth promoters for broiler chicks Avaliação do uso de probiótico em dietas para frangos de corte com ou sem promotores de crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Fernando Pastorelo Meurer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the use of Bacillus subtilis probiotic C-3102 (10(10cfu/g in diets with or without growth promoters on the performance of broilers in the period from 1 to 42 days of age. It was used 1,200 Cobb line broilers, distributed in a complete randomized block with five diets: negative controller (without promoters; Bacillus subtilis (30 g/t ration; Bacillus subtilis (50 g/t ration; Bacillus subtilis (30 g/t ration + colistin (10 ppm; avilamycin (10 ppm + colistin (10 ppm. Each diet was evaluated in 10 repetitions with 24 birds. From 21 to 42 days of age, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated, and at 42 days of age, productive efficiency index was evaluated. At the end of the experimental period, it was observed an increase in the consumption of diet with the lowest dose of Bacillus subtilis (30 g in relation to that one with Bacillus subtillis (30 g + colistin (10 ppm. The values of weight gain obtained with the diet with the lowest dose of Bacillus subtillis (30 g and with avilamycin (10 ppm + colistine (10 ppm were higher than those of the birds fed control diet (without promoters. For feed conversion, the best results were obtained by supplying diets containing 50 g of Bacillus subtillis, diet with 30 g of Bacillus subtillis + 10 ppm of colistin; and diet with 10 ppm of avilamycin + 10 ppm colistin. For the analysis of productive efficiency index, the best results were obtained with diets containing additives (probiotics and/or antibiotics in comparison to the control diet. Bacillus subtillis C-3102 probiotic, at concentration 10(10 cfu/g, is an efficient substitute of antibiotics.Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o uso do probiótico Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (10(10 ufc/g em dietas contendo ou não promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte no período de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 1.200 frangos de corte da linhagem Cobb, distribuídos em delineamento

  13. Effect of Substituting Yellow Maize for Sorghum on Broiler Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the nutritional value of yellow maize when it substitutes sorghum grain as source of energy at levels 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% in broiler rations. One hundred and forty unsexed one day old (Ross broiler chicks were randomly assigned to five approximately isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets labeled as follows: Diet (S0 containing sorghum 100% (control, 60% of the diet, diet (S1 75% sorghum 25% maize, diet (S2 50% sorghum 50% maize, diet (S3 25% sorghum 75% maize and diet (S4 maize (100% (without sorghum. Each treatment had four replicates with 7 birds/replicate. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. Feed intake and body weight gain had been recorded weekly. The results showed significant increase (P 0.05 effect on cold carcass dressing percentage, liver and abdominal fat weights, serum cholesterol, serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels. The cost of production decreased by increasing level of maize.

  14. Uso da alga Lithothamnium calcareum como fonte alternativa de cálcio nas rações de frangos de corte Use of algae Lithothamnium calcareum as alternative source of calcium in diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carreira Carlos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o uso da alga Lithothamnium calcareum (Pallas Areschoug nas rações para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 e 21 a 42 dias de idade, em substituição à fonte de cálcio tradicional (calcário calcítico. Para isso, foram utilizados 300 pintos machos, da linhagem Cobb®, que receberam rações contendo o calcário calcítico e a alga Lithothamnium calcareum (colhida de inteira e na forma de areia biodentrítica como fontes de cálcio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e cinco repetições de 20 aves cada. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso (g/ave, consumo de ração (g/ave e conversão alimentar (g/g. No final do experimento foram avaliados os parâmetros ósseos: peso da tíbia (g, comprimento da tíbia (mm, diâmetro da tíbia (mm e teor de cinzas na tíbia (%. Na fase inicial (1 a 21 dias houve efeito (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the algae Lithothamnium calcareum (Pallas Areschoug in diets for broiler chickens from 1 to 21 and 21 to 42 days, to replace the traditional source of calcium (limestone. 300 male chicks from Cobb® strain, which received diets containing limestone and Lithothamnium calcareum algae (as a whole and as sand biodentritic were used as sources of calcium. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and five replicates of 20 birds each. The variables analyzed were: weight gain (g / bird, feed intake (g / bird, feed per again (g / g. At the end of the experiment the bone parameters: weight of the tibia (g, tibia length (mm, diameter of the tibia (mm and ash content in the tibia (%. Were evaluated in the initial phase (1 to 21 days there was an effect (P <0.05 between treatments for weight gain and feed per again, and the control treatment showed better results. For the growing phase (21 to 42 days and total period (1 to 42 days there was no effect among the

  15. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Larry Raymond; Miller, John Michael

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  16. 饲粮添加大豆卵磷脂乳化剂对肉鸡生长性能、养分利用率和血清生化指标的影响%Diets Supplemented with Soybean Lecithin Emulsifier Affect Growth Performance, Nutrient Availability and Serum Biochemical Indices of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玲; 曾秋凤; 丁雪梅; 柘丽; 张克英; 吴秀群

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of soybean lecithin emulsifier supplementation in two energy level diets on growth performance, nutrient availability and serum biochemical indices of broilers. A randomized complete block design with 2x2 factors was adopted in the experiment and 960 one-day-old Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 6 replicates in each group and 40 birds in each replicate. Chickens were fed the experimental diets composed of two energy levels and two emulsifier supplementation levels. Dietary metabolizable energy levels were 12. 13 and 11. 92 MJ/kg for chickens at 1 to 21 days of age, and were 12. 96 and 12.65 MJ/kg for chickens at 22 to 49 days of age. Meanwhile, the supplementation levels of emulsifier were 0 and 265 mg/kg for chickens at 1 to 21 days of age, and were 0 and 400 mg/kg for chickens at 22 to 49 days of age. Growth performance of chickens, apparent availability of energy, dry matter, crude protein and crude fat, as well as contents of glucose, lipids and bile acid were measured in the experiment. The results showed that the average daily gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days of age fed normal energy diet was significantly higher than that of broilers fed low energy diet {P <0.01} , and the feed/ gain of broilers at 1 to 49 days of age fed low energy diet with emulsifier supplementation could reach that the level of broilers fed normal energy diet. The supplementation of emulsifier in diets could increase the average daily gain and the apparent availability of ether extract and energy of diets, promote bile secretion, and significantly decrease the feed/gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days and 1 to 49 days of age (P < 0. 05). In conclusion, the decrease of dietary energy can significantly decrease the average daily gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days of age, and increase feed/gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days and 1 to 49 days of age; the supplementation of emulsifier in diets can improve feed efficiency

  17. Podcasting the Ultimate Starter Kit

    CERN Document Server

    Shipside, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Podcasting doesn't require an iPod; anyone with a computer, an MP3 player, or in some cases even a phone or a pair of shades can play podcasts. It requires very little technological know-how to set up, listen to, or even make your own programmes. Podcasting: The ultimate starter kit takes a light-hearted, friendly and refreshingly jargon-free look at eveything you need to know to get started, and with its free start-up CD it couldn't be easier. With the help of Podcasting, you can find out how to set up your software and record podcasts, where to go to find programmes on anything from religion

  18. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  19. Performance in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil Lippia berlandieri Schauer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of two qualities of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) in the broiler diet on broiler weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and water intake. The qualities were MOO1 (4% thymol, 60% carvacrol) and MOO2 (40% thymol, 20% carvacro...

