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Sample records for broiler starter diet

  1. Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets

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    AM Kessler

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO, acid corn oil (ACO, linseed oil (LO or coconut fat (CoF. Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA x (2 n6:n3 ratios x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC. Performance responses and dry matter (DMM, crude protein (CPM, and crude fat (CFM metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS, acid soybean oil (ASO, or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO. Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.

  2. Effects of starter diet supplementation with arginine on broiler production performance and on small intestine morphometry

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    Alice E. Murakami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of starter diet (days 1 to 21 supplemented with arginine (Arg on the production performance and duodenum and jejunum mucosa morphometry of broilers were studied. Male Cobb broiler chickens (990 were randomly assigned to one of five treatments in a complete random design. Measurements of 33 chicks per treatment were made in six repetitions. The treatments consisted of a basal diet with 1.390% digestible Arg (no supplementation and four dietary levels (1.490%, 1.590%, 1.690%, and 1.790%, providing a relationship with lysine of 1.103; 1.183; 1.262; 1.341 and 1.421%, respectively. From the age of 22 days on, all birds received conventional grower diet. The data were submitted to regression analysis by polynomial decomposition of the degrees of freedom in relation to the levels of Arg. The Arg supplementation increased (P0.05 in the growth phase (days 22 to 42 in the absence of the Arg supplementation. The supplementation of Arg over of NRC recommendation during the starter phase may be necessary for the expression of the maximal weight gain potential in birds. No effect (P<0.05 of Arg dietary supplementation was observed either on small intestine weight and length at any age. However, the duodenum villus:crypt ratio increased and the crypt depth decreased in the first week in response to increasing dietary Arg. It is concluded that broiler Arg dietary supplementation in the starter diet improved production performance and small intestine morphometry, especially in the first week.

  3. Cottonseed Oil in Diets for Broilers in the Pre-Starter and Starter Phases.

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    Vânia Batista de Sousa Lima

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of crude cottonseed oil in isoenergetic diets, with or without supplementation of ferrous sulfate, on performance variables, relative weight of organs, and blood parameters of broilers, and on the economic viability of diets in the periods from 1 to 7 and 1 to 21 days of age. A total of 600 male birds of the Ross line were distributed in a completely randomized design in a (4×2 factorial arrangement with eight treatments (0, 2, 4, and 6% cottonseed oil with and without ferrous sulfate, and five replicates. The following variables were studied: feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, weight of organs, blood parameters, and yield of carcass and cuts at 21 days. No effects of the levels of cottonseed oil were found on the performance of animals aged 1 to 7 days, or on the relative weights of the organs. In this same period, the weight gain, and the relative weights of heart, liver, and intestine of the animals that received ferrous sulfate were decreased, and feed conversion was worsened. In the period from 1 to 21 days, weight gain increased linearly with the increase in the levels of cottonseed oil. Blood parameters were not influenced by the diets. Crude cottonseed oil can be utilized in diets for broilers in the periods from 1 to 7 and 1 to 21 days of age at up to 6% of inclusion, and supplementation with ferrous sulfate is unnecessary if the differences in metabolization of the cottonseed oil are considered, with and without, it during the diet formulation process.

  4. Cottonseed Oil in Diets for Broilers in the Pre-Starter and Starter Phases.

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    Lima, Vânia Batista de Sousa; Dourado, Leilane Rocha Barros; Machado, Luciana Pereira; Biagiotti, Daniel; de Lima, Stélio Bezerra Pinheiro; Ferreira, Guilherme José Bolzani de Campos; Farias, Leonardo Atta; de Sousa, Francinete Alves; Acácio, Raian Malta; Silva e Silva, Danilo Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of crude cottonseed oil in isoenergetic diets, with or without supplementation of ferrous sulfate, on performance variables, relative weight of organs, and blood parameters of broilers, and on the economic viability of diets in the periods from 1 to 7 and 1 to 21 days of age. A total of 600 male birds of the Ross line were distributed in a completely randomized design in a (4×2) factorial arrangement with eight treatments (0, 2, 4, and 6% cottonseed oil with and without ferrous sulfate), and five replicates. The following variables were studied: feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, weight of organs, blood parameters, and yield of carcass and cuts at 21 days. No effects of the levels of cottonseed oil were found on the performance of animals aged 1 to 7 days, or on the relative weights of the organs. In this same period, the weight gain, and the relative weights of heart, liver, and intestine of the animals that received ferrous sulfate were decreased, and feed conversion was worsened. In the period from 1 to 21 days, weight gain increased linearly with the increase in the levels of cottonseed oil. Blood parameters were not influenced by the diets. Crude cottonseed oil can be utilized in diets for broilers in the periods from 1 to 7 and 1 to 21 days of age at up to 6% of inclusion, and supplementation with ferrous sulfate is unnecessary if the differences in metabolization of the cottonseed oil are considered, with and without, it during the diet formulation process.

  5. TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

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    A FASUYI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

  6. Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to

  7. Different sodium levels and electrolyte balances in pre-starter diets for broilers

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    A Maiorka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment with 400 one-day-old male chicks (Ross was conducted to evaluate the effects of different Na levels (0.10, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.46% and different cation/anion balances (Na+K-Cl (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 meq/kg in pre-starter diets on broiler performance. The corn and soybean-based diets had 22% crude protein and 2,900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and were fed ad libitum. Performance data showed a positive quadratic effect of increasing Na levels on feed and water consumption, weight gain and feed conversion. Na+K-Cl also had a quadratic influence on feed intake and weight gain. None of the effects tested affected the amount of water measured in excreta. Derivatives of obtained regression equations pointed to optimal Na levels of 0.45% for water consumption, 0.40% for feed intake and weight gain and 0.38% for feed conversion. As to the effect of dietary Na+K-Cl balances on performance, regression equation values were 174 meq/kg for feed consumption and 163 meq/kg for weight gain. These results show that both Na level and Na+K-Cl balance interfere on broiler performance.

  8. Valine, isoleucine, arginine and glycine supplementation of low-protein diets for broiler chickens during the starter and grower phases.

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    Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Duarte, C R A; Eyng, C; Oliveira, C A L; Janeiro, V

    2014-01-01

    1. Two experiments were performed to study the supplementation of valine, isoleucine, arginine and glycine (Val, Ile, Arg, Gly) in low-protein diets for broiler chickens in the starter (1-21 d; Exp. 1) and grower (22-42 d; Exp. 2) phases. 2. A low-crude protein (CP) diet was formulated to meet the requirements of all amino acids (AA) supplied by the control diet except for Val, Ile, Arg and Gly. The other experimental diets were obtained by the isolated or combined supplementation of the studied AA in the low-CP diet. 3. Growth, serum parameters and litter characteristics were taken in both of the experiments. Carcass measurements were taken in Experiment 2. 4. In the starter and grower phases, low-CP diets without supplementation resulted in birds with a poorer weight gain and feed conversion than those of the birds that received the control diet. 5. In the starter phase, individual supplementation with Val and Gly, but not Ile and Arg, restored the weight gain of the birds, while diets with the addition of Val + Gly, Val + Ile + Arg, Val + Ile + Gly and Val + Ile + Arg + Gly restored their feed conversion. 6. In the grower phase, weight gain was re-established at the same rate as the control diet for the diets supplemented with Val + Ile, Val + Ile + Arg, Val + Ile + Gly and Val + Ile + Arg + Gly. However, the feed conversion was restored only in birds that received the diet supplemented with all studied AA. 7. The supplementation of Val and Gly in low-CP diets was sufficient to avoid adverse effects in the performance and serum parameters of broilers in the starter phase. However, birds in the grower phase required the combined supplementation of Val, Ile, Arg and Gly, to prevent compromised performance.

  9. Subsequent growth performance and digestive physiology of broilers fed on starter diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma as a substitute for meat meal.

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    Beski, S S M; Swick, R A; Iji, P A

    2015-01-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), in lieu of meat meal, in the starter diet on performance and digestive physiology of broiler chickens between hatch and 35 d of age. Four levels of SDPP (0, 5, 10 or 20 g/kg) were included in the starter diets in lieu of meat meal on either wheat- or maize-based diets. Over the first 10 d, and throughout the 35-d experimental period, birds gained more body weight with increasing concentrations of SDPP regardless to the type of grain used. Inclusion of SDPP in the starter diet markedly improved feed per gain in the starter phase and across the 35-d study. There was no significant effect of the type of grain and its interaction with SDPP on the body weight gain and feed per gain for the two assessed periods. At d 10, the relative weight of the gizzard+proventriculus, spleen and liver increased with increasing concentrations of SDPP. At 24 d of age, the grain and SDPP inclusion significantly interacted, depressing the weight of bursa and spleen in birds that received the highest concentration of SDPP in the maize-based diet. Birds fed on the maize-based diets had higher relative weight of pancreas than those on the wheat-based diets. Increasing concentrations of SDPP in the starter diet improved the activities of maltase, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase at 24 d of age. The interaction of grain and SDPP concentration was significant for sucrase activity in birds on the wheat-based diets. Chickens on maize-based diets had higher alkaline phosphatase and maltase activities than those on wheat-based diets. Chicks that were offered SDPP-containing starter diets had longer villi, deeper crypts and lower villi/crypt than the control at 24 d of age regardless of the grain type used. Furthermore, longer villi and larger villi/crypt were found in chicken groups fed on wheat-based diets than those on maize-based diets. Chickens on maize-based diets had higher

  10. Energy and oil levels in broiler starter diets Níveis de energia e de óleo vegetal em dietas iniciais de frangos de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Maiorka; Fabiano Dahlke; Elizabeth Santin; Luis Daniel Giusti Bruno; Marcos Macari

    2008-01-01

    The feed intake and performance of the broilers fed with different levels of dietary energy in the starter diet to 21 days of age were evaluated. In Experiment 1 it was evaluated the performance of birds fed to 2,900 and 3,200kcal ME kg-1 diets, and the results show that ME intake was highest for birds 3,200kcal ME kg-1 on the 7th day of age. Feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), and feed conversion (FC) were not affected by dietary energy level on the 7th and 14th day of age, but on the 21st d...

  11. Optimization of phase feeding of starter, grower, and finisher diets for male broilers by mixture experimental design: forty-eight-day production period.

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    Roush, W B; Boykin, D; Branton, S L

    2004-08-01

    A mixture experiment, a variant of response surface methodology, was designed to determine the proportion of time to feed broiler starter (23% protein), grower (20% protein), and finisher (18% protein) diets to optimize production and processing variables based on a total production time of 48 d. Mixture designs are useful for proportion problems where the components of the experiment (i.e., length of time the diets were fed) add up to a unity (48 d). The experiment was conducted with day-old male Ross x Ross broiler chicks. The birds were placed 50 birds per pen in each of 60 pens. The experimental design was a 10-point augmented simplex-centroid (ASC) design with 6 replicates of each point. Each design point represented the portion(s) of the 48 d that each of the diets was fed. Formulation of the diets was based on NRC standards. At 49 d, each pen of birds was evaluated for production data including BW, feed conversion, and cost of feed consumed. Then, 6 birds were randomly selected from each pen for processing data. Processing variables included live weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, fat pad percentage, and breast yield (pectoralis major and pectoralis minor weights). Production and processing data were fit to simplex regression models. Model terms determined not to be significant (P > 0.05) were removed. The models were found to be statistically adequate for analysis of the response surfaces. A compromise solution was calculated based on optimal constraints designated for the production and processing data. The results indicated that broilers fed a starter and finisher diet for 30 and 18 d, respectively, would meet the production and processing constraints. Trace plots showed that the production and processing variables were not very sensitive to the grower diet. PMID:15339000

  12. Effects of feed access after hatch and inclusion of fish oil and medium chain fatty acids in a pre-starter diet on broiler chicken growth performance and humoral immunity.

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    Lamot, D M; van der Klein, S A S; van de Linde, I B; Wijtten, P J A; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H; Lammers, A

    2016-09-01

    Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are hardly investigated. This experiment aimed to determine whether moment of first feed and water access after hatch and pre-starter composition (0 to 7 days) affect growth rate and humoral immune function in broiler chickens. Direct fed chickens received feed and water directly after placement in the grow-out facility, whilst delayed fed chickens only after 48 h. Direct and delayed fed chickens received a control pre-starter diet, or a diet containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) or fish oil. At 21 days, chickens were immunized by injection of sheep red blood cells. The mortality rate depended on an interaction between feed access and pre-starter composition (P=0.014). Chickens with direct feed access fed the control pre-starter diet had a higher risk for mortality than chickens with delayed feed access fed the control pre-starter diet (16.4% v. 4.2%) whereas the other treatment groups were in-between. BW gain and feed intake till 25 days in direct fed chickens were higher compared with delayed fed chickens, whilst gain to feed ratio was lower. Within the direct fed chickens, the control pre-starter diet resulted in the highest BW at 28 days and the MCFA pre-starter diet the lowest (Δ=2.4%), whereas this was opposite for delayed fed chickens (Δ=3.0%; P=0.033). Provision of MCFA resulted in a 4.6% higher BW gain and a higher gain to feed ratio compared with other pre-starter diets, but only during the period it was provided (2 to 7 days). Minor treatment effects were found for humoral immune response by measuring immunoglobulins, agglutination titers, interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), and complement activity. Concluding, current inclusion levels of fish oil (5 g/kg) and MCFA (30 g

  13. Effects of feed access after hatch and inclusion of fish oil and medium chain fatty acids in a pre-starter diet on broiler chicken growth performance and humoral immunity.

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    Lamot, D M; van der Klein, S A S; van de Linde, I B; Wijtten, P J A; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H; Lammers, A

    2016-09-01

    Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are hardly investigated. This experiment aimed to determine whether moment of first feed and water access after hatch and pre-starter composition (0 to 7 days) affect growth rate and humoral immune function in broiler chickens. Direct fed chickens received feed and water directly after placement in the grow-out facility, whilst delayed fed chickens only after 48 h. Direct and delayed fed chickens received a control pre-starter diet, or a diet containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) or fish oil. At 21 days, chickens were immunized by injection of sheep red blood cells. The mortality rate depended on an interaction between feed access and pre-starter composition (P=0.014). Chickens with direct feed access fed the control pre-starter diet had a higher risk for mortality than chickens with delayed feed access fed the control pre-starter diet (16.4% v. 4.2%) whereas the other treatment groups were in-between. BW gain and feed intake till 25 days in direct fed chickens were higher compared with delayed fed chickens, whilst gain to feed ratio was lower. Within the direct fed chickens, the control pre-starter diet resulted in the highest BW at 28 days and the MCFA pre-starter diet the lowest (Δ=2.4%), whereas this was opposite for delayed fed chickens (Δ=3.0%; P=0.033). Provision of MCFA resulted in a 4.6% higher BW gain and a higher gain to feed ratio compared with other pre-starter diets, but only during the period it was provided (2 to 7 days). Minor treatment effects were found for humoral immune response by measuring immunoglobulins, agglutination titers, interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), and complement activity. Concluding, current inclusion levels of fish oil (5 g/kg) and MCFA (30 g

  14. Tempo de fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial para frangos de corte com diferentes pesos ao alojamento Period of feeding a pre-starter diet for broiler chickens with different body weights at housing

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    Gilson Alexandre Gomes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial (DPI e do peso ao alojamento sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte. Utilizaram-se 960 frangos machos, linhagem comercial Cobb-500, alojados em 32 boxes, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, composto de dois pesos ao alojamento (42 e 46 g e quatro períodos de fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial (0, 1 a 7, 1 a 10 e 1 a 14 dias de idade, durante 49 dias. Os programas alimentares compreenderam três ou quatro fases (pré-inicial e/ou inicial; engorda; final e as dietas fornecidas eram à base de milho e farelo de soja. De modo geral, aves mais pesadas ao alojamento apresentaram, ao longo de todo o período experimental, maior consumo de ração (CR e ganho de peso (GP. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na conversão alimentar (CA dos animais. Considerando todo o período experimental, as aves alimentadas com a dieta pré-inicial durante sete dias apresentaram maior consumo de ração e ganho de peso, porém, menor rendimento de carcaça. O peso ao alojamento determina o desempenho e o oferecimento da dieta pré-inicial durante sete dias beneficia o desempenho das aves.The effects of feeding a pre-starter diet (PSD and weight at housing on performance and carcass characteristics broilers were evaluated. A total of 960 day-old male chickens, commercial line Cobb-500, was housed in 32 floor pens as a completely randomized design in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement [weight at housing (42 and 46 g and periods of feeding pre- starter diet (0, 1 to 7, 1 to 10 and 1 to 14 days old for 49 days. The feeding regimes contained three or four phases (pre-starter and/or starter; grower; finisher diets and diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Overall, birds with heavier weights at housing showed, throughout the trial period, greater feed consumption and weight gain. No differences were observed for feed conversion of

  15. Níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phases

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    Luziane Moreira dos Santos

    2011-11-01

    carried out with broilers to evaluate levels of calcium and available phosphorus (aP in diets supplemented with 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet. Each experiment consisted of a performance and a metabolic assay, and was conducted in a factorial schedule (3 × 4 + 1, with three aP levels (0.42, 0.37, 0.32% in the pre-starter phase and 0.39, 0.34, 0.29% in the starter phase, four calcium levels (0.94, 0.84, 0.74, 0.64% in the pre-starter phase and 0.88; 0.78, 0.68, 0.58% in the starter phase plus a control diet. The control corresponded to the only diet without phytase and contained 0.47% of aP and 0.94% of calcium (pre-starter phase or 0.44% of aP and 0.88% of calcium (starter phase. In the performance assays, at 7 and 21 days of age the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn of the feed, and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC were determined. Calcium levels influenced the feed intake, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and in the starter phase they influenced bone ash, AMEn and DMDC. The aP levels influenced the content of tibia ash, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and bone ash and DMDC in the starter phase. By adding 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet, it is possible to reduce, respectively, the calcium and aP levels to 0.64% and 0.37% in the pre-starter phase, and to 0.58% and 0.29% in the starter phase, since this reduction does not cause a negative effect on performance or bone mineralization of broilers in the evaluated periods.

  16. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B1 in Starter Broiler Chicks

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    Justin Fowler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4. After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin.

  17. Performance of broilers fed digestible amino acids based diets obtained from cecectomized roosters and broilers

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    Alexandre Barbosa de Brito

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of broilers fed ration formulated based on digestible amino acids obtained with cecectomized roosters and broilers at different ages. A total of 300 Ag Ross 508 broiler chicks aging one to 21 days was distributed into 30 experimental units of ten broilers each (five birds of each sex in six batteries of galvanized steel. All diets were based on corn, soybean meal and full-fat corn germ meal, considering the values of diges tible amino acids obtained from 45-week-old roosters and broilers of 21 and 42 days of age. Two rearing phases were adopted, a pre-starter phase (one to seven days and a starter phase (eight to 21 days. The following performance variables were evaluated: average weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain relation and mortality. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized design with three forms of determination of digestible amino acids content and ten repetitions of ten birds. The use of digestible amino acids based diets determined for broiler chicks at 21 days of age resulted in better performance of bro ilers in starter phase. The digestible amino acid values of each ingredient can vary according to the age of the birds during the determination procedure.

  18. Níveis de arginina e lisina digestíveis na dieta de frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial Digestible arginine and lysine levels in pre-starter broiler diet

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    José Henrique Stringhini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho, a digestibilidade e retenção de nutrientes e o desenvolvimento de órgãos de frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias de idade alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de lisina e arginina digestíveis. Um total de 352 pintos AgRoss machos foram distribuídos em um arranjo fatorial 2 ´ 3 composto de dois níveis de lisina digestível (1,056 e 1,305% e três níveis de arginina digestível (1,305; 1,459 e 1,613%, com quatro repetições de 11 aves. O ganho de peso diário não foi afetado pelas dietas, porém, houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de arginina sobre a conversão alimentar de 1 a 7 dias e de 1 a 21 dias de idade e efeito linear sobre o consumo de alimento no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. O peso relativo do proventrículo + moela reduziu à medida que o nível de arginina digestível aumentou para o nível de 1,305% de lisina digestível aos 14 dias de idade. Os valores do coeficiente de digestibilidade dos nutrientes e retenção de MS e N foram melhores nos menores níveis de lisina digestível. Os níveis de 1,40 a 1,46% de arginina digestível podem ser utilizados em dietas para frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial, mas, à medida que aumenta o conteúdo de lisina da dieta, deve-se manter a relação desse aminoácido com arginina.The performance, digestibility and retention of nutrients and the development of digestive organs of broiler chicks in pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days old fed diets with different levels of digestible lysine and arginine. A total of 352 day old AgRoss male chicks was allotted to 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (level of digestible lysine [1.056 and 1.305%] and levels of digestible arginine [1.305, 1.459 and 1.613%] and four replicates of 11 chicks. Daily weight gain was not affected by diets but there was a quadratic effect of arginine levels on feed:gain ratio from 1 to 7 and from 1 to 21 days old and linear effect on feed intake from 1 to 21 days old

  19. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. N., Onu

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80 mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

  20. Efeito do peso inicial dos pintos e do período da dieta pré-inicial sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte Effect of one-day chicks weight and pre-starter diets on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Stringhini

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de dietas pré-iniciais, por diferentes períodos, para frangos de corte criados a partir de pintos com diferentes pesos ao primeiro dia. No aviário experimental da Escola de Veterinária da UFG, 280 pintos de um dia foram distribuídos, em baterias aquecidas, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições de doze aves, em um esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (peso do pinto, maior e menor que 40g, e programas de fornecimento de ração pré-inicial, 1 a 7, 1 a 10 e 1 a 14 dias. O desempenho dos pintos não foi influenciado pelo período de fornecimento das dietas, mas o peso dos pintos no alojamento influenciou o consumo de ração das aves. Não foi observado efeito dos tratamentos no consumo de nutrientes para o período de fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial, mas os pintos com menor peso no alojamento proporcionaram menor consumo de nutrientes e de energia. Com base nos resultados obtidos, é possível concluir que peso do pinto inferior a 40 g influencia uma redução significativa no consumo e mostra uma tendência de pior peso dos frangos ao final do experimento. Os parâmetros morfométricos avaliados não foram afetados pelos tratamentos.This research was carried out to evaluate the use of pre-starter diets, through different periods to broilers with different first day weights. Two hundred and eighty one-day old chicks were allotted in brooded battery cages, in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and four replicates in a factorial design 2 x 3, (chicks weight - higher or lower than 40 g, and pre-starter periods of feeding, 1 to 7; 1 to 10 and 1 to 14 days. The performance was not influenced by pre-starter diets periods, but the first-day weight of chicks reduced feed intake and live weight at 42 days of age. For energy and nutrient intake no effect was observed for pre-starter periods, but for the light chicks, the values of

  1. Effect of different electrolyte balances in broiler diets

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    UM Arantes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, tibial density and mineral content, Na, K ,and Cl serum levels, and dry matter content of the litter of broilers fed diets with different levels of dietary electrolyte balances. Two experiments were carried out: during the starter phase (7 to 21 days of age, 960 broilers and during the growe phase (22 to 38 days of age, 816 broilers. In both experiments, a completely randomized design with four treatments based on dietary electrolyte balance values (200, 240, 280 and 320 mEq/kg of diet with four replicates was applied. Birds and diets were weighed when birds were seven, 14 and 21 days of age in the first experiment, and 22 and 38 days of age in the second experiment in order to determine weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion and mortality rate were evaluated. On days 21 and 38, the left tibia of two birds per replicate was collected to determine bone density and the serum was used for Na and K analysis. Litter dry matter content was also determined on days 21 and 38 . There was no effect of dietary electrolyte balance values on broilers performance between 7 and 14, 7 and 21, or 22 and 38 days of age, tibial bone density and mineral content, or on Na, K and Cl serum levels. Litter dry matter was linearly reduced as dietary electrolyte balance value increased. Diets with 200 mEq/kg may be recommended for broilers from 7 to 38 days of age with no negative influence on the evaluated parameters.

  2. Accuracy of Nonlinear Formulation of Broiler Diets: Maximizing Profits

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    CA Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutritionists need to make commercial decisions about the optimal nutrient content broiler feeds. In order to demonstrate that broiler prices may influence dietary nutrient density, this study developed quadratic feed intake and weight gain equations, according to broiler sex and feeding phase, to be applied in a nonlinear feed formulation model. Four hundred and eighty Cobb broilers were allotted to a completely randomized experimental with six treatments, each with four replicates of 10 birds each, from 1 to 56 days old. Treatments consisted of diets containing 2800, 2900, 3000, 3100, 3200, or 3300 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg and constant nutrient to ME ratio. A nonlinear version of the PPFR feed formulation software (http://www.fmva.unesp.br/ppfr was developed with the objective of optimizing energy density and bird performance. According to the results, when the models are applied in the PPFR nonlinear spreadsheet, the most favorable nutrient density content is defined by mathematical models, as optimized by the Excel Solver tool by means of cost/benefit comparisons and as a function of rearing phase (starter, grower, and finisher and sex. This contradicts the recommendations of genetic company manuals and published requirement tables, whose goal is to maximize weight gain and do not necessarily guarantee maximum economic efficiency.

  3. Growth promoting effects of prebiotic yeast cell wall products in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to investigate the growth promoting effects of supplementing different sources and concentrations of prebiotic yeast cell wall (YCW) products containing mannanoligosaccharides in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge. Through a series ...

  4. Water intake and digestive metabolism of broilers fed all-vegetable diets containing acidulated soybean soapstock

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    SL Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.

  5. Herbal extracts in diets for broilers

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    Tiago Goulart Petrolli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding herbal extracts for broilers on performance and histology of the intestinal mucosa and its effects on the profiting from the metabolizable energy of experimental diets. For so, two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, the inclusion of different herbal extracts in diets on performance and intestinal histology of broilers was evaluated, and in experiment II, the values of apparent metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy corrected by the nitrogen balance of the experimental diets were studied. Treatments consisted of: positive control diet; positive control + avilamycin; negative control; negative control + 100 ppm of a complex containing three different herbal medicines (pepper, cinnamon and oregano; negative control + 75 ppm garlic extract; negative control + 150 ppm garlic extract. In the performance experiment, which comprised the period of 1 to 40 days of age, 960 male broilers were distributed in a randomized block design, with six treatments and eight replicates, with 20 birds per experimental unit. In experiment II, the method adopted was the traditional of total excreta collection with male broiler chicks in the age of 14 to 24 days, in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and eight replicates with five birds per experimental unit. The intestinal villus height was improved with addition of the composite containing the three herbal extracts; however, crypt depth and villus/crypt ratio were not affected. The use of herbal extract in diets for broilers promotes performance similar to that with the use of antibiotics. Herbal extracts can be incorporated into diets replacing antibiotics without compromising the metabolizable energy of diets, performance or intestinal mucosa for broilers in the period of 1 to 40 days of age.

  6. Performance, abdominal fat deposition and bone characteristics of broilers fed diets containing different lipid sources

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    A Potença

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance, abdominal fat yield, and bone parameters of broiler chickens fed diets containing different lipid feedstuffs as energy source. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 1, a completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 49 birds each one was applied. Broilers were fed starter diets formulated with different lipid sources: soybean oil (SO, cottonseed oil (CO, poultry offal oil (PO, and beef tallow (BT. During the finisher phase (21 to 42 days of Experiment 1, each initial treatment was divided in two experimental groups: one fed the same fat ingredient as the previous period, and the other fed SO as energy source. Thus, during this period, a completely randomized design with seven treatments, four replicates, and 43 broilers per experimental unit was tested. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 2, all broilers were fed with the same soybean oil-supplemented diet. The experimental groups were divided during the finisher phase (21 to 42 d in a completely randomized design with five treatments groups with six replicates of 30 birds each. During this period, treatments consisted of diets formulated with SO, rapeseed oil (RO, sunflower oils (SFO, PO, or BT as lipid sources. No effects (P>0.05 of the treatments on any of the studied parameters were observed in either experiment. Results suggest that there is no influence of animal or vegetable dietary lipid sources on performance, abdominal fat deposition, or tibia density and strength in broilers.

  7. Effect of different amino acids density diets on lysine, methionine and protein efficiency in Arian broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Nasr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages provided by amino acid (AA densities to broiler performance have been well documented, but little research has been reported on comparing the effect of different densities, i.e. high, medium, standard and low amino acid levels (HAA, MAA, SAA, and LAA, on protein and energy efficiency in broiler. This study evaluated the effects of the four different amino acid densities in a completely randomized experimental design on 800 male (10 replicates per treatment broilers. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In broilers receiving HAA, there had been a significant increase in body weight at Day 42. Feeding broilers with HAA diets significantly increased protein and energy intake in the grower period and during the overall study period (0-42 days of age (P<0.05. There was a significant difference in efficiency of lysine and methionine during all time periods (P<0.05 and HAA levels were significantly higher than SAA. Protein efficiency ratio (PER and energy efficiency ratio (EER were not affected by an increase in AA density. AA levels had a significant effect on production efficiency factor (PEF. The results of this study suggest that additional lysine and methionine at 120% and other AA at 110% of National Research Council recommendations in starter and grower diets significantly improved body weight and PEF.

  8. Nutritional Balance of broilers fed diets containing two calcium levels and supplemented with different phytase levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DCZ Donato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different calcium and phytase levels on the nutritional balance of broilers.A total of 108 male AG Ross 308 broilers were used in each of the replicates phases used in the study: starter (1-21 days, grower (29-35 days and finisher (36-42 days. A completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three phytase levels (0, 600 or 1200 FTU/kg and two calcium levels (0.94 and 0.66%; 0.84 and 0.59%; e 0.78 and 0.54% in the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, totaling six treatments with six replicates each.The experimental feeds also contained reduced available phosphorus levels and minimum crude protein level.The method of total excreta collection was applied to determine dry matter, nitrogen, gross energy, calcium, and phosphorus nutritional balance.Reducing dietary calcium levels to 0.66, 0.59, and 0.54%, and using 0.27, 0.22, and 0.20% available phosphorus, 18.50, 17.50, and 16.00% crude protein, and 600 FTU phytase/kg in the diets of the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, allow higher nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium retention in broilers.During the grower phase, there was positive linear effect of increasing phytase levels in high-calcium diets on AMEn utilization, and the optimal phytase levels for low-calcium diets was 598.71 FTU/kg.In the finisher phase, the best AMEn utilization was obtained with the high-calcium diets.

  9. Cottonseed oil in diets for growing broilers

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    Vânia de Sousa Lima Aguiar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three levels of crude cottonseed oil on performance, organ weights, and blood parameters of growing broilers. Carcass and cut yields after 33 and 42 days of age and the economic viability of the diets were also evaluated. Male broilers of the Ross line were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (0, 2, 4, and 6% inclusion of cottonseed oil, with and without ferrous sulfate with five replicates. In the period from 22 to 33 days, quadratic and increasing linear effects were observed on feed intake and weight gain, respectively. Feed conversion during the same period was better with the addition of ferrous sulfate. The addition of ferrous sulfate caused a reduction in heart weight. From 22 to 42 days, carcass and cuts yield, organ weight, and intestine length were not influenced by the levels of oil or by the addition of ferrous sulfate. Supplementation with iron salts provided a lower red blood cell count and increased mean cell volume. Balanced diets formulated with up to 6% of crude cottonseed oil for broilers from 22-33 and 22-42 days of age do not affect their performance or the weight of their organs. Supplementation with ferrous sulfate improved feed conversion up to 33 days. Diets formulated with 4% cottonseed oil supplemented with ferrous sulfate are economically viable in the period from 22 to 42 days.

  10. Evaluation of the use of probiotic (Bacillus subtilis C-3102 as additive to improve performance in broiler chicken diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Oliveira Nunes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the use of probiotic based upon Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (BS in broiler diets containing or not conventional additive growth-promoter (AGP. A total of 1,824 one-day-old chicks of the Cobb-500 strain were used and distributed into 48 plots (1.50 × 2.00 m. A completely randomized design with four treatments and 12 repetitions was adopted. The treatments evaluated were: 1- Negative Control - AGP-free diet (NC; 2 - Positive Control, with AGP halquinol 30 mg/kg diet (PC; 3 - NC + BS (3x10(5 cfu/g diet; and 4 - PC + BS (3x10(5 cfu/g diet. The diets were on corn, soybean meal and meat and bone meal basis, formulated according to the nutrient allowances of the Strain Cobb Guide, following a feed program with three diets (starter, grower and finisher. At 21 and 42 days of age, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated, and carcass yield characteristics were determined at 42 days of age. Throughout the trial period (starter and total phases, better feed conversion was found for broilers fed diet with both additives (AGP and BS combined. At the end of the experiment (1 to 42 days, the highest weight gain also occurred in broilers fed diets with a combination of the two additives. In present study, the use of BS or AGP alone in diets did not affect the performance of broilers. The carcass yield was not influenced by the use of the additives and beneficial effects of supplementation of BS and AGP combined in the diet on broiler performance were observed.

  11. The effect of addition high rape cake and phytase on nutritive value of diets for broiler chickens

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    Banaszkiewicz Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high rape cake content and phytase added to phosphorus and calcium deficient diets on the nutritive value for broiler chickens. Two experiments were performed: a growth experiment on four groups of one-day-old broilers Ross 308, 30 birds per group (6 replications x 5 birds and a digestibility experiment on 60 chickens divided into four groups of 20 birds (4 replications of 5 birds. The digestibility of the starter diets were evaluated on chickens at 7 days of age and of grower diets at 28 days of age. The diets used in the digestibility tests were the same for the growth trial. In the growth experiment four diets were prepared for the due periods: starters (1-21 day and growers (22-49 day of chicken life. The control diet (SBM did not contain rape cake, while experimental diets contained 15% (starters and 20% (growers rape cake of Lirajet cultivar. The experimental diet denoted RC HP had P and Ca contents equal the control diet (phosphorus about 7.5 g and calcium about 10 g.kg-1, while the diet denoted as RC LP contained less P and Ca (5.8 g and 6.8 g.kg-1 respectively than the control and RC HP diets. The diet denoted RC LP+ Phy was supplemented with an enzyme preparation containing phytase at a quantity of 875 FYT.kg-1. Application of 15% of rape cake into starter and 20% into grower diets (RC HP allowed for similar body weights and feed conversion ratio as the control group, whereas reduction of phosphorus and calcium content in the starter diet (RC LP significantly decreased body weight at day 21. The addition of phytase to the starter diet with low level of phosphorus and calcium showed the tendency to improve body weight in this period. Application of rape cake into starter and grower diets had poor effects on fat digestibility in all groups, whereas supplementation of grower diets with a low level of phytase phosphorus and calcium improved the digestibility of total phosphorus in

  12. Effect of supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 to broiler diets on growth performance, nutrient retention, caecal microbiology and small intestinal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sinol; Ingale, S L; Kim, Y W; Kim, J S; Kim, K H; Lohakare, J D; Kim, E K; Kim, H S; Ryu, M H; Kwon, I K; Chae, B J

    2012-08-01

    Present study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 on growth performance, apparent nutrient retention, caecal microbial population and intestinal morphology in broilers. Three hundred and twenty day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four treatments on the basis of BW in a randomized complete block design. Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 0-21) and finisher (d 22-35). Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0% (control), 0.15%, 0.30% and 0.45% B. subtilis LS 1-2. Supplementation of increasing levels of B. subtilis LS 1-2 showed linear improvement (PLS 1-2 showed decrease in caecal Clostridium and Coliform count (linear, PLS 1-2 increased (linear, PLS 1-2 can be used as a growth promoter in broiler diets and can improve intestinal microbial balance and gut health of broilers.

  13. Comparison of 3 phytases on energy utilization of a nutritionally marginal wheat-soybean meal broiler diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D; Wu, S B; Choct, M; Swick, R A

    2015-11-01

    The net energy (NE) value may be a better measure than apparent metabolizable energy (ME) of the effect of supplemental phytase on energy utilization in broilers. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of 3 microbial phytases supplemented at an unconventionally high level (1,000 FTU/kg feed) on performance and NE of broilers using the indirect calorimetric method (IC). Four treatments included: 1) Control, formulated to be deficient in ME (12.35 MJ/kg in the starter diet; 12.56 MJ/kg in the grower diet), calcium (0.72% in the starter diet; 0.60% in the grower diet), and available phosphorus (0.25% in the starter diet; 0.20% in the grower diet); 2) control + intrinsically thermostable phytase A; 3) control + intrinsically thermostable phytase B; and 4) control + coated phytase C. A completely randomized design was employed. A total of 384 male broiler chicks were used, and each treatment had 6 replicates with 16 birds per replicate. The birds were reared until d 21 in floor pens with hardwood shavings. Thirty-two birds (8 birds per treatment) were randomly selected to determine heat production and NE (from 25-28 d) following a 3-d acclimatization in the respiratory chambers. Performance results at d 21 showed that supplementation with either of the 3 phytases improved body weight (P diet (P < 0.05). It may be concluded that the negative effects imposed by calcium and available phosphorus down-specification can be compensated by phytase supplementation in general, and intrinsically thermostable phytases improve the ME and NE value. However, phytase did not reduce heat production, heat increment, or increase NE:ME in birds.

  14. Influence of separate feeding of calcium on nutrient digestibility, energy utilisation and performance of young broilers fed pelleted wheat-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Dalen, van A.B.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Ravindran, V.

    2015-01-01

    Six broiler starter diets, based on wheat and soybean meal, were formulated to contain 1.1 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g calcium (Ca)/kg. All diets were equivalent in respect of total and non-phytate phosphorus contents (5.4 and 3.0 g/kg, respectively). The influence of dietary treatments on the gro

  15. Live performance and processing yields of broilers fed diets with tiamulin and salinomycin combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combined application of tiamulin (TIA and salinomycin (SAL in broiler diets fed from 1 to 42 d of age. One thousand and two hundred Cobb x Cobb 500 male broilers were housed in 48 floor pens and fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 66 ppm of SAL combined or not with TIA at 30 or 20 and 20 or 15 ppm, respectively, in the starter (1-21 d and grower feeds (22-42 d; however, TIA was withdrawn from the feeds 7 days before slaughter. The experimental design was completely randomized with 3 treatments and 16 replicates of 25 birds each. Broilers were weekly evaluated for live performance whereas carcass yield, abdominal fat and commercial cuts were assessed at 42 d using 6 birds randomly taken from each pen. Results obtained at the end of the study demonstrated that body weight gain was not affected (P > 0.05 by the treatments, whereas feed intake was reduced (P 0.05 by the treatments. Live performance and post-slaughter yields data obtained in this study did not indicate that combinations of TIA with SAL could be detrimental. In fact, an improvement in feed conversion was observed at the lowest dose of TIA.

  16. The effect of phase nutrition during starter period on production performances and nitrogen content in feces of broilers of different genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Tolimir N.; Perić L.; Milošević N.; Đukić-Stojčić M.; Jovanović R.; Bogdanović V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective of the research was to investigate the effect of phase nutrition, i.e. different mixtures used in broiler nutrition with phase reduction of protein cotnent during starter period on production peformances of fattening chickens of different genotypes and on nitrogen content in faeces. Differences between groups (treatments) were in the type of mixtures use din starter period, and according to the following program: T1 (control group) - nutrition con...

  17. Performance of broiler chicken fed varied nutrient density diets supplemented with direct fed microbial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dietary response of different isolated strains (Direct fed microbial- DFM of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast isolated from leopard feces (Panthera leo was studied as probiotic in poultry broiler birds reared as per varied mineral densities viz. calcium and phosphorus. Various treatments consisted of T0 (Control, culture medium, T1 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered standard formulated diet D1, T2 - Control (Culture medium offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2, T3 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2. Growth results obtained during the starter phase (1st to 3rd week exhibited higher gain in live body weight and lower feed conversion ratio, both by DFM supplemented treatment T1 offered standard formulated diet D1 and treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 compared to respective control T0 and T2. The obtained results revealed a significantly higher growth performance in treatment T1 compared to its control T0 where a higher growth in treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 supplemented with isolated DFM compared to its control T2 was exhibited. Treatment groups T1 and T3 supplemented with isolated DFM exhibited a better intestinal micro flora balance, effective colonization and higher count in the intestinal tract with higher calcium and phosphorus retention in the digestibility studies. Thus, it was found that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to improve biological growth performance of poultry broiler birds offered both standard formulated diet D1, as well as mineral deficient diet D2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002

  18. Amino acids fortification of low-protein diet for broilers under tropical climate: ideal essential amino acids profile

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    Elmutaz Atta Awad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A three-week trial was conducted to determine the effect of lowering dietary protein level (DPL with optimal amino acid (AA profile on growth performance, blood metabolites, and relative weights of abdominal fat and internal organs in broiler chickens raised under tropical hot and humid environment. Five isocaloric (3023 metabolisable energy/kg starter (1-21 days experimental diets were formulated in a gradual crude protein (CP decline from 22.2 (control to 16.2% by 1.5% interval. All diets were meeting or exceeding National Research Council recommendations except CP and metabolisable energy. The formulations were also adjusted to contain 1.1 digestible Lys to meet the ideal AA ratios concept. Body weights (BW, weight gains (WG, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of groups with 19.2, 20.7 and 22.2% DPL were not significantly different. However, BW and WG suppressed (P<0.05 with 16.2 and 17.7% DPL. Feeding the 16.2% CP diet significantly reduced serum total protein and uric acid, but increased serum triglyceride (P<0.05. Moreover, relative heart weights increased (P<0.05 but no changes occurred in liver and abdominal fat weights in chicks with 16.2% DPL. In summary, CP of broilers starter (1-21 days diet can be reduced till 19.2% with essential AA fortification and without any adverse effect on growth performance under the hot, humid tropics.

  19. Beneficial effects of adding lipase enzyme to broiler diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total number of 300 Ross broiler chicks were obtained from commercial hatchery at one day of age. The chicks were divided into three groups (50 males and 50 females in each). The first and second groups were supplemented with 3000 and 2000 lU/kg diet of lipase enzyme, respectively, while the third group served as control and fed on basal diet. Birds fed on diets that supplemented with lipase enzyme showed significant increase in body weight and dry matter intake, as well as fats and protein content dry matters. The serum lipase activity showed significant increase in treated groups compared to the control. Non-significant changes were determined in serum total lipids, T3, T4 and ash content. Birds supplemented with lipase showed significant decrease in cholesterol concentration. It could be concluded that birds fed diets containing 2000 or 3000 lU/kg diet of lipase enzyme exhibited improvement in broiler performance

  20. Effects of Supplemental Fat to Low Metabolizable Energy Diets on Cholesterol and Triglyceride Contents of Broiler Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Rezaei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Modern diets high in Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA and low in Monounsaturated (MUFA and Polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids are mostly blamed for the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Since dietary fatty acids are absorbed by monogastric animals and deposited in their tissues without significant modification, considerable potential exists for the manipulation of the fatty acid profile of poultry meat and eggs. In the present study, effects of different sources and levels of supplemental fat to low energy diets on energy and protein intake and efficiency during grower and finisher periods and cholesterol and Triglyceride (TG contents of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks were investigated. Approach: One hundred and eighty 1 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 15 pens containing 12 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 5 dietary treatments of 2 sources (soybean oil and beef tallow and 2 levels of fat (20 and 40 g kg-1 in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement. There was also a control treatment (without supplemental fat in this experiment. All chicks were fed with a commercial starter diet from 1-10 day, where-after fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Results: There were significant differences in energy and protein intake and energy and protein efficiency among treatments in all phases of the experiment (p-1 soybean oil that compared to other groups. The effect of different sources and levels of supplemental fat on cholesterol and TG contents of thigh and breast meat of broiler chicks in 42 day of age was significant (p-1 soybean oil significantly decrease levels of cholesterol in thigh and breast meat (pConclusion: Supplementation of broiler diets with 20 g kg-1 soybean oil improved energy efficiency, decreased cholesterol content of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks in comparison

  1. Energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal and corn-based diets supplemented with xylanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Carvalho, P S; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased levels of a β-xylanase on energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soy diets. A total of 480 slow feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 10 treatments having 8 replicates of 6 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until 25 d. Two experimental diets, a conventional corn/soy-based basal diet (CS) and the basal diet in which 40% of the diet was displaced by corn (CN), were fed as-is or supplemented with 50, 100, 150, or 200 fungal β-xylanase units (FXU)/kg. Dietary treatments were distributed factorially as a 2 × 5 arrangement. Samples of feed, excreta, and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy, and total tract retention of protein and lipid. No interactions between diet and xylanase were observed. The CS diets had higher (P energy utilization and nutrient digestibility when compared to the CN diets. AMEn and IDE were improved (P energy utilization and digestibility of crude protein and dry matter increased with xylanase supplementation in corn/soy-based diets. When xylanase was tested in the CS diet, 92 and 124 FXU/kg maximized the energy release effect; however, the maximum energy response in the CN diet or corn was not achieved until 200 FXU/kg.

  2. Addition of enzyme to starter and grower diets for ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, D; Burrows, H; Adeola, O

    2002-12-01

    The growth performance and nutrient utilization responses of White Pekin ducks to a commercial enzyme preparation were investigated. The enzyme contained 4,000 units amylase, 12,000 units protease, and 1,600 units xylanase per gram. Twelve pens of 10 ducks were fed diets based on corn and soybean meal and wheat middlings. The diets contained the enzyme mixture at 0, 0.375, or 0.5 g/kg in a growth study for 42 d. At the end of growth study, four ducks from each of eight pens per diet were retained and continued their respective diets containing 2.5 g Cr2O3/kg for 7 d. Intestinal content was sampled to determine ileal digestibilities of energy, nitrogen, and amino acids. One duck from each pen was selected at the end of the growth study and was fitted with retainer rings around the vent for the attachment of an excreta collection apparatus; these ducks were maintained on their respective diets containing 2.5 g Cr2O3/ kg to determine dietary nitrogen, amino acids, and energy retention. Results from the performance study showed a 6 to 8% increase (P ducks fed diets containing the enzyme preparation at 0.5 g/kg, but ileal digestibility of energy was not affected by enzyme supplementation of diets. Apparent nitrogen retention was greater (P ducks that received enzyme at 0.5 g/kg diet than in ducks fed diets without the enzyme. Energy retention (AME and AMEn) of diets was not affected by the addition of enzyme to diets. Excreta amino acid digestibilities were found to be consistently higher than ileal estimates. The mean ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients in diets with enzyme at 0, 0.375, and 0.5 g/kg were 86.94, 88.82, and 88.87%, respectively. The addition of enzyme improved (P growth performance, nitrogen, and amino acid retention of White Pekin ducks.

  3. Piperine as a phytogenic additive in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica da Silva Cardoso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic additive in chicken broiler diet. Seven‑day‑old male chicks were randomly allocated in four experimental treatments (n = 24, with four replicates (n = 6. The piperine was added to diets at concentrations of 0, 60, 120, and 180 mg kg‑1 for 35 consecutive days. The following were evaluated: biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters; performance and carcass yield. Histomorphometric analyses were also carried out. The addition of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine did not alter broiler body weight and feed conversion, whereas 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine interfered positively in both parameters from 36 to 42 days of age and significantly increased the absorption surface of the duodenum and the ileum. No macroscopic alteration in organ size and color was observed in the broilers fed diets with the evaluated concentrations of piperine. The supplementation of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine is toxic to liver tissue and reduces the absorption surface of the jejune. The diet supplemented with 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine is safe.

  4. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions?

    OpenAIRE

    RL Furlan; DE Faria Filho; PS Rosa; M Macari

    2004-01-01

    Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diet...

  5. Effect of phytase supplementation on apparent phosphorus digestibility and phosphorus output in broiler chicks fed low-phosphorus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ren Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.

  6. Effect of commercial diets quality on bio-economic performances of broilers in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, F M; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C A A M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the quality of commercial poultry feeds in Benin. The performances of 396 unsexed broilers chickens Ross 308 fed with a control diet (R1) and five commercial diets (R2 to R6) were evaluated. Broilers fed commercial diets showed significantly low (P <0.001...... commercial diets. These results suggest the necessity to organize the market of poultry feed in Benin in the perspective to reduce the production cost by using more efficient and cheap commercial diets.......The objective of this study was to assess the quality of commercial poultry feeds in Benin. The performances of 396 unsexed broilers chickens Ross 308 fed with a control diet (R1) and five commercial diets (R2 to R6) were evaluated. Broilers fed commercial diets showed significantly low (P ....001) body weight gain (BWG) and economic feed efficiency (EFE) and significantly high (P commercial diets. In R1 diet, overall FC...

  7. Desempenho de pintos de corte alimentados com rações contendo milho pré-gelatinizado Performance of broiler chicks fed pre-gelatinized corn in pre-starter and starter feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Stringhini

    2009-09-01

    corn for broilers from one to 21 days of age. In the first experiment, the metabolism of pre-gelatinized corn, corn starch and corn germ meal was assessed by the total excreta collection method from 4 to 7 days of age and values of apparent (AME and corrected metabolizable energy (CAME and the results were, respectively: 3370, 3379.7, 3259.1 kcal/kg de AME and 3299.8, 3369.7, 3051.6 kcal/kg for CAME. The inclusion level of pre-gelatinized corn was evaluated in pre-starter (1 to 7 days of age - Experiment 2 and starter (8 to 21 days of age - Experiment 3 broiler rations. Broiler performance from one to seven days of age was not affected by pre-gelatinized corn in the feed. A quadratic effect for the dry matter digestibility coefficient (minimum point of 28.6% inclusion and nitrogen (minimum point of 31.7% inclusion and negative linear negative on the ether extract digestibility coefficient. From 8 to 21 days of age, broiler performance was affected linearly and negatively for final weight, weight gain and feed intake and quadratic for feed-to-gain ratio (maximum point of 34.3% inclusion. For the dry matter, nitrogen and ether extract digestibility coefficients, there was a positive linear effect for pre-gelatinized corn included in substitution of corn. Pre-gelatinized corn was a good alternative for pre-starter ration, but, in spite of the better digestibility coefficient results, performance got worse as pre-gelatinized corn increased in diets from 8 to 21 days of age. Pre-gelatinized corn was a good alternative as energetic ingredient for first week chick feed, but, in the starter phase it did not promote good performance despite the good digestibility indexes obtained.

  8. Natural zeolites in diet or litter of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter. PMID:26879673

  9. Growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks to various levels of crude fiber and protein in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion of crude fiber in diet is important for duck growth, but there is a limit in its use in order for the ducks to grow normally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks under different levels of crude fiber and protein in diets. Four hundreds and twenty day old ducklings were allocated into 7 treatments with 6 replications and each replication consisted of 10 ducks. The treatments were the factorial combinations of crude fiber content of 6 or 9% and protein content of 19, 21, or 23%; and BR-1 (starter diet as positive control. The variables observed were: feed intake, weekly body weight, and percentage of carcass production. The results showed that all variables observed were not significantly affected by CF content, but highly significantly affected by crude protein levels in diet. Protein content of 19 or 21% in diet resulted in a better performance for EPMp ducks. The inclusion of high CF in diet did not affect carcass percentage, except for reduced abdominal fat. The study implies that administration of high CF (6 or 9% with a protein content of 19 or 21% in the diet are still acceptable to EPMp ducks at 12 weeks.

  10. Effect of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles and microbial enzymes on metabolizable and net energy values of broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekatain, M R; Noblet, J; Wu, S B; Iji, P A; Choct, M; Swick, R A

    2014-11-01

    There is generally no information regarding the influence of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the net energy (NE) value of broiler diets. It was hypothesized that the ME content of DDGS may overestimate its productive energy, leading to higher heat increment when used in broiler diets. Furthermore, it was of interest to investigate the potential benefits of a mixture of carbohydrases and protease on energy partitioning in diets containing DDGS. In this study, 2 evaluations, comparative slaughter (CS) or indirect calorimetry (IC), were conducted using the same batch of birds and feed. Two levels of DDGS (0 or 30%) without or with an enzyme mixture were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The CS evaluation used 240 male Ross 308 broiler chicks with 6 replicates (10 birds each) per treatment from d 18 to 28. Carcass energy values were examined in 2 birds per replicate on each of d 18 and 28 to determine heat production (HP), NE, and ME. The IC evaluation used 32 birds acclimatized to 16 closed-circuit calorimeters (2 birds per chamber) following energy partitioning measurement by gaseous exchange and total excreta collection from 18 to 24 d. Birds fed DDGS had increased feed efficiency during starter and grower phases (P < 0.001). The CS showed no difference in HP between birds fed diets with or without DDGS. When measured by IC, birds fed diets containing DDGS had higher HP and lower NE (P < 0.01). Enzyme supplementation had no effect on HP, ME, or NE:ME ratio measured using CS or IC but increased NE and NE intake (P < 0.01) from d 18 to 28. Carcass fat retention was decreased (P < 0.05) and there was a lower NE (P < 0.01) in birds fed the DDGS-diets. This study showed that 30% dietary DDGS affects energy partitioning in broilers with more heat produced, decreased dietary NE, and less fat retained in the carcass. PMID:25214553

  11. Yeast cell wall and live yeast products and their combination in broiler diets formulated with weekly ingredient variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J; Hashim, M; Haq, A; Bailey, C A

    2015-10-01

    A 6-week broiler study was conducted to evaluate whether subjecting the intestinal microflora of broilers to the effect of weekly variations in feed ingredients could be ameliorated by the inclusion of yeast-derived feed additives: a yeast cell wall extract (YCW), live yeast culture (LY) or their combination (YCW + LY). Recent changes in ingredient prices have motivated producers to formulate diets not necessarily based primarily on corn and soya bean meal. Intestinal microflora in birds can vary significantly based on the ingredient composition of their diet, and the make-up of the flora can influence overall bird performance. Within the three nutrient phases of this study, birds were fed either a traditional corn-soya ingredient profile or a variable-ingredient regimen, which had weekly changes in the ingredient composition. There were consistent ameliorative effects of the yeast treatments in both the corn-soya and the variable-ingredient groups throughout all 6 weeks, with the YCW + LY combination showing a reduced effect when compared to either product fed alone. The effectiveness of YCW and LY on ameliorating the effects of weekly ingredient variations appeared most effective during the starter and grower phases, but was less significant during the sixth week.

  12. Nutritive activity of soluble rice brain arabinoxylans in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annison, G; Moughan, P J; Thomas, D V

    1995-07-01

    1. A soluble material (703 g/kg non-starch polysaccharide, 141 g/kg starch and 166 g/kg protein) of low viscosity (termed RB-NSP), was isolated in large quantities from defatted Australian rice bran using a mild alkaline extraction and ethanol precipitation. 2. The soluble non-starch polysaccharide fraction of RB-NSP comprised arabinose (0.40 mol%), xylose (0.32 mol%) galactose (0.17 mol%), glucose (0.08 mol%) and mannose (0.03 mol%). 3. RB-NSP was included at graded concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 60 g/kg) in a sorghum/casein basal diet and the diet fed to male broilers in a classical balance trial to determine apparent metabolisable energy (AME). The AME values recorded were 13.26, 13.85, 14.26 and 14.00 MJ/kg DM with a significant correlation (r = 0.65, P protein which were both high (0.98-0.99 and 0.88-0.89, respectively). 5. It was concluded that the RB-NSP may have been a substrate for hindgut fermentation in the broiler but that it possessed no anti-nutritive activity. PMID:7583378

  13. Performance of broilers fed diets containing natural growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of different probiotics on the performance of broiler chickens. A thousand and fifty one-day-old male Cobb chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement (3 probiotics sources in the diet, 2 probiotics concentrations in drinking water and 1 control group, with 5 repetitions of 30 birds per parcel. The results showed better feed conversion (p<0.01 (1-21, 22-35 and 1-45 days and weight gain (p<0.05 (22-35 and 1-45 days in the control group in relation to the groups receiving probiotics. The use of Bacillus subtilis in the diet improved (p<0.05 feed conversion during the growing phase, but this was not seen in the following period. Thus, it was concluded that probiotics supplementation had no beneficial effects on the performance.

  14. Development of a precision-fed ileal amino acid digestibility assay using 3-week-old broiler chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, f...

  15. Iron and zinc availability to broiler chicken from mineral biofortified wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Mrkaljevic, Dzana

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of mineral biofortified wheat with fungal phytase addition on iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) availability in broiler chicken breast muscle and liver, their excretion in feces and digestibility in intestines. Furthermore, possible beneficial effect on broiler performance was studied. 90 day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were placed in brooder cages and received commercial starter diet from day 1-7 posthatch and micromineral deficient s...

  16. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions. During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70 % (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.

  17. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Furlan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diets have negative effects on broiler performance when environmental temperature is high, because during heat stress, low food intake associated to a low diet protein induce amino acid deficiencies. Other studies have shown that broilers fed low-protein diets increase their energy requirement for maintenance with higher heat production. Thus, with the growth of broiler industry in tropical areas more challenges need to be faced by the farmers. So, both the ambient and nutritional conditions ought to be well managed to avoid negative effects on poultry production once they can affect the metabolism (body heat production under low temperature and body heat dissipation under high temperature with consequence on poultry performance (meat and eggs.

  18. Biological value of bone-precipitated dicalcium phosphate in turkey starter diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T W; Douglas, J H; Lapjatupon, W; Struwe, F J; Gonzalez, N J

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relative biological value (RBV) of phosphorus from two bone-precipitated dicalcium phosphates (DCP-BP) in turkey starter diets. An estimated 40,000 metric tons of DCP-BP are produced annually in the United States as a by-product of gelatin production. The two DCP-BP sources were compared to commercial feed phosphates. Two bioassay experiments of 21-d duration were conducted with female turkeys. Phosphate sources were each fed at three levels (.18, .24, and .36% added total phosphorus) in a corn-soybean meal diet. Calcium level was maintained constant at 1.0% in all diets by adjusting the level of ground limestone. Four replicate pens of six poults were randomly assigned at 1 d of age to each level of each phosphorus source in each bioassay. The reference standard was United States Pharmacopeia (USP) grade calcium phosphate, dibasic dihydrate. Data representing three response criteria (weight gain, gain:feed ratio, and tibia ash percentage at 21 d) were combined to calculate a biological value (BV) for each test source and the reference standard phosphate. A RBV was then computed for each test source. The RBV of the two DCP-BP sources were 98.8 and 99.1, as compared to 100.0 for the reference standard, and 86.7, 87.1, and 88.4 for three commercial, thermochemically produced defluorinated phosphates. The RBV of one commercial mono-dicalcium phosphate, and three di-monocalcium phosphates were: 96.4, and 91.2, 94.7, and 101.5, respectively. The two DCP-BP sources compared favorably to commercial feed phosphates, and would be satisfactory supplements in diets for starting chicks, poults, pigs, and other species.