  20. Effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn, E.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Mashaly, M.M.; Parmentier, H.K.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens was studied. Eight groups of six female broiler chickens each were assigned to a continuous lighting schedule [23 h light (L):1 h darkness (D)] or an intermittent lighting schedule (1L:3D), and were fed a diet wit

  1. Starter Cultures: Uses in the Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2014-01-01

    Starter cultures are preparations of microorganisms serving as inoculants for the production of fermented foods. The production of cheese, yogurt, fermented milk, wine, sauerkraut, hams, and sausages occurs through the use of starter cultures that are consistent, predictable, and safe. The cultures...... provide the food products with a multitude of properties. Acidification of the food matrix is a primary property in a large number of food fermentations. Acidification activity often will be used to define packaging size and the unit of activity, whereas other characteristics differentiate a culture from...... the range of other available starter cultures. Starter cultures are commercially available in liquid, frozen, or lyophilized form from several companies serving regional or global markets....

  2. Desempenho de frangos de corte, digestibilidade de nutrientes e valores energéticos de rações formuladas com vários milhos, suplementadas com enzimas Broilers performance, nutrients digestibility and energy values of diets formulated with different corns, supplemented with enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borges Rodrigues

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de verificar o desempenho de frangos de corte, a digestibilidade de nutrientes e os valores energéticos de rações formuladas com milhos, de diferentes variedades (experimento 1 e regiões (experimento 2, suplementadas com um complexo enzimático. Em cada experimento foram utilizados 480 pintos Hubbard machos, com 14 dias de idade, os quais foram criados até a idade de 27 dias, período no qual foi avaliado o desempenho. As aves receberam os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 6 x 2 (variedades x complexo enzimático, em quatro repetições de 10 aves cada. Cada milho foi misturado em uma ração basal, na proporção de 63,24%, constituindo as dietas experimentais, cujos níveis de proteína bruta e valores energéticos variaram em função da composição dos milhos. Utilizou-se o óxido crômico como indicador, na proporção de 0,5%. A partir do 23º dia, as excretas foram coletadas por 5 dias e, no 28º dia, todas as aves de cada repetição foram abatidas e o conteúdo de digesta presente nos 30 cm do íleo terminal, anterior à junção íleo-cecal, coletado. As amostras das excretas e da digesta ileal foram analisadas em matéria seca, nitrogênio, energia bruta e amido, e os coeficientes de digestibilidade e valores energéticos determinados por meio do fator de indigestibilidade do óxido crômico. Concluiu-se que a procedência dos milhos (variedades ou regiões influenciou o desempenho; a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e os valores energéticos das rações variaram em função da composição dos milhos; a digestibilidade ileal da proteína bruta, do amido e a energia digestível ileal das rações melhoraram com a suplementação enzimática.Two assays were carried out to evaluate the broilers performance, nutrients digestibility and the energy values of diets formulated with corn from different varieties (Experiment 1 and regions (Experiment 2, supplemented with an enzymatic complex

  3. Gene expression profiling within the spleen of Clostridium perfringens-challenged Broilers fed antibiotic-medicated and non-medicated diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hai

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium perfringens (Cp is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that causes necrotic enteritis (NE in poultry when it overgrows in the small intestine. NE disease has previously been controlled through the use of growth-promoting antibiotics. This practice was recently banned in European countries, leading to significantly increased incidence of NE threatening the poultry industry. Control strategies and technology as substitutes to dietary antibiotics are therefore urgently required. To develop the substitutes, it is important to understand host immune responses to Cp infection. However, the knowledge is still lacking. We therefore investigated gene expression profiles within immunologically-relevant tissue, the spleen, in order to identify factors that are involved in immunity to NE and have potential as therapeutic targets. Results Use of a 44 K Agilent chicken genome microarray revealed significant up-regulation of many immune-associated genes in Cp-challenged chickens, including galectin 3, IFNAR1, IgY-receptor, TCRγ, granzyme A, and mannose-6-P-R, which were subsequently validated by quantitative PCR assays. Functional annotation of differentially expressed genes was conducted using the High Throughput Gene Ontology Functional Annotation database. Medicated and Non-medicated chickens had similar annotation profiles with cell activities and regulation being the most dominant biological processes following Cp infection. Conclusion Broiler chickens demonstrated an intricate and holistic magnitude of host response to Cp challenge and the development of NE. Although the influence of dietary antibiotics appeared to be less significant than the disease process, both had a considerable impact on the host response. Markers previously identified in intestinal inflammatory diseases of other species, including humans, and indicators of enhanced antibody responses, appeared to be involved in the chicken response to Cp challenge

  4. Substituição total do milho por sorgo e óleo de abatedouro avícola em dietas para frangos de corte Total replacement of corn by sorghum and slaughterhouse poultry oil in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Régia Ramos de Albuquerque Rocha

    2008-01-01

    pigmentos.This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of total replacement of corn by sorghum and crecent levels of slaugherhouse poultry oil (PO on performance and carcass characteristics and yield of broilers. A total of 260 chicks one day-old, males, Cobb strain, was allotted to the following treatments: a corn based reference ration, and four sorghum based diets with the inclusion levels of 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% of PO according to the growing phases (from 1 to 7 days, 8 to 21 days, 22 to 33 days and 34 to 42 days. The experimental desing was in radomized blocks, with two blocks, where the parameter for blocks was the sense of the hangar, two replicates per block, with 13 birds per pen and five treatments. The inclusion of PO in the sorghum based diet linearly increased feed intake (FI, except during the first phase, and showed a linear effect on weight gain, that increased in the phases from 1 to 7 days, 22 to 33 days, and 1 to 42 days. Feed conversion (FC and viability did not showed differences in the studied phases. The absolute weight at slaughter broilers lineally increased with the addition PO in the diet. The weights and yield hot carcass, cold carcass, freezing 24 hours carcass, prime cuts, edible visceras, abdominal fat was not influenced by the diets. Carcass pigmentation did not show difference by the addition of PO in the sorghum based diet. The sorghum could totally replacement corn, from the day 8, because did not negatively affect performance and carcass yield. The addition of up to 7.5% of PO in the sorghum based diet provide carcass production with yield similar to those fed corn soybean meal based diets, but the addition of pigments is important.