  19. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karadas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105, with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet; T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast; T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate; T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB; T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB;T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rRed;T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rYellow; T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r; and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r. Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05.

  20. Marginality and needs of dietary valine for broilers fed certain all-vegetable diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valine is likely the fourth limiting amino acid in most diets based of corn and soybean meal. However, its exact needs are not well known, and information regarding it is sparse. A series of studies were conducted to validate valine’s limitation in all-vegetable diets fed to broilers, and subseque...

  1. Do Low-Density Diets Improve Broiler Breeder Welfare During Rearing and Laying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Enting, H.; Voorst, van A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Low-density diets may improve welfare of restricted fed broiler breeders by increasing feed intake time with less frustration of feed intake behavior as a result. Moreover, low-density diets may promote satiety through a more filled gastrointestinal tract, and thus feelings of hunger may be reduced.

  2. Whole scrapings of cassava root in diets for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Hosmylton Carvalho Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including whole cassava root scrapings (WCS in diets of broilers on performance and the metabolizability of dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy and on nitrogenous balance. Four hundred female and 100 male broilers from Ross strain were used in the performance and metabolism studies, respectively. In both studies, broilers were allotted in completely randomized block design with five treatments and four replicates. The experimental unit was represented for twenty birds per box for performance study and five birds per metabolic cage for metabolism study. The treatments consisted of diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% WCS inclusion. Up to 5.1% WCS can be included in the diet of broilers from 1 to 21 without compromising feed conversion and productive efficiency index. Dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of the diets are not influenced by the inclusion of whole cassava root scrapings up to 20% in diets of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age.

  3. Effects of Diet Dilution during the Finishing Period on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the response of broiler to diet dilution during the finishing period. Sixty 29-day-old commercial Avian male broiler chicks were assigned to two groups randomly, with 30 broilers each. Birds were offered a conventional finishing diet or with 10% dilution diet with ground rice hulls from 29 to 49 days of age. The result showed that there were no significant differences between the effects of diet dilution and the control on final body weight, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. Diet dilution led to a reduction in abdominal fat weight, whereas carcass and breast muscle weight were not affected.

  4. The Effect of Low-Density Diets on Broiler Breeder Development and Nutrient Digestibility During the Rearing Period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, H.; Veldman, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Aar, van de P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4 treatment

  5. Intestinal Structure and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with a Synbiotic Containing Enterococcus faecium and Oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageha Awad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of the synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO [a combination of Enterococcus faecium, a prebiotic (derived from chicory and immune modulating substances (derived from sea algae], with a dose of 1 kg/ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets on the intestinal morphometry and nutrient absorption. The general performance was improved (P < 0.05 by the dietary inclusion of synbiotic compared with the controls. Furthermore, the addition of synbiotic increased (P < 0.001 the villus height/crypt depth ratio and villus height in ileum. However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of synbiotic compared with control. The addition of glucose in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (P ≤ 0.001 in short-circuit current (Isc in jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in both synbiotic and control groups. However, in jejunum the percentage of Isc increase after glucose addition was higher for synbiotic group (333 % than control group (45 %. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO increased the growth performance and improved intestinal morphology and nutrient absorption.

  6. Use of black pepper (Piper nigrum as feed additive in broilers diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galib A. M. Al-Kassie,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the performance of broilers fed diets with black pepper (Piper nigrum. A total of 250 (Rose 308 day old chicks were used in this study. Five levels of black pepper at the rate of 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% were incorporated into the basal diet of broilers for six weeks. The Results revealed that the inclusion of black pepper at the levels of 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% in the diets improved body weight gain, feed intake and conversion ratio. At the same time the black pepper of 0.50 %, 0.75% and 1% depressed the cholesterol, Hb, RBC and H/L ratio concentration. It was concluded that the use of black pepper as feed additive at 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% enhanced the overall performance of broiler chicks.

  7. Carcass and cut yields and meat qualitative traits of broilers fed diets containing probiotics and prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108 in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2 and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2. There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The results showed that the carcass and cut yields, color (L* - lightness, a* - redness, and b* - yellowness, pH, cooking losses, shearing force and sensory analysis were not affected by the use of different growth promoters at 42 days of age. It was concluded that growth promoters supplemented to the diet did not affect the studied quantitative and qualitative parameters of the carcass and breast meat of broiler chickens.

  8. Performance and Haematological Characteristics of Broiler Finisher FedMoringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Obakanurhe Oghenebrorhie; Okpara Oghenesuvwe

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects ofMoringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on the performance and haematology of broiler finisher using 120 Cobb chicks of 4 weeks old broiler chicks. The birds were assigned randomly into four dietary treatments containing MOLM at 0, 6%, 8%, and 10% (treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4) inclusion levels, respectively, in a complete randomized design experiment. The effect of the dietary treatments on the growth performance and blood parameters of the broiler finisher was determined. MOLM at a rate of 6% (T2), 8% (T3), and 10% (T4) of the diets (as fed basis) to replace 3.2%, 5.6% and 8.6% of the crude protein (CP) of the control diet. The daily feed, dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed MOLM diets were higher (p0.05) among treatments. The results indicated that at 10% in the diets of broiler finisher chick, MOLM could be substituted with expensive conventional protein sources without any deleterious effects on performance and blood parameters of broiler finisher chicken.

  9. Effect of fibre hydrolytic enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing rice bran

    OpenAIRE

    Pius P Ketaren; T. Purwadaria; A.P. Sinurat; T Haryati

    2012-01-01

    Use of the rice bran as poultry feed is restricted by its high fibre content as poultry is unable to hydrolyse the fibre into available energy. This experiment was aimed The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of crude enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing 30% rice bran. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with nine experimental diets. Diets 1-5 contained 5% less than recommended protein and energy, based on dete...

  10. EFFECTS OF INCLUSION OF AERIEL DRIED PARTS OF SOME HERBS IN BROILER DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar, S., D. Namik, G. Fatih, A. Gokcimen and K. Selcuk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determines possible antibacterial, antioxidant and growth-promoting effects of some selected herbs in broiler chickens. Ground aerial parts of Thymbra spicata, Origanum minutiflorum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Mrytus communis, Salvia tomentosa and ground seed of Cumin were added to broiler diets at 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50% (w/w. Volatile essential oil contents were analysed. Samples of blood, digesta and intestinal tissues were analysed to determine antioxidant activity, bacteria growth and intestinal histomorphology, respectively. The results showed that at 0-21 days of age the birds performed better on the diets up to 0.25% of herbal inclusion level. Increasing the inclusion level from 0.5 to 1.5% for Origanum minutiflorum, Thymbra spicata and partially for Rosmarinus officinalis increased feed consumption with lower weight gain and depressed efficiency of feed conversion, but not for Salvia tomentosa, Mrytus communis and Cumin. The results further showed that broilers could better perform on the diets up to 0.5% of inclusion level at 42 days. All levels (except 1.5% for Cumin and Salvia tomentosa did not cause any impairment in performance of broilers. High inclusion levels (0.5 to 1.5% reduced E. coli count. The selected herbs did not cause an oxidative stress at a given inclusion level. Of the plants Rosmarinus officinalis clearly demonstrated strong antioxidant effect. The high doses of Origanum minutiflorum caused depression in growth rate associated with shortened villus development of intestinal epithelium in broilers. However, increased growth rate with Cumin associated with longer villus and increased dry matter retention in broilers at 21 days were recorded. It was suggested that some of selected herbs can be incorporated up to 0.5% into broiler diets on account of their antibacterial and antioxidant properties

  11. EFFECT OF MAXIGRAIN SUPPLEMENT ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, ECONOMIC INDICES AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF HEAT-STRESS BROILERS FED THREE DIETARY FIBRE SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    S.G. ADEMOLA; M. D. SHITTU; M.O. AYANSOLA; T.E. LAWAL; G.O. TONA

    2013-01-01

    The study determined effects of Maxigrain supplementation to 3 dietary fibres on growth performance, economic indices, tibia ash of broilers raised under daily heat stress (420centigrade) of 4 hours. A total of 162 day old broiler chicks of Arbor Acres strain were divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates per treatment of 27 birds. The fibrous ingredients were wheat offal, rice bran and corn bran. These were included in broiler starter and finisher diets at 3% and 20% respectively. Feed and...

  12. Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria supplementation in broiler diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucca schidigera and quillaja saponaria are both rich in saponins and polyphenolic compounds, and have been associated with supplementary effects that improve livestock production with some ammonia emission reduction characteristics. Thus, a broiler study evaluated live performance, carcass characte...

  13. Effectiveness of dietary xylo-oligosaccharides for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Hai-qing; LU Lin; XU Guo-hui; XIAO Lin; CHEN Xiao-gang; XIA Rui-rui; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on growth performance, meat quality, immune functions, duodenal morphology and intestinal microbial populations of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 450 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were ran-domly alocated by bodyweight to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicate cages (15 broilers per cage) for each of 5 treatments in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed the basal corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg of XOS kg–1 of diet, respectively, for an experimental duration of 42 days. The results showed that supple-mentation of XOS affected feed conversion rate (feed/gain, F/G) during days 22–42 and 1–42 (P0.05) on al other measured indices. The chicks fed the diet supplemented with 100 mg of XOS kg–1 had the lowest (P<0.05) F/G and drip loss in thigh muscle. The drip loss in thigh muscle decreased linearly (P=0.003) as the supplemented XOS increased. Duodenal crypt depth decreased (P<0.05) at the supplemental level of 75 mg of XOS kg–1. The results indicate that dietary supplementations of 75 and 100 mg of XOS kg–1 are beneifcial to broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

  14. Sunflower meal and enzyme supplementation of the diet of 21- to 42-d-old broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAG de Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of male broilers between 21 and 42 days of age fed diets supplemented with an enzyme blend (EB and containing graded levels of sunflower meal (SFM. In total, 1920 male Cobb broilers were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design in a 4 x 3 factorial arrangement (four SFM dietary levels vs. three feed formulations with eight replicates of 20 birds each. Dietary SFM inclusion levels were 0, 8, 16, and 24%. Feed formulation included one negative control diet (NC formulated to supply broiler nutritional requirements, considering EB nutritional matrix values; a diet formulated as the first one, but with the addition of 0.5% EB (NC+EB; and the third diet (positive control - PC was calculated to supply broiler requirements. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. There was no effect of EB dietary supplementation on the evaluated performance or carcass parameters (p > 0.05. Increasing dietary addition of SFM reduced weight gain and worsened feed conversion ratio (p > 0.05. The best EEI was obtained with the NC+EB diet containing 8.0% SFM.

  15. Incorporation of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Leaf Powder in diet of broilers for quality meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Lanjewar

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum leaf powder on meat cholesterol and serum lipid profile of broiler from day old to 42nd day of age. One hundred fifty day old chicks were distributed into three experimental groups of 50 birds which were further divided into five replicates of 10 birds each. The control (T1  group was fed with standard broiler diet and T2 and T3 were fed standard broiler diet plus tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 0.5% and 1% respectively. All the birds were reared under standard managemental conditions. The observations were recorded for cholesterol content of meat and serum lipid profile of broilers. Supplementation of tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 1% for 42 days showed the significant decrease (P<0.01 in breast muscle and thigh muscle cholesterol. Group T2 showed the significant reduction in thigh muscle cholesterol but not in breast muscle cholesterol. The average serum total cholesterol was reduced significantly (P<0.01 in T3 group but not in T2. The average serum HDL cholesterol was increased significantly (P<0.01 in T2 and T3. The average serum triglycerides were significantly reduced in T2 and T3. But higher reduction obtained in birds fed with 1% tulsi leaf powder in diet. The average serum LDL cholesterol was significantly reduced (P<0.01 in T3 followed by T2   group. The study concluded that supplementation of tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 1% in broiler diet for 42 days reduced meat and blood cholesterol levels of broiler. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 340-342

  16. In take, performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed diets containing dried cassava peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.

  17. Effect of fibre hydrolytic enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius P Ketaren

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of the rice bran as poultry feed is restricted by its high fibre content as poultry is unable to hydrolyse the fibre into available energy. This experiment was aimed The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of crude enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing 30% rice bran. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with nine experimental diets. Diets 1-5 contained 5% less than recommended protein and energy, based on determined metabolizable energy (ME content in the rice bran at 2040 kcal/kg, without taking into account on the beneficial effect of the enzyme supplementation. These diets were: 1. A control diet (D2040, without enzymes; 2. D2040 + E. javanicum (BS4 + P. nalgiovense (S11; 3. D2040 + BS4 + A. niger; 4. D2040 + BS4 + commercial enzymes (CE; 5. D2040 + B. pumilus (PU4-2 + CE. Four other experimental diets contained the same protein and energy levels as in the diets 1-5, but had taken into account on the beneficial effect of the enzyme supplementation,. These diets were: 6. D2702 + BS4 + S11; 7. D2650 + BS4 + A. niger; 8. D2465 + BS4 + CE ;and 9. D2465 + PU4-2+ CE. Each experimental diet was repeated six times and each replication consists of 5 day-old broiler chickens. Results showed that FCR of the chickens fed D2040 + PU4-2 + CE diet (FCR = 1.38 and D2465 + PU4-2 + CE diet (FCR = 1.46 were significantly (P < 0.01 improved compared to the control diet (FCR = 1.64. This experiment strongly shows that supplementation of PU4-2 + CE enzymes significantly (P < 0.01 improved feed efficiency of the broiler chickens by 11-16%.

  18. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2011-01-01

    diets compared to feed A was detectable in the intestinal contents, with high fibre feed staying longer in the digestive system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dustbathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The onset of lay was delayed......, but the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders. Key...

  19. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Fat Metabolites of Broilers Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad EL-QUB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of olive oil sediment (OOS with soybean oil soap stock (SOY traditionally used in poultry rations, on broilers growth performance, dressing proportions, carcass cut, blood lipid metabolites and meat quality (i.e. water holding capacity, WHC; colony forming unit, CFU. A total of 416 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were divided into 2 experimental treatments of 208 birds in each. Each treatment was composed of 8 replicates with 26 birds in each. Oil supplements were added (day 22 to the finishing diets at a level of 30 g/kg diet. Chicks fed the OOS had a better (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared to those of the SOY fed birds. Similar effect of OSS on the dressing proportions was observed. Carcasses of broilers fed the OOS had higher (p < 0.05 WHC compared to that of SOY fed broilers. The OOS resulted in more than 100 % improvement in WHC compared to the traditionally used SOY. Carcasses of SOY fed broilers had more (p < 0.05 CFU count compared to that of birds fed OOS diets. Levels of all tested blood metabolites at day 28 and 35 compared to the baseline levels (day 21, prior to oil supplementation, were significantly affected by the type of oil.

  20. Use of enzymes in diets with different percentages of added fat for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.P. Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the extent to which the removal of fat source, and consequently its compounds, such as linoleic acid, can affect the performance of broilers. We used 600 male Cobb 500 day old chicks. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and six replicates of 20 birds each. The treatments were: (T1 diet - positive control (PC, which met the nutritional needs; (T2 diet - negative control (CN, a reduction of 100kcal/kg and low linoleic acid content; (T3: diet - negative control reformulated for low linoleic acid content and a set of Quantum phytase XT and Econase XT 25 (BAL + QFit-Eco, (T4: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to an intermediate value between the value of the diet and diet CP and CN to use a set of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (IAL + QFit-Eco and (T5: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to a value similar to that of the positive control diet and joint use of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (AAL + QFit-Eco. The joint use of Quantum Phytase and Econase promoted improvement in the performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days. The greatest weight gain was obtained with diets containing percentages of total fat and linoleic acids. Dietary supplementation with enzymes resulted in higher levels of calcium in the tibia, whatever the percentage of linoleic studied.

  1. Melamine residues in tissues of broilers fed diets containing graded levels of melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, M B; Yan, L; Guo, J Y; Li, Y; Li, G P; Ravindran, V

    2009-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine melamine residual levels in the tissues of broiler chickens fed diets containing graded levels of melamine. Ten experimental diets were developed to contain 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 mg of melamine/kg of diet. Each diet was offered in 4 replicate cages (12 birds per cage) from d 1 to 42, followed by a 7-d feeding of a withdrawal diet that contained no melamine. On d 28, 42, and 49, one bird per replicate was killed and tissue samples from the breast meat, liver, and kidney were collected for the determination of residual melamine levels. Throughout the 42-d feeding period, feeding diets containing graded levels of melamine had no effect (P>0.05) on the weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality of broiler chickens. Residue levels of melamine in broiler tissues at d 28 and 42 were below the detection limit when the diets containeddiets containing higher than 100 mg/kg. At d 42, a similar trend was observed in the kidney, but melamine was detected in breast meat and liver only in birds fed diets containing 500 and 1,000 mg of melamine/kg of diet. Melamine distribution varied (P<0.05) in different tissues, with the highest concentration in the kidney. A withdrawal period of 7 d was found to clear the tissues of melamine. PMID:19762871

  2. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  3. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost. PMID:27107748

  4. Response of broilers on the diet containing fermented palm oil sludge stored at various length of time

    OpenAIRE

    I.A.K Bintang; A.P. Sinurat; T Purwadaria

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the response of broilers on the diet containing fermented palm oil sludge with Aspergillus niger stored at different length of time. The research was carried out in Research Institute for Animal Production Ciawi, Bogor. The experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design using 245 day old broiler chicks with 5 replicates. They were allotted to 7 diets containing one control without palm oil sludge (R0), 5 and 10% of fresh-fermented palm oil ...

  5. Millet and corn oil in sorghum-based diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Rodrigues Bueno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of millet and corn oil additions to sorghum-based diets on the performance, carcass yields and prime cuts (i.e., wings, breasts, thighs and drumsticks and the relative weights of edible offal (i.e., gizzard, heart, and liver of broiler chickens. A total of 684 Hubbard Flex chickens, including 342 broilers of each sex, were housed. The design was completely randomized, and the following diets were supplied: A sorghum and soybean meal + soybean oil (control; B sorghum and soybean meal + corn oil; and C sorghum and soybean meal + millet and soybean oil. Six replicates with 38 birds each (19 males and 19 females were evaluated regarding each experimental diet. At 14, 21, 35 and 42 days of age, the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and viability of the chickens were evaluated. At 42 days, the live weight, carcass yield, prime cuts and relative weight of the edible offal were measured. The dietary inclusion of either millet or corn oil did not affect any of the parameters. In conclusion, additions of millet and corn oil to sorghum-based diets of broilers do not compromise poultry performance.

  6. Commercial enzyme influence on broilers fed different levels of wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Seifi S.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of multienzyme supplement (Natuzyme®) in diets containing wheat on the broilers performance. A total of one hundred twenty day old male broiler chicks (Arbor Acres) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with a 2 3 factorial arrangement (0, 150 and 300 gram per kilogram wheat and 0 and 0.025 gram per kilogram enzyme). Chickens were fed with starter, grower and finisher diets during 1-21, 22- 35, 36-49 day...

  7. Insect and legume-based protein sources to replace soybean cake in an organic broiler diet: Effects on growth performance and physical meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Leiber, Florian; Gelencsér, Tobias; Stamer, Andreas; Amsler, Zivile; Wohlfahrt, Jens; Früh, Barbara; Maurer, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Protein sources other than soybean for the diets of poultry are needed for agricultural systems in temperate regions to help avoid some negative social and ecological impacts of large-scale soybean imports from overseas. The aim of the present study was to test the suitability of alternative protein sources in diets for slow-growing organic broiler chicken. Four experimental broiler diets were tested against a commercial feed for organic broiler chicken fattening (control), containing 255 ...

  8. Escherichia coli phytase improves growth performance of starter, grower, and finisher pigs fed phosphorus-deficient diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendza, J A; Dilger, R N; Adedokun, S A; Sands, J S; Adeola, O

    2005-08-01

    Corn-soybean meal-based diets, consisting of a high-P control (HPC) containing supplemental dicalcium phosphate (DCP), a basal diet containing no DCP, and the basal diet plus Escherichia coli phytase at 500 or 1,000 phytase units per kilogram (FTU/kg; as-fed basis) were fed to evaluate growth performance in starter, grower, and finisher pigs. Pigs were blocked by weight and gender, such that average weight across treatments was similar, with equal numbers of barrows and gilts receiving each treatment in each block. In Exp. 1, 48 pigs with an average initial BW of 11 kg, housed individually, with 12 pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 3 wk. Overall ADG and G:F were increased linearly (P < 0.05) by dietary phytase addition. Final BW and plasma P concentrations at 3 wk also increased linearly (P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, 128 pigs with an average initial BW of 23 kg, housed four pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase in response to phytase was noted for ADG and G:F in all three 2-wk periods, as well as overall (P < 0.05). Percentage of bone ash also showed a linear increase (P < 0.01). In Exp. 3, 160 pigs (53 kg), housed five pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase was detected for final BW, as well as ADG and G:F in the first and second 2-wk periods, and overall (P < 0.01). Twenty-four 15-kg individually housed pigs were used to evaluate total-tract nutrient digestibility in Exp. 4. Daily absorption of P linearly increased (P < 0.05) with phytase supplementation. Results of this research indicate that E. coli phytase is effective in liberating phytate P for uptake and utilization by starter, grower, and finisher pigs.

  9. Effect of Diets with Different Energy and Protein Levels on Breast Muscle Characteristics at Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Marcu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper was studied the effect of dietary energy and protein levels on breast muscle characteristics at broiler chickens, which were sacrificed at 42 days old. The genetic material was represented by broiler chickens that belonged to the „Ross-308” hybrid, with three groups (LC-control group, L1 and L2 experimental groups. In the growth periods (starter, growing and finishing have received compound feed ad libitum, with different energy and protein levels (LC-was conforming to recommendations of Aviagen Company; L1-higher with 10%; L2-lower with 10%. After evisceration, from each group were sampled breasts from 10 carcasses (five per sex and were determined: muscle mass, meat:bones ratio, chemical composition of meat, pH value (after evisceration up to 24 h of refrigeration and the thickness of myocytes in the superficial pectoral muscle. For these characteristics, highest values were obtained at L1 group, and the lowest values were at L2 group. At the L1 group, high levels of dietary proteins and energy has significantly influenced: muscle mass, meat:bones ratio, chemical composition of meat (water, proteins and lipids, pH value and the thickness of myocytes in the superficial pectoral muscle, as compared with LC and L2.

  10. THE EFFECT OF SAUROPUS ANDROGYNUS LEAVES EXTRACT PLUS TURMERIC POWDER ON FAT DEPOSITION, CARCASS QUALITY AND BLOOD PROFILE IN BROILERS FED LOW PROTEIN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Santoso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Sauropus androgynus leavesextract (SALE plus turmeric powder (TP on carcass quality and blood profile in broilers fed lowprotein diets. Sixty broilers aged 14 days were divided to 5 treatment groups as follows: 1 Broilers fed19% protein diet without SALE plus TP as control (P0; 2 Broilers fed 17% protein diet supplementedto 4.5 g SALE/kg diet plus 0.5% TP (P1; 3 Broilers fed 17% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 gSALE/kg diet plus 1% TP (P2; 4 Broilers fed 15% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 g SALE/kg dietplus 0.5% TP (P3 and; 5 Broilers fed 15% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 g SALE/kg diet plus 1%TP (P4. Supplementation of SALE plus TP significantly affected body weight gain, feed intake, proteinintake, thigh meat haemorrhage and fat deposition (P<0.05. No significantly different was observed oncarcass odor, shank color, breast meat haemorrhage, leg and breast weight, meat cholesterol, fatty liverscore and tocixity (P>0.05. In conclusion suplementation of SALE plus TP had no beneficial effect onreducing fat deposition in broilers fed low protein diets, but it reduced blood uric acid but increasedblood glucose concentration.

  11. Effects of energy level in finisher diets and slaughter age of on the performance and carcass yield in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R de Albuquerque

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Male broilers were used to evaluate the effects of different energy levels in finisher diets and age of slaughter on performance, production pattern and carcass yield. Experimental design was a 2x3 factorial arrangement: energy level (ME in the finisher diet (3,200 and 3,600 kcal ME/kg and age of slaughter (42, 49 and 56 days, resulting in six treatments with four replicates. The finisher diet was fed only in the last week of the growing period. Characteristics evaluated were feed consumption (FC, body weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC, energy intake (EI, caloric conversion (CC, efficiency production index, production pattern, and carcass yield. The results showed better WG and CC for broilers fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg finisher diet. Broilers slaughtered at 42 and 49 days of age had better performance and higher annual production than broilers slaughtered at 56 days of age. Carcass yield was influenced by slaughter age and better breast yield was seen at 49 and 56 days than at 42 days of age. It was concluded that 3,200 kcal ME/kg induced the best overall performance. Poultry houses were efficiently used when broilers were slaughtered at 42 days of age. Meat:bone ratio was improved for broilers slaughtered at 49 and 56 days of age.

  12. Is the nutritional value of grains in broiler chickens' diets affected by environmental factors of soybean (Glycine max) growing and the variety of maize (Zea maize) in Benin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    -ecological zones and two varieties of white maize grains (Local and DMR-ESRW) produced in the same environmental conditions were compared. These grains were used in four balanced diets for unsexed broiler chickens (Re Bro) from 8 to 49 days of age. Per kg of dry matter (DM), a difference of about 0.396 MJ...... of metabolisable energy and 27 g of crude protein content were found between varieties of maize. Crude protein content was identical in both soybean grains, while a difference of 16 g/kg DM was found between them in crude fibre content. In spite of these differences in chemical components, there was no significant...... by soybean grains to supply mainly the dietary energy did not show an adverse effect of the diet on these variables. However, the variety of maize affected significantly the feed cost and the economic feed efficiency at starter phase. It can be concluded that under the particular conditions...

  13. Níveis de proteína e de arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte Protein and digestible arginine levels in pre-starter broiler rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Schaitl Thon

    2010-05-01

    21 days of age. A total of 600 Cobb chicks was assigned to a block randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 4 levels of digestible arginine (1.363; 1.463; 1.563 and 1.663% and two levels of crude protein (20 and 22% with eight treatments, each one with five replicates of 15 broilers each. For the experiment, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, gastrointestinal biometry, digestibility and retention of dry matter and nitrogen were evaluated. The highest weight gain from 1 to 14 days old was obtained with the 22% crude protein feed. The levels of digestible arginine had a quadratic effect in feed conversion from 1 to 10 days old. The esophagus and crop weights were higher for broilers fed 20% crude protein based diet; however, there was a quadratic effect of the digestible arginine levels on the intestine length at the age of 10 days and on the esophagus + crop weight at 3 days of age. At 14 days of age, there was interaction among crude protein and digestible arginine levels for liver relative weight, which showed quadratic response to 20% of crude protein, and for intestine length, whose highest value was obtained with 22% of crude protein and 1.603% of digestible arginine. Nitrogen balance and retention were the highest for levels of 22% of crude protein. The level of 1.363% of digestible arginine meets nutritional requirements of pre-starter broilers.

  14. Kaolin in the diet and its effects on performance, litter moisture and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Jorge de Lemos; Lígia Fátima Lima Calixto; Osvanira dos Santos Alves; Daniele Santos de Souza; Bárbara Brandt Moura; Túlio Leite Reis

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of kaolin in the diet on performance, litter moisture and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Four hundred ninety-two broiler chickens distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments and four replicates of 41 birds each, divided into three periods (15-21; 22-34; 35-52 days) were used. The following treatments were: Control - reference diet without added kaolin; treatment 1 - reference diet + 0.75...

  15. Thymus vulgaris L., Glycyrrhiza glabra or Combo® enzyme in corn vs. barley-based broiler diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Kalantar; Mostafa Rezaei; Jalal Salary; Hamid Reza Hemati Matin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris) or Glycyrrhizaglabra (G. glabra) in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1), the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount), Combo ® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively) in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6) based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively.Results:The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05). All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05). Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05). All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.

  16. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids) in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Karadas, F.; ERDOĞAN, S.; Kor, D; G Oto; Uluman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105), with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet); T2: seleniu...

  17. Replacement Value of Untreated or Fungal Treated Carrot Leaves for Corn in Broiler Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three hundred (21 days old) Arbor Acre chicks were used to evaluate the replacement value of untreated or Aspergillus niger treated carrot leaves for corn in broiler diets. Birds were fed a control diet or diets in which 10% untreated or treated carrot leaves was quantitatively substituted for corn in the control diet. Replacement of yellow corn with 10% untreated and treated carrot leaves caused insignificant (P 0.01) in both experimental groups compared to control. These results denoted that although there were negligible changes in body weight and mortality rate in broiler chicken fed untreated and treated carrot leaves the amino acid profile of carcasses lessen their nutritive value which is in consequence reflected negatively on human amino acids intake. Poultry production represents one of the quickest means of correcting the anomaly of protein inadequacy, yet the rising cost of feed which represents 70-80% of the cost of production among other costs, is a major setback (Opera. 1996). The price of most conventional feed ingredients such as yellow corn, soybean meal and fish meal is so high in recent time that it is becoming uneconomical to use them in poultry feeding (Esonu et al., 2001). Consequently poultry feed researchers have been forced to seek alternative and cheaper feed resources

  18. Productive traits of broiler chickens fed diets containing different growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different probiotics and prebiotics on the performance of broilers. One-day-old male broiler chicks from the Cobb strain (n=1,260 were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, considering 3 probiotics and 3 prebiotics sources. Nine treatments with 4 repetitions and 35 birds per parcel were used. The results showed that there was no influence of treatment on feed intake at the different rearing phases. Better weight gain (p<0.05 was seen when diet was supplemented with the phosphorylated mannanoligosaccharide-based prebiotic (MOS compared to diets without prebiotics. Feed conversion of birds fed diets with probiotics and prebiotics was better than feed conversion of birds not receiving such additives. Such better results were seen in the initial period (1 to 21 days, but not in the following period (1 to 35 days or in the total period (1 to 42 days. Better rearing viability was seen when MOS was used together with organic acidifier when compared to the diets without prebiotic. Viability was worst when no prebiotics or probiotics were used. It was concluded that beneficial effects were seen in performance of birds at 21 days when the growth promoters were used, but not at 42 days of age. Nevertheless, there was better growth viability at 42 days of age when growth promoters were added.

  19. Valine needs in starting and growing Cobb (500) broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernari, F C; Lelis, G R; Vieira, R A; Rostagno, H S; Albino, L F T; Oliveira Neto, A R

    2013-01-01

    Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10.7 and 9.40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5.5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested.

  20. Performance of broilers fed during 21 days on mash or pellet diets containing whole or ground pearl millet grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TR Torres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 20% whole-grain or ground pearl millet (PM in mash and pelleted diets on the performance, carcass traits, and organ weights of broilers reared until 21 days of age. A randomized block experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (diets containing corn and soybean meal, whole-grain PM, or ground PM x mash or pelleted diets, with five replicates per treatment and 10 birds per experimental unit, was applied. Diets were analyzed for mean geometric diameter, geometric standard deviation, pellet hardness, and density. Broiler performance, carcass yield, and organ weights were evaluated. On day 21, one bird with the average weight of each experimental unit was sacrificed for carcass evaluation. It was concluded that both as whole-grain and ground PM can be added to the diet of broilers up to 21 days of age. The dietary inclusion of PM results in higher abdominal fat deposition. Broilers fed the pelleted diets presented lower feed intake, better feed conversion ratio, lower gizzard and heart percentages, and higher carcass weight.

  1. Use of ground sugarcane in diets for free-range broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Espósito

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted using 276 free-range broiler chickens of the Gauchão lineage to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with ground sugarcane (GSC on performance, energy value of the diets, and carcass yield. The animals were assigned to three treatments and four repetitions of 23 animals each in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of the on-top inclusion or not of GSC in a balanced diet (BD (100% BD; 85% BD + 15% GSC, and 70% BD + 30% GSC. The experimental diets were offered from 29 to 85 days of age and feed intake, feed conversion and carcass yield of the chickens were evaluated at the end of the experimental period. A metabolism assay was conducted at 52 days of age to determine apparent metabolizable energy, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for retained nitrogen, and apparent metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MCDM, crude protein (MCCP, neutral detergent fiber (MCNDF and ether extract (MCEE. Dietary supplementation with GSC increased feed intake and worsened weight gain with increasing level of inclusion. MCDM, MCNDF and MCEE were higher for chickens receiving 85% BD + 15% GSC when compared to animals fed the control diet (100% BD, except for MCCP which was not influence by supplementation with GSC. Carcass yield, cut yield or organ weight did not differ between diets with and without GSC inclusion, while the weights of pancreas and gizzard were higher in chickens receiving 70% BD + 30% GSC compared to those receiving only BD. The on-top inclusion of GSC in the diet of free-range broiler chickens as a feed alternative is justified up to a level of 15% since it does not affect feed conversion of the animals and improves the utilization of dietary nutrients.

  2. Monobutyrine: a novel feed additive in the diet of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rapaccini

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present work was to validate the monoglyceride of butyric acid (MB as an alternative to antibiotics as growth promoters in the diet of broiler chickens. The approach is a kind of prolongation of previous works, in which a blend of mono-, di- and tri-glycerides of butyric acid have been previously tested.The results indicated that MB was very efficient in limiting the mortality of birds challenged with Eimeria spp., but did not appreciably impair the performance of unchallenged birds. In conclusion, the metabolisable energy content of MB appeared comparable with that of soybean oil and MB a reliable coccidiostat.

  3. Performans Ayam Broiler yang Diberi Berbagai Tingkat Protein Hewani Dalam Ransum (Performance of Broiler Applied by Various Levels of Animal Protein Diet)

    OpenAIRE

    Yunilas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is wanted to know the effect of application various level of animal protein diet to Performance of broiler. This experiment was arranged by completely random design (CDR) which consist 4 treatments and 6 replications. Therefore, there were 24 experiment units, and there were 5 DOC for each experiment unit. The parameters in this experiment are feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion. Result of this experiment showed that feed consumption and bo...

  4. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  5. Use of larvae meal as protein source in broiler diet: Effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Loponte, R; Marono, S; Piccolo, G; Parisi, G; Iaconisi, V; Gasco, L; Nizza, A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of insect meal from larvae ( larvae meal [TML]) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits of broilers. A total of eighty 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were homogenously divided into 2 groups (each consisting of 8 replicates of 5 birds). Up to 62 d of age, the groups were fed 2 isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for the ingredient used as the main protein source: the control group was fed a corn-SBM-based diet, whereas in the TML group, the SBM was completely replaced by TML. Broiler growth performance was measured during the trial. At 62 d of age, 2 broilers per replicate (16 per group) were slaughtered and apparent ileal digestibility coefficients and carcass and meat traits were determined. The use of TML as the main protein source in the broiler diet had no significant effect on most growth performance and carcass traits and chemical and physical properties of meat, the latter being important for marketing purposes. The feed conversion ratio in the entire experimental period (from 30 to 62 d) was improved in the TML group compared with the SBM group ( < 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, and CP in broilers fed the SBM diet were greater ( < 0.01) than the other group. The full digestive system in broilers fed SBM had a lower ( < 0.05) absolute and relative weight than that of broilers fed TML. Also, the weight and the percentage of the spleen in the SBM group were lower ( < 0.05) than those in the TML group. The length of the entire intestine in the group fed TML was greater ( < 0.05) than the other group and the same happened when intestinal length was expressed as percentage of broiler BW ( < 0.05). Among the different intestinal tracts, the ileum and ceca of broilers fed TML had a greater ( < 0.05) length than that of broilers fed SBM. Also, ceca weight (as an absolute value or percentage on

  6. Effects of diet acidification and xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, duodenal histology and gut microflora of broilers fed wheat based diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esmaeilipour, O.; Moravej, H.; Shivazad, M.; Rezaian, M.; Aminzadeh, S.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2012-01-01

    1. The objective of this experiment was to study the influences of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient digestibility, digesta viscosity, duodenal histology, and gut microflora of broilers fed on a wheat based diet. 2. The experiment was carried out as a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement

  7. Effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on some blood parameters and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Attar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on serum cholesterol and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six 1-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 12 pens containing 13 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 4 dietary treatments of 2 levels of protein (low and high and 2 levels of prebiotic (0 and 0.2% in a completely randomised design with factorial arrangement. There were no significant differences in serum HDL and LDL levels among treatments. Significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora between the high protein diet without prebiotic and the low protein diet containing prebiotic (P<0.05. The results of the present experiment showed that the addition of prebiotic to broiler diets containing 90% of the NRC protein recommendation significantly affects serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks (P<0.05.

  8. Effect of lipid sources and inclusion levels in diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Polycarpo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the interactions and effects of 2 and 4% addition levels of poultry slaughterhouse fat (chicken tallow and soybean oil in diets for broiler chickens. Two experiments were carried out using one-day-old male Cobb chicks in an entirely random design with a 2x2 factorial scheme. In the first experiment, 560 chicks were used to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics. In the second experiment, 100 chicks were used to determine the nutrient digestibility, dietary energy utilization and the lipase and amylase pancreatic activity. There was no interaction between the fat sources and the addition levels for any of the analyzed variables, except for the digestibility coefficient of dry matter (DCDM, which was higher in diets added with 2% soybean oil when compared to chicken tallow. The addition of 4% fat in the diet, regardless of fat source, improved the digestibility coefficient of ethereal extract (DCEE and increased weight gain and feed intake. Moreover, in the initial phase, the addition of 4% fat to the diet increased lipase activity when compared to diets with 2% addition, and a positive correlation between DCEE and pancreatic lipase activity was observed. In conclusion, there is no interaction between fat sources and addition levels, except for DCDM. Carcass characteristics are not influenced by any of the studied factors. The addition of 4% fat increases pancreatic lipase activity and improves DCEE, resulting in greater weight gain, regardless of the tested fat source, making chicken tallow a great alternative to soybean oil.

  9. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  10. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2015-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  11. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets.

  12. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets. PMID:26031004

  13. Effect of different digestible isoleucine/lysine ratios for broiler chickens

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    Fernando de Castro Tavernari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate different digestible isoleucine/lysine ratios on diets for broiler chickens in the starter (7 to 21 days and finishing (30 to 43 days phases. For the tests, the experimental design was of randomized blocks with seven treatments (six different digestible isoleucine/lysine ratios and a control treatment and eight repetitions of 25 and 20 birds (COBB males per experimental unit in the starter and finishing phases, respectively. The diets met the requirements, except for isoleucine and lysine. To avoid excess lysine in the experimental diets, the digestible lysine content was calculated to be 87% and 89% of the recommended for the starter and finishing phases, respectively. The control treatment was adequate in lysine and isoleucine. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and carcass yield in the two phases were evaluated. There was quadratic effect of different ratios on feed intake in the finishing phase and on weight gain and feed conversion rate in both phases. There was quadratic effect on breast meat yield and breast fillets in the starter phase, but there was no significant effect on carcass yield in the finishing phase. The digestible isoleucine/lysine ratio recommended for broilers in the starter phase (7 to 21 days is 66% and for the finishing phase (30 to 43 days, it is 68%.

  14. Performance of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Franco, L; McNab, J M; Pearson, R A; Belmar-Casso, R

    2002-05-01

    The performance and gut measurements of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal (CLM) were examined in two experiments. In the first experiment, 60 Hubbard chickens (30 males and 30 females; 2 weeks old) were fed on five maize diets; these were formulated using 0, 150 (CLM150), 250 (CLM250) or 350 (CLM350) g CLM/kg, and the fifth diet contained soyabean. In the second experiment, 148 Ross male chicks, 1 day old, were fed on three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic maize-soyabean-based diets, which included 0 (control), 150 (C150) or 250 (C250) g CLM/kg. The diets were offered ad libitum for 2 or 3 weeks in the first and second experiments, respectively. Food intake, weight gain and the food:weight gain ratio were recorded. The weight of the gizzard and intestine and the weight and length of the caeca were also determined in the second experiment. In experiment 1, the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet had a higher (p < 0.05) weight gain and final weight than birds fed on maize only or on the CLM150 diets. There were no differences for any of the variables studied between the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet and those fed on the CLM250, nor between males and females. In the second experiment, weight gain, food intake and the food:weight gain ratio for birds fed on C250 were lower (p < 0.05) than those in birds fed on either the control or C150 diets. The weights of the gizzard and intestine were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in birds fed on C250 (p < 0.05). The length and weight of the caecum from birds fed on the control diet were lower (p < 0.05) than those of birds fed on either the C150 or C250 diets. The results from this study suggest that CLM may be included up to 150 g/kg in commercial diets without having an adverse effect on poultry performance, and may also be mixed with maize up to 250 g/kg to improve the performance of chickens fed on low-protein diets. PMID:12094681

  15. Modifying broiler diets with phytase and vitamin D metabolite (25-OH D(3)): impact on phosphorus in litter, amended soils, and runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joshua M; Sims, J Thomas; Maguire, Rory O; Saylor, William W; Angel, Roselina

    2010-01-01

    Adding phytase and 25- hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH D(3)) to broiler diets has been shown effective at reducing total P concentrations in broiler litter. This study was conducted to determine the impact of field application of broiler litter from modified diets on P solubility in litter-amended soils and P losses in runoff. Five broiler diets and their resulting litters were evaluated: a high P diet, a low P diet, each of those basal diets with phytase added, and a low P diet with phytase and 25-OH D(3) added. A field study was initiated at two sites with each of the five broiler litters and a commercial P fertilizer (triple superphosphate [TSP]) applied at the same total P rate (150 kg P ha(-1)) and a control where no P was applied. Soil P was monitored over time at two depths (0-5 cm and 0-15 cm) soils were collected in the spring and fall to perform rainfall simulation studies. Broiler litter or TSP application increased soil water-soluble P and Mehlich 3-P concentrations relative to the control, however there were no consistent differences detected between litter treatments. Results from the rainfall simulation experiments indicate that diet modification with phytase or 25-OH D(3) does not increase the potential for P losses in runoff from amended soils relative to traditional diets. Moreover, broiler diet modification to reduce excreted P could be a potentially effective method for reducing watershed scale P surpluses in areas of intensive broiler production, without raising concerns over soluble P losses from litter-amended soils. PMID:20048320

  16. Effects of prebiotic (Fermacto) in low protein diet on some blood parameters and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Attar; Farid Firouzbakhsh; Hadi Sayyahzadeh; Mansour Rezaei; Mahalam Ghiyasi

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prebiotic (Fermacto) in low protein diet on serum cholesterol and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six 1-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 12 pens containing 13 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 4 dietary treatments of 2 levels of protein (low and high) and 2 levels of prebiotic (0 and 0.2%) in a completely ra...

  17. Litter characteristics and pododermatitis incidence in broilers fed a sorghum-based diet

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    CMC Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of footpad dermatitis and quality of broilers litter fed with sorghum grain and diets based in corn. It was used 544 male and female chicks, distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments and eight replications. The chicken feed was formulated and produced from corn, soybean meal and sorghum grain. In the formulation were kept constant levels of energy and protein in accordance with the following treatments: A. Control (diet based on corn and soybean meal; B. Grain sorghum (Whole Sorghum + soybean meal. At 35 and 42 days were evaluated mineral matter (A %, calcium (Ca%, phosphorus (P%, pH and dry matter (DM % of the poultry litter. To evaluate the footpad dermatitis were evaluated eight feet per treatment by visual analysis. At 35 and 42 days of age DM % MM (%, Ca (% P (% and pH of poultry litter no difference (p>0.05 was found between the treatments and the type of ingredient in the birds' diet is not related (p>0.05 with the incidence of footpad dermatitis. The incidence of footpad dermatitis and the quality of the litter weren't influenced by the type of the ingredient used in diet.

  18. Effects of Various Calcium Levels and Anionic Salts on Blood Acid-Base Balance, Growth Performance and Development of Tibial Dyscondroplasia in Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    KARAMÜFTÜOĞLU, Şerife; KOCABAĞLI, Neşe

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate the effects of chlorine and phosphate salts in the diet, and 2 different levels of diet Ca,on the acid-based balance,growth performance and development of tibial dyscondroplasia (TD)in broiler chicks. Three hundred Ross X PM3, 1-day-old broiler chicks were used during the 5-week trial.Chicks were divided into 6 groups. Three groups (2 experimental and 1 control)were given diets with Ca levels near the bottom limit of the normal requirement (starter ...

  19. Effect of dietary restriction and hay inclusion in the diet of slow-growing broilers

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    Karla P. Picoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary restriction and inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv Coastal hays in the diets of ISA Label JA57 slow-growing male broilers on performance, gastrointestinal tract characteristics, and economic viability. A total of 272 broilers at 21 days old were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments, four replicates, and 17 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of ad libitum concentrated feed (control intake, feed restriction (80% of the control intake, and feed restrictions with supplementation of alfalfa hay (80% of the control intake+20% alfalfa or Bermudagrass hay (80% control intake+20% Bermuda. Dietary restriction, with and without hay inclusion, negatively affected (P<0.05 the weight gain of the birds; however, feed conversion was improved (P<0.05 for animals that underwent only restricted feeding, which also had the best economic indices. Birds subjected to dietary restriction and inclusion of hays showed changes (P<0.05 in the gastrointestinal organs and intestinal morphology.

  20. Effect of diet supplemented with propolis extract and probiotic additives on performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition of broiler chickens

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    Peter Haščík

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research focused on the effects of propolis extract and probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1 × 109 CFU per 1 g of bearing medium on performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition of broiler chickens. The experiment was performed with 360 one day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of mixed sex. The chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n = 120 pcs chicks per group, namely, control (C and experimental (E1, E2. Each group consisted of 3 replicated pens with 40 broiler chickens per pen. The experiment employed a randomized design, and dietary treatments were as follows: 1. basal diet with no supplementation as control (group C, 2. basal diet plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixture (group E1, 3. basal diet plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. Besides, the groups were kept under the same conditions. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostats. As regards performance of broilers, all the investigated parameters were improved after addition of the supplements, especially after probiotic supplementation. However, neither propolis extract nor probiotic in diet of broiler chickens had any significant effect (p ≥0.05 on performance. Meat composition was evaluated as proximate composition (dry matter, crude protein, fat and ash, cholesterol content and energy value in the most valuable parts of chicken meat (breast and thigh muscles. The statistically significant results (p ≤0.05 were attained in fat, ash and cholesterol content, as well as energy value in both breast and thigh muscles after the propolis supplementation. To sum up, the present study demonstrated the promising potential of propolis extract and probiotic to enhance the performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition under conditions of the experiment with, however, statistical significance of results in a few

  1. Effect of fermented noni leaf (Morinda citrifolia L. in diets on cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass

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    Erman Syahruddin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken meat is very nutritious. It is sometimes blamed to cause strock attack and coronary heart disease in human, because of high fat and cholesterol contents in the chicken meat. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of fermented noni leaf levels in diets on the cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with eight experimental diets containing 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21% of fermented noni leaf powder. All diets were formulated to contain 22% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates with ten chickens per replicate. Two hundred and forty day old unsex broiler chicks Arbor Acress were fed ad lib. for eight weeks and then sacrificed. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and cholesterol content of carcass were taken as variable responses. Data were analyzed based on analysis of variance and orthogonal comparisons. Results showed that feed consumption, daily weight gain, FCR and carcass content were not affected by the levels of fermented noni leaf in the diet. However, cholesterol content of broiler carcass was significantly (P < 0.05 affected by the dietary treatments. Cholesterol content of the carcass was reduced processed 26.18% 73.06 to 53.76 mg/100g mg/100g chicken meat. The lowest cholesterol level was obtained by feeding the chickens with diets containing 21% fermented noni leaf.

  2. Comparison of broiler meat quality when fed diets supplemented with neutralized sunflower soapstock or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekel, A Y; Demirel, G; Midilli, M; Yalcintan, H; Ekiz, B; Alp, M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat type and level on broiler meat quality. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 types of fat including neutralized sunflower soapstock (NSS) and soybean oil (SO) at 3 levels of fat inclusion (2, 4, and 6%) was used with 5 replicates per treatment using 750 one-day-old broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. At the end of the study (d 36), 10 broilers from each replication were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Six carcasses from each replicate were used for meat quality evaluation. With the exception of 3 responses [breast meat lightness (L*) at 1 and 2 d, and redness (a*) at 5 d], there were no interactions between fat source and level. Breast meat pH at 15 min was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. However, breast meat pH at 24 h postmortem was decreased (P < 0.01) in broilers fed the NSS. Breast meat cooking loss, shear force, and color did not differ between fat sources. Breast meat cooking loss decreased (P < 0.05) when the dietary levels of fat increased. Thigh meat TBA reactive substances were not different due to dietary fat source and level. Breast meat and skin L* value significantly decreased when the dietary levels of fat increased. Breast meat a* value was highest for the 6% fat fed birds on d 2 (P < 0.05) and d 5 (P < 0.01). Higher dietary fat levels decreased the b* values of breast meat except d 5. Breast skin yellowness (b*) value was higher (P < 0.01) for the SO-fed birds compared with NSS-fed birds. Thigh meat of the birds fed the NSS was lighter (P < 0.05) than that of the birds fed SO diets except d 5. Overall, data suggest that NSS can be used as an alternative fat source to SO with little effect on meat quality.

  3. Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin, Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets

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    Hooge DM

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20% or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14% was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg, three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg. Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2, and increased body weight (Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

  4. Thesis Abstract Levels and forms of vitamin D in broilers diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Bertechini, A G

    2016-05-09

    This study aimed to evaluate the concentration effects of two vitamin D isoforms, cholecalciferol (D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) in broilers diets on performance, bone and physiological features of these birds. Of a total of 1920 one-day-old male chicks Cobb-500 were used from commercial hatchery, reared under bed creation systems. The animals were distributed in six treatments and eight replicates with 40 birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. The following vitamin D supplementation levels were applied: 70 and 87.5 μg/kg feed in initial phase; 56 and 70 μg/kg feed during the growth phase, and 35 and 47.35 μg/kg of feed in final phase of creation, obtained from two forms (D3 and 25-OHD3). The treatments consisted of supplementation of two levels from each isolated source and their associations (60% D3 + 40% 25-OHD3) according to the study phases. In the metabolism assay, 480 birds (14 and 35 days of age) were separated to be used for evaluation of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) retention and excretion during the periods of 19 to 21 days and 40 to 42 days of age. The diets were based on corn and soybean meal, with supplementation of phytase (500 FTU/kg). The performance, bone characteristics, plasma levels, bone radiographic density, carcass yield, and P and Ca retention were evaluated. In the initial creation phase, we observed an increased P excretion by broilers fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05). In addition, the association between the two vitamin D isoforms resulted in higher retention of Ca and P than the birds fed diets supplemented only with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05), and higher P retention when compared to birds fed diets supplemented with 25-OHD3 (P < 0.05). Dietary supplemental 25-OHD3 at 87.5 μg/kg resulted in higher plasma levels of Ca in relation to the same supplemented source with 70 μg/kg at 21 days of age (P < 0.05). In the final phase, the birds fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 presented the

  5. Thesis Abstract Levels and forms of vitamin D in broilers diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Bertechini, A G

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the concentration effects of two vitamin D isoforms, cholecalciferol (D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) in broilers diets on performance, bone and physiological features of these birds. Of a total of 1920 one-day-old male chicks Cobb-500 were used from commercial hatchery, reared under bed creation systems. The animals were distributed in six treatments and eight replicates with 40 birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. The following vitamin D supplementation levels were applied: 70 and 87.5 μg/kg feed in initial phase; 56 and 70 μg/kg feed during the growth phase, and 35 and 47.35 μg/kg of feed in final phase of creation, obtained from two forms (D3 and 25-OHD3). The treatments consisted of supplementation of two levels from each isolated source and their associations (60% D3 + 40% 25-OHD3) according to the study phases. In the metabolism assay, 480 birds (14 and 35 days of age) were separated to be used for evaluation of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) retention and excretion during the periods of 19 to 21 days and 40 to 42 days of age. The diets were based on corn and soybean meal, with supplementation of phytase (500 FTU/kg). The performance, bone characteristics, plasma levels, bone radiographic density, carcass yield, and P and Ca retention were evaluated. In the initial creation phase, we observed an increased P excretion by broilers fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05). In addition, the association between the two vitamin D isoforms resulted in higher retention of Ca and P than the birds fed diets supplemented only with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05), and higher P retention when compared to birds fed diets supplemented with 25-OHD3 (P < 0.05). Dietary supplemental 25-OHD3 at 87.5 μg/kg resulted in higher plasma levels of Ca in relation to the same supplemented source with 70 μg/kg at 21 days of age (P < 0.05). In the final phase, the birds fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 presented the

  6. Nutritive values of solid heavy phase in replacing corn in broilers diet

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    A.P Sinurat

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is still importing corn for feed. Utilization of nonconventional feedstuffs may reduce this importation. One of them is solid heavy phase (SHP, i.e., a solid substance gained after filtration of liquid waste of crude palm oil factory with a potential production approximately 2 million ton/year. This research was carried out to study the utilization of SHP to replace corn in broiler’s diet. The SHP was dried and analysed for its nutrient compositions. The metabolisable energy was measured by using hens. Feeding trial was then conducted by replacing corn with SHP in various levels, i.e., 0 (Control, 10, 20, 30, and 40%. All diets were formulated to be isocalori dan isonitrogen. Five hundred broilers DOC were used in this trial and fed for 5 weeks. The performances of the birds were obsereved as parameters. Results showed that the ash, minerals crude fibre and fat contents of the SHP were higher than the corn. The crude protein of the SHP was similar to that of corn, but some amino acids content of the SHP were lower than the corn. The AME and TME values of SHP were 3271 and 3465 cal/g, respectively. Results of feeding trial showed that body weight of the birds were less as the level of SHP to replace corn increased in the diet. The FCR also showed impared as the levels of SHP increased in the diet. However, replacement of 10% corn with SHP did not significantly affect the body weight and FCR as compared with the control. Feed consumptions of the birds were not significantly affected by replacing corn with SHP. Carcass yield and relative weights of some internal organs were not significantly different between dietary treatments. It is concluded that the solid heavy phase could be used to replace 10% corn in broiler’s diet.

  7. Efeito dos níveis de metionina naração, do peso inicial e da idade dos pintos de corte sobre a digestabilidade da ração pré-inicail - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.2260 Effectt of diet levels of methionine and initial weigt of broiler chicks on the digestibility of pre starter rations - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.2260

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    Marcos Barelos Café

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento avaliou os níveis de metionina da ração pré-inicial, o peso do pintos no primeiro dia e idade da ave sobre a digestibilidade da ração. Foram utilizados 320 pintos de corte com pesos inicias de 38 e 45 gramas, alimentados com rações com diferentes níveis de metionina (0,455%; 0,507; 0,599% e 0,611%. O delineamento foi em parcelas subdivididas ( 4 níveis de metionina x 2 pesos inicias em função da idade ( 2-4; 4-6; 6-8 dias. O método utilizado foi o de colheita total das excretas. Os níveis de metionina na ração, assim com o peso inicial dos pintos não afetou (p 0,05 como aumento da idade das aves. Pintos com pesos de 38 e 45g no primeiro dia têm a mesma capacidade de aproveitamento do alimento.This experiment evaluated the methionine levels of pre started diets and one day chick weight on the digestibility of ration. Three hundred and twenty chicks at initial weight of 38 and 45g fed with rations at different methionine levels (0,455%; 0,507; 0,599% e 0,611% were used in split plot experimental desing (4 levels od menthionine and two initial chick weight by age 2-4; 4-6 and 6-8 days. Results showed that the levels of menthionine and the weight of chicks did not effect the digestibility of diets improved with chick age increase. Chicks weighting 38 and 45g had the same ability to digest the feed.

  8. Study on inclusion of probiotic, prebiotic and its combination in broiler diet and their effect on carcass characteristics and economics of commercial broilers

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    M. A. Saiyed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In today era, broiler industry facing a problem of price hiking of feed of broiler, also in competitive era there should be lower feed cost, lower feed conversion ratio, low feed consumption yet good body weight at marketable age. Materials and Methods: Day-old commercial broiler chicks (n=200 were distributed randomly into 5 dietary treatment groups viz. control (T1, probiotic in the feed @ 100 g/tonne of feed (T2, prebiotic in the feed @ 500 g/tonne of feed (T3, probiotic + prebiotic @ 100 g/tonne and 500 g/tonne of feed, respectively (T4 and probiotic + prebiotic @ 50 g/tonne and 250 g/tonne of feed (T5. The growth of broilers and dressing weight along with the weight of giblet (liver without gall bladder, gizzard without serous layer, and heart without pericardium, Kidney, Abdominal fat, Length of Intestine and dressing percentage were measured. Economics in terms of Return Over Feed Cost (ROFC and European Performance Efficiency Index (EPEI was calculated. Results: Among all carcass traits, dressing percentage, abdominal fat weight and abdominal fat percentage (as a percentage of dressed weight were recorded significant (p<0.05 difference among different treatment groups. The income from selling of the birds was significantly (p<0.05 higher in all treatment groups than the control group but there was a non-significant difference between supplemented groups. Feed cost during whole experimental period was significantly (p<0.05 lower in synbiotic supplemented groups (T4 and T5 than other groups. ROFC of all treatment group found significantly (p<0.05 higher than the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the diet supplemented with synbiotic (100% level was most efficient in terms of EPEI and synbiotic (50% level in terms of ROFC. Hence, as feed supplement, synbiotic has a beneficial effect over probiotic and prebiotic when used alone.