  5. Penggunaan Tepung Limbah Udang yang Diolah dengan Filtrat Air Abu Sekam dalam Ransum Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the effect of different levels of shrimp head waste (SHW substituting fish meal (FM in broiler diets. FM is the sole crude protein from animal sources. A control fish meal broiler diet and four different levels of SHW substituted for crude protein FM were fed to CP 707 Arbor Acres broiler strains from day old chick to four weeks of age. The crude proteins FM were replaced with 0 (R0; 25 (R1; 50 (R2; 75 (R3; and 100 (R4 percent of crude protein SHW. The five treatments were assigned to completely randomized design. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion and carcass percentage were recorded to measure the performances. The results of Duncan’s revealed that feed consumption, feed conversion and carcass percentage were not significantly different with increasing level of SHW as substituted crude protein FM in broiler diets. However these parameters in bird fed 100 % SHW diets did not differ from those in birds fed 16 % FM (7.32% crude protein from FM. While body weight gain decreased with increasing levels of SHW in broiler diets (R4. The decrease body weight gain may be due to the decreased feed intake and amino acid in balance and the increased chitin content in the diet. The conclusion of this experiment that SHW can be used as a protein source in broiler diets up to 75% to replace FM.

  6. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

  7. Comparative Effects of Nano-Multivitamin Supplementation on Performance, some Blood Parameters and Immune Responses of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sheikh Samani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Feed constitutes 70 to 75 percent of poultry flock costs which vitamins constitute 0.08 % of diet and 2 % of feed costs. Vitamins as a group of complex organic compounds are needed in small amounts for normal metabolism of the body. Researches have shown that vitamins with smaller particles as vitamin supplements, were more effective and showed higher bioavailability. Nano form of supplementation increases the surface area which possibly could increase absorption and thereby utilization of vitamins leading to reduction in the quantity of supplements and through higher bioavailability. Their greater bioavailability shows that nano-particulate vitamin compositions can be given in smaller doses with less amount of that vitamins passing through the body unabsorbed. Most vitamins and other substances that are insoluble in water when formulated as nanoparticles, can be easily solved in water and even can penetrate to the body parts that are impervious to the macro particles. this study was conducted to compare the efficacy of Nano-multivitamin (NMV with common vitamins premix (CVP on performance, some blood parameters and immune responses of broiler chickens to verify the beneficial effects of nano-vitamins in poultry nutrition,. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design for 45 days. A total of 600, 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross strain were randomly assigned to 10 treatments with 5 replicates and 12 chicks each. Mash basal diets were prepared and balanced for energy and all nutrient except vitamins according to the Ross Nutrition manual (2007, for starter (1-10 d, grower (11-24 d and finisher (25-45 d periods. Liquid NMV and Powder pure vitamins were added to diets after dilution with wheat bran to achieve weight of 2.5 kg of each premix for each ton of feed (2.5 kg premix/ton diet = 100% of recommended level. The size of NMV particles were 20-400 (nm and the manufacturer's recommendations

  8. Leaky gut and mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 does not increase gut permeability in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect...

  9. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    OpenAIRE

    VC Pelícia; JR Sartori; KC Zavarize; AC Pezzato; AC Stradiotti; PC Araujo; MAO Mituo; LA Madeira

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD), CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental ...

  10. Performance of broiler fed pure glycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dássia Daiane Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments evaluated the pure glycerin in broiler chicken diets. Experiment 1 was a metabolism test using total feces sampling method with 96 male chickens aging from 17 to 25 d when animals were fed on two treatments: diet1 = no glycerin and diet2 = 60g/kg of glycerin. The apparent metabolized energy measured 4015 kcal/kg and the apparent metabolized corrected for nitrogen balance was 3911 kcal/kg. Experiment 2 evaluated weight gains, feed intake and feed conversion in 480 chicks at 6, 20 and 34 d old fed on diets with 0, 40, 80 and 120 g/kg of glycerin. The results indicate that pure glycerin in chicken diets, as a source of energy must take into consideration the age of the animals and it may be added up to 120 g/kg, from 20 to 41 d of age.

  11. DRIED WHEY AND FISH MEAL + LACTOSE IN DIETS WITH TWO PROTEIN LEVELS FOR STARTER PIGLETS SORO DE LEITE EM PÓ E FARINHA DE PEIXE+LACTOSE EM RAÇÕES COM DOIS NÍVEIS DE PROTEÍNA PARA LEITÕES NA FASE INICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romão da Cunha Nunes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available One experiment was carried out to evaluate protein sources and levels, and lactose in starter diets, for piglets weaned at 21 days of age. The animals were allotted in a completely randomized design in a factorial 2 x 2 x 2, with type of diets ( dried whey and fish meal + lactose, levels of crude protein (20 and 24% and piglet weight at weaning (?6.0 and > 6.0kg, in a total of eight treatments and four replications with 14 piglets (7 males and 7 females each. In the experimental conditions, it can be concluded that among the protein sources tested, the performance of 21 day-age weaned piglets fed fish meal + lactose (FG 1.81 compared was better to dried whey(FG 1.93m. The level of 24% crude protein was more efficient, mainly in the fish meal + lactose diets (WG 8.91kg x 7.93kg. It is concluded also that the type of diets studied did not influence histologycal parameters and the villous height is a direct funcion of piglets weight. KEY-WORDS: Pancreas weight, performance, villous height. Desenvolveu-se um experimento para avaliar fontes e níveis de proteína e de lactose em rações iniciais para leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 2, para estudo dos tipos de dieta (soro de leite em pó e farinha de peixe+lactose, níveis de proteína bruta (20,0% e 24,0% e pesos dos leitões ao desmame (? 6,0 e > 6,0 kg, totalizando oito tratamentos com quatro repetições de quatorze leitões (sete machos e sete fêmeas cada. Das fontes de proteína estudadas, o desempenho de leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade foi superior para rações com farinha de peixe + lactose (CA 1,81, comparados àqueles que consumiram a ração contendo apenas o soro de leite em pó (1,93. Para os níveis de proteína, observou-se que o índice de 24% de proteína bruta nas rações foi mais eficiente, principalmente com a combinação farinha de peixe + lactose (GP 8,91 x 7,93kg. As dietas

  12. The influence of breed and sex on the incidence of mortalities and skin tears in broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, N H; Smith, G A; Crosley, R I

    1989-06-01

    The effects of nutrition, breed and sex on the incidence of mortalities and of skin tears on broiler carcasses were studied. Both sexes of 2 breeds, Hubbard and Ross, were given 4 dietary treatments consisting of a normal level of vitamin and mineral premix plus 300 ppm furazolidone, twice normal premix inclusion level plus 300 ppm furazolidone, a normal level of vitamin and mineral premix, and twice normal mineral premix inclusion level. A coccidiostat containing the active ingredient halofuginone was included at 6 ppm, twice the recommended dosage. Starter, grower and finisher diets were fed respectively up to Day 20, Day 30 and Day 48. Group growth performances, mortalities and the incidence of torn skin were monitored on both the live birds and carcasses. The effect of the different nutritional treatments on skin tears was not significant (P = 0.9533), as was the breed effect (P = 0.0547). However, the effect of sex was significant (P = 0.0044), the incidence in hens being higher. Mortalities among the Hubbard were significantly greater than among the Ross (P = 0.0001). Hens showed a slightly higher mortality rate than roosters, tending towards significance at the 5% level (P = 0.0554).