  9. Simultaneous inclusion of sorghum and cottonseed meal or millet in broiler diets: effects on performance and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Bastianelli, D; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Umar Faruk, M

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (P<0.001) with sorghum-based diets compared with the control diet, whereas a combination of cottonseed meal and sorghum in the same diet did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (P<0.001) were observed in apparent ileal digestibility (%) of protein and energy with the cottonseed meal and sorghum/cottonseed meal-based diets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (P<0.001). Total tract digestibility of protein in sorghum and millet-based diets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (P<0.001). Higher total tract digestibility of starch were obtained with the control diet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two

  10. Effects of different phosphorus sources in the diet on bone composition and stability (breaking strength) in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemme, A; Spark, M; Wolf, P; Paschertz, H; Kamphues, J

    2005-01-01

    In two fattening trials (in each 100 broilers kept in four groups with 25 animals) as well as in a balance trial (four groups with four broilers in a group) the effects of inorganic phosphorus sources [monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (dihydrate; DCP) and defluorinated phosphate (DFP)] in broiler diets were examined. The four diets contained up to 9 g calcium and 6 g phosphorus per kg and comparable energy and nutrient contents. Controls were fed a commercial diet with Ca-Na-phosphate as inorganic phosphorus source supplemented by phytase. In both fattening trials body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion were proved as well as the calcium and phosphorus levels in serum, the breaking strength of tibia or humerus and the femur mineralization (ash content in the fat free dry matter). Furthermore, in the balance trial the retention of calcium and phosphorus was determined by calculation (intake minus excretion) as well as by analysis of body composition. On a high performance level (that was only slightly influenced by the different treatments), the addition of DFP resulted in significantly reduced phosphorus availability (estimated by analysis of the whole carcass: control/MCP/DCP/DFP: 48.6/46.0/45.7/35.5%). The significantly reduced phosphorus level in serum (1.77 +/- 0.20/1.77 +/- 0.24/1.73 +/- 0.28 1.34 +/- 0.33 mmol/l) indicates the lower phosphorus retention in broilers given DFP. Furthermore, the crude ash content (582 +/- 17.6/580 +/- 18.6/563 +/- 15.2/547 +/- 29.7 g/kg fat free DM) and the breaking strength of bones (in right tibia in trial 2: 232 +/- 82.4/227 +/- 51.5/232 +/- 41.7/196 +/- 655 N) were lowest when given DFP. For diagnostic purposes it is of special interest that the phosphorus levels in the serum reflected markedly the different concentrations of available phosphorus in the diet.

  11. Effect of sepiolite supplementation on broiler growth performance and carcass yield

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    M. Hadj Ayed,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of incorporating sepiolite into diet on growth performance were studied in broilers. A total of 600 one day-old Hubbard JV chicks of both sexes were divided into 12 litter pens (50 chicks per pen. Pens were allotted randomly to four diets: diet 0 (D0, diet 0.5 (D0.5, diet 1 (D1, and diet 2 (D2 (with 4 replications x 50 birds/diet. Dietary treatments were achieved by incorporating 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%, respectively, of sepiolite into rations based on corn and soybean meal, for starter, grower, and finisher periods. Growth performance, mortality rate (MR, feed intake (FI, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated weekly. At 36 days of age, twelve male and female broilers from each pen were slaughtered to evaluate hot carcass yield (HCY. Results showed that overall growth performances were significantly enhanced by increasing the percentage of sepiolite in the diet and the best results were obtained for the lot fed D2. Live body weight at 36 days of age and daily gain were improved (P<0.05 by about 11%, while overall FI and FCR were reduced (P<0.05 by 6% and 15%, respectively. The effect of sepiolite on chicks' performances was more important (P<0.01 between 1 and 21 days of age than in the rest of the experimental period. Furthermore, the dose of sepiolite in the diet had no effect (P = 0.23 on either MR (1.4% or HCY (73%. Incorporating sepiolite into broiler diets improved growth performances and feed efficiency particularly in starter and grower periods, and a 2% dose seemed to generate the best results. However, economic aspects for using optimal sepiolite doses in broiler diet formulation should be addressed.

  12. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dongjean; Kang, Sang S; Kim, Dong W; Kim, Sang H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2011-01-01

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed. In this study, the protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets were assessed in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Chickens were fed a regular diet supplemented with ground Aloe vera throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 2 days prior to infection with 1 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or loss between the Aloe vera-supplemented and unsupplemented groups with or without E. maxima infections. Fecal oocyst shedding decreased significantly (p Aloe vera as compared to the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the Aloe vera-supplemented group showed significantly fewer intestinal lesions (p Aloe vera could be used an alternative treatment for controlling avian coccidiosis.

  13. Quality of broiler meat of the free-range type submitted to diets containing alternative feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Faria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work had the intention of investigating the effect of the use of alternative feeds as part replacers in diet-formulating, evaluating the characteristic physicochemical alterations and centesimal composition of the free-range chicken. In the experiment a total of 192 (one hundred and ninety-two birds of the Pescoço Pelado (Label Rouge strain arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD formed by 4 treatments (Treatment 1 (Control, Treatment 2 (10% of the inclusion of rice bran, Treatment 3 (10% of the inclusion of ground cassava leaf and Treatment 4 (10% of the inclusion of ground leucaena hay with 8 replicates per treatment were used. The results revealed greater values of b* (yellow, Saturation (C* and pH for broiler meat with inclusion of ground cassava leaf and leucaena, while for the other variables of physicochemical composition, no influences of the treatments were not found. For centesimal composition the treatments showed greater values of moisture in relation to the control treatment. For sex, only a difference for the content of b* and C* was found, with higher values for female. The use of the alternative feedstuffs has not revealed marked influences on the chemical composition and quality parameters of free-ranging chicken’s meat with the use of replacement up to 10% in the diets.

  14. Butyric acid glycerides in the diet of broiler chickens: effects on gut histology and carcass composition

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    Andrea Martini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to verify the effects of butyric acid glycerides, as a supplemental ingredient in the diet, on live performance of broiler chickens and on the morphology of their small intestine, since short chain fatty acids are known as selective protection factors against intestinal microbial parasites, potent growth promoters of the gut wall tissues, also in terms of immune modulation response. An experiment was carried out on 150 Ross 308 female chickens, allotted to 5 treatments, over a 35 d ays period: the control, with soybean oil as the energy supplement, and 4 treatments with increasing amounts (0.2, 0.35, 0.5, 1% mixed feed of a mixture of butyric acid glycerides (mono-, di- and tri- glycerides. Treated animals showed a higher live weight at slaughtering (P<0.05 with a better feed conversion rate. The carcase characteristics were not influenced, but the small intestine wall resulted slightly modified with shorter villi, longer microvilli (P<0.01 and larger crypts depth in jejunum (P<0.01, only with lowest concentration of the supplement (0.2%. It is concluded that butyric acid glycerides are an efficient supplement to broilers’ diets, deserving particular attention as a possible alternative to antimicrobial drugs, which have been banned in Europe.

  15. Relative bioavailability of tribasic zinc sulfate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-xiang; MA Xin-yan; LU Lin; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the relative bioavailability of tribasic zinc (Zn) sulfate relative to Zn sulfate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-d-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were randomly assigned by body weight of birds to one of seven treatments involving a 2×3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn kg–1) and two Zn sources (tribasic Zn sulfate and Zn sulfate) plus a control with no added Zn for an experimental phase of 14 d. Plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas metalothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed at 6 or 14 d of age post-hatching. The results showed that plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA increased linearly (P<0.002) as dietary Zn concentration increased at 6 or 14 d of age. The R2 for a linear model was greater on d 6 than on d 14 for the above 4 responsive criteria, and among these indices, the iftting of the tibia ash Zn concentration was the best (R2=0.99). Therefore, based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regressions of the above 4 indices of the birds at 6 d of age on daily intake of dietary Zn, the bioavailabilities of tribasic Zn sulfate relative to Zn sulfate (100%) were 95.6% (P=0.18), 83.5% (P=0.01), 87.9% (P=0.53), and 75.9% (P=0.38) for the tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, plasma Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA, respectively. The results indicated that generaly, Zn from tribasic Zn sulfate was as available as Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.

  16. Performance and carcass characteristics of free-range broiler chickens fed diets containing alternative feedstuffs

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    PB Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD, with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings, abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.

  17. Carcass, organ and organoleptic characteristics of broilers fed yeast treated raw soya bean and full fat soya bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Onwumelu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carcass, Organs andOrganoleptic Characteristics of broilers fed yeast treated raw soya bean (RSBand full fat soya bean (FFSB were studied using one hundred and eighty day oldchicks. Standard poultry management techniques were applied and experimenteddiets provided ad libitum. Fifteen diets consisting of various proportions ofFFSB, RSB and yeast were formulated for the starter phase (0- 28 days andfinisher phase (29-56 days, respectively. The diets in each phase wereformulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous with the starter dietscontaining approximately 2900 kcal/kg ME and 23% crude protein, and thefinisher diets containing approximately 3000 kcal/kg and 20% crude protein. Thecarcass and organs studied include weights after defeathering, cut- up partswhich include thighs drumstick, shanks, wings, neck, back, breast head, andorgans such as heart, liver, spleen and gizzard. The lengths of theproventriculus, small intestine, colon and caeca were also measured. The studyshowed that RSB at the levels fed with and without yeast inclusion had nolethal effect on broiler chickens. However, higher performance may be achievedwhen RSB is fed at 25 % with 6 g/kg yeast inclusion at starter phase and at 25% without yeast or 75 % with 12 g/kg yeast inclusion. The study therefore,further maintained that inclusion of RSB with or without yeast in the diets ofbroilers can equally produce broiler with good weight comparable with feedingFFSB or conventional diets; feeding 75 % FFSB + 25 % RSB without yeastinclusion is capable of increasing the proportion of the broilers’ head andshank; RSB inclusion in broiler diets cause increase in the weight of thegizzard, pancreas as well as on the abdominal fat, and feeding FFSB and RSBwith or without east inclusion do not exert any noticeable effect on theorganoleptic ualities tenderness, flavour and in general acceptability ofbroilers. However, RSB enhances the juiciness of broilers

  18. Response of broiler finishers to diets containing graded levels of processed castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, A O; Okorie, A U

    2009-04-01

    A 4-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of dehulled and cooked castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal on the performance of broiler finishers. Castor oil bean seeds were dehulled and detoxified by cooking in two stages at 100 degrees C for 50 min per cooking. Sixty 6-week-old broiler birds (Anak strain) were randomly divided into four groups of 15 birds each. The groups were fed four isocaloric (2.90 Mcal of metabolizable energy/kg) and isonitrogenous (21% crude protein) diets containing 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% dehulled and cooked castor oil bean meal (CBM) for 4 weeks. Results showed that there were significant (p 0.05) different from the ADWG of birds on 10% CBM diet. Birds fed diets containing10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and non-significant (p > 0.05) ADWG. Birds fed 20% CBM diet had the least (p 0.05) PCV values. Birds fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and significantly (p < 0.05) lower heamoglobin than birds fed 20% CBM diets. There were also significant (p < 0.05) differences among treatments in dry matter (DM), nitrogen, ether extract (EE) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) retention. Birds fed 0% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher retention of DM, nitrogen and NFE than birds on 10%, 15% and 20% CBM diets. Birds fed 10% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher DM, nitrogen and NFE retention than birds on 15% and 20% CBM diets. The lowest retention of DM, nitrogen and NFE was recorded at the 20% CBM inclusion level. Birds fed 0% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher EE retention than birds on 15% and 20% CBM diets. The lowest EE retention was observed at the 20% CBM inclusion level. The results of the study indicate that up to 10% dehulled and cooked CBM can be included in broiler finisher rations for optimum performance.

  19. Prediction of metabolisable energy value of broiler diets and water excretion from dietary chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, B; Lessire, M; Juin, H

    2013-08-01

    Thirty various pelleted diets were given to broilers (8/diet) for in vivo measurements of dietary metabolisable energy (ME) value and digestibilities of proteins, lipids, starch and sugars from day 27 to day 31, with ad libitum feeding and total collection of excreta. Water excretion was also measured. Amino acid formulation of diets was done on the basis of ratios to crude proteins. Mean in vivo apparent ME values corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) were always lower than the AMEn values calculated for adult cockerels using predicting equations from literature based on the chemical analyses of diets. The difference between mean in vivo AMEn values and these calculated AMEn values increased linearly with increasing amount of wheat in diets (P = 0.0001). Mean digestibilities of proteins, lipids and starch were negatively related to wheat introduction (P = 0.0001). The correlations between mean in vivo AMEn values and diet analytical parameters were the highest with fibre-related parameters, such as water-insoluble cell-walls (WICW) (r = -0.91) or Real Applied Viscosity (RAV) (r = -0.77). Thirteen multiple regression equations relating mean in vivo AMEn values to dietary analytical data were calculated, with R² values ranging from 0.859 to 0.966 (P = 0.0001). The highest R² values were obtained when the RAV parameter was included in independent variables. The direct regression equations obtained with available components (proteins, lipids, starch, sucrose and oligosaccharides) and the indirect regression equations obtained with WICW and ash parameters showed similar R² values. Direct or indirect theoretical equations predicting AMEn values were established using the overall mean in vivo digestibility values. The principle of indirect equations was based on the assumption that WICW and ashes act as diluters. Addition of RAV or wheat content in variables improved the accuracy of theoretical equations. Efficiencies of theoretical equations for predicting AMEn

  20. Introduction of a Greenhouse as an Alternative Housing System to a Conventional House and Its Impact on Broiler Performance and Blood and Carcass Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khajali F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the growth performance as well as blood and carcass variables of two broiler strains reared in a conventional broiler house and a modified greenhouse equipped with cooling pads and tunnel ventilation system. Eight hundred day-old chickens of two commercial strains (Ross  308 and Lohmann were selected and placed in  8 floor pens (4 pens of  50 broilers for each strain in each housing system. The pens were located randomly throughout the modified greenhouse or the conventional broiler house (two-way ANOVA design. The broilers were provided a standard starter and grower diets  ad libitum. The environmental conditions (i.e.  temperature, relative humidity, lighting program and ventilation rate were kept  similar between the two houses. The results showed that the birds in the greenhouse consumed significantly (P

  1. Feeding high-moisture corn grain silage to broilers fed alternative diets and maintained at different environmental temperatures

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    VC Cruz-Polycarpo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the dietary substitution of dry corn by high-moisture corn grain silage (HMCGS were evaluated on the performance, nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical parameters of broilers reared in an alternative production system and submitted to different environmental temperatures. A total of 288 one-day-old male Cobb chicks were distributed according to a randomized block design in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral or cold and four levels of HMCGS in substitution of dry corn (0%, 20%, 40% or 60%. The acid analysis showed that the evaluated HMCGS contained average percentage values of ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid (expressed in 100% of dry matter of 0.7690, 2.7320 and 0.0249%, respectively. Propionic and butyric acids were not detected. Dry corn and HMCGS presented pH values of 5.8 and 3.3, respectively. The inclusion of HMCGS reduced dietary pH, as shown by the values of 5.7, 5.4, 5.1 and 4.8 recorded for the diets containing 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% of HMCGS, respectively. There was no significant interaction between diets and environmental temperature. HMCGS may replace up to 40% dry corn in broiler diets when performance, triglyceride levels, and HDL-cholesterol ratio is considered, and up to 60% when nutrient digestibility is evaluated. High environmental temperature impairs broiler performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemistry, demonstrating the influence of environmental temperature on broiler metabolism and performance.

  2. Fiber and nonstarch polysaccharide content and variation in common crops used in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-09-01

    The current paper reviews content and variation in fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) of common crops used in broiler diets. The cereal grain is a complex structure, and its cell walls (CW) differ in their composition and hence properties. Arabinoxylan (AX), mixed linkage (1→3; 1→4)-β-glucan (β-glucan), cellulose, and the noncarbohydrate component lignin are the predominant polymers in cereals. They occur in different proportions depending on the species and tissue type. Rye, triticale, wheat, corn, and sorghum are all rich in AX, whereas barley and oats contain a high level of β-glucan. The AX from rye, wheat, and triticale and β-glucan from barley and oats are to a large extent soluble, whereas the solubility of AX found in corn and sorghum is lower than the other cereals. The ratio of arabinose to xylose gives a crude indication of the AX structure, which varies between the endosperm, the aleurone and the outer grain layers as well as between the same tissues from different grains. Varietal differences in AX structure of the endosperm are also identified. From the analysis of the released oligomers after hydrolysis with a specific (1→3,1→4)-β-d-glucan hydrolase, it is found that the ratio of trisaccharides (degree of polymerization 3) and tetrasaccharides (degree of polymerization 4) varies depending on the source, being higher in barley than in oats but lower than in wheat. The molecular weight of β-glucan is higher than that of AX, and both polymers contribute to the viscosity of the extract. However, because AX molecules are more resistant to degradation than β-glucan, the use of AX rich grains in broiler diets is usually more problematic than those containing high concentrations of β-glucan. The cereal coproducts (brans and hulls) are concentrated sources of cellulose, lignin, and insoluble AX, but β-glucan can also be present mainly in rye and wheat brans. The CW composition of seeds and grains of protein crops and feedstuffs are

  3. The use of blends of cassava flour and extruded full-fat soybeans in diets for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldroup, P W; Ritchie, S J; Reese, G L; Ramsey, B E

    1984-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of blending different levels of a low-prussic acid cassava flour with extruded full-fat soybeans in diets for growing broiler chickens. The full-fat soybeans contribute oil which increases the energy content of the diet, aids in overcoming the dusty nature of cassava, and provide high-quality protein. One-third, two-thirds, and all of the maize was replaced by cassava in diets with none, 12.5 and 25% extruded full-fat soybeans. Diets were fed in pelleted form to broiler chickens for a 47-day feeding trial. Replacement of one-third of the maize with cassava had no adverse effects on body weight gains in this study with a reduction in weight at higher levels at the conclusion of the study. Feed utilization was reduced more severely than was anticipated. However, growth rate on the higher levels of cassava was reasonably good, indicating that producers might feed these diets for a slightly longer period of time and produce chickens more economically if cassava meal were available at a cost significantly less than that of maize. PMID:6544063

  4. Effect of energy levels of diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance and carcass and breast yields of broilers fed two different energy levels (3,200 or 2,900 kcal ME/kg and two ways of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA between 21 and 42 days of age. The results showed that broilers fed the diet containing 3,200 kcal ME/kg had higher weight gain (P=0.015, better feed conversion (P=0.001, and higher abdominal fat deposition (P=0.001 as compared to those fed the diet containing 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Diets formulated on DAA basis promoted higher weight gain (P=0.043, better feed conversion (P=0.010 and better conversion of ME intake into weight gain (P=0.007 as compared to those formulated on TAA basis. The results of this study suggest that formulation based on DAA is necessary if the diets contain protein sources that are not reliable in terms of amino acid digestibility. The response to formulation based on DAA was minimized when birds received the low energy level diet (2,900 kcal ME/kg.

  5. The effect of Glyptotermes montanus termites supplementation as protein source in the diet for broiler strian Rokky-301

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry T Uhi

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Termites (Isoptera as one of local feed in several places in Indonesia just like Irian jaya, is available, easy to find and having protein in a high level. Termites nest which high about 0,5-2 metres above ground is easy to find at all low area merauke which having land areal about 20.000 ha, otherwise in other distrik, it can easily to find in a forest especialy in a new open land for Agriculture and transmigration. The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of Glyptotermes montanus Kemner termites suplementation as protein resource in the diet of broiler strain Rokky-301. One hundred eighty DOC Rokky-301 were randomly divided in to five treatment with three replicates of 12 chickens each. The treatment diets were basal diet (R0, basal diet + fresh termites 0,5% (R1, basal diet + fresh termites 1% (R2, basal diet + fresh termites 1,5% (R3, and Comercial diet (R4 as positive control. The chickens were fed the treatment diets over 50 days. The results showed that the chicken fed R3 diet had significantly higher body weight gain than did chicken fed other diets except for chicken fed commercial diet (R4. Feed consumption of chicken fed R0 diet was significantly higher than other treatment diets. However 1,5% fresh termites suplementation (R3 significantly reduced feed consumption. Basal diet (R0 had highest feed conversion compared to other treatment diets. However 1,5% fresh termites suplementation (R3 was significantly improved feed conversion compared to other treatment.

  6. Effects of feeding diet contaminated with deoxynivalenol on plasma chemistry in growing broiler chickens and the efficacy of glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Faixová Zita; Faix Š.; Leng L.; Váczi P.; Renáta Szabóová; Maková Zuzana

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of modified glucomannan (Mycosorb®) on plasma chemistry of broiler chicks after deoxynivalenol (DON) inclusion in the diet from hatching to 6 weeks of age. Three groups of broiler chicks were formed with 14 birds in each group. The three diets included control (0.2 ppm deoxynivalenol), deoxynivalenol-contaminated (3 ppm deoxynivalenol) and deoxynivalenol- contaminated (3 ppm deoxynivalenol) plus Mycosorb®(2 g/kg diet). After 6 weeks of feeding all...

  7. Inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the diet of broiler breeders on performance and incubation parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Duarte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of a diet containing canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3 on the production and reproductive performances of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aged 53 to 61 weeks. The study included 36,000 Cobb 500 female and 3,600 male broiler breeders aging 51 weeks. The birds were housed in three poultry houses divided into four plots, totaling 12 experimental units each containing 3,000 females and 300 males. The birds received the following treatments: control diet (without the studied additives or the control diet with the addition of 60mg kg-1feed of 25-(OH-D3 and canthaxanthin feed (6mg of canthaxanthin and 2,760,000IU of 25-(OH-D3 per kg of feed per the supplier's recommendations. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block design with two treatments and six replicates. The results were subjected to analysis of variance followed by the F-test. The treatments had no effect on egg production, usability of eggs and number of incubatable eggs per bird housed. The inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-(OH-D3 in the diet reduced embryonic mortality while increasing egg yolk pigmentation, hatching percentage, and number of viable chicks produced per bird. Therefore, the use of 60mg kg-1of 25-(OH-D3 plus canthaxanthin is recommended in the diet of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aging 53 to 61 weeks to improve important reproductive traits that have great economic impacts on poultry farms

  8. Relative bioavailability of zinc-methionine chelate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Haiqing; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Zhang, Xueyuan; Li, Hua; Lu, Yufei; Luo, Xugang

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the bioavailability of the organic Zn-methionine chelate relative to inorganic Zn source (ZnSO4•7H2O) for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broiler chicks were randomly allotted to one of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn/kg) and two Zn sources (Zn-methionine chelate and Zn sulfate) plus a Zn-unsupplemented control diet containing 29.2 mg of Zn/kg by analysis for an experimental phase of 21 days. Bone and pancreas were collected for testing Zn concentrations and pancreas metallothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) level at 7 or 21 days of age. The results showed that bone and pancreas Zn concentrations and MT mRNA level in pancreas increased linearly (P chelate relative to ZnSO4•7H2O (100%) were 120 and 115%, respectively (P > 0.22). The results indicated that the Zn from the Zn-methionine chelate was just as bioavailable as the Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.

  9. Response of broiler chickens to different dietary crude protein and feeding regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO Oyedeji

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Five isocaloric (3200kcal/kg diets were used in an experiment designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP and feeding regimens on broiler performance. Day-old broilers were randomly distributed into four groups using a completely randomized design. Each group was replicated three times with ten broiler chicks per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Broilers in group 1 received 23% CP from 0 to 3 weeks, 20% CP from 3 to 6 weeks and 18% CP from 6 to 8 weeks, while broilers in group 2 received 23% CP between 0 and 6 weeks and 18% CP between 6 and 8 weeks. Besides, broilers in group 3 were fed 23% CP from 0 to 4 weeks and 16% CP from 4 to 8 weeks, whereas group 4 was given 18% CP from 0 to weeks. Water was supplied ad libitum for broilers in the different dietary groups. A metabolic trial was carried out on the third week of the experiment using a total collection method. Proximate analyses of diets and faecal samples were performed according to the methods outlined by the Association Of the Official Analytical Chemists. Results at market age showed that broiler performance with respect to feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio and water intake were not significantly influenced by CP regimens (p>0.05. Furthermore, CP regimens did not significantly influence broilers liveability (p>0.05. Protein retention, fat utilization and available fiber were not significantly influenced among treatments (p> 0.05. Economic data showed that cost to benefit ratio of producing broilers was comparable among broilers for all CP regimens used in this trial (p>0.05. It was concluded that a single diet of 18% CP and 3200kcal/kg metabolizable energy would be most suitable and convenient for farmers who are engaged in on-farm feed production for broilers as compared with the standard feeding regimens of broiler starter and broiler finisher diets.

  10. Effects of inclusion Aspergillus niger fermented shrimp waste meal in broiler diets on live performance and digestive organ weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan H. Djunaidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels of shrimp waste meal fermented with Aspergillus niger (LUF in diets on growth performance and digestive organ weight of broilers. A total of 75 d-old chicks were randomly allocated to 5 (five treatments in 3 replication pens of 5 birds each. Treatments consisted of LUF inclusion of 0 (control, and 5, 7.5, 10 and 12,5% (P0, P1, P2, P3 and P4 in the diets. Birds were raised under standard condition and provided with feed and water ad-libitum. Feed and birds were weighed weekly up to 35 days to determine body weight, feed intake and feed conversion. At the end of experimental period, the birds were slaughatered and dressed up to determine carcass percentage and digestive organ weight. There was a significant negative linear response in body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion with increase of LUF more than 7.5% in the diets until 35 days of age, but % carcass was almost the same for all treatment. There was no significant response in digestive organ weight with increasing levels of LUF. The present result indicated that LUF could be considered as a potential feed ingredient as protein source of broiler but its inclusion should be limited until 7.5% of the diet to maintain growth performance and digestive organ weight.

  11. Replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets. PMID:26574036

  12. Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum B1 on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, and short chain fatty acid profiles in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Q; Zeng, X F; Zhu, J L; Wang, S; Liu, X T; Hou, C L; Thacker, P A; Qiao, S Y

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum B1 on broiler performance, cecal bacteria, and ileal and cecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA). The study also determined whether it was necessary to feed Lactobacillus throughout the entire growth period or if the beneficial effects could be obtained by supplementation during the starter or finisher period only. Experiment 1 was conducted with 72 broilers assigned to 2 treatments (N=6). One treatment was the basal diet (Con), and the other was the basal diet supplemented with 2×10(9) cfu/kg L. plantarum B1 (Wh). In experiment 2, 144 one-day-old broilers were assigned to 4 treatments (N=6) including a basal diet (Con), the basal diet supplemented with 2×10(9) cfu/kgL. plantarum B1 during d one to 21 only (St), the basal diet supplemented with L. plantarum B1 during d 22 to 42 only (Fn), and, finally, the basal diet supplemented with L. plantarum B1 from d one to 42 (Wh). Experiment 1 showed that L. plantarum B1 enhanced broiler average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). In experiment 2, during the starter period, broilers in the Wh and St treatments had higher ADG (P<0.05) than broilers in the Con and Fn, while during the finisher period, broilers in the Wh and Fn had higher ADG (P<0.01) and improved FCR (P<0.01) compared with broilers in the Con and St. On d 42, broilers in the Wh and Fn had decreased E. coli (P<0.05) and increased lactic acid bacteria (P<0.05) in their cecal digesta. L. plantarum B1 also increased (P<0.05) ileal mucosal sIgA as well as ileal and cecal SCFA. However, L. plantarum B1 had no effect on intestinal morphology. In conclusion,L. plantarum B1 plays a positive role in broilers. Supplementation during the finisher period or the entire growth period is superior to supplementation during the starter period only.

  13. WELFARE OF BROILERS INGESTING A PRE-SLAUGHTER HYDRIC DIET OF LEMON GRASS

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    AFB Royer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe pre-slaughter period is considered critical in broiler production. Several factors contribute to increase the birds' stress, such as handling, harvesting, and transportation, negatively affecting their welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratusStapf to the drinking water of broilers during the pre-slaughter period on their behavior, blood cortisol, and surface temperature. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD, Dourados, MS, Brazil. In total, 2594 broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates per treatment. Treatments consisted of three different lemon grass levels (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf used in the form of an infusion (0, 0.1, and 5 g per L of water, sex (male or female, and genetic strain (Ross(r 308 or Cobb(r 500. The infusion was offered when birds were 42 days old. On that day, blood was collected for blood cortisol level determination, broiler surface temperature was recorded, and an ethogram was applied to register broiler behavior. Blood cortisol level and broiler surface temperature were not affected by treatments (p>0.05. The behavior of beak opening was different between the genetic strains (p<0.05, being more frequent in Ross(r 308 broilers. Lemon grass water content did not affect broilers' surface temperature when consumed during the pre-slaughter period.

  14. Interaction of calcium and phytate in broiler diets. 2. Effects on total and soluble phosphorus excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytem, A B; Plumstead, P W; Maguire, R O; Kwanyuen, P; Burton, J W; Brake, J

    2008-03-01

    Dietary Ca has been reported to influence the amount of phytate excreted from broilers and affect the solubility of P in excreta. To address the effects of dietary Ca and phytate on P excretion, 12 dietary treatments were fed to broilers from 16 to 21 d of age. Treatments consisted of 3 levels of phytate P (0.10, 0.24, and 0.28%) and 4 levels of Ca (0.47, 0.70, 0.93, and 1.16%) in a randomized complete block design. Feed phytate concentrations were varied by formulating diets with 3 different soybean meals (SBM): a low-phytate SBM, a commercial SBM, and a high phytate Prolina SBM having phytate P concentrations of 0.15 to 0.51%. Fresh excreta was collected from cages during 2 separate 24-h periods; collection I commenced after the start of dietary treatments (16 to 17 d) and collection II followed a 3-d adaptation period (19 to 20 d). Ileal samples were also collected at 21 d. Excreta samples were analyzed for total P, water soluble P (WSP), and phytate P, whereas ileal samples were analyzed for total P and phytate P. Results indicated that excreta total P could be reduced by up to 63% and WSP by up to 66% with dietary inclusion of low-phytate SBM. There was a significant effect of dietary Ca on both the excreta WSP and the ratio of WSP:total P. As dietary Ca increased, the excreta WSP and WSP:total P decreased, with the effects being more pronounced following a dietary adaptation period. There was a linear relationship between the slope of the response in WSP to dietary Ca and feed phytate content for excreta from collection II (r(2) = 0.99). There was also a negative correlation between excreta phytate concentration and excreta WSP during both excreta collections. The response in WSP to dietary manipulation was important from an environmental perspective because WSP in excreta has been related to potential for off-site P losses following land application. PMID:18281571

  15. Use of larvae meal as protein source in broiler diet: Effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Loponte, R; Marono, S; Piccolo, G; Parisi, G; Iaconisi, V; Gasco, L; Nizza, A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of insect meal from larvae ( larvae meal [TML]) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits of broilers. A total of eighty 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were homogenously divided into 2 groups (each consisting of 8 replicates of 5 birds). Up to 62 d of age, the groups were fed 2 isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for the ingredient used as the main protein source: the control group was fed a corn-SBM-based diet, whereas in the TML group, the SBM was completely replaced by TML. Broiler growth performance was measured during the trial. At 62 d of age, 2 broilers per replicate (16 per group) were slaughtered and apparent ileal digestibility coefficients and carcass and meat traits were determined. The use of TML as the main protein source in the broiler diet had no significant effect on most growth performance and carcass traits and chemical and physical properties of meat, the latter being important for marketing purposes. The feed conversion ratio in the entire experimental period (from 30 to 62 d) was improved in the TML group compared with the SBM group ( principal protein contributor to the diet.

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens

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    Nihar Ranjan Sarangi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 1-day-old Vencobb broiler chickens of either sex were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each consisting of three replicates and each replicate having 30 birds for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were (1 control group with basal diet, (2 basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (at 400 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration, (3 basal diet supplemented with probiotic (at 100 g/tonne of starter ration and 50 g/tonne of finisher ration, and (4 basal diet supplemented with synbiotic(at 500 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration. The birds were provided with ad-libitum feed and drinking water during the entire experimental period. Results: The highest body weight observed in asynbiotic group, which was non-significantly (p>0.05 higher than thecontrol group. Prebiotic and probiotic groups showed lower body weight than synbiotic and control groups. A total feed intake did not show any significant (p>0.05 difference between experimental groups. There were no significant (p>0.05 differences in feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens in prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic groups as compared with control group. There was no significant (p>0.05 difference in the carcass traits with respect to dressing percentage, carcass percentage, heart weight, liver weight and gizzard weight, wing percentage, breast percentage, back percentage, thigh percentage, and drumstick percentage in Cobb broilers under study. Conclusion: The growth performance and percentage of carcass yield did not show any significant increase by the dietary inclusion of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic compared with unsupplemented control in a commercial broiler chicken.

  17. Effects of the Physical Form of Diet on the Outcome of an Artificial Salmonella Infection in Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratert, C; Sander, S J; Verspohl, J; Beyerbach, M; Kamphues, J

    2015-03-01

    To prove the hypothesis that the physical form of diet affects the outcome of an artificial infection with Salmonella Enteritidis in broilers, 7-day-old birds were allotted to one of four groups and fed botanically, and nearly also chemically identical diets, differing in grinding and further compaction. In total, two birds from each group (age 14 days) were administered on average 1.06 x 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of Salmonella Enteritidis directly into the crop by gavage and immediately put back as "seeder birds" into their respective groups. The salmonella status of each bird was analyzed by cloacal swabs, and at postmortem examination, cecal content and liver tissue samples were taken. Shedding (measured by cloacal swabs) was reduced significantly (P 2 mm. In this study the physical form of diet affected the outcome of an artificial infection with Salmonella Enteritidis significantly. PMID:26292538

  18. Effects of oregano essential oil supplementation to diets of broiler chicks with delayed feeding after hatching. Morphological development of small intestine segments

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    Şenay Sarıca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil (OEO on the morphological development of small intestine of broilers with different feeding times (immediate, 24, 48 or 72 h posthatching delayed feeding from d 0 to 14. The diets were supplemented with: no, 250 or 500 mg/kg of the OEO (OEO250 and OEO500, respectively. Fasting for 72 h significantly increased the weight and length of small intestine segments of broilers on d 14. The OEO250 and OEO500 significantly increased the jejunum villus height of chickens fed immediately and the duodenum villus height of broilers fasted for 48 h. The duodenum villus surface area of chickens fasted for 48 h and the ileum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h were significantly increased by the OEO250. The OEO500 significantly enhanced the duodenum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h and their ileum villus surface area fasted for 48 h. The crypt depths of small intestine segments of broilers fasted for 72 h were significantly reduced by OEO250 and OEO500. In conclusion, the dose of phenolic compounds in OEO reaching the small intestine might be enough for protecting the intestinal epithelial cells from damages of toxins and for removing the negative effects of delayed feeding on the morphological development of all the small intestine segments of broiler chicks on d 14.

  19. Effects of verbascoside supplemented diets on growth performance, blood traits, meat quality, lipid oxidation and histological features in broiler chickens

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    Michele De Marco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A trial has been performed to evaluate the effects of dietary verbascoside (VB on the growth performance, blood traits, meat quality and histological features of broiler chickens. Seventy-two male broiler chickens (Ross 708 were divided into three experimental groups (8 replicates: a control group (C; basal diet, a low VB group (LVB; basal diet+2.5 mg VB/kg feed and a high VB group (HVB; basal diet+5.0 mg VB/kg feed. The animals were kept in cages, three birds per cage. The trial lasted 35 days. Growth performance and carcass yield were recorded. Blood samples were collected at day 35 in order to evaluate the blood, serum and plasma parameters. As a result of this study, growth and slaughter performances were not affected by the dietary treatments. The LVB and HVB groups showed significantly lower concentrations of total protein (P=0.000, albumin (P=0.000, α-globulin (P=0.001 and β-globulin (P=0.023 than C group. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was higher in HVB group than in LVB and C groups (P=0.005. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances results indicated lower lipid oxidation in the LVB group than in C group. The most relevant histological feature was the lymphoid depletion observed in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius in LVB and HVB. Other studies are still needed to identify the optimal dosage and exposure time of VB dietary supplementation and to further investigate the effects of VB on lymphoid tissue as well as to establish the VB antioxidant effect on broiler chickens.

  20. The addition of charcoals to broiler diets did not alter the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K M; Bourassa, D V; Davis, A J; Freeman, M E; Buhr, R J

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In Experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% Aromabiotic (medium chain fatty acids). The ceca from seeders and penmates were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4, and 6 wk, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 3 wk, charcoal fed chicks had significantly lower cecal recovery (37% lower) of Salmonella via direct plating but no differences at wk 4 or 6. At 6 wk, broilers fed Aromabiotic had no recovery of Salmonella from ceca with direct plating and significantly, 18%, lower recovery with enrichment. In Experiment 2, the treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, 2 seeders were challenged with Salmonella and commingled with penmates and ceca sampled at 1 and 2 wk, and ceca from 5 penmates/pen at 3 to 6 wk. Weekly, the pH of the crop and duodenum was measured from 1 penmate/pen and the litter surface sampled. At the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that penmates had colonized at 1 and 2 wk. Cecal Salmonella showed no differences except at 4 wk, when activated bamboo charcoal had a 18% lower recovery of Salmonella (enrichment) compared to the control (88%). Similar to Experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 wk with direct plating reoccurred. The pH of the duodenum and the crop were not different among treatments. Crop pH (6.0) for all treatments were significantly higher at wk 1 compared to wk 2 to 6. Charcoals had minimal effect on Salmonella recovery in the ceca, but following defeathering, broilers fed charcoals had significantly lower Salmonella

  1. Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic and synbiotic on growth performance, organ weights, and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Abdel-Raheem, S; Böhm, J

    2009-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of synbiotic and probiotic on broiler performance, carcass yield, organs weights, and histomorphological measurements of small intestine. Six hundred 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control, 2) basal diets supplemented with synbiotic (1 kg of Biomin IMBO/ ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets), 3) basal diets supplemented with probiotic (1 kg of a homofermentative and a heterofermentative Lacto-bacillus sp./ton of feed). The BW, average daily weight gain, carcass yield percentage, and feed conversion rate were significantly (P 0.05). However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementations compared with control. In conclusion, synbiotic or probiotic displayed a greater efficacy as growth promoters for broilers. Furthermore, the dietary supplementations resulted in an increase in the villus height and crypt depth of intestinal mucosa of broilers. The increase in the villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio was associated with improvement of growth performance for both synbiotic and probiotic. This indicates that the synbiotic and probiotic can be used as a growth promoter in broiler diets and can improve the gut health. These products show promising effects as alternatives for antibiotics as pressure to eliminate growth-promotant antibiotic use increases. PMID:19096056

  2. Antioxidant efficacy of curcuminoids from turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) powder in broiler chickens fed diets containing aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Nisarani K S; Ledoux, David R; Rottinghaus, Goerge E; Bermudez, Alex J; Chen, Yin C

    2009-12-01

    A 3-week-feeding study (1-21 d post-hatch) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of total curcuminoids (TCMN), as an antioxidant, to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) that contained 2.55 % TCMN was used as a source of TCMN. Six cage replicates of five chicks each were assigned to each of six dietary treatments, which included: basal diet; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN; basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 74 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 222 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1. The addition of 74 and 222 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved weight gain and feed efficiency. Increase (P < 0.05) in relative liver weight in birds fed AFB1 was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the addition of 74, 222 and 444 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet. The inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on serum chemistry in terms of total protein, albumin and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. The decreased antioxidant functions due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN. It is concluded that the addition of 222 mg/kg TCMN to the 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 diet demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity against AFB1.

  3. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance.

  4. Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.

  5. Bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd on Broiler Chicken Fed in Difference Diets

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    Bambang Dwiloka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to compute Pb and Cd bioaccumulation in different organs of broiler. Carcass, heart, liver, gizzard, intestine, and excreta. The data were obtained from broiler reared in the litter cage. Four treatments of feed were given to the broiler chicken, i.e.  T1 = X brand of commercial feed, T2 = Y brand of commercial feed, T3 = self-prepared feed without fish meal addition and T4 = self prepared feed without fish meal but contaminated with cadmium chloride (Cd.Cl2.4H2O. For each treatment, five broiler chicken were grouped each week (from week I up to week VI. Results of the first stage of this study was analyzed descriptively. A polinomial regression equation was used as an empirical model to describe the heavy metal bioaccumulation phenomenon in broiler carcasses. The quadratic equation  turned out to be the most suitable model for describing the bioaccumulation of heavy metal in broiler carcasses. From the simulation, it was found that  quadratic model fit to 61.31% and 54.17%  bioaccumulation data of Pb and Cd respectively. According to the model, initially metal concentrations declined since the first week and started to rebound at the fifth week, both in terms of chronological and physiological age. The patterns of Pb and Cd bioaccumulation in this study can be used as a reference to determine the proper slaughter period. It can be concluded that for reducing the risk of metal contamination the proper slaughter time of the broiler is before the fifth week.

  6. Effects of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient retention, and characteristics of gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed low-phosphorus wheat-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esmaeilipour, O.; Shivazad, M.; Moravej, H.; Aminzadeh, S.; Rezaian, M.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient retention, jejunal viscosity, and size and pH of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed a low-P wheat-based diet. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels

  7. Effects of increasing inclusion rates of a low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (LF-DDGS) in finishing broiler diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biodiesel industry is now removing corn oil from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to meet increasing demand. The objectives of this study were to determine the maximum inclusion rates in broiler diets fed from 28 to 42 d of age in the finishing phases of production and the ...

  8. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CANOLA MEAL ON BROILER PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE DURING TWO PHASES OF GROWTH

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    M. Z. NASEEM, S. H. KHAN AND M. YOUSAF

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of canola meal in broiler diets during starter (0-4 weeks and finisher (5th week phases of growth. For this purpose, 1905 day-old broiler (Star bro chicks were reared in an environmentally controlled house using completely randomized design. Five different isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental pelleted diets were prepared with five levels viz. 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of canola meal (containing 85% KOH solubility and 36% crude protein, designated as A, B, C, D and E, respectively, for starter phase. Five corresponding finisher diets were used during the finisher phase. The chickens were randomly allocated to five dietary treatment groups having three replicates of 127 birds in each group. Feed intake during 0-4 weeks of age was reduced (P0.05 was found during 5th week of age. Weight gain was higher in chickens fed diets containing 25% canola meal during two stages of growth but difference was not significant (P>0.05 among the treatments. Similarly, during starting phase, feed utilization efficiency was better (P0.05 among the treatments during finishing phase. Dressing percentage and relative weight of liver of chickens among all treated groups were similar (P>0.05. The results indicated that maximum inclusion of canola meal (25% in broiler diets reduced the relative cost per unit weight gain. It may be suggested that canola meal (with 85% KOH solubility can be incorporated upto 25% in broiler diets without any adverse effect on production parameters during starting and finishing stages of growth.

  9. Causes for improvement in nutritive value of broiler chicken diets with whole wheat instead of ground wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihus, B; Juvik, E; Hetland, H; Krogdahl, A

    2004-02-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted with broiler chicks to compare nutritive values of ground and whole wheat diets containing titanium oxide as indigestible marker. 2. In Experiment 1, a wheat and soy isolate based cold-pelleted diet, in which all the wheat was ground in a hammer mill to pass through a 3 mm sieve, was compared with a diet in which about half (375 g/kg) of the ground wheat was taken out of the diet and supplied as whole wheat mixed into the diet after pelleting. 3. In Experiment 2, a diet based on ground wheat and soy isolate which was pelleted after preconditioning (final temperature 81 degrees C) was compared with a diet in which 500 g of the ground wheat was replaced by whole wheat mixed into the diet before pelleting. 4. In Experiment 1, replacement of ground wheat with whole wheat increased apparent metabolisable energy (AME) content and starch digestibility measured at ileal as well as faecal level, while weight gain and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were not affected. Jejunal chyme showed increased amylase activity and bile salt concentration. 5. In Experiment 2, replacement of ground wheat with whole wheat increased dry matter content as well as bile content of gizzard, and stimulated an increase in gizzard as well as pancreas weight. Jejunal amylase and bile concentrations were not significantly affected and neither were growth, FCE or AME. 6. Results from this experiment indicate that the improved feed value sometimes observed with whole wheat may be associated with modulation of digestive processes resulting in increased pancreas and liver secretions.

  10. Digestible lysine levels obtained by two methods of formulation of diets for 22-to-42-day-old broilers

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    Will Pereira de Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible lysine levels in diets with or without supplementation of industrial amino acids on performance, carcass characteristics and nitrogen excretion in broilers of 22 to 42 days of age. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement, with four digestible lysine levels (9.0, 10.0, 11.0 and 12.0 g/kg and two methods to obtain the lysine levels (variation in the proportion of corn and soybean meal, without supplementation; or supplementation of industrial amino acids, eight replicates and 20 birds per replicate. There was an interaction effect on the performance characteristics and on the weights and yields of prime cuts. In both diets, feed conversion improved linearly as the lysine levels were increased. Feed intake; weight gain; carcass, thigh and drumstick weights; and boneless breast yield increased and abdominal fat reduced linearly as the lysine levels were increased in the unsupplemented diet. The lysine levels of the supplemented diets linearly reduced the yield of drumstick and quadratically reduced the yields of bone-in and boneless breast up to the estimated levels of 10.4 and 10.7 g/kg, respectively. Diets without supplementation increased the excretion and retention of nitrogen. The levels of 9.0 and 12.0 g/kg digestible lysine obtained with supplementation of industrial amino acids and without it, respectively, provide the best performance and yield of prime cuts in the birds. Diets in which the digestible lysine levels are obtained without supplementation provide better performance responses and carcass characteristics compared with supplemented diets.

  11. Possibilities of using MORINGA (Moringa oleifera LEAF MEAL AS A PARTIAL SUBSTITUTE FOR FISHMEAL IN BROILER CHICKENS DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. ZANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-week feeding trial involving 180 2-week old Cobb broiler chicks was conducted to assess the effects of partial replacement of fishmeal with Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf meal on broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned in equal numbers in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD to four dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, and 15% Moringa leaf meal (MLM. Each treatment was replicated three times giving 15 birds per replicate. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. The parameters measured were feed intake, initial weight, final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, carcass traits, hematology, serum biochemistry and meat quality. Final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency significantly (p<0.05 declined with increasing level of MLM. None of the carcass traits measured was significantly affected by addition of MLM. Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH was the only hematological parameter that showed significance (P<0.05 difference in treatment groups. Triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL differed significantly (P<0.05. Also incorporation of MLM significantly (P<0.05 affected the moisture, crude protein and crude fat of the meat of experimental birds. Cost benefit analysis showed that incorporation of MLM resulted in reduced feed cost. However, the net revenue from birds fed diets containing MLM reduced as a result of poor weight gain. Based on the data obtained in this study it is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal when partially used to replace fishmeal may hamper growth rate of broiler chickens. Nonetheless, addition of MLM does not adversely affect mortality, carcass traits and blood variables.

  12. The effect of thyme extract on growth performance, digestive organ weights and serum lipoproteins of broilers fed wheat-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Pourmahmoud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the thyme extract and wheat form of the diet on performance, digestive organ weights and serum lipoproteins was studied in 320 male day old (ROSS 308 chicks. From 1 to 42 d of age, 8 diets arranged factorial with 4 thyme extract level (0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% and 2 wheat forms (ground vs whole was used. Each treatment was replicated 4 times (10 birds per replicate. Thyme extract had no significant effect on body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio irrespective of wheat form used over whole trial period (1-42 d. From 1 to 21 d of age, broilers fed the whole wheat diet grew faster than the broilers fed ground wheat based diet (609.06 vs 573.34 g. Relative abdominal fat and gizzard weight was significantly higher (P<0.05 in birds fed the whole wheat diets. Two-way interaction between thyme extract and wheat form were observed for total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL in the experiment. The results showed that the extract had no effect on performance of broilers irrespective of wheat form used. Relative gizzard weight was higher (P<0.05 in birds fed the whole wheat diets, but an increase in abdominal fat should be taken into account for carcass quality and processing. The predominant effect of thyme extract on lowering lipid levels in broilers fed on wheat based diets was on triglyceride rather than on cholesterol concentrations.

  13. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count.

  14. EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTED DIETS WITH GARLIC ORGANIC EXTRACT AND STREPTOMYCIN SULPHATE ON INTESTINAL MICROFLORA AND NUTRIENTS DIGESTIBILITY IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. DIEUMOU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effects of garlic organic extract and streptomycin sulphate on intestinal microflora and nutrients digestibility in broilers. Forty eight Hubbard line one day-old chicks with equal numbers of males and females were randomly allocated to eight treatment combinations to conduct a 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a completely randomised design. The diets were supplemented with: no supplement (control, garlic organic extract at 40 ppm/kg (GOE 40 ppm, garlic organic extract at 60 ppm/kg (GOE 60 ppm and streptomycin sulphate at 30 ppm/kg (SS 30 ppm administered by oral gavage from day 13 to day 47 of experiment. There were two birds (males or females per experimental unit, replicated three times in twenty four deep litter pens. The colony forming units of Escherichia coli were significantly reduced (P0.05 in nutrients absorption between male and female broilers. Treatment and sex interaction significantly (P<0.05 affected all the parameters studied indicating a synergistic effect of the two factors on nutrients absorption. It could be concluded that GOE even at 40 ppm/kg controlled pathogens and improved nutrients digestibility in birds.

  15. Enzimas exógenas em dietas de frangos de corte: desempenho Exogenous enzymes in broilers fed diets: performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nei André Arruda Barbosa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a eficiência de enzimas exógenas em dietas sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Um total de 1440 pintos de corte machos (Cobb 500® foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x2 (duas dietas com diferentes densidades nutricionais; com e sem a adição enzimática com 8 repetições de 45 aves em cada unidade experimental. As dietas com diferentes densidades nutricionais foram: controle positivo (níveis normais e um controle negativo (com redução de 4,3 e 4,5% de energia metabolizável; 16,7 e 17,7% de cálcio e 35 e 42,7% de fósforo, nas fases inicial e de crescimento, respectivamente. A suplementação enzimática consistiu da combinação das enzimas fitase (100g t-1 e amilase, xilanase e protease (500g t-1. Foi avaliado o desempenho das aves nas fases de 1 a 21 e 1 a 42 dias de idade. Na fase total de criação, as aves alimentadas com a dieta controle negativo com adição enzimática tiveram consumo de ração (5,97%, peso médio (8,47%, ganho de peso (8,64% e conversão alimentar (2,92% melhores (P0,05 ao grupo alimentado com a dieta controle positivo com ou sem enzima. A adição de enzimas exógenas em dieta de frangos de corte com redução de energia metabolizável, cálcio e fósforo, proporciona um consumo de ração, peso vivo médio e ganho de peso similar a uma dieta com níveis nutricionais adequados.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of enzyme efficiency in diets with and without nutrient reduction on the performance of broilers. Thousand and hundred forty male broiler chicks (Cobb 500® were distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments in a factorial 2x2 (two diets with different nutrient densities, with and without enzyme with 8 replications of 45 birds. The diets were: positive control (normal and a negative control (with a reduction of 4.3% and 4.5% of metabolizable energy, 16.7% and 17.7% of

  16. Influence of different histidine sources and zinc supplementation of broiler diets on dipeptide content and antioxidant status of blood and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, W; Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate how a diet containing spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) (4%) with or without zinc (Zn) would affect the concentration of two histidine heterodipeptides and the antioxidant status of broiler blood and breast muscles. 2. The study was carried out on 920 male Flex chickens randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: I - control, II - diet I with SDBC, III - diet I with SDBC and supplemented with Zn and IV - diet I supplemented with L-histidine. Birds were raised on floor littered with wood shavings, given free access to water and fed ad libitum. Performance indices were measured on d 1, 21 and 42. 3. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was analysed in plasma, erythrocytes and muscle tissue. The total antioxidant capacity of plasma and breast muscles was measured by 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, as well as by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Carnosine/anserine content of meat and plasma were determined using HPLC. Diets and breast muscles were analysed for amino acid profile and selected microelement content. 4. Histidine supplementation of the diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes. Moreover, the addition of SDBC or pure histidine in the diet increased histidine dipeptide content and activated enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in chicken blood and muscles. However, it led to lower growth performance indices. 5. The enrichment of broiler diets with Zn increased the antioxidant potential and the activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma, which was independent of the histidine dipeptide concentration. Zn supplementation combined with SDBC in a broiler diet led to the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, but it did not affect the radical

  17. Forms of leg abnormality observed in male broilers fed on a diet containing 12.5 percent rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, L M

    1983-09-01

    The incidence of leg abnormalities was studied in 216 male Ross I broilers, fed for 10 weeks on a diet containing 12.5 per cent extracted rapeseed. Regular serological examination showed that the birds remained free from Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and avian reovirus throughout the period of investigation. Post mortem examination and radiographs were performed when birds were culled due to leg deformities or at the end of the experiment. Leg abnormalities were seen in 19.4 per cent of the birds which represents a very significant increase above that currently seen in commercial flocks. They consisted of a large range of skeletal deformities including valgus and varus deformities, dyschondroplasia, slipped gastrocnemius tendons, dislocated condyles, rotation and penetration of the distal tibiotarsus and fractured fibulas. Multiple forms of leg abnormality were often observed in individual birds and their association is briefly discussed. PMID:6635344

  18. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    OpenAIRE

    C. Basavanta Kumar; Gloridoss, R. G.; K. Chandrapal Singh; T. M. Prabhu; Siddaramanna,; B. N. Suresh; Manegar, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated ...

  19. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  20. Effects of methionine supplementation on the expression of oxidative stress-related genes in acute heat stress-exposed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vesco, Ana Paula; Gasparino, Eliane; Grieser, Daiane de Oliveira; Zancanela, Vittor; Soares, Maria Amélia Menck; Neto, Adhemar Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2015-02-28

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress (HS) and methionine supplementation on the markers of stress and on the gene expression levels of uncoupling proteins (UCP), betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), glutathione synthetase (GSS) and glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPx7). Broilers from 1 to 21 d and from 22 to 42 d of age were divided into three treatment groups related to methionine supplementation: without methionine supplementation (MD); recommended level of methionine supplementation (DL1); excess methionine supplementation (DL2). The broilers were either kept at a comfortable thermal temperature or exposed to HS (38°C for 24 h). During the starter period, we observed the effects of the interaction between diet and environment on the gene expression levels of UCP, BHMT and GSS. Higher gene expression levels of UCP and BHMT were observed in broilers that were maintained at thermal comfort conditions and received the MD diet. HS broilers fed the DL1 and DL2 diets had the highest expression level of GSS. The expression levels of the CBS and GPx7 genes were influenced by both the environment and methionine supplementation. During the grower period, the gene expression levels of BHMT, CBS, GSS and GPx7 were affected by the diet × environment interaction. A higher expression level of BHMT was observed in broilers maintained at thermal comfort conditions and on the MD diet. HS induced higher expression levels of CBS, GSS and GPx7 in broilers that received the DL1 and DL2 diets. The present results suggest that under HS conditions, methionine supplementation could mitigate the effects of stress, since methionine contributed to the increased expression levels of genes related to antioxidant activity.

  1. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    Different types of fibre sources were used in high fibre diets to increase feeding quantity and measure the effect on different parameters in two experiments. In exp. I, three diets (A, commercial control diet; B, high insoluble fibre content; and C, high soluble fibre content) were fed to 10...... significantly more in a hunger test than birds on diets B and C, indicating that these two high-fibre diets did reduce the level of hunger experienced by the birds. Stereotypic pecking was most frequently seen in birds fed A and never observed in birds fed B. Birds on diet C appeared scruffier in their plumage...... fibre feed staying longer in the intestinal system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dust bathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The results from the two experiments show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce...

  2. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal and soybean meal in laying hens and broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Abd El-Hack, M E; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 7 meat and bone meal (MBM) and 3 soybean meal (SBM) samples in broilers (Ross 708) and laying hens (Hy-line W36). All 10 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21-d-old broiler chickens and 30- or 50-wk-old laying hens. Standardization was accomplished by correcting for basal ileal endogenous amino acid losses using a nitrogen-free diet. Broilers were reared in cages from d 0 to 16 on a standard broiler starter diet adequate in all nutrients and energy; thereafter, they were allotted to treatments using a randomized complete design with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds each. For the laying hens, 6 replicate cages of 6 birds each (542 cm(2)/bird) were used. Each treatment diet, which was fed for 5 d, was semipurified, with MBM or SBM being the sole source of amino acids in each diet. Ileal endogenous amino acid losses were not different between broilers and the 2 groups of laying hens. Meat and bone meal from different locations varied widely in digestibility. Broilers had higher (P hens had 6.4 and 7.7% units less Met and Lys digestibility of all MBM samples after standardization. Dry matter digestibility values of the SBM samples were higher (P hens. The results of these experiments suggest that differences exist in the digestive capabilities of laying hens and broilers, which indicates that species-specific nutrient digestibility values or adjustments may be needed.

  3. Effects of the composition of the basal diet on the evaluation of mineral phosphorus sources and interactions with phytate hydrolysis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastak, Y; Zeller, E; Witzig, M; Schollenberger, M; Rodehutscord, M

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the availability of P from mineral phosphate sources by using different basal diets and measurement of P retention and prececal (pc) P digestibility as well as pc myo-inositol phosphate (InsP) degradation in broilers. Semi-synthetic and corn-soybean meal-based basal diets were used in experiment 1, and corn-based and wheat-based basal diets were used in experiment 2. Anhydrous monosodium phosphate (MSPa) or monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPh) was supplemented to increment the P concentration by 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15% or by 0.075 and 0.150% in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. Diets were pelleted through a 3-mm screen. In experiment 1, retention was measured based on total excreta collection from 20 to 24 d of age using 7 replicated birds per diet. In experiment 2, digesta from the terminal ileum was collected from 22-d-old broilers penned in groups of 19 with 5 replicated pens per diet. The P retention response to supplemented MSPa did not differ between the 2 basal diets in experiment 1. The response in pc P digestibility to MCPh supplements also did not differ between the 2 basal diets in experiment 2, as calculated by linear regression analysis. Hydrolysis of InsP6 measured on both the excreta and pc levels was high in the basal diets without a mineral P supplement. Mineral P supplementation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) InsP6 hydrolysis from the InsP-containing diets in both experiments. Thus, the choice of the basal diet did not affect the evaluation of the supplemented mineral P source. However, calculated values for mineral P sources need to be adjusted for the decline in hydrolysis of InsP contained in the basal diet that results from the P supplement. PMID:25085939

  4. Digestible Lysine on Live Performance of Chicken Type Naked Neck During the Starter Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The poultry market has changed due to a higher consumer interest on products with differentiated organoleptic characteristics, making of free-range broiler production a promising activity. This experiment was conducted to determine the digestible lysine requirements of Redbro Cou Nu male and female chickens during the starter phase (one to 21 days of age. Six hundred and thirty Redbro Cou Nu broilers were distributed into 30 pens (21 chickens/pen according to a randomized complete design in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of five levels of digestible lysine and two sexes, with three replicates (pens per treatments. Diets with increasing digestible lysine levels (8.1, 9.5, 10.9, 12.3 and 13.7 g of digestible lysine per kg of diet were offered ad libitum. The following performance traits were evaluated at the end of the experiment (d 21: feed intake, lysine intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio. No interaction between dietary lysine level and sex was observed for the evaluated traits. The effect of sex was only detected on body weight gain, while effects of dietary lysine level were only detected on the feed intake. Males presented higher body weight gain than females. Lysine intake and body weight gain increased, and feed conversion ratio decreased as the level of dietary lysine increased. The best feed conversion ratio was obtained when birds were fed 12.95 g of digestible lysine per kg of diet.