  13. Straw particle size in calf starters: Effects on digestive system development and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2016-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine effects of straw particle size in calf starter on rumen fermentation and development in calves. Holstein calves (n=17 in trial 1; n=25 in trial 2) were housed in individual pens; bedding (wood shavings) was covered with landscape fabric to completely avoid consumption of bedding. Milk replacer was fed at 12% of birth body weight per day and water offered free choice. Calves were randomly assigned to 4 treatments differing in geometric mean particle length (Xgm) of straw comprising 5% of starter dry matter. Straw was provided within the pellet at manufacture (PS; 0.82 mm Xgm) or mixed with the pellet at time of feeding at Xgm of 3.04 (SS), 7.10 (MS), or 12.7 (LS) mm. Calves (n=12; 3/treatment) in trial 1 were fitted with a rumen cannula by wk 2 of age. A fixed amount of starter that was adjusted with age and orts were fed through the cannula in cannulated calves. Calves were euthanized 6 wk after starter was offered (9 and 7 wk of age for trials 1 and 2, respectively). Rumen digesta pH linearly decreased with age, whereas volatile fatty acid concentration increased with age. Overall pH had a cubic trend with SS lower than that of PS and MS. Molar proportion of acetate decreased with age whereas propionate proportion increased. Overall molar proportions of volatile fatty acids were not affected by diet. Fecal Xgm was not different in spite of changes in diet particle size and rumen digesta of PS being greater than SS, MS, and LS at slaughter. Fecal pH and starch concentration were not affected by diet; however, pH decreased whereas starch content increased with age. Weight of stomach compartments, rumen papillae length and width, and rumen wall thickness did not differ between diets. Omasum weight as a percentage of body weight at harvest linearly decreased as straw particle size increased. Under the conditions of this study, modifying straw particle length in starter grain resulted in minimal rumen fermentation parameter

  14. Preliminary studies of alternative feed additives for broilers: Alternanthera brasiliana extract, propolis extract and linseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MW Biavatti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of alternative treatments using fluidextracts of Alternanthera brasiliana, propolis resin and linseed oil on the performance and blood biochemistry of broilers was evaluated. The study was done with five treatments: basal diet (negative control; basal diet + 40 ppm avylamicin and 120 ppm monensin (positive control; basal diet + A. brasiliana extract (180 mL/200 kg of feed; basal diet + propolis extract (200 mL/200 kg of feed and basal diet + linseed oil (2.5% replacing soybean oil. Propolis and A. brasiliana extracts improved broiler performance from 14 to 21 days, whereas linseed oil had no effect. The findings of this experiment revealed that A. brasiliana and propolis extracts can be used as antimicrobials, but further studies are necessary to find the best concentration in broiler diets.

  15. DESEMPENHO DE FRANGOS DE CORTE, SEXADOS, SUBMETIDOS A DIETAS FORMULADAS PELOS CONCEITOS DE PROTEÍNA BRUTA versus PROTEÍNA IDEAL PERFORMANCE OF SEXED BROILER BIRDS, SUBMITTED TO DIETS FORMULATED BY THE CONCEPTS OF CRUDE PROTEIN versus IDEAL PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olinda Bergamo Mendoza

    2001-02-01

    out at the Poultry Section of the Departament of Animal Science at Federal University of Santa Maria, in order to evaluate the performance of broilers grown sexed and fed with diets formulated by the traditional concept (Crude Protein - CP, which is based on total amimo acids (TAA and fed with the approach of Ideal Protein (IP, which is based on digestible amino acids (DAA, in the period from 1 to 42 days of age. A comparative economic analysis among the two feeding methods was also accomplished. There were 960 chicks (Ross at the age of 1 day, being 480 males and 480 females. The diet based on the concept of CP was formulated according to the recommendation of NRC (1994 and the diet formulated by the concept of IP was adapted from Han and Baker (1994. The completely randomized experimental design consisted of 4 treatments with 12 replications of 20 chicks each. The feed intake, phase gain, body weight, daily gain, feed conversion and the nutritional efficieny index were evaluated. The results indicated that the parameters studied were more efficient in the initial phase. The diet formulated by the Ideal Protein concept, based on the content of DAA, influenced all parameters studied positively, providing significantly better gain weight and feed efficiency in both male and female chicks in the initial and final phases, being similar in the growing phase. The chicks fed with DAA showed greater profits in the initial phase and during the growth phase. These data allowed the conclusion that diets containing corn and soybean meal as base for the formulated feed provides better biological and economic performance of the broilers when compared to those formulated with crude Protein, from day the first up to 35 days of age. The final phase (35-42 showed the contrary, being the CP concept more economical than IP.

  16. Lisina digestível em dietas de baixa proteína para frangos de corte tipo caipira de um aos 28 dias Digestible lysine in diets containing low protein concentrations for broiler type redneck from 1 to 28 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a inclusão de diferentes porcentagens de lisina digestível em dietas de baixa proteína para frangos de corte tipo caipira, machos e fêmeas, com idade entre um e 28 dias. Utilizaram-se 792 machos e 792 fêmeas de linhagem comercial, de um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x6 (sexo x porcentagem de lisina digestível: 0,85; 0,90; 0,95; 1,00; 1,05 e 1,10% com seis repetições de 22 aves. Não foi constatada interação (P>0,05 de sexo versus inclusão de lisina. Observou-se superioridade (P0,05 para conversão alimentar. Da composição centesimal da carcaça, apenas o percentual de matéria mineral foi influenciada (PThe inclusion of different percentages of digestible lysine in low-protein diets was evaluated for male and female free-range broiler chickens, from 1 to 28 days. We used 792 female and 792 male naked neck chickens a day in a completely randomized 2x6 factorial scheme (sex x percentages of digestible lysine: 0.85, 0.90, 0.95, 1.00, 1.05 and1.10% with six replicates of 22 broilers. No interaction of sex versus lysine was found. Superiority was observed (P0.05 in food conversion.In the chemical composition of the carcass, only thepercentage of mineral matter was influenced (P<0.05 bydigestible lysine levels.It was concluded that the level of 0.85% for type redneck broiler meets the nutritional requirement of digestible lysine in diets containing lower protein concentrations.