  5. Effects of the Dietary Inclusion of a Probiotic, a Prebiotic or their Combinations on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Murshed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A total of 350-one-day old chicks were placed in 70 cages, with 14 cages per treatment. The following five treatment diets were fed for 14 days: T1 = non-supplemented, control diet (CONT; T2 = diet with antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP; T3 = diet with a probiotic (PROB; T4 = diet with a prebiotic(PREB, and T5 = diet with the probiotic and the prebiotic (SYM. The growth experiment was carried out from 1 to 14 days of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and birds were maintained at 24-h light schedule. Diets were formulated to contain 3000 kcalME/kg and 21.5% crude protein, and the test materials were added on top. The cumulative results of1 to 14 days of age revealed that broiler fed the AGP and PREB diets presented the highest BWG (305.5 and 297.3 g, respectively, while those fed the CONT diet had the lowest BWG (273.2 g (p<0.05. On the other hand, the best FCR was obtained in broilers AGP and PROB (1.296 and 1.299 g:g, respectively, while chicks on the CONT and SYM diet had the worst FCR (1.423 and 1.372 g:g, respectively (p<0.01. The results showed broilers fed the non-supplemented diet consistently presented poor performance. It was concluded that PROB or PREB can serve as alternatives to antibiotic in broiler starter feeds, with no performance impairment.

  6. Effects of ground thyme and probiotic supplements in diets on broiler performance, blood biochemistry and immunological response to sheep red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed A. Hosseini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to study the effects of the aromatic plant thyme, a commercial probiotic (Protexin and avilamycin on broiler performance, blood biochemical parameters and also the antibody response to sheep red blood cells. A total of 750 broilers were assigned into five replicate groups for each of five dietary treatments, namely; control (C, 2.5 mg/kg avilamycin (AB, 0.1 g/kg commercial probiotic (P, 5 g/kg ground thyme (T1, and 7.5 g/kg ground thyme (T2. In general, body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments compared to the control birds (P>0.05. Birds fed the P supplemented treatment had the greatest serum protein levels (P<0.001 and highest albumin levels (P<0.001 when compared with control birds, while the birds fed T2 had the lowest (P<0.001. Dietary supplementation reduced (P<0.001 cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum of broilers, with the effect were more noticeable by P supplements. Moreover, blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations were higher (P<0.001 in birds fed the P-supplemented diet compared to the birds fed the control diets. This study suggests that probiotic supplementation in particular, and to an intermediate extent ground thyme supplementation in diets of broiler, resulted in chicks with favorably improved blood biochemical parameters and mineral utilization, compared to the birds fed diets supplemented with avilamycin or without any supplementation.

  7. Formiato de sódio em dietas para frangos de corte Sodium formiate in diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Carvalho Leal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido para testar a ação do formiato de sódio sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. No primeiro experimento, foi avaliado o formiato de sódio em níveis crescentes na dieta e, no segundo, a substituição do cloreto de sódio pelo formiato de sódio, com adição de cloreto de amônia para ajuste do balanço eletrolítico. Aos 7, 14 e 21 dias de idade, foram avaliados o consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar e, aos 7 e aos 21 dias, medidos o consumo de água e a umidade das excretas das aves. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e comparados pelo teste de Tukey. O desempenho de frangos de corte não é afetado quando o formiato de sódio é utilizado em substituição parcial ou total do cloreto de sódio na dieta. Porém, com a adição do formiato de sódio, deve-se observar o nível de sódio e cloro da dieta, de acordo com as exigências das aves.This study was developed to evaluate the action of sodium formiate on broiler performance. In the first experiment it was tested the sodium formiate increasing levels in diet, and in the second experiment, it was valuated the replacement of sodium chloride by sodium formiate, with the addition of ammonium chloride for adjustment of electrolyte balance. At 7, 14 and 21 days, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated, and at 7 and 21 days, water intake and excreta moisture were evaluated. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and compared by Tukey test. The performance of broilers is not affected when sodium formate is used in partial or total replacement of sodium chloride in the diet. But with the addition of sodium formate, it should be noted the level of sodium and chlorine in the diet, according to birds' requirement.

  8. Performance of broilers experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and fed diets with addition of lactulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete Souza Santana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of lactulose on performance as well as its ability to prevent colonization by Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers orally inoculated with this pathogen. The design adopted was completely randomized, with 630 one-day-old male chicks distributed into six treatments, with seven replications and 15 birds per experimental unit. The treatments comprised the following procedures: T1 (control group - no S. Typhimurium inoculation or supply of lactulosis; T2 - only inoculation of S. Typhimurium; T3 - only lactulosis supply; T4 supply of lactulosis and S. Typhimurium inoculation on the first day of life; T5 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours before S. Typhimurium inoculation; and T6 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours after inoculation of S. Typhimurium. Performance variables were evaluated on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th days of age; fragments of the duodenum and jejunum were collected and sent to histomorphometric assessment at 14 days of age, and S. Typhimurium excretion was verified in cloacal swabs on the 10th, 24th and 35th days of age. Performance data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (5% and fecal excretion data were assessed by non-parametric chi-square test. Better weight gain and feed conversion were observed in groups fed lactulosis with or without challenge of S. Typhimurium up to 21 days of age. Reduced duodenum villous height was verified on the 14th day in groups challenged with the pathogen. Reduction of S. Typhimurium fecal excretion was verified in broilers fed lactulosis from the first day of life on and 48 hours before receiving S. Typhimurium directly into the crop. Lactulosis increases broiler performance up to one week after its inoculation, influences duodenum villous height and reduces the fecal excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium.

  9. Effect of diet chestnut tannin supplementation on meat quality, fatty acid profile and lipid stability in broiler rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.

  10. Effect of diets containing potato protein or soya bean meal on the incidence of spontaneously-occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis and the physiological response in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, P S; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M; Silva, S S P

    2011-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to compare and explain the incidence of spontaneously occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that were fed on two practical broiler diets that differed in the major protein concentrates (soya bean meal or potato protein concentrates) and examine the relationships between the severity of the disease and the growth performance and physiological responses of the chickens. 2. A total of 840, 20-d-old birds were randomly allocated to 12 pens. Two maize-based nutritionally complete diets that either contained some potato protein or soya bean meal as the major protein supplement were fed for 16 d. Twelve birds were randomly sampled from each pen at the end of the feeding period and their blood sampled and intestinal tracts and livers dissected. 3. The birds fed on the potato protein diet had a significantly 7·7% lower feed intake and a significantly 7·8% lower growth rate compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet. There were no significant differences in feed conversion efficiency or mortality. There were no differences in the determined apparent metabolisable energy concentrations, however, the apparent dry matter digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly higher than that of the soya based diet and the apparent crude protein digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly lower. 4. A significantly higher alpha toxin antibody titre was found in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with those fed on the soya protein diet. There was a significantly increased incidence of hepatic lesions in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with the birds fed on the soya diet. The mean incidence of intestinal necroses tended to be greater in the birds fed on the potato protein diet (23·6%) compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet (15·3%). 5. There was a significant linear relationship between ileal digesta sialic acid concentration and serum alpha toxin

  11. Effect of oleic and conjugated linoleic acid in the diet of broiler chickens on the live growth performances, carcass traits and meat fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rapaccini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil and CLA enriched olive oil were compared with each other in a growth trial with broiler chickens, as energy supplements to the diet. A commercial CLA blend was used at the level of 1 kg per 100 kg mixed integrated feed. Two hundred and forty commercial hybrid broilers (Ross 308 were randomly subdivided and allotted to 8 pens of 30 birds each. Four pens of birds were fed the olive oil diet and considered the control group; the other 4 pens were fed the olive oil supplemented with CLA and considered the treated group. The experiment lasted 47 days. The live performance of the treated birds resulted different from the performance of the control ones: the final body weight was slightly lighter (2.544 kg vs 2.639 kg; P≤0.05 with a lower feed intake (4.886 kg feed vs 4.998 kg, P≤0.05 and, of course, an almost perfectly overlapping feed/gain ratio (1.90 vs 1.91. The fatty acid composition of the breast fat of the CLA treated birds resulted enriched by the two major CLA isomers, trans 10 cis 12 and cis 9 trans 11, whereas oleic acid and the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic polyunsaturated acids showed a decrease (P≤0.05. CLA appears a recommendable ingredient in the diets of broilers as it improves the beneficial characteristics of poultry meat.

  12. Effect of butyric acid on the performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Antongiovanni, M; Lee, E H

    2005-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate are considered potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The efficacy of butyric acid on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens was tested in two studies. The effect of dietary butyrate on the ability to withstand coccidial oocyte challenge also was investigated. In experiment 1, male broiler chickens were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 11 ppm virginiamycin or 0.2 or 0.4% butyric acid (as mono-, di-, and triglyceride). In experiment 2, broilers were fed bacitracin methylene disalicylate or 0.1 or 0.2% butyric acid. In another trial, birds vaccinated against coccidiosis were challenged with oocytes at 21 d and examined 6 d later. In experiment 1, diet treatments had no effect on body weight gain. Feed intake of the birds fed 0.4% butyric acid was decreased (P < 0.01) compared with birds fed the nonmedicated diet during the starter period, whereas birds fed 0.2% butyric acid had similar feed intake to the control birds. In experiment 2, diet treatments did not affect the performance of broiler chicks while carcass weight and breast meat yield increased (P < 0.01) in birds fed 0.2% butyric acid. With oocyte challenge, birds that had received butyric acid before challenge showed higher growth rate following the challenge compared with birds that received nonmedicated feed. Bacitracin decreased (P < 0.05%) duodenal villi crypt depth, whereas villus length was similar in birds fed butyric acid or the nonmedicated control diet. These results show that 0.2% butyric acid can help to maintain the performance and carcass quality of broilers, especially in vaccinated birds challenged with coccidiosis. PMID:16206563

  13. Probiotic and prebiotic utilization in diets for free-range broiler chickens

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    K Pelícia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effects of probiotic associated to prebiotic on performance, carcass and cut yields, qualitative traits of meat, development and score of lesions due to coccidiosis in digestive tract of broiler chickens raised in a free-range system during 85 days. One thousand, six hundred and ninety-six day-old male broiler chicks from naked-neck ISA S757-N Label Rouge line were used in a randomized block design with factorial scheme of 4x2 and four repetitions. The effect of four additive (1 - biologic promoter + coccidiosis vaccine; 2 - biologic promoter + anti-coccidiosis; 3 - chemical promoter + coccidiosis vaccine; 4 - chemical promoter + anti-coccidiosis and two breeding systems from 35th day of age (one with no-access to pasture or confined and the other with free-access to pasture or semi-confined on performance parameters, carcass and cut yields, qualitative meat traits, coccidiosis development and lesions in digestive tract were evaluated. There was effect (p<0.05 of additives only on sensorial analysis (meat quality and percentage of large intestine. Breeding systems affected (p<0.05 live weight (LW and LW gains, being the better results observed in semi-confined birds.

  14. Effect of different concentrations of aqueous extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale on performance and carcass characteristics of male broiler chickens in wheat-soybean meal based diets

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    Rajab Fakhim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of using different concentrations of ginger extract (Zingiber officinale on performance and carcass characteristics of male broiler chickens. Three hundred one-day-old commercial male broilers (Cobb-500 were randomly allocated in 20 floor pens (15 chicks each. Animals of each pen were supplemented with five different concentrations of ginger and the experiment was performed in quadruplicate. The broilers were fed a wheat-soybean meal based diet containing different concentrations of ginger extract (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% supplemented to drinking water. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured during 1 to 10, 11 to 21, 22 to 42 and 1 to 42 days of age. At 42 days of age, two birds from each pen were selected and after weighing and slaughtered were dissected manually. Carcass yield, liver, abdominal fat and gut weight is expressed as percentage of live body weight. The results showed that there is no significant difference in the feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio between the different treatments except the feed conversion ratio of the period 1 to 10 days of age (p<0.05. Also, different supplemented concentrations of ginger extract to drinking water of broilers influenced the carcass yield (p<0.05.

  15. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Immune Function, the Antioxidant Defense System, and Inflammation-Related Genes Expression of Broiler Chickens Fed Aflatoxin Contaminated Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens. PMID:24699046

  16. Protective Effects of Sporoderm-Broken Spores of Ganderma lucidum on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Capacity and Immune Function of Broiler Chickens Exposed to Low Level of Aflatoxin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Jia, Ru; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng; Wang, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) and evaluate the effects of sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum (SSGL) in relieving aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly divided into four dietary treatments; the treatment diets were: Control (a basal diet containing normal peanut meal); AFB₁ (the basal diet containing AFB₁-contaminated peanut meal); SSGL (basal diet with 200 mg/kg of SSGL); AFB₁+SSGL (supplementation of 200 mg/kg of SSGL in AFB₁ diet). The contents of AFB₁ in AFB₁ and AFB₁+SSGL diets were 25.0 μg/kg in the starter period and 22.5 μg/kg in the finisher period. The results showed that diet contaminated with a low level of AFB₁ significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the average daily feed intake and average daily gain during the entire experiment and reduced (p < 0.05) serum contents of total protein IgA and IgG. Furthermore, a dietary low level of AFB₁ not only increased (p < 0.05) levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation, but also decreased (p < 0.05) total antioxidant capability, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and hydroxyl radical scavenger activity in the liver and spleen of broilers. Moreover, the addition of SSGL to AFB₁-contaminated diet counteracted these negative effects, indicating that SSGL has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis. PMID:27669305

  17. Meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets with Bacillus subtilis and malic acid additives

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    Martin Král

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of probiotics and malic acid diet on meat quality was assessed. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. The significant difference (p<0.01 was observed for ash, dry matter and fat. In the treatments Tr2 and Tr3 were present the higher percentages of protein, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05.

  18. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

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    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  19. Influence of delayed placement and dietary lysine levels on small intestine morphometrics and performance of broilers

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    JRG Franco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment studied the influence of delayed placement (HI and digestible lysine level (DL on the morphometrics of the intestinal mucosa and on the performance of broilers. A total number of 1,705 Cobb 500 male chicks were used in a completely randomized experimental design in a factorial arrangement with four HI (12, 24, 36 and 48h, and two DL level in the starter diet (1.143 and 1.267%, with four replicates and 55 birds per experimental unit. The amino acids methionine-cystine, threonine, and tryptophan were balanced according to the ideal protein (IP concept. Small intestine morphometrics was evaluated using histology slides of the duodenum and jejunum. There was no interaction between HI and DL levels for any of the studied parameters. The 1.143% level of DL promoted better performance results at 21 and 42 days of age, as well as higher duodenum and jejunum crypt depth, and duodenum villi height at 21 days of age. HI negatively influenced the morphometrics of the small intestine during the starter phase, and the performance of broilers up to 42 days of age. There was no effect of the treatments on yolk sac utilization or abdominal fat percentage. It was concluded that the use of 1.143% DL and HI of 12 hours promoted better development of the small intestine mucosa up to 21 days of age, and broiler performance at market age.

  20. Valine Nutrient Recommendations for Ross × Ross 308 Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies delineating dietary Val needs of modern commercial broilers are sparse. Three studies were conducted to determine the dietary Val nutrient minimum of Ross × Ross 308 male broilers. Three time periods were evaluated independently, 0 to 14 d (starter), 14 to 28 d (grower) and 28 to 42 d (finis...

  1. Effect of chick weight, geometric mean diameter and sodium level in prestarter diets (1 to 7 days on broiler perfomance up to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AML Ribeiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven hundred and twenty Ross 308 chicks were raised in a controlled environment room, distributed in a factorial design with 3 hatching chick weights (37, 40 and 44 g, 3 geometric mean diameter (GMD (0.561; 0.783 and 0.997 mm and 4 total sodium levels (Na (0.12; 0.24; 0.36 and 0.48% in the pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days. From 8 to 21 days (d one single basal diet was used for all treatments. The thirty seven-gram chicks had the smallest yolk sack weight at 4d, smallest body weight (BW and feed intake (FI at 7d and 21d, but the same feed conversion (FC than the other groups of hatching weight. Chicks receiving diet with intermediate GMD had the greatest BW and FI at 7d, but at 21d this effect was no longer seen. The diet with finest particle size resulted in birds with the smallest gizzard weight at 7d. The 0.12%Na diet was statistically different from the other Na levels, resulting in chicks at 7d with the worst FC and lowest body weights. At 21d, BW still was the lowest for this group of chicks. Birds with 0.48%Na produced more watery excreta and less dry matter in the carcass at 7d. Water consumption (C H2O was influenced linearly by chick weight up to 0.36%Na level. In the 0.48%Na level, 40 and 44 g chicks had similar C H2O, which was different from 37-g chicks. For best performance, Na values were set from 0.31 to 0.48%. The three studied factors influenced quality of pre-starter diet and consequently chick performance.

  2. Energetic values and performace of broilers feeding sorghum and soybean meal based diets supplemented with B-glucanase and B-xylanase

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    Evandro de Abreu Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grains, brans, and vegetable meals may contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, which increases viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and interfere with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and determine the metabolizable energy of a sorghum-based broiler diet with and without the supplementation of an enzymatic complex. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with 1200 chickens, using sorghum-based feed with and without the addition of 50 g of enzyme-CCE complex (?-glucanase and ?-xylanase, and with two levels of metabolizable energy (ME kg-1: ME; ME + CCE; reduced ME (-50 kcal kg-1; and reduced ME + CCE. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance and the means were compared using a Tukey’s test at the 5% significance level. At 42 and 47 days of age, the living weight of the birds fed with the reduced ME was low, while birds fed with reduced ME + CCE had the same weight as those fed with other energy diets (ME and ME + CCE. Feed conversion was poorest at 47 days of age for the birds on reduced ME diet. In the metabolic test (with fattening diets to determine AME and AMEn, the reduced ME diet had the lowest result, confirming the effect of the addition of enzymes. The addition of CCE to sorghum-based diets provides enough enzymatic activity to increase the metabolizable energy of the diet (50 kcal of AME and influence the growth performance of broilers at the slaughtering age.

  3. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)

  4. Pathology of Bursae of Fabricius in Methionine-Deficient Broiler Chickens

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    Xiaodong Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this 42-day study was to investigate the effects of methionine (Met deficiency on immune function by determining the relative weight, morphological and ultrastructural changes of bursae of Fabricius, cell cycle, and apoptosis of bursa cells. One hundred and twenty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into two groups and fed on a control diet (starter diet, Met 0.50%; grower diet, Met 0.40% and Met-deficient diet (starter diet, Met 0.26%; grower diet, Met 0.28% for six weeks. The relative weight of bursae was decreased with Met deficiency when compared to that of the control group. Lesions were also observed in the Met-deficient group. Histopathologically, the numbers of lymphocytes in the follicles were decreased. Ultrastructurally, the mitochondria of lymphocytes were swollen in the Met-deficient group. As measured by flow cytometry, bursal cells in the G0G1 phase were significantly higher (P < 0.01, and bursal cells in the S, G2M phases and proliferating index were obviously lower (P < 0.01 with Met deficiency than in the control group. Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic cells in the bursae were significantly increased in Met-deficient birds (P < 0.01. It was concluded that Met deficiency restrained the development of the bursae of Fabricius and affected the humoral immunity of the chickens.

  5. Jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis) in the diet of broiler breeder pullets: physiological and endocrinological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnouts, S; Buyse, J; Cokelaere, M M; Decuypere, E

    1993-09-01

    The present studies evaluated the ability of jojoba meal (JO) to inhibit feed intake of broiler breeder pullets to limit body weight gain as recommended by the breeder company. A first experiment, using graded levels of JO supplementation (0 to 12%), was conducted to establish appropriate JO supplementation. Adequate reduction of growth rate was obtained with 4% JO supplementation. However, notwithstanding their similar growth rate, 4% JO chickens consumed considerably more feed compared with feed-restricted chickens. The dose-dependent impairment of feed intake with increasing levels of JO supplementation was also associated with increased plasma growth hormone and thyroxine and with decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and triiodothyronine concentrations compared with 0% JO chickens. A second experiment included a pair-fed group. Notwithstanding their similar feed intake, 4% JO chickens gained significantly less body weight compared with their pair-fed counterparts. The 4% JO chickens also had a longer feed transit time per kilogram body weight. Again, circulating levels of the somatotrophic and thyrotrophic hormones were altered according to the dietary treatment. From all these observations, it was concluded that the growth retardation caused by JO supplementation was provoked by an inhibition of appetite linked with the simmondsin content of JO as well as by other antinutritional compounds affecting digestibility.

  6. Performance and carbon turnover in fast- and slow-growing broilers submitted to cyclic heat stress and fed on high-protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, D M B; Macari, M; Fernadez-Alarcon, M F; Nogueira, W C L; de Souza, F A; Hada, F H; Lunedo, R; Denadai, J C

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that when using similar protein/amino acid diets and environment temperature conditions, the performance and carbon turnover in muscle and liver tissues, as measured by the incorporation of stable isotopes ((13)C/(12)C), must be different between fast-growing Cobb 500® and slow-growing Label Rouge broilers. For both experiments (Cobb and Label Rouge), 21-d-old birds were distributed in a completely randomised, 3 × 3 factorial design; three environmental temperatures (cyclic heat stress ad libitum, 22°C ad libitum, and 22°C restricted) and three crude protein concentrations (189.1, 210 and 220 g/kg CP) were used. The Cobb 500® had better performance with higher concentrations of crude protein. Cyclic heat stress (a temperature factor), negatively affected this genetic strain's performance. For the Label Rouge birds, the crude protein concentrations in the diet presented inconsistent results and cyclic heat stress did not affect the performance. The carbon turnover rate was affected in the Cobb 500® strain, with a high protein content reducing carbon turnover in the evaluated tissues (liver and muscles). Feed intake had a greater impact on carbon turnover rates than cyclic heat stress. The Label Rouge birds were not affected by the evaluated factors, suggesting that genetic improvement has a leading role on tissue carbon turnover. There is a genetic influence on carbon turnover in the liver and muscle tissues of broiler chickens. In addition, genetically fast-growing broilers are more susceptible to variations in diet composition and environmental temperature than less rapidly growing animals. PMID:26634283

  7. Available phosphorus levels in diets supplemented with phytase for male broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment

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    Tarciso Tizziani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of reduction of the available phosphorus (avP in diets supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone mineralization of broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment. A total of 336 Cobb broilers with an average initial weight of 0.883±0.005 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments - a positive control (0.354 and 0.309% avP without addition of bacterial phytase for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, and another five diets with inclusion of phytase (500 FTU and reduction of the level of avP (0.354, 0.294, 0.233, 0.173, and 0.112%; and 0.309, 0.258, 0.207, 0.156, and 0.106% for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively - eight replicates, and seven birds per cage. The experimental diets were formulated to meet all nutritional requirements, except for avP and calcium. Birds were kept in climatic chambers at a temperature of 32.2±0.4 °C and air humidity of 65.3±5.9%. Phytase acted by making the phytate P available in diets with reduction in the levels of avP, keeping feed intake, weight gain, feed:gain, and carcass characteristics unchanged. Treatments affected ash and calcium deposition and the Ca:P ratio in the bone; the group fed the diets with 0.112 and 0.106%, from 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days of age, respectively, obtained the lowest values, although the phosphorus deposition in the bone was not affected. Diets supplemented with 500 FTU of phytase, with available phosphorus reduced to 0.173 and 0.156%, and a fixed Ca:avP ratio of 2.1:1, meet the requirements of broilers aged 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, reared in a high-temperature environment.

  8. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S K; Kim, T H; Lee, S K; Chang, K H; Cho, S J; Lee, K W; An, B K

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (pratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0.001) lactic acid bacteria, but lowered Coli-form bacteria in cecal contents compared with those fed the control diet. The number of Bacillus spp. was higher (p<0.001) in all groups except for LF-SBM 1 compared with control diet-fed chicks. At 7 d, jejunal villi were significantly lengthened (p<0.001) in

  9. EFFECT OF MAXIGRAIN SUPPLEMENT ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, ECONOMIC INDICES AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF HEAT-STRESS BROILERS FED THREE DIETARY FIBRE SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. ADEMOLA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study determined effects of Maxigrain supplementation to 3 dietary fibres on growth performance, economic indices, tibia ash of broilers raised under daily heat stress (420centigrade of 4 hours. A total of 162 day old broiler chicks of Arbor Acres strain were divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates per treatment of 27 birds. The fibrous ingredients were wheat offal, rice bran and corn bran. These were included in broiler starter and finisher diets at 3% and 20% respectively. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. Birds in groups T1 (wheat offal, T3 (rice bran, T5 (corn bran were fed unsupplemented diets. Diets in T2 (wheat offal, T4 (rice bran and T6 (corn bran were supplemented with Maxigrain® at 100mg/kg. The results showed Maxigrain addition to corn bran– and rice bran–diets significantly (P<0.05 improved feed conversion of heat stress birds. Heat stress chickens fed rice bran Maxigrain diet had better final liveweight and improved compressive strength than those fed enzyme wheat offal diet (final liveweight of 1758.9 versus 1566.67 g per bird and compressive strength of 4.75 versus 3.04 Newton percm2. Heat stress broilers fed rice bran enzyme supplemented diet had the best feed conversion, strongest compressive strength and achieved the highest profit (P<0.05. Birds consumed less of Maxigrain diets. However, the enzyme failed to improve final liveweight of heat stress chickens fed wheat bran diet.

  10. Desempenho e composição corporal de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de proteína e de aminoácidos ou com livre escolha das dietas Performance and body composition of broilers fed different protein and amino acid levels or free-choice diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valeria Kolling

    2005-02-01

    and body composition of broilers (300 males and 300 females from 1 to 49 days of age, as well as the effect of these factors on the nutrients utilization efficiency. Three isoenergy experimental diets (D were used (3000 and 3150kcal ME/kg for starter and growing phase, respectively varying the levels of crude protein (CP and the first 4 essential amino acids (AA (lysine, methionine+cysteine, threonine and tryptophan: D1, control, with 22%CP; D2: 24%CP and 20% more AA than D1 (HighCP+20%AA and D3, 20% CP and 12% less AA than D1 (LowCP-12%AA. On the growing phase the CP were 20, 22 and 18% for D1, D2 and D3, respectively, keeping the same AA proportion. A fourth diet was defined by free-choice between diets D2 and D3. Birds were alloted in a completely randomized design, in a 2 x 4 factorial (sex x diets scheme and 5 replications of 15 birds each per treatment. Comparative slaughter technique was used for body fat and protein gain. Birds fed LowCP-12%AA diets showed reduced feed conversion, gain and body protein gain, but better protein intake-to-gain ratio. Broilers fed HighCP+20%AA diets had worse protein intake-to-gain ratio, but similar weight gain, cuts or carcass weight to control or free-choice birds. Fat and protein gain were similar among those 3 treatments. Free-choice birds showed the same performance and body composition of the control broilers. LowCP-12%AA diet was worse for broilers in starter phase than in growing phase. Male broilers were more efficient than females using nutrients, specially in the growing phase.

  11. Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on Salmonella colonization in the ceca of young broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, Y O; Bowers, J B; Hess, J B; McKee, S R

    2010-05-01

    Live poultry is an important vehicle for transmitting Salmonella Typhimurium to humans that have salmonellosis. It is therefore imperative to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium levels in the gastrointestinal tract of live chickens. Glutamine is an established immunonutrient that is capable of alleviating disease conditions in humans and rats. Thus, 2 experiments that used Ross broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation at 1% level of the diet on cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in young broiler chicks. Experiment 1 consisted of i) treatment 1 (control, CN), in which chicks were given an unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet without glutamine supplementation or Salmonella Typhimurium challenge; ii) treatment 2 (CST), in which chicks were given the same diet as CN but challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL at 3 d of age; and iii) treatment 3 (GST), in which chicks were given the unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet supplemented with glutamine at 1% level, and challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu at 3 d of age. Experiment 2 used similar treatments (CN, CST, and GST), except that chicks in CST and GST were challenged with 7.4 x 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL, and a fourth treatment was added. The fourth treatment consisted of chicks that were not challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium but given the same diet as in GST. Duration of each experiment was 14 d. Growth performance of chicks was monitored weekly, and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium concentration was microbiologically enumerated on d 4, 10, or 11 postchallenge. Results showed that glutamine supplementation improved BW and BW gain in experiment 2 (P 0.05). The optimum supplemental level of glutamine that will enhance intestinal resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium colonization should be determined.

  12. Effect of Yeast Probiotic on Growth, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Malondialdehyde Concentration of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sinkalu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of yeast probiotic on body weight, and the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on hybrid Hubbard broiler chickens (n = 200. Two-hundred day-old chicks were randomly selected and distributed into four groups of 50 day-old chicks each: Control, C, and treatment groups comprising T1, T2 and T3 administered with 0.25 mL, 0.5 mL and 1.0 mL yeast probiotic, respectively. Chicks were fed a commercial starter diet for the first 28 days of age, followed by pelleted finisher diet from 29 to 42 days. Chickens in T1 had a significantly (p 0.05 different when compared with the control. GPx activity was significantly (p 0.05 difference in MDA level in all the treatment groups. In conclusion, administering yeast probiotic supplement increased body weight and enhanced serum anti-oxidant enzyme activities of broiler chickens.

  13. SPSS for starters

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2010-01-01

    This book contains all statistical tests relevant for starters on SPSS. Each test is explained using a data example from clinical practice along with the main tables of results with an accompanying text with interpretations of the results and hints.

  14. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  15. Diets Containing Fermented Palm Kernel Meal with Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwat MUANGKEOW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of palm kernel meal (PKM and Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 fermented PKM at various levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens. Four hundred and thirty-two day old Ross-308 broiler chicks were used in a 2 × 4 factorial in completely randomized design with one control. Two kinds of PKM (unfermented and A. wentii fermented PKM in broiler rations were used, each at 10, 20, 30 and 40 %. Increasing level of PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM higher than 20 % significantly decreased feed intake and average weight gain also decreased, while feed efficiency declined. Feed intake of growing broilers during 0 to 21 d of age fed with PKM decreased linearly followed by a quadratic response during the finishing period (22 to 42 d of age while those broilers fed with A. wentii fermented PKM exhibited a quadratic response throughout the 42 d feeding trial. Data show that feed intake and average weight gain response when fed with PKM decreased linearly while when fed with A. wentii fermented PKM it was quadratic and then slowly decreased. The poor performance of the birds fed PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM at high levels might be due to the higher in crude fiber content and the lower nitrogen retention. In the growing period PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM no more than 20 % of the broiler ration should be used while in the finishing period PKM up to 30 % is effective.

  16. Starter Motor Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhardsson, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Starter motors are sensitive for overheating. By estimating the temperature and preventing cranking in time, there is an option to avoid the dangerous temperatures. The truck manufacturer Scania CV AB proposed a master thesis that should evaluate the need of an overheating protection for the starter motor. The aim is to evaluate any positive effects of implementing an algorithm that can estimate the brush temperature instead of using the available time constrain, which allows 35 seconds of cr...

  17. Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on live performance of broilers under Clostridium perfringens challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 30-day broiler cage trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS from one commercial product (SAF-Mannan on growth parameters, gut health and control pathogen colonization of broilers under Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens challenge. One hundred, 0-day old male Ross 308 broilers were allocated in 4 experimental treatments for 30 days. The four dietary treatments were T1, standard broiler basal diets without any medication as a control (+CONT; T2, basal diets as in T1 plus C. perfringens challenge (-CONT; T3, enramycin 0.1 g/kg of feed plus C. perfringens challenge (ENRA; T4, SAF-Mannan at 0.5 g/kg in starter and finisher diets plus C. perfringens challenge (SAF. Overall, feed conversion ratio (FCR and body weight gain (BWG in treatments ENRA and SAF were significantly better (P<0.01 than the –CONT treatment, whereas treatment +CONT was intermediate and not different from SAF. Feed intake (FI was not influenced by treatment. SAF-Mannan supplementation was able to lower the ileal C. perfringens count as compared to all other treatments (P<0.05. The changes in C. perfringens count appear in parallel to observed improvement in the cumulative FCR.  The results from this study clearly indicated that SAF-Mannan could act as a replacement for antimicrobial growth promoters in broilers (AGPs. SAF-Mannan level of 0.05% was enough to achieve a response competitive with that of the antibiotic.

  18. Effects of anti-heat diet and inverse lighting on growth performance, immune organ, microorganism and short chain fatty acids of broiler chickens under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seung-Tae; Park, Byung-Sung; Bang, Han-Tae; Kang, Hwan-Ku; Hwangbo, Jong

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the effects of night restricted feeding of extreme heat diet (EHD) containing heat stress resistance nutrients, with inverse lighting program, on their growth performance in broiler chickens exposed to extreme heat stress (33 ± 2°C). EHD 1 contained soy oil, molasses, methionine and lysine. EHD 2 contained all nutrients of EHD 1 and vitamin C additionally. Three hundred broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomized into four dietary treatment groups according to a randomized block design on the day they were hatched. The treatment groups were: T1 (EHD 1, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light), T2 (EHD 2, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light), T3 (EHD 1, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light) and T4 (EHD 2, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light). The body weight gain of the broilers increased most significantly in T2, followed by T1, T4 and T3 (p immune system, thymus and bursa of Fabricius recorded higher in T1 and T2 than in T3 and T4. The spleen was higher in T1, T2 and T3 than in T4 (p acid, propionic acid and total Short chain fatty acid were significantly higher in the order of T2, T1, T3 and T4. Butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid and isovaleric acid were higher in T4 and T3 than in T1 and T2 (p < 0.05). PMID:27097436

  19. Relationships between digestibilities of food components and characteristics of wheats (Triticum aestivum) introduced as the only cereal source in a broiler chicken diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, B; Idi, A; Maisonnier, S; Melcion, J P; Oury, F X; Gomez, J; Pluchard, P

    2002-07-01

    1. The aim of the experiment was to establish relationships between chemical or physical characteristics of wheats (Triticum aestivum) and digestibilities of food components in broiler chickens fed on wheat-based diets. Twenty-two wheat samples, each differing by their cultivar origin, were included at 550 g/kg in diets offered to male Ross broiler chicks. The other main ingredients were soya bean meal (340 g/kg) and rapeseed oil (68.5 g/kg). Diets were given as pellets. 2. In vitro viscosities of wheats measured as potential applied viscosity (PAV) or real applied viscosity (RAV) varied between 1.91 and 6.03, or between 0.95 and 3.81 ml/g (dry matter basis), respectively. Hardness of wheats varied between 17 (soft) and 95 (very hard), and lipase activity of wheats varied from 1 to 13.6 (relative scale). 3. PAV and RAV values were not significantly correlated with hardness. PAV and RAV values were correlated with (80:20) ethanol:water insoluble, water soluble arabinoxylans (r = 0.961, 0.932, respectively), with the amount of water retained by cell walls (r = 0.656, 0.492, respectively), and with lipase activity (r = 0.600, 0.532, respectively. 4. Hardness was correlated with ash (r = -0.484), nitrogen (r = 0.534), mean particle size of wheat flours (r = 0.631), and specific energy of pelleting (r = -0.574). 5. Wheat diets were evaluated in two assays with 3-week-old chicks, with 11 diets per assay. In each assay, a balance experiment was carried out using the total collection method. Growth performance was also measured during the balance experiment. 6. In vitro viscosity parameters were negatively correlated with diet AMEn (P viscosity data were positively correlated with food:gain ratio (P 0.05) correlated with starch digestibility. 7. Wheat hardness-related parameters were correlated (P viscosity parameters. PMID:12195800

  20. Effect of L-Carnitine Supplementation in Low Methionine Diets on Broilers' Growth Performance%低蛋氨酸日粮添加L-肉碱对肉仔鸡生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春华

    2013-01-01

    L-carnitine supplementary effects on broilers with low methionine level diets were studied in this paper. 300 Avine broilers were randomly divided into 5 groups , each group consisted of 3 repeat 20 birds each repeat. The results showed:1,The broiler's growth performance dropped when 50mg/kg L-carnitine and no methionine were supplied in low methionine diet;2, The broiler's growth performance didn't change when 100mg/kg L-carnitine and no methionine were supplied in low methionine diet;3, The broiler's growth performance improved when 50mg/kg or 100mg/kg L-carnitine and 0.05%methionine were supplied low methionine diet.%本课题研究在低蛋氨酸日粮中添加L-肉碱对肉仔鸡的影响。试验选用300只1日龄健康的艾维茵肉仔鸡,将随机分成5组,每组3个重复,每个重复20只。试验结果表明:1.低蛋氨酸日粮中添加L-肉碱50 mg/kg时不补加蛋氨酸肉仔鸡的生产性能下降;2.添加L-肉碱100 mg/kg时不补加蛋氨酸不影响肉仔鸡的生产性能;3.添加L-肉碱50mg/kg或100mg/kg时蛋氨酸补加0.05%对肉仔鸡生产性能有改善作用。

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFRENT LEVELS OF NDF AND ADF ON NUTRITIVE AND BIOPRODUCTIVE INDICES AND ON DIGESTIVE VISCOSITY AT THE JEJUNUM AND ILEUM LEVEL AT BROILER CHICKENS FED WITH A DIET CONTAINING AN ENZYMATIC MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA TETILEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment we have studied the effect of different levels of main cellulose categories (NDF, ADF on nutritive and bioproductive indices and on digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level at broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 44 broiler chickens divided into two experimental groups (V1-5% and V2-15%. In the structure of combined feed was used barley in proportion of 5% for V1-5% and 15% for V2-15%. For both experimental groups were used enzymatic mixture which contained protease and cellulose. The hybrid used was Ross 308. The raising of NDF and ADF levels in broiler diet did not affect significantly the nutritive and bioproductive indices, but was recorded an increase of digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level with 28,31%.

  2. PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF BROILERS FED DIETS CONTAINING YEAST EXTRACT DESEMPENHO E CARACTERISTICAS DE CARCAÇAS DE FRANGOS DECORTE RECEBENDO EXTRATO DE LEVEDURAS NA DIETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niédi Zauk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectof a yeast extract product on broiler growth performanceand carcass traits. A total of 810 male Ross broiler chickswere distributed in 27 pens (30 birds per pen in a completelyrandomized design. The animals were fed the experimentaldiets from 1 to 42 days of age. Treatments consisted offeeding a T1 basal corn-soybean meal diet; T2 a dietcontaining 2% yeast extract from 1 to 7 days of age and T3a diet containing 2% yeast extract from 1 to7 and 38 to 42days of age. Better growth performance was observed inbirds fed yeast extract from 1 to 7 and from 38 to 42 days ofage. Carcass traits were not statistically influenced by thedietary treatments. KEY WORDS: Body weight gain, feed conversion, feed intake, organs. Este estudo visou avaliar o efeito da utilização deum extrato de levedura sobre o desempenho e característi-cas de carcaça de frangos de corte. Um total de 810 frangos Ross, machos, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 27 boxes (trinta aves por boxe. As aves receberam as dietasexperimentais de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Os tratamentos consistiram em fornecer uma dieta à base de milho e farelo desoja (T1, uma dieta contendo extrato de levedura de 1 a 7dias (T2 e uma dieta contendo extrato de levedura de 1 a 7e de 38 a 42 dias de idade (T3. Os resultados experimentais indicam que o desempenho produtivo foi melhor ao se fornecer extrato de levedura de 1 a 7 e de 38 a 42 dias de idade.As características de carcaça não foram influenciadas estatisticamente pelas dietas experimentais. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, consumo de ração, órgãos.

  3. Instant Sinatra starter

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.

  4. Instant Sublime Text starter

    CERN Document Server

    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  5. Instant Apache Maven starter

    CERN Document Server

    Turatti, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

  6. Instant Prezi starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ladores, Minerva M

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

  7. EFFECT OF SEASON AND DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL ON IMMUNE RESPONSE OF THREE EXOTIC BROILER STRAINS IN SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huwaida E.E. MALIK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the season (summer versus winter and dietary protein level (high versus low using three broiler strains (Ross, Cobb and Hubbard on immunity; heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and haemagglutination against sheep red blood cells (SRBC. Three hundred and sixty, one-day-old unsexed broiler chicks were used in this study during the summer and winter seasons, 120 from each of Ross strain, Cobb strain and Hubbard strain. Two experiments were executed in a complete randomize design (factorial arrangement 3x2x2. Each strain was divided into two groups, with six replicates (10 chicks per replicate. Group A of each strain was fed on a starter diet containing 23% crude protein for the first four weeks of age, then replaced by a finisher diet containing 21% crude protein. Group B was fed on a starter diet containing 21% crude protein replaced by a finisher diet containing 19% crude protein. Both diet were iso caloric. The results showed that the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L ratio increased significantly (P<0.05 during the summer in both Hubbard and Ross strains, but it was not significantly affected by the season in Cobb strain. The total antibody titers against SRBC were decreased during the summer season in the three strains. The level of dietary protein showed no significant effect on H/L ratio in the three strains. Decreasing dietary protein level decreased the total antibody titers against SRBC in both Ross and Hubbard strains. Whereas, it does not affect the total antibody titers against SRBC in Cobb strain.

  8. The effect of different dietary levels of thyme essential oil on serum biochemical indices in Mahua broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day trial was undertaken to study the effect of different dietary levels of thyme essential oil (TEO on serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens. Seven hundred and sixty-eight selected one-day-old Mahua broilers were divided into 8 dietary treatment groups with an addition of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30 and 0.35 mg/kg of thyme essential oil respectively, with 4 replicate pens per treatment group (24 birds each. The feeding programme included a starter diet until day 21 and a finisher diet from day 22 until day 42. The results suggested that TEO markedly increased serum total proteins and globulins on day 21, significantly decreased alanine aminotransferase activity (P≤0.05, the albumin- to-globulin ratio, and serum urea on day 21 and 42, and in particular it improved highdensity lipoproteins on day 21 and 42 (P≤0.05. In conclusion, TEO can promote protein metabolism, enhance lipolysis and strengthen the immune function. Furthermore, after a comprehensive analysis, the ideal range of the essential oil addition to the broiler feed proved to be between 0.1 and 0.25 mg/kg.

  9. Instant OSGi starter

    CERN Document Server

    Goodyear, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Using a practical approach with explanation where needed, the book will take an in depth look at what OSGi is and what it offers to Java programmers and development standards. ""OSGi Starter"" is intended for the senior Java programmer whom will be joining OSGi based projects, or for Architects looking to broaden their exposure to OSGi as a beneficial framework and runtime software system.

  10. Perfil bioquímico do soro de frangos de corte alimentados com dieta suplementada com alfa-amilase de Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003 Biochemichal serum profile of broilers fed diets suplemented with alfa-amylase from Cryptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Silva Minafra

    2010-12-01

    with activity of 9.58 U/mL and 10.0 U/mL, respectively. A total of 360 Cobb 500 male 1-d broiler chicks with 49.72 ± 0.68 g of initial body weight were used in the experiment. Birds were housed in heated batteries from one to 21 days of age. It was used three diets, each one with five replicates of 12 birds in a complete random design. The first diet (basal was formulated without the addition of enzyme and the other two were supplemented with a-amylase produced by Cryptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003 cultivation. Corn and soybean based diets were formulated in two phases: pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days of age and starter phase (from 8 to 21 days. In pre-starter phase, it was observed the following average values for calcium (6.90 and 5.99 mg/dL, plasma protein (2.0 and 2.5 g/dL and alkaline phosphatase activity (979.98 e 974.66 UI/L for Criptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003, respectively. Diet added with a-amylase obtained from Aspergillus niger HM2003 increased phosphorus serum concentration. In the starter phase, significative results were related to potassium when diets added with a-amylase were evaluated by the two sources. Incorporation of tested enzymes does not provide metabolic changes neither toxicity in the animals.

  11. Performance and histological responses of internal organs of broiler chickens fed raw, dehulled, and aqueous and dry-heated kidney bean meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiola, I A; Ologhobo, A D; Gous, R M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of raw and differently processed [aqueous heating, dehulled, and dry heating (toasted)] kidney bean meals on the performance, weights, and histology of internal organs of broiler chicken. The feeding trial lasted for 56 d. Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were used for the study. There were 5 treatment groups of 3 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. Raw and processed kidney bean meals were used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean in the control diet. Data collected were used to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and efficiency of feed utilization. The weights of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and lungs were also recorded and tissue samples of each collected for histological examination. Average daily food intake, average daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization were influenced by the dietary treatments. Average daily food intake and average daily gain in birds fed the control diet and heat-treated kidney bean meals were similar and significantly (Pkidney had severe congestion of glomeruli and distention of the capillary vessels with numerous thrombi in birds fed raw and dehulled kidney bean meals. The weight of the liver was significantly (Pkidney bean meal can be used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean meal in broiler starter and finisher diets without any adverse effect on the performance and the internal organs.

  12. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (pcoconut oil level increased (poil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers.

  13. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Basavanta Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1 corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME, crude protein (CP and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05 in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  14. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers fed with animal fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Murali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in broilers fed with animal fat. Materials and Methods: 80 day-old Cobb commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned into two dietary treatment groups with four replicates of ten chicks each. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The birds in both the control (T1 and treatment group (T2 were fed with a diet having 5% animal fat, while the treatment group (T2 was supplemented with 900 mg of L-carnitine. The birds were fed with standard broiler starter ration up to 4 weeks of age and finisher ration up to 6 weeks of age. Results: The average body weight (g, cumulative feed intake (g and cumulative feed conversion ratio belonging to groups T1 and T2 at 6th week of age were 2091.25 and 2151.11, 3976.49 and 4171.68, 1.97 and 1.96 respectively. The percentage availability of the nutrients of two experimental rations T1 and T2 was 68.23 and 68.00 for dry matter, 58.72 and 55.98 for crude protein, 73.85 and 71.35 for ether extract, 34.19 and 33.86 for crude fiber, 79.18 and 79.59 for nitrogen free extract, 70.24 and 70.03 for energy efficiency and nitrogen balance (g/day were 2.35 and 2.39, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that the supplementation of 900 mg L-carnitine in diet with added animal fat had no effect on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers.

  15. Influences of an essential oil mixture supplementation to corn versus wheat-based practical diets on growth, organ size, intestinal morphology and immune response of male and female broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye Coven

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diet type, supplementation diet with an essential oil mixture (EOM, and bird gender on the growth performance, carcass yield, internal organ weight, immune response, and small intestine histology of broiler chickens. To do this, a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement was designed. The variables used were: two diet types (based on either wheat or corn, 2 feed additives (with or without EOM, and gender (male or female. EOM supplementation in the diet decreased body weight in corn-fed male birds at Days 21 and 42, but not in those fed the wheat-based diet, signifying a diet x EOM x gender interaction. Cumulative feed intake was not influenced by either the diet type or EOM. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by diet type, whereas EOM improved feed conversion ratio over the 42-day growth period. Feeding birds on wheat decreased the carcass yield while it increased relative small intestine and large intestine weight. Relative weights of liver, bursa fabricius and serum infectious bursal disease (IBD and Newcastle disease (ND titers were not affected by any of the variables studied. EOM supplementation and feeding birds on corn increased jejunal villus height at both 21 and 42 days of age, while bird gender showed no effect. In general, EOM positively influenced body weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion in broiler chickens. Birds receiving the corn-based diet were more efficient in converting feed to body mass as compared to those fed on the wheat-based diet.

  16. In vitro versus in situ evaluation of the effect of phytase supplementation on calcium and phosphorus solubility in soya bean and rapeseed meal broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, N K; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Burton, E J

    2014-01-01

    1. In vitro assays provide a rapid and economical tool to evaluate dietary effects, but have limitations. In this study, the effect of phytase supplementation on solubility, and presumed availability, of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in soya bean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) based diets were evaluated both in situ and by a two-step in vitro digestion assay that simulated the gastric and small intestine (SI) phases of digestion. 2. Comparison of the in vitro findings to in situ findings was used to evaluate the in vitro assay. Ross 308 broilers (n = 192) were fed on one of 6 SBM or RSM diets supplemented with 0, 500 or 5000 FTU/kg phytase from 0 to 28 d post hatch. The 6 diets and raw SBM and RSM were exposed to a two-step in vitro assay. Ca and P solubility and pH in the gizzard and jejunal digesta and in the gastric and SI phase of in vitro digestion were measured. 3. Both in vitro and in situ analyses detected that Ca solubility was lowest when diets were supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase, compared to the control diets and diets supplemented with 5000 FTU/kg phytase. Phosphorus solubility increased with increasing phytase level. Both methods also identified that mineral solubility plateaus in the gastric phase. 4. Overall relationship of the two methods was strong for both determination of gastric phase Ca and P solubility (r = 0.96 and 0.92, respectively) and also SI phase Ca and P solubility (r = 0.71 and 0.82, respectively). However, mineral solubility and pH were higher when measured in vitro than in situ, and the in situ assay identified an interaction among the effects of phase, protein source and phytase inclusion level on Ca solubility that the in vitro assay did not detect. 5. This two-step in vitro assay successfully predicted phytase efficacy, but to determine detailed response effects in the animal, in situ data is still required.

  17. Perfil lipídico e maciez da carne de coxa e sobrecoxa de frangos de corte alimentados com rações contendo diferentes fontes lipídicas Lipidic profile and tenderness of thigh and drumstick meat of broilers fed diets supplemented with different lipid sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potença Alexandra

    2010-08-01

    diets, eight replicates and 49 birds per experimental unit was used. In the starter phase, birds received diets formulated with soybean oil, cottonseed oil, poultry offal oil, or beef tallow, and during the growing phase, each one of these diets was dismembered in two diets, so one group of birds kept receiving the same oil source used in the previous phase while the other group started to receive soybean oil in the diet. In this phase, it was used a complete random design with seven diets, each one with four replicates. There was an effect of the diets on the profile of the fatty acids in the thigh. In the experiment 2, during the starter phase (from 1 to 21 days of age, the birds received the same diets with 3% of soybean oil, and in the growing phase (from 22 to 42 days of age, they received five diets each one with a lipidic source (soybean, canola oil, sunflower oil, poultry offal oil and beef tallow evaluated in a complete random design with six replicates and 30 birds per experimental unity. It was not observed effect of the diets on pH and shear force. However, diets influence the profile of fatty acids in the thigh because accordingly to the results, the increment of the rations with oil sources promote changes on lipid composition of the broiler thigh meat, so the best profile of fatty acids is observed in the meat of animals fed ration containing soybean oil.

  18. Fontes de Sódio e Relação Sódio: Cloro para Frangos de Corte Sodium Chloride Levels in Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV Fischer da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 2.880 pintos de corte, para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes fontes de sódio (Na+ e relações sódio:cloro (Na+:Cl- na ração. As aves receberam ração e água ad libtum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. O ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e mortalidade não foram influenciados (p>0,05 pela substituição da fonte tradicional de Na e pelas diferentes relações Na:Cl. A umidade da cama foi afetada pela fonte e níveis de Na na ração. Os resultados mostraram que pode-se utilizar o NaHCO3 como fonte parcial à exigência de Na para frangos de corte de 1 a 47 dias de idade.A trial was carried out with 2,880 day old chicks to evaluate different sources of sodium (Na+ and Na+:Cl- ratio in diets. Water and diets were available in "ad libitum" feeding. Experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and six repetitions. The performance (feed intake, body weight, feed conversion and mortality was not affected (P>0.05 by treatments, but different levels and sources of Na+ increased litter moisture. The NaHCO3 can be used in chicken broilers diets in partial substitution of Na for day 1 to 47.

  19. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  20. Instant Gimp starter

    CERN Document Server

    Amreen, Fazreil

    2013-01-01

    A Starter guide which helps you practically start with GIMP through plenty of examples and screenshots. This is an excellent handbook for anyone who would like to start drawing using their computers. The approach used within this book is objective so that readers from any age will be able to learn the process. The setup is so basic that you will need only a computer and a very minimal amount of computer literacy to start using this book.

  1. The efficacy of Na-butyrate encapsulated in palm fat on performance of broilers infected with necrotic enteritis with gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Eshak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the efficacy of Na-butyrate encapsulated in palm fat on performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with necrotic enteritis (NE with the determination of its protective effect against the changes in the gene expression profiles and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA fragmentation. Materials and Methods: A total of 800 one-day-old male Arbor Acres Plus broiler chickens were randomly allocated into four groups for 5 weeks. Na-butyrate was supplemented at dosages of 1 kg/ton for starter diet, 0.5 kg/ton for grower diet, and 0.25 kg/ton for finisher diet (presence or absence. Birds of groups 1 and 2 were inoculated by crop gavages with 4×108 CFU/ml/bird of Clostridium perfringens in phosphate buffered saline for 4 successive days, from 14 to 17 days of age to produce NE. Results: Addition of Na-butyrate, encapsulated in palm fat, to ration of experimentally infected broilers with NE resulted in increased final body weight, at 35 days of age, reduced total feed consumption, improved feed conversion ratio, reduced cumulative mortality, and increased production number. There were increased intestinal diameter, intestinal length, and significantly increased the weight of bursa of Fabricius(BF with higher hemagglutination inhibition titers against Newcastle disease (ND vaccination versus untreated infected and untreated negative control birds. The results showed increased expression levels of alpha-toxin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the bursa tissues of broilers infected with C. perfringens. However, the expression levels of these genes in broilers treated with Na-butyrate were similar to the non-infected control group. Supplementation of broilers with Na-butyrate increased the expression level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and decreased the DNA fragmentation induced by C. perfringens. Conclusion: Na-butyrate significantly improved chicken broiler body weights, increased relative weights of BF, increased

  2. Proportion of insoluble fibre in the diet affects behaviour and hunger in broiler breeders growing at similar rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Thodberg, Karen; Malmkvist, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    in birds fed C1 and almost none in birds fed L2, whereas birds fed H2 were intermediate. Stereotypic pecking at fixtures was seen twice as frequently in birds fed C1. Birds on diet L2 displayed behavioural signs indicative of discomfort, and the high water usage on this diet created problems with litter...

  3. Modeling and bio-economic analysis of broilers' performance in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to model bio-economic variables in broilers feeding. During 7 weeks, 120 broilers Red Bro were fed with diets containing soybean meals from solvent (Ss) or expeller (Se) processing. At grower phase (d 22 to d 49) the diets were switched for half of broilers in each...

  4. INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM CONTENT AND OIL SOURCES IN FEED ON CONCENTRATION OF THYROID GLAND HORMONES AND ELECTROLYTE IN BROILER BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to elaborate the influence of designed mixtures used in broilers fattening on the concentration of electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in the blood.. The research was carried out on 120 male Ross 308 hybrid broilers. The fattening lasted for 42 days. During the first three weeks of fattening broilers were fed standard starter diet containing 22% crude protein and 13.90 MJ/kg ME. During the last three weeks of fattening, broilers were divided into 6 experimental groups, each fed specially prepared finisher diets (P1=6% sunflower oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P2=6% linseed oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P3=6% sunflower oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P4=6% linseed oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P5=6% sunflower oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed, P6=6% linseed oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Finisher diet was balanced at 18.02% crude protein and 14.40 MJ/kg ME. It was found out that the type of oil in chicken feed influenced to blood pH (P <0.001, whereas selenium level (P=0.014 in the feed, as well as the oil type and selenium level interaction (P<0.001 influenced the concentration of potassium in the blood. Oil type (P=0.037 influenced the concentration of fT3, which was lower in chickens fed mixtures with addition of linseed oil than in the chickens fed sunflower oil added mixtures. Interaction of selenium content and oil type had influence on differences in concentration of fT4 as well as on the ratio of fT3/fT4, (P<0.001, i.e. P=0.021. The research results indicated that oils supplemented to broiler diets and combined with different organic selenium concentrations affected pH, concentration of some electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in broiler blood, however, all obtained values were within reference range for poultry.

  5. EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDE DEGRADING ENZYMES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nadeem, M. I. Anjum, A. G. Khan and A. Azim

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broilers chicks fed diets with and without supplementing non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes (NSPDE at the rate of 0.5 g/kg diet. A total of 300 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 12 sets (replicates each comprising 25 chicks and three sets per treatment group, reared on deep litter from 1-42 days post-hatch. Group A was fed diets without NSPDE supplementation, while group B was fed diets supplemented with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg. Group C was fed diets containing 50 kcal/kg less metabolizable energy (ME without NSPDE and group D was fed diets having 50 kcal/kg less ME with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg supplementation. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR from 1-28 days and 1-42 days was significantly (p<0.05 improved in chicks fed NSPDE supplemented diets (groups B and D compared to non-supplemented diets (groups A and C. However, during 29-42 days of growing period enzymes supplementation did not influence feed intake and FCR. Body weight gain, dressing percentage and relative weights of heart, gizzard and shank at 42 days of age was found to be non-significantly different among all groups. However, liver weight reduced significantly (p<0.05 in NSPDE supplemented groups. The study suggested that NSPDE supplementation was beneficial in enhancing feed utilization during the starter phase, while its effects on weight gain, dressing percentage and weights of organs, except liver weight, were found to be non-significant.