  17. BONE CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILERS SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Colet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTVitamin D is added to broiler diets to supply its physiological requirement for bone formation. The fast growth rate of modern broilers is often associated with poor bone formation. Increasing vitamin D supplementation levels and the use of more available sources have applied to try to prevent leg problems, to increase carcass yield, and to improve the performance of broilers. The present study evaluated three vitamin D supplementation levels (1 3,500 IU (control; (2 control + 1,954 IU of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol; and (3 control + 3,500 IU of vitamin D in broiler diets supplied up to 21 days of age. The objective was to investigate if the vitamin D levels above the recommendations could reduce leg problems in broilers. In this experiment, a total of 1,296 one-day-old male and female Cobb(r 500 broilers were used. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of two sexes and three vitamin D levels. No difference was found between the levels of vitamin D (p > 0.05, the performance of males or females, the gait score, the valgus and varus incidence, the tibial dyschondroplasia incidence, the occurance of femoral degeneration, the bone colorimetric, and the carcass yield. Parts yield differences were found (p > 0.05, except for liver and intestine yields. We concluded that the lowest tested vitamin D level (3,500 IU per kilogram of feed added to the diet was the best choice in terms of cost/benefit to help minimizing leg problems in broilers.

  18. Níveis das vitaminas A e E em dietas de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade Levels of vitamins A and E on diets of broilers from 1 to 42 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni Salete de Toledo

    2006-04-01

    -1 of diet, respectively. The parameters evaluated were: feed consumption, body weight, feed conversion and mortality. Feed comsumption, body weight and feed conversion were not affected by the increasing or loweing of the medium levels of the studied vitamins. Based in these results we can conclude that vitamins A and E , wich means 50% reduction of the levels used by poultry integration in South Brazil do not reduce the growing of broilers when compared to medium and high levels, which can lead to a reducing in the costs of production.

  19. Dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com enzimas na alimentação de frangos de corte Corn and soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymes in feed of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Maria Torres

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da adição de enzimas digestivas exógenas em dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte, conduziu-se este experimento. Foram utilizados 819 pintos Hubbard em DIC e esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 (enzimas, proteínas, níveis de energia e um tratamento testemunha com 3 repetições de 21 aves por parcela. Os níveis de enzimas foram 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 g/kg de dieta, e os de proteína foram normais (21,18, 19,95 e 19,43% PB e reduzidos (20,54, 19,35 e 18,46% PB; os de energia também foram normais (3000, 3100 e 3200 kcal/kg de EM e reduzidos (2910, 3007 e 3040 kcal/kg de EM, respectivamente, para as fases inicial, de crescimento e final da criação, e para o testemunha, a ração continha níveis normais de EM e PB, sem enzimas. Os fatores avaliados foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e fator europeu de produção. Pelos resultados, verificou-se manutenção do desempenho zootécnico das aves em razão da aplicação de enzimas, constatado pela não significância desses fatores aos 42 dias de idade e pela melhora na conversão alimentar, redução do consumo de ração e maior fator europeu de produção aos 21 dias de idade. O estudo da interação dos níveis de enzima x proteína mostrou que a adição de 0,5 g/kg de enzima na dieta com nível de proteína reduzido resultou em maior ganho de peso das aves. Conclui-se que é viável o uso de enzimas exógenas adicionadas em rações para frangos de corte.The objective of the experiment was verify the effect of the addition of exogen digestive enzymes in corn and soybean meal based diets on performance of broiler chickens. Were used 819 Hubbard chickens in completely randomized design, and 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 check factorial (enzyme, protein and energy levels and one treatment check with 3 replications, of the 21 birds by replicate. Enzyme levels were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg of diet, energy levels were

  20. Feasibility study for the development of a pyro starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, M.; Welland, W.; Bouquet, F.; Lee, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Pyro starters can play a role as turbopump starter in liquid propellant propulsion systems by supplying pressurized gas to power turbines for engine start up. For such a purpose, the pyro starters supply a flow of combustion gases with a relatively low flame temperature to the turbines. A feasibilit

  1. Detoxified Castor Seed Cake for Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary detoxified castor seed cake (DCC inclusion on broiler performance and carcass traits. Two hundred and fifty Cobb-500(r broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of five treatments (dietary inclusion of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% DCC with five replicates of 10 birds each (five males and five females. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (WG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated from one to 40 days of age. Carcass yield and the yields of the breast, leg (drumstick+thighs, and wings were determined when broilers were 40 days old. Live performance parameters were influenced by DCC dietary inclusion, and levels 2.00, 1.38, and 1.25% DCC impaired FI, WG, and FCR, respectively. Carcass and parts yields were not affected by dietary DCC inclusion. It was concluded that the addition of DCC levels up to 1.25% to broiler diets does not impair live performance or carcass traits.

  2. Evaluation of nutrient specifications for broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H R; Harms, R H

    1984-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if previously suggested nutrient requirements of broiler breeders (23 g protein, 850 mg sulfur amino acids, 4.5 g calcium, and 750 mg phosphorus/bird/day) are in excess and could be reduced during the laying period. In Experiment 1, Cobb color-sex broiler breeders were fed daily nutrient allowances that were 100.0, 96.3, 92.5, 89.4, and 86.6% of the suggested requirements. In Experiment 2, Cobb feather-sex breeders were fed daily allowances that were 92.5, 89.4, 86.6, 83.4, and 80.9% of the suggested requirements. Birds on all diets were fed the same energy level; however, energy varied with season to maintain body weight. Egg production, fertility, hatchability, egg weight, and shell quality were not significantly affected by the reductions in nutrient intake in either experiment. The diet with the lowest nutrient level (80.9% of the suggested requirement) was adequate, indicating a considerable margin of safety for the stated requirements. Body weight was quite variable but tended to decrease with nutrient restriction. Weights of broilers hatched from treated breeders were not significantly affected at 49 days of age by the breeder dietary treatments. These results indicate that broiler breeder diets formulated to meet presently suggested requirements have a large margin of safety and a reduction of specifications by approximately 10% is suggested. The revised daily intakes recommended are: 20.6 g protein, 754 mg sulfur amino acids, 400 mg methionine, 938 mg lysine, 1379 mg arginine, 256 mg tryptophan, 4.07 g calcium, 683 mg total phosphorus, and 170 mg sodium.