  6. Effects of different enzyme complex supplements in corn-soybean feedstuff on growth performance and nutrient utilization of broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hua; WANG Kang-ning

    2008-01-01

    A six-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing different enzyme cocktails in corn-soybean-byproduct diets on broiler chickens' growth performance and nutrient utilization. A total of 630 one-day-old Arbor Acre broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 7 experimental groups with 6 replicates of 15 chicks. The group of chicks serving as the control group were fed a basal diet made of mainly corn and soybean meal, mixed with a little fish meal, rapeseed meal and wheat bran. The other six groups were fed the same basal diet supplemented with each a different enzyme complex at the dosage of 0.75 kg enzyme in 1 t basal diet. At the same time, a metabolic trial was carried out on 42 chicks at the 27 d age. The results showed that the average daily mass gain (ADG) of chicks in the starter phase, age 1 d to 21 d, was improved by all enzyme complex supplements except the cocktail made of 230 IU/g (-amylase, 5.6 kIU/g (-glucanase, 5.3 kIU/g cellulase, 15.5 kIU/g protease and 37.5 kIU/g xylanase. The enzyme cocktail made of 1.6 kIU/g (-amylase, 80 kIU/g protease and 1.6 kIU/g xylanase worked out the most significant difference (P(0.05). Enzyme supplementation decreased the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 2.78% to 3.98% (P(0.05), indicating better utilization of nutritients. In the grower phase at the age from 22 d to 42 d, the enzyme cocktail made of 4.0 kIU/g (-glucanase, 3.8 kIU/g cellulase, 17.8 kIU/g protease, 4.5 kIU/g xylanase and 44 IU/g (-glactase, and that made of 240 IU/g (-amylase, 1.4.6 kIU/g (-glucanase, 2.0 kIU/g cellulase, 5.7 kIU/g protease, 400 IU/g xylanase, 20 IU/g (-glactase and 200 IU/g phytase imporved chicks' ADG and FCR significantly (P(0.05). These two cocktails also were shown to improve ADG and FCR in the entire period of broiler age from 1 d to 42 d. Exogenous digesting enzymes such as protease and amylase benefited the growth and nutrition utilization in young broilers in the starter phase but barely in the grower

  7. The chemical characteristics of organic iron sources and their relative bioavailabilities for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L Y; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Luo, X G

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-four organic Fe sources were evaluated by polarographic analysis and via solubility in buffers (pH 5 and 2) and deionized water. Organic Fe sources included 6 Fe-Met complexes (Fe-Met), 10 Fe-Gly complexes, 1 Fe-Lys complex, 4 Fe proteinates, and 3 Fe-AA complexes (Fe-AA). Sources varied considerably in chemical characteristics. Chelation strengths (quotient of formation [Q] values) ranged from weak (Q = 1.08) to extremely strong strength (Q = 8,590). A total of 1,170 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted to 6 replicate cages (15 chicks/cage) for each of 13 treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (4 Fe sources × 3 added Fe levels) plus a control with no added Fe. Dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; 55.8 mg Fe/kg) and the basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, or 60 mg Fe/kg as iron sulfate (FeSO∙7HO); an Fe-Met with weak chelation strength (Fe-Met W; Q = 1.37; 14.7% Fe); an iron proteinate with moderate chelation strength (Fe-Prot M; Q = 43.6; 14.2% Fe); or an iron proteinate with extremely strong chelation strength (Fe-Prot ES; Q = 8,590; 10.2% Fe). The growth performance, Fe concentrations, hematological indices, and activities and gene expressions of 2 Fe-containing enzymes in tissues of broilers at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were determined in the present study. Transferrin saturation in plasma on 14 d; bone Fe on d 7 and 14; liver Fe on d 7, 14, and 21; kidney Fe on d 14; succinate dehydrogenase activities in the liver on d 21 and in the kidney on d 7 and 21; mRNA levels in the kidney and heart on d 14; and mRNA levels in the liver and kidney on d 21 linearly increased ( < 0.05) as added Fe levels increased. However, differences in bioavailabilities among Fe sources were detected ( < 0.05) only for the mRNA levels in the liver and kidney on d 21. Based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regression of mRNA level in the liver or kidney of

  8. Inclusão da farinha de varredura de mandioca em rações de frangos de corte = Inclusion of cassava waste meal inclusion in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Nataly Ribeiro Barbosa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o desempenho, a viabilidade econômica e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo níveis de inclusão (0,0; 7,5; 15,0; 22,5 e 30,0% de farinha de varredura de mandioca (FVM. Foram utilizados 360 pintainhos de um dia, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocoscasualizados com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições contendo 12 aves por parcela. Os parâmetros avaliados foram o consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, custo da alimentação, renda bruta, margem bruta e rentabilidade. Aos 42 dias, foram abatidos doisfrangos por parcela para avaliação do peso: da carcaça, dos cortes, das vísceras e da gordura total, para determinar o rendimento de carcaça e calcular as porcentagens de cortes, gordura total e vísceras em relação ao peso vivo e carcaça. O peito e as coxas + sobrecoxas foram desossados para calcular os rendimentos de carne. A pigmentação das canelas das aves foi avaliada. Nos parâmetros de desempenho e avaliação econômica, não houve diferença entreos tratamentos. No peso e porcentagem da moela e pigmentação das canelas, houve efeito linear e, no rendimento da carne da coxa + sobrecoxa, houve efeito quadrático. A FVM pode ser incorporada às rações em níveis de 30%.The objective of this work was to evaluate performance, economic viability and carcass traits of broilers fed with diets containing five inclusion levels (0.0; 7.5; 15.0; 22.5 and 30.0% ofcassava waste meal (FVM. Three hundred sixty one-day-old pullets were used, distributed in a randomized block design experiment with five treatments and six replications, containing twelve birds per box. The parameters evaluated were feed intake, weight gain,feed-to-gain ratio, feeding costs, gross income, gross margin and profitability. Two broilers per replication were slaughtered at 42 days in order to evaluate the weights of carcass, main cuts, offal and total fat for carcass

  9. Glutamine and glutamic acid supplementation enhances performance of broiler chickens under the hot and humid tropical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua O. Olubodun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Day-old (day 1 commercial broiler chickens were fed i basal diet (control, ii basal diet +0.5% AminoGut (AG, or iii basal diet +1% AG from 1 to 42 d of age under the hot and humid tropical environment. AminoGut is a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of L-glutamine (Gln and L-glutamic (Glu acid. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the starter (1 to 21 d and overall (1 to 42 d periods improved linearly and quadratically with AG supplementation when compared to control. Supplementing birds with AG significantly reduced overall mortality rate. At 21 and 42 d of age, intestinal (duodenum and ileum villi height and crypt depth showed both linear and quadratic positive responses to AG supplementation. Intestinal amylase activity increased linearly and quadratically on d 21, and linearly only on d 42. In conclusion, Gln and Glu supplementation was beneficial in improving the growth performance and survivability of broiler chickens under the hot and humid tropical environment.

  10. Effect of Garlic Supplementation to Diet on Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens under High Stocking Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid SHAKERI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the impact of garlic powder (GAR on performance and intestinal morphology when chicken were subjected to different stocking densities. A total 100 one-day old Cobb 500 male chicks were housed in cages as 10 birds/m2 and 15 birds/m2. The chicks received feed as (i basal diet + 0 g/kg garlic powder and (ii basal diet + 5g/kg garlic powder supplementation from 1-42d. At the end of experiment, ten chicks per treatment randomly selected to collect duodenal samples. The results showed significant improvement in body weight and villi length when diet supplemented by GAR. High stocking density (HD had negative impact on growth performance and villi length in basal diet, but chicken supplemented by GAR diet did not affect by HD in the both parameters. In conclusion, diet supplemented by GAR can improve performance and villi length when the chickens were subjected to HD condition.

  11. ANTI-NUTRIENT FACTORS, PERFORMANCE AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY OF BROILER CHICKS FED RAW AND FERMENTED ALCHORNEA CORDIFOLIA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. EMENALOM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine some anti-nutrient factors in differently processed Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia seeds and the effect of the processed seed meals on the performance and blood chemistry of broiler chicks fed from 1 to 35 day of age. Ground and fermented, and dehulled Christmas bush (CB seed meals were analyzed for their anti-nutrient contents whereas ground and sieved (GS, ground-sieved and fermented (GSF and non-sieved and fermented (NSF seed meals were incorporated into starter broiler diets to replace 10% of maize, respectively. Fermented and dehulled CB seed meals contain 574.4 and 21.3mg/100g phytic acid, respectively. Cyanide was not identified in any of the meals. Dehulling eliminated the anthraquinone and tannin contents whereas fermentation only eliminated the tannin content. None of the methods completely eliminated the saponin, cardiac glycoside, flavonoid and alkaloid contents of the seed meals. With GS seed meal, broilers had lower average daily weight gain (P<0.05 than the control group. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 but feed conversion ratio was not different when compared with control. Inclusion of GSF seed meal improved growth and feed intake when compared with the NSF seed meal and by day 35, growth and feed intake were comparable to those of the control birds. Blood plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphates and aspartate aminotransferase increased with GS CB seed meal diet, while serum calcium decreased. Neither raw nor fermented seed meals altered other measures of the blood chemistry. It is concluded that CB seeds contain toxic anti-nutrient compounds and that sieving out the hulls in the ground raw seed meal before fermentation improved the feeding value of the seeds for broilers at 10% replacement for maize.

  12. Instant Metasploit starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ranganath, Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Metasploit Starter is a fast-paced introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start as a smart ethical hacker, and defend your world from attacks instantly.This book is designed for security enthusiasts who are more interested in getting hands-on experience rather than reading just theory. It is also for anyone who is aware of the Metasploit framework and wishes to understand it better and start using it inst

  13. Munin plugin starter

    CERN Document Server

    Brinke, Bart ten

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This hands-on Starter guide will get you up and running with Munin and Munin plugins, giving you the power to monitor, fix, and optimize your networks.This book is great for system administrators who want to improve the monitoring level of their systems. It's assumed that you have some experience with Linux-based systems and know your way around them.

  14. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  15. Higher lipid accumulation in broilers fed on saturated fats than in those fed on unsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (Psaturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (Psaturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

  16. Desempenho de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo diformiato de potássio Broilers performance fed with diets contend potassium diformiate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Augusto dos Santos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A proibição do uso de antibióticos como aditivos promotores de crescimento causou grandes impactos à avicultura de corte, trazendo consigo a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novos aditivos. Nesse contexto, o diformiato de potássio (DK, um sal de ácido fórmico, surge como uma dessas alternativas. O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a ação do DK sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 1.800 frangos de corte machos da linhagem Ross 308, distribuídos em dois experimentos de 900 aves cada, formados por cinco tratamentos de seis repetições, em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela inclusão de níveis crescentes de DK às dietas (0, 3, 6, 9 e 12kg DK t-1. As aves foram pesadas ao alojamento, aos 21 e aos 42 dias e, posteriormente, os dados obtidos foram submetidos a uma análise de regressão linear. No primeiro experimento, não houve melhoria no desempenho zootécnico das aves, havendo ainda uma redução no consumo alimentar. Da mesma forma, no segundo experimento a adição de DK reduziu linearmente o consumo de ração e ganho de peso, não demonstrando qualquer efeito sobre a conversão alimentar das aves. Conclui-se que doses elevadas de DK causam desequilíbrio ácido-básico das dietas, com efeitos negativos sobre o desempenho das aves.The use of prohibited antibiotics as growth promoters additives caused great impacts on poultry, bringing the need for the development of new additives. The diformiate potassium (DK, a salt of formic acid, is emerging as one of those alternatives. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the action of DK on the performance of broilers. One thousand and eight hundred broilers male of Ross 308 breed, distributed into two trials of 900 birds each, and then randomly separated by five treatments with six replications, in a completely randomized experimental design, The treatments consisted by inclusion of increasing levels

  17. Meat quality and color of abdominal fat of broilers fed diets containing cashew nut meal treated with antioxidant - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.9564

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani Ribeiro Vieira Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to assess the influence of diets containing cashew nut meal stored for 35 days and treated at different storage times with 500 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene on the characteristics of breast meat and abdominal fat. The experiment followed a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of diets containing: untreated cashew nut meal; cashew nut meal treated with antioxidant on zero day of storage, and cashew nut meal treated with antioxidant on 21st day of storage. At 42 days old, broilers were slaughtered. Breast and abdominal fat of each bird were identified, weighed, frozen stored for subsequent analysis. The variables studied were: pH, water holding capacity, cooking losses and shear force, in the meat and color of the meat and of the abdominal fat. Treatments did not affect (p > 0.05 the evaluated parameters. However, the yellowness (component b* of the abdominal fat was higher in birds fed the diet containing meal treated with antioxidant at storage day zero. In conclusion, the cashew nut meal can be stored for 35 days without antioxidant, but in order to achieve intense yellowness in abdominal fat of broilers 500 ppm antioxidant addition is required, at the beginning of storage.  

  18. Short communication. Effects of purslane extract on performance, immunity responses and cecal microbial population of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Ghorbani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of purslane extract on performance, cecal microflora composition and immune responses of broiler chickens. One hundred and ninety two 1–day old broiler chicks (Ross 308 were allocated randomly in 4 groups with 4 replicates to receive diets supplemented with 0 (control, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of purslane extract for 42 days. Body weight gain, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly and calculated for starter (1-21 d, grower (22-42 d and overall periods (1-42 d. All diets were isocaloric, isonitrogenous and provided ad libitum. Antibody response against sheep red blood cell (SRBC was measured on d-28 and d-42. At the age of 42 d, eight chicks per treatment killed aseptically for enumeration of cecal bacteria. The results of this experiment indicated that FI increased significantly with inclusion of purslane extract in grower and overall period (p≤0.05. Purslane extract did not affect coliform and Escherichia coli populations but increased Lactobacillus population of cecal content significantly (p≤0.05. There were no significant differences in primary and secondary antibody titer against SRBC and no differences among the treatments for relative weight of thymus and spleen (p>0.05. Relative weight of bursa was affected with inclusion of purslane extract in the diet. Therefore, it was concluded that purslane inclusion had a positive significant effect on cecal microflora composition, but had no effect on immune response of broiler chickens.

  19. Selecting appropriate bedding to reduce locomotion problems in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICL Almeida Paz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out at the Poultry Sector of the School of Agrarian Sciences of the Federal University of Grande Dourados to evaluate the incidence of leg problems in broilers reared on two distinct types of bedding material: rice husks or wood shavings, both new and reused. In both trials, a randomized experimental design was applied in factorial arrangement (2 x 2 x 2 using two genetic strains (Cobb® or Ross®; two sexes (male or female, and two litter materials (rice husks or wood shavings. In each trial 1080 one day pullets were reared equally divided in the treatments. The birds were placed in 4.5 m² boxes at a density of 10 birds m-2. All birds were fed diets with equal nutritional density, and water was offered ad libitum. Feeds were divided in three phases: starter diet (1 - 21 days, grower diet (22 - 35 days, and finisher diet (36 - 45 days. On day 45, fifty birds were randomly selected in each experiment to evaluate flock leg problems. The following parameters were analyzed: gait score, incidence of valgus and varus disorder, footpad dermatitis, femoral degeneration, tibial dyschondroplasia, and spondylolisthesis. Ambient temperature during rearing and litter caking and moisture content were recorded in four boxes per treatment. The analytical hierarchy process was used to organize the data into specific criteria. Several criteria, related to the attributes that were determinant according to the statistical analysis, were chosen in order to provide the best input to the process. Results indicated that new wood-shavings bedding was the most appropriate bedding to prevent locomotion problems, followed by new rice husks, reused wood shavings, and reused rice husks. However, when leg problems were associated to sex and genetic strain, male Ross birds strain presented less problems when reared on new rice husks, followed by new wood shavings

  20. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  1. Effect of Sugar Cane Extract, Commercial Probiotic and their Mixture on Growth Performance and Intestinal Histology in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oraya Khambualai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As the intestinal function is intimately affected by fed diets, many kinds of natural substances and probiotics have been supplemented to broilers to raise poultry productivity due to activating intestinal function. Besides, the intestinal histology is clearly altered by intestinal functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Sugar Cane Extract (SCE and commercial probiotic (SPB, either alone or in combination, could improve growth performance and how intestinal histological alterations would be observed in these birds. Approach: A total of 64, 7-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups, consisting of 4 replicates of 4 birds each. Commercial mash starter and finisher diets were supplemented with 0.05% SCE, 0.4% SPB, or a mixture of 0.05% SCE and 0.4% SPB (SCE + SPB. Results: Body weight gain was better in all the experimental groups than the control. The greatest improvement was observed in the SCE + SPB group. Most values of villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis in all intestinal segments were higher (pConclusion: The present results of enhanced light microscopic parameters and protuberant epithelial cells in SCE and SPB groups suggest that the intestinal villi and epithelial cells might be hypertrophied by SCE and SPB. The fact that a synergistic effect was observed with regard to growth performance and intestinal histology in the SCE + SPB group suggests that SCE is a good supplement to probiotics.

  2. Fermented and unfermented palm kernel cake as broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P Ketaren

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available feed. Two hundred and ten, day-old broiler chicks were used for this study. They were allotted to 6 different diets containing either BIS or FBIS at 3 different levels (5, 10 and 15% and one control diet. The results showed that 5% BIS and 5% FBIS could be used in broiler diet without adversely affecting feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. FCR of those diets were significantly (P<0.05 better than the control diet. Carcass yields were not significantly affected by feeding of BIS nor FBIS. The FBIS diet produced less abdominal fat than the BIS diet.

  3. Composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei na dieta de frangos de corte Spent mushroom substrate of Agaricus blazei in broiler chicks diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Batista Machado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da substituição de um antibiótico por diferentes níveis do composto exaurido do cogumelo (CEC Agaricus blazei sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram avaliadas sete dietas, seis com adição de CEC (0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0% e uma com antibiótico (avilamicina 10 ppm. Foram utilizados 588 pintos de 1 dia de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições por dieta (três por sexo e 14 aves por unidade experimental. As aves que não receberam qualquer aditivo na dieta apresentaram os piores resultados de desempenho. Níveis de CEC superiores a 0,4% ocasionaram redução gradual no desempenho. O nível de 0,2% de CEC proporcionou o maior ganho de peso e o de 0,21%, a melhor conversão alimentar e o maior consumo de ração. À exceção do rendimento de peito e do rendimento de gordura abdominal, os aditivos não influenciaram os rendimentos de carcaça e dos cortes. O composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei pode ser utilizado como aditivo alternativo ao antibiótico no nível de 0,2% da dieta, pois não prejudicou o desempenho produtivo e o rendimento de carcaça das aves.The effect of the substitution of an antibiotic by different levels of spent mushroom substrate (SMS of Agaricus blazei on the performance of broiler chicks from 1 to 42 days old was evaluated. Seven diets were evaluated, six with SMS addiction (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0% and one with antibiotic (avilamycin 10 ppm. A total of 588 one day old chicks was allotted to a complete randomized design, with six replications per diet (three per sex and 14 birds per experimental unit. The birds fed diet with any additive showed the worst performance results. Levels of SMS above 0.4% caused gradual reduction in the performance. The level of 0.2% of SMS provided the highest value of weight gain and of 0.21% promoted the best feed conversion and the highest value of feed intake

  4. Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Gut Barrier Failure in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juxing; Tellez, Guillermo; Richards, James D; Escobar, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in chickens. A total of 144 day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chickens were housed in 24 battery cages with six chicks per cage. Cages were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or gut barrier failure (GBF) group. During the first 13 days, birds in CON or GBF groups were fed a common corn-soy starter diet. On day 14, CON chickens were switched to a corn grower diet, and GBF chickens were switched to rye-wheat-barley grower diet. In addition, on day 21, GBF chickens were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine. At days 21 and 28, birds were weighed by cage and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio. At day 28, one chicken from each cage was euthanized to collect intestinal samples for morphometric analysis, blood for serum, and intestinal mucosa scrapings for gene expression. Overall performance and feed efficiency was severely affected (P biomarkers for gut barrier health in chickens. PMID:26664943

  5. SCIENTIFIC-PRACTICAL BASIS OF PREPARATION EKOFILTRUM IN BROILER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buyarov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes effectiveness of "Ekofiltrum" when included in the diet of broiler cross "Ross-308". The authors studied effect of additives on the zootechnical performance of poultry, morphological and biochemical parameters of blood, as well as meat quality of broiler chickens.

  6. Extrato de orégano como aditivo em rações para frangos de corte Oregan extract as an additive in the broiler diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Hatsumi Fukayama

    2005-12-01

    , anatomic-physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal tract (villy height, crypta depth and villy:crypta ratio, caecum microbiological analysis, and duodenum and caecum pH. One thousand and fourty male Cobb 500 chicks, in two growing phases (1 to 21 and 1 to 42 days old were randomly assigned to six treatments and eight replicates of 30 broilers. The basal diet (BD was fed during the three phases (1 to 21, 22 to 35 and 36 to 42 days old, according to the following treatments: T1 - BD, T2 - BD with antibiotic (25 ppm zinc bacitracin, T3 - BD with 0.025% OE, T4 - BD with 0.050% OE, T5 - BD with 0.075% OE, and T6 - BD with 0.100% OE. No effect of treatments on broiler performance and duodenum and caecum pH in both phases was observed. The immunity system and anatomic-physiological parameters of gastrointestinal tract were not affected by the treatments, during the first phase. At 42 days old, only the spleen weight and villy height were affected by treatments. Decreasing effect on the number of bacteriums in caecum as the dietary level of oregan extract increased showed the antimicrobian effect of oregan extract. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that the use of oregan extract as growth promoter did not differ from the other treatments (antibiotic and control.

  7. Instant OpenNMS starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hachey, Ghislain

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starters' guide to learning OpenNMS with ease, with a focus on immediate results.Instant OpenNMS Starter is for network administrators of any level with a slight focus on the novice that would enjoy a swift glance at what OpenNMS has to offer. It assumes the reader will have knowledge of basic network operations and protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite.

  8. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  9. Instant CloudFlare starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dickey, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

  10. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  11. A STARTER-GENERATOR FOR HELICOPTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Lushchyk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative electromagnetic calculations of a commercial starter-generator and a nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator are made. The nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator magnetic fields are shown in start-up and generator rated conditions. The electromagnetic calculation technique is verified and confirmed with experimentally investigated nonsalient-pole-stator machines of other types.

  12. MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PLASTIC TANK TO VEGETABLE OIL AS A PART OF FEEDING MIXTURES USED FOR CHICKEN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were measured in samples of rapeseed oil, which was used as a feed. First samples were collected during the production process and second after the storage in plastic tank (21 days. The results of measurements are that there is 2.93-10.10 mg PAEs.kg-1 in the oil before storage and 22.73-61.55 mg PAEs.kg-1 after storage. For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of PAEs in animal tissues and organs (muscles, adipose tissue, skin and liver broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were fed by commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate content, or animal fat with high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oil or animal fat. DBP and DEHP were found in all tissues of all chicks. The highest concentration of DBP of 1.28 1.00 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 2.87 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (average of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. doi:10.5219/49

  13. Desempenho produtivo de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorventes Productive performance of broiler breeders fed diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannan as adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uttpatel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e adsorvente à base de glucomananos esterificados. Foram utilizados 300 fêmeas e 40 machos da linhagem Ross 308 alojados em 20 boxes experimentais na fase de 61 a 72 semanas de idade. Da 61ª à 68ª semana, as aves receberam dietas contendo três níveis de aflatoxina (0; 0,500; 0,750 mg/kg em combinação ou não a adsorvente (0,10% e, nas quatro últimas semanas, receberam dietas isentas de aflatoxina e adsorvente. As aves foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (níveis de aflatoxina vs níveis de adsorvente com 4 repetições, cada uma de 15 fêmeas e 2 machos. A partir da 65ª semana, as aves alimentadas com dietas contendo aflatoxina e adsorvente apresentaram menor taxa de postura em relação àquelas que receberam dietas comuns, sem esses aditivos. O peso corporal das matrizes, assim como o peso, o peso específico dos ovos, a eclodibilidade, e a qualidade dos pintos produzidos não são afetados pelos níveis de aflatoxinas e adsorvente presentes na dieta.The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of broiler breeder hens fed diets containing aflatoxins and adsorbent on the basis of esterified glucomannan. It was used 300 Ross 308 females and 40 males broiler breeders, housed in 20 experimental pens in the 61-72 week of age phase. From the 61st to the 68th week, birds were fed diets containing three levels of aflatoxin (0; 0.500; 0.750 mg/kg combined or not to adsorbent (0.10% and on the last four weeks they received diets without aflatoxin and adsorbent. The birds were distributed in a complete randomized design in a factorial scheme (levels of aflotoxin vs levels of adsorbents with 4 replicates, each one with 15 females and 2 males. From the 65th week, birds fed diets with aflotoxin and adsorbent showed lower laying rate

  14. Digestibilidade da ração de frangos de corte suplementados com probióticos e antibiótico Digestibility of broiler chickens diet supplemented with probiotics and antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa da Silva Salles Corrêa

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a digestibilidade da ração de frangos de corte a qual continha ou não antibiótico e probióticos na fase inicial (um a 20 dias e na fase final (21-40 dias. As aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos: Tratamento 1- Dieta Testemunha; Tratamento 2 - Dieta Testemunha + 0,02 % de probiótico 1 (Calsporin 10®, Tratamento 3 - Dieta Testemunha + 2,0% na fase inicial e 0,63% na fase final de probiótico 2 (Estibion aves®; Tratamento 4 - Dieta Testemunha + 0,013% de antibiótico (Bacitracina de Zinco® e 5 repetições de 10 e 8 aves por unidade experimental por fase, respectivamente. Os pintos foram criados em gaiolas de metabolismo. Os resultados demonstram que a digestibilidade de matéria seca, nitrogênio e energia metabolizável aparente não foi afetada pela suplementação de antibiótico e probióticos na dieta de frangos de corte.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the diets digestibility in broiler chickens with and without antibiotic and probiotics, in the initial phase (one to 20 days and finish phase (21 to 40 days. Chickens distributed in a completely randomized design were used in four treatments: Treatment 1- Control diet; Treatment 2 - Control diet + 0.02% probiotic 1 (Calsporin 10®, Treatment 3 - Control diet + 2.0% initial phase and 0.63% finish phase probiotic 2 (Estibion aves®; Treatment 4 - Control diet + 0.013% of antibiotic (Bacitracina de Zinco®, and five repetitions, with ten and eight birds, respectively, were used in each experimental unit, which were kept in metabolism cages. The results demonstrate that the digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and apparent metabolized energy were not affected by the supplementation of antibiotic and probiotics in the broiler chickens diet.

  15. Tolerance and safety evaluation of N, N-dimethylglycine, a naturally occurring organic compound, as a feed additive in broiler diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, I.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Maenner, K.; Zentek, J.; Meulemans, G.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    N, N-dimethylglycine (DMG) is a tertiary amino acid that naturally occurs as an intermediate metabolite in choline-to-glycine metabolism. The objective of the present trial was to evaluate tolerance, safety and bioaccumulation of dietary DMG in broilers when supplemented at 1 g and 10 g Na-DMG/kg. A

  16. Evaluation of the addition of charcoals to broiler diets on the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control, 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charco...

  17. 不同谷物饲粮对肉仔鸡肠道微生物群落多样性的影响%Effects of Different Grain Diets on Intestinal Microbial Community Diversity in Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田亚东; 张大为; 李敬; 孙桂荣; 韩瑞丽; 蒋瑞瑞; 康相涛

    2013-01-01

    选取1日龄AA肉仔鸡母雏360只,随机分为3个处理组,分别饲喂以玉米、小麦、大米为单一淀粉源配制等能等氮饲粮,饲养28 d,利用末端限制性片段长度多态性( T-RFLP)技术测定不同饲粮类型对肉仔鸡肠道微生物群落多样性的影响。结果显示,限制性片段T-RF 160、T-RF 253和T-RF 292所代表的菌群是十二指肠、空肠和回肠中的优势菌群,大米饲粮组T-RF 253和T-RF 292片段所代表菌群优势度较玉米饲粮组和小麦饲粮组稍低,盲肠中优势菌群结构和含量与小肠存在较大差异。不同饲粮组间肉仔鸡肠道微生物群落的香侬-威纳指数、辛普森指数和均匀度指数均无显著差异(P>0.05),但大米饲粮组较玉米饲粮组和小麦饲粮组表现出微生物群落多样性程度高,优势种群少的趋势;随着肠段向后推移,回肠和盲肠微生物物种较十二指肠和回肠丰富,且逐渐趋于稳定。本研究表明,不同肠段微生物群落结构存在较大的差异,饲粮谷物类型对肉仔鸡肠道微生物菌群结构和多样性存在一定程度的影响。%A total of 360 one-day-old female broiler chickens of the Arber Acres strain were randomly assigned to 3 groups,fed with iso-energy and iso-nitrogen diets containing corn ,wheat or rice as sole starch source ,respec-tively,for 28 days.The technique of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism ( T-RFLP) was used to evalu-ate the effects of dietary types on intestinal microbial community diversity of broiler chickens .The results showed that the microflora represented by the restricted fragments of T-RF160 ,T-RF253 and T-RF292 were the dominant bacterial communities in duodenum ,jejunum and ileum of broiler chickens .However ,the dominance degree of flora represented by the restricted fragments of T-RF253 and T-RF292 in broiler chickens fed with rice diet was slightly lower than that of birds fed with corn diet

  18. The use of dried bakery products in a free-choice feeding method for small-scale broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiya, A T; McCrindle, C M E; Veary, C M; Bisschop, S P R

    2003-12-01

    Waste material from bakeries is an unconventional energy feed source which is available in sufficient quantities for use in small-scale broiler production in South Africa. Small-scale broiler producers do not have access to the computer programs required to balance home-mixed rations. This investigation confirms that the use of dried bakery products (DBP) in a 2-stage, free-choice method can be used to compensate for this lack. A total of 570 day-old male broiler chickens was assigned to 3 feeding treatments: the control group was fed a 2-stage feeding programme using standard commercial starter and grower rations. The 2nd group received a commercial starter ration up to Day 7 and was thereafter given a choice of a commercial starter ration with normal salt content (0.35%) and DBP. The 3rd group was fed a commercial starter ration up to Day 7, then offered a choice of commercial starter ration with a lower salt content (0.1%) and DBP. The low salt alternative was used to test whether the higher salt percentage in DBP influenced the choice of feed by the birds. It was found that the control group consumed significantly more feed (P profit margin, as calculated using gross margin analysis, was approximately 15 % higher. It was therefore concluded that dried bakery products can be profitably incorporated as an energy feed source, using the free-choice feeding method, in small-scale broiler enterprises. PMID:15038423

  19. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  20. Efficacy of feed additives against Campylobacter in live broilers during the entire rearing period: Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, M I; Millán, C; Sánchez, J; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Mayot, J; Carre, Y; Csorbai, A; Chemaly, M; Medel, P

    2016-04-01

    A total of 636 day-of-hatch Ross 308 broilers chicks were used in 4 independent trials carried out to screen the effect of 12 feed additives on reducing cecal colonization of Campylobacterin broilers. The tested additives were probiotics based on B. subtilis and S. cerevisae, a garlic extract, a blend of herbal substances and essential oils, two different combinations of essential oils and organic acids (OA), two mixtures of flavoring compounds, medium chain fatty acids (MCFA), monoglycerides (MG) of MCFA and MG-MCFA+OA. At 14 days of age, all the birds were orally infected with 0.1 mL of a bacterial suspension of C. jejuni ST-45 diluted at 10(5) cfu/mL in tryptone salt broth. In each trial, there was a positive control group and 2 (Trials 1 and 2) or 4 (Trials 3 and 4) additional treatment groups supplemented with additives, which were added to feed or water only to the finisher (21 to 42 d) diet (Trials 1 and 2) or to the starter (0 to 21 d) and finisher diets (Trials 3 and 4). Feed and water were available ad libitum. On days 35 and 42 of age in Trials 1 and 2, and on days 21, 35 and 42 of age in Trials 3 and 4, 10 (Trials 1 and 2) or 12 birds (Trials 3 and 4) per group were euthanized for cecal sampling. In Trial 1, birds fed with MCFA and MG-MCFA had a significant (P0.05) in cecal Campylobacter counts were found between the treated and control animals. In conclusion, although none of the treatments were able to completely prevent the colonization of chickens with C. jejuni, MCFA and MG-MCFAs could reduce the pathogen counts when supplemented from 21 days onwards. PMID:26706354

  1. Avaliação nutricional e energética do farelo de girassol para aves Nutritional and energetic evaluation of sunflower meal in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Tavernari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois ensaios de metabolismo a fim de determinar a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA, por meio do método de coleta total de excretas com frangos, e a energia metabolizável verdadeira (EMV e a digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos do farelo de girassol, por meio do método de alimentação forçada com galos cecectomizados. No primeiro ensaio, foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso com 80 frangos Cobb, distribuídos em dois tratamentos, ração referência (RR e RR mais 20% de inclusão de farelo de girassol e oito repetições e cinco aves por unidade experimental. No segundo ensaio, foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso com 14 galos Leghorn, distribuídos em dois tratamentos, farelo de girassol e jejum, sete repetições e um galo por unidade experimental. O farelo de girassol apresentou 90,0% de matéria seca, 28,1% de proteína bruta, 4.42kcal/kg de energia bruta, 22,4% de fibra bruta, 2,9% de extrato etéreo, 0,8% de fósforo e 0,3% de cálcio. A EMV, a EMV corrigida, a EMA e a EMA corrigida determinadas foram 3.013; 2.200; 2.141 e 1.983kcal/kg, respectivamente. A lisina foi o aminoácido essencial que apresentou a menor digestibilidade e a arginina, a maior.Two experiments were carried out to determine apparent metabolizable energy (AME, by the method of total excreta collection using broilers; and true metabolizable energy (TME and true amino acid digestibility of sunflower meal (SFM, by the method of forced feeding using cecectomized roosters. In the first experiment, a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (reference diet (RD and RD plus 20% SFM inclusion with eight replicates of five birds each, was applied. In the second experiment, a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (SFM vs. fasting with seven replicates of one rooster each, was used. Sunflower meal presented 90,0% dry matter, 28.1% crude protein, 4

  2. Desempenho de frangos de corte oriundos de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorvente Performance of broilers derived from breeder hens fed with diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannan as adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pires Rosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho da progênie de matrizes de corte que consumiram aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorvente por quatro ou oito semanas. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. Em cada estudo foram utilizados 160 machos de 1 dia provenientes de matrizes alimentadas com dietas contendo aflatoxinas e adsorvente. Em ambos os ensaios, foi adotado um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado para avaliação de cinco dietas (tratamentos, cada uma avaliada com quatro repetições de oito aves. Nas dietas fornecidas às matrizes, as aflatoxinas foram adicionadas nos níveis 0; 0,500; ou 0,750 mg/kg de ração em combinação ou não a 0,10% de adsorvente. Os dois ensaios com frangos de corte foram conduzidos em baterias instaladas em unidade experimental climatizada, onde os pintos receberam uma dieta comprovadamente isenta de aflatoxinas durante todo o período experimental. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: peso corporal, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar pelo ganho de peso, proteínas plasmáticas totais, albumina sérica e pesos de fígado e bursa de Fabrícius ao primeiro dia de idade. A adição de até 0,750 mg aflatoxinas/kg e adsorvente durante oito semanas na dieta de matrizes de corte não influencia o desempenho zootécnico nem os parâmetros sanguíneos da progênie das matrizes.The performance of the progeny from breeders hens fed diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannans as a mycotoxins adsorbent during four and eight weeks was evaluated. Two experiments were carried out with broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age. In each study, one hundred and sixty 1-day old male chicks from broiler breeders fed diets with aflatoxins and mycotoxins adsorbent were used. The chicks were allocated in a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments and four replicates of eight birds each. In the diets supplied to the breeder chickens, aflatoxins were added at

  3. Evaluation of high dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles and supplementation of protease and xylanase in the diets of broiler chickens under necrotic enteritis challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekatain, M R; Antipatis, C; Rodgers, N; Walkden-Brown, S W; Iji, P A; Choct, M

    2013-06-01

    A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a high level of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20%), with or without a combination of protease and xylanase in broiler chickens, under a necrotic enteritis disease challenge. A total of 576 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 experimental treatments, each replicated 6 times, with 12 birds per replicate for 35 d. Oral inoculation of the challenged group with Eimeria spp. occurred on d 9, followed by 3 consecutive inoculations of Clostridium perfringens from d 14 through 16. The disease challenge and DDGS inclusion significantly (P enteritis-related lesions (d 17) were more severe (P enteritis. Supplementation of enzymes did not reveal significant mitigation effect in infected birds but helped the birds fed DDGS to maintain feed intake and BW gain.

  4. Growth Performance, Meat Yield, Oxidative Stability, and Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Broilers Fed Diets Supplemented with a Medicinal Plant and Probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Md. Elias; Kim, Gwi Man; Lee, Sung Ki; Yang, Chul Ju

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of Alisma canaliculatum with probiotics (ACP) on the growth performance, meat composition, oxidative stability, and fatty acid composition of broiler meat. Sixteen probiotic strains were tested for their levels of acid, bile, and heat tolerance. Among them, Lactobacillus acidophilus KCTC 3111, Enterococcus faecium KCTC 2022, Bacillus subtilis KCTC 3239, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCTC 7928 were selected for use in ACP. Exactly 140 Ro...

  5. Effects of Adding Microbial Phytase in Low-Available-Phosphorus Diet on Mineral Metabolism of Broilers%低有效磷饲粮添加植酸酶对肉仔鸡矿物质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彩然; 杨宗泽; 张建文

    2001-01-01

    100只艾维因肉仔鸡随机分为5组,每个组设4个重复。第1组喂标准饲粮;第2,3,4,5组喂低有效磷(0.20%)饲粮,分别加植酸酶0,350,500,650 FTU/kg,饲养试验分两个阶段:0~3周,4~6周。试验期为5周,观察各组肉鸡的营养物质表观利用率、胫骨质量、血清化学指标的变化,研究低有效磷饲粮中添加植酸酶对矿物质代谢的影响及作用机制。试验结果表明:在低有效磷饲粮中添加植酸酶对矿物代谢有一定积极影响,以植酸酶最大添加量650 FTU/kg组的效果为最佳。%100 four-day-old birds were randomly divided into five groups, each with four replications. In group 1, broilers were fed on basal diets with inorganic phosphorous as control. While in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, broilers were fed on low-P basal diets, in which microbial phytase was added at the concentrations of 0, 350, 500 and 650 phytase units per kilogram of the diets respectively. In the five-weeks trial duration, the balance of phosphorous, calcium and crude protein, tibia strength and its mineral composition, and the mineral concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity in serium were measured to decide the efficacy of phytase added in low-P diets. The efficacy of the 650 FTU/kg group was the best in all low-P groups.

  6. Óleo essencial de aroeira-vermelha como aditivo na ração de frangos de corte Essential oil from Brazillian red pepper as an additive in broiler diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2011-04-01

    of four (4 treatments and five repetitions, with 15 birds each: diet without growth promoter and without Brazilian red pepper oil (negative control; diet with growth promoter (antimicrobial and anticoccidial - positive control; diet containing only antimicrobial (bacitracin zinc; diet with 0.4% of Brazilian red pepper oil. It was not verified significantly dietary effects on the performance of birds (P>0.05. At 21 days of age, the broilers chicks fed with growth promoter showed greater ratio of villous:crypt which not differs from chickens fed with 0.4% Brazilian red pepper oil (P 0.05. It was concluded that the addition of 0.4% Brazilian red pepper oil resulted an improvement in intestinal absorptive surface of broilers compared with chickens fed with diet without growth promoter.

  7. Functional Starters for Functional Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia P. Arena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the multifunctionality (microbial starters and probiotics of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 8328 strains used as microbial starters for the production of yogurt in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The ability of the probiotic strains to survive oro-gastrointestinal stresses was monitored by an in vitro assay simulating the human digestive tract. The transcriptional level of several genes involved in the immune response suggested that the probiotic strains may have a favorable influence on immunomodulation. Overall, this study revealed that the tested Lactobacilli exhibited suitable technological features for yogurt production and might be used to formulate novel food with immunomodulating effects.

  8. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  9. Instant MinGW starter

    CERN Document Server

    Shpigor, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

  10. Níveis de arginina e lisina digestíveis na dieta de frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial Digestible arginine and lysine levels in pre-starter broiler diet

    OpenAIRE

    José Henrique Stringhini; Cícero Peres da Cruz; Mônica Schaitl Thon; Maria Auxiliadora Andrade; Nadja Susana Mogyca Leandro; Marcos Barcellos Café

    2007-01-01

    Avaliaram-se o desempenho, a digestibilidade e retenção de nutrientes e o desenvolvimento de órgãos de frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias de idade) alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de lisina e arginina digestíveis. Um total de 352 pintos AgRoss machos foram distribuídos em um arranjo fatorial 2 ´ 3 composto de dois níveis de lisina digestível (1,056 e 1,305%) e três níveis de arginina digestível (1,305; 1,459 e 1,613%), com quatro repetições de 11 aves. O ...

  11. Feeding a diet contaminated with ochratoxin A for broiler chickens at the maximum level recommended by the EU for poultry feeds (0.1 mg/kg). 2. Effects on meat quality, oxidative stress, residues and histological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzo, L; Cavallarin, L; Antoniazzi, S; Guerre, P; Biasibetti, E; Capucchio, M T; Schiavone, A

    2013-05-01

    The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC indicates that the maximum tolerable level of ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds is 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six 1-day-old male broiler chicks were divided into two groups, a control (basal diet) and an OTA (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The OTA concentration was quantified in serum, liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content were evaluated in the liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The glutathione (GSH) content, and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in the liver and kidney samples. Histopathological traits were evaluated for the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver samples. Moreover, the chemical composition of the meat was analysed in breast and thigh samples. In the OTA diet-fed animals, a serum OTA concentration of 1.15 ± 0.35 ng/ml was found, and OTA was also detected in kidney and liver at 3.58 ± 0.85 ng OTA/g f.w. and 1.92 ± 0.21 ng OTA/g f.w., respectively. The TBARS content was higher in the kidney of the ochratoxin A group (1.53 ± 0.18 nmol/mg protein vs. 0.91 ± 0.25 nmol/mg protein). Feeding OTA at 0.1 mg OTA/kg also resulted in degenerative lesions in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver. The maximum tolerable level of 0.1 mg OTA/kg, established for poultry feeds by the EU, represents a safe limit for the final consumer, because no OTA residues were found in breast and thigh meat. Even though no clinical signs were noticed in the birds fed the OTA-contaminated diet, moderate histological lesions were observed in the liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius.

  12. Cultural energy analysis on broilers reared in different capacity poultry houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilgan Atilgan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained from 4 different capacity houses were evaluated to analyse the cultural energy and perfor- mance of broilers. Capacities of housings were 20,000, 25,000, 30,000 and 60,000 birds per production peri- od and they were assigned as HI, HII, HIII and HIV, respectively. The study was conducted in 2005 in which there were 6 production periods of 45 days. Data collected for each period were: date of starting and finish- ing; number of chicks entered and broilers sold; live weight at slaughter; carcass weight; feed consumption for starting, growing and finishing phase; labour; medication, vaccination and disinfectant; electricity con- sumption; heating and cooling methods and amount spent; distance for transportation of feed, chicks, broil- ers, wood shaving, limestone; and other miscellaneous expenditures. Ross 308 chickens in all houses received the same commercial feed and water ad libitum. Chicks were reared under a conventional temper- ature regimen. Chicks were fed starter, grower and finisher diets according to their ages. Even though capac- ities for houses were different their stocking densities were 16.36, 16.00, 16.38 and 16.54 birds/m2 for HI, HII, HIII and HIV, respectively. For cultural energy analysis, feed, transportation, labour, machinery, electric- ity, brooding, and other inputs were calculated and corresponding energy values for each input were obtained from literature. For the analysis it was assumed that carcasses would have 18.2% protein and 15.2% fat. Total cultural energy invested in broilers in HIII was lower than that of broilers in HI (P< 0.05. Energy input per kg live weight gain and per kg carcass of HIII were lower than that of HI (P< 0.05, P< 0.01, respective- ly. The HIII had lower cultural energy ratio for protein energy output than HI (0.01. Energy efficiency (kcal input/kcal output of HIII was better than that of HI (P< 0.01. Results of the study showed that increasing capacity of housings decreases

  13. Comparison of methionine sources around requirement levels using a methionine efficacy method in 0 to 28 day old broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, P S; Dalibard, P; Mercier, Y; Van der Aar, P; Van der Klis, J D

    2016-03-01

    The addition of methionine in the poultry feed industry is still facing the relative efficacy dilemma between DL-methionine (DLM) and hydroxy-methionine (HMTBA). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of dietary DLM and HMTBA on broiler performance at different levels of total sulfur amino acids (TSAA). The treatments consisted of a basal diet without methionine addition, and 4 increasing methionine doses for both sources resulting in TSAA/Lysine ratios from 0.62 to 0.73 in the starter phase and 0.59 to 0.82 in the grower phase. The comparison of product performance was performed by three-way ANOVA analysis and by methionine efficacy calculation as an alternative method of comparison. Growth results obtained during the starter phase with the different methionine supplementations did not show significant growth responses to TSAA levels, indicating a lower methionine requirement in the starter phase than currently assumed. However, a significant methionine dose effect was obtained for the period 10 to 28 day of age and for the entire growth period of 0 to 28 day of age. Excepting a significant gender effect, the statistical analysis did not allow for the discrimination of methionine sources, and no interaction between source and dose level was observed up to 28 days of age. A significant interaction between source and dose level was observed for methionine efficacy for the grower phase, and the total growth period showed better HMTBA efficacy at higher TSAA value. The exponential model fitted to each methionine source for body weight response depending on methionine intake or for feed conversion ratio (FCR) depending on methionine doses did not allow the methionine sources to be distinguished. Altogether, these results conclude that methionine sources lead to similar performances response when compared at TSAA values around the broiler requirement level. These results also showed that at TSAA values above requirement, HMTBA had a better methionine efficacy

  14. Use of mannanoligosaccharides in broiler feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS Flemming

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A study with 2,400 broilers was carried out to compare the effect of the use of mannanoligosaccharides, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall or growth promoter (Olaquindox in the diet on broiler. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal. A completely randomized experimental design was used, and the obtained data were evaluated by analysis of variance and test of Tukey at a level of 5%. The following parameters were measured: feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. It was concluded that the effect of the inclusion of mannanoligosaccharides in the diet on the studied parameters was significantly higher as compared to the inclusion of cell wall or to the control diet, but the effect was not different as compared to the inclusion of growth promoter.

  15. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  16. Desempenho, balanço e retenção de nutrientes e biometria dos órgãos digestivos de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de proteína na ração pré-inicial Performance, nutrient balance and retention and biometrical measures of digestive organs of broilers fed different dietary protein levels in the pre-starter period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Stringhini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o desempenho, o balanço e a retenção de MS, EE e PB e os parâmetros biométricos do trato gastrintestinal de frangos de corte recebendo diferentes níveis de proteína na ração pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias. No experimento 1, 560 pintos Avian Farms foram distribuídos em baterias segundo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 (cinco níveis de proteína, 18, 20, 22, 24 e 26%, e dois sexos, com dez tratamentos, cada um com quatro repetições de 14 aves. No experimento 2, 1.860 pintos machos e fêmeas Ross foram distribuídos em boxes de 2,0 x 2,5 m, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos (níveis de proteína, 18, 20, 22, 24 e 26%, cada um com seis repetições de 62 aves. No experimento 1, os níveis crescentes de PB da dieta não afetaram significativamente os dados de desempenho, mas o balanço e a quantidade retida do EE promoveram efeito linear positivo. O balanço de proteína não foi afetado, mas a retenção de proteína apresentou efeito linear positivo. A biometria dos órgãos não foi significativamente influenciada aos quatro dias. Nos períodos seguintes, os níveis crescentes de proteína afetaram positivamente o peso relativo do pâncreas. No experimento 2, observou-se, com base nos resultados de desempenho, que os mais altos níveis de proteína na ração pré-inicial atenderam às necessidades nutricionais das aves.Two trials were carried out to evaluate performance, balance and retention of EE, DM and CP and biometrical measures of digestive organs of broiler chicks fed different dietary CP levels in the pre-starter period (1 - 7 d. In the first experiment, 560 one-day-old Avian Farms chicks were allotted to a complete randomized design with ten treatments, with a 5 x 2 (protein levels: 18, 20, 22, 24, and 26% x sex factorial arrangement and four replicates of 14 birds each. In the second experiment, 1,860 one-day-old Ross

  17. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L.; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1–7) and grower diets (days 8–21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and

  18. Effect of pectin extracted from citrus pulp on digesta characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Karla Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of continuous ingestion of pectin on intestinal viscosity, intestinal transit time, excreta moisture content, nutrient digestibility and energy metabolism of broilers at starter and growth phases. We used 240 one-day-old Cobb male broiler chicks, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of pectin (0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg-1 with six replicates of 10 birds each. The ingestion of pectin supplied in the feed by broilers at the starter phase increased intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduced excreta moisture, improved the use of apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, coefficient of apparent metabolizability, coefficient of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizability, apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein and organic matter; worsened calcium utilization and coefficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter; and did not influence the coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude fat, ash and phosphorus. Pectin ingestion during the growth phase increased intestinal viscosity and apparent digestibility coefficients of ash and organic matter, but decreased the dry matter, crude fat, crude protein and calcium. Intestinal transit time, energy metabolism and apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein showed quadratic behavior according to pectin levels in the feed. Therefore, pectin ingestion by broilers at the starter phase increases intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduces excreta moisture and improves energy utilization, whereas at the growth phase nutrient digestibility is decreased.

  19. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  20. Instant forgedUI starter

    CERN Document Server

    Luiz, Joseandro

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book is a Starter guide to learning ForgedUI. This book will start by unfolding the installation and creating a simple application using Titanium and ForgedUI, followed by taking you through the features to model an engaging UI and generate multi-platform code with Titanium, while covering the best design practice for Apple and Android application development. Last but not least, you will also come across the available resources where you can

  1. SPSS for Starters, Part 2

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this title contained all statistical tests that are relevant for starters on SPSS, and included standard parametric and non-parametric tests for continuous and binary variables, regression methods, trend tests, and reliability and validity assessments of diagnostic tests. The current part 2 of this title reviews multistep methods, multivariate models, assessments of missing data, performance of diagnostic tests, meta-regression, Poisson regression, confounding and interaction, and survival analyses using log tests and segmented time-dependent Cox regression. Methods for asses

  2. Performance, carcass yield, and meat quality of free-range broilers fed wet grain corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESPB Saldanha

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of total replacement of dry corn by wet grain corn silage (WGCS in the feed of label broilers older than 28 days of age on performance, mortality, carcass, parts, breast meat and thighs meat yields, and meat quality. A mixed-sex flock of 448 ISA S 757-N (naked-neck ISA JA Label day-old chicks was randomly distributed in to randomized block experimental design with four treatments (T1 - with no WGCS; T2 - WGCS between 28 and 83 days; T3 - WGCS between 42 and 83 days; and T4 - WGCS between 63 and 83 days and four replicates of 28 birds each. Birds were raised under the same management and feeding conditions until 28 days of age, when they started to have free access to paddock with pasture (at least 3m²/bird and to be fed the experimental diets. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the rearing period, which was divided in three stages: starter (1 to 28 days, grower (29 to 63 days, and finisher (64 to 83 days according to the feeding schedule. During the short periods of WGCS use (group T2 during grower stage and T4 during the finisher stage, performance and mortality results were similar as to those of the control group (T1. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that the extended use of WGCS (T2 and T3 determined a negative effect on feed conversion ratio. However, the best results of breast meat yield were observed with birds fed WGCS since 28 days (T2. It was concluded that WGCS can replace dry corn grain for short periods during the grower and finisher stages with no impairment of meat quality and yield in slow growth broilers.

  3. Starter Cultures: Uses in the Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2014-01-01

    Starter cultures are preparations of microorganisms serving as inoculants for the production of fermented foods. The production of cheese, yogurt, fermented milk, wine, sauerkraut, hams, and sausages occurs through the use of starter cultures that are consistent, predictable, and safe. The cultures...

  4. Crude protein equivalence value of a multi-enzyme product for 28- and 42-day-old broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Malakzadegan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the crude protein (CP equivalence value of Natuzyme-p (NP enzyme by using regression response equations, two experiments were carried out using Ross (308 broiler chicks. Graded levels of dietary CP (while amino acids levels were kept constant and NP enzyme were used to derive the regression equation in the first experiment. Four levels of dietary CP and NP enzyme were fed to 160 feather-sexed male broiler chicks during the starter (0-28 d of age and grower (28-42 d of age period. Each diet was offered to four replicates of five chicks in a completely randomized design. Results obtained in experiment one failed to fit a regression equation between BW, dietary CP levels and NP enzyme. In experiment two, graded levels of CP changed along with the levels of lysine (Lys, Met+Cys and threonine (Thr. Regression equations between BW and dietary CP and NP enzyme were derived. Nonlinear and linear equations were generated for enzyme and CP. Based on an assessment of r² and P value, nonlinear equations were used to determine enzyme equivalence. The derived regression equations of body weight for CP were set to be equal with those obtained for NP and were solved; enzyme equivalence value for CP was calculated by subtracting the obtained value from CP content of basal diet. Crude protein equivalence value of NP at 28 and 42 d of age was estimated to be 0.96 and 0.38 %, respectively.

  5. Qualidade da carne de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas suplementadas com crômio, criados em diferentes temperaturas ambientais = Meat quality of broiler chicks submeted the supplemented diets with chromium and reared in differents enviromental temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oba

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos. O experimento um objetivou avaliar a composição da carne do peito de frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com crômio (0, 400, 800 e 1.200 μg Cr kg-1 complexado a levedura, criados sob diferentes condições de temperatura (quente, termoneutra e fria. O experimento dois objetivou avaliar a qualidade da carne do peito de frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com crômio (0 e 400 μg Cr kg-1, criados nas mesmas condições do experimento um e desossados em diferentes períodos (0, 5 e 24 horas. Os resultados mostram que as aves criadas em ambiente frio apresentaram a carne com menor porcentagem de matéria mineral e crômio e maior intensidade de vermelho, enquanto as aves criadas em temperatura termoneutra apresentaram carne com menor porcentagem de umidade, e as aves criadas em temperatura quente, carne com maior luminosidade. Já a suplementação de crômio não proporcionou qualquer efeito na composição e na qualidade de carne, enquanto que o aumento no período de desossa proporcionou um menor comprimento de sarcômero, força de cisalhamento e intensidade de amarelo, porém uma maior luminosidade.Two experiments were conducted being the objective of the first experiment to evaluate the the composition of breast meat of broiler chicks fed with diets supplemented with chromium yeast (0; 400; 800and 1,200 μg Cr kg-1 reared in different environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral and cold. The second experiment aimed to evaluate the quality of breast meat of broiler chicks fed with diets supplemented with chromium yeast (0 and 400 μg Cr kg-1, reared in different environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral and cold and deboned in different periods (0, 5 and 24 hours. The results showed that birds reared in cold environmental temperature showed meat with lower mineral matter percentage and chromium and higher values of redness, whereas the birds reared in thermoneutral environment

  6. Effect of bee pollen extract as a supplemental diet on broilers´s ross 308 breast and thigh meat muscles fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to study the effect of the bee pollen extract on the broiler Ross 308 breast and thigh meat fatty acids. The experiment enrolled 90 chicks in one day old, which were divided into 3 groups (control, E1 and E2. The broiler has been bred in a cage condition for 42 days. To the experimental groups were added bee pollen extract in the amount (400, 800  Normal 0 false false false SK JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Calibri;} mg.kg-1. The chickens have been bred in a cage conditions, each cage was equipped with feed dispenser and water intake was ensured ad libitum through a self feed-pump. The temperature was controlled during the fattening period and it was 33 °C at the first day and every week was reduced about 2 °C the end temperature was 23 °C. At the end of the experiment the fatty acids have beenevaluatedby using Agilent 7890A Gas Chromatograph apparatus (USA. The findings have been shown that the myristoleic acid, linoleic acid, linoelaidic acid, arachidonic acid, and archaic acid were decreased after using the bee pollen into broiler feed mixture otherwise, the bee pollen has been increased the polemic acids and oleic acid and there were found no significant differences (P ≥0.05 among all the experimental groups.From the recent experiment, we conclude that bee pollen extract has decreasedthe fattyacids except palmitoleic acid acid and oleic acid, whichwere higher compared to control groupand there were no significant differences (P ≥0.05 between experimental groups.

  7. Peningkatan Performa Ayam Broiler dengan Suplementasi Daun Salam [Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp] Sebagai Antibakteri Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    K.G Wiryawan; S. Luvianti; W. Hermana; S. Suharti

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of bay leaves (S. polyanthum (Wight) Walp) used in the diet as E. coli antibacteria in improving broiler performances. This experiment used 180 day old chicks (DOC) of Cobb strain which were kept in litter system for five weeks. The experiment used completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications consisting of 10 broilers in each replication. The treatment diets were R0 = control diet, R1 = R0 infected with E....

  8. Effect of graded levels of rapeseed oil in isonitrogenous diets on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, and utilisation of protein, fat and energy in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Zhao, Xin Quan; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2008-01-01

    of the gastrointestinal tract. There was a positive effect on feed utilisation as well as on digestibility especially of dietary fat together with higher utilisation of protein with addition of rapeseed oil. The partial fat digestibility of rapeseed oil estimated by regression was 91.1% and the partial metabolisability......The effect of feeding 0, 4, 8 and 16% rapeseed oil from 12-42 days of age was studied in broiler chickens on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and development of gastrointestinal tract, protein and energy metabolism. Thirty six female chickens (Ross 208) with initial body weight average 246...... periods each of five days with two 24 h measurements of gas exchange in two open-air-circuit respiration chambers inserted on the second and third day of each period. The addition of rapeseed oil increased the amount of gutfill indicating a reduced rate of passage and causing a hypertrophy...

  9. Interactions between the physical form of starter (mashed versus textured) and corn silage provision on performance, rumen fermentation, and structural growth of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Riasi, A; Soltani, A; Moshiri, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    Introducing forage in the young calf diet during the milk-feeding period stimulates rumen development. It was hypothesized that performance in dairy calves would depend on forage provision and starter physical form such that the textured starter (TS) feed with corn silage (CS) supplementation would benefit calf performance. This study evaluates the effects of the physical form of starter diets and CS supplementation on performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and structural growth of dairy calves. Forty-eight 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves with a mean starting BW of 42.1 kg (SD 2.4) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary CS level (0 or 15% on DM basis) and physical form of starter (mashed vs. textured). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned ( = 12 calves per treatment: 6 males and 6 females) to 4 treatments: 1) a mashed starter (MS) feed with no CS (MS-NCS), 2) a MS feed with CS (MS-CS), 3) a TS feed with no CS (TS-NCS), and 4) a TS feed with CS (TS-CS). The calves had ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 56 of age and remained in the study until d 66. The interaction of the physical form of the starter and CS provision was significant ( 0.05) was detected between the physical form of starter and CS provision with respect to the rumen fermentation parameters and body measurements. Total rumen VFA concentration and the molar proportion of propionate were greater ( < 0.01) in calves fed TS compared with MS-fed calves. In conclusion, independent of the physical form of starter, inclusion of 15% CS in starter diets improves the performance of dairy calves.