  3. Effect of polyphenols extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, oxidative stress and body weight of broilers (Gallus domesticus) under chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, oxidative stress and production of male broilers maintained at high environmental temperatures. The results found that body temperature and respiratory rate of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C was higher than broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C (P < 0.05). On day 1, the heterophil/ lymphocyte ratio of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C and received polyphenols at 300 and 400 mg/kg in diets was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 0 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the malondialdehyde of the broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 400 mg/ kg in their diet was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 100 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the body weights of broilers that were maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 100-500 mg/ kg in diets, and broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C were higher than that of the control group which had not been treated with a polyphenol diet (P < 0.05). This study indicated that polyphenols could reduce heat stress, oxidative stress and improve the growth rate of heat-stressed broilers.

  4. Performance of broilers fed with snail (Pomacea caniculata meal as substitute to fish meal or meat and bone meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail meal was used as a substitution to fish meat and bone meal in broiler rations. Final weightand feed conversion efficiency of the birds, profit and return on investment differed significantly among treatments. Feed consumption and production costs were comparable. Results show that snail meal can replace fish or meat and bone meal in broiler diets.

  5. Nitrogen-Free Diets: Effects on Cecal Microflora and Endogenous Amino Acid Basal Losses of Broilers%无氮饲粮对肉鸡盲肠微生物菌群结构及内源氨基酸基础损失量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋纯卫; 呙于明; 王永伟; 雷廷; 郭双双

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of nitrogen-free diets on cecal microflora and endogenous amino acid basal losses of broilers aged 14 and 35 days. A total of 308 Male Ross broiler chickens, aged 10 and 31 days, respectively, were chosen and randomly assigned into two dietary treatments, in which one was fed a conventional diet and the other was fed a nitrogen-free diet for 4 days. Every treatment contained five replicates with 12 chickens on day 10 and 6 chickens on day 31 per replicate. The results showed that endogenous basal losses of most amino acids determined by excreta-based assay were significantly higher than those determined by ileum digesta-based assay in broilers aged 14 and 35 days (P0. 05) , but the concentrations of butyric acid (P< 0.01) , isobutyric acid (P< 0.05) and valeric acid (P < 0. 05) in cecum digesta of broilers were significantly decreased and propionic acid concentration was significantly increased (P <0. 01) by the nitrogen-free diet compared with the conventional diet. On day 35, compared with conventional diet group, cecal digesta weight of broilers in the nitrogen-free diet group was significantly increased, and the concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen, acetic acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid and isovaleric acid were significantly decreased (P<0.01). In conclusion, endogenous basal losses of most amino acids measured by excreta-based assay are higher than those measured by ileal digesta-based assay when broilers are fed the nitrogen-free diet. Some predominant species of cecal microflora should change after broilers are fed the nitrogen-free diet for 4 days. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2012, 24 (10) : 1878-1887 ]%本试验旨在研究无氮饲粮对14日龄和35日龄肉鸡盲肠微生物菌群结构及内源氨基酸基础损失量的影响.分别选用10日龄和31日龄罗斯(Ross) 308雄性肉鸡,随机分为2个组:常规饲粮组和无氮饲粮组,每组5个重复,其中10

  6. Níveis dietéticos de lisina digestível para frangos de corte machos no período de 1 a 11 dias de idade: desempenho e composição corporal Digestible lysine levels in male broiler chicken diets from 1 to 11 days of age: performance and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Louise de Toledo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a exigência de lisina digestível para frangos de corte machos da linhagem Ross no período de 1 a 11 dias de idade. Utilizaram-se 1.050 pintos de 1 dia alimentados com cinco dietas, isoenergéticas (2.950 kcal EM/kg e isoprotéicas (23% PB, com 1,12; 1,17; 1,22; 1,27 e 1,35% de lisina digestível, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso com sete repetições e 30 aves por unidade experimental. Realizou-se abate comparativo para determinar a deposição de nutrientes corporais. Observaram-se reduções lineares no peso final, no ganho de peso, no ganho de peso relativo e no consumo de alimento, o que indica provável excesso de aminoácidos na dieta. A composição química corporal não diferiu entre as aves, exceto o conteúdo de cinzas no sangue e nas vísceras, que apresentou resposta quadrática aos níveis de lisina digestível da dieta. Nas taxas de deposição de nutrientes, observou-se redução linear na deposição de água na carcaça. O nível ótimo de lisina digestível para frangos de corte machos de 1 a 11 dias de idade deve ser igual ou inferior a 1,12%, entretanto, novos estudos devem ser realizados com níveis menores.An experiment was carried out to evaluate digestible lysine requirement for male broilers chicks of Ross line from 1 to 11 days old. A total of 1050 one day old male chicks were fed with five isoenergetic (2,950 kcal ME/kg and isoproteic (23% CP diets, with digestible lysine levels of 1.12, 1.17, 1.22, 1.27 and 1.35%. A completely randomized bloc design was used with seven replications of 30 birds per experimental unit. A comparative slaughter technique was conducted to determine body nutrients depositions. A decreasing linear effects in final weight, weight gain, relative weight gain and feed intake were observed suggesting a probable amino acid excess in diet. The body chemical composition did not differ among birds, except for blood and offal

  7. Perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo aflatoxinas e/ou argila clinoptilolita natural Electrophoresis profile of serum proteins in broilers fed with diets containing aflatoxins and/or natural clinoptilolite clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Marinho Maciel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo aflatoxinas e/ou argila clinoptilolita natural. Foram utilizados 528 frangos de corte, machos, da linhagem Ross, distribuídos em seis tratamentos com 4 repetições cada: T1 - testemunha (ração sem aflatoxinas ou clinoptilolita, T2 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxinas, T3 - ração com 0,25% de clinoptilolita, T4 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxinas e 0,25% de clinoptilolita, T5 - ração com 0,5% de clinoptilolita e T6 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxinas e 0,5% de clinoptilolita. Os animais ficaram alojados em 24 boxes, e submetidos aos tratamentos do 1° ao 42° dia, quando foram sacrificados. Foram analisadas as proteínas totais, as frações albumina, alfa 1, alfa 2, beta e gama. Com exceção das médias da fração gama, o teste de Tukey revelou diferenças significativas (PThis study was aimed at evaluating the electrophoresis profile of serum protein in broilers fed with diets containing aflatoxins and natural clinoptilolite clay. Five hundred and twenty eight male broilers Ross were distributed in six treatments and each one with 4 replications: T1 - control (without aflatoxins or clinoptilolite, T2 -5ppm of aflatoxins, T3 -0.25% of clinoptilolite, T4 -5ppm of aflatoxins and 0.25% of clinoptilolite, T5 -0.5% of clinoptilolite and T6 - 5ppm of aflatoxins and 0.5% of clinoptilolite. The broilers were allocated in 24 boxes and submitted to a treatments for 42 days, when they were slaughtered. Total proteins, albumin fractions, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma were analyzed. Except gamma fraction the Tukey test showed differences (P<0.05 on serum total proteins and proteins fractions in all treatments which aflatoxin was present. The clinoptilolite did not modify (P<0.05 the serum proteins. The control broilers fed with diets containing aflatoxins and clinoptilolite presented low levels (P<0.05 of