  10. Two necrotic enteritis predisposing factors, dietary fishmeal and Eimeria infection, induce large changes in the caecal microbiota of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Biao; Stanley, Dragana; Rodgers, Nicholas; Swick, Robert A; Moore, Robert J

    2014-03-14

    It is widely established that a high-protein fishmeal supplemented starter diet and Eimeria infection can predispose birds to the development of clinical necrotic enteritis symptoms following Clostridium perfringens infection. However, it has not been clearly established what changes these treatments cause to predispose birds to succumb to necrotic enteritis. We analysed caecal microbiota of 4 groups of broilers (n=12) using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons: (1) control chicks fed a control diet, (2) Eimeria infected chicks fed control diet, (3) chicks fed fishmeal supplemented diet and lastly (4) both fishmeal fed and Eimeria infected chicks. We found that the high-protein fishmeal diet had a strong effect on the intestinal microbiota similar to the previously reported effect of C. perfringens infection. We noted major changes in the prevalence of various lactobacilli while the total culturable Lactobacillus counts remained stable. The Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, unknown Clostridiales and Lactobacillaceae families were most affected by fishmeal with increases in a number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that had previously been linked to Crohn's disease and reductions in OTUs known to be butyrate producers. Eimeria induced very different changes in microbiota; Ruminococcaceae groups were reduced in number and three unknown Clostridium species were increased in abundance. Additionally, Eimeria did not significantly influence changes in pH, formic, propionic or isobutyric acid while fishmeal induced dramatic changes in all these measures. Both fishmeal feeding and Eimeria infection induced significant changes in the gut microbiota; these changes may play an important role in predisposing birds to necrotic enteritis.

  11. Evaluation of the use of probiotics in diets with or without growth promoters for broiler chicks Avaliação do uso de probiótico em dietas para frangos de corte com ou sem promotores de crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Fernando Pastorelo Meurer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the use of Bacillus subtilis probiotic C-3102 (10(10cfu/g in diets with or without growth promoters on the performance of broilers in the period from 1 to 42 days of age. It was used 1,200 Cobb line broilers, distributed in a complete randomized block with five diets: negative controller (without promoters; Bacillus subtilis (30 g/t ration; Bacillus subtilis (50 g/t ration; Bacillus subtilis (30 g/t ration + colistin (10 ppm; avilamycin (10 ppm + colistin (10 ppm. Each diet was evaluated in 10 repetitions with 24 birds. From 21 to 42 days of age, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated, and at 42 days of age, productive efficiency index was evaluated. At the end of the experimental period, it was observed an increase in the consumption of diet with the lowest dose of Bacillus subtilis (30 g in relation to that one with Bacillus subtillis (30 g + colistin (10 ppm. The values of weight gain obtained with the diet with the lowest dose of Bacillus subtillis (30 g and with avilamycin (10 ppm + colistine (10 ppm were higher than those of the birds fed control diet (without promoters. For feed conversion, the best results were obtained by supplying diets containing 50 g of Bacillus subtillis, diet with 30 g of Bacillus subtillis + 10 ppm of colistin; and diet with 10 ppm of avilamycin + 10 ppm colistin. For the analysis of productive efficiency index, the best results were obtained with diets containing additives (probiotics and/or antibiotics in comparison to the control diet. Bacillus subtillis C-3102 probiotic, at concentration 10(10 cfu/g, is an efficient substitute of antibiotics.Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o uso do probiótico Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (10(10 ufc/g em dietas contendo ou não promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte no período de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 1.200 frangos de corte da linhagem Cobb, distribuídos em delineamento

  12. Uso da alga Lithothamnium calcareum como fonte alternativa de cálcio nas rações de frangos de corte Use of algae Lithothamnium calcareum as alternative source of calcium in diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carreira Carlos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o uso da alga Lithothamnium calcareum (Pallas Areschoug nas rações para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 e 21 a 42 dias de idade, em substituição à fonte de cálcio tradicional (calcário calcítico. Para isso, foram utilizados 300 pintos machos, da linhagem Cobb®, que receberam rações contendo o calcário calcítico e a alga Lithothamnium calcareum (colhida de inteira e na forma de areia biodentrítica como fontes de cálcio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e cinco repetições de 20 aves cada. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso (g/ave, consumo de ração (g/ave e conversão alimentar (g/g. No final do experimento foram avaliados os parâmetros ósseos: peso da tíbia (g, comprimento da tíbia (mm, diâmetro da tíbia (mm e teor de cinzas na tíbia (%. Na fase inicial (1 a 21 dias houve efeito (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the algae Lithothamnium calcareum (Pallas Areschoug in diets for broiler chickens from 1 to 21 and 21 to 42 days, to replace the traditional source of calcium (limestone. 300 male chicks from Cobb® strain, which received diets containing limestone and Lithothamnium calcareum algae (as a whole and as sand biodentritic were used as sources of calcium. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and five replicates of 20 birds each. The variables analyzed were: weight gain (g / bird, feed intake (g / bird, feed per again (g / g. At the end of the experiment the bone parameters: weight of the tibia (g, tibia length (mm, diameter of the tibia (mm and ash content in the tibia (%. Were evaluated in the initial phase (1 to 21 days there was an effect (P <0.05 between treatments for weight gain and feed per again, and the control treatment showed better results. For the growing phase (21 to 42 days and total period (1 to 42 days there was no effect among the

  13. Podcasting the Ultimate Starter Kit

    CERN Document Server

    Shipside, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Podcasting doesn't require an iPod; anyone with a computer, an MP3 player, or in some cases even a phone or a pair of shades can play podcasts. It requires very little technological know-how to set up, listen to, or even make your own programmes. Podcasting: The ultimate starter kit takes a light-hearted, friendly and refreshingly jargon-free look at eveything you need to know to get started, and with its free start-up CD it couldn't be easier. With the help of Podcasting, you can find out how to set up your software and record podcasts, where to go to find programmes on anything from religion

  14. Efeitos da adição de montmorilonita sódica na dieta sobre o perfil bioquímico de frangos de corte intoxicados com aflatoxina The effects of the addition of sodic montmorilonite on the feeding diet on the biochemical profile of broiler chicken intoxicated by aflatoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Neves Batina

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os valores bioquímicos e atividade enzimática hepática e renal em frangos de corte submetidos à intoxicação experimental com aflatoxina B1 com e sem a adição de montmorilonita sódica na dieta. Foram utilizados 528 frangos de corte, da linhagem Cobb, subtimetidos a seis tratamentos entre 1° ao 42° dia de vida: (T1 Controle: dieta normal; (T2 dieta com 5 ppm de aflatoxina; (T3 dieta com 0,25% montmorilonita sódica; (T4 dieta com 5ppm de aflatoxina + 0,25% montmorilonita sódica; (T5 dieta com 0,5% montmorilonita sódica; (T6 dieta com 5ppm de aflatoxina + 0,5% montmorilonita sódica. O tratamento (T2 com aflatoxina demonstrou significante (PThe aim of this research was to evaluate the hepatic biochemical profile and the renal enzymatic activity of broiler chicken experimentally intoxicated with aflatoxin and supplemented with sodic montmorilonite on the diet. 528 Cobb’s broiler chickens were used divided in 6 treatments (from 1st to the 42th day of life as described: (T1 control: normal diet; (T2 diet with 5ppm of aflatoxin; (T3 diet with 0.25% sodic montmorilonite; (T4 diet with 5 ppm of aflatoxin + 0.25% sodic montmorilonite; (T5 diet with 0.5% sodic montmorilonite; (T6 diet with 5 ppm of aflatoxin + 0.5% sodic montmorilonite. The treatment T2 showed significantly decreased levels of uric acid, albumin, cholesterol, creatinine, triglycerides, globulins and total serum proteins and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST did not showed important differences among treatments. In treatments T3 and T5, there were no variations on the biochemical values, when compared to treatment T1. Addition of 0.5% of montmorilonite in the diet (T6, presented better results on the increase of the adsorption of aflatoxin when compared to 0.25% sodic montmorilonite (T4. Clearly, the results showed that high levels of aflatoxin in the diet (5ppm causes important

  15. Determination of ileal digestible and apparent metabolizable energy contents of expeller-extracted and solvent-extracted canola meals for broiler chickens by the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Changsu; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected ME (MEn) contents of expeller- (EECM) and solvent-extracted canola meal (SECM) for broiler chickens using the regression method. Dietary treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal reference diet and four assay diets prepared by supplementing the reference diet with each of canola meals (EECM or SECM) at 100 or 200 g/kg, respectively, to partly replace the energy yielding sources in the reference diet. Birds received a standard starter diet from day 0 to 14 and the assay diets from day 14 to 21. On day 14, a total of 240 birds were grouped into eight blocks by body weight and randomly allocated to five dietary treatments in each block with six birds per cage in a randomized complete block design. Excreta samples were collected from day 18 to 20 and ileal digesta were collected on day 21. The IDE, ME, and MEn (kcal/kg DM) of EECM or SECM were derived from the regression of EECM- or SECM-associated IDE, ME and MEn intake (Y, kcal) against the intake of EECM or SECM (X, kg DM), respectively. Regression equations of IDE, ME and MEn for the EECM-substituted diet were Y = -21.2 + 3035X (r(2) = 0.946), Y = -1.0 + 2807X (r(2) = 0.884) and Y = -2.0 + 2679X (r(2) = 0.902), respectively. The respective equations for the SECM diet were Y = 20.7 + 2881X (r(2) = 0.962), Y = 27.2 + 2077X (r(2) = 0.875) and Y = 24.7 + 2013X (r(2) = 0.901). The slope for IDE did not differ between the EECM and SECM whereas the slopes for ME and MEn were greater (P < 0.05) for the EECM than for the SECM. These results indicate that the EECM might be a superior energy source for broiler chickens compared with the SECM when both canola meals are used to reduce the cost of feeding. PMID:27350926

  16. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  17. Performance in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil Lippia berlandieri Schauer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of two qualities of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) in the broiler diet on broiler weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and water intake. The qualities were MOO1 (4% thymol, 60% carvacrol) and MOO2 (40% thymol, 20% carvacro...

  18. 饲粮添加大豆卵磷脂乳化剂对肉鸡生长性能、养分利用率和血清生化指标的影响%Diets Supplemented with Soybean Lecithin Emulsifier Affect Growth Performance, Nutrient Availability and Serum Biochemical Indices of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玲; 曾秋凤; 丁雪梅; 柘丽; 张克英; 吴秀群

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of soybean lecithin emulsifier supplementation in two energy level diets on growth performance, nutrient availability and serum biochemical indices of broilers. A randomized complete block design with 2x2 factors was adopted in the experiment and 960 one-day-old Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 6 replicates in each group and 40 birds in each replicate. Chickens were fed the experimental diets composed of two energy levels and two emulsifier supplementation levels. Dietary metabolizable energy levels were 12. 13 and 11. 92 MJ/kg for chickens at 1 to 21 days of age, and were 12. 96 and 12.65 MJ/kg for chickens at 22 to 49 days of age. Meanwhile, the supplementation levels of emulsifier were 0 and 265 mg/kg for chickens at 1 to 21 days of age, and were 0 and 400 mg/kg for chickens at 22 to 49 days of age. Growth performance of chickens, apparent availability of energy, dry matter, crude protein and crude fat, as well as contents of glucose, lipids and bile acid were measured in the experiment. The results showed that the average daily gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days of age fed normal energy diet was significantly higher than that of broilers fed low energy diet {P <0.01} , and the feed/ gain of broilers at 1 to 49 days of age fed low energy diet with emulsifier supplementation could reach that the level of broilers fed normal energy diet. The supplementation of emulsifier in diets could increase the average daily gain and the apparent availability of ether extract and energy of diets, promote bile secretion, and significantly decrease the feed/gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days and 1 to 49 days of age (P < 0. 05). In conclusion, the decrease of dietary energy can significantly decrease the average daily gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days of age, and increase feed/gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days and 1 to 49 days of age; the supplementation of emulsifier in diets can improve feed efficiency

  19. Biological Corn Stalk: Effects on Apparent Metabolizable Energy and Its Appropriate Substitution Rate for Corn Meal in Broiler Diets%生物秸秆对肉鸡表观代谢能的影响及替代玉米适宜比例的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常娟; 尹清强; 姜义宝; 郑秋红; 左瑞雨; 李淑丽

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of biological corn stalk (BCS) and its appropriate substitution rate for corn meal in broiler diets. Twenty four 42-day-old healthy Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were assigned to 3 groups and 8 broilers in each group. Broilers in group 1 were fed a basal diet with 8% BCS; those in group 2 were fed the basal diet added with 30% BCS to replace the same percentage of energy and protein feedstuffs in the basal diet; those in group 3 were used to measure AME by the superalimentation. To get the appropriate substitution rate of BCS for corn meal in broiler diets, another metabolic experiment was adopted. One hundred and fifty 22-day-old healthy AA broilers were assigned to 5'groups with 5 replicates in each group and 30 broilers in each replicate. The broilers in the control group were fed the basal diet; those in groups 1, 2 and 3 were fed the basal diets added with 4% , 8% and 12% BCS for replacing the same percentage of corn meal in the basal diet, respectively; those in group 4 were fed the basal diet added with 8% BCS for replacing the same percentage of corn meal in the basal diet under the condition that the metablizable energy (estimated at 5. 30 MJ/kg) was adjusted to the same level as the control group by soybean oil addition. The results showed as follows; 1 ) the AME of the basal diet was 12. 63 MJ/kg, so AME of BCS was predicted to be 12. 46 MJ/kg by difference method. AME of BCS was 5.30 and 4.38 MJ/kg by superalimentation and substitution method, respectively. 2) The metabolic rates of NDF and ADF in groups 1 and 2 were significantly higher than those in the control group (P <0. 05) , and the energy metabolic rate in group 3 was reduced (P <0.05). It is concluded that the superalimentation and substitution method underestimated AME of BCS, and the AME of BCS predicted by difference method can better reflect the true nutrient values; 4% to 8% BCS in broiler diets can replace the

  20. Effects of methionine supplementation on the expression of protein deposition-related genes in acute heat stress-exposed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vesco, Ana Paula; Gasparino, Eliane; Grieser, Daiane Oliveira; Zancanela, Vittor; Voltolini, Débora Marques; Khatlab, Angélica Souza; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Soares, Maria Amélia Menck; Oliveira Neto, Adhemar Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat stress and methionine supplementation on the gene expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), growth hormone receptor (GHR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and regulatory 1 (PI3KR1) in the liver, as well as the expression of the atrogin 1 and cathepsin L2 (CTSL2) genes in the breast muscle of broilers. Broilers from 1-21 and 22-42 days of age were divided into three treatments related to methionine supplementation as follows: without methionine supplementation (MD), recommended level of methionine (DL1), and excess supplementation of methionine (DL2). The animals were either maintained at a thermal comfort temperature or exposed to heat stress (HS) (38°C for 24 hours, starting on day 20 or day 41 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively). The heat stress increased the body temperature at both ages. Starter period: The HS animals presented increased plasma creatinine content (Pmethionine supplementation increased the IGF-I (P = 0.0144) and GHR (P = 0.0011) gene expression and decreased the CTSL2 (P = 0.0004) and atrogin 1 (P = 0.0012) gene expression. Grower period: Significant effects for the interaction between supplementation and environment were observed for GHR (P = 0.0252) and CTSL2 (P = 0.0011) gene expression. The highest GHR expression was observed in animals that remained in thermal comfort on the DL2 diet, and the lowest expression occurred in the HS animals fed the MD diet. For CTSL2, the HS animals fed the MD diet presented the highest CTSL2 gene expression, and the lowest expression was observed in the animals maintained at thermal comfort on DL1 and DL2 diets. Only methionine supplementation had effect on atrogin-1 gene expression (Pmethionine content in the diet lower atrogin-1 gene expression was observed. Our results suggest that heat stress induces greater protein degradation and that methionine supplementation could induce protein deposition because methionine increased the

  1. Oligosaccharides Affect Performance and Gut Development of Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Ao, Z; Choct, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, flock uniformity and GIT development of broiler chickens were investigated. Four diets, one negative control, one positive control supplemented with zinc-bacitracin, and two test diets supplemented with mannoligosaccharide (MOS) and fructooligosaccharide (FOS), were used for the experiment. Birds given MOS or FOS had improved body weight (BW) and feed efficiency (FCR), compared to those fed the negative control diet dur...

  2. Desempenho de frangos de corte, digestibilidade de nutrientes e valores energéticos de rações formuladas com vários milhos, suplementadas com enzimas Broilers performance, nutrients digestibility and energy values of diets formulated with different corns, supplemented with enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borges Rodrigues

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de verificar o desempenho de frangos de corte, a digestibilidade de nutrientes e os valores energéticos de rações formuladas com milhos, de diferentes variedades (experimento 1 e regiões (experimento 2, suplementadas com um complexo enzimático. Em cada experimento foram utilizados 480 pintos Hubbard machos, com 14 dias de idade, os quais foram criados até a idade de 27 dias, período no qual foi avaliado o desempenho. As aves receberam os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 6 x 2 (variedades x complexo enzimático, em quatro repetições de 10 aves cada. Cada milho foi misturado em uma ração basal, na proporção de 63,24%, constituindo as dietas experimentais, cujos níveis de proteína bruta e valores energéticos variaram em função da composição dos milhos. Utilizou-se o óxido crômico como indicador, na proporção de 0,5%. A partir do 23º dia, as excretas foram coletadas por 5 dias e, no 28º dia, todas as aves de cada repetição foram abatidas e o conteúdo de digesta presente nos 30 cm do íleo terminal, anterior à junção íleo-cecal, coletado. As amostras das excretas e da digesta ileal foram analisadas em matéria seca, nitrogênio, energia bruta e amido, e os coeficientes de digestibilidade e valores energéticos determinados por meio do fator de indigestibilidade do óxido crômico. Concluiu-se que a procedência dos milhos (variedades ou regiões influenciou o desempenho; a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e os valores energéticos das rações variaram em função da composição dos milhos; a digestibilidade ileal da proteína bruta, do amido e a energia digestível ileal das rações melhoraram com a suplementação enzimática.Two assays were carried out to evaluate the broilers performance, nutrients digestibility and the energy values of diets formulated with corn from different varieties (Experiment 1 and regions (Experiment 2, supplemented with an enzymatic complex

  3. Penggunaan Tepung Limbah Udang yang Diolah dengan Filtrat Air Abu Sekam dalam Ransum Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the effect of different levels of shrimp head waste (SHW substituting fish meal (FM in broiler diets. FM is the sole crude protein from animal sources. A control fish meal broiler diet and four different levels of SHW substituted for crude protein FM were fed to CP 707 Arbor Acres broiler strains from day old chick to four weeks of age. The crude proteins FM were replaced with 0 (R0; 25 (R1; 50 (R2; 75 (R3; and 100 (R4 percent of crude protein SHW. The five treatments were assigned to completely randomized design. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion and carcass percentage were recorded to measure the performances. The results of Duncan’s revealed that feed consumption, feed conversion and carcass percentage were not significantly different with increasing level of SHW as substituted crude protein FM in broiler diets. However these parameters in bird fed 100 % SHW diets did not differ from those in birds fed 16 % FM (7.32% crude protein from FM. While body weight gain decreased with increasing levels of SHW in broiler diets (R4. The decrease body weight gain may be due to the decreased feed intake and amino acid in balance and the increased chitin content in the diet. The conclusion of this experiment that SHW can be used as a protein source in broiler diets up to 75% to replace FM.

  4. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Woyengo, T. A.; Emiola, I. A.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at t...

  5. Effects of Onion Extracts on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Profiles of White Mini Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    An, B. K.; Kim, J.Y.; Oh, S T; Kang, C. W.; Cho, S.; Kim, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of onion extract on growth performance, meat quality and blood profiles of White mini broilers. Total of 600 one-d-old male White mini broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed control diets (non-medicated commercial diet or antibiotics medicated) or experimental diets (non-medicated diets containing 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract) for 5 wks. The final body weight (BW) and weight gain of the group fed non-medicated control diet wer...

  6. Energia metabolizável de alimentos na formulação de ração para frangos de corte Metabolizable energy of feeds on diet formulation for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da formulação de rações para frangos de corte, com a utilização de valores de energia metabolizável (EM dos alimentos determinados por diferentes métodos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos, que consistiram na formulação de rações baseadas na: EM aparente corrigida e EM aparente, ambas determinadas pelo método da coleta total com pintos; EM aparente corrigida, determinada pelo método da coleta total com galos; e EM verdadeira corrigida, determinada pelo método da alimentação forçada com galos. Na fase inicial, foi obtido maior consumo de ração, ganho de peso e melhor conversão alimentar com a formulação baseada na EM aparente corrigida (pintos. Durante a fase final, a formulação com EM verdadeira corrigida (galos promoveu maior ganho de peso e melhor conversão alimentar. No período de 1 a 49 dias, as aves alimentadas com as rações formuladas com EM aparente corrigida (pintos tiveram melhor desempenho. As características de carcaça não foram influenciadas pelos tratamentos. Até os 21 dias de idade, deve-se considerar os valores de EM aparente corrigida (pintos, para a formulação das rações de frangos de corte; após essa idade, deve-se considerar os valores de EM aparente corrigida (galos ou EM verdadeira corrigida (galos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of using the metabolizable energy (ME of feeds, determined by different methods, on diet formulation for broilers. The experiment followed a completely randomized design with four treatments, which consisted in formulating diets using: apparent ME corrected by nitrogen and formulation using apparent ME of feeds, both determined by total excreta collection method with chicks; apparent ME corrected by nitrogen, determined by total excreta collection method with roosters; and true ME corrected by nitrogen of feeds, determined by forced feeding method

  7. Leaky gut and mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 does not increase gut permeability in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect...

  8. The use of dried bakery products in a free-choice feeding method for small-scale broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Madiya

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste material from bakeries is an unconventional energy feed source which is available in sufficient quantities for use in small-scale broiler production in South Africa. Small-scale broiler producers do not have access to the computer programs required to balance home-mixed rations. This investigation confirms that the use of dried bakery products (DBP in a 2-stage, free-choice method can be used to compensate for this lack. A total of 570 day-old male broiler chickens was assigned to 3 feeding treatments : the control group was fed a 2-stage feeding programme using standard commercial starter and grower rations. The 2nd group received a commercial starter ration up to Day 7 and was thereafter given a choice of a commercial starter ration with normal salt content (0.35 % and DBP. The 3rd group was fed a commercial starter ration up to Day 7, then offered a choice of commercial starter ration with a lower salt content (0.1 % and DBP. The low salt alternative was used to test whether the higher salt percentage in DBP influenced the choice of feed by the birds. It was found that the control group consumed significantly more feed P < 0.05 and was significantly heavier (P < 0.05 than the experimental groups. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 experimental groups, which indicated that salt content did not play a role in the choice of ration. Feed consumption by both experimental groups was about one-third less than the control group, but the profit margin, as calculated using gross margin analysis, was approximately 15 % higher. It was therefore concluded that dried bakery products can be profitably incorporated as an energy feed source, using the free-choice feeding method, in small-scale broiler enterprises.

  9. 开食料玉米和全脂大豆的加工方式与犊牛瘤胃酶系发育关系的比较研究%A Comparison of the Relationship between Different Processing Methods of Corn and Full Fat Soybean in Starter Diets and Enzyme Development in the Rumen of Calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元庆; 孟庆翔; 任丽萍; 王芳; 贺东昌; 杨效民

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究开食料中玉米和全脂大豆的粉碎、蒸汽压片及膨化处理与犊牛瘤胃的酶系发育的关系.试验采用12头(21±3)日龄荷斯坦公犊牛,随机分为3组,挤压膨化组、蒸汽压片组及对照组(常规粉碎组),分别饲喂采用不同加工方式的玉米和大豆配制成的开食料.试验期为3~13周龄,每周采集犊牛瘤胃液测定瘤胃中纤维素酶(包括内切葡聚糖酶、β-葡萄糖苷酶、微晶纤维素酶、纤维素酶和木聚糖酶)、淀粉酶(包括淀粉酶和α-D-葡萄糖苷酶)和蛋白酶活性.结果表明:1)挤压膨化组犊牛瘤胃中α-D-葡萄糖苷酶和蛋白酶活性均随犊牛周龄的增长而显著增加(P<0.05),而其他酶活性受犊牛周龄变化影响不显著(P>0.05).2)蒸汽压片组犊牛瘤胃内切葡聚糖酶和淀粉酶的活性随犊牛周龄增长在数据上明显增加,但统计上无显著差异(P>0.05);纤维素酶、微晶纤维素酶和β-葡萄糖苷酶活性受犊牛周龄影响显著(P<0.05);木聚糖酶、α-D-葡萄糖苷酶和蛋白酶则随犊牛周龄的增加而显著增加(P<0.05).3)对照组犊牛瘤胃中8种酶活性均受犊牛周龄的影响不显著(P>0.05).结果提示:犊牛瘤胃中的纤维素酶、淀粉酶和蛋白酶系均受犊牛周龄和开食料中玉米和全脂大豆加工方式以及二者的互作影响,但变化规律各不一致.开食料中玉米和全脂大豆的蒸汽压片处理有助于犊牛瘤胃中内切葡聚糖酶、β-葡萄糖苷酶的建立.%The experiment was conducted to study the relationship between different processing methods ( ground, stem-flake or extrusion) of com and full fat soybean in starter diets and enzyme development in the rumen of calves. Twelve Holstein bull calves, aged (21 ±3) days, were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups. Calves in the 3 groups were fed starter diets with extruded ( group EXCS), steam-flaked ( group SFCS ), and ground corn and full fat

  10. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by 14C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs

  11. Effect of β-glucanase and xylanase supplementation of barley- and rye-based diets on caecal microbiota of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefiak, Damian; Rutkowski, A; Kaczmarek, S;

    2010-01-01

    1. The aim was to investigate the effect of grain type (barley or rye) and exogenous enzymes (β-glucanase or xylanase) on the composition of chicken caecal microbiota as examined by classical culturing and molecular techniques (fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) and terminal-restriction fra......1. The aim was to investigate the effect of grain type (barley or rye) and exogenous enzymes (β-glucanase or xylanase) on the composition of chicken caecal microbiota as examined by classical culturing and molecular techniques (fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) and terminal......-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (T-RFLP)). 2. Plate counting revealed higher total numbers of anaerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in caecal contents of birds fed with rye-based diets than in birds fed with barley-based diets. 3. As assessed by FISH analysis, the most abundant bacterial groups...

  12. The Influence of Naringin or Hesperidin Dietary Supplementation on Broiler Meat Quality and Oxidative Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Goliomytis, Michael; Kartsonas, Nikos; Maria A. Charismiadou; Symeon, George K.; Panagiotis E Simitzis; Stelios G Deligeorgis

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of supplementing broiler feed with hesperidin or naringin, on growth performance, carcass characteristics, breast meat quality and the oxidative stability of breast and thigh meat. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 6 groups. One of the groups served as a control (C) and was given commercial basal diets, whereas the other five groups were given the same diets further supplemented with naringin ...

  13. Limited evidence for trans-generational effects of maternal dietary supplementation with ¿-3 fatty acids on immunity in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppenol, A.; Delezie, E.; Parmentier, H.K.; Buyse, J.; Everaert, N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (¿-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n¿=¿120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the rati

  14. Frangos de corte alimentados com dietas de diferentes densidades nutricionais suplementadas ou não com enzimas Broilers fed diets varying in energy and protein supplemented with a pool of enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni Salete Pinto de Toledo

    2007-04-01

    receberam a dieta padrão.A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous enzymes added to corn-soy diets with different nutritional levels. Four hundred and eight day-old COBB 500 male chicks were distributed in a randomly factorial experiment (2 x 2 with diets having two nutritional densities (standard and low, with or without a pool of enzymes (50g/ton of Rovábio®, six replicates of 20 birds each were randomly distributed in 1.5 x 1.5m floor pens. Nutritional density of the standard diet was: 22,00/3000; 19,80/3100 and 17,82/3200 of crude protein (%CP/ Metabolizable energy (Kcal kg-1, respectively in the initial, grower and finisher phases. The low density diets had 2% less CP, lysine and methionine+cystine, and 65kcal of ME kg-1 of feed. Feed comsumption, body weight, feed conversion and index of bio economical feed efficiency were analized. Results showed there was no difference for the interaction between nutritional densities and the pool of enzymes in the initial phase. However a significative interaction for feed consumption and body weigh between standard and low density diets. The low density diets added with enzymes had higher body weight gain compared to the one without enzymes. Feed comsumption and body weight gain were higher for standard diets without enzymes compared to low density with or without enzymes, even though feed conversion was not significantly different among them. In conclusion the addition of the multienzymatic complex improves the performance of the birds fed diets of low density. However, they had lower performance than those fed standard diets, regardless the use of enzymes. Cost of production of broilers receiving diets with low density supplemented with enzymes was lower than those with standard diets, with the formulation cost used.

  15. The influence of breed and sex on the incidence of mortalities and skin tears in broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, N H; Smith, G A; Crosley, R I

    1989-06-01

    The effects of nutrition, breed and sex on the incidence of mortalities and of skin tears on broiler carcasses were studied. Both sexes of 2 breeds, Hubbard and Ross, were given 4 dietary treatments consisting of a normal level of vitamin and mineral premix plus 300 ppm furazolidone, twice normal premix inclusion level plus 300 ppm furazolidone, a normal level of vitamin and mineral premix, and twice normal mineral premix inclusion level. A coccidiostat containing the active ingredient halofuginone was included at 6 ppm, twice the recommended dosage. Starter, grower and finisher diets were fed respectively up to Day 20, Day 30 and Day 48. Group growth performances, mortalities and the incidence of torn skin were monitored on both the live birds and carcasses. The effect of the different nutritional treatments on skin tears was not significant (P = 0.9533), as was the breed effect (P = 0.0547). However, the effect of sex was significant (P = 0.0044), the incidence in hens being higher. Mortalities among the Hubbard were significantly greater than among the Ross (P = 0.0001). Hens showed a slightly higher mortality rate than roosters, tending towards significance at the 5% level (P = 0.0554).

  16. Preliminary studies of alternative feed additives for broilers: Alternanthera brasiliana extract, propolis extract and linseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MW Biavatti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of alternative treatments using fluidextracts of Alternanthera brasiliana, propolis resin and linseed oil on the performance and blood biochemistry of broilers was evaluated. The study was done with five treatments: basal diet (negative control; basal diet + 40 ppm avylamicin and 120 ppm monensin (positive control; basal diet + A. brasiliana extract (180 mL/200 kg of feed; basal diet + propolis extract (200 mL/200 kg of feed and basal diet + linseed oil (2.5% replacing soybean oil. Propolis and A. brasiliana extracts improved broiler performance from 14 to 21 days, whereas linseed oil had no effect. The findings of this experiment revealed that A. brasiliana and propolis extracts can be used as antimicrobials, but further studies are necessary to find the best concentration in broiler diets.

  17. β-mannanase and mannan oligosaccharides in broiler chicken feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ramos Sales Mendes de Barros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the use of β-mannanase and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS to replace growth promoters in broiler diets. Four hundred male Cobb broiler chicks were used, with initial weight of 45±1g, distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and eight repetitions of ten birds. The treatments were: basal feed; basal feed without growth promoter; basal feed without growth promoter + β-mannanase; basal feed without growth promoter + MOS; and basal feed without growth promoter + β-mannanase + MOS. The feed intake of the birds increased in response to dietary treatments compared to basal diet during the period 1-21 days of age. A higher weight gain and improved feed conversion was found at 42 days of age among birds that had received the basal diet without growth promoter + MOS. The absolute weight at slaughter, relative carcass and prime cuts except breast weights improved in response to dietary treatments compared to the basal diet at 42 days of age. No difference was observed in relative weight of the liver, while significant differences were found in the weight of heart, gizzard, and abdominal fat. It was concluded that β-mannanase and MOS can replace the growth promoters in broiler diets without compromising production and economic performance. However, the association of these products into the feed may cause negative interaction that reduces the broiler chickens' performance

  18. Straw particle size in calf starters: Effects on digestive system development and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2016-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine effects of straw particle size in calf starter on rumen fermentation and development in calves. Holstein calves (n=17 in trial 1; n=25 in trial 2) were housed in individual pens; bedding (wood shavings) was covered with landscape fabric to completely avoid consumption of bedding. Milk replacer was fed at 12% of birth body weight per day and water offered free choice. Calves were randomly assigned to 4 treatments differing in geometric mean particle length (Xgm) of straw comprising 5% of starter dry matter. Straw was provided within the pellet at manufacture (PS; 0.82 mm Xgm) or mixed with the pellet at time of feeding at Xgm of 3.04 (SS), 7.10 (MS), or 12.7 (LS) mm. Calves (n=12; 3/treatment) in trial 1 were fitted with a rumen cannula by wk 2 of age. A fixed amount of starter that was adjusted with age and orts were fed through the cannula in cannulated calves. Calves were euthanized 6 wk after starter was offered (9 and 7 wk of age for trials 1 and 2, respectively). Rumen digesta pH linearly decreased with age, whereas volatile fatty acid concentration increased with age. Overall pH had a cubic trend with SS lower than that of PS and MS. Molar proportion of acetate decreased with age whereas propionate proportion increased. Overall molar proportions of volatile fatty acids were not affected by diet. Fecal Xgm was not different in spite of changes in diet particle size and rumen digesta of PS being greater than SS, MS, and LS at slaughter. Fecal pH and starch concentration were not affected by diet; however, pH decreased whereas starch content increased with age. Weight of stomach compartments, rumen papillae length and width, and rumen wall thickness did not differ between diets. Omasum weight as a percentage of body weight at harvest linearly decreased as straw particle size increased. Under the conditions of this study, modifying straw particle length in starter grain resulted in minimal rumen fermentation parameter

  19. DESEMPENHO DE FRANGOS DE CORTE, SEXADOS, SUBMETIDOS A DIETAS FORMULADAS PELOS CONCEITOS DE PROTEÍNA BRUTA versus PROTEÍNA IDEAL PERFORMANCE OF SEXED BROILER BIRDS, SUBMITTED TO DIETS FORMULATED BY THE CONCEPTS OF CRUDE PROTEIN versus IDEAL PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olinda Bergamo Mendoza

    2001-02-01

    out at the Poultry Section of the Departament of Animal Science at Federal University of Santa Maria, in order to evaluate the performance of broilers grown sexed and fed with diets formulated by the traditional concept (Crude Protein - CP, which is based on total amimo acids (TAA and fed with the approach of Ideal Protein (IP, which is based on digestible amino acids (DAA, in the period from 1 to 42 days of age. A comparative economic analysis among the two feeding methods was also accomplished. There were 960 chicks (Ross at the age of 1 day, being 480 males and 480 females. The diet based on the concept of CP was formulated according to the recommendation of NRC (1994 and the diet formulated by the concept of IP was adapted from Han and Baker (1994. The completely randomized experimental design consisted of 4 treatments with 12 replications of 20 chicks each. The feed intake, phase gain, body weight, daily gain, feed conversion and the nutritional efficieny index were evaluated. The results indicated that the parameters studied were more efficient in the initial phase. The diet formulated by the Ideal Protein concept, based on the content of DAA, influenced all parameters studied positively, providing significantly better gain weight and feed efficiency in both male and female chicks in the initial and final phases, being similar in the growing phase. The chicks fed with DAA showed greater profits in the initial phase and during the growth phase. These data allowed the conclusion that diets containing corn and soybean meal as base for the formulated feed provides better biological and economic performance of the broilers when compared to those formulated with crude Protein, from day the first up to 35 days of age. The final phase (35-42 showed the contrary, being the CP concept more economical than IP.

  20. BONE CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILERS SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Colet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTVitamin D is added to broiler diets to supply its physiological requirement for bone formation. The fast growth rate of modern broilers is often associated with poor bone formation. Increasing vitamin D supplementation levels and the use of more available sources have applied to try to prevent leg problems, to increase carcass yield, and to improve the performance of broilers. The present study evaluated three vitamin D supplementation levels (1 3,500 IU (control; (2 control + 1,954 IU of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol; and (3 control + 3,500 IU of vitamin D in broiler diets supplied up to 21 days of age. The objective was to investigate if the vitamin D levels above the recommendations could reduce leg problems in broilers. In this experiment, a total of 1,296 one-day-old male and female Cobb(r 500 broilers were used. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of two sexes and three vitamin D levels. No difference was found between the levels of vitamin D (p > 0.05, the performance of males or females, the gait score, the valgus and varus incidence, the tibial dyschondroplasia incidence, the occurance of femoral degeneration, the bone colorimetric, and the carcass yield. Parts yield differences were found (p > 0.05, except for liver and intestine yields. We concluded that the lowest tested vitamin D level (3,500 IU per kilogram of feed added to the diet was the best choice in terms of cost/benefit to help minimizing leg problems in broilers.

  1. DRIED WHEY AND FISH MEAL + LACTOSE IN DIETS WITH TWO PROTEIN LEVELS FOR STARTER PIGLETS SORO DE LEITE EM PÓ E FARINHA DE PEIXE+LACTOSE EM RAÇÕES COM DOIS NÍVEIS DE PROTEÍNA PARA LEITÕES NA FASE INICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romão da Cunha Nunes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available One experiment was carried out to evaluate protein sources and levels, and lactose in starter diets, for piglets weaned at 21 days of age. The animals were allotted in a completely randomized design in a factorial 2 x 2 x 2, with type of diets ( dried whey and fish meal + lactose, levels of crude protein (20 and 24% and piglet weight at weaning (?6.0 and > 6.0kg, in a total of eight treatments and four replications with 14 piglets (7 males and 7 females each. In the experimental conditions, it can be concluded that among the protein sources tested, the performance of 21 day-age weaned piglets fed fish meal + lactose (FG 1.81 compared was better to dried whey(FG 1.93m. The level of 24% crude protein was more efficient, mainly in the fish meal + lactose diets (WG 8.91kg x 7.93kg. It is concluded also that the type of diets studied did not influence histologycal parameters and the villous height is a direct funcion of piglets weight. KEY-WORDS: Pancreas weight, performance, villous height. Desenvolveu-se um experimento para avaliar fontes e níveis de proteína e de lactose em rações iniciais para leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 2, para estudo dos tipos de dieta (soro de leite em pó e farinha de peixe+lactose, níveis de proteína bruta (20,0% e 24,0% e pesos dos leitões ao desmame (? 6,0 e > 6,0 kg, totalizando oito tratamentos com quatro repetições de quatorze leitões (sete machos e sete fêmeas cada. Das fontes de proteína estudadas, o desempenho de leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade foi superior para rações com farinha de peixe + lactose (CA 1,81, comparados àqueles que consumiram a ração contendo apenas o soro de leite em pó (1,93. Para os níveis de proteína, observou-se que o índice de 24% de proteína bruta nas rações foi mais eficiente, principalmente com a combinação farinha de peixe + lactose (GP 8,91 x 7,93kg. As dietas

  2. Effect of feeding methods of katuk (Sauropus androgynus) extract on performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    U. Santoso; T Suteky; Heryanto; Sunarti

    2002-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate effect of feeding methods of katuk extract on performance and carcass quality of broilers. Sixty 20-d-old male broilers were distributed to 5 treatment groups of 4 replicates with 3 birds each. One treatment group was fed basal diet without katuk extract (P0), whereas other treatment groups were fed basal diet plus 18 g katuk extract/kg diet (P1), basal diet plus 9 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P2), basal diet plus 9 g katuk extract/kg diet...

  3. Detoxified Castor Seed Cake for Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary detoxified castor seed cake (DCC inclusion on broiler performance and carcass traits. Two hundred and fifty Cobb-500(r broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of five treatments (dietary inclusion of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% DCC with five replicates of 10 birds each (five males and five females. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (WG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated from one to 40 days of age. Carcass yield and the yields of the breast, leg (drumstick+thighs, and wings were determined when broilers were 40 days old. Live performance parameters were influenced by DCC dietary inclusion, and levels 2.00, 1.38, and 1.25% DCC impaired FI, WG, and FCR, respectively. Carcass and parts yields were not affected by dietary DCC inclusion. It was concluded that the addition of DCC levels up to 1.25% to broiler diets does not impair live performance or carcass traits.

  4. Lisina digestível em dietas de baixa proteína para frangos de corte tipo caipira de um aos 28 dias Digestible lysine in diets containing low protein concentrations for broiler type redneck from 1 to 28 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a inclusão de diferentes porcentagens de lisina digestível em dietas de baixa proteína para frangos de corte tipo caipira, machos e fêmeas, com idade entre um e 28 dias. Utilizaram-se 792 machos e 792 fêmeas de linhagem comercial, de um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x6 (sexo x porcentagem de lisina digestível: 0,85; 0,90; 0,95; 1,00; 1,05 e 1,10% com seis repetições de 22 aves. Não foi constatada interação (P>0,05 de sexo versus inclusão de lisina. Observou-se superioridade (P0,05 para conversão alimentar. Da composição centesimal da carcaça, apenas o percentual de matéria mineral foi influenciada (PThe inclusion of different percentages of digestible lysine in low-protein diets was evaluated for male and female free-range broiler chickens, from 1 to 28 days. We used 792 female and 792 male naked neck chickens a day in a completely randomized 2x6 factorial scheme (sex x percentages of digestible lysine: 0.85, 0.90, 0.95, 1.00, 1.05 and1.10% with six replicates of 22 broilers. No interaction of sex versus lysine was found. Superiority was observed (P0.05 in food conversion.In the chemical composition of the carcass, only thepercentage of mineral matter was influenced (P<0.05 bydigestible lysine levels.It was concluded that the level of 0.85% for type redneck broiler meets the nutritional requirement of digestible lysine in diets containing lower protein concentrations.

  5. Crude protein equivalence value of a multi-enzyme product for 28- and 42-day-old broilers

    OpenAIRE

    A Malakzadegan; Zaghari, M.; S Khalaji; M Shivazad

    2012-01-01

    In order to estimate the crude protein (CP) equivalence value of Natuzyme-p (NP) enzyme by using regression response equations, two experiments were carried out using Ross (308) broiler chicks. Graded levels of dietary CP (while amino acids levels were kept constant) and NP enzyme were used to derive the regression equation in the first experiment. Four levels of dietary CP and NP enzyme were fed to 160 feather-sexed male broiler chicks during the starter (0-28 d of age) and grower (28-42 d o...

  6. Níveis das vitaminas A e E em dietas de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade Levels of vitamins A and E on diets of broilers from 1 to 42 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni Salete de Toledo

    2006-04-01

    -1 of diet, respectively. The parameters evaluated were: feed consumption, body weight, feed conversion and mortality. Feed comsumption, body weight and feed conversion were not affected by the increasing or loweing of the medium levels of the studied vitamins. Based in these results we can conclude that vitamins A and E , wich means 50% reduction of the levels used by poultry integration in South Brazil do not reduce the growing of broilers when compared to medium and high levels, which can lead to a reducing in the costs of production.

  7. Feasibility study for the development of a pyro starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, M.; Welland, W.; Bouquet, F.; Lee, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Pyro starters can play a role as turbopump starter in liquid propellant propulsion systems by supplying pressurized gas to power turbines for engine start up. For such a purpose, the pyro starters supply a flow of combustion gases with a relatively low flame temperature to the turbines. A feasibilit

  8. Dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com enzimas na alimentação de frangos de corte Corn and soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymes in feed of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Maria Torres

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da adição de enzimas digestivas exógenas em dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte, conduziu-se este experimento. Foram utilizados 819 pintos Hubbard em DIC e esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 (enzimas, proteínas, níveis de energia e um tratamento testemunha com 3 repetições de 21 aves por parcela. Os níveis de enzimas foram 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 g/kg de dieta, e os de proteína foram normais (21,18, 19,95 e 19,43% PB e reduzidos (20,54, 19,35 e 18,46% PB; os de energia também foram normais (3000, 3100 e 3200 kcal/kg de EM e reduzidos (2910, 3007 e 3040 kcal/kg de EM, respectivamente, para as fases inicial, de crescimento e final da criação, e para o testemunha, a ração continha níveis normais de EM e PB, sem enzimas. Os fatores avaliados foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e fator europeu de produção. Pelos resultados, verificou-se manutenção do desempenho zootécnico das aves em razão da aplicação de enzimas, constatado pela não significância desses fatores aos 42 dias de idade e pela melhora na conversão alimentar, redução do consumo de ração e maior fator europeu de produção aos 21 dias de idade. O estudo da interação dos níveis de enzima x proteína mostrou que a adição de 0,5 g/kg de enzima na dieta com nível de proteína reduzido resultou em maior ganho de peso das aves. Conclui-se que é viável o uso de enzimas exógenas adicionadas em rações para frangos de corte.The objective of the experiment was verify the effect of the addition of exogen digestive enzymes in corn and soybean meal based diets on performance of broiler chickens. Were used 819 Hubbard chickens in completely randomized design, and 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 check factorial (enzyme, protein and energy levels and one treatment check with 3 replications, of the 21 birds by replicate. Enzyme levels were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg of diet, energy levels were

  9. Blood chemistry changes in broiler chickens following supplementation with Cinnamomum zeylanicum

    OpenAIRE

    Faixová Zita; Faix Štefan

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different doses of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in diet on blood biochemistry of broiler chickens. Thirty two, 1-d old male broiler chickens of a commercial strain ROSS 308 were distributed into groups of 8 birds in each one. The chicks received the diets from the day of hatching to 38 d of age. The four types of diets included basal diets for chicks (HYD 01, HYD 02 and HYD 03) supplemented by 0%, 0.1%, 0.05 and 0.025% cinnamon (Cinnamomi aetherole...

  10. Effect of polyphenols extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, oxidative stress and body weight of broilers (Gallus domesticus) under chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, oxidative stress and production of male broilers maintained at high environmental temperatures. The results found that body temperature and respiratory rate of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C was higher than broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C (P < 0.05). On day 1, the heterophil/ lymphocyte ratio of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C and received polyphenols at 300 and 400 mg/kg in diets was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 0 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the malondialdehyde of the broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 400 mg/ kg in their diet was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 100 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the body weights of broilers that were maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 100-500 mg/ kg in diets, and broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C were higher than that of the control group which had not been treated with a polyphenol diet (P < 0.05). This study indicated that polyphenols could reduce heat stress, oxidative stress and improve the growth rate of heat-stressed broilers.

  11. Manganese levels and the morphology of the epiphyseal plate in broilers with slipped tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K W; Lowther, D A

    1976-09-01

    Manganese deficiency in chickens results in perosis and a higher incidence of slipped tendon. Perosis is associated with a disorganization of the epiphyseal growth plates and changes in the chemical composition of the cartilage matrix. Male broilers with slipped tendons were selected from a commercial broiler farm over a 9 week growing period. Their growth rates, epiphyseal cartilage histology and tissue manganese concentrations were examined and compared with (a) normal broilers from the same farm, and (b) similar broilers raised on control and manganese deficient diets. Field broilers with slipped tendons showed no evidence of abnormality in the histological appearance of the proximal tibial growth plate at any of the ages examined. The manganese content of liver and epiphyseal cartilage from field broilers showing slipped tendon was comparable with that present in tissue from normal broilers wither from the field or raised on a chemically defined diey supplemented with managese. The slightly retared growth rate seen in the field broilers was attributed to feeding problems associated with the lameness condition. These results provide conclusive evidence that slipped tendon in field broilers is not dur to a manganese deficiency in the tissues, nor does it appear to be associated with abnormal proliferation of the chondrocytes in the epiphyseal plate. PMID:995818

  12. Limited treatment with beta-1,3/1,6-glucan improves production values of broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; Tellez, G

    2006-04-01

    The development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has led to a need for alternatives to antibiotics for growth promotion and disease prevention in poultry production. The helical polysaccharide beta-1,3/1,6-glucan is derived from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cervisiae and has immunomodulating activities. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of 2 supplementation programs with a commercial beta-1,3/1,6-glucan product to protect broiler chicks from experimental respiratory challenge with Escherichia coli. Chicks were housed in battery-brooders from 1 d of age and fed a standard starter diet or the same diet containing 20 g/ton (22 ppm) of purified beta-1,3/1,6-glucan either continuously (BG25d) or for only the first 7 d prior to challenge (BG7d). At d 7 one-half of the birds were inoculated in the thoracic air sac with 800 cfu of a serotype O2, nonmotile strain of E. coli. All surviving birds were necropsied at d 25. Body weight of survivors and feed conversion efficiency were protected from the adverse effects of E. coli challenge by BG7d but not by BG25d. Mortality was nominally decreased from 63% (control) to 53% in BG25d and 47% in BG7d, but these decreases were not significant. The relative weights of the liver and heart were increased, and the bursa of Fabricius relative weights were decreased by E. coli challenge, and these effects were modulated by beta-glucan treatment. Despite positive effects of BG7d in E. coli-challenged birds, the BW of nonchallenged birds was decreased by BG7d and BG25d. These results suggest that supplementation of broiler diets with beta-1,3/1,6-glucan may be valuable for decreasing production losses due to E. coli respiratory disease, but that the immune stimulation provided may also result in decreased production values under experimental battery conditions or for birds raised in an environment with minimal disease challenges. PMID:16615344

  13. [Probiotics in broilers' rearing: A strategy for intensive production models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blajman, Jesica E; Zbrun, María V; Astesana, Diego M; Berisvil, Ayelén P; Romero Scharpen, Analía; Fusari, Marcia L; Soto, Lorena P; Signorini, Marcelo L; Rosmini, Marcelo R; Frizzo, Laureano S

    2015-01-01

    The broiler industry has become an important economic activity in Argentina. Global production of broiler meat has been growing in Argentina faster than for any other meats, possibly due to declining poultry prices and increasing incomes. Modern rearing systems can produce broilers ready to slaughter in 50 days, with the required 2.7kg of weight and a feed conversion of about 1.6kg feed/kg of meat. Nevertheless, broilers raised under these intensive conditions are exposed to various stressors every day. For many years, feed supplementation with antibiotics was widely used to stabilize the gut flora, improve general parameters and prevent avian diseases. However, the utility of antibiotics has been questioned because of the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in meat. Therefore, there is a renewed interest in finding viable alternatives to antibiotics. One potential method is the supplementation of broiler diets with probiotics. This review provides an updated summary of the use of probiotics to improve sanitary conditions and enhance performance in broilers, demonstrating the role of probiotics as a reliable option to replace antimicrobial growth promoters. PMID:26614253

  14. Thermophilic starter cultures: another set of problems

    OpenAIRE

    Oberg, C. J.; Broadbent, Jeffery R.

    1993-01-01

    Increased consumer demand for yogurt and Italian cheeses, particularly Mozzarella, over the past decade has intensified production demands on thermophilic starter cultures. Dramatically elevated production rates within existing facilities have created problems analogous to those experienced years ago by the dairy industry for mesophilic lactococci when Cheddar cheese production increased dramatically. In contrast to mesophilic lactococci, however, diversity among lactic genera that contain th...

  15. School Starters' Vision--An Educational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Gunvor B

    2016-01-01

    Although good visual capacity is essential for children's learning, we have limited understanding of the various visual functions among school starters. In order to extend this knowledge, a small-scale study was undertaken involving 24 preschool children age 5-6 years who completed a test battery originally designed for visual impairment…

  16. Instant Microsoft Forefront UAG mobile configuration starter

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense Starter guide, designed to give you maximum guidance with minimum fuss. This book is written for system administrators, I.T. professionals, unified communication technicians, and decision makers, in general. No knowledge of UAG is required to understand the book and start setting up UAG immediately.

  17. Mixed culture engineering for steering starter functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spuś, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Undefined mixed complex starter cultures are broadly used in Gouda-type cheese production due to their robustness to phage predation, resilience for changes in environmental conditions and aroma compounds production ability during ripening. These microbial communities of lactic acid bacteria prior t

  18. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum incu

  19. Perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo aflatoxinas e/ou argila clinoptilolita natural Electrophoresis profile of serum proteins in broilers fed with diets containing aflatoxins and/or natural clinoptilolite clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Marinho Maciel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo aflatoxinas e/ou argila clinoptilolita natural. Foram utilizados 528 frangos de corte, machos, da linhagem Ross, distribuídos em seis tratamentos com 4 repetições cada: T1 - testemunha (ração sem aflatoxinas ou clinoptilolita, T2 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxinas, T3 - ração com 0,25% de clinoptilolita, T4 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxinas e 0,25% de clinoptilolita, T5 - ração com 0,5% de clinoptilolita e T6 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxinas e 0,5% de clinoptilolita. Os animais ficaram alojados em 24 boxes, e submetidos aos tratamentos do 1° ao 42° dia, quando foram sacrificados. Foram analisadas as proteínas totais, as frações albumina, alfa 1, alfa 2, beta e gama. Com exceção das médias da fração gama, o teste de Tukey revelou diferenças significativas (PThis study was aimed at evaluating the electrophoresis profile of serum protein in broilers fed with diets containing aflatoxins and natural clinoptilolite clay. Five hundred and twenty eight male broilers Ross were distributed in six treatments and each one with 4 replications: T1 - control (without aflatoxins or clinoptilolite, T2 -5ppm of aflatoxins, T3 -0.25% of clinoptilolite, T4 -5ppm of aflatoxins and 0.25% of clinoptilolite, T5 -0.5% of clinoptilolite and T6 - 5ppm of aflatoxins and 0.5% of clinoptilolite. The broilers were allocated in 24 boxes and submitted to a treatments for 42 days, when they were slaughtered. Total proteins, albumin fractions, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma were analyzed. Except gamma fraction the Tukey test showed differences (P<0.05 on serum total proteins and proteins fractions in all treatments which aflatoxin was present. The clinoptilolite did not modify (P<0.05 the serum proteins. The control broilers fed with diets containing aflatoxins and clinoptilolite presented low levels (P<0.05 of

  20. Energetical valoration of different feedstuffs for broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Arca, J.F.; Pérez Alba, L. M.; Pérez Hernández, Manuel; Cejas Molina, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values of 8 feedstuffs were determined on 4 day periods. 14 days old broiler chickens were used. Each feedstuff (Maize-1, Maize-2, Soybean meal, Fishmeal, Corn gluten meal, White lupin seed meal, Sugar and Soybean oil) was substitued for part of a basal diet in varying ammounts, according to their normal use in commercial diets. Corrected for nitrogen retention AME values for the 8 feedstuffs in the same order as above are: 2948, 3106, 2197, 3515, 3332, 193...

  1. Níveis dietéticos de lisina digestível para frangos de corte machos no período de 1 a 11 dias de idade: desempenho e composição corporal Digestible lysine levels in male broiler chicken diets from 1 to 11 days of age: performance and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Louise de Toledo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a exigência de lisina digestível para frangos de corte machos da linhagem Ross no período de 1 a 11 dias de idade. Utilizaram-se 1.050 pintos de 1 dia alimentados com cinco dietas, isoenergéticas (2.950 kcal EM/kg e isoprotéicas (23% PB, com 1,12; 1,17; 1,22; 1,27 e 1,35% de lisina digestível, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso com sete repetições e 30 aves por unidade experimental. Realizou-se abate comparativo para determinar a deposição de nutrientes corporais. Observaram-se reduções lineares no peso final, no ganho de peso, no ganho de peso relativo e no consumo de alimento, o que indica provável excesso de aminoácidos na dieta. A composição química corporal não diferiu entre as aves, exceto o conteúdo de cinzas no sangue e nas vísceras, que apresentou resposta quadrática aos níveis de lisina digestível da dieta. Nas taxas de deposição de nutrientes, observou-se redução linear na deposição de água na carcaça. O nível ótimo de lisina digestível para frangos de corte machos de 1 a 11 dias de idade deve ser igual ou inferior a 1,12%, entretanto, novos estudos devem ser realizados com níveis menores.An experiment was carried out to evaluate digestible lysine requirement for male broilers chicks of Ross line from 1 to 11 days old. A total of 1050 one day old male chicks were fed with five isoenergetic (2,950 kcal ME/kg and isoproteic (23% CP diets, with digestible lysine levels of 1.12, 1.17, 1.22, 1.27 and 1.35%. A completely randomized bloc design was used with seven replications of 30 birds per experimental unit. A comparative slaughter technique was conducted to determine body nutrients depositions. A decreasing linear effects in final weight, weight gain, relative weight gain and feed intake were observed suggesting a probable amino acid excess in diet. The body chemical composition did not differ among birds, except for blood and offal

  2. Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Irradiated Sorghum Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substitution of yellow corn with raw sorghum grains in chick diets resulted in decreases in live body weight, accumulative feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization as compared with reference diet. Relative to raw sorghum diet, inclusion of sorghum grains irradiated at 60 and 100 kGy and/or supplemented with PEG in chick diets resulted in increases in accumulative feed consumption an efficiency feed utilization. The study suggested that irradiation treatment up to 100 kGy up grade broiler chicks performance and the combinations between radiation and PEG treatments sustain the effect of each other

  3. Efeito da nicarbazina sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte recebendo diferentes níveis de lisina submetidos a estresse por calor Effect of nicarbazin on the performance of broiler chicks fed diets with different lysine levels submitted to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Lopez Donzele

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da adição de nicarbazina e níveis de lisina na ração de frangos de corte no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade e seu efeito residual sobre o período de 22 a 49 dias de idade. As aves foram criadas em ambiente de alta temperatura. Foram utilizados 480 frangos de corte machos da marca Ross, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x4 (adição ou não de nicarbazina e nível de lisina seis repetições e 10 aves por unidade experimental. Foram utilizados dois programas no combate a coccidiose: um programa dual, em que as aves receberam nicarbazina de 1 a 21 dias e monensina de 22 a 49 dias, e um programa único de controle, no qual somente a monensina foi fornecida para as aves de 1 aos 42 dias. A ração e a água foram fornecidas à vontade. Verificou-se que as aves que receberam nicarbazina tiveram consumo de ração e ganho de peso menores e conversão alimentar pior do que as aves recebendo o programa controle. Os pesos corporais e rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes nobres foram reduzidos pelo efeito da nicarbazina. Os pesos absoluto e relativo de órgãos também foram reduzidos nas aves tratadas com nicarbazina, quando comparadas àquelas que não receberam a droga na ração. Não foi viável a inclusão de nicarbazina em rações para aves mantidas em ambiente de alta temperatura.This work was conducted aiming to evaluate the effect of the addition nicarbazin and lysine levels in the diet of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age and its residual effect on the period from 22 to 49 days of age. The broilers were created in high environmental temperature. Four hundred and eighty male broilers Ross brand were used, in a completely randomized experimental design, in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (addition or not of nicarbazin and level of lysine, six replications of 10 birds per experimental unit. Nicarbazin and monensin were added to 1-21d and 22-42d diets, respectively, in

  4. Bio-efficacy comparison of herbal-methionine and DL-methionine based on performance and blood parameters of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Hadinia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the bio-efficacy of herbal methionine (H-Met relative to DL-methionine (DL-Met on 160 “Ross 308” broiler chickens. DL-Met and H-Met were added to the basal diet in eight experimental treatments with three and four concentrations respectively in starter, grower and finisher period. Blood parameters which were measured at 24 and 42 days of age consisted of: serum proteins (total protein, albumin and globulin, serum uric acid, serum fats (low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, triglyceride and cholesterol and serum enzymes (alanine amino transaminase and aspartate amino transaminase. Completely randomized design, multi-exponential and multilinear regressions were used to determine bio-efficacy of H-Met in terms of performance and blood parameters of broilers. The results showed that supplemented methionine (Met sources had no significant effect on blood parameters at 24 day of age. At 42 day of age the amounts of globulin and serum high density lipoprotein (HDL increased with supplemented Met, (p < 0.05. Regression analysis revealed that H-Met was 55.00, 71.00, 78.00, 47.00, 58.00 and 73.00% as efficacious as DL-Met for body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, albumin, globulin and high density lipoprotein criteria, respectively. The average of bio-efficacy of H-Met compared to DL-Met was 67.00% and 59.00% on average across performance criteria and blood criteria respectively and was 63.00% across these two criteria tested. The results of the present study indicated that H-Met can be administered as a new and a natural source of Met in poultry industry.

  5. The effect of dietary phytase on broiler performance and digestive, bone, and blood biochemistry characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JPL de Sousa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dietary inclusion of phytase increases nutrient and energy bioavailability for broilers. The effect of phytase increases nutrients and energy bioavailability for either the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of nutrient and energy reduction in diets supplemented with phytase on the performance, gastrointestinal pH, organ and bone composition, and blood biochemistry of broilers between eight and 21 days of age. In the study, 1.120 male Cobb 500(r broilers, with 161±1g average weight, were used. At eight days of age, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments in a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement with eight replicates of 20 broiler each. Treatments corresponded to reduction of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, amino acids and energy, or reduction of Ca, P, amino acids and energy; supplementation or not of phytase; and a positive control treatment. Broiler fed the diet with reduced Ca and P levels and phytase supplementation presented the best performance of all groups. The diet with reduced amino acid and energy levels and phytase addition reduced gizzard and proventriculus pH. Dietary Ca and P reduction increased relative liver and heart weights, as well as albumin blood levels. The bones of broilers fed phytase-supplemented diets presented higher ash content.

  6. Composição Química do Soro de Pintos de Corte Alimentados com Dietas Purificadas Blood Chemical Composition of Broiler Chicks Fed with Purified Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alvares da Silva

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de níveis de ácido L-glutâmico (L-Glu e vitamina D3 (VD no soro de pintos de corte de um dia, machos, Hubbard, criados em baterias aquecidas, recebendo dieta básica purificada, suplementada com 5, 10 e 15% de L-Glu combinados com 0, 5.000, 10.000 e 15.000 UI de vitamina D3/kg. Os animais foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos, quatro repetições e sete aves por repetição. As concentrações máximas de cálcio no soro (9,61 mg/dL foram obtidas com 15% de L-Glu e 14.181UI de VD; 7,33 mg/dL de cálcio iônico com 15% de L-Glu e 15.664UI de VD; 7,20 mg/dL de fósforo com 10% de L-Glu e 10.863UI de VD. Os maiores valores de atividade de fosfatase alcalina no soro foram obtidos com 10% de L-Glu e na deficiência de VD. Em geral, as aves alimentadas com 10% de L-Glu e 15.000UI de VD apresentaram melhor desempenho, melhor perfil sangüíneo e menor incidência de problemas de pernas.An experiment was conducted with day-old male Hubbard, broiler chicks, reared in electrically heated batteries, and raised in wire mesh floors and fed purified amino acid diets and water ad libitum for a 14 days period. The purified diets containing all essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals at adequate levels and was supplemented with 5, 10 and 15% of L-Glu and with 0, 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 IU of vitamin D3. The experimental design was a factorial 3 x 4 with four replicates with seven chicks each. The blood calcium increased up (9.61mg/dL to an estimated level of 15% of L-Glu and 14,181IU of VD, 7.33 mg/dL of ionized calcium was obtained with 15% of L-Glu and 15.664 of VD. The highest blood phosphorus (7.20 mg/dL was obtained at an estimated level of 10% of L-Glu and 10,863IU of VD. The highest blood alkaline phosphatase was obtained at level of 10% of L-Glu and vitamin D deficiency. Birds fed 10% L-Glu and 15,000IU VD had

  7. Prebiotic and antimicrobials on performance, carcass characteristics, and antibody production in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Fomentini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of supplementation with mannan oligosaccharides, avilamycin and halquinol, alone or in combination, on the performance, carcass characteristics and antibody production in broilers (1-49 days old, male broiler chicks (n=1440; Cobb 500; one day old were housed and distributed into a completely randomized design into six treatments (eight replicates; 30 animals per pen. To produce the experimental diets, three types of performance enhancer additives were used. Halquinol (HAL, avilamycin (AVI and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS were included (alone or in combination in the basal diet (instead of corn starch. Effects of diet were observed on results of animal performance in the period 1-21 and 1-42 days old. Broilers fed with a diet without growth promoter showed lower weight gain in relation to those fed with diets with antimicrobials, MOS or a combination of them. In the period 1-49 days old, feed conversion increased in broilers fed with rations without promoter. At the end of the experimental period no influence of diets was observed on the carcass yield and cuts, and titles of specific antibodies to avian infectious bronchitis. The use of MOS and/or antimicrobials (AVI or HAL, alone or in combination, improves feed conversion of broilers reared until 49 days of age.

  8. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, S; Karlsson, A H; Petersen, M A; Bredie, W L P; Petersen, J S; Engberg, R M

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was carried out from 21 to 25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), maize-based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize-based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). Compared with MBF, the dry matter (DM) intakes of broilers receiving CKMS-15 and CKMS-30, respectively, were numerically 7.5 and 6.2% higher and feed conversion ratio 6 and 12% poorer (significant for 30% CKMS), although there were no significant differences in AME content between the three diets. At 37 d, the body weight of birds receiving 15% CKMS was similar to birds fed with MBF. However, the inclusion of 30% CKMS decreased broiler growth. Dietary supplementation with CKMS significantly reduced the apparent digestibility of phosphorus. The fat digestibility was significantly lower for CKMS-30 than for the other three diets. Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize-based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed with CKMS-30. An improved litter quality in terms of DM content and a lower frequency of foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. The addition of CKMS to maize-based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding

  9. Effects of feeding wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on blood biochemistry and the effectiveness of dietary lignin treatment to alleviate mycotoxin adverse effects in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Klapáčová Katarína; Faixová Zita; Grešáková L'uba; Faix Š.; Miklósová Lucia; Leng L.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on some biochemical parameters and the efficacy of lignin to alleviate adverse effects of fusariotoxins in broiler chickens. Eighty, 1-d-old ROSS 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used in the experiment. All birds received the control diet for two weeks and then they were fed experimental diets for two more weeks. The 4 diets included the fo...

  10. Desempenho e retenção de nitrogênio de frangos de corte dos 22 aos 42 dias alimentados com rações com diferentes níveis de cálcio e suplementadas com Fitase Performance and nitrogen retention in broilers from 22 to 42 days old fed diets with different levels in calcium supplement with Fitase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Soares Teixeira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os níveis de cálcio na ração suplementada com enzima fitase para frangos de corte de 22 a 42 dias de idade, foi conduzido um experimento com 600 frangos de 21 dias da linhagem Hubbard-MPK, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial cinco x dois (níveis de cálcio da dieta x sexos, com três repetições de 20 aves por parcela. A ração basal foi balanceada para atender às exigências nutricionais das aves, conforme o NRC (1994, exceto para o cálcio, cujos níveis foram 0,40; 0,59; 0,78; 0,97 e 1,16%, suplementada com Fitase. Aos 35 dias de idade, duas aves de cada tratamento foram transferidas para gaiolas de metabolismo para coleta total das excretas durante quatro dias. O consumo de ração e o ganho de peso foram de 12,8 e 16% respectivamente, e superiores (P0,05 para o consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar em razão dos níveis crescentes de cálcio nas rações. A digestibilidade da matéria seca foi melhor com o nível de 0,88% de cálcio, e a maior retenção de nitrogênio foi obtida com 0,70% de cálcio na ração suplementadas com fitase. Conclui-se que o aumento dos níveis de cálcio em rações suplementadas com fitase para frangos de corte dos 22 aos 42 dias de idade não afeta o desempenho dos mesmos, e níveis muito baixos de cálcio reduzem a digestibilidade da matéria seca e retenção de nitrogênio das rações.With the objective of evaluating the levels of calcium in the ration supplemented with phytase for broiler chickens from 22 to 42 days old, one experiment was conducted by using a total of 600 chickens of 22 days old Hubardb-MPK strain, distributed in a completely randomized design, in five two factorial arrangement (levels of calcium of the diet x sexes, with three replicates of 20 birds per plot. The basal diets was formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of the broilers according to NRC (1994, except for calcium, whose

  11. Protective Roles of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Apoptosis of Jejunum in Broilers

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    Xi Peng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1, 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se, respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler’s jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression.

  12. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  13. Efficacy of T-2 toxin detoxifying agent in broiler chickens

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    Nešić V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted in order to investigate the efficacy of the detoxifying agent Mycofix® Plus (MP in the prevention and/or alleviation in vivo adverse effects of T-2 toxin in broilers. In addition, the adsorbing potential of MP was estimated in vitro. Mean degradation levels of T-2 toxin with MP in vitro, as measured by HPTLC, varied from 26.06 to 31.02 % and the adsorption ability was elevated in acidic environment (pH 3. In vivo trial was performed on 160 one day old "Ross" broiler chicks and lasted for 21 days. Birds were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - positive control - 2 ppm T-2 toxin; Group 3 - 2 ppm T-2 toxin+2 kg/t MP; Group 4 - 2 kg/t MP. Broilers fed the diet containing 2 mg/kg of T-2 toxin without MP developed typical T-2 toxicosis. Birds that were fed the diet containing both T-2 and MP had better performances and no oral ulcerations as the dominant sign of T-2 toxicosis were observed. Histopathological examination of tissues originating from birds fed the diet containing T-2 toxin revealed degenerative changes in the oral and small intestine mucosa, necroses of enterocytes and hepatocytes, as well as depletion of lymphocytes in the bursa Fabricii. Immunohistochemical examination also revealed negative effects of T-2 toxin on cells proliferation in intestineal and bile duct mucosa, as well as on lymphocytes from bursa Fabricii. The macroscopic and microscopic structure of the liver, intestine and bursa Fabricii of broilers fed a diet containing T-2 toxin and MP was mostly preserved. Cutaneous basophile hypersensitivity reaction was weaker in broilers fed mixtures containing 2 mg/kg T-2 toxin.

  14. CHOLESTEROL ASSIMILATION BY COMMERCIAL YOGHURT STARTER CULTURES

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    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultures used for production of traditional yoghurt, consisting of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the quantity of assimilated cholesterol did not exceed 27% of its initial contents (0.7 g in 1 dm3. Starter cultures used for bioyoghurt production, containing also probiotic strains (came from Lactobacillus acidophilus species or Bifidobacterium genus assimilated from almost 18% to over 38% of cholesterol. For one monoculture of Lb. acidophilus, cholesterol assimilation ability of 49-55% was observed, despite that the number of bacterial cells in this culture was not different from number of bacteria in other cultures.

  15. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF SPEARMINT (Mentha spicata) ON BROILER CHICKS PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    E.O. AMASAIB; B.H. ABD ELRAHMAN; Abdelhameed, A A; B.A. ATTA ELMNAN; A.G. MAHALA

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of addition different levels of spearmint (Mentha spicata) on broiler chick’s performance. One hundred and twenty eight day old unsexed (Cobb) broiler chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were distributed randomly into 16 pens (8/pen) as replicates, in a complete randomized design. The experimental diets were formulated with four levels of spearmint (Mentha spicata) of 0, 1, 1.5 and 2%. Feed and water were freely accessed. Feed intake, bo...

  16. Influence of age and strain on reproductive performance of the broiler breeder female

    OpenAIRE

    Alzenbarakji, Nada

    2011-01-01

    Chicken meat is an important source of high quality protein in the diet of most people in the world. Consequently, the increasing demand for this meat has made chicken meat production the most important growth sector among other meat species. This has been achieved by a half century of intensive genetic selection for growth traits; however, this was coupled with poor reproductive performance of broiler breeders. Ross 708 represents a broiler breeder strain that has been developed for breas...

  17. ESTIMATION OF THE PROCESS OF SYNTHESIS OF MEAT BROILER THROUGH MODERN METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    MONICA PÂRVU; R. BURLACU; IOANA ANDRONIE; VIOLETA SIMION; ADRIANA AMFIM

    2013-01-01

    In vivo experiments on broilers were conducted in order to elaborate a mathematical model for body synthesis, the experimental data being processed with Gompertz time functions and linear functions. The experiment used 166, Ross 308 day-old chicks through an experimental period of 42 days. The broilers received diets according to the growth period (1 – 14, 15 – 28, 29 – 42 days). The dietary energy and nutrient supply for group 1 (control) were according to the recommendation of Ross Breeders...

  18. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseed meal in the diets of broiler chickens%肉鸡日粮中添加发酵棉粕对其组织脂类代谢及肝脏代谢谱的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cun-xi NIE; Wen-ju ZHANG; Yong-qiang WANG; Yan-feng LIU; Wen-xia GE; Jian-cheng LIU

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented byCandida tropicalis, and a second experi-mental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plusSaccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid me-tabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets.%目 的:旨在研究发酵棉粕对肉鸡脂类代谢的影响.创新点:将荧光定量聚合酶链反应 PCR 和代谢组学方法相结合,就采食发酵饲料(发酵棉粕)肉鸡的组织脂类代谢相关基因及肝脏代谢谱进行分析,发现发酵棉粕具有调控肉鸡脂类代谢的作用.该研究为研究日粮中复杂

  19. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Biswal Chichilichi; Mohanty, G. P.; Mishra, S. K.; Pradhan, C. R.; Behura, N. C.; Das, A.; K. Behera

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. Materials and Methods: A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Az...

  20. Daya Cerna Protein Pakan, Kandungan Protein Daging, dan Pertambahan Berat Badan Ayam Broiler setelah Pemberian Pakan yang Difermentasi dengan Effective Microorganisms-4 (EM-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTARNO

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective Microorganisms-4 ( EM-4 is a mixture consists of photosynthetic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus sp, yeast (Saccharomyces sp, Actinomycetes and fermentation mushroom (Aspergillus sp, Penicillium sp. EM-4 able to increase digestibility capacity through the balancing of microorganism in digestive tract. The objectives of the research are to know the influence of giving various concentration of EM-4 fermented feed on feed protein digestibility, meat protein and increasing body weight of broiler chicken. Complete Random Design (RAL involving five treatments with five repetitions were used in this study. The treatments given were subsequently of: addition of 5% (PI, 10% (P2, 15% (P3 and 20% (P4 of starter solution and a control group (P0 without any addition of starter solution. The Broiler Chicken used was 25 broiler cocks produced by CP 707 of PT. Charoen Pokphand Jaya Farma. The protein content was measured by Kjedahl method. Collected data were then analyzed statistically by ANOVA and followed with DMRT test with significance level of 5%. The result of the research indicated that the treatment significantly increased the digestibility of feed protein, meat protein content and increasing of body weight of broiler chicken. The use of EM-4 at the concentration of 15% (P3 increased feed quality and feed efficiency by increasing feed protein content. Therefore, addition of EM-4 fermented feed could increase feed protein digestibility, meat protein content and increasing body weight of broiler chicken.

  1. Identification of potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juxing eChen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in chickens. A total of 144 day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chickens were housed in 24 battery cages with 6 chicks per cage. Cages were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON or gut barrier failure (GBF group. During the first 13 d, birds in CON or GBF groups were fed a common corn-soy starter diet. On d 14, CON chickens were switched to a corn grower diet and GBF chickens were switched to rye-wheat-barley grower diet. In addition, on d 21, GBF chickens were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine. At d 21 and d 28, birds were weighed by cage and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio. At d 28, one chicken from each cage was euthanized to collect intestinal samples for morphometric analysis, blood for serum, and intestinal mucosa scrapings for gene expression. Overall performance and feed efficiency was severely affected (P < 0.05 by a GBF model when compared with CON group at d 21 and d 28. Duodenum of GBF birds had wider villi, longer crypt depth, and higher crypt depth/villi height ratio than CON birds. Similarly, GBF birds had longer crypt depth in jejunum and ileum when compared with CON birds. An increase (P <0.05 in serum endotoxin, α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, as well as interleukin (IL-8, IL-1β, transforming growth factor (TGF-β4 and fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP 6 mRNA levels were increased in GBF birds compared to CON; however, FABP2 mRNA levels were decreased (P <0.05 in GBF birds compared to CON. Occludin was numerically reduced by 24% (P = 0.107 and mucin 2 (MUC2 was reduced by 29 % (P = 0.088 in GBF birds compared to CON birds. The results from the present study suggest that serum endotoxin and AGP, as well as, gene expression of FABP2, FABP6, IL-8, IL-1β and TGF-β4 in mucosa may work as potential biomarkers for gut barrier health in chickens.

  2. Concurrent aflatoxicosis and caecal coccidiosis in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Shareef

    2010-01-01

    A farm of two broiler flocks fed from one day old to 56 days of age a diet naturally contaminated with high level of Aflatoxin (AF), were suffered from caecal coccidiosis at 35 days of age Aflatoxin levels in feed commodities and mixed feed were determined using ELISA test. Results of ELISA showed that the average level of corn, soybean and mixed feeds contamination with aflatoxin were 1915, ppb, 229 ppb and 860 ppb respectively. Diagnosis of caecal coccidiosis was confirmed by clinical signs...

  3. Energy value of poultry byproduct meal and animal-vegetable oil blend for broiler chickens by the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, M H; Adeola, O

    2016-02-01

    The energy values of poultry byproduct meal (PBM) and animal-vegetable oil blend (A-V blend) were determined in 2 experiments with 288 broiler chickens from d 19 to 25 post hatching. The birds were fed a starter diet from d 0 to 19 post hatching. In each experiment, 144 birds were grouped by weight into 8 replicates of cages with 6 birds per cage. There were 3 diets in each experiment consisting of one reference diet (RD) and 2 test diets (TD). The TD contained 2 levels of PBM (Exp. 1) or A-V blend (Exp. 2) that replaced the energy sources in the RD at 50 or 100 g/kg (Exp. 1) or 40 or 80 g/kg (Exp. 2) in such a way that the same ratio were maintained for energy ingredients across experimental diets. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn of PBM and A-V blend were determined by the regression method. Dry matter of PBM and A-V blend were 984 and 999 g/kg; the gross energies were 5,284 and 9,604 kcal/kg of DM, respectively. Addition of PBM to the RD in Exp. 1 linearly decreased (P < 0.05) DM, ileal and total tract of DM, energy and nitrogen digestibilities and utilization. In Exp. 2, addition of A-V blend to the RD linearly increased (P < 0.001) ileal digestibilities and total tract utilization of DM, energy and nitrogen as well as IDE, ME, and MEn. Regressions of PBM-associated IDE, ME, or MEn intake in kcal against PBM intake were: IDE = 3,537x + 4.953, r(2) = 0.97; ME = 3,805x + 1.279, r(2) = 0.97; MEn = 3,278x + 0.164, r(2) = 0.90; and A-V blend as follows: IDE = 10,616x + 7.350, r(2) = 0.96; ME = 10,121x + 0.447, r(2) = 0.99; MEn = 10,124x + 2.425, r(2) = 0.99. These data indicate the respective IDE, ME, MEn values (kcal/kg of DM) of PBM evaluated to be 3,537, 3,805, and 3,278, and A-V blend evaluated to be 10,616, 10,121, and 10,124.

  4. Tolerance of Broiler to Dietary Soybean Antinutritional Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Raw, heat treated soybean meal and diets made from soybeans extruded at varying temperature were compared to examine dietary threshold levels of the major soybean antinutritional factors (ANF)for broilers.Whole full-fat soybeans were extruded at 90,100,110,120,130,or 140 C. An in vivo nutritional evaluation of the extruded soybean meals was carried out using 224 Arbor Acres broilers allotted to seven treatments with four replicates of eight birds per pen. As extrusion cooking temperature increased,the urease activity,TI activity,lectin content and PDI decreased. Extruding at 120 C reduced the urease actvity to 0.11 units.the TI activity to 7.20 mg@ g-1 ,and lectin content to zero. Raw soybean meal significantly depressed the growth rate of broiler chickens. Remaining ANF obviously reduced feed intake and dietary nitrogen metabolism. The performance of broilers was improved as extrusion temperature increased. Extruding at 110 C produced an effect equal to that of conventional soybean meal. The weight of the pancreas of the birds fed the raw soybean or 90C-extruded soybean were significantly higher than those in heated-soybean meal group and in the higher temperature-extruded soyean groups. The same tendency was found from 3 to 7 wk of age. The weights of duodenum and ileum of the broilers fed the raw soybean were significantly higher than those in heated-soybean meal group. Extending the feeding of raw soybean or low temperature-extruded soybean to 7-wk-old hroilers significantly increased the fresh weights of proventriculus,jejunum and ileum and dry weights of jejunum and ileum. The villi of birds fed raw soybean meal and low-temperature-extruded soybean meals were shot tened and damaged. Broilers grew well on the diets containing soybean trypsin inhitory activity as high as 3.74 mg @ g-1 without showing any negative effect on the weights of organs and alimentary tracts.

  5. Performance and plasma metabolites of dairy calves fed starter containing sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L S; Bittar, C M M

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of supplementation of sodium butyrate, sodium monensin or calcium propionate in a starter diet on the performance and selected plasma metabolites (plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate) of Holstein calves during pre- and post-weaning periods. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were housed in individual hutches until 10 weeks of life, receiving water free choice, and fed four liters of milk daily. Calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth, and allocated to one of the following treatments, according to the additive in the starter: (i) sodium butyrate (150 g/kg); (ii) sodium monensin (30 mg/kg); and (iii) calcium propionate (150 g/kg). During 10 weeks, calves received starter ad libitum, while coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers.) was offered after weaning, which occurred at the 8th week of age. Weekly, calves were weighted and evaluated for body measurements. Blood samples were taken weekly after the fourth week of age, 2 hours after the morning feeding, for determination of plasma metabolites. No differences were observed among treatments for starter or hay intake, BW and daily gain of the animals. Mean concentrations of selected plasma metabolites were similar in calves fed a starter supplemented with sodium butyrate, sodium monensin and calcium propionate. There was significant reduction in the concentrations of plasma glucose as calves aged. The inclusion of sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin as additives in starter feeds resulted in equal animal performance, before and after weaning, suggesting that sodium monensin may be replaced by organic acid salts.

  6. The effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ali Rajabiyan Moghaddam; Yahya Ebrahimnezhad; Abdol - Ahad Shaddel Teli

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308), 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female) and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit); basal diet + whole wheat (without grit) and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Grow...

  7. CONTRACT BROILER FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract farming looks quite attractive for farmers as well as for private companies but most of the farmers complained about long waiting until the delivery of the next cycle of chicks have started.

  8. Use of pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the effects of probiotics and essential oil blends on digestive microflora in broilers under mixed Eimeria infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A protective digestive microflora helps prevent and reduce broiler infection and colonization by enteropathogens. In the current experiment, broilers fed corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with probiotics and essential oil blends (EO) were infected with mixed Eimeria spp. to determine effects bro...

  9. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on growth performance and intestinal colonization with Campylobacter jejuni of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2016-01-01

    An infection trial and a production trial over 35 days were conducted in parallel to study the influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the intestinal Campylobacter jejuni colonization and broiler performance, respectively. The CKMS was used at dietary inclusion levels of 15% and 30% in maize-based diets. Broilers were orally inoculated with 2 × 10(5) log cfu/ml C. jejuni on day 14. Four birds from each pen were randomly selected and killed by cervical dislocation on days 3, 6, 9, 14 and 21 post infection and intestinal contents from ileum, caeca and rectum as well as liver samples were taken. Body weight and feed consumption of broilers were registered on days 13, 22 and 35. On day 35, litter dry matter (DM) was measured and the condition of the foot pads was evaluated. There was no significant effect of CKMS on the colonization of C. jejuni. Body weight of the broilers supplemented with 15% CKMS was comparable with the control maize-based feed, whereas addition of 30% CKMS reduced broiler body weight (P < 0.001). However, DM intake and feed conversion ratio were the same in all three dietary treatments. Furthermore, the foot pad condition of broilers significantly improved with the inclusion of CKMS on broiler diets as a result of a higher DM content in the litter material. It is concluded that CKMS did not influence intestinal Campylobacter colonization, but improved the foot pad health of broilers.

  10. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo eCorsetti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and they are considered an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid and phenolic compounds that may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe and level of anti-microbial compounds and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability and salt concentration factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages. This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level.

  11. Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on the performance, carcass yield, and intestinal morphometrics of broilers submitted to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NK Sakomura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of betaine in methionine- and choline-reduced diets fed to broilers submitted to heat stress. In total, 1,408 male broilers were randomly distributed into eight treatments, according to 2 x 4 (environment x diet factorial arrangement, with eight replicates of 2 birds each. Birds were reared environmental chambers under controlled temperature (25-26 °C or cyclic heat-stressing temperature (25-31 °C. The following diets were tested: positive control (PC, formulated to meet broiler nutritional requirements; negative control (NC, with reduced DL-methionine and choline chloride levels; and with two supplementation levels of natural betaine to the negative control diet (NC+NB1 and NC+NB2. Live performance, carcass traits, and intestinal morphometrics were evaluated when broilers were 45 days of age. The results showed that all evaluated parameters were influenced by the interaction between environment and diet, except for breast meat drip loss. The breakdown of the interactions showed that birds fed the PC diet and reared in the controlled environment had greater breast drip loss than those submitted to the cyclic heat-stress environment. Birds submitted to cyclic heat stress and fed the PC diet presented the lowest feed intake. Feed conversion ratio was influenced only by diet. The FCR of broilers fed the NC+NB2 diet was intermediate relative to those fed the PC and NC diets. The addition of betaine in the diet, with 11.18% digestible methionine and 24.73% total choline reductions, did not affect broiler live performance, carcass yield, or intestinal morphometrics.

  12. Different Selenium Sources and Levels Affect Tissue Selenium Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Broilers%不同硒源及水平对肉鸡组织硒含量及抗氧化功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田金可; Ahmad Hussain; 李伟; 高尚; 王恬

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different selenium ( Se) sources and levels on growth performance, tissue Se content and antioxidant capacity of broilers, and to investigate the feasibility of using 0. 20 mg/kg organic Se replacing 0. 30 mg/kg inorganic Se in poultry production. Six hundred 1-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned into five groups with six replicates per group and twenty broilers per replicate. The broilers were fed a basal diet without Se supplementation (control) or the basal diet adding 0. 30 mg/kg Se in the form of sodium selenite (SS) , 0. 20 mg/kg Se in the form of Se-yeast (SY Ⅰ ) , 0. 30 mg/kg Se in the form of Se-yeast ( SY Ⅱ ) and 0. 30 mg/kg mixed Se (0. 15 mg/kg SS + 0.15 mg/kg SY) (MS), respectively. The trial lasted for 42 days. The results showed as follows; 1) average daily feed intake (ADFI) of broilers in SYⅡ group was significantly lower than that in the control group in the starter period (1 to 21 days) (P < 0. 05 ) , and adding organic selenium significantly decreased ADFI of broilers in the whole period (1 to 42 days) (P <0. 05 or P <0.01). 2) Compared with the SS group and SS group, adding organic selenium significantly increased Se content in breast muscle of broilers (P<0. 05 or P <0. 01) , and Se content in SY Ⅱ group was significantly higher that in the other groups (P <0. 01). Plasma Se content of broilers in SY Ⅰ and SY Ⅱ groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05 or P<0.01). Adding organic selenium significantly increased Se content in liver of broilers (P <0. 05 or P < 0. 01). 3) In the starter period, plasma glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px) and total superoxide dis-mutase (T-SOD) activities of broilers in SY Ⅱ group were significantly increased compared with SS group (P <0. 05) ; the T-SOD activity in liver of broilers in SS, SY Ⅰ and SYⅡ groups was significantly increased compared with the control group (P <0. 05 or P <0. 01). In

  13. Utilização de subprodutos de origem animal em dietas formuladas com base em proteína bruta e proteína ideal para frangos de corte de 22 a 42 dias de idade Use of animal by-products in diets formulated based on crude and ideal protein fed to broilers from 22 to 42 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cardoso Cancherini

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar a utilização de subprodutos de origem animal em dietas para frangos de corte de 22 a 42 dias de idade, formuladas com base nos conceitos de proteína bruta e proteína ideal. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x2+1, ou seja, duas fontes de proteína de origem animal (farinha de vísceras de aves e farinha de sangue bovino, dois conceitos de formulação (proteína bruta e proteína ideal e uma dieta controle à base de milho e farelo de soja, com quatro repetições. As características avaliadas foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, rendimentos de carcaça e de peito e gordura abdominal. O ganho de peso, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar não foram afetados pelas fontes de proteína e conceitos de formulação, no entanto, o teor de gordura abdominal foi menor nas aves alimentadas com farinha de vísceras que naquelas alimentadas com dieta contendo farinha de sangue.An experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of animal by-products in diets of broilers from 22 to 42 days of age, formulated based on crude and ideal protein concepts. The experimental design was a completely randomized in a factorial arrangement 2x2+1 with two animal protein sources (poultry viscera meal and bovine blood meal, two formulation concepts (based on crude and ideal protein and a control diet based on corn and soybean meal, with four replications. The evaluated characteristics were weight gain, feed intake, feed: gain ratio, carcass and breast yield and abdominal fat content. Weight gain, feed intake and feed: gain ratio were not affected by the protein sources and formulation concepts, however, abdominal fat content of broilers fed diets with poultry viscera meal was lower compared to birds that fed diets containing bovine blood meal.

  14. Plant extracts used as growth promoters in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSR Barreto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to assess the efficacy of plant extracts as alternatives for antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler diets. The performance experiment included 1,200 male broilers raised from 1 to 42 days of age. The metabolism experiment used 96 male broilers in the grower phase housed in metabolic cages for total excreta collection. At the end of the metabolism experiment, 24 birds were sacrificed to assess organ morphometrics. In both experiments, the following treatments were applied: control diet (CD; CD + 10 ppm avilamycin; CD + 1000 ppm oregano extract; CD + 1000 ppm clove extract; CD + 1000 ppm cinnamon extract; and CD + 1000 ppm red pepper extract. The microencapsulated extracts contained 20% of essential oil. No significant differences (P>0.05 in the studied performance parameters were observed among treatments. The dietary supplementation of the extracts did not influence (P>0.05 nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values. In general, organ morphometrics was not affected by the experimental treatments, but birds fed the control diet had higher liver relative weight (P<0.05 as compared to those fed the diet containing red pepper extract, which presented the lowest liver relative weight. These results showed that there was no effect of the tested plant extracts on live performance or in organ morphometrics.

  15. Sensorless soft starters for loaded induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrisanov, V.I.; Konovalov, Y.N. [Power Plearonics Department, State University of Telecommunication, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The paper is devoted to the research and design of sensorless thyristor soft starters for loaded induction motors (IM) with short circuited squirrel case rotors. It is shown that the applied direct converter topology depends on the output power and consists of a small number of thyristors with special algorithm of switching to realize voltage - frequency control of IM drive systems at low speeds of starting. Sensorless control is realized from the both sides when neither direct converter nor drive system consists of any additional transducers for soft starting operation. (orig.) 4 refs.

  16. Efisiensi Penggunaan Energi Metabolis Ransum Berbasis Onggok yang Difermentasi Bacillus amyloliquefaciens pada Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wizna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-fermented tapioca by-products (onggok on the metabolism energy differences in the diets to the performance of broilers. Eighty unsexed three day old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 20 pens (four chicks/pen. This experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments (3000, 2900, 2800 and 2700 kkal/kg for broilers of energy metabolism in diets and five replications. Measured variables were feed consumption, average body weight gain, feed conversion, carcass percentage, abdominal fat percentage and income over feed cost (IOFC. Results of the experiment indicated that feed consumption, average body weight gain, feed conversion, carcass percentage, abdominal fat percentage and income over feed cost (IOFC were not affected (P>0.05 by levels of metabolism energy in the diets for broilers. In conclusion, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-fermented tapioca by-products (onggok can be included up to 40% with energy metabolism 2700 kkal/kg in broilers diets and improved the efficiency of metabolizable energy.

  17. 7 CFR 58.330 - Butter starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter starter cultures. 58.330 Section 58.330... Material § 58.330 Butter starter cultures. Harmless bacterial cultures when used in the development of flavor components in butter and related products shall have a pleasing and desirable flavor and...

  18. Changes in body composition in broilers by a sulfur amino acid deficiency during growth

    OpenAIRE

    Conde Aguilera, Jose Alberto; Cobo Ortega, Carlos; Tesseraud, Sophie; LESSIRE, Michel; Mercier, Yves; Van Milgen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In the factorial approach, amino acid (AA) requirements are determined using the AA composition of retained protein, which is assumed to be constant. However, this hypothesis may not be valid because the AA composition of body protein can be affected by the diet. The objective of this study was to quantify the changes in chemical body composition of broilers receiving diets either deficient (TSAA–) or sufficient (TSAA+) in TSAA. Diet TSAA+ was formulated according to the Ross recommendation. ...

  19. Malabsorption syndrome in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebel, J.M.J.; Balk, F.R.M.; Post, J.; Hemert, van S.; Zekarias, B.; Stockhofe, N.

    2006-01-01

    Malabsorption syndrome (MAS) is a multifactorial disease that causes intestinal disorders in broilers due to infection of the gastrointestinal tract with different infectious agents. The exact aetiology is unknown, although several viruses are isolated from MAS affected chickens. None of these isola

  20. Dietary levels of potassium for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to determine the nutritional requirements of potassium (K for male Ross broiler chickens, from 8 to 21, 22 to 42 and 43 to 53 days of age. The following parameters were evaluated: body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR. In each experiment, a completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments (K levels, and six, eight and eight numbers of replicates, and eight, five and four birds per pen, respectively. The experimental diets were basal diets deficient in K but supplemented with K carbonate to result in levels of 0.30, 0.44, 0.58, 0.72, 0.86 and 1.00% K. Estimated requirements for BWG were 0.628, 0.714 and 0.798% K, for the periods 8-21, 22-42 and 43-53 d, respectively.

  1. Efeito do gérmen integral de milho sobre o desempenho e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte Effects of corn germ meal on broiler performance and carcass yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Brito

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se dois experimentos com 1008 pintos machos Ag-Ross 508 em cada um deles. No primeiro, avaliou-se o desempenho de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de gérmen integral de milho (GIM na dieta de um a sete dias de idade (fase pré-inicial. No segundo, avaliou-se o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça no período de oito a 47 dias. As aves foram alojadas em 16 unidades, divididas em quatro tratamentos, de acordo com os níveis de GIM, em substituição ao milho na dieta (0%, 33%, 67% e 100%, e quatro repetições de 63 aves cada. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, e os dados foram analisados por regressão polinomial. O GIM não foi um bom alimento para a fase pré-inicial. A inclusão recomendada do GIM foi de 21,9% e 22,5% nos períodos de oito a 21 dias e de 22 a 38 dias, respectivamente. Não houve restrição do uso do GIM na fase final.Two experiments were carried out with 1008 male Ag-Ross 508 broilers each. Experiment 1 was carried out from October 26th to November 1st, 2001 to evaluate the performance of broilers fed on increasing levels of corn germ meal (CGM in the diets from 1 to 7 days of age. Experiment 2 was carried from January 24th to March 12th, 2002 to evaluate the performance and carcass yield from 8 to 47 days. The birds were allotted to a completely randomized design with four treatments (levels of CGM replacing corn in ration - 0%, 33%, 67% and 100% and four replicates of 63 birds. The CGM was not a good ingredient for pre-starter phase. The recommended inclusion levels of CGM were 21.9% and 22.5% from 8 to 21 days and from 22 to 38 days, respectively. No restriction concerning the use of CGM for diets of broilers from 39 to 47 days of age is made.

  2. Evaluación de un fosfato dicálcico importado en dietas de pollos broiler Evaluation of an imported dicalcium phosphate in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Cornejo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las respuestas productivas de 192 pollos broiler machos (Hubbard de 1 a 42 días de edad en un experimento factorial de 2x3: dos fosfatos (FA, dihidratado control y FB, monohidratado para uso animal y tres niveles de fósforo disponible dietario (Pd (0,22; 0,31 y 0,49%. Se utilizaron 6 tratamientos con 4 repeticiones cada uno. Se analizó el contenido de P, Ca, F, Cd, Al y V en ambos fosfatos. No se encontraron elementos contaminantes en el FA y el FB tuvo niveles inferiores a los máximos permisibles en todas las dietas. Esto demuestra que es necesario evaluar químicamente los fosfatos rocosos previo a su empleo en dietas de aves. Las variables productivas evaluadas fueron: peso vivo, consumo de alimento y eficiencia de conversión alimenticia (ECA a los 21 y 42 días de edad. Al término del estudio se calculó el Valor Biológico Absoluto (VBA de ambos fosfatos y en las tibias se midió contenido de cenizas, longitud, ancho y resistencia a la fractura por flexión estática. No hubo diferencias significativas (P > 0,05 en peso vivo, consumo de alimento, ECA, longitud y ancho de las tibias entre los fosfatos. Sí hubo diferencias (P The chemical composition and biological value of two dicalcium phosphates, a dihydrated one (FA and a monohydrated product (FB, were assessed in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments: two phosphates (A and B and three levels of available P (aP in the diets (0.22, 0.31 and 0.49%. One hundred and ninety two day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard were distributed between 6 treatments with 4 replicates each. During the experimental period (1-42 days, the birds were fed 2 diets: "starter" (1 to 21 days and "finisher" (22 to 42 days. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. The phosphates were chemically analyzed for Ca, P, V, Cd, Al and F. FB had a higher P content than FA; and contained concentrations of the contaminants F, Cd, V and Al that were not detected in FA. Body weight, feed intake and feed

  3. Effect of citric acid supplemented diets on aflatoxin degradation, growth performance and serum parameters in broiler chickens Efecto de dietas suplementadas con ácido cítrico en la degradación de aflatoxinas, el crecimiento y los parámetros sanguíneos de pollos de engorda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Salgado-Tránsito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of citric acid (CA on aflatoxin degradation, growth performance and some serum constituents in broilers. 300 one-day-old Ross broiler chickens were randomly divided into five treatment groups of three replicates, 20 chicks each. Four groups received the diet supplemented with CA (6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 g/kg, while the other served as a control. Diet was prepared following the NRC guidelines and the experiment was terminated when chicks were 28 d old. The results showed that aflatoxins in the diet, at a concentration of 39 ng/g were almost degraded (92% by the acidification procedure. In general, live body weight (LBW was slightly higher in animals fed with the addition of CA; diet containing the highest concentration (50 g CA/kg resulted in a significant increase in LBW and improvement of feed conversion ratio. However, as the CA concentration increased, higher serum aspartate aminotransferase activity values were registered. On the contrary, hematocrite, total protein and albumin were not affected by any level of added CA. From these results, it is concluded that dietary CA supplementation can be used as an additive to degrade aflatoxins in the ration as well as to promote growth performance in young broiler chickens.Este estudio fue realizado para investigar los efectos del ácido cítrico (CA sobre la degradación de las aflatoxinas, el crecimiento y algunos componentes del suero sanguíneo de pollos de engorda. 300 pollos de un día de edad (Ross fueron divididos aleatoriamente en cinco grupos con tres repeticiones de 20 pollos cada uno. Cuatro grupos recibieron la dieta suplementada con CA (6,25, 12,5, 25 y 50 g/kg, mientras que el otro sirvió como grupo control. La dieta fue preparada con base en las recomendaciones de la NRC, y el experimento fue terminado cuando las aves alcanzaron 28 días de edad. Los resultados mostraron que las aflatoxinas en la dieta a una concentración de 39 ng

  4. Yeast extract and prebiotic in pre-initial phase diet for broiler chickens raised under different temperatures Extrato de leveduras e prebiótico na dieta pré-inicial de frangos de corte criados em diferentes temperaturas

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Karla Silva; Janaina Della Torre da Silva; Rodrigo Antonio Gravena; Rafael Henrique Marques; Fabricio Hirota Hada; Vera Maria Barbosa de Moraes

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance, carcass yield and intestinal morphometry of broiler chickens raised under different temperatures that received feed with or without yeast extract and prebiotic in the pre-initial phase. One thousand four hundred and forty one-day old male chicks were used, raised in different climate chambers. Feed with or without the addition of yeast extract and prebiotic was offered only in the pre-initial phase (1 to 7 days). From the eighth ...

  5. Effect of arginine and threonine administered in ovo on digestive organ developments and subsequent growth performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, S; Toghyani, M

    2016-10-01

    This trial was conducted to investigate the effect of arginine (Arg), threonine (Thr) and Arg + Thr administered in ovo on growth performance, digestive organs and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. On day 14 of incubation, 400 fertile eggs were randomly allotted to five experimental treatments through injection in the amniotic fluid including: (i) control (none injected), (ii) sham (0.5 ml of 0.5% saline), (iii) Arg (35 mg/egg), (iv) Thr (25 mg/egg) and (v) Arg + Thr (35 + 25 mg/egg). After hatching, chicks were given a commercial corn-soya bean diet up to 42 days of age. Daily feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) of chicks were measured during different periods of the trial. Digestive organs were measured for their relative weight and intestinal length on days 11 and 42 of age. Intestinal morphometric traits were evaluated on day 11 of the experiment. Supplementing amino acids affected the performance of broiler chicks as Thr significantly increased FI and BW across starter, grower and finisher periods compared with sham and control (p  0.05); however, amino acid supplemented groups had lower villus height than control in jejunum (p pancreas (r = -0.484; p = 0.030), duodenal (r = -0.577; p = 0.007) as well as ileal lengths (r = -0.471; p = 0.035) and FI of entire period. Otherwise, positive relationships were observed between duodenum (r = 0.580; p = 0.007) and ileum (r = 0.582; p = 0.007) weights on day 42 and FI of chickens across the entire phase. In conclusion, Arg and particularly Thr injection into amnion can improve FI and post-hatch growth performance of chickens which may be mediated by the development of digestive organs. PMID:26608576

  6. 饲喂不同配比油脂饲料对肉鸡肉品质及肌肉中脂肪酸组成的影响%Effect of Feeding Diets Containing Different Oils to Broilers on Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition in Breast and Thigh Muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安文俊; 张丽; 庄苏; 王恬

    2011-01-01

    研究日粮中添加不同配比油脂对肉鸡肉品质、肌肉胆固醇含量及脂肪酸组成的影响。选取648只1日龄AA肉鸡,随机分成6组,CON为对照组(饲喂基础日粮),SO为正对照组(日粮中添加豆油),LO为负对照组(日粮中添加猪油),COP、COC、COV组分别在日粮中添加以棕榈油为主的配比油脂、以椰子油为主的配比油脂、多种植物油组成的配比油脂,实验期为42d。结果表明:COP组胸肌24h的滴水损失显著升高(P〈0.05);COC组腿肌烹饪损失显著降低(P〈0.05)。LO组胸肌不饱和脂肪酸/饱和脂肪酸得到提高(P〈0.0%The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of adding different vegetable oils or fat to basal diet on the meat quality,cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of breast and thigh muscles of Arbor Acre(AA) broilers.Totally 648 one-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 6 groups: CON(fed basal diet mainly consisting of corn meal and soybean meal as normal control),SO(fed basal diet added with soybean oil as positive control),LO(fed basal diet added with lard as negative control),COP(fed basal diet added with commercial complex vegetable oil sample mainly containing palm oil),COC(fed basal diet added with commercial complex vegetable oil sample mainly containing coconut oil) and COV(fed basal diet added with commercial complex vegetable oil sample containing multiple vegetable oils).Each chicken was fed for 42 days.The results showed that:(1) Drip loss(24 h postmortem) of breast muscle in COP group was significantly increased(P 0.05) and cooking loss of thigh muscle in COC group was significantly decreased(P 0.05).(2) Breast ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids in LO group was improved(P 0.05);more n-3 PUFAs were determined in SO,LO,COP and COC groups(P 0.05);compared with CON group,the contents of n-6 PUFAs in SO and COC groups were

  7. Effects of Lipotropic Products on Productive Performance, Liver Lipid and Enzymes Activity in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravinia H

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a 42-d experiment, 576 one-day-old Vencobb 308 broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of lecithin extract (0.5 g/kg, choline chloride 60% (1 g/kg and Bio choline (1 g/kg in diets of moderate and high energy in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement on performance and certain physiological traits in broiler chickens. The inclusion of Bio choline and lecithin extract in the diet significantly increased average daily gain and improved feed conversion ratio  in overall (1 to 42 d period (P < 0.05. Performance efficiency index was improved in the birds fed with Bio choline compared to those fed control diet. Broilers fed diets containing Bio choline and lecithin extract had less abdominal fat percentage than those fed choline chloride or control diet. Regardless of dietary energy level, supplementation of diet with Bio choline, choline chloride and lecithin extract significantly decreased liver lipid concentration (P < 0.05. Aspartate aminotransferase activity increased in the serum of broilers fed high energy diets while it was decreased in the birds received diets containing choline chloride. Lipotropic compounds decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in the birds fed on high energy diets. The addition of Bio choline and lecithin extract to diet significantly decreased serum γ–glutamyltransferase activity (P < 0.05. Results of the present study revealed that dietary supplementation of commercial lipotropic compounds could remove potential detrimental effects from high energy diets through reducing liver fat and maintaining liver health.

  8. The Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Some Antioxidants on Performance, Oxidative Stress, and Blood Parameters in Broilers under Natural Summer Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Samar Sayed Tawfeek; Kamel Mohamed AbdAlla Hassanin; Ibrahim Mohamed Ibrahim Youssef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with some antioxidants (vitamins & minerals) against the deleterious impacts of heat stress on broilers. One hundred and twenty eight broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 4 dietary groups with 4 replicates (8 chicks each). The chicks were raised for 6 weeks under natural summer months (36 °C and 75% RH) during which the birds received either a basal diet only (control group), or the basal diet sup...

  9. Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26 ± 2 °C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C (cyclic temperature: 26 ± 2 °C; -38 ± 2 °C; and -26 ± 2 °C, and broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers fed the other concentrations. The mean total red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg PETSC was higher ( P < 0.05) than those in broilers in group 1 and those fed the other concentrations. The mean bilirubin level in the excreta of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers that received 0, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg of PETSC. This showed that PETSC could reduce GPx activity and bilirubin in feces, and increase red blood cell parameters in heat-stressed broilers.

  10. Effect of Andrographis paniculata and Psidium guajava leaves on growth performance and carcass of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanasit, S.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A six-week experiment was conducted to study the effects of Andrographis paniculata (AP and Psidium guajava (PG on the growth performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens. Six hundred one-day-old (mixed sex broiler chicks were used in ten dietary treatments, in a completely randomized design experiment. There were three replications in each treatment with 20 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments were 1 basal diet (control, 2 basal diet + antibiotic, 3 basal diet + 0.2% AP, 4 basal diet + 0.4% AP, 5 basal diet + 0.2% PG, 6 basal diet + 0.4% PG, 7 basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.2% PG, 8 basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.4% PG, 9 basal diet + 0.4% AP + 0.2% PG and 10 basal diet + 0.4% AP + 0.4% PG From 0-3, 3-6 and 0-6 weeks, feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate were not significantly different (P>0.05 among treatments. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in percentages of eviscerated carcass, breast and leg among chicken fed different diets However, percentage of abdominal fat of male chicken fed basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.2% PG were lower (P<0.05 than other treatments while female chickens fed the same diet were not statistically different.

  11. Superior growth performance in broiler chicks fed chelated compared to inorganic zinc in presence of elevated dietary copper

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Junmei; Shirley, Robert B.; Dibner, Julia J.; Wedekind, Karen J.; Yan, Frances; Fisher, Paula; Hampton, Thomas R.; Evans, Joseph L.; Vazquez-Añon, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to compare the antagonism of elevated dietary Cu (250 mg/kg) from CuSO4 on three different Zn sources (ZnSO4 · H2O; [Zn bis(−2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid)], Zn(HMTBa)2, a chelated Zn methionine hydroxy analogue; and Zn-Methionine), as measured using multiple indices of animal performance in ROSS 308 broilers. Methods Three experiments were conducted in broiler chicks fed a semi-purified diet. All birds were fed a Zn-deficient diet (8.5 mg/kg diet...

  12. Effect of use of extruded corn in broiler feed on yield and meat quality

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    Okanović Đorđe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these investigations was to examine the efficacy of the use of extruded feed in the diet of broiler chicks. The procedure of extruding corn causes significant physical-chemical changes in the kernel structure, which increases the nutritive value as the nutritive matter in the kernel becomes more readily available to the enzymes of the animal’s digestive tract. This procedure also increases hygiene safety as well as the sensory characteristics (taste of the feed. Investigations were carried out on 3000 chicks of the Ross 308 hybrid, which were divided into an experimental and a control group. The fattening period lasted 49 days. The composition of the broiler mix was identical in both groups, with extruded corn being used in the mix for the control group (O. Broilers fed the mix with extruded corn (O showed faster growth, lower mortality (20:96 and better feed conversion (2.04:2,13 kg/kg in comparison with the control group (K. Broilers of the experimental group (O also realized greater mass of the breast (696.6:657.6 g and legs (569.2:528.2 g, as well as a greater meat percentage in the breast and legs. The diet with extruded corn also resulted in an improved nutritive quality of the broiler meat (higher protein content and lower content of free lipids in broiler meat. The meat of broilers fed the mix with extruded corn (O was found to contain a higher protein content (23.35:22.58% in the breast, and in the legs (18.26:17.67%, and a lower content of free lipids (1,.40:2.42% in the breast, and in the legs (5.87:9.24% in comparison with the meat of broilers of the control group (K. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46012

  13. Isotopic traceability in body tissues and in different breeding periods of broilers

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    R.P. Oliveira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of poultry viscera meal (VM in broiler diets to possibly replace it with strictly vegetable diet (VE and vice-versa, using the technique of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in different tissues was traced. One hundred ninety-two one-day-old chicks that had been distributed randomly were used in twelve experimental treatments with four replications of four chicks each. The treatments consisted of vegetable diet (VG for diets containing FV going after a certain age or the reverse, in which the birds began feeding VM on diet and then switched to VE diet. At 42 days of age, samples of pectoral muscle (Pectoralis major, keel and tibia were collected, with later determination of isotopic ratios (13C/12C and 15N/14N. The stable isotopes technique couldn't trace the use of VM in feeding broilers when this ingredient was part of broiler diets only in the first seven, 14 or 21 days of age. However, this technique can be applied to younger poultry that have been sampled before a possible change in diet, since they can have the isotopic signature of feeding stabilized around two weeks of age.

  14. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of the Combination of Gallic and Linoleic Acid in Thigh Meat of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the combined effect of dietary supplementation of gallic and linoleic acid (GL) on the antioxidative effect and quality of thigh meat from broilers. Broilers received 3 dietary treatments: i) commercial finisher diet (control), ii) 0.5% GL (gallic:linoleic acid = 1 M:1 M), and iii) 1.0% GL during the 22 to 36 d. The pH value of broiler thigh meat was increased by GL supplementation. Water holding capacity of the thigh meat was enhanced by the 1.0% dieta...

  15. Eating patterns of broiler chickens fed insoluble grit, and its effect on intake variation, retention time, performance and gizzard development

    OpenAIRE

    Itani, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    In a field trial, the current study tested the effects of insoluble granite grit stones supplemented to broiler chickens on growth performance and gizzard stimulation. Particle size distribution and variation in the amount of grit retained in the gizzards were also examined at different age intervals. 880-day-old broiler chicks were allocated randomly and equally to 11 floor pens and maintained on a commercial pelleted diet. The trial consisted of two treatments: a control, or no-grit group (...

  16. Identification and Characterization of Potential Performance-Related Gut Microbiotas in Broiler Chickens across Various Feeding Trials▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Torok, Valeria A.; Hughes, Robert J.; Mikkelsen, Lene L.; Perez-Maldonado, Rider; Balding, Katherine; MacAlpine, Ron; Percy, Nigel J.; Ophel-Keller, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Three broiler feeding trials were investigated in order to identify gut bacteria consistently linked with improvements in bird performance as measured by feed efficiency. Trials were done in various geographic locations and varied in diet composition, broiler breed, and bird age. Gut microbial communities were investigated using microbial profiling. Eight common performance-linked operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified within both the ilea (180, 492, and 564–566) and ceca (140–142...

  17. The effect of dietary supplementation with different forms and levels of organic chromium on broilers meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Keleman Svetlana P.; Kevrešan Slavko E.; Supić Boriša; Perić Lidija; Strugar Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of supplementation with the three different preparations of organic chromium complexes: the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid complex with chromium; chromium (III)­lysine and chromium picolinate, on broilers meat quality. In every preparation supplementing broilers diet chromium was present at the three different levels: 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg. The meat quality was monitored with respect to the following parameters: the contents of fat, protein, minerals and wat...

  18. Pemberian Tepung Daun Salam (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.) dalam Ransum Sebagai Bahan Antibakteri Escherichia coli terhadap Organ Dalam Ayam Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    W. Hermana; D. I. Puspitasari; K.G Wiryawan; S. Suharti

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the utilization of bay leaf (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.) in the diets as antibacterial agent and its effect on the weight viscera organ of broilers. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications. One hundred and eighty birds of five week-old broiler were used in the present experiment, and thirty six birds were decapitated to measure the weight of viscera. On day four, ex...

  19. Desempenho e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo subprodutos do arroz formuladas com base nos conceitos de proteína bruta e ideal Performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets containing rice by-products, formulated based on crude and ideal protein concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cardoso Cancherini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar a utilização de subprodutos do arroz em dietas formuladas com base nos conceitos de proteína bruta e ideal para frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 720 pintos machos de 1 dia de idade da linhagem "Hybro", em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 × 2, composto de três dietas (sem subprodutos, farelo de arroz integral e quirera de arroz e dois conceitos de formulação de rações (proteína bruta e ideal, totalizando seis tratamentos e quatro repetições de 30 aves. O ganho de peso, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar foram avaliados aos 21 e 42 dias e as características de carcaça aos 42 dias de idade. As aves alimentadas com dietas formuladas pelo conceito tradicional (baseado na proteína bruta apresentaram melhor conversão alimentar e menor taxa de deposição de gordura abdominal.One experiment was conducted to evaluate the utilization of rice by-products in diets based on crude and ideal protein concepts for broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. Seven hundred and twenty male chicks, one day old, Hybro strain, were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangment, three diets (without by-product, whole rice meal and broken rice and two ration formulation concepts (crude and ideal protein, totalizing six treatments and four replications of 30 birds. Weight gain, feed intake and feed:gain ratio were evaluated at 21 and 42 days, and carcass characteristics at 42 days of age. In conclusion, birds fed diets formulated by the traditional concept (based on crude protein showed better feed:gain ratio and lower deposition rate of abdominal fat.

  20. In vitro bile acid-binding capacity of dietary fibre sources and their effects with bile acid on broiler chicken performance and lipid digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati Matin, H R; Shariatmadari, F; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Chiba, L I

    2016-06-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets-containing dietary fibre (DF) sources and a source of bile acid (BA) on growth performance and lipid metabolism. In addition, in vitro BA-binding capacity of fibre sources was investigated. A total of 256 one-d-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to DF sources [maize-soybean meal (control, C), or 30 g/kg of wheat bran (WB), barley bran (BB) or soybean hulls (SH)] and BA (with or without 1.5 g Na-deoxycholate/kg). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with 8 broiler chickens per cage. The highest in vitro BA-binding capacity was observed with BB (8.76 mg/g BB). From 0 to 21 d, with the addition of BA, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C, WB or BB diets, while there was no difference with the SH diet. With added BA, the average daily gain decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C or SH diets, but it did not change in those fed on the other diets. The addition of BA decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chickens fed on the BB or WB diets, but it increased in those fed on the C or SH diets. Interaction results indicated that the apparent ileal digestibility of lipid increased in broiler chickens fed the C and other DF diets with BA compared to those fed the diets without BA. The addition of BA decreased the pancreas lipase activity (PLA) in broiler chickens fed on the C diet compared to those fed the C diet without BA, while no changes observed in those fed the DF diets with or without BA. No interaction was observed in total liver bile acid (TLBA). The WB, BB and SH with little Na-deoxycholate-binding capacity (<10 mg/g of DF) under in vitro conditions had particular effects with BA on the measured criteria in broiler chickens. The magnitude of improvement in digestibility of lipid with the addition of BA depends on the source of fibre used and the addition of BA in DF diets had little effect on growth

  1. Temporary feed restriction partially protects broilers from necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, Chr; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feed restriction on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. To induce subclinical necrotic enteritis, an experimental challenge model using a specific diet formulation, Gumboro vaccination, oral inoculation of broilers with a 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens was adopted. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb 500 broilers were randomly allocated to four groups: feed restricted, challenged, both feed restricted and challenged, and negative control. At 21, 22, 23 and 24 days of age, the intestines, gizzard and liver were collected from 15 birds in each group and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The application of feed restriction in birds challenged with C. perfringens reduced the necrotic enteritis lesion score significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and feed restriction significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pH in the small intestine, the viscosity of the jejunum digesta as well as the C. perfringens counts in the caeca compared with the controls. In conclusion, feed restriction of broilers has a positive effect on the intestinal ecosystem and a significant protective effect against necrotic enteritis in the subclinical experimental model.