  8. Factors affecting wheat nutritional value for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, broiler chickens are fed with balanced diets where the energy is mainly supplied by wheat. The feed industry considers wheat a moderately uniform raw material and therefore its energy content and nutrient digestibility are taken from feeding tables (tabulated values) and assigned to all w

  9. Apparent metabolizable energy of glycerin for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, W A; Kerr, B J; Corzo, A; Kidd, M T; Weber, T E; Bregendahl, K; Bregendal, K

    2008-02-01

    Three energy balance experiments were conducted to determine AMEn of glycerin using broiler chickens of diverse ages. In experiment 1, two dietary treatments were fed from 4 to 11 d of age. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet (no added glycerin) and a diet containing 6% glycerin (94% control diet + 6% glycerin). Four dietary treatments were provided in experiment 2 (from 17 to 24 d of age) and 3 (from 38 to 45 d of age). Diets in experiment 2 and 3 were 1) control diet (no added glycerin); 2) 3% added glycerin (97% control diet + 3% glycerin); 3) 6% added glycerin (94% control diet + 6% glycerin); and 4) 9% added glycerin (91% control diet + 9% glycerin). Diets in experiment 1 and 2 were identical, but the diet used in experiment 3 had reduced nutrient levels based on bird age. In experiments 2 and 3, broilers were fed 91, 94, 97, and 100% of ad libitum intake so that differences in AMEn consumption were only due to glycerin. A single source of glycerin was used in all experiments. Feed intake, BW, energy intake, energy excretion, nitrogen intake, nitrogen excretion, AMEn, and AMEn intake were determined in all experiments. In experiment 1, AMEn determination utilized the difference approach by subtracting AMEn of the control diet from AMEn of the test diet. In experiments 2 and 3, AMEn intake was regressed against feed intake with the slope estimating AMEn of glycerin. Regression equations were Y = 3,331x -72.59 (P glycerin was determined as 3,621, 3,331, and 3,349 kcal/kg in experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The average AMEn of glycerin across the 3 experiments was 3,434 kcal/kg, which is similar to its gross energy content. These results indicate that AMEn of glycerin is utilized efficiently by broiler chickens.

  10. Mixed culture engineering for steering starter functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spuś, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Undefined mixed complex starter cultures are broadly used in Gouda-type cheese production due to their robustness to phage predation, resilience for changes in environmental conditions and aroma compounds production ability during ripening. These microbial communities of lactic acid bacteria prior t

  11. Instant Microsoft Forefront UAG mobile configuration starter

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense Starter guide, designed to give you maximum guidance with minimum fuss. This book is written for system administrators, I.T. professionals, unified communication technicians, and decision makers, in general. No knowledge of UAG is required to understand the book and start setting up UAG immediately.

  12. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum incu

  13. Discussion Starters. Technical Note No. 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Ibrahim; Dilts, Russ

    Discussion starters, the result of collaboration between the Indonesian Directorate General of Nonformal Education, Youth, and Sports, and World Education, Inc., are simple learning tools used to generate discussion among community groups involved in nonformal education. Appropriate in and adaptable to a variety of settings, content areas, and…

  14. Effect of different levels of crude glycerol on the morphology and some pathogenic bacteria of the small intestine in male broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, M; Topal, E; Paksuz, E Pinar; Kirkan, S

    2014-01-01

    The gut health of poultry is closely associated with feeds and feeding. The experiment was conducted to the effect of crude glycerol addition to diets of male broilers on the bacterial microflora and morphology of their small intestines (duodenum, jejunum and ileum). A total of 120 Ross 308 broiler chicks received diets containing 0% (GLY 0), 4% (GLY 4) or 8% (GLY 8) crude glycerol for 42 days. The presence of Coliform bacteria and Enterobacteria was reduced in the duodenal tract of the broilers of GLY 4 (Pthickness, villi length and width, and crypt length and width) indicated that the glycerol levels fed to the different groups of broilers represented statistically different results in the small intestine. In general, whereas the diet with 4% glycerol statistically affected the investigated parameters of the gut, the diet with 8% glycerol statistically affected some segments of the broiler intestines.

  15. Efeito da nicarbazina sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte recebendo diferentes níveis de lisina submetidos a estresse por calor Effect of nicarbazin on the performance of broiler chicks fed diets with different lysine levels submitted to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Lopez Donzele

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da adição de nicarbazina e níveis de lisina na ração de frangos de corte no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade e seu efeito residual sobre o período de 22 a 49 dias de idade. As aves foram criadas em ambiente de alta temperatura. Foram utilizados 480 frangos de corte machos da marca Ross, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x4 (adição ou não de nicarbazina e nível de lisina seis repetições e 10 aves por unidade experimental. Foram utilizados dois programas no combate a coccidiose: um programa dual, em que as aves receberam nicarbazina de 1 a 21 dias e monensina de 22 a 49 dias, e um programa único de controle, no qual somente a monensina foi fornecida para as aves de 1 aos 42 dias. A ração e a água foram fornecidas à vontade. Verificou-se que as aves que receberam nicarbazina tiveram consumo de ração e ganho de peso menores e conversão alimentar pior do que as aves recebendo o programa controle. Os pesos corporais e rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes nobres foram reduzidos pelo efeito da nicarbazina. Os pesos absoluto e relativo de órgãos também foram reduzidos nas aves tratadas com nicarbazina, quando comparadas àquelas que não receberam a droga na ração. Não foi viável a inclusão de nicarbazina em rações para aves mantidas em ambiente de alta temperatura.This work was conducted aiming to evaluate the effect of the addition nicarbazin and lysine levels in the diet of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age and its residual effect on the period from 22 to 49 days of age. The broilers were created in high environmental temperature. Four hundred and eighty male broilers Ross brand were used, in a completely randomized experimental design, in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (addition or not of nicarbazin and level of lysine, six replications of 10 birds per experimental unit. Nicarbazin and monensin were added to 1-21d and 22-42d diets, respectively, in

  16. Composição Química do Soro de Pintos de Corte Alimentados com Dietas Purificadas Blood Chemical Composition of Broiler Chicks Fed with Purified Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alvares da Silva

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de níveis de ácido L-glutâmico (L-Glu e vitamina D3 (VD no soro de pintos de corte de um dia, machos, Hubbard, criados em baterias aquecidas, recebendo dieta básica purificada, suplementada com 5, 10 e 15% de L-Glu combinados com 0, 5.000, 10.000 e 15.000 UI de vitamina D3/kg. Os animais foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos, quatro repetições e sete aves por repetição. As concentrações máximas de cálcio no soro (9,61 mg/dL foram obtidas com 15% de L-Glu e 14.181UI de VD; 7,33 mg/dL de cálcio iônico com 15% de L-Glu e 15.664UI de VD; 7,20 mg/dL de fósforo com 10% de L-Glu e 10.863UI de VD. Os maiores valores de atividade de fosfatase alcalina no soro foram obtidos com 10% de L-Glu e na deficiência de VD. Em geral, as aves alimentadas com 10% de L-Glu e 15.000UI de VD apresentaram melhor desempenho, melhor perfil sangüíneo e menor incidência de problemas de pernas.An experiment was conducted with day-old male Hubbard, broiler chicks, reared in electrically heated batteries, and raised in wire mesh floors and fed purified amino acid diets and water ad libitum for a 14 days period. The purified diets containing all essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals at adequate levels and was supplemented with 5, 10 and 15% of L-Glu and with 0, 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 IU of vitamin D3. The experimental design was a factorial 3 x 4 with four replicates with seven chicks each. The blood calcium increased up (9.61mg/dL to an estimated level of 15% of L-Glu and 14,181IU of VD, 7.33 mg/dL of ionized calcium was obtained with 15% of L-Glu and 15.664 of VD. The highest blood phosphorus (7.20 mg/dL was obtained at an estimated level of 10% of L-Glu and 10,863IU of VD. The highest blood alkaline phosphatase was obtained at level of 10% of L-Glu and vitamin D deficiency. Birds fed 10% L-Glu and 15,000IU VD had

  17. Bio-efficacy comparison of herbal-methionine and DL-methionine based on performance and blood parameters of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Hadinia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the bio-efficacy of herbal methionine (H-Met relative to DL-methionine (DL-Met on 160 “Ross 308” broiler chickens. DL-Met and H-Met were added to the basal diet in eight experimental treatments with three and four concentrations respectively in starter, grower and finisher period. Blood parameters which were measured at 24 and 42 days of age consisted of: serum proteins (total protein, albumin and globulin, serum uric acid, serum fats (low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, triglyceride and cholesterol and serum enzymes (alanine amino transaminase and aspartate amino transaminase. Completely randomized design, multi-exponential and multilinear regressions were used to determine bio-efficacy of H-Met in terms of performance and blood parameters of broilers. The results showed that supplemented methionine (Met sources had no significant effect on blood parameters at 24 day of age. At 42 day of age the amounts of globulin and serum high density lipoprotein (HDL increased with supplemented Met, (p < 0.05. Regression analysis revealed that H-Met was 55.00, 71.00, 78.00, 47.00, 58.00 and 73.00% as efficacious as DL-Met for body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, albumin, globulin and high density lipoprotein criteria, respectively. The average of bio-efficacy of H-Met compared to DL-Met was 67.00% and 59.00% on average across performance criteria and blood criteria respectively and was 63.00% across these two criteria tested. The results of the present study indicated that H-Met can be administered as a new and a natural source of Met in poultry industry.

  18. Utilização de promotores de crescimento para frangos de corte em rações fareladas e peletizadas - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.219 Utilization of growth promoter for broiler chickens in mashed and pellets diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.219

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Djalma Appelt

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de dietas com diferentes promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 576 pintos da linhagem Cobb 500, machos, alojados em cama reutilizada, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (forma física da ração x diferentes promotores de crescimento, totalizando 6 tratamentos, com 6 repetições e 16 aves por unidade experimental. As características de desempenho avaliadas foram ganho de peso, peso final, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, mortalidade e o índice de eficiência produtiva. Avaliou-se também o rendimento de carcaça, bem como rendimento em cortes, coração, fígado e gordura abdominal. Os resultados obtidos demonstram não haver efeito dos tratamentos estudados sobre as características de desempenho e rendimento de carcaça.This study evaluated the supplementation effect of diets with different growth promoters on the performance and carcass yield in broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. Five hundred seventy six broilers of the Coob 500 lineage were used, all males, lodged in reused litter, allocated according to a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (physical forms of the ration x growth promoters, totalizing 6 treatments, 6 repetitions per treatment and 16 broilers per experimental unit. The performance parameters evaluated were weight gain, final weight, feed consumption, feed conversion, mortality and index productive efficiency. The carcass yield was also evaluated, as the cuts yield and percentage of abdominal fat at 42 days. The results demonstrated no effect of the treatments studied on the performance characteristics and carcass yield.

  19. The effect of dietary phytase on broiler performance and digestive, bone, and blood biochemistry characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JPL de Sousa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dietary inclusion of phytase increases nutrient and energy bioavailability for broilers. The effect of phytase increases nutrients and energy bioavailability for either the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of nutrient and energy reduction in diets supplemented with phytase on the performance, gastrointestinal pH, organ and bone composition, and blood biochemistry of broilers between eight and 21 days of age. In the study, 1.120 male Cobb 500(r broilers, with 161±1g average weight, were used. At eight days of age, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments in a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement with eight replicates of 20 broiler each. Treatments corresponded to reduction of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, amino acids and energy, or reduction of Ca, P, amino acids and energy; supplementation or not of phytase; and a positive control treatment. Broiler fed the diet with reduced Ca and P levels and phytase supplementation presented the best performance of all groups. The diet with reduced amino acid and energy levels and phytase addition reduced gizzard and proventriculus pH. Dietary Ca and P reduction increased relative liver and heart weights, as well as albumin blood levels. The bones of broilers fed phytase-supplemented diets presented higher ash content.

  20. Prebiotic and antimicrobials on performance, carcass characteristics, and antibody production in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Fomentini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of supplementation with mannan oligosaccharides, avilamycin and halquinol, alone or in combination, on the performance, carcass characteristics and antibody production in broilers (1-49 days old, male broiler chicks (n=1440; Cobb 500; one day old were housed and distributed into a completely randomized design into six treatments (eight replicates; 30 animals per pen. To produce the experimental diets, three types of performance enhancer additives were used. Halquinol (HAL, avilamycin (AVI and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS were included (alone or in combination in the basal diet (instead of corn starch. Effects of diet were observed on results of animal performance in the period 1-21 and 1-42 days old. Broilers fed with a diet without growth promoter showed lower weight gain in relation to those fed with diets with antimicrobials, MOS or a combination of them. In the period 1-49 days old, feed conversion increased in broilers fed with rations without promoter. At the end of the experimental period no influence of diets was observed on the carcass yield and cuts, and titles of specific antibodies to avian infectious bronchitis. The use of MOS and/or antimicrobials (AVI or HAL, alone or in combination, improves feed conversion of broilers reared until 49 days of age.