  2. Qualidade da carne de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas suplementadas com crômio, criados em diferentes temperaturas ambientais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.218 Meat quality of broiler chicks submeted the supplemented diets with chromium and reared in differents enviromental temperatures - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.218

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nívea Maria Brancaci Zeoula

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos. O experimento um objetivou avaliar a composição da carne do peito de frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com crômio (0, 400, 800 e 1.200 μg Cr kg-1 complexado a levedura, criados sob diferentes condições de temperatura (quente, termoneutra e fria. O experimento dois objetivou avaliar a qualidade da carne do peito de frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com crômio (0 e 400 μg Cr kg-1, criados nas mesmas condições do experimento um e desossados em diferentes períodos (0, 5 e 24 horas. Os resultados mostram que as aves criadas em ambiente frio apresentaram a carne com menor porcentagem de matéria mineral e crômio e maior intensidade de vermelho, enquanto as aves criadas em temperatura termoneutra apresentaram carne com menor porcentagem de umidade, e as aves criadas em temperatura quente, carne com maior luminosidade. Já a suplementação de crômio não proporcionou qualquer efeito na composição e na qualidade de carne, enquanto que o aumento no período de desossa proporcionou um menor comprimento de sarcômero, força de cisalhamento e intensidade de amarelo, porém uma maior luminosidade.Two experiments were conducted being the objective of the first experiment to evaluate the the composition of breast meat of broiler chicks fed with diets supplemented with chromium yeast (0; 400; 800 and 1,200 μg Cr kg-1 reared in different environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral and cold. The second experiment aimed to evaluate the quality of breast meat of broiler chicks fed with diets supplemented with chromium yeast (0 and 400 μg Cr kg-1, reared in different environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral and cold and deboned in different periods (0, 5 and 24 hours. The results showed that birds reared in cold environmental temperature showed meat with lower mineral matter percentage and chromium and higher values of redness, whereas the birds reared in thermoneutral environment

  3. Estimation of standardised ileal threonine equivalency values of a multi-enzyme and its effects on broiler chick’s performance

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    Saeed Khalaji

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to estimate standardised ileal threonine (SID Thr equivalency of a commercial multi-enzyme and its effects on broiler chick’s performance. The 10 treatments included a basal diet containing 0.56% and 0.46% SID Thr in starter and grower periods; treatments 2 to 5 were supplemented with graded levels (0.07%, 0.14%, 0.21% and 0.28% of L-threonine and treatments 6 to 10 were basal diet supplemented with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 g/kg of multi-enzyme. Supple menting diets with multi-enzyme significantly (P<0.01 improved the feed conversion ratio at 28 and 42 d of age. Multi-enzyme addition linearly increased body weight gain (P<0.05 at 28 d of age and the immune response (P<0.05 at 36 d of age. Breast, thigh and abdominal fat relative weights were not affected by supplementing the multi-enzyme. Nonlinear and linear equations were generated for the multi-enzyme and graded levels of threonine. Based on an assessment for the r2 and P values of the equation, body weight gain, immune response and feed conversion ratio were sensitive measurements of responses to multi-enzyme addition. The nonlinear or linear response equation with the higher r2 values for added L-threonine and the equation for added multi-enzyme were set to be equal and were solved. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio responses from 0.5 g multi-enzyme per kg of diet at 28 and 42 d of age was therefore equal to 0.08%, 0.05%, 0.16% and 0.07% SID Thr, respectively, and the immune response from 0.5 g multi-enzyme per kg of diet was equal to 0.14% SID Thr.

  4. AROMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PECORINO CHEESES OBTAINED FROM MILK OF EWES FED DIETS CONTAINING DIFFERENT EXTRUDED LINSEED CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Branciari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the flavour characteristics of ewe cheeses made with two different techniques (cheeses obtained from raw milk or from thermized milk with adjunct starter cultures and using milk from animals fed diets with different concentrations of extruded linseed. Aromatic differences linked to the linseed concentrations in the diets were found for the raw milk cheeses, while no such differences were found in the cheeses made from thermized milk with adjunct starter cultures.

  5. Aplicação dos conceitos de proteína bruta e proteína ideal sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte machos e fêmeas criados no inverno Performance of males and females broilers fed diets based on crude or ideal protein during the winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni Salete de Toledo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho e analisar a viabilidade econômica comparativa entre dois conceitos protéicos e duas linhagens de frangos de corte (Hybro G e Hybro PG, criados no período de inverno, com temperatura média de 16°C e UR média de 72%. As aves foram alimentadas com dietas formuladas pelo conceito de Proteína Bruta (PB sem suplementação de aminoácidos e Proteína Ideal (PI, de 1 a 42 dias de idade nos dois sexos. O delineamento utilizado nos dois experimentos foi inteiramente casualizado num esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (2 conceitos protéicos e 2 linhagens com 6 repetições de 20 aves para cada sexo. Machos não mostraram interação entre proteína x linhagens para as variáveis estudadas; entretanto, machos do conceito PB consumiram mais ração, porém ganharam menos peso e converteram pior que os PI. Para fêmeas, houve interação para a variável conversão alimentar, sendo que as aves do conceito PI da linhagem PG, foram mais eficientes que as aves do conceito PB. Para a mesma categoria, na análise dos efeitos isolados, não houve diferença significativa para consumo, entretanto, as fêmeas PI ganharam mais peso que as fêmeas PB. Na análise econômica dos resultados, foi observado que a formulação de dietas PI para ambos os sexos é mais rentável.Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of broilers and analyze the comparative economical effects of two concepts of protein given to two lines of broilers (Hybro G and Hybro PG reared during cold weather, average of 16 C and RH of 72%. The broilers were fed to diets formulated based on the concept of crude protein (PB with addition of aminoacids or on the ideal protein (PI, from 1 to 42 days of age for both sexes. The experimental design in both experiments was entirely randomized in a factorial 2 x 2 (2 protein concept vs 2 lines. The males did not show evidence and the interaction between protein vs lines for

  6. A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS

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    Kashif Aziz Khan. Shakeel Akhtar Khan, Shahnaz Hamid2. Asim Aslam and Masood

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The present project was designed to identify the factors responsible for yolk retention in broiler chicks. Four different experiments were conducted to find out the effect of four factors (experimental yolk sac infection with Echerichia coli, off-feed period between hatching and housing. first feeding time in the poultry house and type of initial feed on yolk absorption. Results of these experiments showed that yolk sac infection with E. coli led to decrease in rate of yolk absorption. Moisture and protein percentage was increased in infected yolk but fat percentage was not affected by yolk sac infection. On the other hand, post hatch starvation due to delay in housing and delay in first feeding did not affect rate of yolk absorption. Moisture percentage was not affected while fat absorption increased and protein absorption decreased due to fasting. It was also observed that feeding ground corn in early life of chick led to slow absorption of yolk contents as compared to feeding commercial starter ration and 2% sugar solution. Yolk composition was not affected by feeding commercial starter ration, ground corn and 2% sugar solution in early life of chick. It is concluded that experimental infection with E. coli and ground corn as initial feed leads to slow absorption of yolk sac in young broiler chicks.

  7. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

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    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  8. Efeito da inclusão de diferentes fontes lipídicas em dietas para frangos de corte sobre o desempenho, rendimento e composição da carcaça Effect of lipid sources in diets for broiler chicken on performance and yield and composition of carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.D. Duarte

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de sebo bovino (SB, óleo de vísceras de aves (OVA, óleo de soja degomado (OSD e de misturas de SB + OSD e SB + OVA em diferentes proporções, em dietas para frangos de corte. Os tratamentos, definidos de acordo com as fontes lipídicas (FL e suas misturas adicionadas às rações, também foram definidos de acordo com a proporção de energia metabolizável (EM originada de cada FL (25, 50 e 75% de EM de cada FL adicionada à ração. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso. Não foram encontradas diferenças (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos para peso vivo e consumo de ração. As aves que receberam rações contendo OVA e SB (50 e 50% da EM apresentaram melhor conversão alimentar que as alimentadas com rações contendo OSD e OSD + SB (75 e 25% da EM, porém apresentaram conversão alimentar semelhante (P>0,05 às aves dos outros tratamentos. Os valores encontrados para gordura abdominal, rendimento e composição da carcaça não foram influenciados pelas fontes lipídicas (P>0,05. Foi concluído que a utilização de diferentes fontes lipídicas em dietas para frangos de corte não tem efeito sobre o desempenho, o rendimento e a composição da carcaça.The effects of adding tallow (T, poultry visceral oil (PVO, degummed soybean oil (DSO, and a mixture of T + PVO and T + DSO in different proportions in diets for broiler chickens were evaluated. The treatments were defined according to the lipid sources (LS and their mixtures added to the diets and also according to the proportion of metabolizable energy (ME originated from each LS (25, 50, and 75% of ME for each LS added to the feed. The experimental design was completely randomized. There were no differences (P>0.05 between treatments for body weight and food intake. Feed conversion (CA of birds fed diets containing DSO and DSO + T (75 and 25% of ME were lower than those chickens that were fed the diets with PVO and T (50 and 50% of ME; but

  9. Utilização de subprodutos de origem animal em dietas formuladas com base em proteína bruta e proteína ideal para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade Use of animal by-products in diets formulated based on crude and ideal protein fed to broiler from 1 to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cardoso Cancherini

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar a utilização de subprodutos de origem animal em dietas para frangos de corte, formuladas com base na proteína bruta ou proteína ideal. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x2+1, com duas fontes de proteína de origem animal (farinha de vísceras de aves e farinha de sangue bovino, dois conceitos de formulação (proteína bruta e proteína ideal e uma dieta testemunha à base de milho e farelo de soja, com quatro repetições. As características avaliadas foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar. Houve efeito significativo das interações entre fontes de proteína de origem animal e conceitos de formulação para consumo de ração e ganho de peso. Quanto à conversão alimentar, não houve diferença significativa na interação e os melhores valores de conversão alimentar foram encontrados quando se incorporou a farinha de vísceras às dietas. Os melhores ganhos de peso foram obtidos com as dietas com farinha de sangue formuladas com base na proteína bruta e com farinha de vísceras de aves com base na proteína ideal.An experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of animal by-products in broiler diets, formulated based on crude and ideal protein. The experimental design was a completely randomized in a factorial arrangement 2x2+1, with two animal protein sources (poultry viscera meal and bovine blood meal, two formulation concepts (based on crude and ideal protein and a control diet based on corn and soybean meal, with four replications. The evaluated characteristics were weight gain, feed intake and feed: gain ratio. There was a significant effect of the interaction animal protein source x formulation concepts on feed intake and weight gain. There was not significant effect of the interaction on feed: gain ratio and the best values were found when the poultry viscera meal was added to the diets. The best weight gains were obtained with the

  10. Feasibility Analyses of Integrated Broiler Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Komalasari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The major obstacles in the development of broiler raising is the expensive price of feed and the fluctuative price of DOCs. The cheap price of imported leg quarters reduces the competitiveness of the local broilers. Therefore, an effort to increase production efficiency is needed through integration between broiler raising and corn farmers and feed producers (integrated farming. The purpose of this study is to analyze the feasibility of integrating broiler raising with corn cultivation and feed production. Besides that, a simulation was conducted to analyze the effects of DOC price changes, broiler price and production capacity. The analyses showed that integrated farming and a mere combination between broiler raising and feed factory of a 10,000 bird capacity is not financially feasible. Increasing the production to 25,000 broiler chickens will make the integrated farming financially feasible. Unintegrated broiler raising is relatively sensitive to broiler price decreases and DOC price increases compared to integrated farming.

  11. Rações com níveis reduzidos de proteína bruta, cálcio e fósforo com fitase e aminoácidos para frangos de corte Diets with reduced crude protein, calcium and phosphorus levels with phytase and amino acids for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Minati Gomide

    2011-11-01

    ácidos.In performance and metabolism trials, diets with reduced levels of crude protein, calcium and available phosphorus on the performance, carcass characteristics, tibia ashes, balance and retention of nitrogen and phosphorus of broiler chickens in phase from 8 to 21 and 8 to 35 days were evaluated. In each phase, 30 and 25 birds per experimental unit were used in the performance assay and five and three in the metabolism assay, respectively, in a completely randomized experimental design, with six replications. Treatments consisted of diet with 21% crude protein without phytase (control, formulated with nutritional levels recommended on the Brazilian tables, and diets with 21, 20, 19 and 18% crude protein with phytase (8 to 21 days and from 8 to 35 days, the control diet had 20% crude protein without phytase (control, and others diets with 20, 19, 18, 17% crude protein, with phytase. In the diets with phytase (80 g of Ronozyme NP(M phytase per ton of diet, the level of available phosphorus was reduced in 0.15 and the calcium in 0.30 percentage points in relation to the control diet. No effect was observed with the reduction of nutrients on feed intake, weight gain, or feed conversion in either phase or for the study of carcass characteristics to the 35 days. However, higher abdominal fat percentage was observed when the broilers were fed diet with lower protein level. The excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus decreased when birds received diets with reduced levels of these nutrients. Ash percentage in the tibia was not influenced by treatments. It is possible to reduce protein level, available phosphorus, and calcium of the diets in up to 3, 0.15 and 0.30 percentage points when the diets are supplemented with phytase and amino acids, respectively.

  12. Inclusão da farinha de varredura de mandioca em rações de frangos de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4680 Inclusion of cassava waste meal inclusion in broiler diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4680

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Rodrigues do Nascimento

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o desempenho, a viabilidade econômica e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo níveis de inclusão (0,0; 7,5; 15,0; 22,5 e 30,0% de farinha de varredura de mandioca (FVM. Foram utilizados 360 pintainhos de um dia, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições contendo 12 aves por parcela. Os parâmetros avaliados foram o consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, custo da alimentação, renda bruta, margem bruta e rentabilidade. Aos 42 dias, foram abatidos dois frangos por parcela para avaliação do peso: da carcaça, dos cortes, das vísceras e da gordura total, para determinar o rendimento de carcaça e calcular as porcentagens de cortes, gordura total e vísceras em relação ao peso vivo e carcaça. O peito e as coxas + sobrecoxas foram desossados para calcular os rendimentos de carne. A pigmentação das canelas das aves foi avaliada. Nos parâmetros de desempenho e avaliação econômica, não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. No peso e porcentagem da moela e pigmentação das canelas, houve efeito linear e, no rendimento da carne da coxa + sobrecoxa, houve efeito quadrático. A FVM pode ser incorporada às rações em níveis de 30%.The objective of this work was to evaluate performance, economic viability and carcass traits of broilers fed with diets containing five inclusion levels (0.0; 7.5; 15.0; 22.5 and 30.0% of cassava waste meal (FVM. Three hundred sixty one-day-old pullets were used, distributed in a randomized block design experiment with five treatments and six replications, containing twelve birds per box. The parameters evaluated were feed intake, weight gain, feed-to-gain ratio, feeding costs, gross income, gross margin and profitability. Two broilers per replication were slaughtered at 42 days in order to evaluate the weights of carcass, main cuts, offal and total fat for

  13. Desempenho e características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com complexos enzimáticos Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed corn soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymatic complexes

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    Julio Cesar Carrera de Carvalho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da suplementação de complexos enzimáticos à dieta sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte de ambos os sexos. Avaliaram-se cinco dietas: controle positivo - à base de milho e farelo de soja com farinha de carne e ossos, sem enzima; controle negativo - formulada com 3% menos de energia metabolizável; controle negativo + 0,05% do complexo A (xilanase, 600 U/g; amilase, 8.000 U/g; e protease, 800 U/g; controle negativo + 0,04% do complexo B (α-amilase, 200 kNU/g; e β-glucanase, 350 FBG/g; e controle negativo + 0,04% do complexo B + 0,01% da enzima C (xilanase, 1.000 FXU/g. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho das aves no período de 1 a 7 dias de idade. Na fase de 1 a 21 dias de idade, os machos consumiram mais ração e as dietas com o complexo B resultaram em maior ganho de peso. Os melhores resultados de conversão alimentar foram obtidos com o uso dos complexos enzimáticos. No período total, o consumo de ração foi menor entre as aves (machos e fêmeas mantidas com a dieta controle positivo, enquanto o maior ganho de peso nos machos foi obtido com a dieta controle negativo contendo 0,04% do complexo B. Quanto à conversão alimentar, os machos apresentaram as melhores conversões com o uso dos complexos enzimáticos. Não houve efeito das dietas sobre os rendimentos de carcaça, peito e gordura abdominal. Quando fornecidas dietas com redução de 3% da energia metabolizável, o uso dos complexos enzimáticos é efetivo na recuperação do desempenho das aves.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of enzymatic complexes on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens from both sexes. Five diets were evaluated: positive control diet based on corn and soybean meal with meat and bone meal without enzyme; negative control diet formulated with 3% less of metabolizable energy; negative control + 0

  14. Starter cultures and cattle feed manipulation enhance conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, M S; Anand, S; Kalscheur, K F; Hassan, A N; Hippen, A R

    2013-04-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans

  15. Effect of dietary fat sources on fatty acid deposition and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that dietary vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids, when compared with a vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid, increase fat deposition in broiler chickens and affect synthesis or oxidation, or both, of individual fatty acids. Diets with native sunflower oil (SO), a 50

  16. Dietary fat type, body composition and fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongsuthavas, S.

    2007-01-01

    An increased intake of PUFA in the form of soybean oil at the expense of SFA in the form of tallow reduced abdominal deposition by broiler chickens in a does-dependent fashion, the relationship being essentially independent of the fat level of the diet. Dietary fats rich in MCT would diminish abdomi

  17. Effect of zinc bacitracin and salinomycin on intestinal microflora and performance of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, R. M.; Hedemann, M.S.; Leser, T.D.;

    2000-01-01

    A feeding experiment was carried out over 42 d with four groups of broiler chickens fed experimental diets formulated to provide no supplementation, 20 mg zinc bacitracin, 60 mg salinomycin, or both feed additives in combination. During the fifth week of the experiment, four chickens from each pe...

  18. Dietary High Fluorine Alters Intestinal Microbiota in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on ileal and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four groups and raised for 42 days. The control group was fed a corn-soybean basal diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg). The other three groups were fed the same basal diet, but supplemented with 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III), administered in the form of sodium fluoride. The microbiota of ileal and cecal digesta was assessed with plate counts and polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). It was found that, compared with those in the control group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were markedly decreased (P diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens, a finding which implies that dietary high fluorine can disrupt the natural balance and structure of the intestinal microbiota. PMID:26997344

  19. Effect of feeding methods of katuk (Sauropus androgynus extract on performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Santoso

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to evaluate effect of feeding methods of katuk extract on performance and carcass quality of broilers. Sixty 20-d-old male broilers were distributed to 5 treatment groups of 4 replicates with 3 birds each. One treatment group was fed basal diet without katuk extract (P0, whereas other treatment groups were fed basal diet plus 18 g katuk extract/kg diet (P1, basal diet plus 9 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P2, basal diet plus 9 g katuk extract/kg diet plus 4.5 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P3, and basal diet plus 4.5 g katuk extract/kg diet plus 2.25 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P4. Experimental results showed that weight gain of P1 and P4 were significantly higher (P0.05, but the weight of intestine was significantly affected (P0.05. P4 had better meat color than P0, P1, dan P2 (P0.05. In conclusion, in order to improve performance and carcass quality, broiler chickens could be given katuk extract through diet plus drinking water at level of 4.5 g/kg diet plus 2.25 g/l drinking water.

  20. NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND PERFORMANCE IN BROILER CONSUMING DIETS FORMULATED WITH DIFFERENT FIBER LEVELS AND SUPLEMENTED WITH ENZYMATIC COMPLEX DIGESTIBILIDADE DOS NUTRIENTES E DESEMPENHO DE FRANGOS DE CORTE CONSUMINDO DIETAS FORMULADAS COM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE FIBRA E SUPLEMENTADAS COM ENZIMAS EXÓGENAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Karolina Ratier da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fiber level and the enzymatic supplementation in diets for broilers were evaluated in two trials. The experimental treatments were diets with high and low fiber level and with enzymatic supplementation (α-galactosidase, cellulase, amylase e protease. In the first trial (14 to 19 days of birds age, 190 broilers were randomly distributed in a 2x2 factorial arrangement (fiber x enzymes, placed in metabolic cages between (9-10 birds/cage, 5 cages per treatment. It was evaluate the metabolizability (MET of the dry matter (DM, the crude protein (CP and the energy (E, the total apparent digestibility coefficient (TDC for fat (F and acid detergent fiber (ADF, the apparent metabolisable energy (AME and the performance. Four replicates of each treatment were maintained to use in the second trial. In the 21st day age, after adaptation to the intake of the diets with indicator, the broilers were slaughtered and the ileal content was collected to evaluation of the ileal apparent digestibility coefficient (IDC for DM, CP, E, F and the weight of the caeca. The high fiber level resulted in lower MET of DM, E, CP, and lower TDC of F and ADF (P<0.05, as well as lower IDC of DM and E (P<0.01. Enzymatic supplementation reduced the fiber effect on MET of DM, E, CP and on the TDC of ADF (P<0.05. Higher empty weight of the caeca of the birds on the high fiber diet was observed (P<0.01, as well as lower weight gain (P<0.03 and worst feed conversion ratio (P<0.01. The performance of broilers was more related with ileal apparent digestibility then with the total apparent digestibility of the nutrients and the energy.

    KEY WORDS: Caeca, ileal digestibility, metabolizability, performance, total digestibility. Avaliaram-se os efeitos do nível de fibra e da suplementação enzimática em dietas de frangos de corte em dois experimentos. Os tratamentos experimentais foram as dietas formuladas com alta ou baixa fibra e suplementação enzimática (

  1. Porinas as an adyuvant of inactivated Newcastle vaccine in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bustos M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Three groups of 25 broilers were vaccinated on two opportunities by aerosol using inactivated NC (Newcastle virus and different helper concentrations of porinas (20 ìg, 50 ìg, 125 ìg. A fourth group was injected with live B1 virus (12 and 28 days of age nasally. The NC inactivated virus (La Sota strain was concentrated 10 times with PEG with a final titer of 1:2.056. Twenty serums for each group were taken in order to evaluate NC antibodies using the HI and double immuno-difusion tests for IgA detection at 1, 12, 28 and 42 days of age. During the study the chickens were on a restricted diet in order to control ascites (2.640 mosl. On day 42, two broilers of the fourth group (live virus presented ascites and 1 broiler of group 1 presented lung edema (20 ìg. The geometric mean for NC antibodies titers at 42 days of age was 2 in the groups 1,2,3 and 5.7 in the group 4 (Log 2. For IgA, 180 mg/dl, 135 mg/dl, 120 mg/dl and 176 mg/dl respectively. Three broilers of each group were challenged with a pathogenic strain of NC, at 42 day of age, without signs of disease after 72 hours when the positive control group was dead. Gross and microscopic lesions were not detected in the bursa of Fabricius or thymo. [thymo sounds like short hand for something that should be properly named.] Very good animal weight, conversion and efficiency results were observed in all the groups. New studies using a fixed dose of porinas, larger numbers of broilers and the establishment of protective levels of IgA against NC challenge are recommended.

  2. Effects of supplemental ascorbic acid on humeral immune response in broilers reared under heat-stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahel J. A. Amedy,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of supplemental ascorbic acid (Vitamin C on the haemagglutination inhibition (HI and enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA antibody titer of the commercial broiler chicks vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND virus, reared under heat stress condition. A total of 420, one day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups and kept under elevated summer temperature and treated with four levels of added ascorbic acid i.e., 0 (control group, 200, 400, 600 mg/kg in diets for 28 days, from 21 to 49 days of experimental period. HI antibody titer and ELISA antibody titer against ND virus were significantly (P<0.05 higher at 600 mg/kg Vitamin C in the diet than the others treatments. Apparently, adding ascorbic acid at 600 mg/kg in the diet could improve humoral immunity in broilers reared under heat stress.

  3. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata SEEDS ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND SOME SERUM BIOCHEMICAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. GUMAA BALAIEL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of inclusion of different levels of untreated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds (0, 5, 10 and 15% in broiler diet on performance and some serum biochemical factors was studied. The research was conducted on basis of a completely Randomized Design (CRD. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein intake and protein efficiency ratio were significantly (P<0.05 reduced with the inclusion of 15% untreated cowpea seeds. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, albumin, total protein, Ca and K contents were significantly (P<0.05 decreased with increasing level of cowpea seeds in diets. Uric acid concentration observed to be higher in birds fed 15% cowpea seed. It is concluded that good performance of broiler chicken is satisfactory maintained with 5 to 10% inclusion of cowpea seeds in balanced diet for broiler.

  4. Concurrent aflatoxicosis and caecal coccidiosis in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shareef

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A farm of two broiler flocks fed from one day old to 56 days of age a diet naturally contaminated with high level of Aflatoxin (AF, were suffered from caecal coccidiosis at 35 days of age Aflatoxin levels in feed commodities and mixed feed were determined using ELISA test. Results of ELISA showed that the average level of corn, soybean and mixed feeds contamination with aflatoxin were 1915, ppb, 229 ppb and 860 ppb respectively. Diagnosis of caecal coccidiosis was confirmed by clinical signs, post-mortem findings, fecal oocyst excretion per gram, oocyt size, morphological characteristic of eggs, lesion score and schizonts size. The significance of AF as predisposing factor to coccidiosis infection was discussed.

  5. Effect of supplementation of Manno-Oligosaccharide and b-glucans on maize based meal on commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.Shendare

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study with 200 vencobb broilers was carried out to compare the effect of the use of Manno-Oligosaccharide and b-glucans of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall or growth promoter ( AGRIMOS and reg; feed in the diet @ 1Kg /ton of feed to the broiler. Diets were based on maize meal. A completely randomized experimental design was used, and the obtained data were evaluated by analysis. The following parameters were measured: feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. After 6 weeks of fattening, the average live weight of broilers in the experimental group was 1821.11g, while the average live weight of broilers in control group was 1712.22g (P<0.01. Supplementation of Manno-Oligosaccharide and b-glucans preparation influence the achievement of higher live weights of broilers from the experimental group ( 5.37% , compared to the control and enhanced feed conversion ( 8.45 % . It was concluded that the effect of the inclusion of Manno-Oligosaccharide and b-glucans in the diet shows significantly higher body weight gain and improvement in feed efficiency as compared to the control diet. [Vet World 2008; 1(1.000: 13-15

  6. DIETARY FRUCTANS AND THEIR POTENTIAL BENEFICIAL INFLUENCE ON HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE PARAMETRS IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BOGUSŁAWSKA-TRYK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fructans, which include inulin and fructooligosaccharides, are non-digestible carbohydrates that are fermented in the large intestine. This review focuses on the effect of these prebiotics on gut microflora, fermentation characteristics, gut morphology, enzymes activity, nutrients digestibility and absorption, lipids metabolism and performance parameters in broiler chickens. Inulin-type fructans can improve performance of birds and health by affecting microbial community in the gastrointestinal tract, gut morphology and nutrient digestion. It is documented that dietary fructans influence the intestinal gut microflora of broiler chickens by increasing the population of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Eubacterium spp. while decreasing the concentration of Clostridium spp. and Escherichia coli in the large intestine and caeca. The supplementation of poultry diets with inulin or oligofructose can lead to an increase of the length of small and large intestines in broilers, elongation of the villus in the chickens jejunal mucosa and increase in the ratio of villus height to crypt depth. The beneficial effect of inulin-type fructans on performance parameters in broilers may be partially explained by the elevated intestinal enzymatic activity under the influence of the fructooligosaccharides and increase of digestibility and absorption of nutrients, mainly protein and fat. The prebiotic effectiveness of inulin-type fructans in broilers depends on a number of factors, like the type of supplement (inulin vs. oligofructose, inclusion level, composition of the basal diet, animal characteristics (age, sex, stage of production and hygienic conditions (i.e. stress factors.

  7. The Strategic Application of Electrolyte Balance to Minimize Heat Stress in Broilers

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    JP Gamba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several physiological and metabolic changes are triggered in broilers submitted to high environmental temperatures, resulting in performance losses. Feed formulation manipulation of the dietary electrolyte balance may be applied to reduce the negative impact of heat stress on broiler performance. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the manipulations of dietary electrolytes by combining changes in the electrolyte (Na++K+-Cl- balance (EB and in the [(K++Cl-/Na+] ratio (ER in broiler feeds. In total, 1575 male broilers between 21 and 46 days old were allotted to 15 treatments in a 5x3 factorial arrangement, consisting of five diets with different EB/ER combinations (150/3, 250/2, 250/3, 250/4, and 350/3. Birds were submitted to heat stress at 25 or 35 days old. Live performance, mortality rate, and carcass traits were evaluated. The strategic formulation of diets with different EB and ER improves live performance and minimize the effect of heat stress on broilers. Under thermoneutral conditions, an EB of 250 mEq/kg and an ER of 3 are recommended, whereas under heat stress, and EB of 350 mEq/kg and an ER of 3 should be applied.

  8. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND EFFECTS THE DIETARY CORN BY-PRODUCTS ON BROILER PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA CIURESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study conducted in INCDBNA –BALOTESTI on 840 Ross- 308 broilers from hatching to 42 days. The broilers were assigned to 3 groups (control – C, and two experimental – GLU and GERM, with 280 broilers per group (3 groups ´ 2 replicates ´ 140 broilers. Three compound feeds formulations were used, one control and two experimental. The control diet was based on corn, soybean meal, full fat soy and fish meal; in the experimental groups the fish meal was replaced by corn gluten (GLU; in the other experimental group the full fat soy was replaced by corn germs (GERM. All compound feeds formulations were isoprotein, isocaloric and contained equal levels of total and digestible sulphur amino acids, lysine, calcium and available phosphorus, in agreement with the feeding requirements recommended for the intensive rearing of these performing hybrids. The broilers were phased feed with diets according to their age: start (0 – 14 days, growerdeveloper (15 – 28 days and finisher (29 – 42 days. The monitored productive parameters were: average daily feed intake (g; body weight evolution by growth stage (g; feed conversion ratio (g feed/g gain; stock liveability (%; slaughtering yield and proportion of carcass parts (%, economic efficiency (%.

  9. Utilização de subprodutos de origem animal em dietas para frangos de corte com base no conceito de proteínas bruta e ideal, no período de 43 a 49 dias de idade Utilization of animal by-products in broilers diets based on the concept of crude and ideal protein in the period from 43 to 49 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cardoso Cancherini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar a utilização de subprodutos de origem animal em rações para frangos de corte, formuladas com base nas proteínas bruta e ideal no período de 43 a 49 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 600 frangos machos distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 2x2+1, com duas fontes de proteína de origem animal (farinha de vísceras de aves e farinha de sangue bovino, dois conceitos de formulação (proteínas bruta e ideal e uma ração testemunha à base de milho e de farelo de soja, com quatro repetições cada. As características avaliadas foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, rendimento de carcaça, peito e porcentagem de gordura abdominal. Os melhores ganho em peso e conversão alimentar foram obtidos quando a dieta à base de milho e farelo de soja foi utilizada. As farinhas de vísceras e de sangue e os conceitos de formulação não exerceram influência sobre as características avaliadas.One experiment was conducted to study the utilization of animal by-products in broilers diets based on the concept of crude and ideal protein form 43 to 49 days of age. Sixty hundred Ross male broilers were used in a factorial arrangement 2x2+1 (two animal sources by-products - poultry viscera meal and bovine blood meal crude and ideal protein and one basal diet (corn + soybean meal, envolving a total of five treatments with four replications of thirty broilers each. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass and breast yield and the abdominal fat percentage were evaluated. The best weight gain and feed conversion were obtained when birds were fed a corn and soybean meal based diet. The poultry viscera and bovine blood meals and formulation concepts did not influence on evaluated parameters.

  10. PENGARUH ENERGI-PROTEIN RASIO (EPR) RANSUM LOKAL YANG BERBEDA TERHADAP PERFORMA DAN BERAT KARKAS BROILER

    OpenAIRE

    Nompo, Syamsuddin; Pantjawidjaja, Suhendra

    2011-01-01

    Latterly most published research concerning the poultry production is an increasingly important part of agriculture, but it also were the highest producers of ammonia gas (NH3) emissions of all domesticated species. One potential strategy for reducing NH3 emission is by formulating diets to precisely meet the nutrient needs. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of energy-protein ratio (EPR) using different local diets on performance and carcass weight of broilers. A total ...

  11. Penggunaan Pakan Berbasis Ubi Kayu Pengganti Jagung terhadap Karkas Ayam Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Hot Klasmen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the benefits of using cassava-based feed Fermentation on Carcass Quality (slanghter Weight, Carcass Weight, Carcass Percentage, Fat Abdominal Broilers). Experiment was conducted in Laboratory Animal Biology Faculty Agricultural, University North Sumatera started for June - July 2015. Design used in this study is a Randomized Complete Design with 4 Treatments and 5 Replications, The treatment were level cassava on diet composed of. P0= Diet with 0%...

  12. Effect of dietary phytoestrogens, feed restriction, and their interaction on reproductive status of broiler pullets

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    A. D. Madnurkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: A major problem faced by the broiler industry around the world is a lowered reproductive fitness of breeding hens which can cause major economic impact in terms of lowered hatchable egg production. In broiler breeders, a lot of the selection pressure has been exerted on growth, conformation and feed efficiency as a result broiler breeder hens are prone to several metabolic disorders and reproductive anomalies. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of phytoestrogen, feed restrictions (75% of their control ad libitum, and their interaction on reproductive parameters in high and low body weight broiler breeder hens. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty-eight healthy female broiler breeder pullets were divided randomly into eight groups from the same hatch and strain. They were transferred to individual laying cages. Birds received ad libitum drinking water and feeding, depend on divided group i.e., ad libitum or restricted feeding (75% of control ad libitum counterpart separately for heavy or low body weight till first egg laid in respective groups. Experimental diets made with practical feed ingredients as per institution recommendation (broiler breeder ration as per experimental planning. Results: Phytoestrogen significantly (p<0.05 improved egg number and size in broiler breeding hens by checking reproductive anomalies (internal laying, double hierarchy, and follicular atresia, restructuring ovarian, and oviductal functional development besides improved physiological maturation of infundibulum. Unlike phytoestrogen, feed restriction as expected delayed the age of sexual maturity but helped in a reduction of ovary weight, number of yellow follicle, number of atretic yellow follicle, incidence of double hierarchy, and internal ovulation. Interaction between phytoestrogen and feed restriction did not give any additional remunerative advantage. Conclusions: It is concluded that phytoestrogens and limited feed

  13. Effect of Organic Acids Supplement on Performance of Broiler Chickens

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    Ján Kopecký

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate effect of organic acids on broiler performance. Totally 180 chickens of Ross 308 hybrid were divided to three groups. Experimental group no. 1 (n=60 received acetic acid in drinking water with concentration 0.25% from day 1 to day 42. Experimental group no. 2 (n=60 received citric acid in drinking water with concentration 0.25% from day 1 to day 42. Control group (n=60 received drinking water without any additives. The average body weight, feed consumption, mortality and carcass characteristics were analyzed and compared finally. The results showed no significant effects of diets with addition of organic acids (P<0.05 on body weight. Supplementation of citric acid caused decrease in total feed consumption. Addition of organic acids affected positive total mortality of broiler chickens. There were no significant effects of organic acids supplementation on carcass characteristics.

  14. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

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    Koni TNI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented, R3 = 15% banana peel fermented. Data of the experiment were analyzed, using ANOVA and then continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Result showed that level of fermented banana peel affected slaughter weight and carcass weight. However carcass persentage, weight and percentage of abdominal fat was not affected by treatment. Banana peel fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus could can be used maximally 10% in broiler ration.

  15. Feeding management strategy for male broiler breeders and its effects on body weight, hatchability and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    MM Silveira; AG de Freitas; CA Moraes; FS Gomes; FH Litz; JMS Martins; NS Fagundes; EA Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the supply of a specific-male diet on rooster body weight, hatchability, and fertility. Two diets were supplied during the egg production period: treatment 1, diet formulated for females and containing, in average, 2,830 kcal ME/kg and 15% CP; and treatment 2, diet specifically formulated for male broiler breeders, containing 2,750 kcal ME/kg and 13.5% CP. In the experiment, 26 flocks, with approximately 7,000 females and 840 males each, belo...

  16. Exploring the effects of inclusion of dietary fresh Azolla on the performance of White Pekin broiler ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Parag Acharya; Mohanty, G. P.; Pradhan, C. R.; Mishra, S. K.; Beura, N. C.; Moharana, B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the dietary advantages of inclusion of unconventional nutrient source, i.e., Azolla in the basal diet of White Pekin broilers. Materials and Methods: All ducklings were randomly distributed into three treatment groups with three replicates each and each replicate having 12 ducklings and were reared in deep litter system. Groups were subjected to three dietary treatments such as G1: Basal diet, G2: Basal diet + 5% fresh Azolla of basal die...

  17. The Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Prebiotic and Probiotic on Performance, Humoral Immunity Responses and Egg Hatchability in Broiler Breeders

    OpenAIRE

    Hajati H; Hassanabadi A; Teimouri Yansari A

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment, the influence of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation in the broiler breeder diets on body weight, mortality, feed intake, egg production, hatchability and humoral immunity response was investigated. A total number of 13140 female and 1260 male breeders (Cobb 500) with 26 wks of age were allocated to three treatments with six replicates (800 birds each replicate). Breeders were fed control basal diet, basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide) or pr...

  18. Prebiotic, probiotic and symbiotic as alternative to Antibiotics on the Performance and Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    VDA Murarolli; MFC Burbarelli; GV Polycarpo; PAP Ribeiro; MEG Moro; R de Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate diets supplemented with prebiotic, probiotic and symbiotic as an alternative to antibiotics on the performance and immune response against the virus of Newcastle disease in broiler chickens. 1,400 one-day old male Cobb 500 chicks were raised until 42 days old in a completely randomized design with 2x2+1 factorial scheme with seven replications. The treatments were: diet without supplementation (base diet - BD), BD + prebiotic, BD + probiotic, BD + symbiotic (prebi...

  19. Efeito da restrição alimentar qualitativa no desempenho, na incidência de distúrbios metabólicos e no rendimento de carcaça em frangos de corte Qualitative feed restriction effects on growth performance, metabolic disorders and carcass traits of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice Mazzuco

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o desempenho, o controle da manifestação de doenças metabólicas e o rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte machos submetidos à restrição alimentar no período de 8 a 14 dias de idade. A restrição nutritiva da dieta foi obtida diluindo-se a dieta inicial (21,5% PB e 3050 kcal/kg EM com 25 e 50% de casca de soja. Os tratamentos de restrição envolveram a oferta dessas dietas de forma contínua ou intercalada (com a dieta inicial não-diluída. Após o período de restrição, as aves retornaram ao consumo da ração inicial até os 21 dias de idade. No período seguinte, 22 a 35 dias de idade, as aves receberam ração de crescimento (21% PB e 3200 kcal/kg EM e de 36 a 42 dias, ração final (19% PB e 3200 kcal/kg de EM. Após terem sido submetidas à restrição alimentar, as aves mostraram pesos corporais inferiores aos das aves do tratamento controle em todas as idades avaliadas. A diluição da dieta não influenciou a manifestação da síndrome ascítica ou morte súbita. Não houve diferença no rendimento de carcaça, peito e coxas. O conteúdo em gordura abdominal não mostrou diferenças consistentes entre tratamentos. Os tratamentos em que se utilizou a diluição com 50% de casca de soja apresentaram menor margem bruta. A estratégia nutricional, para reduzir as perdas por mortalidades de origem metabólica e o teor de gordura abdominal na carcaça foi acompanhada por perdas em termos de desempenho das aves.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance, control of the of metabolic diseases incidence, and carcass yield of male broiler chickens allotted to a feed restriction from 8-14 days of age. The nutrient restriction was achieved by feeding a starter diet (21,5% CP and 3050 ME, kcal/kg with 25 or 50% soybean hulls. The treatment of restriction involved the feeding of these diets either on continuously or intercalated form (with the non-diluted starter diet. After the

  20. Uso do conceito de proteína ideal em rações com diferentes níveis energéticos, suplementadas com fitase para frangos de corte de 1a 21 dias de idade Use of the ideal protein concept in diets with different energy levels supplemented with phytase for broiler chickens of 1 to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Kaneo Nagata

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho e a digestibilidade de nutrientes para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, sendo os tratamentos T1: ração controle com 21,1% de proteína bruta (PB, 3000 kcal de energia metabolizável (EMAn/kg, 0,46% de fósforo disponível (Pd e 1,0% de cálcio (Ca; T2: ração com 17,0% de PB e 3000 kcal de EMAn/kg; T3: ração com 19,0% de PB e 2900 kcal de EMAn/kg; T4: ração com 19,0% de PB e 3000 kcal de EMAn/kg; T5: ração com 19,0% de PB e 3100 kcal de EMAn/kg. Com exceção da ração controle, as rações foram formuladas com 0,34% de Pd, 0,80% de Ca e suplementadas com fitase. O ganho de peso das aves foi semelhante (P>0,05 em todos os tratamentos. Porém, observou-se pior conversão alimentar para as aves que receberam a ração com 17,0% de PB. As aves que receberam as rações com 19,0% de PB e 3000 ou 3100 kcal de EMAn/kg apresentaram desempenho semelhante àquelas que receberam a ração controle. A excreção de N e P reduziu, em média, 16,5 e 22,0%, respectivamente, e houve aumento na retenção de P para as aves que consumiram as rações experimentais. A retenção de Ca e N foi menor e semelhante, respectivamente, para as aves que consumiram as rações experimentais. Conclui-se que a ração com 19,0% de PB e 3000 kcal de EMAn/kg, suplementada com fitase, não afeta o desempenho de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade e permite diminuir a excreção do N e do P.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance and nutrients digestibility by broiler chickens in the period of 1 to 21 days of age. The experimental design was completely randomized, where T1 was the control treatment constituted by 21.1% of crude protein (CP, 3000 kcal of apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn/kg, 0.46% of available phosphorus (AP and 1.0% of calcium (Ca. T2 was the diet with 17.0% of CP and 3000 kcal of AMEn/kg, T3 the diet with 19.0% of CP and 2900 kcal of

  1. Utilisation of different phosphorus sources in relation to their fluorine content for broilers and layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Rao, S V; Reddy, V

    2001-07-01

    1. The relative utilisation of different phosphorus sources in relation to their fluorine (F) content was studied in commercial broilers (5 to 40 d) and White Leghorn layers (252 to 364 d). The phosphorus (P) sources tested were bonemeal (BM), low fluorine (LFRP) and high fluorine (HFRP) rock phosphates and a commercial mineral mixture (CMM). The P sources were incorporated in broiler and layer diets by replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) on a P basis. 2. The F contents of diets based on BM, LFRP, CMM and HFRP were 53, 365, 622 and 1383 mg/kg in the broiler experiment and 34, 242, 437 and 967 mg/kg in the layer experiment, respectively. F was not detected in DCP based diets. 3. In broilers, body weight gain, food intake, gain: food, P retention and serum inorganic P content on P sources (BM and LFRP) containing F up to 365 mg/kg diet were similar to those on DCP. Body weight gain, food intake, serum calcium and inorganic P contents and retention of P were depressed in groups fed on CMM and HFRP, which may have been due to the toxic effects of F (622 and 1383 mg/kg) present in diets based on these P sources. 4. Bone ash and its P content were not affected by feeding diets containing F up to 1383 mg/kg from various P sources. The amount of F deposited in tibia increased significantly with increases in dietary F concentration. 5. In layers, egg production and food intake were not affected by F up to 437 mg/kg in diets containing BM, LFRP or CMM as the sole source of supplemental P. Egg production and food intake were depressed significantly in layers given the diet containing 967 mg F/kg from HFRP. 6. Egg mass: food, egg weight, shell quality (shell thickness and shell weight) and serum calcium and inorganic P levels were not affected by F up to 967 mg/kg in diets containing different P sources. 7. It may be concluded that the performance of broilers and layers was not affected by feeding various P supplements with dietary levels of F up to 365 and 437 mg

  2. Performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of male calves fed starter concentrate with crude glycerin

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    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including crude glycerin in the diet on intake, performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of dairy crossbred veal calves fed starter concentrate containing 0, 80, 160, and 240 g kg−1 crude glycerin. Twenty-eight calves with an average weight of 38.03±6.7 kg and five days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments with seven replications. Calves were individually housed in covered stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers for 56 days. The calf response to inclusion of crude glycerin in the concentrate changed over the weeks and the inclusion level of 240 g kg−1 resulted in greater dry matter intake and average daily gain. There was no effect on the final weight and total weight gain of the animals, with mean values of 73.60 and 35.16 kg, respectively. The weight of the rumen-reticulum adjusted for body weight, empty body weight, and total stomach weight increased linearly with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Blood total protein, globulin, urea, cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not differ among treatments. Carcass traits and meat color were not affected. Crude glycerin can be added to dairy calf starter concentrate up to 240 g kg−1 dry matter because it benefits concentrate intake, performance, and rumen development without affecting animal health.

  3. Effects of feeding metabolite combinations from lactobacillus plantarum on plasma and breast meat lipids in Broiler Chickens

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    TC Loh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of feeding different doses of metabolite combination of L. plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (Com3456 on cholesterol reduction in plasma and breast meat in broiler chickens and the possible mechanism was studied. A total of 504 male Ross broilers were grouped into 7 treatments and offered with different diets: (i standard corn-soybean based diet (-ve control; (ii standard cornsoybean based diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (+ve control; (iii standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.1% metabolite combination of L. plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (Com3456; (iv standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.2% of Com3456; (v standard cornsoybean based diet + 0.3% of Com3456 (vi standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.4% of Com3456 and (vii standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.5% of Com3456. The metabolite combinations supplemented in the diet of broilers reduced protein, cholesterol esters concentration in very low-density lipoprotein particles. The present of organic acids and proteinaceous compound in the metabolite combinations as found in previous study also increased lactic acid bacteria count in small intestine digesta and improved bile salts deconjugation ability of lactic acid bacteria.

  4. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of DDGS and BBP.

  5. Growth performance and gut health parameters of finishing broilers supplemented with plant extracts and exposed to daily increased temperature

    OpenAIRE

    A. Akbarian; A. Golian; H. Kermanshahi; R. Farhoosh; A. R. Raji; Smet, S.; Michiels, J.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of three plant extracts, i.e. lemon peel extract (LPE), orange peel extract (OPE) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil (CXEO), on the performance and gut health parameters of broilers exposed to high temperature was investigated. A total of 336 unsexed Ross 308 broilers were distributed to seven dietary treatments, a control diet and six diets containing 200 or 400 mg kg(-1) feed of one of the three products between d 25-38 (12 chicks per pen, four replicates). To induce chronic...

  6. INFLUENCE OF TWO PLANT EXTRACTS DERIVED FROM THYME AND CINNAMON ON BROILER PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. M. AL-KASSIE

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the use of essential oil (EO) in broiler nutrition as a natural growth promoter. Different levels of EO derived from thyme and cinnamon were added to a standard diet to determine its effects on feed intake, live weight gain, feed conversion ratio and blood constituents. Three hundred day-old broiler chicks (Arbor-Acres) were divided into five equal groups and treated as follows: No EO (control group), 100 ppm EO derived from thyme (group 2), 200 ppm EO deri...

  7. Effect of Bacillus subtilis spore (GalliPro® nutrients equivalency value on broiler chicken performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Zaghari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutrients equivalency value of Bacillus subtilis spore (GalliPro® for broiler chickens and its potential for decreasing feed nutrients concentration and cost. A total of 720 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks was allocated in 6 treatments (2 sexes×3 diets with 6 replication for 7 weeks. Dietary treatments: main treatment (MT was routine broiler diet added 0.2 g/kg GalliPro® (Bacillus subtilis 4×109 CFU/g DSM 17299 and using nutrients equivalency of GalliPro® for feed formulation; negative control (NC was the same as main treatment without GalliPro® (subtracted the nutrients equivalent value of GalliPro®; positive control (PC was the same as MT diet in nutrients content but without GalliPro®. Effect of dietary treatments on body weight (BW was not significant. However, the average BW of male and female chicks receiving negative control diet was 2.0% (68 g lower than PC and MT groups (P>0.05. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on average daily feed intake. Feed conversion ratio of chicks receiving PC and MT diets were 2.7% better than NC chicks (P<0.01. Male chicks were superior to female in all measured traits (P<0.01. Effect of treatments on carcass characteristics was not significant. There was no interaction between factors on measured parameters. Performance of chicks receiving diet with GalliPro® compared with PC showed that GalliPro® liberated 0.4 crude protein from MT diet and consequently decreased the broiler feeding cost.

  8. Effects of Dietary Male and Female Ferula Eleaochytris Powder on Growth Performance and Body Components of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Duru

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary addition of male and female Ferula eleaochytris powder (FEP on growth performance and body components of broilers (Ross-308. Treatment groups were allocated to 5 dietary in which 0 (control, 5 g and 10 g male FEP, 5 g and 10 g female FEP doses per kg commercial broiler diet. In total, 80 male broiler chicks (1-d old in which 16 animals in each group were used in study. Body weight gain and feed intake were monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Forty two days old broiler chicks were slaughtered to determine the possible changes in body components. The results of the study indicated that FEP had no effect on any parameters. However; the weight of the control group gave higher values than 5 g male Ferula group. In conclusion the measured parameters had no effect between all groups.

  9. Effects of prebiotics, probiotics, and their combination on growth performance, small intestine morphology, and resident Lactobacillus of male broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Farnell, Y Z; Peebles, E D; Kiess, A S; Wamsley, K G S; Zhai, W

    2016-06-01

    Effects of commercial antimicrobials and the individual and combinational use of commercial prebiotics and probiotics in feed from d zero to 41 on the growth performance, small intestine size, jejunal morphology, and ileal resident bacteria population of broiler chickens were determined. A total of 1,040 one-day-old male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were randomly distributed to 80 floor pens (5 treatments, 16 replications per treatment, 13 chicks per pen). Five dietary treatments were employed: 1) a corn soybean-meal basal diet (served as a negative control diet, NC); 2) a basal diet supplemented with a commercial prebiotic product (Pre); 3) a basal diet supplemented with a probiotic product containing Bacillus subtilis spores (Pro); 4) a basal diet supplemented with both prebiotic and probiotic products (Pre + Pro); and 5) a basal diet supplemented with commercial antimicrobials (served as a positive control diet, PC). At d 14, Pre diets improved the relative level of Lactobacillus in ileal mucosa as compared to NC, Pro, or PC diets (P = 0.045) without improving broiler BW. Broilers fed PC diets exhibited the highest BW gain from d 15 to 27, the lowest duodenum, jejunum, and ileum relative weights as percentage of BW at d 27, and the highest breast weight at d 42 (P = 0.026, 0.035, 0.002, 0.025, and 0.035, respectively). Broilers fed Pro or Pre + Pro diets exhibited higher BW gain from d 28 to 41 (P = 0.005) and higher overall BW gain from d zero to 41 (P = 0.039) than those fed other diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunal morphology or ileal resident Escherichia coli level at any age. From our results, including spores of Bacillus subtilis in feed may stimulate growth at a later age and may facilitate broilers in reaching their target weight sooner. Therefore, probiotics are recommended as potential alternatives to antimicrobials in chicken diets, especially in grower and finisher feed. PMID:26944975

  10. Efeito de diferentes níveis de inclusão de farelo de arroz em dietas suplementadas com fitase para frangos de corte = Effect of different inclusion levels of rice bran in diets supplemented with phytase for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Robério Vieira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenhozootécnico, rendimento de carcaça e a deposição de fósforo e cinzas na tíbia de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas contendo quantidades crescentes de farelo de arroz integral (FAI, suplementados com fitase. Foram utilizados 600 frangos de corte, machos, da linhagemRoss, alojados em boxes de acordo com um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, nos seguintes tratamentos: T1-ração referência (milho e farelo de soja; T2-ração referência com 750 FTU g-1; T3-ração com 3,5% de FAI com 750 FTU g-1; T4-ração com 7,5% de FAI com 750 FTU g-1; T5-ração com 10,5% FAI com 750 FTU g-1 e T6-ração com 14% FAIcom 750 FTU g-1. A inclusão de fitase, com a utilização de FAI até o nível de 14% e redução do fósforo inorgânico na formulação da ração, não afetou o desempenho zootécnico e características de carcaça dos frangos de corte, porém reduziu a deposição de fósforo e cinzas na tíbia dos ossos.The experiment was carried with the objective of evaluating the productive performance, carcass yield, phosphorus availability and tibia ash in broilers subjected to diets containing increasing amounts of whole rice bran (WRB, supplemented with phytase. Six hundred broilers (Ross, all males, were allocated in boxesaccording to a completely randomized design, being fed the following regimens: T1 standard feed (corn and soybean meal; T2 standard feed with 750 FTU g-1; T3 feed with 3.5% of WRB with 750 FTU g-1; T4 feed with 7.5% of WRB with 750 FTU g-1 T5 feed with 10.5% WRB with 750 FTU g-1 and T6 feed with 14% WRB with 750 FTU g-1. The inclusion of phytase with the use of WRB to the level of 14% and the reduction of the inorganic P in the formulation of the feed did not affect the performance and carcass characteristics of the broiler chickens; however, it did decrease the presence of phosphorus and ash in the tibia.

  11. Desempenho e características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo farinha de resíduos do processamento de camarões (Litopeneaus vannamei - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.40 Utilization and effect of shrimp waste meal in the performance and characteristics of broiler (Litopeneaus Vannamei - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riviana Roberta de Souza Loureiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho zootécnico e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte, alimentados com dietas contendo farinha de resíduo do processamento de camarões (FC. Foram utilizados 240 pintos de um dia de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, sendo 5 tratamentos (níveis de inclusão de FC: 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12% em rações a base de milho e farelo de soja com 4 repetições e 12 aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de inclusão da FC proporcionaram efeito quadrático apenas para o ganho de peso, demonstrando que os melhores níveis de inclusão na dieta foram de 5,46% e 5,87%, nos períodos de 1 a 21 e 22 a 42 dias de idade, respectivamente, melhorando, inclusive, a pigmentação na carcaça das avesThis experiment was to evaluate the performance of broiler chickens feed with different levels of shrimp meal (SM in their diet. In this experiment 240 broiler chickens were distributed at a complete randomized design in five treatments and four replications of 12 broiler chickens per experimental unit. The levels of SM were 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12% added to zea mays and soybean-meal ration based. These rations were fed to 1-day-old broiler chicks for 6 weeks (3 weeks of starter rations and 3 weeks of finished ration. Only the weight gain presented significant difference with effects on shrimp meal levels in the ration. The shrimp waste meal (Litopenaeus vannamei resulted in a quadratic effect (P<0.05, where the best level included was 5.46 and 5.87% for 1-21 and 22-42 day-old, respectively. The increasing levels of SM inclusion improved the pigmentation of the birds’ food-pad

  12. Using management information in broiler supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch broiler supply chain involves several interdependent firms such as breeding and feed companies, rearing farms, breeder farms, broiler hatcheries and broiler farms. To stay competitive and sustain continuity, evaluation of production at each level of the chain is crucial. Good quality data

  13. Peningkatan Performa Ayam Broiler dengan Suplementasi Daun Salam [Syzygium polyanthum (Wight Walp] Sebagai Antibakteri Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G. Wiryawan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of bay leaves (S. polyanthum (Wight Walp used in the diet as E. coli antibacteria in improving broiler performances. This experiment used 180 day old chicks (DOC of Cobb strain which were kept in litter system for five weeks. The experiment used completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications consisting of 10 broilers in each replication. The treatment diets were R0 = control diet, R1 = R0 infected with E. coli, R2 = R1 + 1% bay leaves, R3 = R1 + 2% bay leaves, R4 = R1 + 3% bay leaves, R5 = R1 + antibiotic. The data were analyzed with analysis of variance. The variables observed were feed consumption, body weight gain, final body weight, feed conversion ratio, mortality, and total colony of E. coli in broiler excreta. The results showed that the use of bay leaves up to 3% in the ration increased broiler performance by increasing feed consumption and body weight gain, depressing the number of E. coli in excreta, and reducing mortality compared to the other treatments, but it did not affect the feed conversion ratio.

  14. Oil and fat in broiler nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NC Baião

    2005-09-01

    rations containing oil present better performance than birds fed no oil. Moreover, the use of oil or fat in diets for broilers may change both the composition and the quality of the carcass.

  15. Traceability of poultry viscera meal by stable isotopes in broiler feathers; Rastreabilidade de farinha de visceras de aves por isotopos estaveis em penas de frangos de corte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Priscila Cavalca de; Sartori, Jose Roberto; Pezzato, Antonio Celso; Stradiotti, Ana Cristina; Pelicia, Vanessa Cristina, E-mail: jrsatori@fmvz.unesp.b, E-mail: cpezzato@fmvz.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Melhoramento Zootecnico e Nutricao Animal; Cruz, Valquiria Cacao da, E-mail: valquiria@dracena.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Dracena, SP (Brazil); Ducatti, Carlos, E-mail: ducatti@ibb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Centro de Isotopos Estaveis

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the presence of poultry viscera meal (VM) in the diet of broiler chickens, through the feather analyses by stable isotopes of carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) and nitrogen ({sup 15}N/{sup 14}N) and mass spectrophotometry. Seven hundred and twenty Cobb male broiler chicks were subjected to the following treatments: vegetable diet based on corn and soybean meal, from 1 to 42 days of age; diet with 8% poultry viscera meal, from 1 to 42 days of age; vegetable diet from 1 to 21 days, and diet with VM from 22 to 42 days; vegetable diet from 1 to 35 days, and diet with VM from 36 to 42 days; diet with VM from 1 to 21 days and, and vegetable diet from 22 to 42 days; diet with VM from 1 to 35 days, and vegetable diet from 36 to 42 days. Feather samples were collected from four birds per treatment at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age, which were subjected to isotopic analysis for carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) and nitrogen ({sup 15}N/{sup 14}N) by mass spectrometry. The use of the stable C and N isotope technique in feathers allow the VM detection in broiler chicken diet after 21 days of VM inclusion. (author)

  16. Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitro