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Sample records for broiler lungs performance

  1. Growth performance and immunological responses of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens fed synbiotic and diet acidifier to Newcastle disease vaccinations. One hundred and forty four (144) day old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments replicated thrice with 12 birds per replicate ...

  2. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS FED DIETS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.O. Ani

    2012-06-15

    Jun 15, 2012 ... ISSN 1684–5315 ©2012 Academic Journals ... Increasing raw bambara nut waste levels also depressed (P < 0.05) nutrient absorption ... Key words: Raw bambara nut waste, enzyme, diets, broiler chicks, growth performance.

  3. Performance Of Growing Pigs And Finisher Broilers Housed Together

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and cost of feeding young growing pigs and finisher broilers under integrated broiler/pig production system were investigated. Four young growing pigs (the control) were housed in pen A and fed 4% of their body weight as commercial growers feed. Another 4 were housed in pen B with broilers in ...

  4. Effects of folic acid supplementation on the performance of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) day- old broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of graded levels of folic acid supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens. The study was carried out using complete randomized design. Commercial starter and finisher diets were used for the experiment which lasted for eight weeks. The folic ...

  5. Effect Of Palm Oil Supplementation On The Performance Of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of palm oil supplementation on the performance of broiler starter birds fed palm kernel meal based diets. One hundred and twenty (120) one-week-old Anak broilers were randomly assigned to five (5) treatment diets, each treatment diet was replicated four times at ...

  6. Performance of broiler chickens fed neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ninety-two day-old marshal broilers were used in an eight weeks feeding trial to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on growth performance and haematological parameters of broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned into four (4) groups of forty eight (48) birds each in a ...

  7. Growth performance and immunity status of starter broiler birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM + GM) on growth performance and serum parameters of starter broiler birds. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve groups of fifteen chicks with ...

  8. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avizyme 1500TM) on the performance and nutrient digestibility by broiler finishers was investigated. A total of 120 d-old broiler chickens was assigned to four treatments each having two replicates of 15 birds in a 2 x 2 factorial block design.

  9. Effect of effective microorganisms on broiler chicken performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted between January and March 2001 to assess the effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) as feed additive in broiler chicken production on growth performance. The experiment involved 210 day-old broiler chicks which were randomly allocated to 14 pens of 15 birds each. There were seven ...

  10. Performance and ileal characteristics of finishing broilers fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of prebiotics supplemented diets on performance characteristics and gut morphology of broiler chickens. The study involved 320 day-old Anak broiler chicks, used to assess the utilization of prebiotics [Mannose oligosaccharides (MOS) and Lactose oligosaccharides ...

  11. Performance characteristics of broiler chicks fed kidney bean as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal and groundnut cake meal with cooked and decorticated kidney bean seed meals on the performance characteristics of broilers. One hundred and eighty day old broiler chicks of Anak strain were raised on six experimental diets.

  12. Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on two housing types. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed ...

  13. Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with mulberry leaf powder. Carlina Freddie Simol, Andrew Alek Tuen, Humrawali Hazid Ahmad Khan, John Keen Chubo, Patricia Jie Hung King, Kian Huat Ong ...

  14. Comparison of broiler performance, carcass yields and intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of broiler performance, carcass yields and intestinal microflora when fed diets containing transgenic (Mon-40-3-2) and conventional soybean meal. Jianzhuang Tan, Shasha Liu, Zhe Sun, Hongfu Zhang, Yongwei wang, Dan Liu ...

  15. Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... This exploratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... ratio were evaluated for the individual replicate of each dietary treatment.

  16. Performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28 day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler birds fed sweet potato meal. Three hundred and five (305) Anak broilers of one week old were randomly assigned to five treatment diets. Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 contain 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% levels of ...

  17. Performance of broilers fed enzyme-supplemented tigernut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was set up to study the effects of replacing maize with tigernut meal (TGN) at 0, 33.33, 66.67 and 100 per cent levels, with 0.10 per cent enzyme supplementation of all levels, on performance characteristics and carcass yield in broiler chicken for 8 weeks (56 days). A total of 200 Anak-2000 breed of broilers ...

  18. Broiler performance, hatching egg, and age relationships of progeny from standard and dwarf broiler dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M; Cervantes, H; Farmer, C W; Shim, M Y; Pesti, G M

    2011-06-01

    The relationship of egg and chick weights to the performance of broiler chickens from two 42-wk-old flocks (standard and dwarf dams) having male parents from the same genetic stock was investigated in this study. Fertility (91.7 vs. 94.7%) and hatchability (95.2 vs. 96.3%) were not significantly (P > 0.10) different for eggs from standard and dwarf dams, respectively. Egg weight contributed significantly to the variation in BW [BW = β(0) + β(i) (egg weight) + β(i) (dam) + β(i) (sex)]. Body weight as a function of chick weight was not significant. However, chick weight was significant when included in a model with egg weight, suggesting that significant differences in BW at 50 d could be attributed to both egg and chick weights. The negative coefficient for chick weight indicated that between the 2 broilers of the same egg weight, the one with the greater chick weight would have the smaller 50-d BW. Chick weight was a linear function of egg weight. Similarly, the effect of egg or chick weight on broiler BW at 35 or 50 d was best represented by a single linear function. Dam genotype did not contribute significantly to variation in 50-d BW after variation attributable to egg weight was removed from the model. Differences in BW attributable to egg weight increased with broiler age. The coefficients of egg weight and chick weight showed that the differences in BW per gram of egg were 1.43, 3.06, 6.24, and 7.61 g and those per gram of chick were 1.87, 3.99, 8.14, and 9.93 g, respectively, at 7, 21, 35, and 50 d. Body weight increased by 0.1563 times egg weight (and 0.2092 times chick weight) with each additional day of age for both sexes and genotypes. Clearly, both egg and chick weights are important for modeling or predicting market-age broiler BW and economic returns. The relatively small relationship between BW and egg weight demonstrates that genetic selection over the past 3 decades has decreased the influence of egg weight on broiler growth. The present dwarf

  19. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drinking water and probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight, FCR and GIT pH were recorded. The performance showed no statistically significant increase in body weight (P>0.05 in the weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significant increase (P0.05 in weeks 5, and 6 of age. In different segments of the GIT was not statistically significant (P>0.05 difference of pH between the control and experimental groups.

  20. Effect of lipid sources of diets on broiler performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lara,L.J.C.; Baião,N.C.; Aguilar,C.A.L.; Cançado,S.V.; Fiuza,M.A.; Ribeiro,B.R.C.

    2005-01-01

    A completely randomized design with six replicates of 30 birds per experimental unit was used to evaluate the effect of five fat sources of diets (soybean oil, poultry fat, acidulated soybean oil soapstock and a mix of soybean oil plus poultry fat and soybean oil plus acidulated soybean oil soapstock) on the performance of male Ross broilers, during the growing period (1-45 days of age). The diets for each phase were isonutritional. Broilers fed on soybean oil showed higher weight gain in com...

  1. Performance and Carcass Yield of Sexed Broiler Chickens Reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of availability of specially formulated feeds and other aids to intensive poultry production, the provision of appropriate housing remains the most basic requirement for successful poultry production. This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler ...

  2. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Finisher Birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) 4 weeks old Anak broiler strain were subjected to 28 days feeding trial at the Poultry Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, Evan Enwerem, Owerri, Nigeria, to determine the dietary effect of pineapple wine sediment (PWSM) on their performance and carcass characteristics. The birds were divided into four ...

  3. Bacillus subtilis strain specificity affects performance improvement in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhayat, L; Jacquier, V; Brinch, K S; Nielsen, P; Nelson, A; Geraert, P-A; Devillard, E

    2017-07-01

    The study reports the effects on broiler performance of a newly isolated Bacillus subtilis strain, which is phylogenetically not closely related to already well-described strains of B. subtilis. In the first experiment, birds were reared in battery cages and exposed to C. perfringens. An increase in growth performance was observed with the strain when compared to the challenged animals. Three additional growth trials were conducted to 35 d of age, in different rearing conditions (genetic breeds, corn-soybean meal-based diet with or without animal proteins, in presence or absence of phytase, on fresh or used litter) to investigate the efficacy and the specificity of this new B. subtilis strain on the improvement of BWG and FCR of broilers in comparison with a B. subtilis-based DFM already used in the field. Whatever the rearing conditions tested, the new B. subtilis strain led to an average 3.2% improvement in feed conversion ratio or bodyweight. Comparatively, the commercial Bacillus strain significantly improved broiler performance in only one trial out of 3 with an average improvement reaching 2%. All these results indicate that this new B. subtilis strain consistently improves broiler performances. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Performance and haematological indices of broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Azadirachta indica (neem), Spondias mombin and Chromolaena odorata leaf meals as natural feed supplements on performance and haematology of broilers were evaluated. Two hundred and sixty-four 1 day-old Arbor acre chicks were divided randomly into six treatments and four replicates. Treatment 1 ...

  5. Growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and seventy (270), day old chicks were used in a completely randomized design experimental layout to test the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed single phase diets containing natuzyme™ treated groundnut shell at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % inclusion levels. The treatments ...

  6. Performance and Energy Metabolism by Broiler Chickens Fed Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize grain with different dietary levels of maize and millet offals on performance and energy metabolism in broiler chickens. Proximate composition and metabolizable energy (ME) values were determined. Feeding trial was also conducted to comparemaize and ...

  7. Broiler-Housing Conditions Affect the Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last decades animal production has considerably increased worldwide to sustain an ever-growing human population. Among animal reared for consumption purposes, chickens are undoubtedly one of the most successful, mainly due to their rapid growth rate. The development of broiler farming has been accompanied in recent years by a substantial attention to animal welfare. This study is aimed at assessing the effects of different housing conditions on both feed conversion ratio and mortality of male broiler flocks through a large-scale study (more than 100 million birds involving 977 farms belonging to one major producer. For this, we evaluated nine features of the housing system using a linear model with random effect. The features were: roofing, floor, drinkers, feeders, water source, color curtain color, management, light and ventilation. A total of 3516 poultry flocks were assessed. Positive ventilation, metal and clay roof, dirt floor and owner management were shown to reduced mortality. Concrete floor, negative ventilation, blue curtains, fluorescent lightening, owner management, tap water and well water significantly improved FCR. We discuss our findings in relation with economic constraints and provide advices to encourage farmers using simple devices that will improve both production and chicken survival.

  8. Skeletal development and performance of broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deeb, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of high dietary copper supplementation has been shown to promote growth rate. The results of the experiments reported herein indicated that copper supplementation of 100 ppm with zinc at the requirement level had no effect on growth rate or bone mineralization. However, when various levels of copper and zinc were added to the diet, significant changes in bone mineralization and liver zinc and copper concentrations occurred. In further studies, the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin D 3 or its metabolite 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 on the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia and related bone abnormalities in broiler chicks was investigated. The results indicated that feeding 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 at 5ug/Kg diet as the sole source of vitamin D 3 steroid was sufficient to maintain a calcium homeostasis in the chicks. The effect of growth hormone (GH) injections on the metabolism of tibial epiphyseal growth plant (EGP) in broiler chicks either genetically susceptible or resistant to tibial dyschondroplasia (HTD and LTD respectively) was investigated. GH injection increased 3 H-thymidine uptake, indicating a direct effect of GH on cell replication in EGP

  9. Growth performance of broilers in experimental Reovirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar P. Awandkar

    Full Text Available Background: The avian reoviruses have emerged to induce various manifestations in chickens. They are associated with disease conditions including malabsorption syndrome, tenosynovitis etc. Reoviruses are an important cause of suboptimum performance in broilers, resulting in poor growth performance. Poultry industry in India is facing a catastrophe due to such infections which go unnoticed in field due to masking of the symptoms by secondary infections and commonly observed nutritional disorders. Aim: To investigate the effect of reovirus infection on overall performance of broiler birds. Material and Methods: The broiler birds were challenged with homologous strains of malabsorption syndrome and tenosynovitis syndrome of reovirus. The growth performance was recorded. Results and conclusion: The growth performance and immune response to NDV did not differ in the birds challenged with tenosynovitis syndrome strain of reo virus as compared to un challenged birds. However, poor live body weight, feed intake, FCR, PE and BPEI and better serum NDV titres were found in chicks challenged with malabsorption syndrome strain of reovirus as compared to the chicks from control group. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 685-689

  10. The Effects of Two Different Cleaning and Disinfection Programs on Broiler Performance and Microbiological Status of Broiler Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFC Burbarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of two cleaning and disinfection programs on broiler performance and on the microbiological status of the facilities. This trial was an observational study of comparative character. Two experiments were conducted, with 960 birds each. Both experiments were carried out in a positive-pressure broiler house. Broilers were distributed in pens equipped with a bell drinker and a tube feeder each. In the first experiment, new wood shavings were used as litter material, and in the second, reused wood shavings were used. Two treatments with16 replicates of 30 birds each were evaluated. The regular treatment consisted of dry and wet organic matter removal, followed by washing. The European treatment consisted of dry organic matter removal, humidification, washing with water under high pressure, detergent application, rinsing, and application of two combined disinfectants: glutaraldehyde 250g/L + formaldehyde 185g/L; p-chlor-m-cresol 210 g/L. Biosecurity measures were adopted during daily management tasks to prevent cross contamination between treatments. The effectiveness of the treatments was evaluated by microbiological analysis performed before and after treatment applications, as well as by broiler performance results. Live performance results were similar between both treatments when broilers were reared on new litter. When reused word-shavings were used as litter material, the European treatment promoted better broiler performance. The European treatment was more effective than the regular treatment in reducing total microbial counts in the facilities when reused wood shavings were used as litter material, and positively influenced broiler performance.

  11. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  12. Performance characteristics of broilers fed graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal

    OpenAIRE

    Ayo-Ajasa, O.Y.; Abiona, J.A.; Fafiolu, A.O.; Egbeyale, L.T.; Njoku1, C.P.; Omotayo1, I.G.; Odeyemi1, A.Y.; Abel, F.A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Cost of conventional protein sources is on the increase recently; hence, there is the need for cheaper alternative sources that will not compromise the performance characteristics of broiler birds taking into consideration the cost of production. Moringa leaf meal has been reported to increase the performance of broiler birds due to its rich protein content. Two hundred day-old broiler chicks were used to assess the effects of partial replacement of soya bean meal with Moringa (Moringa oleife...

  13. Performance Characteristics and Prediction of Bodyweight using Linear Body Measurements in Four Strains of Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    I. Udeh; J.O. Isikwenu and G. Ukughere

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the performance characteristics of four strains of broiler chicken from 2 to 8 weeks of age and predict body weight of the broilers using linear body measurements. The four strains of broiler chicken used were Anak, Arbor Acre, Ross and Marshall. The parameters recorded were bodyweight, weight gain, total feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality and some linear body measurements (body length, body width, breast width, drumstick length, shank l...

  14. Performance of broiler chicken fed multicarbohydrases supplemented low energy diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Govil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of multicarbohydrases supplementation on performance of broilers fed low energy diet. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 days old chicks were selected and randomly divided into three treatments groups (T1, T2, and T3; each group contained 25 chicks distributed in five replicates of five chicks each. T1 group (positive control was offered control ration formulated as per Bureau of Indian Standards recommendations. In T2 group (negative control ration, metabolizable energy (ME was reduced by 100 kcal/kg diet. T3 group ration was same as that of T2 except that it was supplemented with multicarbohydrases (xylanase at 50 g/ton+mannanase at 50 g/ton+amylase at 40 g/ton. Feed intake and body weight of all experimental birds were recorded weekly. Metabolic trial was conducted for 3 days at the end of experiment to know the retention of nutrients. Results: Significant improvement (p<0.01 was observed in total weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, and performance index in broilers under supplementary group T3 as compared to T1 and T2 groups. Retention of crude protein and ether extract was significantly increased (p<0.05 in T3 group supplemented with multicarbohydrases as compared to other groups. Retention of dry matter, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extract was comparable in all the three groups. Significantly highest dressed weight, eviscerated weight, and drawn weight (% of live body weight were observed in multicarbohydrases supplemented T3 group, however it was comparable in T1 and T2 groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that the supplementation of multicarbohydrases (xylanase at 50 g/ton+mannanase at 50 g/ton+amylase at 40 g/ton in low energy diet improved overall performance of broilers.

  15. Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Irradiated Sorghum Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.D.; Farag, M.F. S. El-D.; Afify, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Substitution of yellow corn with raw sorghum grains in chick diets resulted in decreases in live body weight, accumulative feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization as compared with reference diet. Relative to raw sorghum diet, inclusion of sorghum grains irradiated at 60 and 100 kGy and/or supplemented with PEG in chick diets resulted in increases in accumulative feed consumption an efficiency feed utilization. The study suggested that irradiation treatment up to 100 kGy up grade broiler chicks performance and the combinations between radiation and PEG treatments sustain the effect of each other

  16. Effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition in unsexed broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Santoso

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition of unsexed broilers. Four hundreds seven-day old unsexed broilers (Arbor Acres CP 707 were distributed into eight treatment groups. Each treatment group was represented by five replicates of ten broilers each. Two types of house (cage vs litter and four levels of feeding (ad lib., 75% ad lib., 50% ad lib. and 25% ad lib. were tested as treatment factors. Broilers were feed-restricted for 6 days from 7 to 13 days of age and thereafter they were fed ad lib. Feed intake of restricted broilers during restriction period was calculated from feed consumed by ad lib. group in the previous day. Results showed that unsexed broilers raised in litter had higher body weight (P<0.05, lower abdominal fat and higher triglyceride concentration at 42 days of age (P<0.05, and lower liver fat and higher carcass percentage at 56 days of age (P<0.05. Early feed restriction reduced body weight of 42-day old unsexed broilers except for broilers fed 75% ad lib. At 56 days of age, restricted broilers had similar body weight to those fed ad lib. At 56 days of age, broilers fed 25% ad lib. had lower FCR (P<0.05, lower abdominal fat (P<0.05 and lower triglyceride concentration (P<0,05. In conclusion, unsexed broilers fed 25% ad lib. showed compensatory growth with better FCR and lower fat accumulation at 56 days of age. Broilers raised in litter had higher body weight and lower abdominal and liver fat deposition.

  17. Effects of β-Mannanase on broiler performance, gut morphology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mannanase on performance, gut morphology and some blood proteins and leucocytes of broilers provided with diets based on corn and soybean meal. Broiler chickens are divided four group and supplied diet which contains 0, 500, 700, or 900 g/ton ...

  18. Effect of hatch location and diet density on footpad dermatitis and growth performance in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Lourens, A.; Harn, van J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hatch location and diet density on the prevalence of footpad dermatitis and growth performance in broiler chickenswas studied.Broilers (Ross 308), incubated at 2 different hatch locations but originating from the same parent stock,were subjected to 2 feeding programs differing in

  19. THE EFFECT OF DENSITY AND FLOOR TYPES ON PERFORMANCE, PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE AND IMMUNE RESPONSE OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sunarti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of density and floor types on performance,physiological state and immune response of broilers. The research involved 368 male broilers of theNew Lohman strain aged 8 days which were raised up to 35 days at different densities and floor types.Floor types consisted of rice hull litter and bamboo slat were used as the main plot; while densities of 7,10, 13 and 16 birds/m2 applied as the sub-plot. The results showed that the final body weight gain of the35-day Lohmann broilers at densities of 7, 10 and 13 birds/m2 were 28.22, 24.43 and 19.27 kgrespectively, compared to 16 birds/m2 at 13.53 kg (P>0.05. Broilers in the bamboo slats floor hadlymph weight at 3.73 g compared to the litter floor at 2.55 g (P<0.05. Also, broilers in the bambooslats had average RHL (0.65 lower than broilers in the litter floor (0.79. It could be concluded thatbamboo slats best being used for broilers up to a density of 13 broilers/m2.

  20. Dietary protease can alleviate negative effects of a coccidiosis infection on production performance in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, H.W.; Klis, van der J.D.; Vermeulen, B.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary protease on coccidiosis infection, production performance, the intestinal mucus layer thickness, and brush border enzyme activity using broilers challenged with Eimeria spp. laboratory isolates (Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E.

  1. Effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition in unsexed broilers

    OpenAIRE

    U Santoso

    2002-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition of unsexed broilers. Four hundreds seven-day old unsexed broilers (Arbor Acres CP 707) were distributed into eight treatment groups. Each treatment group was represented by five replicates of ten broilers each. Two types of house (cage vs litter) and four levels of feeding (ad lib., 75% ad lib., 50% ad lib. and 25% ad lib.) were tested as treatment factors. B...

  2. Effect of Aqueous Moringa Oleifera (Lam Leaf Extracts on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hubbard Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OJ Alabi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two hundred and forty day old broiler chicks were used to investigate the effect of aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (AMOLE on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken. The birds were randomly allocated into six treatments with four replicates, and each replicate containing 10 broiler chicks; the CRD was used. The treatments contained AMOLE0+ (positive control with antibiotic treatment, AMOLE0- (negative control with ordinary water, AMOLE60 (60 ml/l, AMOLE90 (90 ml/l, AMOLE120 (120 ml/l and AMOLE150 (150 ml/l inclusion levels of AMOLE, respectively. Birds on positive control had the highest final body weight and growth rate (2392.00 g and 53.61 g respectively and the ones on 150 ml/l of AMOLE had the least (2042.00 g and 45.37 g respectively. Results of feed intake showed that birds on positive control had the highest (84.70 g and the ones on 90 ml/litre of AMOLE had the lowest (73.19 g; while the results of feed conversion ratio indicated that birds on AMOLE90 and AMOLE120 performed better than the positive control treatment. Birds on the AMOLE had similar dressing percentages though that of positive control was highest (94.93 %; while those on AMOLE60 and AMOLE150 had the highest large intestine and lung weights respectively. Aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extract can be included up to 90 ml/litre in the drinking water of broiler chicken for reduced feed intake (12.83 % and improved feed conversion efficiency (9.11 thus, AMOLE can be used to replace synthetic antibiotics as growth promoter.

  3. Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Growth Performance Responses and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Poorghasemi; Alireza Seidavi; Ali Ahmad Alaw Qotbi; Vito Laudadio; Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows...

  4. Re-parametrization of a swine model to predict growth performance of broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Dukhta, G.; van Milgen, Jacob; Kövér, G.; Halas, V.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether a pig growth model is suitable to be modified and adapted for broilers. As monogastric animals, pigs and poultry share many similarities in their digestion and metabolism, many structures (body protein and lipid stores) and the nutrient flows of the underlying metabolic pathways are similar among species. For that purpose, the InraPorc model was used as a basis to predict growth performance and body composition at slaughter in broilers. First...

  5. Effect of Reused Litter and Chemical Amendment on Broiler Chicken Performance and Litter Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of chemical amendments and reused litter on broiler performances, immune response and skin quality. Five hundred and seventy six (576 day old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 3x2 factorial design experiment. Three amendments treatment included control (no chemical addition, alunminum sulfate and zeolite; two types of litter were new and reused one. There were 4 replicates and 24 broiler chickens in each pen. The feed and water were available ad libitum during 42 days of experiment. The type of bedding had no significant effect on broilers performances (weight gain, feed efficiency ratio and mortality. Chemical amendments improved broilers performances during 0-35 days of production period but by the end of experiment there was no differences between treatment groups. Neither bedding type nor chemical amendments influenced skin erosion criteria responses. The immune response of broilers was not affected by either type of bedding or chemical amendments. It could be concluded that although beddings to be reused, it should be treated so as to overcome any defect of reused bedding.

  6. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Furlan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diets have negative effects on broiler performance when environmental temperature is high, because during heat stress, low food intake associated to a low diet protein induce amino acid deficiencies. Other studies have shown that broilers fed low-protein diets increase their energy requirement for maintenance with higher heat production. Thus, with the growth of broiler industry in tropical areas more challenges need to be faced by the farmers. So, both the ambient and nutritional conditions ought to be well managed to avoid negative effects on poultry production once they can affect the metabolism (body heat production under low temperature and body heat dissipation under high temperature with consequence on poultry performance (meat and eggs.

  7. Impacts of stocking density on the performance and welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study was performed to investigate the influence of different stocking density rates on the performance, thermophysiological measurements as well as blood parameters of 0 to 30 d of age female Ross broiler. A total of 96 chicks were randomly distributed in a randomized complete block design among 12 cages. Three stocking density rates were applied; low (28.0 kg/m2, medium (37.0 kg/m2 and high (40.0 kg/m2. Results revealed that cumulative body weight gain (BWG and feed intake (FI were influenced (P<0.01 by the rate of stocking density, while no effect (P>0.05 were observed for broilers mortality-corrected feed conversion ratio (FCR. Higher BWG (P<0.01 and FI (P<0.05 were reported for low and medium density rates broilers in comparison to the high density rate broilers. Overall means of body temperature as well as head, neck, wing, body and shank surface temperatures have displayed (P<0.05 higher values in medium and high density rates broilers compared to the low density rate broilers. Furthermore, increasing the stocking density from 28 to 40 kg/m2 induced a state of hemodilution in higher density rate broilers, which might explain the noticeable decrease in packed cell volume (PCV. Meanwhile, an increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST was observed in the higher density group, which might indicate hepatocellular injures. It can be concluded that increasing the stocking density rate from 28 to 40 kg of BW/m2 had evident impingement effects on the performance of broiler chicken and could jeopardize their welfare.

  8. Effect of commercial diets quality on bio-economic performances of broilers in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, F M; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C A A M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the quality of commercial poultry feeds in Benin. The performances of 396 unsexed broilers chickens Ross 308 fed with a control diet (R1) and five commercial diets (R2 to R6) were evaluated. Broilers fed commercial diets showed significantly low (P ....001) body weight gain (BWG) and economic feed efficiency (EFE) and significantly high (P cost (FC). At 42 days of age, the body weight of broilers fed control diet was 1662 g versus 838 to 1041 g for broilers fed commercial diets. In R1 diet, overall FC...... commercial diets. These results suggest the necessity to organize the market of poultry feed in Benin in the perspective to reduce the production cost by using more efficient and cheap commercial diets....

  9. Early feeding and early life housing conditions influence the response towards a noninfectious lung challenge in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Bolhuis, J E; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2015-09-01

    Early life conditions such as feed and water availability immediately post hatch (PH) and housing conditions may influence immune development and therefore immune reactivity later in life. The current study addressed the consequences of a combination of these 2 early life conditions for immune reactivity, i.e., the specific antibody response towards a non-infectious lung challenge. Broiler chicks received feed and water either immediately p.h. or with a 72 h delay and were either reared in a floor or a cage system. At 4 weeks of age, chicks received either an intra-tracheally administered Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Human Serum Albumin (HUSA) challenge or a placebo, and antibody titers were measured up to day 14 after administration of the challenge. Chicks housed on the floor and which had a delayed access to feed p.h. showed the highest antibody titers against HuSA. These chicks also showed the strongest sickness response and poorest performance in response to the challenge, indicating that chicks with delayed access to feed might be more sensitive to an environment with higher antigenic pressure. In conclusion, results from the present study show that early life feeding strategy and housing conditions influence a chick's response to an immune challenge later in life. These 2 early life factors should therefore be taken into account when striving for a balance between disease resistance and performance in poultry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. The effect of dietary phytase on broiler performance and digestive, bone, and blood biochemistry characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JPL de Sousa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dietary inclusion of phytase increases nutrient and energy bioavailability for broilers. The effect of phytase increases nutrients and energy bioavailability for either the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of nutrient and energy reduction in diets supplemented with phytase on the performance, gastrointestinal pH, organ and bone composition, and blood biochemistry of broilers between eight and 21 days of age. In the study, 1.120 male Cobb 500(r broilers, with 161±1g average weight, were used. At eight days of age, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments in a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement with eight replicates of 20 broiler each. Treatments corresponded to reduction of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, amino acids and energy, or reduction of Ca, P, amino acids and energy; supplementation or not of phytase; and a positive control treatment. Broiler fed the diet with reduced Ca and P levels and phytase supplementation presented the best performance of all groups. The diet with reduced amino acid and energy levels and phytase addition reduced gizzard and proventriculus pH. Dietary Ca and P reduction increased relative liver and heart weights, as well as albumin blood levels. The bones of broilers fed phytase-supplemented diets presented higher ash content.

  11. Immunohistochemical examination of plexiform-like complex vascular lesions in the lungs of broiler chickens selected for susceptibility to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamal, Krishna R; Erf, Gisela F; Anthony, Nicholas B; Wideman, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a disease of unknown cause that is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, and by extensive vascular remodelling. In human IPAH patients, remodelling of the pulmonary vasculature results in the formation of plexiform lesions in the terminal pulmonary arterioles. Various molecules are expressed in the human plexiform lesions, including alpha smooth muscle actin, von Willebrand factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, survivin, tenascin, collagen, fibronectin, and various immune/inflammatory cells such as, cytotoxic lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, MHC class II cells, and monocytes/macrophages are also present. Plexiform lesions rarely develop in the lungs of laboratory animals, but plexiform-like complex vascular lesions (CVL) do develop spontaneously in the lungs of broiler chickens from an IPAH-susceptible line. To examine angioproliferative and immune-system-related activities associated with CVL in broiler lungs, paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung sections from 8-week-old to 24-week-old broiler chickens were stained immunohistochemically using monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific for angioproliferative molecules and immune/inflammatory cells. The CVL in the lungs of broiler chickens exhibited positive staining for both angioproliferative molecules and immune/inflammatory cells. These observations combined with the close histological resemblance of broiler CVL to the plexiform lesions of human IPAH patients further validates chickens from our IPAH-susceptible line as an excellent animal model of spontaneous plexogenic arteriopathy.

  12. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P heating system for broiler chickens.

  13. Performance of starting broiler chicks on sandbox ( Hura crepitans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of raw and cooked Sand box (Hura crepitans) seed meal for broiler chickens . Sand box seeds (100kg) were divided into two batches, the first batch was milled raw undicorticated with a hammer mill to produce raw sandbox meal, the second batch was ...

  14. Performance of Broilers Given Different Dietary Levels of Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the seeds of a leguminous plant, Acacia sieberiana DC as an alternative source of dietary plant protein for broilers. Five experimental diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10, 15 and 20% Acacia sieberiana seeds (ASS) were formulated and fed to 5 groups of birds during starter (0 - 4 weeks), ...

  15. Male broiler performance and nocturnal feeding under constant 8-h ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... however, they still consumed more feed in the 8-h dark period than birds that had always been given 16 h illumination. Cobb and Ross genotypes responded similarly to all lighting treatments. Keywords: Photoperiod, broiler growth, nocturnal feeding. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 38 (3) 2008: pp. 159-165 ...

  16. Kinetics of starch digestion and performance of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapioca

    Starch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy

  17. Performance and Nutrient Retention of Broilers fed Treated Pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to examine the Proximate Composition of raw Pumpkin Kernel and to assess its nutritional value with broilers. Analysis showed that the Kernel contained crude protein level (38.51%), crude fibre (13.34%), ether extract (42.69), total ash (5.14%), nitrogen free extract (0.32%), calcium (0.29%) and ...

  18. Performance of finisher broiler chickens as affected by different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 160 male broiler chicks, 21days old and weighing 416.32g on average, were randomly distributed into 32 experimental units of 4 birds each. ... Parameters measured were feed consumption, live weight and weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feeding cost for the production of one kg live weight, carcass yields, ...

  19. Enhancement of broiler performance and immune response by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... response by Echinacea purpurea supplemented in diet. Saied Habibian ... E. purpurea, animal and human studies have shown that. E. purpurea had .... claimed that E. purpurea extract as a feed additive for broilers and layers is .... Echinacea: biological effects and active principles, In: Phytomedicines of ...

  20. Performance characteristics of broilers fed graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayo-Ajasa, O.Y.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost of conventional protein sources is on the increase recently; hence, there is the need for cheaper alternative sources that will not compromise the performance characteristics of broiler birds taking into consideration the cost of production. Moringa leaf meal has been reported to increase the performance of broiler birds due to its rich protein content. Two hundred day-old broiler chicks were used to assess the effects of partial replacement of soya bean meal with Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf meal on broiler chickens in an 8-wk feeding trial. The birds were randomly assigned in equal numbers into five dietary treatments: 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 % Moringa leaf meal (MOLM. Each treatment was replicated four times with 10 birds per replicate. The results showed that final weight, weight gain, daily weight gain, total feed intake, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly (p0.05 effect on primal cut parts and relative organ weight. From the results of this study, replacement of soybean meal with MOLM up to 20% did not have any adverse effect on growth performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens.

  1. DIETARY FRUCTANS AND THEIR POTENTIAL BENEFICIAL INFLUENCE ON HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE PARAMETRS IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BOGUSŁAWSKA-TRYK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fructans, which include inulin and fructooligosaccharides, are non-digestible carbohydrates that are fermented in the large intestine. This review focuses on the effect of these prebiotics on gut microflora, fermentation characteristics, gut morphology, enzymes activity, nutrients digestibility and absorption, lipids metabolism and performance parameters in broiler chickens. Inulin-type fructans can improve performance of birds and health by affecting microbial community in the gastrointestinal tract, gut morphology and nutrient digestion. It is documented that dietary fructans influence the intestinal gut microflora of broiler chickens by increasing the population of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Eubacterium spp. while decreasing the concentration of Clostridium spp. and Escherichia coli in the large intestine and caeca. The supplementation of poultry diets with inulin or oligofructose can lead to an increase of the length of small and large intestines in broilers, elongation of the villus in the chickens jejunal mucosa and increase in the ratio of villus height to crypt depth. The beneficial effect of inulin-type fructans on performance parameters in broilers may be partially explained by the elevated intestinal enzymatic activity under the influence of the fructooligosaccharides and increase of digestibility and absorption of nutrients, mainly protein and fat. The prebiotic effectiveness of inulin-type fructans in broilers depends on a number of factors, like the type of supplement (inulin vs. oligofructose, inclusion level, composition of the basal diet, animal characteristics (age, sex, stage of production and hygienic conditions (i.e. stress factors.

  2. Dietary divercin modifies gastrointestinal microbiota and improves growth performance in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D.; Sip, A.; Rawski, M.

    2011-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary administration of a divercin AS7 liquid preparation on broiler chicken performance, nutrient digestibility, counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coliform bacteria, as well as on the microbial activity in the gastrointes......1. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary administration of a divercin AS7 liquid preparation on broiler chicken performance, nutrient digestibility, counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coliform bacteria, as well as on the microbial activity...

  3. The influence of different levels of micronized insoluble fiber on broiler performance and litter moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, M; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Rouzbehan, Y

    2011-09-01

    The effects of different levels of micronized insoluble fiber (MIF) on broiler performance and litter moisture were assessed in 320 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308). Feed was supplemented with 0, 0.3, 0.4, or 0.5% MIF during both the starter (1 to 14 d) and grower (15 to 42 d) periods. Supplementation of MIF was associated with dose dependent increases in daily BW gain and feed conversion ratio throughout the experimental period (P 0.05). Supplementation of MIF resulted in dose dependent increases in the ileal villus height:crypt depth ratio and number of goblet cells (P litter moisture beginning during the third week (P broiler performance, intestinal morphology, and litter moisture.

  4. Effect strooiselmateriaal, strooiselhoeveelheid, opvangschoteltjes en waterdruk op resultaten vleeskuikens = Influence of bedding material, bedding amount, drip cup and reduced water pressure on broiler performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harn, van J.; Jong, de I.C.; Veldkamp, T.

    2009-01-01

    Four different bedding materials for broiler houses were compared: white wood shavings, chopped wheat straw, ground rapeseed straw and silage maize. Performance results, carcass yields, litter quality, broiler quality and gait score were measured.

  5. Effect of enterogermina (Bacillus clausii spores) on the productive performance of broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Torres, Oscar; Arévalo Castro, Renato P.; Kelly, Gerardo; Guerrero, Jorge R.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a commercial probiotic, Enterogermina (Bacillus clausii spores) in the drinking water on the productive performance of broilers was evaluated. A total of 280 male broilers, Cobb line, of one day of age were used for 49 days. The chicks were distributed in four treatments with seven replicates per treatment: T0 = balanced feed (control), T1, T2 and T3 = balanced feed + 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 ml of enterogermina per liter of water, respectively, in a randomized complete block design....

  6. The Effect of Density and Floor Types on Performance, Physiological State and Immune Response of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarti, D; Haryono, H; Soedarsono, S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of density and floor types on performance,physiological state and immune response of broilers. The research involved 368 male broilers of theNew Lohman strain aged 8 days which were raised up to 35 days at different densities and floor types.Floor types consisted of rice hull litter and bamboo slat were used as the main plot; while densities of 7,10, 13 and 16 birds/m2 applied as the sub-plot. The results showed that the final body weight g...

  7. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, E A M; de Boer, I J M

    2009-09-01

    1. In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based on a quantification of economic, ecological and social indicators. Indicators were quantified using scientific literature and national data sets. 2. The organic system performed better for the economic indicator net farm income per FTE than the conventional system. 3. Regarding ecological indicators, calculations showed a higher on-farm emission of ammonia per kg live weight for the organic system. Moreover, an organic system includes a higher risk for eutrophication per ha due to outdoor access. Emission of green house gasses, use of fossil fuels and use of land required for the production of one kg of live weight is higher for an organic than for a conventional system. This is mainly due to a lower feed conversion in organic production and use of organic feed. 4. The organic system performed better than the conventional system for the social indicators related to animal welfare time spent on walking, footpad lesions, mortality, and sound legs. Regarding the social indicator food safety was found that meat from an organic system contained less antibiotic residues and Salmonella contaminations but more Campylobacter contaminations than meat from a conventional system. 5. Changing from a conventional to an organic broiler production system, therefore, not only affects animal welfare, but also affects economic, ecological and other social issues. In this study, we ran into the situation that some information needed was lacking in literature and quantifications had to be based upon several sources. Therefore, an integrated on-farm assessment is needed, which can be used to develop a broiler production system that is economically profitable, ecologically sound, and

  8. Effect of protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and selenium levels on the performance, carcass yield, and blood changes in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH Hada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, carcass and parts yield, and blood changes in broilers fed different protein, carbohydrate, and lipid levels. Birds were fed a commercial diet until seven days of age. On day 8, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (control diet, low protein diet, low carbohydrate diet or low lipid diet vs. supplementation of 0 or 0.3ppm organic selenium with four replicates of 15 birds each. Broilers fed low protein presented lower body weight, feed intake, and worse feed conversion ratio on day 42, as well as lower carcass and breast yields, higher leg and abdominal fat yields, higher triglyceride and lower uric acid blood levels. Broilers fed the low carbohydrate diets presented low glucose levels on days 14 and 42.Creatine-kinase (CK levels increased as birds aged. The livability of broilers fed the low protein diets improved and of those fed low carbohydrate diets worsened with dietary selenium addition on days 35 and 42. Selenium supplementation increased glucose levels in 42-d-old broilers. Changes in dietary protein caused more impact on broiler performance compared with carbohydrates and lipids. Changes in macronutrients caused metabolic changes in broilers. Selenium affected broiler livability as measured on days 35 and 42, and glucose blood levels.

  9. Effects of floor eggs on hatchability and later life performance in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Van Den H.; Sosef, M.P.; Lourens, A.; Harn, Van J.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3 × 2 factorial design

  10. The performance of broiler finisher birds fed varying levels of feather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of broiler finisher birds fed varying levels of feather meal as replacement for soya bean meal. ... meal increased, feed cost/ kg weight gain increased and both differed significantly (P<0.05) between treatment means, while the birds tolerated feather meal up to 7.5% inclusion level, 2.5% was the optimal.

  11. Marination and cooking performance of portioned broiler breast fillets with the woody breast condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The woody breast (WB) condition in broiler breast meat negatively influences technological meat quality. However, it is unknown if the WB effects are uniform throughout the Pectoralis major. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of WB on the marination and cooking performance of...

  12. Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on growth performance of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Li, W.K.; Li, H.S.; Luo, J.Y.; Li, X.P.; Wei, Y.X.; Yan, Z.T.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    1. This in vivo trial was conducted to study the effects of polysaccharide extracts of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and a herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE) on growth performance, and the weights of organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler

  13. Interactive effects of dietary arginine and Eimeria acervulina infection on broiler growth performance and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochell, S J; Helmbrecht, A; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2017-03-01

    The influence of dietary Arg concentration and Eimeria acervulina infection on broiler growth performance and plasma carotenoid, nitric oxide (NO), amino acid, and urea concentrations was evaluated. Male Ross × Ross 308 broilers (384 total) were fed a common diet for 10 d post-hatch and provided experimental diets formulated to contain 1.23 (HA) or 0.74% (LA) standardized ileal digestible Arg from 10 to 28 d. At 21 d, one-half of the broilers were switched to the opposite diet to create 4 dietary regimens where birds were fed the LA diet throughout, the LA diet replaced by the HA diet at 21 d, the HA diet throughout, or the HA diet replaced by the LA diet at 21 d. Broilers were orally inoculated 0 (uninfected) or 3.5 × 105 sporulated E. acervulina oocysts at 15 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 dietary regimens × 2 infection states (8 replicates/treatment). Overall (10 to 28 d) BW gain and G:F were greatest (P Eimeria acervulina infection decreased (P  0.05) of E. acervulina on BW gain or G:F of broilers from 21 to 28 d. Plasma Arg, Lys, and Orn levels at 21 d indicated that the LA diet caused an imbalance in the Lys and Arg status of broilers, and E. acervulina infection increased (P < 0.01) the plasma concentration of these 3 amino acids. Diet × infection interactions (P < 0.05) were observed on 21 d for plasma carotenoids and NO, whereby infection decreased plasma carotenoids and increased plasma NO, but dietary Arg concentration only influenced these measures for uninfected birds. Thus, production of NO during E. acervulina infection was not impaired by dietary Arg limitation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. In take, performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed diets containing dried cassava peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.

  15. Different Levels of Digestible Methionine on Performance of Broiler Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WL Bryden

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein and amino acid supply is the most expensive component of poultry diets. Therefore several efforts made by the industry to minimize the cost of the protein portion of the diet. Accordingly, there has been a recent move to use digestible amino acid values in the formulation of poultry diets. The efficiency of protein utilization depends to a large extent on the amino acid composition of the diet. The study was conducted to determine the digestible methionine requirement of broilers during the starter periods. One hundred and seventy five (175 chicks were allocated to 5 treatments with five replicates of seven chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed experimental diets from one day old to 21 days of age. Dietary treatments included 5 titrated levels each of digestible methionine (3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 g/kg diet added to a basal diet. The allowance of digestible methionine, rather than digestible sulphur amino acids was used in formulating the diets. Supplemental synthetic DL-Methionine which were considered to be 100% digestible were added to diets to obtain the concentration of the digestible amino acid. Each week until the conclusion of the trial, birds were individually weighed, feed intake per pen was measured, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was computed. This study suggested that the digestible methionine requirement for broiler starter is 4.7 g/kg for optimal body weight gain and 4.6 g/kg for optimal feed conversion ratio. (Animal Production 12(1: 6-11 (2010Key Words: amino acid, broiler, digestible, methionine, starter

  16. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on growth performance and intestinal colonization with Campylobacter jejuni of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2016-01-01

    An infection trial and a production trial over 35 days were conducted in parallel to study the influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the intestinal Campylobacter jejuni colonization and broiler performance, respectively. The CKMS was used at dietary inclusion levels of 15% and 30% in maize-based diets. Broilers were orally inoculated with 2 × 10(5) log cfu/ml C. jejuni on day 14. Four birds from each pen were randomly selected and killed by cervical dislocation on days 3, 6, 9, 14 and 21 post infection and intestinal contents from ileum, caeca and rectum as well as liver samples were taken. Body weight and feed consumption of broilers were registered on days 13, 22 and 35. On day 35, litter dry matter (DM) was measured and the condition of the foot pads was evaluated. There was no significant effect of CKMS on the colonization of C. jejuni. Body weight of the broilers supplemented with 15% CKMS was comparable with the control maize-based feed, whereas addition of 30% CKMS reduced broiler body weight (P broilers significantly improved with the inclusion of CKMS on broiler diets as a result of a higher DM content in the litter material. It is concluded that CKMS did not influence intestinal Campylobacter colonization, but improved the foot pad health of broilers.

  17. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on growth performance and intestinal colonization with Campylobacter jejuni in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel

    2016-01-01

    samples were taken. Body weight and feed consumption of broilers were registered on days 13, 22 and 35. On day 35, litter dry matter (DM) was measured and the condition of the foot pads was evaluated. There was no significant effect of CKMS on the colonization of C. jejuni. Body weight of the broilers...... with the inclusion of CKMS on broiler diets as a result of a higher DM content in the litter material. It is concluded that CKMS did not influence intestinal Campylobacter colonization, but improved the foot pad health of broilers.......An infection trial and a production trial over 35 days were conducted in parallel to study the influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the intestinal Campylobacter jejuni colonization and broiler performance, respectively. The CKMS was used at dietary inclusion levels of 15...

  18. Effects of Maize Source and Complex Enzymes on Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defu Tang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize source and complex enzymes containing amylase, xylanase and protease on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers. The experiment was a 4×3 factorial design with diets containing four source maize samples (M1, M2, M3, and M4 and without or with two kinds of complex enzyme A (Axtra XAP and B (Avizyme 1502. Nine hundred and sixty day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used in the trial (12 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 10 chicks. Birds fed M1 diet had better body weight gain (BWG and lower feed/gain ratio compared with those fed M3 diet and M4 diet (p0.05, respectively. The fresh feces output was significantly decreased by the addition of enzyme B (p<0.05. Maize source affects the nutrients digestibility and performance of broilers, and a combination of amylase, xylanase and protease is effective in improving the growth profiles of broilers fed maize-soybean-rapeseed-cotton mixed diets.

  19. Evaluation of growth performance of broiler chicks fed with raw and processed leucaena eucociphala seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minari, J.B.; Odutuga, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fourty-eight broiler chicks (day-old) were used in a 4 weeks feeding experiment to assess the growth response and the performance of broiler chicks fed raw Leucaena leucociphala seed meal (RLSM), roasted L. leucociphala seed meal (RoLSM) and steamed L. leucociphala seed meal (SLSM). The L. leucociphala seed, which serve as a source of protein were subjected to two treatments (roasting and steaming). Soybean based diet served as the control. There were four (4) experimental groups, each made up of four birds in three replicates allocated to the experimental diets. The results showed that the average final live weight, average weekly weight gain and average feed intake of birds fed with RoLSM performed better than birds fed with RLSM and SLSM. It was observed that the percentage organ to body weight of birds fed with the processed LSM were significantly (P < 0.05), higher as compared to the RLSM. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in the activity of aspartate transferase in the organs (heart, kidney and liver) of broilers fed with RoLSM was observed as compared to those fed with RLSM. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05), reduction in the activity of alanine transferase of organs of broilers chicks fed with processed L. leucociphala compared to the control. It is therefore, concluded that the processing techniques applied were able to improve the nutritional quality of L. leucociphala seed meal but relatively lower to the soybean based meal. (author)

  20. Effect of feed texture on growth performance, dressing percentage and organ weight of broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Altaf, H.; Hassan, M.M.U.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative efficacy of two important forms of feed, mash and crumbles, fed alone or in combination (mash-crumbs), was studied on growth performance, dressing percentage and organ weight of broilers. One hundred twenty broiler chicks were used in the present study and were fed mash, crumbles and mash-crumbs feed for 0-6 weeks of age. Four treatments, designated as A, B, C and D were used in this experiment. Chicks in group A were kept on mash feeding serving as control and those in group B were offered crumbles. Group C was fed mash from day old to two weeks and crumbles from three to six weeks of age while group D was offered mash from day old to four weeks and then crumbles were fed for next two weeks of age. The results of the experiment showed that different forms of feed exhibited significant (P<0.05) effect on overall weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the broilers. Whereas, feed consumption, dressing percentage and relative weights of liver, heart, gizzard, spleen, pancreas, intestine and abdominal fat pad of the birds remained unaffected due to different forms of feed. The broilers maintained upon crumbles throughout the experimental period, fetched maximum profit than other treatment groups. (author)

  1. Effects of a Lactobacillus salivarius mixture on performance, intestinal health and serum lipids of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Sieo, Chin Chin; Ho, Yin Wan

    2017-01-01

    The ban or severe restriction on the use of antibiotics in poultry feeds to promote growth has led to considerable interest to find alternative approaches. Probiotics have been considered as such alternatives. In the present study, the effects of a Lactobacillus mixture composed from three previously isolated Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CI1, CI2 and CI3) from chicken intestines on performance, intestinal health status and serum lipids of broiler chickens has been evaluated. Supplementation of the mixture at a concentration of 0.5 or 1 g kg-1 of diet to broilers for 42 days improved body weight, body weight gain and FCR, reduced total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, increased populations of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, decreased harmful bacteria such as E. coli and total aerobes, reduced harmful cecal bacterial enzymes such as β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase, and improved intestinal histomorphology of broilers. Because of its remarkable efficacy on broiler chickens, the L. salivarius mixture could be considered as a good potential probiotic for chickens, and its benefits should be further evaluated on a commercial scale.

  2. Effects of a Lactobacillus salivarius mixture on performance, intestinal health and serum lipids of broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Shokryazdan

    Full Text Available The ban or severe restriction on the use of antibiotics in poultry feeds to promote growth has led to considerable interest to find alternative approaches. Probiotics have been considered as such alternatives. In the present study, the effects of a Lactobacillus mixture composed from three previously isolated Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CI1, CI2 and CI3 from chicken intestines on performance, intestinal health status and serum lipids of broiler chickens has been evaluated. Supplementation of the mixture at a concentration of 0.5 or 1 g kg-1 of diet to broilers for 42 days improved body weight, body weight gain and FCR, reduced total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, increased populations of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, decreased harmful bacteria such as E. coli and total aerobes, reduced harmful cecal bacterial enzymes such as β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase, and improved intestinal histomorphology of broilers. Because of its remarkable efficacy on broiler chickens, the L. salivarius mixture could be considered as a good potential probiotic for chickens, and its benefits should be further evaluated on a commercial scale.

  3. Effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts on growth performance and microbial populations in ceca of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X H; He, X; Yang, X F; Zhong, X H

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Portulaca oleracea extracts on growth performance and microbial populations in the ceca of broilers. A total of 120 one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 3 groups. Portulaca oleracea extracts were added to diets at 0.2 and 0.4% (wt/wt; POL-0.2, POL-0.4), respectively. The control (CON) group was administered with no P. oleracea extract supplementation. Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded every 2 wk. On d 28 and 42, the cecal contents were collected and assayed for Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium populations. Additionally, the pH of the ileum and cecum was measured. The results showed that both on d 28 and 42 BW gain of P. oleracea extract supplementation groups was significantly higher, whereas the feed conversion ratio was lower (P < 0.05) compared with CON. On d 28 and 42, significantly (P < 0.05) fewer E. coli were recovered from ceca of broilers provided with the POL-0.2 diet than from broilers provided with the control diet. The quantities of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium of POL-0.2 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than CON. Results showed P. oleracea extracts have no distinct influence on intestinal pH. These data suggest that P. oleracea extract supplementation significantly altered the cecal bacterial community without affecting the intestinal pH.

  4. The Effect of the Litter Materials on Broiler Chickens Welfare and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Gençoğlan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review the quality and types of the litter material and its effect on the welfare and performance of the broiler chickens. Since the most suitable broiler rearing system is on the littered floor, the litter material is of great importance. Demand for litter material is also increasing, depending on the development in broiler production. Straws, wood shavings, and sawdust are widely used as litters material. Beside these, materials such as wheat, barley, rye, oats, sunflower, rice, hazelnut, maize, soya, peanut, cotton and sugarcane are used purely or mixed as a litters material. The quality of the litter is determined with the litter moisture, pH, ammonium nitrate content, caking level and water holding capacity. The ideal litter material should have a moisture content of 20-25%, a pH of 8-10, and ammonia content should not exceed 25 ppm. The thickness of the litter changes between 2 and 10 cm according to the type of the litter, and size of it should not exceed 0.6 cm. Increase in the litter moisture increases pH, NH3 concentration and caking. The type of litter material effects on the performance, welfare, health, behavior and product quality of broiler chickens. In addition, there are negative effects of litter materials on carcass defects, foot-leg problems, breast blisters or bruises, decrease in living power, and increase of microorganism development due to litter moisture, increase of gas and dust formation in poultry. These adverse effects cause large economic losses in intensive enterprises. For this reason, the quality and type of litter material is very important in broiler rearing.

  5. Over, and Underexpression of Endothelin 1 and TGF-Beta Family Ligands and Receptors in Lung Tissue of Broilers with Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Avila, Norma; Ruiz-Castañeda, Gabriel; González-Ramírez, Javier; Fernandez-Jaramillo, Nora; Escoto, Jorge; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Bojalil, Rafael; Espinosa-Cervantes, Román; Sánchez, Fausto

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is a family of genes that play a key role in mediating tissue remodeling in various forms of acute and chronic lung disease. In order to assess their role on pulmonary hypertension in broilers, we determined mRNA expression of genes of the TGFβ family and endothelin 1 in lung samples from 4-week-old chickens raised either under normal or cold temperature conditions. Both in control and cold-treated groups of broilers, endothelin 1 mRNA expression levels in lungs from ascitic chickens were higher than levels from healthy birds (P 0.05). BAMBI mRNA gene expression was lowest in birds with ascites only in the control group as compared with the values from healthy birds (P < 0.05). PMID:24286074

  6. Effects of polymannuronate on performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, cecal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhui; Li, Defa; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Hui; Xia, Xuan; Bi, Wanghua; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Liying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of purified polymannuronate (PM) obtained from marine brown algae on the performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, and cecal fermentation profile of broiler chickens. In a 42 d experiment, 540 (average BW 43.77±1.29 g) 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks and fed a corn and soybean meal (SBM)-based diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg polymannuronate. Adding polymannuronate to the broiler chickens' diets resulted in a significantly increased ADG and improved feed conversion compared with the control treatment. From d 1 to 42, the ADG of broilers fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg of polymannuronate was increased by 2.58, 4.33, 4.20, and 3.47%, respectively. Furthermore, parameters related to immune status, antioxidant capacity, and composition of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens fed the polymannuronate-containing diets were altered compared with broiler chickens fed a diet without polymannuronate. Supplementation with polymannuronate significantly increased the concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid in the cecum compared with the control group. The results indicate that polymannuronate has the potential to improve broiler chicken immune status, antioxidant capacity, and performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Stocking density affects the growth performance of broilers in a sex-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuowei, S; Yan, L; Yuan, L; Jiao, H; Song, Z; Guo, Y; Lin, H

    2011-07-01

    The effects of stocking density, sex, and dietary ME concentration on live performance, footpad burns, and leg weakness of broilers were investigated. A total of 876 male and 1,020 female 1-d-old chicks were placed in 24 pens to simulate final stocking density treatments of 26 kg (LSD; 10 males or 12 females/m(2)) and 42 kg (HSD; 16 males or 18 females/m(2)) of BW/m(2) floor space. Two series of experimental diets with a 150 kcal/kg difference in ME concentration (2,800, 2,900, and 3,000 or 2,950, 3,050, and 3,150 kcal of ME/kg) were compared in a 3-phase feeding program. The HSD treatment significantly decreased BW gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The HSD chickens consumed less feed by 35 d of age; thereafter, the reverse was true. Male chickens had significantly higher feed intake (FI), BW gain, and FCR compared with females. A significant interaction was found of stocking density and age for FI, BW gain, and FCR. Compared with LSD treatment, HSD broilers had a higher FI and a lower FCR from 36 to 42 d of age. Stocking density, sex, and age had a significant interaction for BW gain and FCR. Female broilers had worse BW gain and FCR when stocked at high density from 36 to 42 d of age. Stocking density had no significant influence on breast, thigh, or abdominal fat yield. Female broilers had significantly higher breast yield and abdominal fat. Male broilers and HSD treatment had high footpad burn and gait scores. A low ME diet increased footpad burn score but had no effect on gait score. The result indicated that stocking density had a more severe effect on the growth of male broilers before 35 d of age. Female broilers need more space than males at similar BW per square meter near marketing age. The incidence and severity of leg weakness are associated with sex, diet, and stocking density. This result suggests that the deteriorated effect of high stocking density is sex and age dependent.

  8. Insoluble granite-grit allows broiler chicks to have better growth performance and gut health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güray Erener

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of insoluble granite-grit on growth performance and gut health status of broiler chicks. One hundred and sixty 14-day-old broiler chicks were allocated to experimental groups control and grit feeding. Each group included 80 birds divided by four replicates, each consisting of 20 birds, 10 males and 10 females. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass weight, dressing percentage, gut length, abdominal fat pad, and liver, heart, and gizzard weights were determined. Starter diet included 230 g crude protein (CP kg−1 and 3.15 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME kg−1 during the days 14 to 21; grower diet included 212 g CP kg−1 and 3.20 Mcal ME kg−1; and finisher diet included 190 g CP kg−1 and 3.20 Mcal ME kg-1. Control birds were fed broiler diets, while grit-fed birds were allowed to consume broiler diets, including 3% insoluble granite-grit. Grit feeding improved the final body weight (2268 vs. 2336 g with better feed efficiency (2.03 vs. 1.95 and less feed intake (3780 vs. 3764 g. Grit feeding increased gizzard weight (31.63 vs. 48.00 g without affecting carcass weight (1643 vs. 1708 g, dressing percentage (73.50 vs. 73.60%, liver weight (42.69 vs. 40.69 g, heart weight (12.00 vs. 11.63 g, abdominal fat pad (34.50 vs. 35.38 g, and gut length (229.3 vs. 220.7 cm of broilers. Grit feeding affects daily gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio positively by increasing gizzard development and health.

  9. Curtain color and lighting program in broiler production: I - general performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Nascimento Abreu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate mortality and performance, darkling beetle population (Alphitobius diaperinus, light intensity, electrical energy consumption and economic efficiency of broilers reared under two lighting programs (nearly continuous or intermittent and two curtain colors (yellow or blue. The experiment was conducted between June, 2004 and May, 2005. Six flocks were sequentially housed in four 12 × 10 m broiler houses divided into 4 pens with 200 birds each. Litter was reused six times or until flock 6. Body weight and feed conversion were determined on days 21, 35, and 42 of each flock. Mortality was recorded daily. Electrical energy consumption was recorded at the end of the grow-out of each flock (every 42 days. A completely randomized design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (flocks, lighting programs, curtains with four replicates per treatment was applied. Broilers reared in houses with yellow curtains and under nearly continuous lighting programs presented the best feed conversion ratio and the highest body weight. Nearly continuous lighting programs resulted in 1.48 times more sudden deaths and 1.34 times higher general mortality when compared with intermittent lighting programs. Electrical energy consumption was 2.12 times higher in nearly continuous lighting programs in relation to intermittent lighting programs. The presence of darkling beetles was higher in broiler houses with blue curtains and intermittent lighting program. The economic analysis showed the feasibility of using a mixed system, with intermittent light program in winter and spring and nearly continuous lighting program in the summer and autumn, both in broiler houses with yellow curtains.

  10. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    . In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based

  11. Influence of delayed placement and dietary lysine levels on small intestine morphometrics and performance of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JRG Franco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment studied the influence of delayed placement (HI and digestible lysine level (DL on the morphometrics of the intestinal mucosa and on the performance of broilers. A total number of 1,705 Cobb 500 male chicks were used in a completely randomized experimental design in a factorial arrangement with four HI (12, 24, 36 and 48h, and two DL level in the starter diet (1.143 and 1.267%, with four replicates and 55 birds per experimental unit. The amino acids methionine-cystine, threonine, and tryptophan were balanced according to the ideal protein (IP concept. Small intestine morphometrics was evaluated using histology slides of the duodenum and jejunum. There was no interaction between HI and DL levels for any of the studied parameters. The 1.143% level of DL promoted better performance results at 21 and 42 days of age, as well as higher duodenum and jejunum crypt depth, and duodenum villi height at 21 days of age. HI negatively influenced the morphometrics of the small intestine during the starter phase, and the performance of broilers up to 42 days of age. There was no effect of the treatments on yolk sac utilization or abdominal fat percentage. It was concluded that the use of 1.143% DL and HI of 12 hours promoted better development of the small intestine mucosa up to 21 days of age, and broiler performance at market age.

  12. The influence of different feed additives to performances and immune response in broiler chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Tokić Vesna; Lazarević Miodrag; Sinovec Z.; Tokić A.

    2007-01-01

    Our investigations were conducted in order to determine the influence of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) based prebiotics and polysaccharide microelement complexes on the performance and immune response of Arbor Acre broiler chickens. Total of 186 chickens was included in the study which lasted 42 days. Birds were fed ad libitum three different complete food mixtures (from days 1- 21, 21 - 35 and 35-42) according to the standard fattening procedure. Mixtures for chickens from the first group wer...

  13. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)

  14. HERBAL METHIONINE (METHIOREP® IMPROVES GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKENS WITHOUT AFFECTING CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND BLOOD INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Makinde

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Methiorep®, an herbal methionine premix, which is reported to contain herbal ingredients that mimic the activity of Methionine such as SAMe (S-Adenosyl Methionine and phosphatidyl choline, have recently introduced to Nigeria animal feed industry. An experiment was conducted with 120, one-week-old broilers to evaluate the effect of herbal methionine (methiorep® as substitute for synthetic methionine on growth performance of broiler chickens. Five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated and Diet 1 (control, comprised of 0.25% methionine (NRC, 1994 while diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 comprised of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% Methiorep® as substitute for methionine in the diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five experimental treatments, each treatment was replicated three times with eight birds per pen in a completely randomized design. The study lasted 49-days. The results of growth performance revealed that body weight gain, average feed intake and feed conversion ratio at both starter and finisher phases were not  influenced by dietary treatments (P>0.05. However cost per kg feed decreased as the level of Methiorep® increased in the diets (P0.05 by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that Methiorep® can completely substitute for Methionine in the diets of broiler chickens without adverse effect on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass yield of birds.

  15. The Effect of Chinese Propolis Supplementation on Ross Broiler Performance and Carcass Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama T. Mahmoud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Ether Extract of Propolis (EEP on Ross (308 broiler performance and carcass characteristics. This experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments (different levels of propolis including 0, 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg diet for 6 weeks. The mean weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. In addition At 42 days old the total body weight, total body weight gain, carcass and some internal organs relative weights were recorded. The results clarified that, the weight gain was significantly reduced in the 4th and 6th week (P0.05 reduced for propolis fed birds in comparison to those fed control diet, Furthermore, inclusion of 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg diet Propolis significantly reduced body weight at 42 days old and total body weight gain in comparison to control diet (P < 0.05. Under the condition of this experiment, prolonged use of propolis had adverse effect on performance of broilers. Also, all doses of propolis had non-significant negative effect on liver, heart, gizzard and carcass relative weight. In conclusion, EEP has no beneficial effect on performance and Carcass characteristics of Broilers.

  16. Responses of broilers to Aloe vera bioactives as feed additive: The effect of different forms and levels of bioactives on performances of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Feed additives are commonly used in poultry feed as growth promotors or to improve feed efficiency. Previous results showed that Aloe vera bioactives could improve feed efficiency in broilers. Therefore, a further study was designed in order to obtain optimum doses and application methods of bioactives for broiler chickens. Aloe vera was prepared in different forms (fresh gel, dry gel, fresh whole leaf or dry whole leaf. The aloe was supplemented into the feed with concentrations of 0.25; 0.5 and 1 g/kg (equal to dry gel. Standard diets with or without antibiotics were also included as control. The diets were fed to broilers from day old to 5 weeks and the performances were observed. Results showed that the aloe-bioactives did not significantly (P>0.05 affect final body weight of broilers as compared with the control. Supplementation of 0.25 g/kg fresh gel, 0.25 and 1.0 g/kg dry gel significantly improved feed convertion by 4.7; 4.8 and 8.2%, respectively as compared with the control. This improvement was a result of reduction in feed intake or dry matter intake without reducing the weight gain. However, supplementation of whole aloe leafs could not improve feed convertion in boilers. It is concluded that the bioactives of Aloe vera could be used as feed supplement to improve feed efficiency in broilers with no deleterious effect on weight gain, carcass yield, abdominal fat levels and internal organs. The effective concentrations of aloe gell as a feed supplement based on dry matter convertion were from 0.25 g/kg fresh gel, 0.25 and 1.0 g/kg dry gel.

  17. Effect of Different Levels of Extruded Soybean and Avizyme Enzyme on Broiler Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasiri Mogadam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of extruded soybean and enzyme on broiler performance. In a completely randomized design with 2×3 factorial arrangement, 480 one day-old, Ross broiler chickens were divided into 40 groups, 12 chicks per pen. Treatments were consisting of combination of four levels of extruded soybean (0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 % and two levels of enzyme (0.0 and 500 g per ton. Different levels of extruded soybean and enzyme had no significant effect on blood factors such as cholesterol, triglyceride and the weight of liver and heart. The usage of extruded soybean and enzyme showed significantly higher weight gain and better feed conversion (p

  18. Effect of antioxidant inclusion and oil quality on broiler performance, meat quality, and lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavárez, M A; Boler, D D; Bess, K N; Zhao, J; Yan, F; Dilger, A C; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of antioxidant inclusion and oil quality on broiler performance, meat quality, shelf life, and tissue oxidative status. Ross 308 male broilers were allotted to a randomized complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Factors consisted of antioxidant (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) inclusion at 2 levels (0 or 135 mg/kg) and oil quality (fresh soybean oil, control diet peroxide value dressing percentage (P = 0.906), breast yield (P = 0.708), or breast ultimate pH (P = 0.625) and had minimal effect on breast color. Antioxidant supplementation (P = 0.057) reduced breast thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 7 d of display. Fresh oil decreased liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, whereas antioxidant inclusion increased serum and liver vitamin A and E concentration. The presence of an antioxidant in the feed protects lipids from further oxidizing, therefore increasing broiler performance and improving shelf life when using oxidized oil.

  19. Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Growth Performance Responses and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Poorghasemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows: T, diet containing 4% tallow; CO, diet containing 4% canola oil; SFO, diet containing 4% sunflower oil; TCO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% canola oil; TSFO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% sunflower oil. Dietary fat type affected significantly BW and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed the TCO diets compared with those fed the other diets. Dietary fat type also modified meat yield, resulting in a higher breast and drumstick yields in the birds fed TCO and TSFO diets, respectively. Most of internal organ relative weights and small intestine measurements were not influenced by dietary treatments, except for the abdominal fat pad weight that was lower in birds fed SFO and for small intestinal length that was influenced by fat source. Results from the current study suggested that the supplementation with a combination of vegetable and animal fat sources in broiler diet supported positively growth performance and carcass parameters.

  20. Live performance and processing yields of broilers fed diets with tiamulin and salinomycin combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combined application of tiamulin (TIA and salinomycin (SAL in broiler diets fed from 1 to 42 d of age. One thousand and two hundred Cobb x Cobb 500 male broilers were housed in 48 floor pens and fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 66 ppm of SAL combined or not with TIA at 30 or 20 and 20 or 15 ppm, respectively, in the starter (1-21 d and grower feeds (22-42 d; however, TIA was withdrawn from the feeds 7 days before slaughter. The experimental design was completely randomized with 3 treatments and 16 replicates of 25 birds each. Broilers were weekly evaluated for live performance whereas carcass yield, abdominal fat and commercial cuts were assessed at 42 d using 6 birds randomly taken from each pen. Results obtained at the end of the study demonstrated that body weight gain was not affected (P > 0.05 by the treatments, whereas feed intake was reduced (P 0.05 by the treatments. Live performance and post-slaughter yields data obtained in this study did not indicate that combinations of TIA with SAL could be detrimental. In fact, an improvement in feed conversion was observed at the lowest dose of TIA.

  1. Effects of fumonisin B1 on selected biological responses and performance of broiler chickens

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    Ricardo H. Rauber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of three doses of fumonisin B1 (0, 100, and 200mg/kg of feed on biological variables (relative weight of liver [RWL], total plasma protein [TPP], albumin [Alb], calcium [Ca], phosphorus [P], uric acid [UA], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma glutamyltransferase [GGT], alkaline phosphatase [AP], total cholesterol [Chol], triglycerides [Tri], sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratio [SA:SO], and C-reactive protein [CRP], morphological evaluation of the small intestine (villus height [VH], crypt depth [CD], and villus-to-crypt ratio [V:C], histological evaluation, and on performance (body weight [BW], feed intake [FI], and feed conversion rate [FCR] of broiler chickens. Significant effects of FB were observed on BW and FI (reduced, on RWL, TPP, Ca, ALT, AST, GGT, Chol, and Tri (increased at both 14 and 28 days evaluations. In addition, significant increase was observed on FCR, Alb, P, SA:SO, and CRP and significant reduction in UA, VH, and V:C only at the 28 days evaluation. Significant histological lesions were observed on liver and kidney of FB inoculated broilers at 14 and 28 days. Those results show that FB has a significant effect on biological and histological variables and on performance of broiler chickens.

  2. Effects of glutamine on performance and intestinal mucosa morphometry of broiler chickens vaccinated against coccidiosis

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    Brenda Carla Luquetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the effects of glutamine as feed additive on performance and intestinal mucosa morphometry of broiler chickens vaccinated against coccidiosis. A total of 400 day-old male chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments (NVNG – no vaccination, no glutamine supplementation; NVG – no vaccination, glutamine supplementation (10 g kg−1; VNG – vaccination, no glutamine supplementation; VG – vaccination, glutamine supplementation replicated four times with 25 birds per replicate. A commercial sprayed-on vaccine against coccidiosis containing Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, E. mivati, and E. tenella was administered at the hatchery. Broiler performance was evaluated from 1-28 days, and morphometric parameters were analyzed at 14, 21, and 28 days of age. Body weight gain and feed intake were negatively affected by vaccination, but not by glutamine. Vaccination increased crypt depth in the duodenum and jejunum at 21 and 28 days. In conclusion, this study showed that glutamine was not able to increase weight gain of broiler chickens, irrespective of whether the animals were vaccinated or not against coccidiosis. Glutamine supplementation was able to improve feed conversion in vaccinated birds suggesting trophic effect on intestinal epithelium improving.

  3. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing DAS-68416-4 soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Dunville, Christina M; Juberg, Daland R; Fletcher, Dale W; Cromwell, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    Broiler chickens are a fast growing monogastric animal commonly used to evaluate the equivalence between transgenic and non-transgenic grains as part of the human safety assessment process. While commonly viewed like other livestock feeding trials, such studies are performed with transgenic crops with input traits (that are not designed to improve nutrition) to aid regulatory authorities in evaluating safety. Studies of this type are actually more similar to toxicology studies in purpose, with sensitive endpoints like growth used to detect metabolic perturbations. DAS-68416-4 soybean expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme which inactivates 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and provides DAS-68416-4 soybeans tolerance to this herbicide. DAS-68416-4 also expresses the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes which confers tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicides. A 6-week broiler study was conducted with diets containing toasted DAS-68416-4 soybean meal (40, 36, and 32% in starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively) to evaluate nutritional wholesomeness and safety compared with conventional comparators. Toasting soybean meal is required to inactivate endogenous antinutrients making soybean suitable for consumption by monogastric animals like broiler chickens. Toasting was found to denature both the AAD-12 and PAT proteins rendering them non-detectable by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Broiler growth and performance parameters were measured over a 6-week period of exposure to diets containing different sources of toasted soybean meal, and results indicate that DAS-68416-4 soybean is nutritionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

  4. Effects of Lipotropic Products on Productive Performance, Liver Lipid and Enzymes Activity in Broiler Chickens

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    Khosravinia H

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a 42-d experiment, 576 one-day-old Vencobb 308 broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of lecithin extract (0.5 g/kg, choline chloride 60% (1 g/kg and Bio choline (1 g/kg in diets of moderate and high energy in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement on performance and certain physiological traits in broiler chickens. The inclusion of Bio choline and lecithin extract in the diet significantly increased average daily gain and improved feed conversion ratio  in overall (1 to 42 d period (P < 0.05. Performance efficiency index was improved in the birds fed with Bio choline compared to those fed control diet. Broilers fed diets containing Bio choline and lecithin extract had less abdominal fat percentage than those fed choline chloride or control diet. Regardless of dietary energy level, supplementation of diet with Bio choline, choline chloride and lecithin extract significantly decreased liver lipid concentration (P < 0.05. Aspartate aminotransferase activity increased in the serum of broilers fed high energy diets while it was decreased in the birds received diets containing choline chloride. Lipotropic compounds decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in the birds fed on high energy diets. The addition of Bio choline and lecithin extract to diet significantly decreased serum γ–glutamyltransferase activity (P < 0.05. Results of the present study revealed that dietary supplementation of commercial lipotropic compounds could remove potential detrimental effects from high energy diets through reducing liver fat and maintaining liver health.

  5. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduces performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Marjina; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-08-01

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance were investigated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe × phytase interaction significantly influenced the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low- or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low- or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe × phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  6. Performance, meat quality, and pectoral myopathies of broilers fed either corn or sorghum based diets supplemented with guanidinoacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Noboa, H A; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Sarsour, A H; Barnes, J; Ferzola, P; Rademacher-Heilshorn, M; Braun, U

    2018-04-13

    One experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) supplementation in broilers fed corn or sorghum-based diets on live performance, carcass and cut up yields, meat quality, and pectoral myopathies. The treatments consisted of corn or sorghum-based diets with or without the addition of GAA (600 g/ton). A total of 800 one-d-old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly placed in 40 floor pens with 10 replicates (20 birds per pen) per each of the four treatments. At hatch, 14, 35, and 50 d, BW and feed intake were recorded. BW gain and FCR were calculated at the end of each phase. Four broilers per pen were selected and slaughtered at 51d and 55d of age to determine carcass and cut up yields, meat quality and myopathies (spaghetti muscle, white striping, and wooden breast) severity in the Pectoralis major. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with grain type and GAA supplementation as main effects. At 50 d, diets containing GAA improved (P broilers fed corn diets with GAA had higher breast meat yield (P 0.05) by GAA supplementation at any slaughter ages. However, GAA decreased (P broilers supplemented with GAA had double (P broilers fed non-supplemented diets, therefore reducing the severity of this myopathy. In conclusion, GAA supplementation improved broiler live performance in broilers raised up to 50 d independently of grain source, increased breast meat yield in corn-based diets and reduced the severity of wooden breast myopathy.

  7. Evaluation of kefir as a potential probiotic on growth performance, serum biochemistry and immune responses in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghyani, Majid; Mosavi, Seyed Kazem; Modaresi, Mehrdad; Landy, Nasir

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of milk or molasses kefir as a probiotic on growth performance, carcass traits, serum biochemistry and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens. A total of 192 one-d-old as hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments, each with 4 replicate pens of 12 chicks. The following treatments were applied: 1) a basal diet (C) and normal drinking water, 2) 2% milk kefir in drinking water, 3) 2% molasses kefir in drinking water, and 4) the diet C supplemented with commercial probiotic. At d 42, eight birds per treatment were killed for determination of carcass traits. Broilers at 28 days of age were bled for measuring antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV), at 30 days of age for antibody titers against sheep red blood cell (SRBC), and at 42 days of age for biochemical analysis. Supplementing 2% milk kefir increased body weight of broilers at 28 and 42 days of age ( P   0.05) influenced. Broilers supplemented with molasses kefir, had a significantly lower concentration of serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high density lipoprotein cholesterol at 42 days of age ( P  < 0.05). In conclusion, the results indicated that inclusion of 2% milk kefir in drinking water would improve growth performance of broiler chickens.

  8. Evaluation of kefir as a potential probiotic on growth performance, serum biochemistry and immune responses in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Toghyani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of milk or molasses kefir as a probiotic on growth performance, carcass traits, serum biochemistry and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens. A total of 192 one-d-old as hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allotted to 4 treatments, each with 4 replicate pens of 12 chicks. The following treatments were applied: 1 a basal diet (C and normal drinking water, 2 2% milk kefir in drinking water, 3 2% molasses kefir in drinking water, and 4 the diet C supplemented with commercial probiotic. At d 42, eight birds per treatment were killed for determination of carcass traits. Broilers at 28 days of age were bled for measuring antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus (NDV and avian influenza virus (AIV, at 30 days of age for antibody titers against sheep red blood cell (SRBC, and at 42 days of age for biochemical analysis. Supplementing 2% milk kefir increased body weight of broilers at 28 and 42 days of age (P  0.05 influenced. Broilers supplemented with molasses kefir, had a significantly lower concentration of serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high density lipoprotein cholesterol at 42 days of age (P < 0.05. In conclusion, the results indicated that inclusion of 2% milk kefir in drinking water would improve growth performance of broiler chickens.

  9. Reducing the CP content in broiler feeds: impact on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, P; Méda, B; Lambert, W; Corrent, E; Juin, H; Lessire, M; Tesseraud, S

    2017-11-01

    Reducing the dietary CP content is an efficient way to limit nitrogen excretion in broilers but, as reported in the literature, it often reduces performance, probably because of an inadequate provision in amino acids (AA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decreasing the CP content in the diet on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization in growing-finishing broilers using an optimized dietary AA profile based on the ideal protein concept. Two experiments (1 and 2) were performed using 1-day-old PM3 Ross male broilers (1520 and 912 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) using the minimum AA:Lys ratios proposed by Mack et al. with modifications for Thr and Arg. The digestible Thr (dThr): dLys ratio was increased from 63% to 68% and the dArg:dLys ratio was decreased from 112% to 108%. In experiment 1, the reduction of dietary CP from 19% to 15% (five treatments) did not alter feed intake or BW, but the feed conversion ratio was increased for the 16% and 15% CP diets (+2.4% and +3.6%, respectively), while in experiment 2 (three treatments: 19%, 17.5% and 16% CP) there was no effect of dietary CP on performance. In both experiments, dietary CP content did not affect breast meat yield. However, abdominal fat content (expressed as a percentage of BW) was increased by the decrease in CP content (up to +0.5 and +0.2 percentage point, in experiments 1 and 2, respectively). In experiment 2, meat quality traits responded to dietary CP content with a higher ultimate pH and lower lightness and drip loss values for the low CP diets. Nitrogen retention efficiency increased when reducing CP content in both experiments (+3.5 points/CP percentage point). The main consequence of this higher efficiency was a decrease in nitrogen excretion (-2.5 g N/kg BW gain) and volatilization (expressed as a percentage of excretion: -5 points/CP percentage point). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that with an adapted AA profile, it is possible to reduce

  10. Effects of probiotics on the growth performance and intestinal micro flora of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin-bo; Xu, Qian-qian; Yang, Cun-jin; Yang, Xin; Lv, Le; Yin, Chun-hua; Liu, Xiao-lu; Yan, Hai

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics have been used in poultry industry for decades to promote growth and protect animals from diseases, followed by various side effects. In efforts of searching for a better alternative, probiotic is of extensive attention. We investigated the effects of Bacillus subtitles, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Candida utilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus as 0.1% (W/W) feed additives on broiler growth performance and intestinal microflora. The results showed the probiotics treatments significantly improved growth of broilers. Broilers supplemented with B. subtilis and L. acidophilus weighed 18.4% and 10.1% more than birds in control group at 42 days of age. Furthermore the feed conversion ratios of the birds in the two groups were also improved, decreasing 9.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Further study indicated a significant increase of cecal Lactobacilli concentration in briolers supplemented with probiotics, expecially in L. acidophilus treatment group. Meanwhile, the count of cecal Actinomyces in birds treated with probiotics was significantly lower compared with the control group. In conclusion, probiotics such as B. subtitles and L. acidophilus are good alternatives to antibiotics in promoting growth resulting from a beneficial modulation of the intestinal micro flora, which leads to increased efficiency of intestinal digestion in the host animal.

  11. Productive and Economic Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Different Nutritional Plans

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    JMS Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of nutritional plans on the productive and economic performance of Hubbard Flex broiler chickens. A completely randomized experimental design was applied, consisting of five treatments. Treatments consisted of five different nutritional plans: a basal diet containing the nutrient and energy levels recommended by literature and designated reference diet; two diets containing 1.5% and 3% lower levels than the reference diet; and two diets containing 1.5% and 3% higher levels than the reference diet (-3%, -1.5%, reference plan, +1.5% and +3%. Feed intake (FI, body weight (BW, feed conversion rate (FCR, livability (L and productive efficient index (PEI were determined when broilers were 42 days old. Broilers were processed, and carcass and parts (breast fillet, leg, and wings yields were determined. The economic viablility of the nutitional plans was evaluated as a function of feed cost/kg live and carcass weights, economic efficiency index (EEI, and cost index (CI. Feed intake and the feed conversion rate decreased as dietary nutrient and energy levels increased. Feed cost/kg live weight, economic efficiency index, and cost index cost increased as dietary nutrient and energy levels increased. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio, production efficiency index, and breast yield improved with increasing nutritional and energy levels. However, worse economic results were obtained with higher nutritional and energy levels.

  12. Coccidiosis and performance in broilers with anticoccidial medicated feed starting at different ages

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    Costa C.A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of age, litter reutilization, and anticoccidial programs were studied in broilers. The oocyst counts increased with litter reutilization up to third use, and T1 (no anticoccidial drug over the entire 42-day-period and T4 (anticoccidial medication starting from the first day showed the highest counts. The scores for Eimeria acervulina increased up to third use of litter and declined by the fourth use. The scores for E. maxima increased from first to second litter use, and from this to third and fourth use. The scores for E. tenella increased from first and second litter use to third litter use, and declined on fourth use. With high coccidial contamination, as in third use litter, the anticoccidial medication starting from the 1st, 7th (T3 and 14th (T2 day of age presented similar results of lesion scores and average weight gain. When coccidial contamination was low or moderate, as in first, second and fourth use litter, the anticoccidial medication starting at 14 days of age tended to result in a better broiler performance. These data suggest that, with low coccidial challenge, as in broilers raised in first use litter and in farms with single bird age, the delayed anticoccidial medication may provide advantages over the full medication starting from the first day of age.

  13. Effects of Onion Extracts on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Profiles of White Mini Broilers

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    B. K. An

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of onion extract on growth performance, meat quality and blood profiles of White mini broilers. Total of 600 one-d-old male White mini broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed control diets (non-medicated commercial diet or antibiotics medicated or experimental diets (non-medicated diets containing 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract for 5 wks. The final body weight (BW and weight gain of the group fed non-medicated control diet were lower than those of medicated control group (p<0.01. The chicks fed diet with 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract showed a similar BW to that of medicated control group. The relative weight of various organs, such as liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, abdominal fat, and the activities of serum enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments. There were no significant differences in meat color among groups. Whereas, groups fed diets containing onion extract had slightly lower cooking loss and higher shear force value, but not significantly. The concentrations of serum free cholesterol and triacylglycerol in groups fed diet containing onion extract were significantly decreased compared with those of controls (p<0.01. In conclusion, the onion extracts exerted a growth-promoting effect when added in White mini broiler diets, reflecting potential alternative substances to replace antibiotics.

  14. Blood biochemistry, thyroid hormones, and performance in broilers with ascites caused by caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamely, Mohammad; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban

    2016-11-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that caffeine, a natural alkaloid, stimulates increased incidences of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (ascites) in broilers. The present study was designed to evaluate the ergogenic effects of caffeine on broiler performance and blood parameters. One-hundred-and-ninety-two Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned at one d of age to 16 pens with 4 treatment groups. On d 3, the drinking water was supplemented with caffeine at levels of zero, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg BW/day. Caffeine supplementation linearly improved (P caffeine (P > 0.05). On d 28, increasing caffeine supplementation caused linear reductions in plasma albumin, total protein, globulin, and triglyceride concentrations, and caffeine supplementation increased plasma uric acid concentrations (P caffeine did not consistently affect plasma albumin, globulin, triglyceride, total protein, uric acid, or urea concentrations (P > 0.05), whereas plasma glucose concentrations increased linearly with increasing caffeine levels (P caffeine (P > 0.05), but plasma T 3 concentrations were reduced by caffeine supplementation on d 28 and 42 (P caffeine supplementation on d 42. Skin temperature was not influenced by caffeine supplementation (P > 0.05). There was a negative correlation between thyroid hormone concentrations and BW on d 42 (P caffeine supplementation at the levels of 12.5 to 25 mg/kg BW/day increased BWG, decreased FCR and T 3 , and significantly altered blood biochemistry parameters. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Faqir Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15% and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.

  16. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Haider, Muhammad Faizan; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Sohaib, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid

    2013-02-08

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.

  17. Maternal energy and protein affect subsequent growth performance, carcass yield, and meat color in Chinese Yellow broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C; Jiang, Z Y; Jiang, S Q; Zhou, G L; Lin, Y C; Chen, F; Hong, P

    2012-08-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of maternal ME and CP levels on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of broiler offspring. A total of 1,134 thirty-week-old Chinese Yellow broiler breeders was randomly assigned to 3 dietary ME levels (11.09, 11.51, and 11.92 MJ/kg) and 3 CP levels (15.5, 16.5, and 17.5%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment had 6 replicates with 21 hens per replicate. At 39 wk of age, 30 settable eggs per replicate were selected for hatching. All broiler offspring were fed the same diets. There were significant ME×CP interactions in egg CP and ether extract (EE) contents, BW at d 1, 22 to 42 d ADG, ADFI during 1 to 21 d and 43 to 63 d, shear force, plasma albumin, cholesterol, and triglycerides contents of broiler offspring. Dietary ME at 11.92 MJ/kg increased average egg weight, egg EE content, and broiler 1-d-old BW compared with 11.09 MJ/kg group at 16.5%, 15.5%, and 17.5% CP levels, respectively (Pdressing percentage and decreased yellowness (b*) value of broiler offspring compared with 16.5% and 17.5% CP groups at 11.51 MJ/kg of ME level, respectively (Pdressing percentage and meat color of their offspring.

  18. Influence of acidified drinking water on growth performance and gastrointestinal function of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, H; Shi, H Q; Ma, G Y; Fan, Y; Li, W X; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Ji, C; Ma, Q G

    2018-06-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotic feed additives as growth promoters compelled the researchers for exploring the future utility of other alternatives. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of acidified drinking water on growth performance, gastrointestinal pH, digestive enzymes, intestinal histomorphology, and cecum microbial counting of the broiler chicken. A total of 540 one-day-old male broilers (Arbor Acre) were randomly assigned to 5 treatments, with 6 replicates of 18 chicks per replicate. Broilers received diets and water as follows: NC (negative control, basal diet, normal water), PC (positive control, basal diet + 8 ppm colistin sulfate + 8 ppm enduracidin, normal water), A1 (basal diet, continuous supply of acidified water during whole experiment period), A2 (basal diet, intermittent acidification of water during 0 to 14 d, 22 to 28 d, and 36 to 42 d), and A3 [basal diet, intermittent acidification of water (24 h/d from 0 to 14 d and from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm on d 15 to 42)]. During the entire period, the acidified groups (A1, A2, and A3) and PC group showed improve on weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio compared to NC group (P < 0.05). The pH in crop, proventriculus and ileum at 43 d declined by 0.04, 1.03, 1.23; 0.55, 0.69, 0.70; and 0.63, 0.74, 1.21 in A1, A2, and A3 group, respectively. There was a significant decline of lipase activity in the PC and acidified groups compared to NC group. The A2 group had higher villus height in jejunum than NC group. The PC and acidified groups reduced (P < 0.05) the total aerobic bacteria count of cecum when contrasted to NC group. Therefore, we conclude that acidified drinking water can improve growth performance, compensate for gastric acidity, and control pathogenic bacteria in broilers and may be considered as a potential alternative to improve production parameters. Discontinuous supply of acidified water had the same or even better influence on broilers compared to

  19. Effects of Oridonin on growth performance and oxidative stress in broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X C; Wu, Q J; Song, Z H; Zhang, H; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L L; Zhang, T Y; Wang, C; Wang, T

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of oridonin (ORI) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens that were repeatedly challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 384 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 8 treatments with 6 replicate cages per treatment and 8 birds per replicate. There were 4 dietary treatments: the control group (birds fed the basal diet), the ORI 50 group, the ORI 80 group, and the ORI 100 group (the basal diet supplemented with 50, 80, and 100 mg/kg oridonin, respectively). Broilers were intraperitoneally injected with either 250 μg/kg BW LPS or an equivalent amount of sterile saline at 16, 18, and 20 d of age. LPS decreased the average daily weight gain (ADG), the average daily feed intake (ADFI), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broiler chickens (P 0.05). LPS stimulation increased the relative weight of the spleen and bursa (P < 0.05); oridonin inclusion markedly attenuated the increased spleen index (P < 0.05). Additionally, the LPS-induced increases in the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreases in activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and catalase (CAT) were dramatically attenuated by oridonin in both the serum and liver (P < 0.05). Furthermore, LPS down-regulated the mRNA expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), and CAT in the liver (P < 0.05), However, oridonin inclusion increased the liver mRNA expression levels of Nrf2, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, and GPx1 (P < 0.05). It was concluded that the dietary oridonin supplementation at an optimum dose of 100 mg/kg improves the antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in MDA and the increase in total SOD activities and mRNA expression levels of the liver antioxidant genes, although

  20. Effect of dietary nucleotide supplementation on performance and development of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, B; Batal, A B

    2012-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation on broiler performance, and physical and morphological development of the gastrointestinal tract. 2. Experiment 1: A total of 180 one-d-old male chicks were placed in battery brooders in 3 × 6 replicate pens containing 10 chicks each. Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments; a maize-soyabean meal based diet supplemented with 0, 0·25, and 0·50% Torula yeast RNA (as a source of nucleotides) from 0 to 16 d of age. 3. Experiment 2: A total of 1344 one-d-old male chicks were placed in floor pens and reared on recycled wood shavings (two flocks) under a high stocking density (0·068 m(2)/bird). Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the 4 dietary treatments (0, 0·25% Torula yeast RNA, 2% and 6% Nupro®) for the starter period (0 to 14 d of age) with 6 replicate pens containing 56 chicks each. All the birds were fed on the same common grower diet with no supplementation of nucleotides from 15 to 32 d of age. 4. Experiment 1: Supplementing the diets with up to 0·50% Torula yeast RNA did not affect broiler performance, or relative intestinal tract weight and length of broilers at any periods measured. 5. Experiment 2: From 0 to 14 d of age, broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 0·25% Torula yeast RNA and 2 and 6% Nupro® were significantly heavier and had improved feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios as compared with the birds fed on the control diet. Supplementing the starter diet only with 2% Nupro® supplementation significantly improved body weight (BW) gain as compared with the control diet over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age). Broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 2 and 6% Nupro® from 0 to 14 d of age had better feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age) as compared with the birds fed on the control diet, even though the birds were only fed on the diets

  1. Effect of High Phytase Inclusion Rates on Performance of Broilers Fed Diets Not Severely Limited in Available Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytate is not only an unavailable source of phosphorus (P for broilers but it also acts as an anti-nutrient, reducing protein and mineral absorption, increasing endogenous losses and reducing broiler performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-nutritional effects of phytate by including high levels of phytase in diets not severely limited in available P. A total of 768 male Arbor Acres broilers were distributed in six treatments of eight replicate pens of 16 birds each consisting of a positive control diet (PC, positive control with 500 FTU/kg phytase, negative control (NC diet with lower available P and calcium (Ca levels and the same NC diet with 500, 1,000 or 1,500 FTU/kg phytase. Body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI, feed conversion ratio (FCR and mortality were determined at 21 and 35 d of age while foot ash was determined in four birds per pen at 21 d of age. FI, FCR and foot ash where not affected by the lower mineral diets at 21 d of age nor by the enzyme inclusion but broilers fed lower Ca and available P diets had lower BWG. At 35 d of age no difference was observed between broilers fed the positive or NC diets but broilers fed 500, 1,000 and 1,500 FTU/kg on top of the NC diet had better FCR than broilers fed the positive control diet. When compared to birds fed a diet adequate in P, birds fed the same diet included with 500, 1,000 and 1,500 FTU/kg of phytase in marginally deficient available P and Ca diets had an improvement of performance. These results support the concept that hydrolysing phytate and reducing the anti-nutritional effects of phytate improves bird performance on marginally deficient diets that were not covering the P requirement of birds.

  2. Effects of levamisole hydrochloride on cellular immune response and flock performance of commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OA Oladele

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Levamisole hydrochloride (Lev.HCl has been acclaimed to boost immune response particularly in immunocompromised state. Its routine use as an immunomodulator in poultry production is yet to be well embraced, thus its effects of on cellular immunity and flock performance of commercial broilers were evaluated. One hundred and fifty Anak broiler chicks were separated into two groups of 75 each. Broilers in group 1 were sensitized with 150µg of Staphylococcus aureus antigen each at 4 and 5 weeks, while those in group 2 were not sensitized. Each group was further divided into subgroups A, B, and C. Levamisole hydrochloride (40 mg/kg was administered orally to 1A and 2A at 45 and 46 days of age and to 1B and 2B at 47 and 48 days of age, while 1C and 2C were not treated. At 47 days of age, 12 broilers from all subgroups were challenged with 75µg of S. aureus antigen each at the right wattle. Wattle thickness was measured till 72 hours post challenge (pc and delayed wattle reaction (DWR was determined. Tissues were harvested at 72 hours pc for histopathology. Morbidity, mortality and live weights at 8 weeks of age were recorded. DWR peaked at 4 hours pc in 1A (2.22 ± 0.21 mm and 1B (2.96 ± 0.21 mm and 24 hours pc in 1C (3.39 ± 0.34 mm, the difference being significant (p<0.05. Inflammatory lesions were observed in wattles of sensitized subgroups and were more severe in 1C. Mortality rates were 4.17% and 29.17% in 1A and 1C respectively. Mean live weights in A and B i.e. 1.57± 0.06 kg and 1.56 ± 0.06 kg respectively, were significantly higher (p<0.0 than 1.43 ± 0.08 kg in C. Levamisole enhanced DTH via an early response, improved broiler liveability, and its anti-inflammatory property was confirmed.

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation with onion (Allium cepa L. on performance, carcass traits and intestinal microflora composition in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Goodarzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the effect of onion (Allium cepa L. as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on growth performance, carcass traits, and microflora composition in broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 192 one-day old mixed sex broiler chicks (Ross 308 were weighed and randomly allocated to four treatment groups, each with 4 replicate pens of 12 chicks. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control, antibiotic (15 mg virginiamycin/kg, and control+10 or 30 g fresh onions bulb/kg diet. Body weights of broilers were determined at Day 1, 21, and 42, feed intake was determined at the same periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At Day 42, two birds per replicate were slaughtered for determination of carcass and organ weights. The populations of Lactobacilli spp. and Escherichia coli were enumerated in ileum by conventional microbiological techniques using selective agar media. Results: Dietary supplementation of 30 g/kg onion increased final body weight of broilers at 42 d of age compared to that of the other treatments (P<0.05. Birds fed 30 g onion/kg in the diet had the highest feed intake than other treatments at different growth periods (P<0.05. Feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and internal organ weights were not affected by the dietary treatments at Day 42. The Lactobacilli spp. population in birds supplemented with onion at the level of 30 g/ kg significantly was higher than other groups at 42 d of age (P<0.05. The lowest Escherichia coli loads were detected in broilers fed diets containing 15 mg virginiamycin/kg. The Escherichia coli loads significantly decreased in broilers fed diets containing 10 or 30 g onion/kg (P<0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of the current study indicated that supplementing broiler diet with 30 g onion/kg could induce favorable influences on performance and ileum microflora composition.

  4. Efficiency of Tribulus terrestris L. as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on performance and immune responses in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Fekri Yazdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of Tribulus terrestris L. (puncture vine as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on growth performance, carcass traits, and immune responses in broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 1 92 one-day-old as hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allocated to four treatment groups, with 4 replicates of 12 birds. The following treatments were applied: basal diet (control, control+4.5 mg flavophospholipol/kg, or control+1 or 5 g puncture vine powder/kg. Vaccines against newcastle, influenza disease, and sheep red blood cells were administered to immunological stimuli. Results: Daily feed intake, internal organ weights, and carcass traits were not influenced by the dietary treatments except for carcass yield that increased in broilers fed diet supplemented with 1 g puncture vine powder/kg at 42nd day. Broilers receiving 1 g puncture vine/kg tended to have a lower feed conversion ratio compared to other groups during starter, finisher and entire experimental period (P>0.05. Broilers receiving 1 or 5 g puncture vine/kg had higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus compared to other groups (P<0.05. Broilers receiving 1 g puncture vine/kg had the highest antibody titer against avian influenza virus and sheep red blood cells at 28 and 31 days of age, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, the overall results of the current study showed that puncture vine powder seems to have the potential to positively influence growth performance and immune responses of broiler chicks.

  5. Performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens fed diet containing pineapple waste meal fermented by “ragi tape”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandey, J. S.; Tulung, B.; Leke, J. R.; Sondakh, B. F. J.

    2018-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of pineapple waste meal fermented by “ragi tape” (FPW) in diets on the performance and carcass quality of broilers. The “ragi tape” was a traditional commercial product of yeast. Five dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels of FPW with four replicates were fed to 250 broiler chickens for 42 days in a completely randomized design. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. The variables were performance parameters and carcass quality. Results showed that the performance in finisher, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage were significantly affected by dietary treatments. Carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage were significantly decrease in the proportion of 20% of FPW. However, the carcass percentage in treatments R0 - R4 were still in a good category. The higher the levels of FPW the lower the abdominal fat percentage signed that FPW treatments up to 20% resulted good category of broiler carcass. Income over feed cost and broiler cost analysis in 20% FPW treatment obtained the highest income and the lowest was 0% FPW treatment. It can be concluded that FPW can be fed to broiler chickens at up to 20% level.

  6. Effect of enrofloxacin on zootechnical performance, behaviour and immunohistopathological response in broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerapandian Sureshkumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A safety pharmacology trial was conducted to evaluate the impact of enrofloxacin on zootechnical performance, behaviour and immunohistopathological response in Newcastle disease virus vaccinated broiler chicken after pulsed water medication. Materials and Methods: Experimental group birds were administered with enrofloxacin at recommended therapeutic dose 10mg/Kg body weight, through drinking water for five consecutive days from 43rd to 47th day of age. Zootechnical performance parameters, behavioural and humoral immune response in terms of haemagglutination inhibition (HI titre were assessed at different time interval during pre-treatment, treatment, post-treatment period. Bursa of Fabricius and spleen tissues collected at each sampling point viz. 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days post treatment were subjected to histopathological examination. Results: A significant reduction in HI titre was noticed in enrofloxacin administered birds. The decreased HI titre was further substantiated by the histopathological changes observed in bursa of Fabricius and spleen which showed a lymphocytic dispersion and depletion with several areas of lymphoblastic degeneration. Conversely, a down regulatory effect on humoral immunity was observed as evidenced by increased HI titre value noticed from 5th day post treatment onwards and a congruent reversible trend in histopathological changes as indicated by repopulation with lymphocytes on 9th day post treatment. However, there was no significant change in body weight, cumulative feed intake, feed efficiency and behaviour in enrofloxacin administered groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the immuno suppressive activity of enrofloxacin may alter the immune response to vaccines, if it is coadministered during vaccination of broilers. On the other hand, enrofloxacin, though it decreased the humoral immune response, it did not have any appreciable effect on broiler's performance. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 337-342

  7. Effect of macronutrient ratio of the pre-starter diet on broiler performance and intermediary metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    SWENNEN, Quirine; Everaert, N.; Debonne, M.; Verbaeys, I.; Careghi, C.; Tona, K.; Janssens, G. P. J.; Decuypere, E.; Bruggeman, V.; Buyse, J.

    2010-01-01

    P>The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of isoenergetic substitution between the three energy delivering macronutrients in pre-starter diets on performance and intermediary nutrient metabolism in broiler chickens. From hatch until 5 days of age, 600 chicks, collected during peak of hatch, were fed one of the three experimental pre-starter diets with isoenergetic (13 MJ metabolisable energy/kg) substitutions between fat (43 vs. 108 g/kg), protein (126 vs. 240 g/kg) and carbohy...

  8. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Senaratna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Red light (RL marked higher weight gain (WG and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux, T2 = medium intensity (20 lux; T3 = dim intensity (5 lux, T4 = control/white light at (20 lux provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05 highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99 was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56 and FCR (1.34 were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05 influence giving the highest (56.2 g and the lowest (12.6 g values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05 higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1% was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2% was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI (4.87%±4% was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05 affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05 affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  9. Effect of silver nanoparticles on growth performance, metabolism and microbial profile of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Lane Manalili; Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    and intestinal content were collected to evaluate the effects of AgNano on plasma concentration of immunoglobulins and the intestinal microflora, respectively. The provision of water solutions containing different concentrations of AgNano had no effect on postnatal growth performance and the energy metabolism...... (IgG) in the blood plasma of broilers supplemented with AgNano decreased at day 36 (p = 0.012). The results demonstrated that AgNano affects N utilisation and plasma IgG concentration; however, it does not influence the microbial populations in the digestive tract, the energy metabolism and growth...

  10. Performance, carcass yield and litter quality of broilers raised on litters treated with micro-organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz,Dayane Prado da; Otutumi,Luciana Kazue; Piau Júnior,Ranulfo; Cervantes,Rodrigo Panucci; Mezalira,Taniara Suelen; Gerônimo,Edson

    2013-01-01

    The present paper aimed at evaluating the effect of adding beneficial micro-organisms to the litters on litter quality, performance and carcass yield for broilers. A total of 240 one-day chicks were used, and randomly distributed in blocks with four treatments and four replications. The following treatments were carried out in the housing: Treatment 1 – Control with weekly spraying of water on the litters; Treatment 2 – Litter treated with a mixture of inoculated and fermented meal by micro-o...

  11. The Effects of Natural Zeolit Supplemented into Litter on Growth Performance and Welfare of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Erol BİNTAŞ; Kamil Küçükyılmaz; Mehmet Bozkurt; Abdullah Uğur Çatlı; Mustafa Çınar; Sabri Topbaş; Bahattin Koçer; Gökhan Ege

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of clinoptiolite (a natural zeolite) in two addition level (3 kg or 6 kg) and two particle size (ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 mm or 0.5 to 1.0 mm) as litter supplement on the growth performance, litter dry matter, ammonium release and foot pad lesion score of broilers. One thousand and eight hundred, one-day-old chickens were divided into five treatment groups with six replicates of 60 chicks. Bird density was 15/ m2 in floor pens where pine sha...

  12. Effects of various stocking density on productive performance and some physiological traits of broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Ihsan T. Tayeb,; Siamand Nizar Hassan,; Merkhan M. Mustafa,; Shawkat Abdulrazaq M. Sadeq,; Gulizar Issa Ameen,; Asia Mohamed Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was carried out as a survey at the commercial poultry farm of broiler chickens in Duhok region namely Amedy, Akry and Sumail in order to study the effect of stocking density on the chick performance and some physiological traits. Chicks were divided into three stocking densities namely 8.66, 10.41 and 13.36 birds/m². The results obtained are summarized as follows: Live body weights and feed conversion ratio at 7 weeks of age were non significant differences between different s...

  13. Kaolin in the diet and its effects on performance, litter moisture and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Jorge de Lemos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of kaolin in the diet on performance, litter moisture and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Four hundred ninety-two broiler chickens distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments and four replicates of 41 birds each, divided into three periods (15-21; 22-34; 35-52 days were used. The following treatments were: Control - reference diet without added kaolin; treatment 1 - reference diet + 0.75% kaolin; Treatment 2 - reference diet + 1.5% kaolin. The variables analyzed were: feed intake, average weight, average weight gain, feed conversion, litter moisture, villus height and crypt depth. The inclusion of kaolin in the diet significantly reduced feed intake, increased weight and average weight gain and improved feed conversion of broilers. The litter moisture decreased significantly after the inclusion of kaolin in the diet. The height of the duodenal villi of broilers increased significantly after inclusion of kaolin, while crypt depth was not influenced. The inclusion 0.75% of kaolin in the diet improved the performance, decreased litter moisture and benefited the intestinal integrity of broilers.

  14. Effects of Coriander Essential Oil on the Performance, Blood Characteristics, Intestinal Microbiota and Histological of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ghazanfari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary supplementation of coriander oil on broiler performance, blood characteristics, microbiota, and small intestine morphology measurements. A number of one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 were allocated to five treatments, with four replicates according to a completely randomized design (CRD. Birds were offered either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control, or the basal diet supplemented with 600 mg/kg of a flavophospholipol antibiotic, 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg coriander essential oil. At 42 days of age, two birds per replicate were selected for blood collection, slaughtered, and its intestinal microbiota and morphology were investigated. The results indicated that weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio significantly improved by the dietary inclusion of the coriander oil and antibiotic compared with the control treatment (p0.05. Birds fed the coriander oil and antibiotic diets had lower populations of Escherichia coli than control group in cecum (p<0.05. The dietary treatments influenced the morphology of small intestinal villi. Birds fed antibiotic and coriander essential oil presented higher villus height and crypt depth compared with those in the control treatment (p<0.01. Coriander essential oil supplementation significantly decreased epithelial thickness and the number of goblet cell of the small intestinal compared with the control treatment (p<0.0001. In conclusion, coriander oil was shown to be an efficient growth promoter. The intestinal health improvement obtained with coriander oil was associated with improvements in broiler growth performance.

  15. Effect of potassium chloride supplementation in drinking water on broiler performance under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, T; Khalid, T; Mushtaq, T; Mirza, M A; Nadeem, A; Babar, M E; Ahmad, G

    2008-07-01

    The effect of water supplementation of KCl on performance of heat-stressed Hubbard broilers was evaluated in the present experiment. The 3 experimental treatments (i.e., control, 0.3 and 0.6% KCl) were allocated to 3 replicates of 15 birds each. The control group was kept on dugout tap water, whereas the other 2 groups were supplied water supplemented with 0.3 and 0.6% KCl (wt/vol) by supplementing 3 and 6 g of KCl, respectively, per liter of drinking water. Broilers were provided ad libitum access to feed and water for the experimental period of 7 to 42 d of age and kept in open-sided house. The birds were reared under continuous thermostress (minimum 28.2 +/- 1.02 and maximum 37.5 +/- 0.78 degrees C) environment. Supplementing drinking water with 0.6% KCl reduced panting-phase blood pH to 7.31 and significantly increased live BW gain by 14.5 (P = 0.036) and 7.9% (P = 0.029) at 28 and 42 d of age, respectively, relative to control. An improved (P = 0.04) feed:gain and lowered body temperature were noted in groups supplemented with 0.6% KCl as compared with control and 0.3% KCl. Enhanced physiological adaptation with 0.6% KCl was evidenced by a more favorable pH during the panting phase in the present study. These findings demonstrated a possibility of better broiler live performance through KCl supplementation under conditions of severe heat stress (35 to 38 degrees C).

  16. Effect of feeding system and fermented sago waste on performance of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Kompiang

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment, with a split plot experimental design, was conducted to determine the effect of feeding system (full vs choice feeding and fermented sago waste (AST 5 vs 0% on the performance of broiler chickens. Complete feed was formulated tocontain 21% crude protein, 2900 kcal ME/kg, without or with 5% AST. Feed for choice feeding was formulated to contain 2900 kcal ME/kg, without or with 5% AST with crude protein 23 or 17%. Four hundreds DOC broilers were used for each treatment divided into 4 replicates (100 birds/replicate on litter system. Feed and water were given ad lib. during the 4 weeks trial. Data collected included feed consumption (weekly, body weight (bi-weekly, feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein efficiency ratio (PER were calculated biweekly. Feeding system has no significant effect on total feed/energy consumption. Choice feeding reduced total protein consumption (P<0.01; 323.5 vs 354.9 gram/head/4weeks, increased body weight gained (P<0.01; 889.5 vs 835 gram/head/4weeks, improved FCR (P<0.05; 1.90 vs 2.03, and PER (P<0.001; 0.37 vs 0.43. Fermented sago waste (AST had no significant effect on total feed/energy consumption (P<0.05, reduced total protein consumption (P<0.05; 333.6 vs 349.8 gram/head/4weeks, increased body weight gained (P<0.05; 887.5 vs 837 gram/head/4weeks, improved FCR (P<0.05; 1.88 vs 2.06 and PER (P<0.05; 0.38 vs 0.42. It is concluded that broiler chicken had an ability to determine its protein requirement, and AST supplementation significantly improved performance of the birds.

  17. Dietary nisin modulates the gastrointestinal microbial ecology and enhances growth performance of the broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Józefiak

    Full Text Available Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg. The nisin (NI diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age, activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05 in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001 decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI₉₀₀ and NI₂₇₀₀ groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary

  18. Effects of pig antibacterial peptides on growth performance and intestine mucosal immune of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, H; She, R; Liu, T; Zhang, Y; Peng, K S; Luo, D; Yue, Z; Ding, Y; Hu, Y; Liu, W; Zhai, L

    2009-02-01

    Currently, substitutions for antibiotic growth promoters in animals are attracting interest. This study investigated the effects of pig antibacterial peptides (PABP) on growth performance and small intestine mucosal immune responses in broilers. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 5 groups with 60 birds per group. The groups were control group; PABP administered in drinking water at 20 and 30 mg/L of water; or PABP supplemented in feed at 150 and 200 mg/kg of diet. The birds were fed a corn-soybean based diet for 6 wk. Chickens were weighed weekly and killed after 42 d of feeding, and growth performance was measured. Samples of the duodenum and jejunum were collected. The villus height, mucosa thickness, alkaline phosphatase activity, and numbers of secreting IgA and goblet cells were evaluated. The PABP-treated groups had greater BW and average daily gain, greater height of villus and thickness of gut mucosa, greater activity of alkaline phosphatase, higher ratio of secreting IgA, and a greater number of goblet cells compared with the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, PABP can improve the growth performance, increase the intestinal ability to absorb nutrients, and improve the mucosal immunity of the intestine.

  19. Effect of litter treatment on growth performance, intestinal development, and selected cecum microbiota in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilaneh Taherparvar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine whether the type of bedding materials (sand, wood shavings, and paper and of two chemical amendments (lime and bentonite could interfere with litter quality (moisture, pH, and total bacterial counts, thereby influencing also the growth performance and the development of intestinal traits and cecum microbiota of chickens. Two hundred and seventy male Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned into nine treatment groups with three replicates per treatment. Broiler productive parameters, relative weight of different intestinal segments, content of cecal total bacterial counts (total aerobic bacteria, Lactobacilli, and coliforms, as well as litter moisture, pH, and total aerobic bacteria and coliforms counts, were assessed. Litter material, per se, did not significantly affect the productivity parameters at the end of the experimental period (42 days with the exception of protein efficiency. A significant trend was found among treatments with regard to weight gain and feed intake, with lower performance in birds on sand beddings. Litter pH was relatively homogenous between bedding types and amendments, but the moisture was significantly lower when sand was used. Litter type did not influence the relative weight of the different intestinal segments; however, the type of amendment affected the relative jejunum weight, which was increased in bentonite-treated litter. The use of lime and bentonite treatments may be helpful to decrease the differences in litter moisture associated with particular bedding materials. The tested amendments do not interfere with the productive performance of birds.

  20. PERFORMANCE, CARCASS YIELD AND LITTER QUALITY OF BROILERS RAISED ON LITTERS TREATED WITH MICRO-ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Prado da Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aimed at evaluating the effect of adding beneficial micro-organisms to the litters on litter quality, performance and carcass yield for broilers. A total of 240 one-day chicks were used, and randomly distributed in blocks with four treatments and four replications. The following treatments were carried out in the housing: Treatment 1 – Control with weekly spraying of water on the litters; Treatment 2 – Litter treated with a mixture of inoculated and fermented meal by micro-organisms and weekly spraying of water; Treatment 3 – Litter treated by weekly spraying of micro-organisms; Treatment 4 – Litter treated with the same mixture of meals from treatment two and weekly spraying of micro-organisms. Performance was evaluated by the feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion, viability and carcass, breast and leg yield. From litter samples, pH, dry matter, ashes and nitrogen were evaluated. No differences were found among the treatments. In the conditions the animals were raised, it can be concluded that the treatment on the litter does not affect performance, carcass yield and quality of the litter for broilers.

  1. Effect of dietary vitamin A and Nigella sativa on the performance of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sideeg, Rasha Mohamed

    2000-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding different added levels of vitamin A and Nigella sativa seeds on broiler performance, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics. One- hundred forty four, one-day old unsexed (Lohman) broiler chicks were divided randomly into eight groups, each represented a treatment (18 birds/treatment), with 2 replicates for each treatment 2x4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design was used. The experimental basal rations were formulated to meet requirement for essential nutrients for broiler chicks according to NCR (1984) recommendation. Four graded levels of added vitamin A (0,3000,4500 and 9000 IU/kg) and two levels of Nigella sativa (0, 0.25%) were used. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were determined. In addition blood chemistry, absolute weight of internal organs and carcass characteristics were measured. The added level 3000 IU of vitamin A significantly increased weight gain (P≤ 0.01) decreased feed conversion ratio (P≤ 0.01) and increased muscle: bone ratio (P≤ 0.05). The level 0.25% of Nigella sativa with no added vitamin A significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased body weight and weight gain. High level of added vitamin A decreased absolute weight of liver (P≤ 0.01), and increased fat content of muscles (P≤ 0.01) and abdominal fat (P≤ 0.01). Vitamin A and Nigella sativa significantly affect serum Ca (which was determined according to the calorimetric method), P, Zn , and alkaline phosphates(alk.ase) and cholesterol (P≤ 0.05) which was determined according to the Enzymatic Calometric Test . Addition of 0.25% Nigella sativa significantly affect serum cholestrol (P ≤0.01). The treatments had no significant affect on serum glucose and ash content of meat. Significant interaction between vitamin A and Nigella sativa were observed on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake (P≤ 0.01, P≤0.05, and P≤0

  2. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegani, M; Smith, T K; Leeson, S; Boermans, H J

    2006-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders. Forty-two 26-wk-old broiler breeder hens and nine 26-wk-old roosters were fed the following diets: (1) control, (2) contaminated grains, and (3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) for 12 wk. The major contaminant was deoxynivalenol (12.6 mg/kg of feed), with lesser amounts of zearalenone and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol. Feed consumption and BW were not affected by diet. The feeding of contaminated grains did not significantly affect egg production. Decreased eggshell thickness was seen, however, at the end of wk 4, and dietary supplementation with GMA prevented this effect. There was no effect of diet on other egg parameters measured. There was a significant increase in early (1 to 7 d) embryonic mortality in eggs from birds fed contaminated grains at wk 4, but mid- (8 to 14 d) and late- (15 to 21 d) embryonic mortalities were not affected by diet. There were no differences in newly hatched chick weights or viability. The ratio of chick weight to egg weight was not affected by the feeding of contaminated grains. Weight gains of chicks fed a standard broiler starter diet at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were not significantly affected by previous dietary treatments for the dam. It was found that rooster semen volume and sperm concentration, viability, and motility were not affected by the feeding of contaminated diets. There was no effect of diet on the relative weights of liver, spleen, kidney, and testes. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased antibody titers against infectious bronchitis virus at the end of wk 12, and this was prevented by dietary supplementation with GMA. There was no effect of the diet on serum antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus. It was concluded that the feeding of blends of grains contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins could affect

  3. Effect of dietary vitamin A and Nigella sativa on the performance of broiler chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideeg, Rasha Mohamed [Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2000-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding different added levels of vitamin A and Nigella sativa seeds on broiler performance, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics. One- hundred forty four, one-day old unsexed (Lohman) broiler chicks were divided randomly into eight groups, each represented a treatment (18 birds/treatment), with 2 replicates for each treatment 2x4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design was used. The experimental basal rations were formulated to meet requirement for essential nutrients for broiler chicks according to NCR (1984) recommendation. Four graded levels of added vitamin A (0,3000,4500 and 9000 IU/kg) and two levels of Nigella sativa (0, 0.25%) were used. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were determined. In addition blood chemistry, absolute weight of internal organs and carcass characteristics were measured. The added level 3000 IU of vitamin A significantly increased weight gain (P{<=} 0.01) decreased feed conversion ratio (P{<=} 0.01) and increased muscle: bone ratio (P{<=} 0.05). The level 0.25% of Nigella sativa with no added vitamin A significantly (P {<=} 0.01) increased body weight and weight gain. High level of added vitamin A decreased absolute weight of liver (P{<=} 0.01), and increased fat content of muscles (P{<=} 0.01) and abdominal fat (P{<=} 0.01). Vitamin A and Nigella sativa significantly affect serum Ca (which was determined according to the calorimetric method), P, Zn , and alkaline phosphates(alk.ase) and cholesterol (P{<=} 0.05) which was determined according to the Enzymatic Calometric Test . Addition of 0.25% Nigella sativa significantly affect serum cholestrol (P {<=}0.01). The treatments had no significant affect on serum glucose and ash content of meat. Significant interaction between vitamin A and Nigella sativa were observed on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake (P{<=} 0.01, P{<=}0.05, and P

  4. The Effect of Dietary Oils on Growth Performance of Broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    chicks/group) and fed diets supplemented with 0.5% sunflower oil (Group A), ... improve performance and to decrease indices of inflammatory response in the ... protein synthesis and accretion in the skeletal muscle (Hentges et al., 1984).

  5. Effects of high grade bentonite on performance, organ weights and serum biochemistry during aflatoxicosis in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Indresh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of different levels of High Bentonite on growth performance, organ weight and serum biochemistry in broiler fed on diets containing aflatoxin. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided at random into 8 dietary treatment groups of 42 chicks each having 3 replicates. Dietary levels of aflatoxin (0.5 ppm and High-grade bentonite (0.5, 0.75 and 1.00% were tested in a completely randomized design manner, forming a total of 8 dietary treatments each with three replicates. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At 5 wk, six birds from each treatment were sacrificed and liver, kidney, gizzard, pancreas, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus were extracted and weighed. The serum samples were analyzed for total proteins, uric acid, serum albumin, serum globulin and the activities of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, alanine amino transferase (ALT and for antibody titers against Newcastle disease (ND and infectious bursal disease (IBD using ELISA technique. Results: A significant (P<0.05 decrease in body weight, feed consumption, relative weights of bursa, thymus, serum protein, anti body titers against NDV and IBDV, and increase in FCR, mortality, relative weight of liver, kidney, and the activity of Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT was observed. However, the relative weights of gizzard, pancreas, spleen, serum albumin, uric acid and the activity of Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT were not influenced by inclusion of AF or HGB. Conclusion: The addition of HGB restored the harmful effects of AF on body weight, feed consumption, FCR, mortality, relative weight of liver, kidney, serum protein, IBDV and NDV. Supplementation of high grade bentonite at 1.0 per cent level was found to be beneficial in ameliorating the adverse effects of aflatoxin (AF in broiler chickens. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 313-317

  6. EFFECT OF FEEDING COOKED HATCHERY WASTE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan and Bashir Mahmood Bhatti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Raw hatchery waste was cooked with water at 2:1 ratio for 15 minutes and then oven dried at 65C and ground. Hatchery waste meal (HWM thus prepared contained 32% crude protein, 16% ether extract, 0.9% crude fibre, 40% total ash, 11.1% nitrogen free extract, 20% calcium and 0.6 % available phosphorous with no E.Coli and Salmonella. In biological evaluation trail, non significant differences was observed among rations in which HWM replaced the fish meal at 0(A, 25(B, 50(C and 75 (D levels in broiler rations. These rations showed that protein efficiency ratios were 1.68, 1.79, 1.65,and 1.64 apparent biological value 59.96, 60.25, 59.75 and 58.32% respectively, indicating better balance of amino acid in HWM to be replaced with fish meal,. In 6 weeks performance trail, the body weight gains were 1807.69, 1916.39, 1788.39 and 1635.66 gm in A, B, C and D rations, respectively. Whereas, FCR values were 2.59, 2.32, 2.43 and 2.63 in the corresponding groups, which shows no significant difference among all rations. The cost per chick to market age was lowest in ration containing high level of HWM (7.5% and highest in ration containing high level of fish meal (10% indicating maximum replacement of fish meal by HWM in broiler ration is economical. Similarly, slaughtering data revealed no significant difference among all rations in all parameters. It may be concluded that the HWM can completely replace fish meal in commercial broiler rations.

  7. The effect of direct-fed microbial supplementation, as an alternative to antibiotics, on growth performance, intestinal immune status and epithelial barrier protein expression in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic supplementation in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, feed efficiency, intestinal cytokine and tight junction (TJ) protein mRNA expression. Day-old broiler chicks (n = 140) were randomly assigne...

  8. The effects of direct-fed microbial supplementation, as alternative to antibiotics, on growth performance, intestinal immune status and epithelial barrier protein expression in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis supplementation in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, feed efficiency, intestinal cytokine and tight junction (TJ) protein mRNA expression. Day-old broiler chicks (n = 140) were assigned five dietary treatments: basal...

  9. The impact of nutrient density in terms of energy and/or protein on live performance, metabolism and carcass composition of female and male broiler chickens of two commercial broiler strains

    OpenAIRE

    Delezie, E.; Bruggeman, V.; SWENNEN, Quirine; Decuypere, E.; Huyghebaert, G.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of diet composition on performance, slaughter yield and plasma metabolites, as different modern broiler strains show different responses to feed intake. Broilers of two commercial strains and of both sexes received one of three diets being different in energy and/or protein level [control diet, low energy/low protein diet (LM/LP) and low protein diet (LP)]. Low energy/low protein diet chickens were characterized by significantly lower...

  10. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Growth performance and carcase quality in broiler chickens fed on bacterial protein grown on natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverland, M; Schøyen, H F; Skrede, A

    2010-10-01

    1. The effects of increasing concentrations (0, 40, 80 or 120 g/kg) of bacterial protein meal (BPM) and bacterial protein autolysate (BPA) grown on natural gas on growth performance and carcase quality in broiler chickens were examined. 2. Adding BPM to diets reduced feed intake and improved gain: feed from 0 to 21 d and overall to 35 d, but did not significantly affect weight gain compared to the soybean meal based control diet. 3. Increasing concentrations of BPA significantly reduced growth rate, feed intake, gain: feed, carcase weight and dressing percentage, but significantly increased carcase dry matter, fat and energy content. 4. Adding BPM to diets had no effect on viscosity of diets and jejunal digesta, and minor effects on litter quality, whereas BPA increased the viscosity of diets and jejunal digesta, improved litter quality at 21 d, but decreased litter quality at 32 d. 5. To conclude, broiler chickens performed better on a BPM product with intact proteins than on an autolysate with ruptured cell walls and a high content of free amino acids and low molecular-weight peptides.

  12. Effect of dietary acidification in broiler chickens: 1. Growth performance and nutrients ileal digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Khooshechin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary Orgacids® (organic acid; OA supplementation on the productive performance, nutrients ileal digestibility, relative weight of organs and serum enzyme activities in broiler chickens. One hundred-sixty Ross 308 male chicks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments: a nutritionally balanced basal diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3 OA g kg–1 of feed from 7 to 42 d of age. Each treatment had 4 replications with 10 broilers/replicate pen. As a result of this study, body weight, average daily gain and average daily feed intake increased (linear effect, P<0.05 at 3 g kg–1 of OA inclusion, whereas feed conversion ratio was negatively affected by dietary treatments (quadratic, P<0.05 as inclusion of OA increased to 2 g kg-1 and then decreased with further inclusion. Ileal digestibility of total phosphorus and relative weight of pancreas, heart and spleen increased (linear effect, P<0.05 with increasing inclusion of OA. Metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention increased linearly and quadratically on increasing OA addition reaching a maximum at 2 g kg–1 diet. The results indicated that serum enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase increased (linear effect, P<0.05 with increasing inclusion levels of OA, but lactate dehydrogenase decreased. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the OA supplementation at 3 g kg–1 of the diet resulted in optimal growth performance and nutrients digestibility.

  13. Correlations among behavior, performance and environment in broiler breeders using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF Pereira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare issues have received much attention not only to supply farmed animal requirements, but also to ethical and cultural public concerns. Daily collected information, as well as the systematic follow-up of production stages, produces important statistical data for production assessment and control, as well as for improvement possibilities. In this scenario, this research study analyzed behavioral, production, and environmental data using Main Component Multivariable Analysis, which correlated observed behaviors, recorded using video cameras and electronic identification, with performance parameters of female broiler breeders. The aim was to start building a system to support decision-making in broiler breeder housing, based on bird behavioral parameters. Birds were housed in an environmental chamber, with three pens with different controlled environments. Bird sensitivity to environmental conditions were indicated by their behaviors, stressing the importance of behavioral observations for modern poultry management. A strong association between performance parameters and the behavior "at the nest", suggesting that this behavior may be used to predict productivity. The behaviors of "ruffling feathers", "opening wings", "preening", and "at the drinker" were negatively correlated with environmental temperature, suggesting that the increase of in the frequency of these behaviors indicate improvement of thermal welfare.

  14. Performance and economic analysis of broilers fed diets containing acerola meal in replacement of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Henrique Zanetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed with this research to evaluate the performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing increasing levels of acerola meal in replacement of corn and analyze the economic viability of that production system. A total of 980 day-old male Cobb chicks were used, allotted in a completely randomized design, with four treatments - inclusion levels (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of acerola meal in replacement of corn – and seven replications with 35 birds per experimental unit. The birds were weighed at 21 and 42 days of age to measure the performance data. In the period between 1 and 21 days of age, differences were observed in the feed intake and feed:gain only, in which the inclusion of acerola meal linearly decreased feed intake and improved feed:gain up to a level of 10.25%. For the total rearing period, the control treatment showed higher body weight. The feed:gain showed linear effect, worsening the results with increasing amounts of acerola meal in the diets. In the same period, there was no significant difference in feed intake and productive efficiency index. With regard to the economic analysis, it was found that the lowest final cost per broiler was observed in diets with 10% of acerola meal inclusion in replacement of corn.

  15. Delivery routes for probiotics: Effects on broiler performance, intestinal morphology and gut microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen G. Olnood

    2015-09-01

    of the probiotic through feed, water and litter increased (P < 0.01 the weight of the pancreas on d 21, but the probiotic did not affect other morphometric parameters of the gut. Furthermore, the probiotic did not affect the pH and the concentrations of short chain fatty acids and lactic acid in either the ileum or caeca. Keywords: Probiotics, Delivery routes, Broiler, Performance, Intestinal morphology

  16. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters for ammonia-exposed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min; Bai, Jie; Wei, Fengxian; Xu, Bin; Sun, Quanyou; Li, Jie; Wang, Gaili; Tang, Xiangfang; Zhang, Hongfu; Yin, Qingqiang; Li, Shaoyu

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) supplementation on relieving ammonia stress of broilers, 180 22-day-old male broilers were assigned to three groups, six replicates in each group and 10 birds per replicate. The three groups were: (1) a control group without ammonia stress; (2) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia (AM); (3) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia and administration of 300 mg/kg LA (AM + LA). The experimental period was 3 weeks. Results showed that average daily weight gain was increased and feed conversion ratio was decreased in the AM + LA group, compared with the AM group (P ammonia stress to restore broiler production performance to normal levels. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Inclusion of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler diets: a meta-analysis of effects on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Umar Faruk, M; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Bastianelli, D

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted (i) to evaluate broiler response to partial or total substitution of corn by sorghum and millet and (ii) to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by cottonseed meal in broiler diet. The database included 190 treatments from 29 experiments published from 1990 to 2013. Bird responses to an experimental diet were calculated relative to the control (Experimental-Control), and were submitted to mixed-effect models. Results showed that diets containing millet led to similar performance as the corn-based ones for all parameters, whereas sorghum-based diets decreased growth performance. No major effect of the level of substitution was observed with millet or cottonseed meal. No effect of the level of substitution of sorghum on feed intake was found; however, growth performance decreased when the level of substitution of corn by sorghum increased. Cottonseed meal was substituted to soybean meal up to 40% and found to increase feed intake while reducing growth performance. Young birds were not more sensitive to these ingredients than older birds since there was no negative effect of these ingredients on performance in the starter phase. Results obtained for sorghum pointed out the necessity to find technological improvements that will increase the utilization of these feedstuffs in broiler diet. An additional work is scheduled to validate these statistical results in vivo and to evaluate the interactions induced with the simultaneous inclusions of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler feeding.

  18. Effect of Andrographis paniculata and Psidium guajava leaves on growth performance and carcass of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanasit, S.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A six-week experiment was conducted to study the effects of Andrographis paniculata (AP and Psidium guajava (PG on the growth performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens. Six hundred one-day-old (mixed sex broiler chicks were used in ten dietary treatments, in a completely randomized design experiment. There were three replications in each treatment with 20 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments were 1 basal diet (control, 2 basal diet + antibiotic, 3 basal diet + 0.2% AP, 4 basal diet + 0.4% AP, 5 basal diet + 0.2% PG, 6 basal diet + 0.4% PG, 7 basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.2% PG, 8 basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.4% PG, 9 basal diet + 0.4% AP + 0.2% PG and 10 basal diet + 0.4% AP + 0.4% PG From 0-3, 3-6 and 0-6 weeks, feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate were not significantly different (P>0.05 among treatments. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in percentages of eviscerated carcass, breast and leg among chicken fed different diets However, percentage of abdominal fat of male chicken fed basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.2% PG were lower (P<0.05 than other treatments while female chickens fed the same diet were not statistically different.

  19. Meta-analysis of the performance variation in broilers experimentally challenged by Eimeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, Marcos; Andretta, Ines; Lehnen, Cheila Roberta; Lovatto, Paulo Alberto; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez

    2013-09-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out to (1) study the relation of the variation in feed intake and weight gain in broilers infected with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella, or a Pool of Eimeria species, and (2) to identify and to quantify the effects involved in the infection. A database of articles addressing the experimental infection with Coccidia in broilers was developed. These publications must present results of animal performance (weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio). The database was composed by 69 publications, totalling around 44 thousand animals. Meta-analysis followed three sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance. The feed intake of the groups challenged by E. acervulina and E. tenella did not differ (P>0.05) to the control group. However, the feed intake in groups challenged by E. maxima and Pool showed an increase of 8% and 5% (PEimeria species, animal age, sex, and genetic line. In general the age effect is superior to the challenge effect, showing that age at the challenge is important to determine the impact of Eimeria infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Histomorphometrical Study of the Prebiotic Effects on Intestine Morphology and Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sayrafi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of prebiotic as alternative feed additive to an antibiotic growth promoter (bacitracin methylene disalicyate on the growth performance and morphometrical parameters of the small intestine of broiler chickens. One hundred and forty four day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 6 wk and each treatment contained four replicates (12 birds each. Dietary treatments were as follow: 1- Control (basal diet, 2- basal diet + antibiotic growth promoter and 3- basal diet + prebiotic. During the feeding experimental period, body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured. At the end of the experiment, small intestine segments were sampled and routine histological laboratory methods containing fixation, dehydration, clearing and paraffin embedding were used. Sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin for light microscopy evaluation and the height and width of villi and depth of crypts were measured. The results showed that body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments. Prebiotic and antibiotic had significant (P < 0.05 effect on improvement of feed intake in 22 - 42 days and total period compared with the control. The addition of prebiotic or antibiotic increased the villus height in duodenum (P < 0.05 and prebiotic increased villus width of duodenum and ileum compared with other treatments. The duodenal crypt depth was increased by antibiotic compared with the prebiotic and control group. In conclusion, prebiotic can be used as a suitable alternative to antibiotic growth promoter.

  1. Effects of alternative promoters of growth on the performance and cost of production of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Tomazini Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and prebiotics were compared to antimicrobials as alternative growth promoters in male broilers grown from 1 to 42 days of age. Eight treatments were evaluated: a control feed without antimicrobials or alternative growth promoters, a control feed with antimicrobials, a control feed with the antimicrobials colistine and avilamicine, three rations with probiotic Bacillus subtilis in different concentrations and/or under recommended usage, one ration with probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae in addition to a mixture of probiotic Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae, and one ration with mananoligossacarids (MOS plus betaglutanes. Antimicrobials and alternative growth promoters were added to an initial feed and to a growth feed common to all birds. Thirteen to 17 replicates of 50 birds of a Cobb line were utilized per treatment in a completely randomized design. Feed consumption, feed conversion and production costs did not significantly differ among treatments. The weights of 42-day-old birds fed on Bacillus subtilis (1,6 x 109CFU/g or the mixture of probiotics were higher or similar to the weights of birds fed on ration with antimicrobials. It was concluded that probiotics can replace antimicrobials as growth promoters for broilers up to 42 days of age without negative effects on growth performance and production cost.

  2. Effects of rye inclusion in grower diets on immune competence-related parameters and performance in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Torki, M.; Schokker, D.

    2017-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of rye, a model ingredient to increase gut viscosity, between 14 and 28 d of age on immune competence-related parameters and performance of broilers. A total of 960 day-old male Ross 308 chicks were weighed and randomly

  3. Effect of temperature-humidity index on live performance in broiler chickens grown from 49 to 63 days of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal environment in poultry housing is a primary influence on production efficiency and live performance. Heavy broilers (body weight > 3.2 kg) typically require high ventilation rates to maintain thermal comfort and production efficiency. However, large birds are observed to pant in mild to ...

  4. Tiamulin and semduramicin: effects of simultaneous administration on performance and health of growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, A; Bafundo, K W; Islam, K M S; Aupperle, H; Glaser, R; Schoon, H A; Gropp, J M

    2006-03-01

    The pleuromutilin antibiotic tiamulin (TIA) is known to produce a variety of negative interactive effects when it is administered in combination with several anticoccidial ionophores. A 35-d growth study was performed in cages to evaluate the compatibility of TIA when it was administered concurrently with the poly-ether ionophore anticoccidial semduramicin (SEM). Tiamulin and SEM, both alone and in combination, were administered to 10 replicates of female broilers arranged in a completely randomized block design. Tiamulin was administered in drinking water (250 mg of TIA/kg of water) from d 15 through 19 of the study, whereas SEM was incorporated in feed (25 mg/kg) from placement to the conclusion of the test. Water consumption was determined during the period of concurrent administration of the drugs and weekly measurements of feed intake and bird performance were recorded. In addition, hematocrit, blood cell counts, serum protein, albumin, glucose, uric acid, electrolytes, and activities of several enzymes were determined from blood samples taken at d 35. Results indicated that simultaneous administration of TIA and SEM during the third week of the trial reduced water and feed intake resulting in a temporary growth depression. Feed efficiency was transiently affected during the period of coadministration. However, during the fourth week of the test, negative effects in body weight were not observed for any treatment and feed conversion improved for birds concurrently receiving TIA + SEM. By the termination of the experiment, no adverse effects were observed in final performance for any treatment. Histopathological and hematological parameters were unaffected by treatment at d 35 of the test. These results demonstrated that simultaneous administration of TIA and SEM produced only temporary impairments of water and feed consumption that transiently influenced performance. Neither mortality nor long-term effects on performance variables occurred in broilers.

  5. Influence of microclimatic ammonia levels on productive performance of different broilers' breeds estimated with univariate and multivariate approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Essam S; Moawed, Sherif A; Hassan, Rania A

    2017-08-01

    Birds litter contains unutilized nitrogen in the form of uric acid that is converted into ammonia; a fact that does not only affect poultry performance but also has a negative effect on people's health around the farm and contributes in the environmental degradation. The influence of microclimatic ammonia emissions on Ross and Hubbard broilers reared in different housing systems at two consecutive seasons (fall and winter) was evaluated using a discriminant function analysis to differentiate between Ross and Hubbard breeds. A total number of 400 air samples were collected and analyzed for ammonia levels during the experimental period. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Ammonia levels were significantly higher (p0.05) were found between the two farms in body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and performance index (PI) of broilers. Body weight; weight gain and PI had increased values (pbroiler breed. Ammonia emissions were positively (although weekly) correlated with the ambient relative humidity (r=0.383; p0.05). Test of significance of discriminant function analysis did not show a classification based on the studied traits suggesting that they cannot been used as predictor variables. The percentage of correct classification was 52% and it was improved after deletion of highly correlated traits to 57%. The study revealed that broiler's growth was negatively affected by increased microclimatic ammonia concentrations and recommended the analysis of broilers' growth performance parameters data using multivariate discriminant function analysis.

  6. The effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rajabiyan Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308, 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit; basal diet + whole wheat (without grit and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Growth performance (evaluated through weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio was determined on day 24 and 42. Also, carcass traits (relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, liver, heart, gizzard and intestine and intestine length were assessed on day 42. Weight gains and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in broilers added with grit 2 mm compared to the control group (p<0.05, whereas; carcass traits were not significantly altered. These data suggest that grit with size of 2 mm improve growth performance in broiler chickens.

  7. Introduction of a Greenhouse as an Alternative Housing System to a Conventional House and Its Impact on Broiler Performance and Blood and Carcass Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khajali F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the growth performance as well as blood and carcass variables of two broiler strains reared in a conventional broiler house and a modified greenhouse equipped with cooling pads and tunnel ventilation system. Eight hundred day-old chickens of two commercial strains (Ross  308 and Lohmann were selected and placed in  8 floor pens (4 pens of  50 broilers for each strain in each housing system. The pens were located randomly throughout the modified greenhouse or the conventional broiler house (two-way ANOVA design. The broilers were provided a standard starter and grower diets  ad libitum. The environmental conditions (i.e.  temperature, relative humidity, lighting program and ventilation rate were kept  similar between the two houses. The results showed that the birds in the greenhouse consumed significantly (P

  8. Effect of garlic and neem leaf powder supplementation on growth performance and carcass traits in broilers

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    Karan Rajendra Kharde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present experiment was designed to study the effect of supplementation of garlic and neem leaf powder (NLP on growth performance and carcass yields in broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 210-day-old commercial male broiler chicks (Ven Cobb were procured and randomly distributed in to seven treatments, each treatment had six replicates with five chicks per each replicate. Growth trial was conducted in a randomized block design comprising seven dietary treatments. T1 was served as control. T2 and T3 were fed with garlic powder (GP 0.5, 1 g/kg feed respectively. T4 and T5 were given with NLP 1, 2 g/kg feed respectively. T6 was fed with 0.5 g/kg GP and 1.0 g/kg NLP. T7 was treated with 1.0 g/kg GP and 2.0 g/kg NLP. The body weight, feed consumption of individual bird was recorded at weekly interval and the body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR were calculated. At the end of 42 day, six birds from each dietary group were sacrificed to estimate the dressing yield and relative weights of giblet (liver, heart and gizzard. Results: Supplementation of garlic and NLP alone and their combination significantly (p0.05 influence was observed in carcass parameters like dressing yield and giblet yield (heart, gizzard and liver in all treatment groups. Conclusions: Supplementation of GP alone showed poor performance, but when it was supplemented in combination with NLP there was improvement in performance parameters. These results indicated that the combination of GP and NLP can be used as alternates to coccidiostats for improving the performance. Such meat can be used as a designer meat as fetch higher price if marketed as branded item.

  9. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enrichment alters performance and immune response in infectious bursal disease challenged broilers

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    Maroufyan Elham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bursal disease (IBD results in economic loss due to mortality, reduction in production efficiency and increasing the usage of antibiotics. This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory roles of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA enrichment in immune response and performance of IBD challenged broiler chickens. Methods A total of 300 day old male broiler chicks were assigned to four dietary n-3 PUFA ascending levels as the treatment groups (T1: 0.5; T2: 8.0; T3: 11.5; T4: 16.5 using combinations of tuna oil and sunflower oil. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. On day 28, all birds were challenged with IBD virus. Antibody titer, cytokine production, bursa lesion pre and post-challenge and lymphoid organ weight were recorded. Results On d 42 the highest body weight was observed in the T2 and T3 and the lowest in T4 chickens. Feed conversion ratio of the T2 broilers was significantly better than the other groups. Although productive parameters were not responded to the dietary n-3 PUFA in a dose-dependent manner, spleen weight, IBD and Newcastle disease antibody titers and IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations were constantly elevated by n-3 PUFA enrichment. Conclusions Dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may improve the immune response and IBD resistance, but the optimum performance does not coincide with the optimum immune response. It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, a moderate level of dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may help to put together the efficiency of performance and relative immune response enhancement in broiler chickens.

  10. Aflatoxin B(1) in affecting broiler's performance, immunity, and gastrointestinal tract: a review of history and contemporary issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha W; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Bohm, Josef

    2011-06-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) is a common contaminant of poultry feeds in tropical and subtropical climates. Research during the last five decades has well established the negative effects of the mycotoxin on health of poultry. However, the last ten years of relevant data have accentuated the potential of low levels of aflatoxin B(1) to deteriorate broiler performance. In this regard, any attempt to establish a dose-effect relationship between aflatoxin B(1) level and broiler performance is also complicated due to differences in types of broilers and length of exposure to the mycotoxin in different studies. Contrary to the prevalent notion regarding literature saturation with respect to aflatoxicosis of chicken, many areas of aflatoxicosis still need to be explored. Literature regarding effects of the mycotoxin on the gastrointestinal tract in this regard is particular scanty and non-conclusive. In addition to these issues, the metabolism of aflatoxin B(1) and recently proposed hypotheses regarding biphasic effects of the mycotoxin in broilers are briefly discussed.

  11. Competing Role of Bioactive Constituents in Moringa oleifera Extract and Conventional Nutrition Feed on the Performance of Cobb 500 Broilers

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    Govindarajan Karthivashan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Moringa oleifera (MO leaf extract as a dietary supplement on the growth performance and antioxidant parameters was evaluated on broiler meat and the compounds responsible for the corresponding antioxidant activity were identified. 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% w/v of MO leaf aqueous extracts (MOLE were prepared, and nutritional feed supplemented with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% w/w of MO leaf meal (MOLM extracts were also prepared and analysed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the treated broiler groups (control (T1 and treatment (T2, T3, and T4 were evaluated for performance, meat quality, and antioxidant status. The results of this study revealed that, among the broilers fed MOLM, the broilers fed 0.5% w/w MOLM (T2 exhibited enhanced meat quality and antioxidant status (P<0.05. However, the antioxidant activity of the MOLE is greater than that of the MOLM. The LC-MS/MS analysis of MOLM showed high expression of isoflavones and fatty acids from soy and corn source, which antagonistically inhibit the expression of the flavonoids/phenols in the MO leaves thereby masking its antioxidant effects. Thus, altering the soy and corn gradients in conventional nutrition feed with 0.5% w/w MO leaves supplement would provide an efficient and cost-effective feed supplement.

  12. Performance of broilers fed during 21 days on mash or pellet diets containing whole or ground pearl millet grain

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    TR Torres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 20% whole-grain or ground pearl millet (PM in mash and pelleted diets on the performance, carcass traits, and organ weights of broilers reared until 21 days of age. A randomized block experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (diets containing corn and soybean meal, whole-grain PM, or ground PM x mash or pelleted diets, with five replicates per treatment and 10 birds per experimental unit, was applied. Diets were analyzed for mean geometric diameter, geometric standard deviation, pellet hardness, and density. Broiler performance, carcass yield, and organ weights were evaluated. On day 21, one bird with the average weight of each experimental unit was sacrificed for carcass evaluation. It was concluded that both as whole-grain and ground PM can be added to the diet of broilers up to 21 days of age. The dietary inclusion of PM results in higher abdominal fat deposition. Broilers fed the pelleted diets presented lower feed intake, better feed conversion ratio, lower gizzard and heart percentages, and higher carcass weight.

  13. Effect of Enzyme Supplementation and Irradiation of Barley on Broiler Chicks Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, D.H.M.; Abd El-Hakeim, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to study the influence of irradiation treatment at dose levels of 0.20 and 60 kGy on barley beta-glucan and the effect of enzyme supplementation and irradiation of barley on broiler chicks performance. The amount of total and water-soluble beta-glucan in raw barley was 36 kg -1 , respectively. The effect of irradiation treatment on total beta-glucan was insignificant while the level of soluble beta-glucan was increased with increasing the dose levels of irradiation. The effect of irradiation treatment and enzyme supplementation of barley diets on growth and conversion performance of broiler chicks indicated that birds fed raw barley diet had lower body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion than those fed control diet throughout the experimental period. Irradiation of barley at dose of 20 kGy did not affect the chick performance (feed consumption, weight gain feed-gain ratio) that received the B 20 diet from 7 to 21 days of age, but when bird maintained on B 20 diet from 7 28 days of age, only feed-gain ratio was improved by 14.4%. The results indicate that there was a significant effect of irradiation of barley at 60 kGy (B 60) on feed -gain ratio of chicks when were fed B 60 diet from 7 to 21 days of age. The corresponding improvement in feed-gain ratio was 16.4%. When birds were fed B 60 diet from 7-28 days of age, the improvement in body weight and feed-gain ratio was 25.5 and 19.6%, respectively

  14. Comparison of how different feed phosphates affect performance, bone mineralization and phosphorus retention in broilers

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    Manel Hamdi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the comparative P bio-avalability of different sources of phosphate based on their effects on animal performance, bones mineralization and mineral retention in broilers. To achieve this goal, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, twenty diets were prepared including five different phosphorus sources, either mono-calcium phosphate (MCP or 4 different batches of di-calcium phosphate, to supplement non phytic P (NPP levels at 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 g/kg in the diets. In Experiment 2, three treatments were used: the low MCP diet was deficient in NPP (3.1 g/kg for the starter phase and 2.8 g/kg for the grower phase; the high MCP diet and the high TCP (tri-calcium phosphate diet included adequate levels of NPP (4.4-4.7 g/kg for the starter phase and 4.2-4.3 g/kg for the grower phase. Phytase was not added to experimental diets. Results of Exp. 1 indicated that an increase of NPP in the diet from 3.0 to 4.0 g/kg increased weight gain and feed intake between d 1 and d 21 (Trial 1. Alternatively, tibia weight and ash percentage at d 21 responded up to the level of 4.5 g/kg and showed significant difference with birds of the 4.0 g/kg NPP group. In Trial 2, chickens fed with the high MCP and TCP had improved growth performances and bone mineralization. No differences were observed on the P availability among different mineral P sources. A level of 4.5 g/kg, NPP is recommended when phytase is not included to maximize both performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens up to d 21.

  15. Effects of rye inclusion in grower diets on immune competence-related parameters and performance in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Torki, M; Schokker, D

    2017-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of rye, a model ingredient to increase gut viscosity, between 14 and 28 d of age on immune competence-related parameters and performance of broilers. A total of 960 day-old male Ross 308 chicks were weighed and randomly allocated to 24 pens (40 birds per pen), and the birds in every 8 replicate pens were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets including graded levels, 0%, 5%, and 10% of rye. Tested immune competence-related parameters were composition of the intestinal microbiota, genes expression in gut tissue, and gut morphology. The inclusion of 5% or 10% rye in the diet (d 14 to 28) resulted in decreased performance and litter quality, but in increased villus height and crypt depth in the small intestine (jejunum) of the broilers. Relative bursa and spleen weights were not affected by dietary inclusion of rye. In the jejunum, no effects on number and size of goblet cells, and only trends on microbiota composition in the digesta were observed. Dietary inclusion of rye affected expression of genes involved in cell cycle processes of the jejunal enterocyte cells, thereby influencing cell growth, cell differentiation and cell survival, which in turn were consistent with the observed differences in the morphology of the gut wall. In addition, providing rye-rich diets to broilers affected the complement and coagulation pathways, which among others are parts of the innate immune system. These pathways are involved in eradicating invasive pathogens. Overall, it can be concluded that inclusion of 5% or 10% rye to the grower diet of broilers had limited effects on performance. Ileal gut morphology, microbiota composition of jejunal digesta, and gene expression profiles of jejunal tissue, however, were affected by dietary rye inclusion level, indicating that rye supplementation to broiler diets might affect immune competence of the birds. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Effects of fermented cottonseed meal on the growth performance, gastrointestinal microflora population and small intestinal morphology in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazi, V; Boldaji, F; Dastar, B; Hashemi, S R; Ashayerizadeh, A

    2017-08-01

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing dietary cottonseed meal (CSM) or fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) for soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, gastrointestinal microbial populations, and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. 2. CSM was fermented with Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and A. oryzae for 7 d. A total of 300 one-d-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a 42-d experiment in which the birds were randomly allotted to one of 5 dietary treatments (containing 0%, 10% and 20% CSM or FCSM) in a completely randomised design. Birds were reared on litter floor and had free access to feed and water during the experiment. 3. Results indicated that the fermentation process significantly reduced crude fibre and free gossypol, while it increased crude protein content and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count in CSM. 4. The use of FCSM instead of CSM significantly improved growth performance of broilers. The abdominal fat yield in treatments containing FCSM was significantly lower than in the other treatments. The increase in the population of LAB in the crop and decrease in the population of coliforms in the ileum of birds fed on diets containing FCSM were more significant than in other birds. Villi in the duodenum and jejunum of the birds fed on diets containing FCSM were significantly higher than for the other experimental groups. 5. The positive effects of diets containing FCSM on growth performance and intestinal health of broiler chickens showed that this processed source of protein can serve as an appropriate alternative for SBM in diets for broiler chickens.

  17. Wet and coarse diets in broiler nutrition: development of the GI tract and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoa, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Diet structure and conformation during the starter phase play an important role in the functional development of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract of broiler chicken, in particular the foregut segment.\\\\u00a0Feed structure has a significant effect on the development of the foregut segments in broiler

  18. Effect of Pigeon pea and Cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoub, Yagoub Magboul

    1998-03-01

    two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of pigeon pea and cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 3 experimental diets were formulated containing graded levels of cow pea were maintained. Diets were prepared containing 18.21, 18.25 and 18.25% crude protein and 3076.41, 3062 Kel/Kg metabolizable energy for experiment 1, while diets of experiment 11 were prepared containing 18.21, 18.22, and 18.22% crude protein and 3076.41, 3080.5 and 3055.89 KEl/Kg metabolized energy. 120 Loghmann broiler chicks were equally allocated into 15 pens (8 chicks/pen). Then the experimental diets were randomly assigned to the pens. feed and water were provided ad libitum in both experiments. In experiment 1, the results showed no significant difference were found in chick performance at day 45. The feed conversation ratio increased with the level of pigeon pea used. The pancreas mass was increased as the level of pigeon pea increase. In experiment 2 the results showed significant decrease in the body weight and feed intake at day 45, while the pancreas mass tend to increase with increasing level of cow pea in the diet. Histological examination of small intestine slides showed no histopathological differences between the control and chicks fed cow pea and/or pigeon pea. Immunological test of the serum and mucous samples using ELISA techniques revealed no significant difference between the control and chicks given cow pea and / or pigeon pea

  19. Effect of methionine and lactic acid bacteria as aflatoxin binder on broiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiqomah, Lusty; Damayanti, Ema; Julendra, Hardi; Suryani, Ade Erma; Sakti, Awistaros Angger; Anggraeni, Ayu Septi

    2017-06-01

    The use of aflatoxin binder product based amino acids, lacic acid bacteria, and natural product gived the opportunity to be an alternative biological decontamination of aflatoxins. A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of aflatoxin binder administration (amino acid methionine and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum G7)) as feed additive on broiler performance. In this study, 75 Lohmann unsexed day old chicks were distributed randomly into 5 units of cages, each filled with 15 broilers. Five cages were assigned into 5 treatments groups and fed with feed contained aflatoxin. The treatments as follow: P1 (aflatoxin feed without aflatoxin binder), P3 (aflatoxin feed + 0.8% of methionine + 1% of LAB), P4 (aflatoxin feed + 1.2% of methionine + 1% of LAB), P5 (aflatoxin feed + 1% of LAB), and K0 (commercial feed). The measurement of aflatoxin content in feed was performed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method using AgraQuant® Total Aflatoxin Assay Romer Labs procedure. The experimental period was 35 days with feeding and drinking ad libitum. LAB was administered into drinking water, while methionine into feed. Vaccination program of Newcastle Disease (ND) was using active vaccine at 4 and 18 day old, while Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) was given at 8 day old. Parameter of body weight was observed weekly, while feed consumption noted daily. The result showed that aflatoxin in feed for 35 days period did not significantly affect the body weight gain and feed conversion. The lowest percentage of organ damage at 21 day old was found in P5 treatment (55%), while at 35day old was found in P4 treatment (64%). It could be concluded that technological process of detoxifying aflatoxin could be applied in an attempt to reduce the effect on the toxicity of aflatoxin in poultry feed.

  20. Performance of broiler chicken fed varied nutrient density diets supplemented with direct fed microbial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dietary response of different isolated strains (Direct fed microbial- DFM of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast isolated from leopard feces (Panthera leo was studied as probiotic in poultry broiler birds reared as per varied mineral densities viz. calcium and phosphorus. Various treatments consisted of T0 (Control, culture medium, T1 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered standard formulated diet D1, T2 - Control (Culture medium offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2, T3 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2. Growth results obtained during the starter phase (1st to 3rd week exhibited higher gain in live body weight and lower feed conversion ratio, both by DFM supplemented treatment T1 offered standard formulated diet D1 and treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 compared to respective control T0 and T2. The obtained results revealed a significantly higher growth performance in treatment T1 compared to its control T0 where a higher growth in treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 supplemented with isolated DFM compared to its control T2 was exhibited. Treatment groups T1 and T3 supplemented with isolated DFM exhibited a better intestinal micro flora balance, effective colonization and higher count in the intestinal tract with higher calcium and phosphorus retention in the digestibility studies. Thus, it was found that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to improve biological growth performance of poultry broiler birds offered both standard formulated diet D1, as well as mineral deficient diet D2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002

  1. Effect of Different Flooring Designs on the Performance and Foot Pad Health in Broilers and Turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuppava, Bussarakam; Visscher, Christian; Kamphues, Josef

    2018-05-03

    Litter quality has a significant influence on the performance and foot pad health in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of flooring designs on the performance and foot pad health in fattening broilers and turkeys. Three trials were conducted for each species using a total of 720 Ross 308 broilers and 720 Big 6 turkeys. After day seven, animals were randomly assigned to four groups with three subgroups each: G1—floor pens with litter, G2—floor pens with litter and floor heating, G3—partially-slatted flooring, including a littered area, and G4—fully-slatted flooring with a sand bath (900 cm²). Animals of both species had a significantly higher final body weight at dissection (day 36) after being reared on fully-slatted floors compared to common littered floors. In turkeys, the feed conversion ratio was worse in G4 (1.53 ± 0.04) than in G1 (1.47 ± 0.02) and G2 (1.48 ± 0.03). Water to feed ratio was significantly higher in G2 than other groups. Turkeys’ foot pad health was significantly better in G4 than in other groups beginning at day 21. In turkeys, platforms with slatted floors that allow for temporary separation of the feet from the litter could lead to improvements in foot pad health which could better enable the realization of species-specific behaviours and activities in littered areas.

  2. Effect of Different Flooring Designs on the Performance and Foot Pad Health in Broilers and Turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussarakam Chuppava

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Litter quality has a significant influence on the performance and foot pad health in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of flooring designs on the performance and foot pad health in fattening broilers and turkeys. Three trials were conducted for each species using a total of 720 Ross 308 broilers and 720 Big 6 turkeys. After day seven, animals were randomly assigned to four groups with three subgroups each: G1—floor pens with litter, G2—floor pens with litter and floor heating, G3—partially-slatted flooring, including a littered area, and G4—fully-slatted flooring with a sand bath (900 cm2. Animals of both species had a significantly higher final body weight at dissection (day 36 after being reared on fully-slatted floors compared to common littered floors. In turkeys, the feed conversion ratio was worse in G4 (1.53 ± 0.04 than in G1 (1.47 ± 0.02 and G2 (1.48 ± 0.03. Water to feed ratio was significantly higher in G2 than other groups. Turkeys’ foot pad health was significantly better in G4 than in other groups beginning at day 21. In turkeys, platforms with slatted floors that allow for temporary separation of the feet from the litter could lead to improvements in foot pad health which could better enable the realization of species-specific behaviours and activities in littered areas.

  3. Effects of sawdust thickness on the growth performance, environmental condition, and welfare quality of yellow broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dan; He, Jiao; Lu, Jian; Wang, Qiang; Chang, Lingling; Shi, Shou Rong; Bing, Tong Hai

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of litter thickness on growth performance, immune status, environmental condition, and welfare quality in yellow broilers. In total, 1,800 one-day-old Suqin yellow broilers were raised for 21 d. On d 22, 1,600 birds of similar BW (404±12 g) were randomly selected and placed into 20 indoor pens (8 birds/m2, 10 m2/pen). These birds were assigned to a litter treatment of 4, 8, 12, and 16 cm. Each treatment was repeated in five pens. The results showed that a thicker litter was related to increased BW, daily weight gain, and daily feed intake (Plitter thickness (P=0.320, P=0.353, respectively). Absolute and relative liver weights showed a significant linear response to increasing litter thickness (P=0.01, P=0.001, respectively). The litter moisture content, air ammonia, and CO2 content decreased, whereas the air dust content increased with increasing litter thickness (PLitter thickness had no effect on gait, plumage damage, hock burn or breast skin crusting (P = 0.076, P=0.964, P=0.131, P=0.401, respectively). Plumage cleanliness, foot pad dermatitis, hock swelling and breast blister varied significantly with litter thickness (P=0.027, P=0.011, P=0.014, P=0.042, respectively). The results of this study suggest that an increasing litter thickness has a beneficial effect on the growth performance, environmental condition and welfare of birds. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Effects of chicory root powder on growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homan Izadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, chicory root powder (CRP as growth promoter at 1% and 3% levels was supplemented in broilers’ diet to investigate the growth performance and histo- morphometry of jejunum. One hundred twenty, one-day-old male broilers were used in a completely randomized design (CRD with 3 treatments and 4 replicates (10 chicks per replicate. At the end of each period (0-10, 11-24 and 0-24 days, feed intake (FI, weight gain (WG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were measured. At the end of experiment (day 24, one bird per replicate was sacrificed for breast weight (BW, drumstick weight (DW, and jejunum length (JL as a percentage of body weight, and histomorphometry of villus. The FI increased by 3% CRP in the 1st period (p < 0.01. The percentage of WG significantly increased at 1% during the 1st period and, in the 2nd and total periods, it increased only at 3% CRP (p < 0.05. The FCR decreased at 1% in the 1st (p < 0.04 and, at 3% in the 2nd (p < 0.01 and total periods (p < 0.05. The percentage of DW increased at 3% CRP (p < 0.05. The treatments increased the percentage of BW (p < 0.059 and, percentage of JL (p < 0.079 as well. The villus width and, crypt depth (CD at 1% and 3% CRP and, villus surface at 3% reduced. The 3% CRP increased the villus length (VL and villi number (p < 0.05 and, VL/CD (p < 0.01 and, villus surface area (p < 0.02. The percentage of leaf-like villi decreased in CRP treatments (p < 0.05. The number of goblet cells increased in CRP treatments (p < 0.01. In conclusion, chicory root powder can improve growth performance in broilers by enhancing food digestion and absorption through modification of jejunum histomorphometry.

  5. Performance, carcass yield, and meat quality of free-range broilers fed wet grain corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESPB Saldanha

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of total replacement of dry corn by wet grain corn silage (WGCS in the feed of label broilers older than 28 days of age on performance, mortality, carcass, parts, breast meat and thighs meat yields, and meat quality. A mixed-sex flock of 448 ISA S 757-N (naked-neck ISA JA Label day-old chicks was randomly distributed in to randomized block experimental design with four treatments (T1 - with no WGCS; T2 - WGCS between 28 and 83 days; T3 - WGCS between 42 and 83 days; and T4 - WGCS between 63 and 83 days and four replicates of 28 birds each. Birds were raised under the same management and feeding conditions until 28 days of age, when they started to have free access to paddock with pasture (at least 3m²/bird and to be fed the experimental diets. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the rearing period, which was divided in three stages: starter (1 to 28 days, grower (29 to 63 days, and finisher (64 to 83 days according to the feeding schedule. During the short periods of WGCS use (group T2 during grower stage and T4 during the finisher stage, performance and mortality results were similar as to those of the control group (T1. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that the extended use of WGCS (T2 and T3 determined a negative effect on feed conversion ratio. However, the best results of breast meat yield were observed with birds fed WGCS since 28 days (T2. It was concluded that WGCS can replace dry corn grain for short periods during the grower and finisher stages with no impairment of meat quality and yield in slow growth broilers.

  6. Performance and carcass characteristics of free-range broiler chickens fed diets containing alternative feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PB Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD, with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings, abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.

  7. Effect of Supplementing Organic Selenium on Performance, Carcass Traits, Oxidative Parameters and Immune Responses in Commercial Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaram Venkata Rama Rao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing various concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 μg/kg diet of organic Se on growth performance, carcass traits, oxidative stress, and immune responses in commercial broiler chickens reared in open-sided poultry house under tropical climatic conditions. Each diet was fed ad libitum to eight replicates consisting of six birds in each pen from 1 to 42 d of age. Body weight gain and feed efficiency, and relative weight of liver, abdominal fat and ready to cook yields were not affected (p>0.05 by organic Se supplementation to broiler diets. Lipid peroxidation in plasma decreased, while activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma increased (p0.05 by Se supplementation to broiler diets. However, the cell-mediated immunity (lymphocyte proliferation ratio increased (p<0.01 linearly with dietary Se concentration. The results of the present study indicate that the supplementation of Se did not influence body weight and feed efficiency. However, supplementation of Se increased antioxidant status and lymphocyte proliferation in broiler chickens.

  8. Graded levels of sugar syrup in broiler rations and its effect on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary energy for chickens normally includes cereal grains and fat. This innovative study investigated the effect of replacing part of the corn and fat in broiler chicken rations with graded levels of sugar syrup on growth performance and biochemical parameters. Experimental treatments consisted of feeding a corn-soy basal diet alone, or with graded levels of sugar syrup in increments of 5%, 10% and 15%. All starter diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Body weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization of chicks fed the control diet alone were not significantly (P < 0.05 different from chicks fed diets supplemented with either 5% or 15% sugar syrup. Supplementation of sugar syrup to broiler diets had no significant effect on blood glucose, creatinine, total protein, or liver enzymes. Adding 5% sugar syrup to broiler rations significantly decreased blood cholesterol and triglycerides in chickens fed the sugar syrup diet compared with birds fed the control diet. In conclusion, the results shows sugar syrup can be used in poultry ration to replace part of the corn as a source of energy. These results allowed the authors to recommend the safe usage of sugar syrup in broiler rations.

  9. Effect of citric acid, avilamycin, and their combination on the performance, tibia ash, and immune status of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, R; Islam, K M S; Khan, M J; Karim, M R; Haque, M N; Khatun, M; Pesti, G M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the supplementation of an organic acid (citric acid), antibiotic growth promoter (avilamycin), and their combination for a period of 35 d on the growth, feed efficiency, carcass yield, tibia ash, and immune status of broilers. One hundred sixty 1-d-old broiler chicks (Hubbard Classic) were randomly distributed into 4 groups with 4 replicate cages having 10 birds in each. A corn-soybean-based diet was used as the basal diet (control). The basal diet was supplemented with an organic acid (citric acid, 0.5%), an antibiotic growth promoter (avilamycin, 0.001%), and their combination in other groups. The highest BW was attained in citric acid-fed chicks (1,318 g), which was significantly (P 0.05). Total feed intake was higher in citric acid-fed chicks compared with antibiotic-supplemented chicks. The addition of citric acid improved feed conversion efficiency (g of weight gain/ kg of feed intake) significantly (P ash percentage significantly (P ash, and immune status of broilers. Therefore, citric acid might be a useful additive instead of antibiotic growth promoters such as avilamycin, considering performance and health status of broilers.

  10. The effect of dietary bacterial organic selenium on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and Selenoproteins gene expression in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalia, A M; Loh, T C; Sazili, A Q; Jahromi, M F; Samsudin, A A

    2017-08-18

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral in broilers, which has several important roles in biological processes. Organic forms of Se are more efficient than inorganic forms and can be produced biologically via Se microbial reduction. Hence, the possibility of using Se-enriched bacteria as feed supplement may provide an interesting source of organic Se, and benefit broiler antioxidant system and other biological processes. The objective of this study was to examine the impacts of inorganic Se and different bacterial organic Se sources on the performance, serum and tissues Se status, antioxidant capacity, and liver mRNA expression of selenoproteins in broilers. Results indicated that different Se sources did not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affect broiler growth performance. However, bacterial organic Se of T5 (basal diet +0.3 mg /kg feed ADS18 Se), T4 (basal diet +0.3 mg /kg feed ADS2 Se), and T3 (basal diet +0.3 mg /kg feed ADS1 Se) exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest Se concentration in serum, liver, and kidney respectively. Dietary inorganic Se and bacterial organic Se were observed to significantly affect broiler serum ALT, AST, LDH activities and serum creatinine level. ADS18 supplemented Se of (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) bacterial strain showed the highest GSH-Px activity with the lowest MDA content in serum, and the highest GSH-Px and catalase activity in the kidney, while bacterial Se of ADS2 (Klebsiella pneumoniae) resulted in a higher level of GSH-Px1 and catalase in liver. Moreover, our study showed that in comparison with sodium selenite, only ADS18 bacterial Se showed a significantly higher mRNA level in GSH-Px1, GSH-Px4, DIO1, and TXNDR1, while both ADS18 and ADS2 showed high level of mRNA of DIO2 compared to sodium selenite. The supplementation of bacterial organic Se in broiler chicken, improved tissue Se deposition, antioxidant status, and selenoproteins gene expression, and can be considered as an effective alternative source of

  11. Effects of Heat-oxidized Soy Protein Isolate on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Broiler Chickens at Early Age

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    X. Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate effects of heat-oxidized soy protein isolate (HSPI on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, apparent nutrient digestibility and digestive function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates of 10 birds, receiving diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI, control group or the same amount of SPI heated in an oven at 100°C for 1, 4, or 8 h, for 21 days, respectively. The results indicated that compared with the control group, body weight gain and feed intake of birds fed diet containing SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower (p<0.05. Serum urea nitrogen concentration was higher in the broilers fed diet containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05. In contrast, serum glucose content was decreased by HSPI substitution at d 21 (p<0.05. The relative pancreas weight in HSPI groups was higher than that in the control group at d 21 (p<0.05. Meanwhile, the opposite effect was observed for relative weight of anterior intestine and ileum in broilers fed a diet containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05. Birds fed diets containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h had a decreased lipase activity in anterior intestinal content at d 14 and 21 (p<0.05, respectively. In addition, the same effect was also noted in broilers given diets containing SPI heated for 1 h at d 21 (p<0.05. Similarly, amylase, protease and trypsin activity in anterior intestinal content were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05. The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM from d 8 to 10 and DM, crude protein (CP, and ether extract from d 15 to 17 were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05. Besides, birds given diets containing SPI heated for 4 h also exhibited lower CP apparent digestibility from d 15 to 17 (p<0.05. It was concluded that HSPI inclusion can exert a negative influence on the growth

  12. Effect of floor type (dirt or concrete on litter quality, house environmental conditions, and performance of broilers

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    VMN Abreu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the use of concrete or hard-packed dirt floor in broiler houses. This experiment was carried out in two different phases. The following performance parameters were studied: live weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. Litter moisture, pH and temperature were measured. Litter residual contamination after cleaning and disinfection was also evaluated. A dry bulb thermometer, a wet bulb thermometer, and a black bulb thermometer were placed inside each broiler house at bird height and outside the broiler house for data collection. Environmental data were collected at 3h intervals from 00:00 to 24:00 hours during weeks 4, 5, and 6 of the grow-out. Based on the collected data, air relative humidity (RH was determined, after which wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT and Radiant Heat Load (RHL were calculated. There were no differences in live performance parameters. However, total mortality and sudden death were higher in birds raised on dirt floor. On days 0, 14 and 35, litter pH was higher in the dirt floor as compared to the concrete floor, but at the end of the grow-out, this difference disappeared. There was a cubic effect of bird age on litter moisture, which increased up to day 28, and then stabilized or decreased. Litter coliform contamination was higher at the end of the grow-out as compared to that found at housing, but it was not influenced by floor type. The general thermal comfort of broiler raised on dirt floor was similar to that of broilers raised on concrete floor.

  13. The effects of particle size and origin of calcium carbonate on performance and ossification characteristics in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinotte, F; Nys, Y; de Monredon, F

    1991-09-01

    The following physico-chemical characteristics of various calcium sources, differing in origin and particle size were determined: mineral composition, sieve and image analysis, apparent solubility (AS), surface area (SA), porous volume, specific gravity, and compressibility (C). The AS, SA, and C values were related more to the calcium particle size than to its origin and were higher in ground calcium sources. Calcium retention of seashells treated with phosphoric acid, oyster shells, and limestone using two particle sizes, ground or particulate, was assayed in 98 broiler chicks. Particulate marble was also tested in this experiment. Calcium retention expressed as a percentage of calcium ingestion was decreased when coarse particles of calcium were supplied in lieu of pulverized sources (40 versus 49%). An experiment with a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments were tested using 576 broiler chicks. Treatments included three calcium sources (phosphorus-treated shell, oyster shell, and marble), three particle sizes [ground (less than .15 mm), medium (.6 to 1.18 mm) and coarse (greater than 1.18 mm)] and three levels of calcium (.5,.7, and .9%) with ground limestone as a reference. Performance, tibial morphometry, breaking strength variables, and ash content were measured at 4 wk of age. Weight gain and feed conversion were ameliorated with ground particles of calcium. Cortical thickness, length of the tibia, stiffness, stress, and tibia ash were diminished when coarse particles of calcium were incorporated in the diets. Conversely, the origin of the calcium source hardly affected these criteria. Additionally, the incorporation of phosphorus-treated shells was assayed in 112 broiler chicks. Coarse particles decreased calcium retention. Consequently, ultimate stress, the modulus of elasticity, and stress were impaired. It is concluded that differences in utilization of calcium carbonate sources by the broiler chick is primarily a result of particle size rather

  14. Xylanase, protease and superdosing phytase interactions in broiler performance, carcass yield and digesta transit time

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    Tiago T. dos Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of xylanase, protease and superdosing (1,500 FTU/kg phytase in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was studied in broilers fed sorghum-based diets. A total of 2,800 one-day-old unsexed Ross 308 chicks were housed in 56 pens with 50 birds per pen, with or without inclusion of xylanase, protease and phytase, totaling 8 treatments and 7 replicates per treatment. Body weight (BW and feed intake (FI were measured at 21 and 42 days of age, and mortality corrected feed conversion ratio (FCR was calculated for each period and cumulatively. Tibia ash and carcass yield were determined in 2 birds per replicate at 21 and 42 days of age, respectively. Digesta transit time was determined at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age using 5 birds per replicate. Results showed that superdosing phytase increased BW and FI at 42 days of age (P < 0.05 and xylanase improved FCR (P < 0.05. Xylanase and phytase also positively influenced carcass yield and breast weight, respectively. Overall, inclusion of superdosing phytase increased transit time when included in a diet containing xylanase, and no change with protease inclusion. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of xylanase, protease and superdosing phytase in broiler performance were not additive. This limitation is likely not related to the lack of efficacy of any one of the individual enzymes but to a limitation of the bird to respond additively to successive additions of enzymes.

  15. Effects of Enriched Housing Design on Broiler Performance, Welfare, Chicken Meat Composition and Serum Cholesterol

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    Ulku Gulcihan Simsek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of enrichment housing design on performance, selected welfare indicators, chicken meat composition and serum cholesterol concentration of broiler chicken. For this purpose, 480 Ross-308 chicks were assigned to two groups, Control and Test, each with 4 replications. The pens of the Test Group were enriched with perches and sand bedding. At the end of the study, 8 males and 8 females whose live weights were close to the group average from each group were slaughtered. Their blood was collected and serum was separated. For chemical analysis of the chicken meat, whole carcasses of 4 males and 4 females, and half of the breast and left thigh from the remaining 4 males and 4 females were collected. In the carcass group, whole carcass with its bones was minced, whereas in the other groups breast and tight meat were separated from the bones and minced in a meat grinder, homogenized with an electronic mixer, then flash frozen (-40 °C, 8–10 h and stored (-20 °C, 3–4 weeks until analysed. There was no significant difference between the groups in body weight, daily weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and survivability. Litter moisture of the sand bedding was lower than that of the wood shavings. Contact dermatitis of hocks was reduced in the Test Group (P P P P < 0.05. In conclusion, it was found that housing enriched with perches and sand bedding in addition to wood shavings bedding improved broiler welfare and meat quality.

  16. Effect of different levels of green tea (Camellia sinensis on productive performance, carcass characteristics and organs of broiler chickens

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    Cyril Hrnčár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to determine the effect of different levels of green tea in powder form to feed on productive performance, carcass parameters and organs in broiler chickens. Totally 240 day-old broiler chickens Ross 308 were divided to four dietary groups (n = 60 namely control and three experimental groups with supplementation of green tea to feed mixture in levels 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Broiler chickens were feeding with commercial feed mixtures and feed and drinking water were provided ad libittum. The feeding period lasted 42 days. Individual body weight of broiler chickens was determined at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 day, feed sonsumption and mortality per group were determined at 42 day of fattening period. Carcass quality and organs weight of broiler chickens were determined at the end of the experiment. The results indicated that supplementation of different levels of green tea statistically significant decreased body weight gain and we recorded lower body weight in 21 days of age compared with control group. However, in second period of fattening, broiler chickens in experimental groups growing faster and in 42 days of age we found statistically no significantly differences among control and experimental groups. Feed consumption did not differ among the dietary groups at 42 days of fattening. Mortality no affected by supplementation of green tea to broiler chickens diets in comparison with control group. From the carcass parameters addition of green tea significantly decreased percentage of abdominal fat between control and 1.5% green tea level, in other parameters (percentage of breast, percentage of drumstick, carcass yield were different among control and experimental groups not statistically significant. The caecum and small intestine weights was significantly (p ≤0.05 decreased in chickens fed diets containing 0.5% green tea supplement compared to 1% and 1.5%. For neck, crop, heart, liver, proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas

  17. Multigenerational effects of a reduced balanced protein diet during the rearing and laying period of broiler breeders. 2. Zootechnical performance of the F1 broiler offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuisse, J; Schallier, S; Li, C; Bautil, A; Li, B; Leblois, J; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2018-05-01

    Several studies in mammals focused on the maternal programming of the metabolism by epigenetic mechanisms, while currently, the consequences of a maternal dietary treatment on the offspring performance of farm animals are of particular interest for commercial purpose. In the present study, we investigated if the zootechnical performance of the progeny was altered by a maternal dietary treatment, being a lower dietary crude protein (CP) of the grandparent and/or parent generation. The multigenerational effects of a reduced maternal CP content were investigated by reducing the dietary CP level by 25% in rearing and laying diets of pure line A breeders. The F0 generation breeders were fed either control (C) or reduced balanced protein (RP) diets. The F1 breeder generation was constructed by dividing the F0 female progeny again over a C or RP diet, resulting in 4 dietary treatments in the F1 generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C, and RP/RP (letters indicating the diets in, respectively, F0 and F1 generations). The offspring performance was evaluated by a zootechnical and nitrogen retention trial on C and low-protein (LP) broiler diets. For the C broiler diet, the C/RP and RP/RP offspring were characterized by a higher BW from d 35 until d 42 compared to the C/C progeny, whereas the RP/C offspring had an intermediate BW that did not differ from the other groups. A tendency (P = 0.067) towards a better nitrogen retention was observed for the offspring of breeders that received the RP diets in F0 and/or F1 generation compared to the C/C progeny. For the LP broiler diet, the C/RP (P = 0.021) and RP/C (P = 0.001) offspring had a higher BW compared to the C/C progeny during the entire grow-out period. In addition, the C/RP offspring were characterized by a lower FCR from d 28 onwards (P = 0.021). In conclusion, dietary treatments imposed on mother hens can have direct effects on the next generation, as well as indirect effects on multiple generations.

  18. An early feeding regime and a high-density amino acid diet on growth performance of broilers under subclinical necrotic enteritis challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Chake Keerqin; Shu-Biao Wu; Birger Svihus; Robert Swick; Natalie Morgan; Mingan Choct

    2017-01-01

    Broilers that have early access to feed have been shown to have enhanced immune system and gut development and heightened resilience against necrotic enteritis (NE). This study examined the effect of early feeding a high amino acid density diet on performance of broilers under a sub-clinical NE challenge model. Ross 308 broilers (n = 576) were assigned to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 feeding regimes (feed access either within 6 h post-hatch or after 48 h post-hatch), 2 diets (control d...

  19. Effect of oat hulls as a free choice feeding on broiler performance, short chain fatty acids and microflora under a mild necrotic enteritis challenge

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    Sarbast K. Kheravii

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Structure of fibre has been reported to enhance performance, intestinal function and modify the composition and quantity of the microbial population in the chicken gastrointestinal tract. It is hypothesised that insoluble fibre in oat hulls may improve gut health and reduce intestinal Clostridium perfringens number. This research assessed the effect of free choice oat hulls (OH on performance and gut microbiota in broilers during a mild (subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE challenge. A total of 240 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to 24 cages in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were challenge − or +; and OH − or +. On d 16, challenged broilers had lower weight gain and feed intake (P < 0.05 compared with unchallenged broilers. On d 16, broilers given OH had lower feed intake (P < 0.05 and tended to have lower (P = 0.062 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared with those without access to OH. Broiler performance, however, was not affected by OH nor by challenge on d 24 and 35. The broilers given OH had heavier gizzards (P < 0.05 compared with those without OH at d 35 but not at d 13 or 16. Increased numbers of C. perfringens (P < 0.001 and reduced numbers (P < 0.05 of Lactobacillus and Salmonellae were observed in the caecal contents of challenged broilers on d 16. Challenged broilers had a lower concentration of caecal acetic acid (P < 0.01 compared with unchallenged broilers at d 16. The broilers given OH had lower concentrations of caecal acetic acid (P < 0.05, propionic acid (P < 0.05, and valeric acid (P < 0.01 compared with those without access to OH. An OH by challenge interaction on succinic acid concentration was observed on d 16 (P < 0.05. Oat hulls elevated the caecal succinic acid concentration only in the unchallenged broilers. This study indicated a positive role of OH through improved gizzard function and increased succinic acid in the gut but its role in

  20. Evaluation of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract development, and litter characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Nusairat, B; Brake, J

    2015-03-01

    Two 49 d floor pen studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn (CC) inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and litter characteristics. Experiment 1 was a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 genders (male or female) and 2 CC levels (0 or 50%). From 15 to 35 d, the addition of CC decreased feed intake (Pbroilers exhibited better live performance than females during the study as evidenced by greater feed intake (Plitter types (ground old litter or new wood shavings litter). The inclusion of CC decreased feed intake throughout the experiment without affecting final BW when only males were used and improved FCR after 25 d (Plitter improved FCR from 1 to 14 d (Plitter moisture (Plitter had only a marginal benefit on broiler live performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Feeding broiler breeders a reduced balanced protein diet during the rearing and laying period impairs reproductive performance but enhances broiler offspring performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuisse, J; Li, C; Schallier, S; Leblois, J; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2017-09-01

    Mammalian studies have shown that nutritional constraints during the perinatal period are able to program the progeny (metabolism, performance). The presented research aimed to investigate if broiler breeders and their offspring performance could be influenced by reducing the dietary crude protein (CP) level with 25%. A total of 160 day-old pure line A breeder females were randomly divided over 2 dietary treatments. The control group was fed commercial diets, whereas the reduced balanced protein (RP) breeders received an isoenergetic diet that was decreased with 25% in dietary CP and amino acid during their entire lifespan. The RP birds required an increased feed allowance, varying between 3 and 15%, to meet the same BW goals as their control fed counterparts. The difference in feed allocations and reduction of the dietary CP level resulted in a net protein reduction varying between 14 and 23%. At wk 27 and 40, the body composition of the breeders was changed as a result of the dietary treatment. At both ages, the proportional abdominal fat pad weight of the RP breeders was increased (P < 0.001), whereas the proportional breast muscle weight was only higher at wk 27 in the control group compared to the RP group (P < 0.001). Egg weight (P < 0.001) and egg production (P < 0.001) was decreased for the RP fed birds. The lower dietary CP level reduced the proportional albumen weight of the RP eggs (P = 0.006). Male offspring from RP breeders were characterized by an increase in BW from 28 d until 35 d of age (P = 0.015). Moreover, female progeny of RP breeders showed a reduced FCR (P = 0.025), whereas male progeny showed a tendency (P = 0.052) towards a lower FCR at 5 wk of age. In conclusion, lowering dietary CP levels in rearing and laying phase of breeders had a negative effect on breeder performance but enhanced live performance of the offspring. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Effect of Paper Waste Products as a Litter Material on Broiler Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Özlü

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted to determine the possibilities of using the paper waste products as a litter material in broiler production. A total of 468 Ross 308 broilers were used in this experiment. Litter materials were rice hulls (RH, waste paper (WP and mix of them (50 % RH + 50 % WP. BW was approximately 60 g heavier in waste paper group compare to other two litter groups at 42d of age. Type of litter material had no significant effects on feed conversion ratio, livability and leg defect. Therefore, paper waste products have potential as an alternative litter material for broiler production.

  3. A consistent and predictable commercial broiler chicken bacterial microbiota in antibiotic-free production displays strong correlations with performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy J; Youmans, Bonnie P; Noll, Sally; Cardona, Carol; Evans, Nicholas P; Karnezos, T Peter; Ngunjiri, John M; Abundo, Michael C; Lee, Chang-Won

    2018-04-06

    Defining the baseline bacterial microbiome is critical towards understanding its relationship with health and disease. In broiler chickens, the core microbiome and its possible relationships with health and disease have been difficult to define due to high variability between birds and flocks. Presented are data from a large, comprehensive microbiota-based study in commercial broilers. The primary goals of this study included understanding what constitutes the core bacterial microbiota in the broiler gastrointestinal, respiratory, and barn environments; how these core players change across age, geography, and time; and which bacterial taxa correlate with enhanced bird performance in antibiotic-free flocks. Using 2,309 samples from 37 different commercial flocks within a vertically integrated broiler system, and metadata from these and an additional 512 flocks within that system, the baseline bacterial microbiota was defined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The effects of age, sample type, flock, and successive flock cycles were compared, and results indicate a consistent, predictable, age-dependent bacterial microbiota, irrespective of flock. The tracheal bacterial microbiota of broilers was comprehensively defined, and Lactobacillus was the dominant bacterial taxa in the trachea. Numerous bacterial taxa were identified which were strongly correlated with broiler chicken performance, across multiple tissues. While many positively correlated taxa were identified, negatively associated potential pathogens were also identified in the absence of clinical disease, indicating subclinical dynamics occurring that impact performance. Overall, this work provides necessary baseline data for the development of effective antibiotic alternatives, such as probiotics, for sustainable poultry production. Importance Multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens are perhaps the greatest medical challenge we will face in the 21 st century and beyond. Antibiotics are necessary in animal

  4. Cleaning and disinfection programs against Campylobacter jejuni for broiler chickens: productive performance, microbiological assessment and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Burbarelli, Maria Fernanda de; do Valle Polycarpo, Gustavo; Deliberali Lelis, Karoline; Granghelli, Carlos Alexandre; Carão de Pinho, Agatha Cristina; Ribeiro Almeida Queiroz, Sabrina; Fernandes, Andrezza Maria; Moro de Souza, Ricardo Luiz; Gaglianone Moro, Maria Estela; de Andrade Bordin, Roberto; de Albuquerque, Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Detailed cleaning and disinfection programs aims to reduce infection pressure from microorganisms from one flock to the next. However, studies evaluating the benefits to poultry performance, the sanitary status of the facilities, and the sanitary quality of the meat are rarely found. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate 2 cleaning and disinfecting programs regarding their influence on productive performance, elimination of Campylobacter, and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strains when applied to broiler chickens' facilities. Two subsequent flocks with 960 birds each were distributed into 32 pens containing 30 birds each. In the first, the whole flock was inoculated with a known strain of Campylobacter jejuni in order to contaminate the environment. In the second flock, performance and microbiological evaluations were done, characterizing an observational study between 2 cleaning and disinfection programs, regular and proposed. The regular program consisted of sweeping facilities, washing equipment and environment with water and neutral detergent. The proposed cleaning program consisted of dry and wet cleaning, application of 2 detergents (one acid and one basic) and 2 disinfectants (250 g/L glutaraldehyde and 185 g/L formaldehyde at 0.5% and 210 g/L para-chloro-meta-cresol at 4%). Total microorganism count in the environment and Campylobacter spp. identification were done for the microbiological assessment of the environment and carcasses. The positive samples were submitted to molecular identification of Campylobacter spp. and posterior genetic sequencing of the species identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The birds housed in the facilities and submitted to the proposed treatment had better performance when compared to the ones in the regular treatment, most likely because there was a smaller total microorganism count on the floor, walls, feeders and drinkers. The proposed program also resulted in a reduction of Campylobacter spp. on floors

  5. The impact of nutrient density in terms of energy and/or protein on live performance, metabolism and carcass composition of female and male broiler chickens of two commercial broiler strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delezie, E; Bruggeman, V; Swennen, Q; Decuypere, E; Huyghebaert, G

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of diet composition on performance, slaughter yield and plasma metabolites, as different modern broiler strains show different responses to feed intake. Broilers of two commercial strains and of both sexes received one of three diets being different in energy and/or protein level [control diet, low energy/low protein diet (LM/LP) and low protein diet (LP)]. Low energy/low protein diet chickens were characterized by significantly lower body weights and feed intake compared with their LP and control counterparts. Broilers of the Cobb strain or broilers that were fed the control diet were most efficient in converting energy to body weight. No significant differences in plasma metabolites were detected due to diet composition or genotype. The diet with the lower energy and crude protein levels reached the lowest slaughter yield but the highest drumstick and wing percentages. The lowest mortality percentages were observed for broilers fed the LM/LP diet, and Cobb birds appeared to be more sensitive for metabolic disorders resulting in death. It is obvious from this study that different genotypes respond differently to changes in diet composition and therefore have adjusted nutritional requirements.

  6. Effects of the free fatty acid content in yellow grease on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum lipids in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Gong, L M; Guo, L; Zhang, L Y; Li, J T

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether the free fatty acid (FFA) content of yellow grease would influence the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicks. A total of 432 one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments, with each treatment being applied to 6 pens of 18 chicks. The dietary treatments were based on corn and soybean meal and were supplemented with either soybean oil (2.86% FFA) or yellow grease with a low (2.74%), medium (12.59%), or high (19.05%) FFA content. The fat sources were supplemented at 1.5% of the diet during the starter phase (0 to 21 d) and at 3.0% of the diet during the grower phase (22 to 42 d). From d 0 to 42, the BW gains of chicks fed diets containing soybean oil and yellow grease with 2.74% FFA were similar. As the FFA level in the yellow grease increased, the BW gain of chicks decreased (P dressing percentage and the percentage of breast muscle in the carcass were significantly (P < 0.01) lower for broilers fed any yellow grease diet compared with birds fed soybean oil. In contrast, abdominal fat was significantly increased in diets containing yellow grease. These results demonstrate that the performance of birds fed yellow grease with a low content of FFA was essentially equal to that of birds fed soybean oil. However, because yellow grease samples containing FFA levels greater than 2.74% negatively affected bird performance, producers should exercise caution with regard to feeding broilers yellow grease with an elevated FFA content. In 42-d-old broilers, serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were elevated in birds fed yellow grease, regardless of the dietary level. In contrast, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were unaffected by dietary treatment. Although dietary FFA may influence triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism in broilers, an explanation for the observed effects remains elusive.

  7. Prebiotic, probiotic and symbiotic as alternative to Antibiotics on the Performance and Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VDA Murarolli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate diets supplemented with prebiotic, probiotic and symbiotic as an alternative to antibiotics on the performance and immune response against the virus of Newcastle disease in broiler chickens. 1,400 one-day old male Cobb 500 chicks were raised until 42 days old in a completely randomized design with 2x2+1 factorial scheme with seven replications. The treatments were: diet without supplementation (base diet - BD, BD + prebiotic, BD + probiotic, BD + symbiotic (prebiotic + probiotic, and BD + antibiotic. The parameters evaluated were performance and antibody serum titers against Newcastle disease. No antibiotic effect was observed on performance. The symbiotic provided better results for weight gain and feed:gain ratio until 21 days old than isolated additives. At 28 days old, the broilers fed diets with prebiotic presented better feed: gain ratio. In the same period (28 d-old, there was an antibody production increase against the Newcastle disease virus in the group supplemented with prebiotic. It can be concluded that the utilization of symbiotic in broiler chickens' diets can substitute performance enhancing antibiotics. The inclusion of prebiotic in the diet improves feed: gain ratio at 1-28 days old. The chickens' immune response increases at 28 days against the Newcastle disease virus in the group supplemented with prebiotic.

  8. Use of Bacillus Subtilis PB6 as a potential antibiotic growth promoter replacement in improving performance of broiler birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sathishkumar; Das, Partha Pratim; Saini, Prakash Chandra; Roy, Barun; Chatterjee, Paresh Nath

    2017-08-01

    The intestinal gut health is one of the primary determinants of broiler growth and performance. Among the various enteric diseases, necrotic enteritis (NE) is an enterotoxemic disease caused by Clostridium perfringens, which can result in severe economic losses in poultry farming. Antibiotics like bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) and avilamycin (AVL) are commonly used antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in poultry feed to control necrotic enteritis in birds. Bacillus subtilis PB6 was reported to prevent necrotic enteritis and improve performance in birds. This paper investigated the influence of Bacillus subtilis PB6 in improving the performance of broiler birds in comparison with BMD and avilamycin. A 35 day trial was conducted with 240 day-old commercial broiler chicks (VenCobb 400), which were divided into four treatment groups, where each treatment group was composed of 6 replicates each containing 10 birds, for a total of 60 birds per treatment. The treatment groups included a negative control (no AGP), Bacillus subtilis PB6, BMD, and avilamycin. The parameters analyzed included body weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, villus histomorphometry, and European efficiency factor (EEF). Bacillus subtilis PB6 significantly (P < 0.05) improved body weight and FCR (8 points) compared to the control. The group supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 or BMD had higher (P < 0.05) body weight compared to all other treatment groups. The supplementation of B. subtilis PB6 significantly improved the villus height (P < 0.05) compared to control and other AGP groups. The EEF was found to be the highest in the B. subtilis PB6 supplemented group at 35th day as compared to other treatment groups. The combined data from this study indicate that supplementation of B. subtilis PB6 improves overall performance of broilers compared to BMD and avilamycin, and can be used as potential AGP replacement in poultry farming. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  10. Performance characteristics and physiological response of broiler chickens at finisher stage to oral supplementation with fluted pumpkin, Telfairia occidentalis leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Olufemi ALABI; Mathew AYOOLA; Oyebola AKINOSO

    2017-01-01

    The performance characteristics and physiological response of broiler chickens to oral supplementation with Telfairia occidentalis leaf extract (TOLE) at finisher stage were investigated. One hundred and twenty unsexed broilers of Arbor Acre strain at 28-day-old were randomly divided into four treatment groups of oral supplementation each with three replicates. The treatment groups are: T1=Water (control), T2=Vitalyte, T3=15% TOLE, and T4=30% TOLE. The experiment lasted for 70 days, during wh...

  11. Effects of egg storage on hatchability, chick quality, performance and immunocompetence parameters of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliomytis, Michael; Tsipouzian, Theofania; Hager-Theodorides, Ariadne L

    2015-09-01

    Pre-incubation egg storage is a necessity for the poultry industry. This study evaluated the effects of pre-incubation storage length of broiler eggs on hatchability, 1-day-old chick quality, subsequent performance, and immunocompetence. To this end, a total of 360 hatching eggs were stored for 4, 12, or 16 d prior to incubation. Hatchability and chick quality were assessed at hatch, and growth performance and immunocompetence parameters were assessed during a 35 d rearing period. Hatchability of set and fertile eggs, and embryonic mortality, were not affected by egg storage. On the contrary, 1-day-old chick BW and length were linearly negatively correlated with egg storage length (P-linearegg weight prior to setting was unaffected, and corrected chick length was positively affected by storage length. One-day-old chick Tona score, navel quality, and post-hatch growth performance (BW at 7 and 35 d, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio at 35 d) were unaffected by egg storage (P, P-linear>0.05). Lymphoid organ weights at 2 and 35 d, the titre of maternal anti-NDV antibodies, most of the thymocyte subpopulations defined by CD3, CD4, and CD8 cell surface expression in the thymus of 2-d-old chicks, cellular responses to the PHA skin test, humoral responses to primary SRBC, and NDV immunizations were also not influenced by length of storage (P, P-linear>0.05). On the contrary, the length of egg storage was found to negatively influence the abundance of CD3+CD4-CD8- thymocytes that represent the majority of γδ-T cells in the thymus of 2-day-old chicks, as well as the humoral response to booster NDV immunization of the birds. In brief, pre-incubation storage of broiler hatching eggs for up to 16 d did not affect most developmental and growth parameters investigated, except for BW and length at hatch. Egg storage was found to suppress some aspects of the immunocompetence of the birds, particularly aspects of acquired immunity. © 2015 Poultry Science

  12. Effect of squash seed meal (Cucurbita moschata on broiler performance, sensory meat quality, and blood lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YM Aguilar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, 240 Cobb-500® broilers reared from1 to 49 days, and distributed according to a completely experimental randomized design with four treatments of four replicates each in order to evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of 0, 33, 66 or 100 g/kg of squash seed meal (SSM (Cucurbita moschata on the performance, carcass yield, serum lipid profile and sensory meat quality of broilers. Significant differences (p<0.05 were detected in performance, carcass weight, weight and breast yield, and leg weight. The best results were obtained with 33 and 66 g/kg as compared to the control diet and 100 g SSM /kg. Abdominal fat decreased with the inclusion of 66 and 100 g SSM / kg, but the sensory quality of breast and thighs was not affected by the inclusion of SSM. The serum levels of total cholesterol, very low density (VLDL and low density (LDL lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose and atherogenic index decreased with the inclusion of 100 g/kg of SSM, except for high density lipoproteins (HDL, which increased. The inclusion of 0, 33, 66 and 100 g/kg of SSM in broiler diets, partially replacing soybean meal and vegetable oil, improved live performance and edible portions yield. In addition, abdominal fat and serum levels of harmful lipids were reduced, whereas serum levels of beneficial lipids increased. There was no effect on meat sensory quality.

  13. Tall oil fatty acid inclusion in the diet improves performance and increases ileal density of lactobacilli in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienola, K; Jurgens, G; Vuorenmaa, J; Apajalahti, J

    2018-04-20

    1. Studies were conducted with tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) to determine their effect on broiler chicken performance and ileal microbiota. TOFA, a product originating from coniferous trees and recovered by fractional distillation of side-streams from pulp production, mainly comprises free long-chain fatty acids (~90%) and resin acids (~8%). Conjugated linolenic acids and pinolenic acid are characteristic fatty acid components of TOFA. 2. TOFA products at 750 mg/kg feed were tested in two 35-day broiler chicken trials, each using a wheat soya-based diet and with 12 replicate pens per treatment. In both trials, TOFA improved body weight gain at all time points (P TOFA formulations (silica carrier and palm oil coating) were tested and showed performance effects similar to liquid TOFA. 3. Ileal digesta of the broiler chickens was analysed for total eubacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens on days 14 and 35. TOFA significantly increased total eubacteria and lactobacilli density on day 14 (P TOFA (P 250 mg/l. The in vitro results were thus in line with in vivo observations. 5. The mechanisms behind the bacterial shifts and their role in performance improvement are unknown. Further purification of TOFA components is needed to identify the effective agents.

  14. Effects of Dietary Zinc Oxide and a Blend of Organic Acids on Broiler Live Performance, Carcass Traits, and Serum Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BG Sarvari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different dietary supplementation levels of zinc oxide and of an organic acid blend on broiler performance, carcass traits, and serum parameters. A total of 2400 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks, with average initial body weight 44.21±0.19g, was distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Six treatments, consisting of diets containing two zinc oxide levels (0 and 0.01% of the diet and three organic acid blend levels (0, 0.15, and 0.30% were applied, with eight replicates of 50 birds each. The experimental diets were supplied ad libitum for 42 days. There were significant performance differences among birds fed the different zinc oxide and organic acid blend levels until 42 d of age (p<0.01. The result of this experiment showed that the organic acid blend did not affect feed intake, but zinc oxide increased feed intake. Carcass traits were not influenced by the experimental supplements. Zinc oxide supplementation increased serum alkaline phosphatase level (p<0.01. The organic acid blend reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05. No interactions were found between zinc oxide and the organic acid blend for none of the evaluated parameters. We concluded that zinc oxide and the evaluated organic acid blend improve broiler performance.

  15. Impact of various lighting source (incandescent, fluorescent, metal halide and high pressure sodium) on the production performance of chicken broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guffar, A.; Rahman, K.U.; Siddique, M.; Ahmad, F.

    2009-01-01

    Light is an important aspect of an animal's environment. Avian as well as mammalian species respond to light energy in a variety of ways. Recent research has indicated that light source may affect body weight, immune response, livability and health status. Broiler behavior is strongly affected by light sources. So the present project was designed to study the effect of light sources on the production performance of broilers. For this purpose, 500 day-old broilers purchased from the local market were reared for three days (adaptation period) in one group. Then these were randomly divided into five experimental groups each comprising of 100 birds. Group A was given 25 incandescent light (INC), Group B was given fluorescent light (FC), Group C was given metal halide light (MH), Group D was given high pressure sodium light (HPS) and Group E was given no light source (control). Performance trial in terms of measurement of weekly body weight, weekly feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily water consumption and mortality were checked. Among various lighting sources, MH proved the best light source regarding main parameters of production performance. (author)

  16. Effect of house type on growth performance, litter quality and incidence of foot lesions in broiler chickens reared in varying stocking density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danial Farhadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different stocking density on broiler performance two repeated experiments were conducted in a conventional and an environmentally controlled house using a total of 10,232 broiler chickens. In each experiment, a total of 5,116 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly distributed to 16 floor pens arranged within each house at density of 16, 18, 20 or 22 birds/m2. Results showed that the broiler chickens grown in environmentally controlled house had greater (p<0.05 weight gain, kg body weight (BW/m2, production efficiency index (PEI and spleen relative weight at day 42 and also had lower (p<0.05 feed conversion ratio and mortality rate during 21 to 42 and 1 to 42 days of age than those reared in conventional house. Weight gain, feed intake and PEI decreased (p<0.05 and kg BW/m2 and carcass yield increased (p<0.05, when broiler density increased more than 20 birds/m2. House type and stocking density had no effect on relative weights of liver, abdominal fat, bursa of Fabricius, and litter pH and ammonia emission. However, higher litter moisture in conventional house led to a greater (p<0.05 incidence of foot pad lesions and hock burns, which intensified with increased density. In conclusion, broiler chickens reared in environmentally controlled house had superior performance, higher liability, and lower litter moisture content and foot lesions. Moreover, broiler rearing at the density of 22 birds/m2 adversely affected growth performance and foot quality, despite the greater kg BW/m2 compared to broilers grown at lower densities.

  17. Lesions in Broiler Chicks Following Experimental Contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Average daily food intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and ... that contamination of feed for broilers chicks beyond 0.5% is detrimental to the performance of broiler chicks. Introduction ... nearly all manufacturing industries. Disposal of ...

  18. Effects of prebiotics, probiotics, and their combination on growth performance, small intestine morphology, and resident Lactobacillus of male broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Farnell, Y Z; Peebles, E D; Kiess, A S; Wamsley, K G S; Zhai, W

    2016-06-01

    Effects of commercial antimicrobials and the individual and combinational use of commercial prebiotics and probiotics in feed from d zero to 41 on the growth performance, small intestine size, jejunal morphology, and ileal resident bacteria population of broiler chickens were determined. A total of 1,040 one-day-old male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were randomly distributed to 80 floor pens (5 treatments, 16 replications per treatment, 13 chicks per pen). Five dietary treatments were employed: 1) a corn soybean-meal basal diet (served as a negative control diet, NC); 2) a basal diet supplemented with a commercial prebiotic product (Pre); 3) a basal diet supplemented with a probiotic product containing Bacillus subtilis spores (Pro); 4) a basal diet supplemented with both prebiotic and probiotic products (Pre + Pro); and 5) a basal diet supplemented with commercial antimicrobials (served as a positive control diet, PC). At d 14, Pre diets improved the relative level of Lactobacillus in ileal mucosa as compared to NC, Pro, or PC diets (P = 0.045) without improving broiler BW. Broilers fed PC diets exhibited the highest BW gain from d 15 to 27, the lowest duodenum, jejunum, and ileum relative weights as percentage of BW at d 27, and the highest breast weight at d 42 (P = 0.026, 0.035, 0.002, 0.025, and 0.035, respectively). Broilers fed Pro or Pre + Pro diets exhibited higher BW gain from d 28 to 41 (P = 0.005) and higher overall BW gain from d zero to 41 (P = 0.039) than those fed other diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunal morphology or ileal resident Escherichia coli level at any age. From our results, including spores of Bacillus subtilis in feed may stimulate growth at a later age and may facilitate broilers in reaching their target weight sooner. Therefore, probiotics are recommended as potential alternatives to antimicrobials in chicken diets, especially in grower and finisher feed. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. The utilization of endopower β in commercial feed which contains palm kernel cake on performance of broiler chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, S. S. A.; Tafsin, M.; Ginting, S. P.; Khairani, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Palm kernel cake is an agricultural waste that can be used as raw material in the preparation of poultry rations. The design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Level endopower β used 0 % (R0), 0.02% (R1), 0.04% (R2) and 0.06% (R3). The results showed that R0a and R0b were significantly different from R3 in terms of diet consumption, body weight gain and the conversion ratio The utilization of endopower β in commercial diets containing palm kernel cake in broilers can increase body weight gain, feed consumption, improve feed use efficiency and even energy. It is concluded that utilization endpower β improve performances of broiler chicken fed by diet containing palm kernel cake.

  20. Research note: the performance of spring- and summer-reared broilers as affected by precision beak trimming at seven days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, R B

    1993-12-01

    In each of two duplicate trials approximately 2,500 day-old Peterson x Arbor Acres straight-run broiler chicks were equally divided between two treatments of three pens each. Treatment 1 was maintained as controls (C), and Treatment 2 birds were precision beak-trimmed (PBT) at 7 days of age. Feed and water were supplied for ad libitum consumption to both groups. Trials 1 and 2 were initiated in March and June, respectively. Performance of spring-reared broilers were comparable regardless of beak trimming procedure, except that PBT broilers experienced slightly higher mortality after PBT. Final body weights of the summer-reared broilers were 15% lower than those reared in the spring. Additionally, PBT resulted in significantly reduced final body weights and feed intake. There were no significant differences in mortality or feed conversion due to PBT.

  1. The effect of dietary phosphorus level and phytase supplementation on growth performance, bone-breaking strength, and litter phosphorus concentration in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Johnston, S; Gaston, L; Southern, L L

    2008-05-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effects of feeding different P levels with and without phytase supplementation on broiler growth performance, bone-breaking strength (BBS), and litter P concentration. An experiment with 4 trials was conducted with 7,840 Ross x Ross straight-run broilers. For each trial, 1,960 broilers were allotted on d 0 to treatments, with 7 replications each and with 70 broilers per replication. The broilers were fed a 4-period feeding program consisting of starter (0 to 14 d), grower (14 to 32 d), finisher (32 to 41 d), and withdrawal (41 to 50 d) periods. For each trial, the same pen was used continuously for each treatment-replication combination, and the litter was not removed between trials. Broilers were fed a control diet [0.43, 0.40, 0.36, or 0.32% nonphytate P (nPP)] in the starter, grower, finisher, and withdrawal periods, respectively, a low Ca and P (LCaP) diet with a 0.05% reduction in nPP in each period, and these 2 diets supplemented with phytase at 600 phytase units/kg (nPP and Ca were reduced by 0.094% in diets with phytase). Diet did not affect (P > 0.10) broiler performance in the starter or withdrawal periods. Generally, both phytase addition and the LCaP diet decreased some aspects of growth performance during the grower and finisher periods. There was no main effect of phytase on BBS, but BBS was decreased in the broilers fed the LCaP diet with phytase addition (nPP x phytase, P broilers fed the LCaP diet. Total P, soluble P (SP), and reactive soluble P (RSP) were decreased (P litter of broilers fed the LCaP diets. Total P, SP, and RSP were decreased (P litter of broilers fed phytase. These data indicate that phytase supplementation at 600 phytase units/kg reduces growth in some periods, has no effect on BBS, and reduces total P, SP, and RSP in the litter.

  2. Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMC Racanicci

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC. Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b* was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances values were higher (P<0.05 in thigh meat from chickens fed the oxidized fat, indicating that oxidative stability was adversely affected.

  3. THE EFFECT OF EXPIRED BREAD MEAL AS CORN SUBSTITUTION IN DIET ON BROILER PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the expired bread meal used as corn substitution in thebroiler diets to optimally the product performance. One hundred day old chick (DOC male broilerswere given the same diet until 2 weeks old, and then given the treatment diet until 7 weeks of age. ACompletely Randomized Design was used in this study. Data were analyzed by variance of analysis, andfollowed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test The treatments were : T0 = control feed (without expiredbread meal, T1 = corn substituted with 10% expired bread meal, T2 = corn substituted with 20%expired bread meal, T3 = corn substituted with 30% expired bread meal and T4 = corn substituted with40% expired bread meal. The result indicated that corn substituted with expired bread meal up to 40%has not significantly affected on carcass weight, carcass percentage and feed conversion, but decreasedsignificantly on feed consumption and body weight gain. It can be concluded that the use of expiredbread meal 30% of the proportion of corn produced the most optimal broiler performance. Thesubstitution corn with expired bread meal 40% was decreased body weight gain.

  4. Chelating effect of silver nitrate by chitosan on its toxicity and growth performance in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemdjie Mane Divine Doriane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the chelating effect of silver nitrate (AgNO3 by chitosan on growth performances, hematological and biochemical parameters, and the histopathological structure of the liver and the kidney in broiler chicken. Materials and methods: A total of 192 day-old Cobb 500 strain chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 64 chicks each. Control group was fed on basal diet without supplement (R0 and the two others groups were fed on rations supplemented with 10 mg of unchelated (RAg or chelated (RCs-Ag AgNO3 per Kg of feed, respectively. Parameters that have been studied consisted of feed intake, weight gain, blood and serum biochemical, and histopathological analyses of liver and kidney. Results: Results revealed that chelation of AgNO3 by chitosan did not have any effect on growth performances and hematological parameters in chicken. However, chelated and unchelated AgNO3 increased the serum content in triglyceride, and cholesterol and decreased the serum content in creatinin, albumin and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT. Chelating AgNO3 with chitosan prevented and corrected the toxicity induced on the histological structure of liver and kidney. Conclusion: Chitosan can be used as a chelating agent to alleviate the harmful effects of AgNO3 as silver ion for poultry. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(2.000: 187-193

  5. Effects of Enzyme Treated Palm Kernel Expeller on Metabolizable Energy, Growth Performance, Villus Height and Digesta Viscosity in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saenphoom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether pre-treating palm kernel expeller (PKE with exogenous enzyme would degrade its fiber content; thus improving its metabolizable energy (ME, growth performance, villus height and digesta viscosity in broiler chickens fed diets containing PKE. Our results showed that enzyme treatment decreased (p0.05 among treatment groups in the finisher period, ADG of chickens in the control (PKE-free diet was higher (p0.05 FCR. The intestinal villus height and crypt depth (duodenum, jejunum and ileum were not different (p>0.05 among treatments except for duodenal crypt depth. The villus height and crypt depth of birds in enzyme treated PKE diets were higher (p0.05 among treatments. Results of this study suggest that exogenous enzyme is effective in hydrolyzing the fiber (hemicellulose and cellulose component and improved the ME values of PKE, however, the above positive effects were not reflected in the growth performance in broiler chickens fed the enzyme treated PKE compared to those received raw PKE. The results suggest that PKE can be included up to 5% in the grower diet and 20% in the finisher diet without any significant negative effect on FCR in broiler chickens.

  6. Use of Vitamin D and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Quiles Marques Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OHD3, 1,25(OH2D3, and 1α(OHD3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d and growth phases (22 to 42 d, respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OHD3 when compared with the other treatments (p0.05 for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05. All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OHD3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected.

  7. The influences of ambient temperature and crude protein levels on performance and serum biochemical parameters in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q W; Feng, J H; Chao, Z; Chen, Y; Wei, L M; Wang, F; Sun, R P; Zhang, M H

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of ambient temperature, crude protein levels and their interaction on performance and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 216 Arbor Acre broiler chickens (108 males and 108 females) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement and randomly reared at two temperatures (normal temperature: 23 °C; daily cyclic high temperature: 28-32 °C) and fed on three diets with different crude protein levels (153.3, 183.3 or 213.3 g/kg, with constant essential amino acids) from 28 to 42 days of age. Daily cyclic high ambient temperature decreased final body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and serum total protein contents (p chickens was interacted by daily cyclic high ambient temperature and dietary crude protein levels (p = 0.003). These results indicated that daily cyclic high ambient temperature had a great effect on performance and serum biochemical parameters in broiler chickens, whereas dietary crude protein levels affected them partially. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effects of Whole Wheat Scattered the Litter on Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Excreta pH and Viscosity in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Kırkpınar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigate the effects of whole wheat scattered the litter on performance, carcass characteristics and viscosity and pH of excreta in male broilers. A total 336 male chicks (Ross-308 were randomly distributed into two dietary treatments of four replicates each. Same starter (0 to 21 d and finisher diets (22 to 45 d were used in both groups. All birds were given ad libitum access to feed and water throughout experimental period. From 8 to 21 days, whole wheat (10 g/bird/day was randomly thrown on the litter in one of the experimental groups twice a day (at 0800 and 1200 h. Scattering whole wheat in the litter decreased body weight of male broilers at 21 d of age while increased at 45 d of age. Feed intake was not affected by whole wheat scatter treatment. From 22 to 45 and 0 to 45 d of age, feed conversion ratio significantly improved in group scattered whole wheat in the litter than control group. No significant differences were occurred among groups for mortality, carcass characteristics and excreta viscosity. However, pH value of excreta in group scattered whole wheat the litter showed significant reduction as compared control group. According to these results, scattering whole wheat the litter at an early stage affected the performance of male broilers positively.

  9. Very high expander processing of maize on animal performance, digestibility and product quality of finishing pigs and broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntigam, R; Schedle, K; Schwarz, C; Wanzenböck, E; Eipper, J; Lechner, E-M; Yin, L; Gierus, M

    2017-11-06

    The present study investigated the effect of hydrothermic maize processing and supplementation of amino acids (AA) in two experiments. In total, 60 barrows and 384 broilers were fed four diets including either unprocessed (T1), or hydrothermically processed maize, that is short- (T2), or long-term conditioned (LC) (T3), and subsequently expanded maize of the same batch. Assuming a higher metabolizable energy (ME) content after processing, the fourth diet (T4) contains maize processed as treatment T3, but AA were supplemented to maintain the ideal protein value. Performance, digestibility and product quality in both species were assessed. Results show that in pigs receiving T4 the average daily feed intake was lower compared with the other treatments, whereas no difference was observed in broilers. The T3 improved the feed conversion rate compared with T1 (Panimal species, suggesting a higher ME content in diets with processed maize. The higher ME content of diets with processed maize is supported also by measurements of product quality. Supplementation of AA in T4 enhanced the loin depth in pigs as well as the amount of breast meat in broilers. Further effects of processing maize on meat quality were the reduced yellowness and antioxidative capacity (Panimal performance and digestibility in both species. However, effects on carcass characteristics and product quality differed. The negative effects on product quality could be partly compensated with the AA supplementation, whereas a change in meat colour and reduced antioxidative capacity was observed in all groups fed hydrothermic maize processing.

  10. The effect of phytase and fructooligosaccharide supplementation on growth performance, bone quality, and phosphorus utilization in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Y; Rogiewicz, A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A; Kim, W K

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phytase and 2 levels of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation on growth performance, bone mineralization, and P utilization of broiler chickens. A total of 210 day-old male broiler chickens (Ross) were randomly placed into 7 dietary treatments consisting of 6 replicates with 5 birds per pen. The experiment was designed as an augmented 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 0 or 500 U/kg of phytase and 0, 0.5% or 1% of FOS added to a reduced Ca (0.8%) and available P (0.25%) negative control diet (NC). A positive control diet (PC) that contained 1% Ca and 0.45% available P was also included. During the entire experimental period, phytase supplementation significantly improved (P Phytase supplementation increased femur BMD (P Phytase alone and in combination with 0.5% FOS increased P utilization significantly when compared with other treatments (P phytase supplementation in low Ca and P diets improved growth performance, bone quality, and P utilization. However, supplementing NC diets with phytase and FOS did not result in bone mineralization values comparable with that of the PC diet. The application of dietary FOS alone had a negative effect on broiler bone quality. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Evaluation of a new form of vitamin D (Hy. D) in improving growth performance and mineral utilization in broiler Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S. B.; Blair, R.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of feeding diets containing 69μg/ kg of vitamin D 3 or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (Hy.D), 0.45% (P100) or 0.35% (P50) National Research Council's available phosphorus (P) requirement with or without natuphos (phytase) on broiler chickens performance. The results of the first experiment (balance study) indicated no significant effects (P>0.05) in body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio of broilers at 21 days of age. Tibia bone ash percentage was not effected by the dietary treatments. Chicks fed the P100 diet had a significantly (P<0.05) higher apparent P retention than those fed the P50 diet. The pH of different segments of intestine was not affected by dietary treatments. The phytase activities in the duodenal contents and tissues were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the chicks receiving diets with Hy.D in the absence of phytase. There were no differences in the growth performance of broilers under commercial conditions due to sources of vitamin D in the diets at 39 days of age.(Author)

  12. Growth performance, carcass yield and gait score of Marshal broiler chicken reared on intensive and semi intensive management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwadiya, B. O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rearing system used in highly productive farms is often subjected to harsh criticism, one of the reasons being its failure to provide adequate welfare. A number of attempts have been made to introduce new technologies in rearing poultry for meat production aiming at improving rearing conditions, protecting the environment and enhancing the quality of poultry products. Given the above, one hundred and sixty eight unsexed 14-day old Marshall broiler chicks were used in a completely randomized design study to compare the effect of management systems (intensive and semi intensive on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and gait score of broiler chickens. The experiment lasted for 42 d. Data were collected on weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and gait score. Result showed that birds on the intensive management system recorded higher weight gain (P 0.05; 66.94%, 11.44% than those in semi-intensive system (54.55%, 10.92%, respectively. For the gait score broiler birds on semi intensive management system recorded reduced number of cases of severe and slight leg problems (P < 0.05, 25.76% vs 49.3%. It was concluded that broiler birds should be reared on intensive management system for better growth performance and carcass yield. However, birds reared on semi intensive management system had fewer leg problems compared to birds reared on intensive management system. The fewer severe leg problems observed in birds on semi intensive management system will help improve their market value thereby making birds more profitable to rear on semi intensive management system.

  13. Dietary inclusion of chromium to improve growth performance and immune-competence of broilers under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagwa M. Norain

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with chromium chloride, CrCl3.6H2O (2mg kg–1 basal diet on the performance and immune response of broiler chickens under heat stress condition (25-43°C. A total of 80 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-308 were assigned to two treatment groups according to a completely randomized design. Each treatment consisted of four equal replicates, each contained ten chicks. Chicks were fed on basal diets supplemented with different concentrations of chromium (0 and 2 mg kg–1 CrCl3 from 1 to 35 days of age. Chromium supplementation as feed additives resulted in a slightly lower rectal temperature, and significantly (P<0.05 lower respiration rate for the broiler chickens received diet supplemented with chromium compared to the control (0 mg kg–1 CrCl3. Dietary chromium supplementation increased final body weight (BW at the end of the production period (5 weeks. Average weight gain was significantly (P<0.05 higher in chickens fed on chromium supplemented diet. Feed intake was not influenced by dietary chromium supplementation, however, the efficiency of feed conversion was improved (P<0.05 in chromium supplemented chickens. Furthermore, dressing percentage was significantly (P<0.05 higher in Cr-treated chickens compared to control chickens. Chromium supplementation significantly (P<0.05 improved the immune response to Newcastle Disease Virus vaccine (NDV. The present results suggest that dietary chromium supplementation provides a good nutritional management approach to ameliorate heat stress induced depression in production performance and immune response of broiler chickens. 

  14. Effects of Replacing Soybean Meal with Fermented Rapeseed Meal on Performance, Serum Biochemical Variables and Intestinal Morphology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Z. Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This trial was performed to study the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM with fermented rapeseed meal (RSM on growth performance, serum biochemistry variable and intestinal morphology of broilers. A total of 640 d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments, 4 pens per treatment and 40 birds per pen for a 6-wk feeding trial. In the four treatment groups, fermented RSM replaced soybean meal at 0, 5, 10, and 15%, respectively. On 21 d and 42 d, two birds from each pen were randomly selected and slaughtered. Blood samples and sections of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected for measurement of serum biochemical variables and intestinal morphology, respectively. Results showed that body weight gain (BWG and feed conversion (FC were significantly (p<0.01 poorer for birds fed the 15% fermented RSM diet than those fed with 0, 5 and 10% fermented RSM diets during all periods. Compared with 0 and 5% fermented RSM groups, IgG content in the serum of birds in 10 and 15% fermented RSM groups was improved (p<0.01 urea nitrogen content of serum was reduced (p<0.01 during both growing and finishing periods. However, IgM, phosphorus and calcium levels increased (p<0.05 only during the growing period. Increased (p<0.05 villus height was observed in the duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed the diet with 10% fermented RSM. In addition, villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was significantly higher (p<0.01 for birds fed the diet with 10% fermented RSM than for those fed diets with 0, 5 and 15% fermented RSM. The present results suggest that RSM fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum and Bacillus subtilis is a promising alternative protein source and that it could be safely used replace up to 10% SBM in broiler diets.

  15. The effect of calcium and magnesium supplementation on performance and bone strength of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Karásek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the experiment was evaluation of the effect of reduced calcium and magnesium content in the broiler chickens diet on its parameters of fattening, bone strength and calcium and magnesium content in liver. The trial was performed with cockerels of Ross 308 hybrid (n = 160 which were fattened in cage batteries from day 11th to 36th day of age. Cockerels were divided into 4 groups (differ in various intake levels of calcium and magnesium in four replications. The maize-wheat-soybean basal diet contained 2.33 g Ca and 1.58 g Mg per kilogram. Calcium was added by CaCO3 and magnesium by MgSO4. Control group (C received feed mixture with added CaCO3 in dose of 19.49 g.kg-1 and 0.41 g.kg-1 of MgSO4. Three experimental groups contain added CaCO3 in dose of 11.83 g.kg-1 and 0 g.kg-1 MgSO4 (group Exp1; CaCO3 11.83 g.kg-1 and 0.41 g.kg-1 MgSO4 (group Exp2; CaCO3 19.49 g.kg-1 and 0 g.kg-1 MgSO4 (group Exp3, respectively. The feed consumption was daily monitored and the cockerels were weighed twice a week. At the end of the study the experimental animals were weighted and slaughtered by decapitation. The weight of carcasses, liver and proportion of breast and thigh muscle was determined in the selected chickens (n = 24. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used for Ca and Mg evaluation in liver tissues. Bone strength parameter was measured at the femur bone. The statistically significant differences (p >0.05 were not detected between control and experimental groups in the case of studied parameters of fattening, bone strength and calcium and magnesium content in the chicken´s liver. Based on the obtained results it could be concluded the reduction of determined elements in the chicken diet did not deteriorate parameters of yield, elements content in liver tissue as well as the bone strength of broiler chickens. Normal 0 21 false false false CS X-NONE X-NONE

  16. Effect of Barley and Enzyme on Performance, Carcass, Enzyme Activity and Digestion Parameters of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid kalantar

    2016-04-01

    Ross-308 broiler chickens were allocated randomly to 3 treatments with 5 replicates using a CRD statistical design. Treatments were included control, barley and barley+ enzyme. The experimental diets were formulated to have similar contents of crude protein, metabolizable energy, total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. Results and Discussion According to the results, effect of barley with or without enzyme on growth performance at starter, grower and the entire period and also on carcass characteristics, pancreas enzyme activity and measures of ileal acidity and viscosity at the age of 42 were significant (P

  17. EFFECT OF DIETARY TRYPTOPHAN LEVELS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKENS REARED IN THE HOT SEASON UNDER TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Opoola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of tryptophan on growth performance of broiler chickens reared under tropical environment. At the starter phase, a total of two hundred and eighty five day old mixed sex Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with three replicates each having nineteen (19 chicks. At the finisher phase, two hundred and seventy broilers were also allotted to five dietary treatments with three replicates each having 18 broilers per replicate. The dietary tryptophan levels at the starter phase were 0.15, 0.19, 0.23, 0.27 and 0.31% respectively while the diets for the finisher phase contained 0.13, 0.17, 0.21, 0.25 and 0.29% dietary tryptophan respectively. All other nutrient levels were constant. The experiment was conducted at 0 to 28d (starter phase and 33 to 56d (finisher phase. Growth performance traits including weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded at the end of each week. The results for the starter phase showed that chicks fed diet containing 0.23%, 0.27% and 0.31% dietary tryptophan had similar results in term of the weight gain, average daily weight gain, feed intake and average daily feed intake. For the finisher phase, the birds fed 0.21%, 0.25% and 0.29% tryptophan diets also had similar results in terms of final weight, weight gain, feed intake and average daily feed intake. Our results suggest that supplemental tryptophan was sufficient to have significant (P<0.05 effect on broiler performance. However, polynomial regression analysis reveals that the optimum performances were reached at 0.24% and 0.21% dietary tryptophan for the starter and finisher phases respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that dietary tryptophan requirements during the hot season for the starter and finisher phases were 0.24% and 0.21%, respectively.

  18. The Effect of Growth Promoter Feed Additives on Performance of Broilers Challenged With Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Valipouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 528 day-old Ross 308 male broilers were used to study the effect of antibiotic, probiotic, prebiotic and organic acid on performance, cecal Coliform load and internal organs’ weight. The chickens were placed into 6 groups with 4 replicates and 22 chickens per pen. Six dietary treatments included: 1 negative control as basal diet without any antibiotic growth promoter and coccidiostat (Control, 2 Diet 1+ 0.9 g/kg Primalac® (Primalac, 3 Diet 1+0.1 g/kg Bactocell® (Bactocell, 4 Diet 1+15ppm virginiamycin (Virginiamycin, 5 Diet 1+2 g/kg Fermacto® (Fermacto, and 6 Diet 1+2 g/kg Formycin Gold® (Formycin. At day 7 all chickens were orally gavaged with a 0.5 mL of 107 cfu/mL of mixed culture of pathogenic E. coli (O2K12 and O78K80 verified for presence of genes including stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA. Eight chickens from each group were euthanized for detection of the challenged bacteria in liver, spleen and cecum content at days 14, 28 and 42. Overall weight gain (P

  19. Nutritional Evaluation of Distillery Sludge and Its Effect as a Substitute of Canola Meal on Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Shahzad, M. A.; Rehman, S.; Khan, S.; Ali, R.; Khan, M. L.; Khan, K.

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition of distillery yeast sludge and its inclusion in broiler diets to replace canola meal. Raw distillery yeast sludge was washed with water using water and sludge in the ratio 6:1, respectively. Proximate analysis of raw distillery yeast sludge and washed distillery sludge was carried out for crude protein (CP), true protein (TP), ether extract (EE), ash, acid insoluble ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE) determination. Mineral contents and amino acid profile of raw distillery yeast sludge and washed distillery sludge were also determined. After chemical evaluation, four iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous broiler starter and finisher diets were prepared in mash form using 0 (control), 4, 8 and 12% levels of washed distillery sludge replacing canola meal. One hundred and twenty day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 12 experimental units in such a way that each diet was offered to three experimental units, each comprising of 10 chicks. It was observed that washing affected the nutrients either by decreasing or increasing their concentration. It decreased the total mineral contents whereas CP, TP, EE and NFE contents increased. Washing also increased amino acid profile. Average feed intake and weight gain were higher in birds fed diet containing 8% washed distillery sludge and lower in birds fed diet containing 0% washed distillery sludge. Feed cost per kg live weight gain decreased significantly as the level of washed distillery sludge was increased in the diet. Average heart, liver and pancreas weights decreased with increased level of washed distillery sludge in the diet. The study revealed that after washing, distillery yeast sludge can be used successfully in broiler diets up to the level of 8% without any adverse effect on broiler’s performance. PMID:25049579

  20. Nutritional Evaluation of Distillery Sludge and Its Effect as a Substitute of Canola Meal on Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharif

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition of distillery yeast sludge and its inclusion in broiler diets to replace canola meal. Raw distillery yeast sludge was washed with water using water and sludge in the ratio 6:1, respectively. Proximate analysis of raw distillery yeast sludge and washed distillery sludge was carried out for crude protein (CP, true protein (TP, ether extract (EE, ash, acid insoluble ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE determination. Mineral contents and amino acid profile of raw distillery yeast sludge and washed distillery sludge were also determined. After chemical evaluation, four iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous broiler starter and finisher diets were prepared in mash form using 0 (control, 4, 8 and 12% levels of washed distillery sludge replacing canola meal. One hundred and twenty day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 12 experimental units in such a way that each diet was offered to three experimental units, each comprising of 10 chicks. It was observed that washing affected the nutrients either by decreasing or increasing their concentration. It decreased the total mineral contents whereas CP, TP, EE and NFE contents increased. Washing also increased amino acid profile. Average feed intake and weight gain were higher in birds fed diet containing 8% washed distillery sludge and lower in birds fed diet containing 0% washed distillery sludge. Feed cost per kg live weight gain decreased significantly as the level of washed distillery sludge was increased in the diet. Average heart, liver and pancreas weights decreased with increased level of washed distillery sludge in the diet. The study revealed that after washing, distillery yeast sludge can be used successfully in broiler diets up to the level of 8% without any adverse effect on broiler’s performance.

  1. Influence of post hatch dietary supplementation of fat on performance, carcass cuts and biochemical profile in Ven Cobb broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Prasad Rai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of post hatch dietary fat supplementation on performance of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 day-old Ven Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups of 30 chicks in each (three replicates of 10 birds/treatment. The trial lasted for 35 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Four types of diet were formulated for 1st week: T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained control diet with no added fat, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% fat, respectively. After 1st week post-hatch period chicks were fed ad libitum with the normal basal diet as per Bureau of Indian Standard recommendations till completion of the experiment (8-35 days. Results: Significantly higher (p<0.05 body weight and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR was recorded in birds fed 5% dietary fat at the end of the experiment whereas, feed intake was not significantly affected. Significantly (p<0.05 higher dressed weight was observed due to 5% fat supplementation than other groups whereas, it was not significant for other carcass cuts. No significant differences were observed in moisture, protein and lipid content of breast and thigh muscle of broiler due to supplemented fat whereas, 2.5% dietary fat significantly (p<0.05 increase the serum HI titer on day 28th. In biochemical profile, higher serum albumin (g/dl was recorded due to 5% fat supplementation whereas other biochemical components did not show any significance difference among treatments. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of fat in broilers diet improves the overall FCR, dressing percentage and gain more body weight.

  2. Predicted optimum ambient temperatures for broiler chickens to dissipate metabolic heat do not affect performance or improve breast muscle quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, I; Mitchell, M A; Hall, S; Beard, P M; Gous, R M; De Koning, D J; Hocking, P M

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens is associated with an ambient temperature that does not permit the birds to lose metabolic heat resulting in physiological heat stress and a reduction in meat quality. The experiment was performed in 4 climate chambers and was repeated in 2 trials using a total of 200 male broiler chickens. Two treatments compared the recommended temperature profile and a cool regimen. The cool regimen was defined by a theoretical model that determined the environmental temperature that would enable heat generated by the bird to be lost to the environment. There were no differences in growth rate or feed intake between the two treatments. Breast muscles from birds on the recommended temperature regimen were lighter, less red and more yellow than those from the cool temperature regimen. There were no differences in moisture loss or shear strength but stiffness was greater in breast muscle from birds housed in the cool compared to the recommended regimen. Histopathological changes in the breast muscle were similar in both treatments and were characterised by mild to severe myofibre degeneration and necrosis with regeneration, fibrosis and adipocyte infiltration. There was no difference in plasma creatine kinase activity, a measure of muscle cell damage, between the two treatments consistent with the absence of differences in muscle pathology. It was concluded that breast muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens was not the result of an inability to lose metabolic heat at recommended ambient temperatures. The results suggest that muscle cell damage and breast meat quality concerns in modern broiler chickens are related to genetic selection for muscle yields and that genetic selection to address breast muscle integrity in a balanced breeding programme is imperative.

  3. The effects of fermentation and enzymatic treatment of pea on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Senz, M; Kozłowski, K; Boros, D; Wisniewska, M; Rose, D; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2017-10-01

    The present study examined the impacts of native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas (Pisum sativum L.) inclusion in broiler diets, on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. For the fermentation process, Madonna pea was mixed with water (1/1) containing 2.57×108 Bacillus subtilis (GalliPro®) spores/kg pea and then, incubated for 48 h at 30 °C. For the enzymatic treatment process, the used water for dough production contained three enzymes, AlphaGalTM (α-galactosidase), RONOZYME® ProAct and VP (protease and pectinases respectively - DSM, Switzerland) and the pea dough incubated for 24 h at 30°C. Nine corn-wheat-soybean diets were formulated by supplying 10%, 20% and 30% of the required CP with either native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas. Performance was recorded weekly and at the end of the experiment (day 35), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP, amino acids (AA), crude fat, starch, Ca, P and K were determined. Data were subjected to ANOVA using GLM procedure with a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Both processes reduced α-galactosides, phytate, trypsin inhibitor activity and resistant starch in peas. Increasing levels of pea products up to 300 g/kg diet, reduced BW gain and feed intake (P⩽0.05). Broilers fed diets containing enzymatically treated pea had the best feed conversion ratio at day 35. Different types of pea product and their inclusion levels had no effect on AID of all nutrients. The interaction between type of the pea products and inclusion levels was significant for AID of starch. For native pea diets, 10% group showed similar AID of starch to 20% native pea but it had higher AID than 30% native pea. For fermented and enzymatically treated groups, all three levels displayed similar AID of starch. In conclusion, enzymatic treatment and fermentation could improve the nutritional quality of pea. Inclusion of enzymatically treated pea in broiler diets could improve broiler performance compared with other pea

  4. Influence of Manufacturing Processes on the Performance of Phantom Lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Chest counting is an important tool for estimating the radiation dose to individuals who have inhaled radioactive materials. Chest counting systems are calibrated by counting the activity in the lungs of phantoms where the activity in the phantom lungs is known. In the United States a commonly used calibration phantom was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is referred to as the Livermore Torso Phantom. An important feature of this phantom is that the phantom lungs can be interchanged so that the counting system can be challenged by different combinations of radionuclides and activity. Phantom lungs are made from lung tissue substitutes whose constituents are foaming plastics and various adjuvants selected to make the lung tissue substitute similar to normal healthy lung tissue. Some of the properties of phantom lungs cannot be readily controlled by phantom lung manufacturers. Some, such as density, are a complex function of the manufacturing process, while others, such as elemental composition of the bulk plastic are controlled by the plastics manufacturer without input, or knowledge of the phantom manufacturer. Despite the fact that some of these items cannot be controlled, they can be measured and accounted for. This report describes how manufacturing processes can influence the performance of phantom lungs. It is proposed that a metric that describes the brightness of the lung be employed by the phantom lung manufacturer to determine how well the phantom lung approximates the characteristics of a human lung. For many purposes, the linear attenuation of the lung tissue substitute is an appropriate surrogate for the brightness

  5. Evaluation of increasing levels of a microbial phytase in phosphorus deficient broiler diets via live broiler performance, tibia bone ash, apparent metabolizable energy, and amino acid digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniazek, J; Smith, K A; Williams, M P; Manangi, M K; Vazquez-Anon, M; Solbak, A; Miller, M; Lee, J T

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to investigate increasing concentrations of an evolved microbial phytase on male broiler performance, tibia bone ash, AME, and amino acid digestibility when fed diets deficient in available phosphorus (aP). Experiment 1 evaluated the effects of phytase during a 21 d battery cage study and Experiment 2 was a 42 d grow-out. Experiment 1 included six treatments; negative control (NC) with an aP level of 0.23% (starter) and 0.19% (grower), two positive controls (PC) consisting of an additional 0.12% and 0.22% aP (PC 1 and PC 2), and the NC supplemented with three levels of phytase (250, 500, and 2,000 U/kg). The NC diet reduced (P Phytase increased (P phytase yielding similar results to the PC2, and improved FCR and increased bone ash was observed at all phytase levels. Amino acid digestibility coefficients were increased (P phytase at 250 U/kg. Phytase at all rates increased (P phytase inclusion of 250, 500, and 2000 U/kg, respectively. Experiment 2 included a PC consisting of 0.45%, 0.41%, and 0.38% aP for the starter, grower, and finisher, respectively; NC with reduced aP of 0.17%; and phytase at 500 and 2,000 U/kg. Phytase increased BW (P phytase resulted in further BW increases compared to the PC (starter and grower). Phytase improved FCR to levels comparable to the PC, with supplementation at 2,000 U/kg resulting in improvements beyond the PC in the starter phase. Amino acid digestibility coefficients were increased with phytase at 2,000 U/kg to levels comparable to that of the PC. These data confirm that the inclusion of phytase improves broiler performance and bone mineralization in aP reduced diets and levels beyond the traditional 500 U/kg can result in further improvements. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Reproductive performance of different breeds of broiler rabbits under sub-temperate climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the effect of breed, season, age and weight of doe at mating on reproductive performance of 4 broiler rabbit breeds, Grey Giant, White Giant, Soviet Chinchilla, and New Zealand White, reared under standard management practices in sub-temperate climatic conditions of India. They were first mated at 6 to 7 mo of age, whereupon an extensive breeding system (re-mating after weaning was followed. Weaning was done 42 d after kindling. The data from the records on reproduction consisting of 503 matings and 377 kindlings were analysed. The parameters considered were fertility rate, litter size at birth (LSB, litter weight at birth (LWB, litter size at weaning (LSW, litter weight at weaning (LWW, doe weight at mating (DWM, gestation length and sex ratio. Among 4 breeds, the LSB, LWB and LSW were higher in Grey Giant followed by White Giant, Soviet Chinchilla and New Zealand White. The LSB and LSW in Grey Giant breed differed significantly (P<0.05 from Soviet Chinchilla and New Zealand White. Season had significant (P<0.05 effect on LSW with higher values during spring (5.68±0.24, followed by summer (5.29±0.30, winter (5.13±0.25 and autumn (4.17±0.49. The body weight of doe at service significantly influenced fertility. The fertility increased as body weight increased. The age of the doe at mating had a significant effect on LSW, with higher values for does more than 2 yr and less than 1 yr old compared to 1- to 2-yr old does. The parity did not affect any of the parameters studied. It is concluded that the factors studied affect the reproductive performance of rabbit does. Grey Giant breed showed the highest litter size at birth and weaning, and the highest litter size and weight at weaning was in spring.

  7. Ascorbic acid and citric flavonoids for broilers under heat stress: effects on performance and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEM Peña

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing doses of ascorbic acid (AA and citric flavonoids (quercetin and rutin on the performance and meat quality characteristics of broilers submitted to cyclic heat stress. Four-hundred one-day-old female Ross 308 were housed in 40 battery cages a in temperature controlled room. Treatments consisted of 0, 250, 500, and 1000 g/ton on of AA + citric flavonoids. Birds were fed ad libitum until 32 day of age. Beginning on day 14 post-hatch until the end of the experiment, in order to simulate cyclic heat stress, the temperature inside the room was increased to 32°C for 5 hours, and decreased until reaching the comfort temperature corresponding to the age of the animals. Birds were slaughtered at 33 days of age, and carcass and commercial cuts yields were determined. Thighs and boneless breast samples were collected and frozen for subsequent analyses of pH, cooking loss, shear force, color, and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS. Significant differences (p <0.05 were found for feed efficiency from 1 to 7 days of age, with the best values for the birds fed 0 and 250 g/ton on of AA + citric flavonoids. At the end of the experiment, there were no differences in other performance variables, carcass and parts yields, pH, shear force, color and TBARS. The meat of the birds supplemented with 250 g/ton on of product presented the lowest cooking loss.

  8. Performance, litter quality and gaseous odour emissions of broilers fed phytase supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nishchal K; Choct, Mingan; Wu, Shu-Biao; Smillie, Robert; Morgan, Natalie; Omar, Amal S; Sharma, Nisha; Swick, Robert A

    2016-12-01

    The effect of graded levels of phytase on performance, bone characteristics, excreta/litter quality and odorant emissions was examined using 720 Ross 308 male d-old broilers. A 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed with 6 replicates of 15 birds per pen. Factors were: diets-positive and negative control (PC, NC); phytase - 0, 500, 1,000, 1,500 FTU/kg. The PC was formulated to meet the 2014 Ross 308 nutrient specifications, whereas the NC was formulated with lower Ca (-1.4 g/kg), available P (-1.5 g/kg), Na (-0.3 g/kg), dLys (-0.2 g/kg) and MEn (-0.28 MJ/kg) equivalent to nutrient matrix values for 500 FTU/kg phytase in the starter, grower and finisher periods (i.e., downspec diet). On d 24, phytase decreased FCR by 1.6, 4.3 and 4.6 points at inclusion levels of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 FTU/kg, respectively ( P  litter quality and water to feed intake ratio ( P   0.05). Solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analysis of gaseous emissions on d 39 indicated no difference in the emission of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, volatile fatty acids and phenols between treatments ( P  > 0.05). The results indicate that phytase has greater benefits when formulated using nutrient matrix values as compared with adding it over the top in an already nutrient sufficient diet. The later method would be expected to increase feed costs without concomitant performance benefits.

  9. Performance, litter quality and gaseous odour emissions of broilers fed phytase supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishchal K. Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of graded levels of phytase on performance, bone characteristics, excreta/litter quality and odorant emissions was examined using 720 Ross 308 male d-old broilers. A 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed with 6 replicates of 15 birds per pen. Factors were: diets-positive and negative control (PC, NC; phytase – 0, 500, 1,000, 1,500 FTU/kg. The PC was formulated to meet the 2014 Ross 308 nutrient specifications, whereas the NC was formulated with lower Ca (−1.4 g/kg, available P (−1.5 g/kg, Na (−0.3 g/kg, dLys (−0.2 g/kg and MEn (−0.28 MJ/kg equivalent to nutrient matrix values for 500 FTU/kg phytase in the starter, grower and finisher periods (i.e., downspec diet. On d 24, phytase decreased FCR by 1.6, 4.3 and 4.6 points at inclusion levels of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 FTU/kg, respectively (P  0.05. Solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS analysis of gaseous emissions on d 39 indicated no difference in the emission of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, volatile fatty acids and phenols between treatments (P > 0.05. The results indicate that phytase has greater benefits when formulated using nutrient matrix values as compared with adding it over the top in an already nutrient sufficient diet. The later method would be expected to increase feed costs without concomitant performance benefits.

  10. Efeitos da adição de gesso agrícola à cama aviária sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte Effects of agricultural gypsum addition to broiler litter on broilers performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Daniel Giusti Bruno

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da adição de gesso agrícola à cama aviária sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Quatro níveis de gesso: G1, G2, G3 e G4 (10, 20, 30 e 40%, respectivamente, em relação a um grupo controle que usou 50 kg de maravalha de madeira como cama foram testados. O gesso foi adicionado em diferentes períodos: T1 (quando as aves apresentaram nove dias de idade das aves e T2 (quantidade total de gesso foi dividida ao meio e aplicada, respectivamente, aos 9 e 23 dias de idade das aves. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com nove tratamentos, compondo um esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (nível de gesso x idade das aves + grupo testemunha. Consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e mortalidade foram avaliados em três períodos: 9 a 21 dias, 21 a 49 dias e 9 a 49 dias de idade das aves. O gesso não influiu no desempenho das aves, exceto no consumo de ração, no primeiro período avaliado (9 a 21 dias.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of agricultural gypsum addition to broiler litter on broiler performance. Four levels of gypsum: G1, G2, G3 and G4 (respectively, 10, 20, 30 and 40% in relation to a control group that used 50 kg of wood scraps were tested. The gypsum was added at different periods: T1 (when the broiler presented nine days of age and T2 (the total amount of gypsum was divided in half and applied, respectively, at the 9 and 23 days of the broiler ages. A completely randomized design was used, with nine treatments, in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (level of gypsum x broiler ages + control group. Feed intake, weight gain, feed:gain ratio and mortality were evaluated in three periods: from 9 to 21, from 21 to 49, and from 9 to 49 days of the broiler ages. The agricultural gypsum did not affect the broilers performance, except in the feed intake, in the first evaluated period (from 9 to 21 days.

  11. Impact of lyophilized Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 001P administration on growth performance, microbial translocation, and gastrointestinal microbiota of broilers reared under low ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blajman, J E; Olivero, C A; Fusari, M L; Zimmermann, J A; Rossler, E; Berisvil, A P; Romero Scharpen, A; Astesana, D M; Soto, L P; Signorini, M L; Zbrun, M V; Frizzo, L S

    2017-10-01

    This study was undertaken with the aim of investigating the effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 001P on growth performance, microbial translocation, and gastrointestinal microbiota of broilers reared under low ambient temperature. Two hundred and forty, one-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly distributed into two treatment groups, a probiotic group and a control group, with four replicates per treatment and 30 broilers per replicate. The temperature of the broiler house was maintained at 18-22°C during the first three weeks, after which the temperature was at range of 8°C to 12°C. The results showed that probiotic treatment significantly improved body weight of broilers when compared with the control group. After 42days, the weight means were 2905±365.4g and 2724±427.0g, respectively. Although there were no significant differences, dietary inclusion of L. salivarius tended to increase feed intake and to reduce feed conversion ratio during the six-week experimental period. Similarly, supplementation tended to reduce the rate of mortality, with 12 deaths occurring in the probiotic group, and 20 in the control group. However, no differences were observed in intestinal bacterial concentrations of Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli, and lactic acid bacteria in both crop and caecum among treatments. Through our study, it appears that L. salivarius DSPV 001P was non-pathogenic, safe and beneficial to broilers, which implies that it could be a promising feed additive, thus enhancing the growth performance of broilers and improving their health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of β-Mannanase on broiler performance, gut morphology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... and soybean meal. Broiler chickens are divided four group and supplied diet which contains 0, 500, ... the effects of β-mannanase on feed intake, body weight, feed conversion rate ..... Asian-Australian J. Anim. Sci. 14:54-60.

  13. Broilers perform better on short or step-up photoperiods | Lewis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rearing broilers on 6-h photoperiods and transferring them to 23 h at 21 d has been shown to reduce mortality and the incidence of leg disorders without adversely affecting final body weight or feed conversion efficiency. However, in many countries, welfare codes for meat chickens currently stipulate a minimum ...

  14. Growth performance of broilers fed on sprouted-roasted guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Muchapa, Lorraine; Gwiriri, Lovemore; Bakare, Archibold G; Masaka, Lawrence

    2017-06-01

    In a completely randomized block design with 96 Cobb-500 broilers, a study was conducted to evaluate the potential of dietary inclusion of sprouted then roasted guar bean in broiler diets. The 96 male day-old broiler chicks, blocked by pen into equal weight groups of six chicks replicated four times per treatment, were randomly allocated to treatment diets containing graded levels of sprouted then roasted guar bean meal (GBM) at 0, 50, 100 and 150 g kg -1 inclusion level. The guar bean was sprouted and roasted to reduce guar gum effect. Total feed intake decreased significantly as the guar bean meal content increased in the starter phase (P  0.05) were observed. Diets containing 0 and 50 g kg -1 GBM recorded significantly higher total feed intake compared to the diet containing 150 g kg -1 GBM. Although average weight gain was not significantly different in birds fed 0 and 50 g kg -1 GBM diets, it was significantly higher than in birds fed on 100 and 150 g kg -1 GBM diets. Feed conversion ratio was not significantly different among treatment groups (P > 0.05) but showed a general decreasing trend with increasing guar bean meal inclusion level, the effect being more pronounced during the starter phase. In conclusion, the optimum inclusion level of sprouted then roasted guar bean meal in broiler diets is 50 g kg -1 .

  15. Effect of dietary vitamin E on the performance of broilers and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Keywords: broiler meat, Vitamin E, TBA, fatty acids, shelf life, refrigeration, frozen .... Antioxidant (125 g), Choline (300 g), Cobalt (0.5 g), Copper (6 g), Iron (20 g), ... Eclairage, 1976), with L* indicating brightness, a* the red-green range and b* ...

  16. Effects of color of light on preferences, performance, and welfare in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2015-01-01

    individuals/pen. At slaughter (d 35), cold carcass weight was recorded from all individuals, while yields of different body parts were collected from 9 individuals/group. Broilers from the 6,065 K treatment were 67.4 ± 19.2 g heavier on the day of slaughter (P = 0.0009), whereas no difference was found...

  17. Effect of KiFAY on Performance, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1, and Thyroid Hormones in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was performed to investigate the efficacy of KiFAY as a feed additive on performance parameters, thyroid, and pancreatic hormone levels in broilers. Ninety birds (Vencobb 400 were randomly divided into three groups viz., Control (no DL-methionine supplementation, Treatment1 (containing added DL-methionine and Treatment 2 (containing KiFAY and without DL-methionine supplementation. The performance parameters (weekly body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed consumption ratio were recorded and calculated during the whole study of 4 weeks. Analyses of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF 1, triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were performed at the end of the study. The results show that birds on supplementation of KiFAY performed significantly (p<0.001 better than other treatments. The weekly body weight, body weight gain, feed in-take and feed consumption ratio improved in KiFAY treated birds. The study found an increase in insulin and IGF1 levels (p<0.001 in KiFAY compared with the other treatments. Serum T3, T4, and TSH levels in the Treatment 2 were higher than other treatments (p<0.001. The KiFAY supplementation was able to improve performance with associated responses at a hormonal level in broilers.

  18. Performance of Bedside Lung Ultrasound by a Pediatric Resident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Chen; Grundtvig, Natalia; Klug, Bent Helmuth

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies suggest that lung ultrasound is a good, radiation-free alternative to chest radiography in children with pneumonia. We investigated how bedside lung ultrasound performed by a pediatric resident compared with chest radiography in children with suspected pneumonia. METHODS......: This was a prospective study comparing bedside lung ultrasound to chest radiography as the reference standard. Children aged 0 to 15 years with suspected pneumonia at a pediatric emergency department were included and underwent chest radiography and lung ultrasound. A pediatric resident with minimal practical ultrasound...

  19. Effects of feed access after hatch and inclusion of fish oil and medium chain fatty acids in a pre-starter diet on broiler chicken growth performance and humoral immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamot, D.M.; Klein, van der S.A.S.; Linde, van de I.B.; Wijtten, P.J.A.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.; Lammers, A.

    2016-01-01

    Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are

  20. Proposal of sampling protocols to verify possible performance objectives for Campylobacter species control in Italian broiler batches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Manfreda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis represents the most important food-borne illness in the EU. Broilers, as well as poultry meat, spread the majority of strains responsible for human cases. The main aims of this study were to suggest an approach for the definition of performance objectives (POs based on prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter species (spp. in broiler carcasses; moreover, sampling plans to determine the acceptability of broiler batches at the slaughterhouses in relation to such POs were formulated. The dataset used in this study was the one regarding Italy composed during the European Food Safety Authority baseline survey which was performed in the EU in 2008. A total of 393 carcasses obtained from 393 different batches collected from 48 Italian slaughterhouses were included in the analysis. Uncertainty in prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter spp. on carcasses was quantified assuming a beta and log normal distribution. Statistical analysis and distribution fitting were performed in ModelRisk v4.3 (Monte Carlo simulation with 10,000 iterations. By taking the 50th percentile of prevalence distribution as safety limit, sampling plans were subsequently calculated basing on the binomial approach. Final values of number of samples were equal to 4 or 5 to test with qualitative analysis. Considering a limit of quantification of 10 colony forming units/g, a higher number of samples (i.e. 10-13 would be necessary to test using enumeration. An increase of the sensibility of the analytical technique should be necessary to achieve realistic and useful sampling plans based on concentration data.

  1. Depression of leukocyte protein synthesis, immune function and growth performance induced by high environmental temperature in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Nancy N.; Ahmed, Ayman M. H.; Mehaisen, Gamal M. K.; Mashaly, Magdi M.; Abass, Ahmed O.

    2017-09-01

    In tropical and semitropical regions, raising broiler chickens out of their thermal comfort zone can cause an added economic loss in the poultry industry. The cause for the deleterious effects on immunity and growth performance of broilers under high environmental temperatures is still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on leukocytes protein synthesis and immune function as a possible direct cause of low performance in broiler chickens under such condition. In this study, 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb500™) were randomly assigned into 2 groups with 5 replicates of 30 chicks each. From 21 to 42 days of age, one group was exposed to non-stressed condition at 24 °C and 50% relative humidity (control group), while the other group was exposed to heat stress at 35 °C and 50% relative humidity (HS group). At 42 days of age, blood samples were collected from each group to evaluate stress indicators, immune function, and leukocytes protein synthesis. Production performance was also recorded. Noteworthy, protein synthesis in leukocytes was significantly ( P < 0.05) inhibited in HS group by 38% compared to control group. In contrast, the phosphorylation level on threonine 56 site (Thr56) of eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF2), which indicates the suppression of protein translation process through altering the protein elongation phase, was significantly threefold higher in HS group than in control ( P < 0.05). In addition, an increase in stress indicators was markedly ( P < 0.05) presented in the HS birds by twofold increase in heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and threefold increase in plasma corticosterone level compared to control. Furthermore, the immune function was significantly ( P < 0.05) suppressed in HS birds than control (0.99 vs. 1.88 mg/mL plasma IgG, 89.2 vs. 148.0 μg/mL plasma IgM, 4.80 vs. 7.20 antibody titer against SRBC, and 1.38 vs. 3.39 stimulation index of lymphocyte

  2. The Impact of in ovo Injection of Silver Nanoparticles, Thyme and Savory Extracts in Broiler Breeder eggs on Growth Performance, Lymphoid-Organ Weights, and Blood and Immune Parameters of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki AA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of in ovo injection of nano-silver, thyme and savory extracts in broiler breeder eggs on growth performance, lymphoid organ weights, immune and blood parameters and bone mineral concentration of broiler chicks. A total of 560 fertilized broiler breeder eggs were divided into 7 groups. On d 5 of incubation, eggs were treated with the following groups. Group 1 (control, no injection; group 2 (placebo, 1 mL of 0.9% NaCl; group 3 and 4 (placebo + 30 and 45 mg of nano-silver, respectively; group 5 and 6 (placebo + 75 and 100 mg of thyme, respectively and group 7 (placebo + 75 mg of savory. After hatch, chickens were fed a corn-soybean meal diet under the controlled conditions and slaughtered at 14 and 21 d of age for sample collection and analysis. The lymphoid-organ weights and growth rate were not affected by dietary treatments at 14 and 21 d of age. The results also showed that nano-silver injected into broiler breeder eggs during incubation improved the bone mineral concentration and cell-mediated immunity at 14 and 21 d of age, respectively. Humoral immunity was improved by thyme and savory extracts (P < 0.05. Overall, the effect of in ovo injection of nano-silver, thyme and savory extracts during embryonic development is a potential means to improve immune activities of broiler chickens, while does not have any detrimental effect on embryo hatchability.

  3. Effects of dietary fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. on growth performance, digestibility, and intestinal microbiology and morphology in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hong Mei; Song, Hui; Xing, Ya Li; Niu, Shu Li; Ding, Guo Dong; Jiang, Yun Yao; Liang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (HFC) on growth performance, digestibility, intestinal microbiology, and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. A total of 600 male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into five dietary treatments (20 broilers per pen with six pens per treatment): CON (basal diet), ANT (basal diet supplemented with 5 mg kg(-1) flavomycin) and HFC (basal diet supplemented with 6, 12, and 18 g kg(-1) HFC). The experimental lasted for 42 days. The results revealed that the average daily gain [linear (L), P < 0.01; quadratic (Q), P < 0.01] of broilers increased when the HFC levels increased during the starter (days 1-21), finisher (days 22-42), and the overall experiment period (days 1 to 42). In the small intestinal digesta and the caecum digesta, the Escherichia coli count (L, P < 0.05; Q, P < 0.001) decreased while the Lactobacilli count (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) and Bifidobacteria count (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. The crude protein digestibility of broilers (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. In the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of broilers, the villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. Dietary supplementation with HFC increased gut Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria counts and inhibited E. coli growth, improved nutrient utilisation and intestine villus structure, and thus improved the growth of broilers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. ESSENTIAL OILS AND NATURAL ZEOLITE INFLUENCE ON PRODUCTION AND HEALTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS, AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION OF CHICKEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Hengl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils and their components, as a group of phytogenic feed additive, have great potential uses in broiler fattening. Due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and effects on improved food digestibility their positive impact on animals the health status can be expected, and therefore better final fattening results. In this research we studied the impact of XTRACTTM (a combination of essential oils components carvacrol, cinnamaldehid and capsicum Oleoresin, Arom Korm ® (essential oil combination of Foeniculum vulgare and Citrus limon, zeolite and a combination of zeolite with XTRACTTM or Aroma Korma ® on the fattening performance of chickens, their immunostimulating effect, the impact on the antioxidant status of the blood and muscle tissue, the impact on intestine micropopulation of chickens, effect on microbial contamination of meat, the impact on processing performances of broiler chicken and meat properties, and impact on the sensory quality of the chicken meat. The experiment was conducted on Ross 308 broilers, divided into 6 groups (control and treatment groups depending on the different supplements of essential oils, zeolites, or combinations thereof. The fattening lasted 42 days and total of 288 both sex chicks were included (48 per in each group. Influence of the addition of essential oils and natural zeolite had a different impact on the observed individual values. Separately added XTRACTTM and Aroma Korm ® had a good effect on the observed properties of fattening, the technological properties of meat, chicken health status, antioxidant parameters of blood and meat, microbiological contamination and organoleptic properties. Zeolite, as a standalone supplement, had the lowest impact on the observed properties, but in combination with Aroma Korm ® or XTRACTTM, Zeolite improved their activity.

  5. The effect of n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios on broiler breeder performance, hatchability, fatty acid profile and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibjoo, A; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A; Zaghari, M

    2018-04-20

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary omega6 (n-6) to omega3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratios on performance and reproduction of broiler breeders. In experiment 1, 400 females and 40 males (30 week age) of Ross 308 broiler breeder (20 females and two males in each pen) were randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). As a measure of hatchability, fertility of eggs and general incubation traits, 1,200 eggs (60 eggs from each pen) were collected and incubated for 21 days and embryo liver and brain fatty acid profile in 14 and 21 days were determined. In experiment 2, 48 males (three males in each pen) randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). Semen was collected twice weekly, and semen volume, spermatozoa concentration and motility and alive and dead spermatozoa were estimated. Egg production and egg mass were decreased by n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4:1 and 6:1 (p n-3 of egg yolk, semen, testis and liver and brain of embryo and day-old chicken were increased while concentration of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosatetraenoic acid of mentioned tissues were decreased by increasing n-6/n-3 FA ratios (p > .05). In conclusion, absolute amount of n-3 and n-6 FAs in broiler breeder diet may be more important than n-6/n-3 FA ratios and to consider reproductive and performance traits of breeders, it is necessary to supply higher levels of n-3 and n-6 FA with respect to n-6/n-3 FA ratios. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  7. Effect of immobilized fungal phytase on growth performance and bone traits of broilers fed with low dietary calcium and phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Ajith

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of phytase which was laboratory produced by Aspergillus foetidus on the growth performance, mineral retention, and bone traits of broilers fed with low dietary calcium and phosphorus. Materials and Methods: The extracellular phytase enzyme secreted into the crude filtrate was concentrated by ammonium sulfate precipitation to obtain an activity of 500 phytase units (FTU. A total of 90 1-day-old chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly divided into three treatment groups with five replicates having six birds each. Dietary treatment, T1, was with 0.45% non-phytate P (NPP during starter and 0.40% during finisher phase with 1% Ca. Dietary treatment, T2, had 0.37% NPP during starter and 0.32% in finisher phase with 1% Ca and supplemental lab phytase at 500 FTU/kg. Dietary treatment, T3, was similar to T2 with a lower Ca of 0.8%. Results: There was no significant difference among the dietary treatments with regard to body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and Ca retention (p>0.05. However, a significant improvement in retention of P by birds was observed in phytase supplemental groups T2 and T3 (p<0.05. Dry weight of tibia (2.58-2.78 g/kg live weight and ash content (39.7- 41.8% was comparable among treatments. A similar trend was observed for bone Ca, P, and Mn content. Conclusion: The study indicated that 500 FTU/kg phytase can be effectively supplemented in a broiler diet with low phosphorus (0.37% in starter and 0.32% NPP in finisher diet and low calcium (0.8% in diet for better growth performance and with successful replacement of dietary P by 0.08 % and reduced P excretion into the environment in broiler chicken.

  8. Effects of Supplementation Time of L-Carnitine and Garlic Powder on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khatibjoo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Carnitine has several roles in lipid oxidation, immunomodulation function and enhancing antibody responses. L-carnitine has been found to exhibit immunomodulatory effects. It enhances serum primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC and subsequent humoral immunity using 100 mg L-carnitine/ kg diet compared with control group in Leghorn chickens (Deng et al., 2006. It was reported that only the immediate effects of dietary carnitine on immunocompetence is known while comparing long and short-term effects on early life on the immune system of broiler chickens is unknown. The organic allyl sulfur components in garlic (mainly allicin were implicated to mediate its biological activity. The biological activities of these compounds may be related to their SH modification and antioxidant properties (Prasad et al., 1996. AGE treatment prevented the reduction of the antibody production response in thymectomized mice and improved the thymectomy-induced deterioration of learning behaviors in passive avoidance performance and in a spatial memory task (Zhang et al., 1998. Materials and Methods Four hundred Arian one-day-old broiler chicks were used. This experiment was conducted in order to consider the effects of L-Carnitine and garlic powder on broiler chicken performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in a 2×5 factorial arrangement in randomized complete design with 5 dietary treatments, 4 replicates and 12 birds in each and two periods: short (first 3 weeks and long time (total production period. Dietary treatments were 1 Basal diet (BD: no supplementation, 2 ration having 0.02% flavomycin (positive control, 3 ration having 1.5% garlic powder, 4 ration having 0.025% L-Carnitine and 5 ration having 0.025% L-Carnitine plus 1.5% garlic powder. The birds were kept under conventional conditions for vaccination, temperature, ventilation, and lighting based on Ross catalogue recommendations. Standard management

  9. USE OF DIETARY CAMELINA (CAMELINA SATIVA SEEDS DURING THE FINISHING PERIOD; EFFECTS ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND ON THE ORGANOLEPTIC TRAITS OF BROILER MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA CIURESCU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The study quantified the effects of Camelina seeds and buckthorn meal on broiler carcass production and quality. Camelina seeds and buckthorn meal were incorporated in the compound feeds for finishing broilers as natural source of vitamins (beta- carotene, vitamins C, B1, B2, E, F, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and iron. The experiment was conducted on 600 Hybro PN broilers during the age period 7 – 42 days. The broilers were assigned to 3 groups, a control group © and two experimental groups (E1 and E2, each with 200 broilers (3 groups  3 replicates  100 broilers. Three (phase-feeding compound feeds formulations were used. The control diet consisted mainly of corn, full fat soybean, soybean meal and corn gluten. Camelina seeds (10% replaced full fat soybean in the experimental groups, while additionally, in E2 the classical premix with synthetic vitamins and minerals was replaced by buckthorn meal. The partial results show that the use of Camelina seeds reduced significantly (P<0.05 the final live weight, but the liveability percentage was not influenced by the type of dietary compound feed throughout the experimental period. Carcass fat decreased by 61.44% and 30.72% in the experimental groups compared to the control group. Total proteins increased in average by 3-10% concomitantly with the increase of the water content, fat decreased in average by 1.5-4%, the energy value also decreased proportionally with the fat in the experimental groups compared to the control group. Water retention capacity increased by 1% in E2.

  10. The effects of using of mineral and organic toxin absorbents on broiler performance and internal organs weight in experimental aflatoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Heidarpour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The occurrence of mycotoxins in foods and feeds is a problem of major concern in all over the world. Profitability of poultry production can be greatly affected due to the frequency of feed contamination and the detrimental effects of these toxins on the performance. Aflatoxins, a group of closely related and biologically active mycotoxins, are produced by strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. They commonly occur as natural contaminant of poultry feeds. Domestic animal species such as chickens, ducks, cattle and turkeys consuming sublethal doses of aflatoxins for several days developed a toxic syndrome in which liver damage was the most significant change. The biological effects of aflatoxins could be categorized into two groups, long term and short term effects. Long term effects included chronic toxicity, cancer, birth defects and genetic alterations. Aflatoxins affected all poultry species, although they generally take relatively high levels to cause mortality, low levels can be detrimental if continually fed. Material and Methods This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of mineral, organic toxin absorbents, humic acid and yeast cell wall on performance and internal organs weight of broilers in experimental aflatoxicosis. This study was conducted in a completely randomize design with 432 Ross-308 broilers with 9 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 broilers in each replicate. Treatments included diet without aflatoxin, 2: diet contaminated with aflatoxin, 3: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.20 Humic acid, 4: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.40 Humic acid, 5: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.60 Humic acid, 5: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.80 Humic acid, 6: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.80 Humic acid, 7: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 1.00 Humic acid, 8: diet

  11. Genetic selection on abdominal fat content alters the reproductive performance of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X Y; Wu, M Q; Wang, S Z; Zhang, H; Du, Z Q; Li, Y M; Cao, Z P; Luan, P; Leng, L; Li, H

    2018-06-01

    The effects of obesity on reproduction have been widely reported in humans and mice. The present study was designed to compare the reproductive performance of lean and fat chicken lines, divergently selected for abdominal fat content. The following parameters were determined and analyzed in the two lines: (1) reproductive traits, including age at first egg and total egg numbers from generations 14 to 18, absolute and relative testicular weights at 7, 14, 25, 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age, semen quality at 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age in generation 18, and fertility and hatchability from generations 14 to 18; (2) reproductive hormones at 7, 14, 25, 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age in generation 18; (3) and the relative mRNA abundance of genes involved in reproduction at 7, 14, 25, 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age in generation 18. In females, birds in the lean line laid more eggs from the first egg to 40 weeks of age than the birds in the fat line. In male broilers, the birds in the lean line had higher absolute and relative testicular weights at 7, 14 and 25 weeks of age, but lower absolute and relative testicular weights at 56 weeks of age than the birds in the fat line. Male birds in the lean line had greater sperm concentrations and larger numbers of motile and morphologically normal sperms at 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age than the birds in the fat line. Fertility and hatchability were also higher in the lean line than in the fat line. Significant differences in the plasma levels of reproductive hormones and the expression of reproduction-associated genes were also found at different ages in the lean and fat birds, in both males and females. These results suggest that reproductive performance is better in lean birds than in fat birds. In view of the unique divergent lines used in this study, these results imply that selecting for abdominal fat deposition negatively affects the reproductive performance of birds.

  12. Performance of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Franco, L; McNab, J M; Pearson, R A; Belmar-Casso, R

    2002-05-01

    The performance and gut measurements of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal (CLM) were examined in two experiments. In the first experiment, 60 Hubbard chickens (30 males and 30 females; 2 weeks old) were fed on five maize diets; these were formulated using 0, 150 (CLM150), 250 (CLM250) or 350 (CLM350) g CLM/kg, and the fifth diet contained soyabean. In the second experiment, 148 Ross male chicks, 1 day old, were fed on three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic maize-soyabean-based diets, which included 0 (control), 150 (C150) or 250 (C250) g CLM/kg. The diets were offered ad libitum for 2 or 3 weeks in the first and second experiments, respectively. Food intake, weight gain and the food:weight gain ratio were recorded. The weight of the gizzard and intestine and the weight and length of the caeca were also determined in the second experiment. In experiment 1, the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet had a higher (p < 0.05) weight gain and final weight than birds fed on maize only or on the CLM150 diets. There were no differences for any of the variables studied between the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet and those fed on the CLM250, nor between males and females. In the second experiment, weight gain, food intake and the food:weight gain ratio for birds fed on C250 were lower (p < 0.05) than those in birds fed on either the control or C150 diets. The weights of the gizzard and intestine were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in birds fed on C250 (p < 0.05). The length and weight of the caecum from birds fed on the control diet were lower (p < 0.05) than those of birds fed on either the C150 or C250 diets. The results from this study suggest that CLM may be included up to 150 g/kg in commercial diets without having an adverse effect on poultry performance, and may also be mixed with maize up to 250 g/kg to improve the performance of chickens fed on low-protein diets.

  13. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Long

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21 and the grower (day 22 to 42 phases. The results showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly improved in broilers fed a diet containing 24 mg/kg octacosanol compared with those fed the control diet in the overall phase (day 1 to 42, p = 0.042. The average daily gain and FCR both showed linear effects in response to dietary supplementation of octacosanol during the overall phase (p = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively. Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet showed a higher eviscerated yield, which increased by 5.88% and 4.26% respectively, than those fed the control diet (p = 0.030. The breast muscle yield of broilers fed with 24 mg/kg octacosanol diet increased significantly by 12.15% compared with those fed the control diet (p = 0.047. Eviscerated and breast muscle yield increased linearly with the increase in dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively. Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet had a greater (p = 0.021 pH45min value in the breast muscle, which was maintained linearly in response to dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.003. There was a significant decrease (p = 0.007 in drip loss value between the octacosanol-added and the control groups. The drip loss showed linear (p = 0.004 and quadratic (p = 0.041 responses with dietary supplementation of octacosanol. These studies indicate that octacosanol is a potentially effective and safe feed additive which may improve feed efficiency and meat

  14. Effect of -based Direct-fed Microbial on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Intestinal Morphology and Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens

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    Xinjian Lei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based direct-fed microbial (DFM on growth performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal morphology and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. A total of two hundred and eighty eight 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allocated to one of four experimental treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was fed to eight replicate cages, with nine birds per cage. Dietary treatments were composed of an antibiotic-free basal diet (control, and the basal diet supplemented with either 15 mg/kg of virginiamycin as antibiotic growth promoter (AGP, 30 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 30 or 60 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 60. Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 1 to 21 and finisher (d 22 to 42. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, morphological parameters of the small intestine and cecal microbial populations were measured at the end of the starter (d 21 and finisher (d 42 phases. During the starter phase, DFM and virginiamycin supplementation improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR; p<0.01 compared with the control group. For the finisher phase and the overall experiment (d 1 to 42 broilers fed diets with the DFM had better body weight gain (BWG and FCR than that of control (p<0.05. Supplementation of virginiamycin and DFM significantly increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP, dry matter (DM and gross energy during both starter and finisher phases (p<0.05 compared with the control group. On d 21, villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were significantly increased for the birds fed with the DFM diets as compared with the control group (p<0.05. The DFM 30, DFM 60, and AGP groups decreased the Escherichia coli population in cecum at d 21 and d 42 compared with control

  15. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicken Fed Graded Levels of Sun-Dried Irish Potato Peel Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafar James Raphael

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of substituting different levels of sun-dried Irish potato peel meal (SPPM for maize in diets of broiler chickens. Five diets in which SPPM was replaced with 0 (0SPPM, 25 (25SPPM, 50 (50SPPM, 75 (75SPPM and 100% (100SPPM of maize in starter and finisher diets for a 8 week period using broiler chickens were examined. A total of 300 two weeks old broilers chicks Anak 2000 were randomly allotted to five experimental diets with six pen per treatment and 10 birds chicks per pen. Body weight and feed intake of broilers, and feed conversion ratio were determined at the beginning and 56th day of the experiment respectively. On day 56, four broilers from each pen were selected and slaughtered to determine some carcass characteristics and serum biochemistry. The result of growth performance showed that 100SPPM decreased daily weight gain of chickens when compared to other SPPM levels (P

  16. Inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the diet of broiler breeders on performance and incubation parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Duarte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of a diet containing canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3 on the production and reproductive performances of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aged 53 to 61 weeks. The study included 36,000 Cobb 500 female and 3,600 male broiler breeders aging 51 weeks. The birds were housed in three poultry houses divided into four plots, totaling 12 experimental units each containing 3,000 females and 300 males. The birds received the following treatments: control diet (without the studied additives or the control diet with the addition of 60mg kg-1feed of 25-(OH-D3 and canthaxanthin feed (6mg of canthaxanthin and 2,760,000IU of 25-(OH-D3 per kg of feed per the supplier's recommendations. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block design with two treatments and six replicates. The results were subjected to analysis of variance followed by the F-test. The treatments had no effect on egg production, usability of eggs and number of incubatable eggs per bird housed. The inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-(OH-D3 in the diet reduced embryonic mortality while increasing egg yolk pigmentation, hatching percentage, and number of viable chicks produced per bird. Therefore, the use of 60mg kg-1of 25-(OH-D3 plus canthaxanthin is recommended in the diet of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aging 53 to 61 weeks to improve important reproductive traits that have great economic impacts on poultry farms

  17. The antimicrobial activity of lavender essential oil (Lavandula angustifolia) and its influence on the production performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska, M; Szczerbińska, D

    2018-04-14

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity (in vitro) of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oil (LEO) and the effect of its addition to the drinking water of broiler chickens on their production performance. Antimicrobial activity was determined by establishing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using a series of microdilutions. Bird experiments were carried out on a commercial farm on 300 Ross 308 broilers. One-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of 100 individuals (five replications of 20 individuals each). In the control group, chickens received drinking water without added essential oil throughout the rearing period. In the LEO 0.2 and LEO 0.4 groups, from 1 to 42 days of bird life, the LEO 0.2 group had 0.2 ml/L of essential lavender oil added to the drinking water, while LEO 0.4 had 0.4 ml/L added. The results of the experiment showed the antimicrobial activity of LEO and its positive effect on the production results of broiler chickens. Application of higher concentration of essential oil (0.4 ml/L) significantly affected production results (BW, FCR, WCR-p  .05). In vitro studies indicate a significant effect of LEO on the inhibition of microbial growth. These results encourage further studies on a larger scale that will confirm antimicrobial efficiency and define the mechanisms of action of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil and its individual components. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effects of Dietary Zinc Pectin Oligosaccharides Chelate Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Tissue Zinc Concentrations of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongcheng; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Cui, Hu; Wan, Chunmeng; Gao, Xiuhua

    2016-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc pectin oligosaccharides (Zn-POS) chelate on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and tissue zinc concentrations of Arbor Acre broilers aged from 1 to 42 days. A total of 576 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 9 replicates per group and 16 chicks per replicate. Chicks were fed either a basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with Zn-POS at 300 (Zn-POS-300), 600 (Zn-POS-600), or 900 mg/kg (Zn-POS-900), respectively, for 42 days. A 3-day metabolism trial was conducted during the last week of the experiment feeding. The average daily gain and the average daily feed intake of Zn-POS-600 were significantly higher (P digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and metabolic energy among all groups. The control group had the lowest apparent digestibility of dry matter (P digestibility of dry matter in Zn-POS-600 was higher (P digestibility of crude protein in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P digestibility of metabolic energy in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Zn-POS-300. Zn-POS-600 had the highest liver zinc concentrations (P < 0.05), while Zn-POS-900 had the highest pancreatic zinc concentrations (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that the supplementation of 600 mg/kg Zn-POS is optimal in improving the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake, utilization of dietary dry matter and crude protein, and increasing tissue zinc concentrations in liver and pancreas of broilers.

  19. Effects of floor eggs on hatchability and later life performance in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, H; Sosef, M P; Lourens, A; van Harn, J

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3×2 factorial design during incubation. In the second experiment, male and female chickens were reared separately until d 35 of age in floor pens. During this grow out trial, an extra group was created in which chickens obtained from clean nest eggs were mixed with chickens obtained from floor eggs, meaning that grow out period was set up as a 4×2×2 factorial design with 4 egg types, 2 breeder ages, and 2 sexes. In both experiments, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were lower in floor and washed eggs than in clean nest eggs (hatchability: experiment 1: 74.4 vs. 70.6 vs. 92.6% for floor eggs, washed floor eggs and clean nest eggs, respectively, P<0.001; experiment 2: 78.3 vs. 81.7 vs. 90.2%, respectively, P<0.001). In experiment 2, BW at d 0 of chickens obtained from clean nest eggs was higher than that of chickens from floor eggs and washed floor eggs (41.5 vs. 40.4 and 40.3 g, respectively; P<0.001). This difference disappeared during the grow out period and was absent at slaughter age at d 35 of age. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and mortality during the grow out period were not affected by egg type. Incidence and severity of hock burns and footpad dermatitis were not affected by egg type or breeder age. Litter friability at d 35 of age tended to be lower in pens with chickens obtained from washed floor eggs compared to clean nest eggs. We conclude that incubation of floor eggs or washed floor eggs resulted in lower fertility and hatchability compared to clean nest eggs, but that performance during the grow out period was not affected. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Effect van varkensvleesmeel in vleeskuikenvoer op technische resultaten, slachtrendementen, strooiselkwaliteit, voetzoollaesies en darmgezondheid = Effect of pork meat meal in broiler diets on performance, slaughter yields, litter quality, foot pad dermatitis and gut health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harn, van J.; Molenaar, R.J.; Veldkamp, T.

    2010-01-01

    Wageningen UR Livestock Research has conducted an experiment to determine the effect of inclusion of graded levels of pork meat meal (PMM) in broiler diets on performance, processing yields, litter quality, foot pad lesions and gut health. Inclusion of PMM in broiler diets corresponding to 10% of

  1. Effects of time of change from broiler starter to broiler finisher diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of time of change from broiler starter ration (BSR) to broiler finisher ration (BFR) on growth performance and economy of gain of meat- type chickens. Six hundred Abor Acres broiler chickens were used in an 8-week study in which same starter and finisher diets were fed but at ...

  2. The effect of supplementation of clove and agrimony or clove and lemon balm on growth performance, antioxidant status and selected indices of lipid profile of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, V; Marcincak, S; Popelka, P; Simkova, J; Martonova, M; Buleca, J; Marcincakova, D; Tuckova, M; Molnar, L; Kovac, G

    2012-12-01

    The study investigated the effects of diet supplementation with 1% clove flower buds powder combined with either 0.2% lemon balm extract or 0.2% agrimony extract (each of the two pulverized extracts supplied through drinking water) on body weight of broilers, total feed intake, feed conversion ratio and the carcass yield, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, EC 1.11.1.9) in blood, concentration of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin A and E, low-density lipoproteins in the blood plasma, serum cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins in broiler chickens at 42 days of age. On the day of hatching, 120 male and female broilers of Cobb 500 were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (1st group) of broilers received a basal diet (BD) without any feed and water additive. Both experimental groups of chicks were fed BD enriched with clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) powder at a dose of 10 g/kg DM for 42 days. Moreover, either lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L.) extract or agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria L.) extract diluted with drinking water (2:1000) was given to broilers in the 2nd and 3rd group respectively. The results indicated that feeding the diets enriched with selected herbal supplements failed to affect the growth performance of broiler chickens at 42 days of age. In addition, this supplementation had no influence on the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, concentration of vitamin A and selected lipid metabolism indices. On the other hand, we observed beneficial effects on some indices of the antioxidant status (increased concentration of -SH groups and vitamin E, decreased concentration of MDA) in the blood of broilers in both experimental groups in comparison with the control group of chickens (p broilers supplied the combination of clove and lemon balm compared to clove and agrimony (vitamin E, 11.26 ± 0.73 vs. 9.73 ± 0.64 μmol/L, p broilers

  3. Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis as an alternative to antibiotics as a growth promoter on broiler performance, serum biochemistry, and immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Gheisari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An in vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of ethanolic extract of propolis, on growth performance, carcass traits, serum biochemistry, and humoral immune responses of chickens, as compared with the antibiotic flavophospholipol. Materials and Methods: 312 1-day-old as-hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 4 replicate pens per treatment. The 6 dietary treatments fed for 42 days consisted of a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; control plus 4.5 mg/kg flavophospholipol, and control plus 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg ethanol extracts of propolis, respectively. Results: Neither propolis nor antibiotic affected the performance criteria; however, dietary treatments tended to enhance to enhance body weight and daily feed intake of broiler chickens compared with control group (p>0.05. None of the dietary treatments significantly altered feed: Gain though; broilers fed diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg propolis had better feed: gain values compared with other groups in starter, and grower phases as well as the whole experimental period (p>0.05. Carcass yield and internal organ relative weights were not affected by treatments on day 42, except for abdominal fat pad weight that decreased in broilers supplemented with antibiotic. None of the treatments significantly affected humoral immune function. Dietary treatments failed to induce any significant effect on serum biochemistry (p>0.05; though broilers receiving 100 mg/kg propolis had greater high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower triglyceride concentrations compared with other groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results indicated that addition of ethanolic extract of propolis to routine dietary components of broilers, such as corn and soybean, seems not to have a positive influence on performance criteria.

  4. Study of Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, nutrition metabolism and intestinal microflora of 1 to 42 d broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Gao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the influence of different levels of Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, nutrition metabolism and intestinal microflora of 1 to 42 d Arbor Acres (AA broilers, a total of 800 one-day-old healthy broilers were randomly divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates per group and 40 broilers per replicate. Broilers were fed a basic diet (group 1 which acted as the control group, and 4 other groups (2 to 5 were fed the basal diet with B. subtilis added at concentrations of 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/kg, respectively for 42 days. The results showed as follow: the average daily gain (ADG of group 4 was significantly higher than (P  0.05. The feed to gain ratio (F/G of all the experimental groups was lower than that of the control and the difference was significant in group 4 (P  0.05, crude fat (P > 0.05, dry matter (P > 0.05 and organic matter (P < 0.05. B. subtilis decreased the Escherichia coli and Salmonella populations in the cecum. This shows that adding B. subtilis to the broiler diet can improve the growth performance, increase feed efficiency, regulate serum index and reduce harmful bacteria in the intestinal tract. Based on our study, it could be recommended that addition of B. subtilis at 200 mg/kg could improve the growth performance of broilers.

  5. Comparative Study of Ashwagandha and Commercial Synthetic Compound on Performance of Broilers during Hot Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Shisodiya

    Full Text Available The trial was conducted for a period of six weeks on 225 day old broiler chicks, uniformly distributed into four groups of 75 chicks in each T1, T2 and T3 group. The chicks were fed with standard starter mash which contained crude protein 22.84% and metabolizable energy 2852.5 Kcal / kg (calculated value up to three weeks of age. For next 3 weeks i.e. from 4 to 6 weeks of age with finisher mash which contained crude protein 20% and metabolizable energy 2966 Kcal / kg (calculated value. Group T1 received standard broiler diet. Group T2 and T3 received standard broiler diet supplemented with Ashwagandha and commercial synthetic compound @ 0.05 % of feed respectively. The experimental birds were reared on deep litter system and rice husk was used as litter material.The supplementation of Aswagandha and commercial synthetic compound recorded significant improvement in all studied growth parameter i.e. live body weights, weekly gain in body weights and feed conversion ratio was observed in all the supplemented groups over the control group. However, feed consumption in control group was significantly higher than supplemented group. The economic returns of supplemented groups are more than the unsupplemented group. The net profit per bird was maximum in the commercial synthetic compound supplemented group followed by Ashwagandha supplemented group and lowest was recorded in control group (T1. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 310-311

  6. The effect of broiler market age on performance parameters and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Schmidt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 35 farmers contracted by an integration company were selected. Each farmer owned an average of seven poultry houses, and housed six flocks per year, with a total of 4.0 million housed broilers. Birds were grouped into 5 market ages (MA1=46 days, and the following parameters were measured: average flock body weight (AFW, feed conversion ratio (FCR, livability (L, production efficiency index (PEI, production cost, and farmer's gross margin. MA significantly influenced all parameters, except production cost/kg broiler. The effects of farm and farm*MA interaction were not significant. Each day of MA increase resulted in increases of 68.43g and 0.039 units in AFW and FCR, respectively. PEI was 4.0% lower in MA5 as compared to MA1, thereby reducing farmer's compensation in 11.89% per reared broilers. Production costs were not different among market ages, partially due to a reduction from 16.86 (MA1 to 14.62% (MA5 in the farmer's participation in the total cost. The results show that a new farmer's compensation index that included MA is necessary to calculate farmer's margin.

  7. Effects of inclusion Aspergillus niger fermented shrimp waste meal in broiler diets on live performance and digestive organ weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan H. Djunaidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels of shrimp waste meal fermented with Aspergillus niger (LUF in diets on growth performance and digestive organ weight of broilers. A total of 75 d-old chicks were randomly allocated to 5 (five treatments in 3 replication pens of 5 birds each. Treatments consisted of LUF inclusion of 0 (control, and 5, 7.5, 10 and 12,5% (P0, P1, P2, P3 and P4 in the diets. Birds were raised under standard condition and provided with feed and water ad-libitum. Feed and birds were weighed weekly up to 35 days to determine body weight, feed intake and feed conversion. At the end of experimental period, the birds were slaughatered and dressed up to determine carcass percentage and digestive organ weight. There was a significant negative linear response in body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion with increase of LUF more than 7.5% in the diets until 35 days of age, but % carcass was almost the same for all treatment. There was no significant response in digestive organ weight with increasing levels of LUF. The present result indicated that LUF could be considered as a potential feed ingredient as protein source of broiler but its inclusion should be limited until 7.5% of the diet to maintain growth performance and digestive organ weight.

  8. Anti-aflatoxin B1 effects of Shirazi thyme (Zataria multiflora in broilers: evaluation of performance and liver histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Fani Makki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of Zataria multifora (ZM on the performance and liver histopathology of broiler chickens contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. One hundred and sixty Ross 308 male broilers (one-day-old were divided into four treatment groups with four replicates with 10 birds in each replicate. The chickens were reared on the floor for 35 days. The groups were contaminated with AFB1 at two different concentrations, i.e., 0 and 1000 ppb, and fed ZM in their feed at the concentrations of 0 and 20 gr Kg 1. The evaluated performance parameters were subjected to a completely randomized design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of the treatments using SAS software (version 9/1. AFB1 had a statistical lowering effects on the feed intake, body weight, body weight gain and average weight of the carcass, thigh, chest, bursa of fabricius, back and neck. Also, the weights of liver, gizzard, pancreas, proventriculus, abdominal fat, full intestine, and heart were increased with AFB1 (P<0.05. In histopathological evaluations, the liver of chickens that received feed containing AFB1 showed multifocal and varied cytoplasmic vacuolization, severe fatty change, degenerating foci, fibrosis of the portal regions, and bile duct hyperplasia. The variables that were evaluated in this study showed that ZM had significant efficacy in diminishing the aflatoxins negative effects on the chickens.

  9. Effect of cold water and inverse lighting on growth performance of broiler chickens under extreme heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-oh; Park, Byung-sung; Hwangbo, Jong

    2015-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of provision of extreme heat stress diet (EHD), inverse lighting, cold water on growth performance of broiler chickens exposed to extreme heat stress. The chickens were divided into four treatment groups, (T1, T2, T3, T4) as given below: Ti (EHD 1, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light, cool water 9 degrees C); T2 (EHD 2, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light, cool water 9 degrees C); T3 (EHD 1, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light, cool water 141C); T4 (EHD 2, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light, cool water 14 degrees C. EHD 1 contained soybean oil, molasses, methionine and lysine; EHD 2 contained the same ingredients as EHD 1 with addition of vitamin C. Groups T1 and T2 were given cooler water than the othertwo groups, and displayed higher body weight increase and diet intake as compared to T3 and T4 (pstress diet, inverse lighting (10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light) with cold water at 9 degrees C under extreme heat stress could enhance growth performance of broiler chickens.

  10. Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.

  11. Live performance, carcass characteristic and blood metabolite responses of broilers to two distinct corn types with different extent of grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J P; Cui, D P; Zhang, Z Y; Jiao, H C; Song, Z G; Lin, H

    2017-04-01

    The major objective of this research was to establish the main and interactive effects of corn type and extent of grinding on broiler performance including carcass characteristics. A completely randomized experimental design with a 2 (corn type) × 2 (fine and coarse) factorial arrangement, each with six replicates of 45 male Ross chicks, was applied. Experimental diets, containing dent or hard corn, were formulated with two extents of grinding (3.00 or 6.00 mm screens) for three growing phases. In comparison with dent corn, the hard corn increased body weight (BW) gain and thigh muscle yield (p grinding. Coarser grinding increased the weight of proventriculus (p < 0.01), gizzard (p < 0.05) and small + large intestine (p < 0.10) relative to BW, particularly towards market size. These results suggest that feeding hard corn or large-particle-size corn have some favourable effects on growth performance or gastrointestinal development for finishing broilers. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Effect of less intensive rearing conditions on litter characteristics, growth performance, carcase injuries and meat quality of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meluzzi, A; Fabbri, C; Folegatti, E; Sirri, F

    2008-09-01

    1. The objective was to compare the effect of two litter types (wheat straw and wood shavings) and two different rearing conditions (Treated and Control) on welfare indicators, broiler performance, carcase injuries, particularly hock and foot pad dermatitis (FPD), litter characteristics and meat quality. 2. Treated conditions were characterised by a low stocking density (11 birds/m(2)), short photoperiod (16 h light: 8 h dark) and a large amount of litter (3 to 4.5 kg/m(2), respectively, for wheat straw or wood shavings). Control conditions were a high stocking density (14 birds/m(2)), long photoperiod (23 h light:1 h dark) and small amount of litter (2.3 to 3 kg/m(2), respectively, for wheat straw or wood shavings). In addition, the effects of two widely used litter materials, wheat straw and wood shavings, were investigated. 3. The combined effects of lower stocking density, greater amount of litter material and a photoperiod similar to the natural one, reduced the occurrence of FPD in Treated groups keeping the FPD score under the European threshold. 4. Improved rearing conditions led to faster growth rate associated with inferior feed efficiency, whereas litter type exerted negligible effects on broiler performance. 5. Litter moisture content, nitrogen and ammonia released by the litter were lower in Treated groups than Control groups. The use of wood shavings resulted in lower moisture and nitrogen concentrations in the litter.

  13. Effect of zinc bacitracin and phytase on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass and meat traits of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Y A; Bovera, F; Abd El-Hamid, A E; Tag El-Din, A E; Al-Harthi, M A; El-Shafy, A S

    2016-06-01

    A total of 336 one-day-old Hubbard broiler chickens were randomly distributed among 8 groups, each containing six replicates (7 chickens/replicate). From 1 to 40 days of age, the groups fed the same starter, grower and finisher diets. The control group was unsupplemented; zinc bacitracin (ZnB) group received the antibiotic at 0.5 g/kg; fungal phytase (FP) groups received 250, 500 and 1000 U/kg diet of Aspergillus niger phytase (FP_250, FP_500 and FP_1000 groups), respectively; bacterial phyatse (BP) groups received 250, 500 and 1000 U/kg diet of Escherichia coli phytase (BP_250EP, BP_500EP and BP_1000EP groups) respectively. Considering the whole experimental period, body weight gain was unaffected by ZnB and different concentrations of bacterial and fungal phytase; however, the feed conversion ratio of the group fed a diet supplemented with 500 U of BP was better (p phytase at 500 U may enhance performance of broiler chickens fed during days 1-40 of age and yield similar growth performance and economic efficiency to those of eB-supplemented groups. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Dietary supplementation of a mixture of Lactobacillus strains enhances performance of broiler chickens raised under heat stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Wesam Altaher, Yassir; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Idrus, Zulkifli; Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Liang, Juan Boo

    2016-07-01

    High ambient temperature is a major problem in commercial broiler production in the humid tropics because high producing broiler birds consume more feed, have higher metabolic activity, and thus higher body heat production. To evaluate the effects of two previously isolated potential probiotic strains ( Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ITA44) on broilers growing under heat stress condition, a total of 192 chicks were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 48 chickens each as follows: CL, birds fed with basal diet raised in 24 °C; PL, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 24 °C; CH, birds fed with basal diet raised in 35 °C; and PH, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 35 °C. The effects of probiotic mixture on the performance, expression of nutrient absorption genes of the small intestine, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial population of cecal contents, antioxidant capacity of liver, and fatty acid composition of breast muscle were investigated. Results showed that probiotic positively affected the final body weight under both temperature conditions (PL and PH groups) compared to their respective control groups (CL and CH). Probiotic supplementation numerically improved the average daily gain (ADG) under lower temperature, but significantly improved ADG under the higher temperature ( P < 0.05) by sustaining high feed intake. Under the lower temperature environment, supplementation of the two Lactobacillus strains significantly increased the expression of the four sugar transporter genes tested (GLUT2, GLUT5, SGLT1, and SGLT4) indicating probiotic enhances the absorption of this nutrient. Similar but less pronounced effect was also observed under higher temperature (35 °C) condition. In addition, the probiotic mixture improved bacterial population of the cecal contents, by increasing beneficial bacteria and decreasing Escherichia coli population, which could be

  15. Effect of fermented moist feed on performance, gut bacteria and gut histo-morphology in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, J A; Michiels, J; Dierick, N; Ovyn, A; Akbarian, A; De Smet, S

    2013-01-01

    1. Fermented feed has been shown to be beneficial in pig nutrition as a tool to reduce gut microbial disorders. Experiments with fermented feed in poultry are scarce, probably because of the belief that wet feed is less suitable for this species and causes wet litter. 2. A total of 280 one-d-old Ross 308 chickens were used in a completely randomised design with two dietary treatments (7 replicates of 20 birds/treatment); air-dry feed versus the same feed in moist form (water:feed ratio of 1.3:1, on a weight basis), inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 40087 (9 log10 CFU/kg feed) and batch-fermented for 48 h at 26°C. The birds were given starter (d 0-13), grower (d 4-26) and finisher (d 27-39) diets ad libitum. At the end of the grower and finisher period, two birds per pen were removed to sample intestinal contents for cultivating bacteria and intestinal tissue to determine villus height and crypt depth. 3. Fermented moist feed (FMF) batches showed good characteristics, with a pH between 3.9 and 4.4 and DL-lactic acid between 137 and 286 mmol/l. Daily feed intake and gain were reduced considerably in the FMF group in the starter (-40 and -44%, respectively) and grower (-23 and -16%) period, though in the finisher period these birds performed better, with an improved feed utilisation. Concomitant with the latter, villus height at the mid-jejunum and mid-ileum on d 39 was higher (+22.6% and +16.0%). Significantly more Lactobacilli and less coliforms were found in the foregut and less Streptococci in ileum and caeca of birds given FMF. 4. This trial showed that FMF was detrimental for early bird growth but affected beneficially feed efficiency, the composition of the gut bacteria and villus height in the small intestine in the finisher period in broilers.

  16. Broiler performance fed jatropha curcas seed meal detoxified by fermentation, physic and chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of jatropha seed meal as a feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds in the seed meal. The aim of this research is to evaluate feeding of jatropha seed meal detoxified using fermentation by two fungi and rumen microbes (as biological detoxification and using a combination of chemical and physical treatments on broiler performance. One hundred seventy five chicks (7 days old were used and were divided into 5 treatments in 7 replications and each replication in one cage consisted of 5 chicks. R1 was control feed (K without jatropha seed meal., 2 R2 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by Neurosphora sitophila (FNS, R3 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (FAS, R4 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by rumen microbes and R5 with 4% of Jatropha seed meal treated by autoclaved, refluxed by hexane and soaked in methanol (OEHM. Treated feed was given for 14 days at the end of the feeding treatment, two chickens from each replication were slaughtered and organ weights were recorded. Body weight of chicken and feed conversion ratio were calculated. The rest of the chicken was fed commercial feed for the next 7 days (recovery periode. Chicken mortality was almost 0% but 1 chicken from FAS treatment died at the recovery period. Feed consumption was lower at fermented jatropha seed meal than control (K or OEHM, resulted in lower body weight of chicken. The abdomen fat weight and organ weights especially pancreas or spleen resulted from treatment with jatropha were much lower than that of K. In the recovery period, body weight of chicken in the OEHM treatment was almost similar from that of control chicken. In conclusion, biological detoxification on BBJ was able to reduce chicken mortality but could not improve the daily gain higher than control treatment. The best method to detoxify jatropha seed meal was the combination of physical and

  17. Effect of using the Matrix Values for NSP-degrading enzymes on performance, water intake, litter moisture and jejunal digesta viscosity of broilers fed barley-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Adel Moftakharzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have evaluated the effect of three multi-enzymes nutrient matrix values and compared the results with that fed barley and the corn diets without enzyme. In entire period, addition of all enzymes to the barley-based diet significantly (p 0.05. Litter moisture and water to feed ratio at 15, 25, and 33 days of age significantly decreased by addition of all enzymes (p < 0.05. In conclusion, considering nutrient matrix values for all used enzymes improved performance of broilers and can be used in formulating diets commercial broiler diets based on barley.

  18. Effects of peach palm oil on performance, serum lipoproteins and haemostasis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldizán, G; Oviedo, M; Michelangeli, C; Vargas, R E

    2010-12-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to study the comparative effects of peach palm oil (PPO, Bactris gasipaes H.B.K), crude palm oil (CPO, Elaeis guinenesis), maize oil (MO) and beef tallow (BT) on serum total and lipoprotein cholesterol levels and haemostatic factors in broiler chickens. 2. Four experimental diets were formulated to be isocaloric (14·2 MJ AME(N)/kg) and isonitrogenous (230 g CP/kg). PPO was extracted from the whole dry fruit with hexane. Each fat was added to the diet in an amount equivalent to 25% of total dietary calories. Six replicate groups of eight male broiler chicks were assigned randomly to each dietary treatment. Diets were fed on ad libitum basis. The experiment lasted 42 d. 3. At 42 d, birds were fasted overnight and three chickens/dietary treatment were utilised to draw blood for lipoprotein separation. Various haemostatic factors were determined in thrombocyte-poor plasma. Thrombocyte aggregation was assayed in whole blood. 4. No significant differences were detected in body-weight gain or feed efficiency between the chickens fed on the PPO diet and those receiving the CPO, MO or BT diets. Total serum cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL(C)) were not significantly affected after consuming the PPO, CPO and MO diets. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL(C)) was reduced only by the MO diet. Birds fed on the PPO diet had a significantly lower [corrected] LDLC/HDLC ratio compared with other dietary treatments 5. Thrombocyte count and thrombin time were not significantly affected by the experimental diets. Dietary oils significantly affected prothrombin time, fibrinogen concentration and thrombocyte aggregation. PPO and MO diets elicited the lowest fibrinogen levels compared to the CPO and BT diets. Thrombocyte aggregation in broilers fed on the PPO diet was similar to that of the CPO, MO and BT diets. 6. The results suggest that PPO might efficiently provide up to

  19. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  20. Effects of structure and xylanase treatment of brewers' spent grain on performance and nutrient availability in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denstadli, V; Westereng, B; Biniyam, H G; Ballance, S; Knutsen, S H; Svihus, B

    2010-06-01

    1. A factorial (2 x 3) feeding trial was set up to investigate the effects of coarse or finely ground brewers' spent grain (BSG) and xylanase treatment, either with no xylanase, top-dressed with xylanase or pre-treated with xylanase. 2. The experimental diets shared the same basal formulation and were fed to male broiler chickens (Ross 308) housed in individual cages from 12 to 29 d of age. 3. Xylanase pre-treatment reduced the dietary concentration of arabinoxylan by 15-30%. Pellet durability increased when BSG was ground. 4. Feed utilisation was significantly higher (6%) when the birds were given coarse BSG rather than ground BSG, whereas there was no significant effect of enzyme treatment. Apparent metabolisable energy was unaffected by the dietary treatments. 5. The overall starch digestibility was high (99%), with no dietary differences, whereas ileal protein digestibility was low (57%). Xylanase top-dressing tended to improve ileal protein digestibility but, in general, xylanase treatment had no major effect on overall performance in male broilers given diets with BSG.

  1. Glutamine and glutamic acid supplementation enhances performance of broiler chickens under the hot and humid tropical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua O. Olubodun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Day-old (day 1 commercial broiler chickens were fed i basal diet (control, ii basal diet +0.5% AminoGut (AG, or iii basal diet +1% AG from 1 to 42 d of age under the hot and humid tropical environment. AminoGut is a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of L-glutamine (Gln and L-glutamic (Glu acid. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the starter (1 to 21 d and overall (1 to 42 d periods improved linearly and quadratically with AG supplementation when compared to control. Supplementing birds with AG significantly reduced overall mortality rate. At 21 and 42 d of age, intestinal (duodenum and ileum villi height and crypt depth showed both linear and quadratic positive responses to AG supplementation. Intestinal amylase activity increased linearly and quadratically on d 21, and linearly only on d 42. In conclusion, Gln and Glu supplementation was beneficial in improving the growth performance and survivability of broiler chickens under the hot and humid tropical environment.

  2. An assessment of the influence of macronutrients on growth performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens by nutritional geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sonia Y; Selle, Peter H; Raubenheimer, David; Cadogan, David J; Simpson, Stephen J; Cowieson, Aaron J

    2016-12-01

    The right-angled triangle mixture experiment was designed to include fourteen diets with different concentrations of starch, protein and lipid. Experimental diets were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chickens from 10 to 23 d after hatching, and response curves and surfaces were generated to illustrate the influence of macronutrients on growth performance and nutrient utilisations. Despite the primary function of macronutrients, especially protein, may not be providing energy, macronutrients were expressed as energy derived from starch, protein and fat for statistical purposes in the mixture design. Energy derived from lipid had a greater impact on feed intake than energy derived from starch and protein. When we compared the influence of starch and protein on feed intake, 'equal distance rule' was observed, which means the animal consumes feed to the point on its respective nutritional rails where the shortage of starch exactly equals the surplus of consumed protein. Increasing the protein-derived energy intake increased weight gain in broiler chickens, whereas energy intake derived from starch and lipid had little impact on weight gain. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) may be reduced by either increasing protein energy intake or decreasing starch energy intake. As the slope of the contours was less than 1, the influence of starch energy intakes on FCR exceeded that of protein energy intakes. In conclusion, energy derived from protein is more important than non-protein energy in terms of weight gain, and a balance between protein and energy supplies is required for efficient muscle protein deposition.

  3. The effect of the humic acid and garlic (Allium sativum L. on performance parameters and carcass characteristic of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika PISTOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic acids and humic acids and garlic powder (Allium sativum L. combination on performance parameters and carcass characteristic of broiler chickens were studied. A total of 120 Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into 3 treatments (n=40. The control group of chickens was fed complete feed mixtures without any additives. Treatment T1 was fed complete feed mixtures containing 1% of humic acid. Treatment T2 was fed complete feed mixtures containing 1.8% of humic acid and 0.2% of garlic powder (Allium sativum L.. At the end of the experiment was average body weight (values in the order of the groups: 1796.4±188.1; 1999.1±355.8 and 1958.6±201.2 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 in both treatments groups compared to control group. In T1 was weight of gizzard (values in the order of the groups: 34.9±5.2; 43.1±9.4 and 38.9±7.0 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 compared to control group. Carcass weight, weight of heart weight of liver and carcass yield of treatments groups was higher, but differences in these indicators were not statistically significant (P≥0.05. The results of this experiment indicate that humic acids may by an alternative replacement of feed antibiotics.

  4. Effects of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient retention, and characteristics of gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed low-phosphorus wheat-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esmaeilipour, O.; Shivazad, M.; Moravej, H.; Aminzadeh, S.; Rezaian, M.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient retention, jejunal viscosity, and size and pH of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed a low-P wheat-based diet. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels

  5. Effects of diet acidification and xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, duodenal histology and gut microflora of broilers fed wheat based diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esmaeilipour, O.; Moravej, H.; Shivazad, M.; Rezaian, M.; Aminzadeh, S.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2012-01-01

    1. The objective of this experiment was to study the influences of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient digestibility, digesta viscosity, duodenal histology, and gut microflora of broilers fed on a wheat based diet. 2. The experiment was carried out as a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement

  6. Effects of in ovo injection of organic trace minerals and post-hatch holding time on broiler performance and bone characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of the in ovo injection of organic Mn, Zn, and Cu in association with post-hatch (POH) feed and water restriction on the performance and physical-chemical bone parameters of male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were examined. On 17 d of incubation, a total of 1,872 eggs were subjected to in ovo inj...

  7. Dietary Chlorella supplementation effect on immune responses and growth performances of broiler chickens exposed to post hatch holding time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, S; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Chlorella sp. supplementation on immune response and growth performance of broiler chickens exposed to post hatch holding time. Allotted in 36 pens, a total of 180 newly hatched chicks were assigned in a 3 × 2 factorial design, with d...

  8. Influence of different yeast cell wall preparations and their components on performance and immune and metabolic pathways in Clostridium perfringens-challenged broiler chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of purification of yeast cell wall (YCW) preparations on broiler performance, and immunogenic and metabolic pathways under microbial challenge. A total of 240 day-of-hatch chicks were distributed among two battery brooder units (48 pens; 5 birds/pen; ...

  9. Interactive effects of ambient temperature and light sources at high relative humidity on growth performance and blood physiological variables in broilers grown to 42 day of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactive effects of ambient temperature and light sources at high relative humidity on growth performance and blood physiological reactions in broilers grown to 42 day of age were investigated. The experiment consisted of 2 levels (Moderate=21.1, High=26.7 °C) of temperatures and 2 light sour...

  10. The Effect of Low-Density Diets on Broiler Breeder Performance During the Laying Period and on Embryonic Development of their Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, H.; Kruip, T.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Aar, van de P.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of low-density diets on bird performance, egg composition, and embryonic development was studied with 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb broiler breeders from 25 to 60 wk of age. The experiment included 5 treatments. These included a control group with a normal density diet (ND, 2,800 kcal of

  11. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Steenfeldt, S.; Bootwalla, S.M.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler

  12. Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum B1 on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, and short chain fatty acid profiles in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Q; Zeng, X F; Zhu, J L; Wang, S; Liu, X T; Hou, C L; Thacker, P A; Qiao, S Y

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum B1 on broiler performance, cecal bacteria, and ileal and cecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA). The study also determined whether it was necessary to feed Lactobacillus throughout the entire growth period or if the beneficial effects could be obtained by supplementation during the starter or finisher period only. Experiment 1 was conducted with 72 broilers assigned to 2 treatments (N=6). One treatment was the basal diet (Con), and the other was the basal diet supplemented with 2×10(9) cfu/kg L. plantarum B1 (Wh). In experiment 2, 144 one-day-old broilers were assigned to 4 treatments (N=6) including a basal diet (Con), the basal diet supplemented with 2×10(9) cfu/kgL. plantarum B1 during d one to 21 only (St), the basal diet supplemented with L. plantarum B1 during d 22 to 42 only (Fn), and, finally, the basal diet supplemented with L. plantarum B1 from d one to 42 (Wh). Experiment 1 showed that L. plantarum B1 enhanced broiler average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). In experiment 2, during the starter period, broilers in the Wh and St treatments had higher ADG (Pplantarum B1 also increased (Pplantarum B1 had no effect on intestinal morphology. In conclusion,L. plantarum B1 plays a positive role in broilers. Supplementation during the finisher period or the entire growth period is superior to supplementation during the starter period only. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Effects of probiotics and application methods on performance and response of broiler chickens to an Eimeria challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzi, Miranda M; Abdelrahman, Wael; Mohnl, Michaela; Dalloul, Rami A

    2014-11-01

    Coccidiosis is an inherent risk in the commercial broiler industry and inflicts devastating economic losses to poultry operations. Probiotics may provide a potential alternative to the prophylactic use of anticoccidials in commercial production. This study evaluated the effects of probiotic applications (feed and water) on bird performance and resistance to a mixed Eimeria infection in commercial broilers. On day of hatch, 1,008 commercial male broilers (Cobb 500) were assigned to 1 of 6 treatments (8 replicate floor pens; 21 birds/pen), including noninfected negative control (NEG), Eimeria-infected positive control (POS), anticoccidial control (0.01% salinomycin, SAL), intermittent high-dose water-applied probiotic (WPI), continuous low-dose water-applied probiotic (WPC), and feed-supplemented probiotic (FSP). On d 15, all birds except those in NEG were challenged with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Measurements were taken on d 7, 15, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Fecal samples were collected from d 20 to 24 for oocyst counts, and lesion scores were evaluated on d 21. Data were analyzed using the Fit Model platform in JMP Pro 10.0 (SAS Institute Inc.). Differences in experimental treatments were tested using Tukey's honestly significant difference following ANOVA with significance reported at P ≤ 0.05. Overall, NEG birds outperformed all other groups. For performance, the probiotic groups were comparable with the SAL-treated birds, except during the 6 d immediately following the Eimeria species challenge, where the SAL birds exhibited better performance. The WPC birds had lower duodenal and jejunal lesion scores, indicating a healthier intestine and enhanced resistance to Eimeria species compared with POS. Birds in the WPI treatment shed fewer oocysts in the feces, although this was not a trend for all of the probiotic treatment groups. The results of this study suggest probiotic supplementation without anticoccidials can

  14. Performance and economy of production of broilers fed Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) leaf meal (SWLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwuba, P C; Ogbuewu, I P; Nwachukwuguru, K

    2018-03-06

    A 49-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of Siam weed leaf meal (SWLM)-based diets on growth, organ, and carcass weight characteristics and economics of production of broilers. Proximate biochemical composition of SWLM and the appropriate inclusion level of SWLM for optimum productivity were also determined. Ninety-six-day-old Chi broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups of 24 birds, and each group replicated three times. Each group was assigned to one experimental diet in a completely randomized design marked T1 (0%), T2 (4%), T3 (8%), and T4 (12%). Proximate biochemical results revealed that SWLM is rich in protein (20.52%) and minerals (9.29%). Birds on diets T1 and T2 had similar (p > 0.05) final live weights (FLW), which were higher (p  0.05) differences in the dressing percentage, but there were significant differences in the carcass weight between birds on diet T4 and the other three diets. Similarly, pancreas and spleen had similar (p > 0.05) weights across the treatments. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) between birds on diets T1 and T4 in gizzard weight. Cost-benefit ratio was influenced (p < 0.05) with T4 birds having better income of US$1 per US$10.18 invested. It is concluded that SWLM is rich in essential nutrients and therefore suitable for inclusion in broiler diets at level not beyond 2% for best final live weight, daily weight gain, and thigh weight.

  15. Effect of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin on the growth performance, carcass quality and gut integrity of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. H. Awaad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The effect of a specific combination (SC of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin was investigated on productive performance and immune response in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Six hundred one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups for 5 weeks. The SC was supplemented at 100 ppm of ration (presence or absence. Results: Treatment of broiler chickens with the SC improved productive performance variables as compared with the blank control birds. It decreased total mortality, increased final body weight, weight gain, production number and decreased final feed conversion ratio (FCR (P<0.05. The SC had a positive effect on carcass quality and enhanced HI titer against Newcastle disease (ND virus vaccine, as compared to their untreated control group (P<0.05. The SC treated birds had higher values of intestinal diameter than the control ones. Conclusion: It could be concluded that administration of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin to broiler chickens improved chicken zootechnical performance response variables, had a potent immuno-modulatory effect (potentiated immune response and improved gut integrity. Eventually, this combination could be used as a replacement to the controversial feed additives (antibiotic growth promoters.

  16. EFFECT OF SOAKED AND FERMENTED AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN (Parkia biglobosa SEED MEAL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE AND NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Tamburawa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa seed is rich in protein and has recently found its way into the feed industry. This research was conducted to determine the growth performance, haematological profile and nutrient digestibility by broiler chickens fed diets containing soaked and fermented African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa seed meal (SFALBSM. Five diets were formulated in which SFALSBM was included at graded levels of 0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30% designated as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. Two hundred and twenty five (225 day old broiler chickens (Marshall Strain were fed these diets in a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate. The experiment lasted 8 weeks (4week starter phase and 4week finisher phase. The results of performance of broiler chicks at starter phase showed there were differences (P0.05 on digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and ash. The crude fibre, ether extract and nitrogen free extract digestibility were affected by treatments (P<0.05. Birds fed T3 had highest crude fibre digestibility value (P<0.05. It was concluded that soaked and fermented African locust bean seed meal can be included in broiler chickens diets up to 15% dietary level at the starter phase and 22.5% at the finisher phase without any adverse effect on performance, haematological profile and nutrient digestibility.

  17. Combined effect of using near-infrared spectroscopy for nutritional evaluation of feed ingredients and non-starch polysaccharide carbohydrase complex on performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanhini Neto, Roberto; N'Guetta, Eric; Gady, Cecile; Francesch, Maria; Preynat, Aurélie

    2017-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the combined effect of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for nutritional evaluation of feed ingredients and the addition of non-starch polysaccharide carbohydrase complex (NSP enzymes) on the growth performance of broilers fed diets produced with low-quality wheat and soybean meal. A 2 × 2 trial design was performed, with seven replicates of 40 male Ross 308 broilers per treatment, evaluating the effect of the addition of NSP enzymes and the ingredients' nutritional matrix based on table values or NIRS values. Diets without added enzymes were formulated to reach nutritional requirements, whereas diets with enzymes were reformulated, reducing the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) by 85 kcal/kg. In the overall period (days 0-35), broilers fed diets formulated using NIRS values had higher (P nutritional approaches are efficient in improving broilers' performances by themselves and even more so when they are combined. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Effect of zinc bacitracin and salinomycin on intestinal microflora and performance of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, R. M.; Hedemann, M.S.; Leser, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    A feeding experiment was carried out over 42 d with four groups of broiler chickens fed experimental diets formulated to provide no supplementation, 20 mg zinc bacitracin, 60 mg salinomycin, or both feed additives in combination. During the fifth week of the experiment, four chickens from each pen......, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens were counted. In homogenates of pancreas obtained from four animals, the activities of amylase, lipase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin were measured. A significant growth-promoting effect was observed in the group receiving zinc bacitracin in combination with salinomycin...

  19. Nutritional evaluation of heat treated sunflower meal on the performance of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Kausar, T.; Shah, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Pre-pressed and solvent extracted sunflower meal (SFM) was heated to 90 degree, 100 degree, 110 degree and 120 degree C. Lysine content of SFM decreased from 2.25 to 1.60%. The untreated and heat treated SFM was incorporated in broiler's ration. Maximum weight gain (1525g) and feed efficiency (2.24) were shown by the ration containing SFM heated to 90 degree, which was better than the control ration (weight gain 1454g, feed efficiency 2038). Processing of SFM at higher temperature (100 - 120 degree C) adversely affected weight gain (1388 - 1315g) and feed efficiency (2.46-251). (author)

  20. Effect of supplementation of drinking water with different levels of boron on performance and immune organ parameters of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhui Jin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate changes in growth performance, immune organs weight and microstructure of broilers fed different levels of boron (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/L in drinking water for 6 weeks. A total of 240 newly-hatched Gushi chickens [body weight (BW=34±2 kg; male: female=1:1] were equally divided into 4 treatments with 5 pens each (n=12 per pen. The birds were weighed after fasting for 12 h every two weeks until the end of experiment. The thymus, bursa and spleen samples were collected every two weeks and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde phosphate buffer at room temperature (25°C. Results showed that BW and average daily gain significantly reduced by addition of 200 and 400 mg/L boron to drinking water compared to control group (P200 mg/L could significantly inhibit the growth of immune organs and even exhibit toxic effects.

  1. Growth performance and carcass and meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets containing micronized-dehulled peas (Pisum sativum cv. Spirale) as a substitute of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-07-01

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of diets containing peas on productive traits, carcass yields, and fatty acid profiles (breast and drumstick meat) of broiler chickens. Hubbard strain broiler chicks, divided into 2 groups, received from 14 d to slaughtering age (49 d) a wheat middlings-based diet containing soybean (190 g/kg) or micronized-dehulled peas (400 g/kg) as the main protein source. The inclusion of peas did not significantly change the growth performance of birds. The pea level had no effect on the dressing percentage, the percentage of breast or drumstick muscles, and abdominal fat. The muscles of birds fed the pea diet had significant (P < 0.05) lower L* (lightness) and b* (yellowness, drumstick muscle) values and fat content. Instead, total collagen and water-holding capacity values were higher in the pea treatment. The polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in breast and drumstick muscles was significantly increased with the alternative protein source inclusion, whereas the saturated fatty acid was similar among treatments. The n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the broiler drumstick meat decreased significantly in the pea group. Dietary pea inclusion improved the saturation index of meat without altering atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. It can be concluded that the pea treatment tested had a positive effect on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.

  2. Effects of dietary postbiotic and inulin on growth performance, IGF1 and GHR mRNA expression, faecal microbiota and volatile fatty acids in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, Karwan Yaseen; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Akit, Henny; Samsudin, Anjas Asmara

    2016-08-05

    Postbiotics (metabolic products by lactic acid bacteria) and prebiotics have been established as substitute to antibiotics in order to enhance immunity and growth performance in broiler chickens. Nonetheless, insufficient information is available on the effects of postbiotics and prebiotics combination on growth performance, faecal microbiota, pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA), as well as liver insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA expressions in broiler chickens. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of different types of postbiotics with different levels of prebiotic (inulin) on broiler for those parameters. The results showed that birds fed T3: (0.3 % RI11 + 0.8 % Inulin), T4: (0.3 % RI11 + 1.0 % Inulin), and T6: (0.3 % RG14+ 1.0 % Inulin) had higher (p inulin increased (p inulin combinations had beneficial effects on total BW, feed efficiency, mucosa architecture and IGF1 and GHR mRNA expression in broiler chickens.

  3. Prebiotic competence of spirulina on the production performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Rawshon Jamil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the prebiotic effects of Spirulina as a growth and immunity promoter for broiler chickens. Birds (n=100 were randomly and equally distributed into four groups (T0, T1, T2 and T3 and fed on a diet containing 0, 2, 4 and 8 g Spirulina/kg feed respectively for 4 weeks. The body weight was significantly (P<0.05 increased in the treatment groups fed with Spirulina diet from 7th days to 28th days old. FCR was also significantly (P<0.05 decreased among the treatment groups. Hematological parameters were significantly (P<0.05 increased except ESR which was decreased significantly (P<0.05 in the treatment group. Aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and alanine aminotransferase (AST level were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in all the treatment groups. The study suggests that, Spirulina is a good natural feed additive which has a tremendous effect to improve the broiler production and thereby may reduce the production cost. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 304-309

  4. Behavioral, Performance, Carcass Traits and Hormonal Changes of Heat Stressed Broilers Feeding Black and Coriander Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan D.M. EL-Shoukary

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was done to determine the effects of feeding heat stressed broilers (Ross308 diets contain Nigella Sativa seeds or coriander seeds on Ingestive, panting behaviors, feed consumption, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio, live body weight, slaughter weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage, corticosterone, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4. Three groups were used; the first one is the control group, which fed on basal diet only and the second fed diet contains 1% Nigella Sativa seeds (black seed while the third group fed diet contain 2% coriander seeds. The previous parameters were recorded daily or weekly during the experiment or after slaughtering to collecting blood parameters. The results explained that, there was a significant increase in feeding behavior, feed consumption, weight gain and dressing percentage while there was a significant decrease in panting behavior, water to feed ratio, T3 level and corticosterone level. Moreover, there was no significance difference in drinking behavior live body weight, slaughter weight, feed conversion rate and T4 level (P<0.05. It could be concluded that, black seeds and coriander seeds can be used to alleviate the negative effect of heat stress in broiler during summer seasons in Egypt.

  5. Performances of broiler supplemented with antibiotic and Morinda citrifolia waste as sources of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.K Bintang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the use of Zinc bacitracin antibiotic (ZnB and dried Morinda citrifolia waste as feed additive in broiler ration was conducted. Two hundred and sixteen day old chicks (DOC was allocated into 4 treatments: control; control + 50 ppm ZnB, and control + M. citrifolia waste at 2 levels (5 and 10 g/kg ration with 9 replications. Each replicatation consist of 6 birds. The treatments were allocated in a completely randomized design. Variables measured were feed intake, live weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR, percentages of carcass and internal organs (liver, gizard, abdominal fat, and thickness of intestine. The results showed that feed intake of M. citrifolia waste was significantly (P0.05 from that of control. The use of M. citrifolia waste (5 and 10 g/kg gave significantly lower (P0.05, but was significantly lower (P0,05 than that of control, control + antibiotic ZnB and M. citrifolia waste 5g/kg. It is concluded that the supplementation of M. citrifolia waste (5 g/kg could substitute ZnB to improve feed eficiency in broiler ration.

  6. Effect of l-glutamic acid supplementation on performance and nitrogen balance of broilers fed low protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, R M; Costa, F G P; Givisiez, P E N; Freitas, E R; Goulart, C C; Santos, R A; Souza, J G; Brandão, P A; Lima, M R; Melo, M L; Rodrigues, V P; Nogueira, E T; Vieira, D V G

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein reduction and supplementation of l-glutamic acid in male broiler diets. A total of 648 chicks of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and six replications with eighteen birds per experimental unit. The study comprised pre-starter (1-7 days), starter (8-21 days), growth (22-35 days) and final (36-45 days) phases. The first treatment consisted of a control diet formulated according to the requirements of essential amino acids for each rearing phase. The second and third treatments had crude protein (CP) reduced by 1.8 and 3.6 percentage points (pp) in relation to the control diet respectively. In the fourth treatment, l-glutamic acid was added to provide the same glutamate level as the control diet, and in the last two treatments, the broilers were supplemented with 1 and 2 pp of glutamate above that of the control diet respectively. The reduction in CP decreased the performance of broilers and the supplementation of l-glutamic acid did not influence performance when supplied in the diets with excess of glutamate. The lowest excreted nitrogen values were observed in the control diet, and treatments 2 and 3, respectively, in comparison with treatments with the use of l-glutamic acid (5 and 6). Retention efficiency of nitrogen was better in the control diet and in the treatment with a reduction of 1.8 pp of CP. It was verified that the serum uric acid level decreased with the CP reduction. A reduction in CP levels of up to 21.3%, 18.8%, 18.32% and 17.57% is recommended in phases from 1 to 7, 8 to 21, 22 to 35 and at 36 to 42 days, respectively, with a level of glutamate at 5.32%, 4.73%, 4.57%, 4.38%, also in these phases. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Performance and organ morphology of broilers fed microbial or antimicrobial additives and raised in batteries or floor pens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedroso AA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consisted of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experiment 1, 288 day-old chicks were housed in heated batteries in a environmentally controlled room, 12 chicks per cage; in Experiment 2, 1,200 day-old chicks were housed in a curtain-sided experimental house, with concrete floor and rice hulls as litter material, 50 chicks per pen. Experiments 3 and 4 were carried out similarly to Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, but the treatments consisted of microbial additives (non-supplemented control diet or Bacillus subtilis added to the feed plus Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus johnsonii added to the water, undefined microflora added to the water or live yeast added to the feed. The antibiotics did not affect the performance of birds raised in batteries, but improved feed conversion, weight gain and live weight when chickens were kept on the floor pens. Microbial additives did not affect bird performance in any environment; however, treatments affected liver weight. Microbial agents increased intestinal weight in floor-raised broilers. No relationship was seen between the use of microbial additives and the presence of oocysts in the litter.

  8. Effect of corn replacement with graded levels of wheat screening and enzyme supplementation on performance, blood lipids, viscosity and jejunal histomorphology of finisher broilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhari, M.; Golian, A.; Kermanshahi, H.

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of corn replacement with five levels of wheat screening (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g/kg of diet) with (0.5 g/kg of diet) or without xylanase-glucanase enzyme on performance, blood lipids, viscosity and jejunal histomorphology of finisher broilers (25-42 days of age). Five hundred day-old Ross-308 male broiler chicks were fed by a standard commercial diet up to 24 days of age, then randomly assigned to 10 diets. Each diet was fed to five groups of ten chicks each. There was not significant differences in body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of birds fed with different levels of wheat screening (WS), whereas enzyme increased (p<0.05) BWG. Different levels of WS and enzyme did not have a significant effect on relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, and abdominal fat of broilers. Relative weights of gizzard, pancreas, small and large intestine, and relative length of jejunum and jejunal and ileal viscosity were increased (p<0.05) by WS, while were decreased (p<0.05) by enzyme. The serum cholesterol level decreased (p<0.05) by increasing levels of WS. Jejunal histomorphological observations showed (p<0.05) shorter and thicker villus and lower crypt depth by increasing levels of WS, while addition of enzyme to the diets, affected (p<0.05) reversely to these parameters. The results showed that the addition of wheat screening up to an inclusion level of 600 g/kg of diet had no adverse effect on broiler performance in the finisher (25-42 d) phases whereas decreased serum cholesterol levels, increased viscosity and villus atrophy. The dietary administration of exogenous enzyme improved performance parameters and decreased viscosity and villus atrophy of broiler jejunum. (Author)

  9. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type modifies performance, microbiota composition and histomorphology of the broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefiak, Damian; Swiatkiewicz, S; Kieronczyk, B

    2016-01-01

    Belastung mit Clostridium perfringens und Futterfettquelle modifizieren die Leistung, die Zusammensetzung der Microbiota und die Histomorphologie des Verdauungstraktes beim Broiler......Belastung mit Clostridium perfringens und Futterfettquelle modifizieren die Leistung, die Zusammensetzung der Microbiota und die Histomorphologie des Verdauungstraktes beim Broiler...

  10. The Performance and Incidence of Ascites in Broiler Chickens in Response to Feed Restriction and Meal Feeding Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Dastar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed restriction (FR and meal feeding (MF on performance, carcass characteristics and related parameters to ascites in Ross 308 male broiler chickens. Five dietary treatments were 1 the control (ad libo. feeding, 2 feed restriction from 7 to 14 days (FR14, 3 feed restriction from 7 to 21 days (FR21, 4 meal feeding from 7 to 14 days (MF14 and 5 meal feeding from 7 to 21days (MF21. All birds were fed adlibitum for the first week post hatch and after 21 days of age. Four replicate of 12 birds were allocated to each treatment. The results indicated FR and MF21 groups had significantly (p

  11. Effect of Arbutus pavarii, Salvia officinalis and Zizyphus Vulgaris on growth performance and intestinal bacterial count of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Asheg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of three native plants from El-Jabal al ELAkhdar, (Libya on performance and cecal coliform count of broiler chickens. A total of 1260 one-day-old male Cobb chickens were used in the experiment. The birds were assigned to 7 treatment groups (6 replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments included basal diet with no additive (control, and 6 other dietary treatments (Arbutus pavarii, Salvia officinalis and Zizyphus Vulgaris each of which was added at the rate of 0.5 g and 1 g/kg of basal diet. Results explicitly revealed that all dietary treatments had a significant effect on body performance of broiler chickens compared to the control with the exception of the dietary treatment of S. officinalis at dosage of 0.5 g/kg that has expressed noticeable reduction in body weight. Coliform counts in the cecum of birds receiving 1% A. pavarii and 1% Z. Vulgaris were significantly lower (P ⩽ 0.05 than those of control group from early weeks of treatments, whereas all plant shows a significant lowering (P ⩽ 0.05 of cecal coliform count during the rest of experiment compared to control group. These results emphasize the potential biotic role of such plants together with the immune modulating effects on treated birds. However, further pharmacological and clinical work should be adopted in the future to present an obvious understandable theory behind the potential beneficial as well as side effects of such natural plants.

  12. Simultaneous inclusion of sorghum and cottonseed meal or millet in broiler diets: effects on performance and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Bastianelli, D; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Umar Faruk, M

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (Pdigestibility (%) of protein and energy with the cottonseed meal and sorghum/cottonseed meal-based diets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (Pdigestibility of protein in sorghum and millet-based diets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (Pdigestibility of starch were obtained with the control diet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two experiments suggest that broiler growth performance was not affected by the dietary level of sorghum, millet or cottonseed meal. Nutrient digestion can, however, be affected by these feed ingredients.

  13. Evaluation of the Use of Phosphatidic Acid in the Diet on Growth Performance and Breast Meat Yield in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Sobotik

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of feed additives to improve feed conversion while increasing growth is the goal of any broiler nutrition program. Therefore, it is important to evaluate potential feed additives not only for increased performance, but also for any negative attributes. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding phosphatidic acid (PA to broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted using exercise in conjunction with PA (Experiment 1(E1 and administering PA at different inclusion rates in the diet (Experiment 2 (E2; LowPA (5 mg/bird/day, MidPA (10 mg/bird/day, HighPA (15 mg/bird/day, and control (CON. All birds were weighed bi-weekly during the experiments to obtain average pen weights and feed conversion ratios (FCRs. At the end of the experiments, eight birds per pen were processed to evaluate carcass traits and breast yield. In E1, exercise did not affect growth, feed conversion or processing traits (p > 0.05. However, PA supplementation did increase growth, carcass and breast weight, and carcass and breast yields (p < 0.05. In E2, differences (p < 0.05 in live bird weights between the control birds (1.65 kg and all PA treatments (pooled mean: 1.73 kg began at 28 days; however, only the LowPA carried that effect (p = 0.05 through to the conclusion of the trial (3.55 vs. 3.81 kg. Overall, LowPA (1.64 and MidPA (1.69 had lower (p < 0.05 FCRs than the CON treatment (1.74. Increased growth observed in live bird weights in the LowPA translated to increased (p < 0.05 overall carcass weights (2.78 vs. 2.99 kg and specifically breast filet weights (0.69 vs. 0.76 kg. Yields did not differ (p > 0.05, but with the increased weight feeding LowPA resulted in more total breast meat. Phosphatidic acid did not affect (p > 0.05 woody breast or white striping. In conclusion, dietary PA improved FCR, increased live bird weights, and increased breast fillet weight without increased incidence of white striping. These results indicate that feeding PA may

  14. Effects of lactic acid bacteria and smectite after aflatoxin B1 challenge on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N; Ding, K; Wang, J; Deng, Q; Gu, K; Wang, J

    2018-04-11

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and smectite on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of broilers that were fed diets contaminated with aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ). A total of 480 newly hatched male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated into four groups with six replicates of 20 chicks each. The broilers were fed diets with the AFB 1 (40 μg/kg) challenge or without (control) it and supplemented with smectite (3.0 g/kg) or LAB (4.0 × 10 10  CFU/kg) based on the AFB 1 diet. The trial lasted for 42 days. The results showed that during days 1-42 of AFB 1 challenge, the feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) were depressed (p smectite increased (p smectite. LAB and smectite also increased (p smectite affected (p smectite have similar effects on the growth and health of the broilers, suggesting that LAB could be an alternative against AFB 1 in commercial animal feeds. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Phytase supplementation improved growth performance and bone characteristics in broilers fed varying levels of dietary calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2011-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca level on the efficacy of phytase. A total of 288 male Ross × Ross 708 broilers with initial and final BW of 37 and 705 g, respectively, were used in brooder batteries from 0 to 21 d posthatch. Each treatment had 8 replications with 6 broilers/replicate pen. All diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.26% total Lys. The treatments were positive control with 0.45% nonphytate P and 1% Ca and a negative control with 0.20% nonphytate P with 0.67, 1.00, or 1.33% Ca fed with or without 500 phytase units of Optiphos (Escherichia coli-derived phytase; JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN). Increasing Ca from 0.67 to 1.33% linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.003) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, tibia ash weight, and percentage tibia ash; however, quadratic effects were found for ADFI, G:F, percentage tibia ash, and mortality (P ≤ 0.09). Phytase supplementation increased (P ash weight, and percentage tibia ash and decreased (P = 0.054) mortality. The increase in ADG, ADFI, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash (P ≤ 0.026) and decrease in mortality (phytase × Ca linear; P = 0.058) from phytase supplementation was greater in broilers fed the higher levels of Ca. Calcium utilization was linearly decreased (P < 0.002) with increasing Ca. Phosphorus digestibility and utilization were increased with increasing levels of Ca (P ≤ 0.002); however, P utilization decreased at 1% Ca and increased at 1.33% (quadratic; P < 0.070). Phytase supplementation increased Ca utilization (P < 0.024), P digestibility (P < 0.001), and P utilization (P < 0.029). However, the increase in P digestibility (phytase × Ca; P < 0.021) was greater at the lower levels of Ca whereas P utilization (phytase × Ca; P < 0.001) was greater at 1.33% Ca with phytase supplementation. The results of this research indicate that dietary Ca level, within the ranges used in this experiment, does not negatively

  16. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Antibody Titer and Blood Parameters in Broiler Chickens Fed Dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis Essential Oil as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi Bardzardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Myrtle Essential Oil (MEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titer and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 200 Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of MEO at 100, 200, 300 mg/Kg or antibiotic Flavophospholipol (FPL at 600 mg/Kg. The results showed that diets supplemented with MEO and FPL increased the feed intake, body weight gain and improved the feed conversion ratio compared to the control treatment (P. The relative carcass weight was significantly increased, whereas the weight of gastrointestinal tract and liver were decreased in broilers fed MEO (P. Supplementing the basal diet with MEO increased the antibody titers against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV and Newcastle disease Virus (NDV, although supplementing diet with 200 mg/Kg of MEO was more effective (P. Broilers fed MEO diets especially at the level of 300 mg/Kg had a lower white blood cells count and heterophil, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, but a higher lymphocyte and red blood cells count (P. In conclusion, data showed that diet supplemented with MEO improved the growth performance and increased antibody titers against AIV and NDV, especially at the level of 200 mg/Kg, in broiler chickens and could be an adequate alternative to antibiotics.

  17. Feed intake alters immune cell functions and ovarian infiltration in broiler hens: implications for reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zu-Chen; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Su, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2014-06-01

    Leukocytes are known to participate in ovarian activities in several species, but there is a surprising lack of information for the common chicken. Broiler hens consuming feed ad libitum (AL) exhibit a number of ovarian irregularities, but leukocyte functions are unstudied. In contrast to feed-restricted (R) hens, AL feeding for 7 wk significantly reduced egg production and clutch length while increasing pause length and atretic follicle numbers (P hens contained less progesterone, and follicle walls were thicker with loose fibrous morphology and had less collagenase-3-like gelatinolytic activity but more IL-1beta (P hen peripheral heterophils and monocytes (P hens. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  18. Production performance of finisher broiler fed with cocoyam-corm meal as partial energy replacement for maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Paul P. de la Cruz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Gabing San Fernando (Xanthosoma spp. corms as partial carbohydrate replacement for maize in finisher broiler production. Materials and Methods: The completely randomized design was utilized to investigate the effects of three finisher poultry diets prepared in varying amounts of cocoyam-corm meal set at 0% (control, 25%, and 50% (experimental replacement levels. Results: There were no significant differences (p≥0.05 as to mortality and body weight measurements between control and experimental groups. Similarly, the mean weights of selected internal organs and condemnable carcasses among treatment groups did not show any significant differences (p≥0.05. In terms of the average feed intakes, birds from 50%-cocoyam group had the highest mean value and were found to be statistically different (p≥0.01 from both control and 25%-cocoyam groups. However, feed conversion ratio did not significantly differ (p≥0.05 among three groups. Higher feed costs were associated with the 50%-cocoyam treatment diet, which was only consistent with higher feed inputs. Thus, the group fed with 50%-cocoyam meal had significantly higher total mean production costs (p<0.005 per bird, when other expenses were taken into account. The production costs for the group given 25%-cocoyam meal did not significantly differ (p≥0.05 from the control group. Conclusion: Partial replacement of maize with cocoyam-corm meal at 25% level was acceptable since inclusion at this level did not adversely affect the production performance of finisher broilers in terms of growth rate, mortality rate, and feeding efficiency. The use of cocoyam meal as nonconventional and alternative carbohydrate source in poultry diet presents positive economic implications, especially to smallhold farmers from the developing countries, like the Philippines.

  19. Production performance of finisher broiler fed with cocoyam-corm meal as partial energy replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Christian Paul P

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Gabing San Fernando ( Xanthosoma spp.) corms as partial carbohydrate replacement for maize in finisher broiler production. The completely randomized design was utilized to investigate the effects of three finisher poultry diets prepared in varying amounts of cocoyam-corm meal set at 0% (control), 25%, and 50% (experimental) replacement levels. There were no significant differences (p≥0.05) as to mortality and body weight measurements between control and experimental groups. Similarly, the mean weights of selected internal organs and condemnable carcasses among treatment groups did not show any significant differences (p≥0.05). In terms of the average feed intakes, birds from 50%-cocoyam group had the highest mean value and were found to be statistically different (p≥0.01) from both control and 25%-cocoyam groups. However, feed conversion ratio did not significantly differ (p≥0.05) among three groups. Higher feed costs were associated with the 50%-cocoyam treatment diet, which was only consistent with higher feed inputs. Thus, the group fed with 50%-cocoyam meal had significantly higher total mean production costs (pmeal did not significantly differ (p≥0.05) from the control group. Partial replacement of maize with cocoyam-corm meal at 25% level was acceptable since inclusion at this level did not adversely affect the production performance of finisher broilers in terms of growth rate, mortality rate, and feeding efficiency. The use of cocoyam meal as nonconventional and alternative carbohydrate source in poultry diet presents positive economic implications, especially to smallhold farmers from the developing countries, like the Philippines.

  20. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the incidence of ascites in broilers in response to feed restriction and litter oiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, R H; Feddes, J J; Robinson, F E; Hanson, J A

    1999-04-01

    The effect of feed restriction and the application of canola oil to broiler straw litter to contain respirable dust on growth performance, carcass traits, and the incidence of ascites was evaluated with 800 male broilers studied in two 6-wk periods. Two pens of birds were feed restricted. Two pens of birds received feed ad libitum for the 6-wk trial. One restricted and one ad libitum pen received biweekly addition of canola oil to the litter. At 6 wk of age, 30 birds from each pen were killed for determination of breast muscle, fat pad, and heart weights. All birds were scored for the incidence of ascites at processing. A cross sectional image of each heart was digitally recorded and, using image analysis, the right ventricular area (RVA), left ventricular area (LVA), and total heart area (HA) were determined. The right ventricular wall was removed and its weight was expressed as a percentage of total heart weight (PRVW). The 40-d BW was significantly greater in the ad libitum birds (2.07 kg) than in the feed-restricted birds (1.86 kg). The right ventricular weight (RVW) (1.69 and 1.92 g) and the RVA (0.35 and 0.40 cm2) were also significantly different between the two feeding treatments. The ascites score was significantly correlated to the RVW (r = 0.50) and RVA (r = 0.52). The RVA was also correlated to the RVW (r = 0.63). Oiling the litter did not result in differences in carcass characteristics. Litter oiling significantly reduced the RVA of the ad libitum birds (0.36 cm2) compared to the ad libitum birds that did not have oiled litter (0.44 cm2). Feed restriction reduced the incidence of ascites, but also reduced gain. Litter oiling in the feed-restricted groups reduced the RVA, but did not reduce mortality.

  1. EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDE DEGRADING ENZYMES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nadeem, M. I. Anjum, A. G. Khan and A. Azim

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broilers chicks fed diets with and without supplementing non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes (NSPDE at the rate of 0.5 g/kg diet. A total of 300 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 12 sets (replicates each comprising 25 chicks and three sets per treatment group, reared on deep litter from 1-42 days post-hatch. Group A was fed diets without NSPDE supplementation, while group B was fed diets supplemented with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg. Group C was fed diets containing 50 kcal/kg less metabolizable energy (ME without NSPDE and group D was fed diets having 50 kcal/kg less ME with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg supplementation. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR from 1-28 days and 1-42 days was significantly (p<0.05 improved in chicks fed NSPDE supplemented diets (groups B and D compared to non-supplemented diets (groups A and C. However, during 29-42 days of growing period enzymes supplementation did not influence feed intake and FCR. Body weight gain, dressing percentage and relative weights of heart, gizzard and shank at 42 days of age was found to be non-significantly different among all groups. However, liver weight reduced significantly (p<0.05 in NSPDE supplemented groups. The study suggested that NSPDE supplementation was beneficial in enhancing feed utilization during the starter phase, while its effects on weight gain, dressing percentage and weights of organs, except liver weight, were found to be non-significant.

  2. Effects of Protease Addition and Replacement of Soybean Meal by Corn Gluten Meal on the Growth of Broilers and on the Environmental Performances of a Broiler Production System in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonos, Eleftherios; Anestis, Vasileios; Filioussis, Georgios; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Bartzanas, Thomas; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the combined effects of adding a dietary protease, reducing the levels of soybean meal (SBM) and introducing corn gluten meal (CGM) in the ration of a group of broilers reared on a commercial Greek farm. Five hundred forty chicks were divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates of thirty birds each. The first group (Control) was fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal, containing 21% w/w crude protein (CP). The second group (Soy-Prot) was supplied a corn and SBM-based diet containing a lower level of CP (20% w/w) and 200 mg of the protease RONOZYME® Proact per kg of feed. The third group (Gluten-Prot) was fed a diet without soybean-related constituents which was based on corn and CGM and with CP and protease contents identical to those of the diet of the Soy-Prot group. Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), intestinal microbiota populations and morphology, meat quality and cost were evaluated. Furthermore, a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed in order to assess the potential environmental performance of the systems defined by these three dietary treatments and identify their environmental hot-spots. The growth performance of the broilers supplied the Soy-Prot diet was similar to the broilers supplied the Control diet. However, the broilers which were fed the Gluten-Prot diet at the end of the trial showed a tendency (P≤0.010) for lower weight gain and feed intake compared to those of the Control diet. When compared to the Control group, lower counts of C. perfringens (P≤0.05) were detected in the ileum and cecum parts, and lower counts of F. necrophorum (P≤0.001) were detected in the cecum part of the birds from the Gluten-Prot group. The evaluation of intestinal morphometry showed that the villus height and crypt depth values were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the experimental groups for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum parts. No

  3. Effects of Protease Addition and Replacement of Soybean Meal by Corn Gluten Meal on the Growth of Broilers and on the Environmental Performances of a Broiler Production System in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Giannenas

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to examine the combined effects of adding a dietary protease, reducing the levels of soybean meal (SBM and introducing corn gluten meal (CGM in the ration of a group of broilers reared on a commercial Greek farm. Five hundred forty chicks were divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates of thirty birds each. The first group (Control was fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal, containing 21% w/w crude protein (CP. The second group (Soy-Prot was supplied a corn and SBM-based diet containing a lower level of CP (20% w/w and 200 mg of the protease RONOZYME® Proact per kg of feed. The third group (Gluten-Prot was fed a diet without soybean-related constituents which was based on corn and CGM and with CP and protease contents identical to those of the diet of the Soy-Prot group. Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, intestinal microbiota populations and morphology, meat quality and cost were evaluated. Furthermore, a partial life cycle assessment (LCA was performed in order to assess the potential environmental performance of the systems defined by these three dietary treatments and identify their environmental hot-spots. The growth performance of the broilers supplied the Soy-Prot diet was similar to the broilers supplied the Control diet. However, the broilers which were fed the Gluten-Prot diet at the end of the trial showed a tendency (P≤0.010 for lower weight gain and feed intake compared to those of the Control diet. When compared to the Control group, lower counts of C. perfringens (P≤0.05 were detected in the ileum and cecum parts, and lower counts of F. necrophorum (P≤0.001 were detected in the cecum part of the birds from the Gluten-Prot group. The evaluation of intestinal morphometry showed that the villus height and crypt depth values were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the experimental groups for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum parts. No

  4. Effects of Protease Addition and Replacement of Soybean Meal by Corn Gluten Meal on the Growth of Broilers and on the Environmental Performances of a Broiler Production System in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannenas, Ilias; Bonos, Eleftherios; Anestis, Vasileios; Filioussis, Georgios; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Bartzanas, Thomas; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the combined effects of adding a dietary protease, reducing the levels of soybean meal (SBM) and introducing corn gluten meal (CGM) in the ration of a group of broilers reared on a commercial Greek farm. Five hundred forty chicks were divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates of thirty birds each. The first group (Control) was fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal, containing 21% w/w crude protein (CP). The second group (Soy-Prot) was supplied a corn and SBM-based diet containing a lower level of CP (20% w/w) and 200 mg of the protease RONOZYME® Proact per kg of feed. The third group (Gluten-Prot) was fed a diet without soybean-related constituents which was based on corn and CGM and with CP and protease contents identical to those of the diet of the Soy-Prot group. Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), intestinal microbiota populations and morphology, meat quality and cost were evaluated. Furthermore, a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed in order to assess the potential environmental performance of the systems defined by these three dietary treatments and identify their environmental hot-spots. The growth performance of the broilers supplied the Soy-Prot diet was similar to the broilers supplied the Control diet. However, the broilers which were fed the Gluten-Prot diet at the end of the trial showed a tendency (P≤0.010) for lower weight gain and feed intake compared to those of the Control diet. When compared to the Control group, lower counts of C. perfringens (P≤0.05) were detected in the ileum and cecum parts, and lower counts of F. necrophorum (P≤0.001) were detected in the cecum part of the birds from the Gluten-Prot group. The evaluation of intestinal morphometry showed that the villus height and crypt depth values were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the experimental groups for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum parts. No

  5. Comprehensive growth performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, gene expressions and cell death morphology responses to a daily corticosterone injection course in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaisen, Gamal M K; Eshak, Mariam G; Elkaiaty, Ahmed M; Atta, Abdel-Rahman M M; Mashaly, Magdi M; Abass, Ahmed O

    2017-01-01

    The massive meat production of broiler chickens make them continuously exposed to potential stressors that stimulate releasing of stress-related hormones like corticosterone (CORT) which is responsible for specific pathways in biological mechanisms and physiological activities. Therefore, this research was conducted to evaluate a wide range of responses related to broiler performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, related gene expressions and cell death morphology during and after a 7-day course of CORT injection. A total number of 200 one-day-old commercial Cobb broiler chicks were used in this study. From 21 to 28 d of age, broilers were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups with 5 replicates of 20 birds each; the first group received a daily intramuscular injection of 5 mg/kg BW corticosterone dissolved in 0.5 ml ethanol:saline solution (CORT group), while the second group received a daily intramuscular injection of 0.5 ml ethanol:saline only (CONT group). Growth performance, including body weight (BW), daily weight gain (DG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FC), were calculated at 0, 3 and 7 d after the start of the CORT injections. At the same times, blood samples were collected in each group for hematological (TWBC's and H/L ratio), T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation and plasma biochemical assays (total protein, TP; free triiodothyronine hormone, fT3; aspartate amino transaminase, AST; and alanine amino transaminase, ALT). The liver, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen were dissected and weighed, and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF-1) in liver and cell-death-program gene (caspase-9) in bursa were analyzed for each group and time; while the apoptotic/necrotic cells were morphologically detected in the spleen. From 28 to 35 d of age, broilers were kept for recovery period without CORT injection and the same sampling and parameters were repeated at the end (at 14 d after initiation of the CORT injection). In

  6. Cleaning and disinfection programs against Campylobacter jejuni for broiler chickens: productive performance, microbiological assessment and characterization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliberali Lelis, Karoline; Granghelli, Carlos Alexandre; Carão de Pinho, Agatha Cristina; Ribeiro Almeida Queiroz, Sabrina; Fernandes, Andrezza Maria; Moro de Souza, Ricardo Luiz; Gaglianone Moro, Maria Estela; de Andrade Bordin, Roberto; de Albuquerque, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Detailed cleaning and disinfection programs aims to reduce infection pressure from microorganisms from one flock to the next. However, studies evaluating the benefits to poultry performance, the sanitary status of the facilities, and the sanitary quality of the meat are rarely found. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate 2 cleaning and disinfecting programs regarding their influence on productive performance, elimination of Campylobacter, and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strains when applied to broiler chickens’ facilities. Two subsequent flocks with 960 birds each were distributed into 32 pens containing 30 birds each. In the first, the whole flock was inoculated with a known strain of Campylobacter jejuni in order to contaminate the environment. In the second flock, performance and microbiological evaluations were done, characterizing an observational study between 2 cleaning and disinfection programs, regular and proposed. The regular program consisted of sweeping facilities, washing equipment and environment with water and neutral detergent. The proposed cleaning program consisted of dry and wet cleaning, application of 2 detergents (one acid and one basic) and 2 disinfectants (250 g/L glutaraldehyde and 185 g/L formaldehyde at 0.5% and 210 g/L para-chloro-meta-cresol at 4%). Total microorganism count in the environment and Campylobacter spp. identification were done for the microbiological assessment of the environment and carcasses. The positive samples were submitted to molecular identification of Campylobacter spp. and posterior genetic sequencing of the species identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The birds housed in the facilities and submitted to the proposed treatment had better performance when compared to the ones in the regular treatment, most likely because there was a smaller total microorganism count on the floor, walls, feeders and drinkers. The proposed program also resulted in a reduction of Campylobacter spp. on

  7. An early feeding regime and a high-density amino acid diet on growth performance of broilers under subclinical necrotic enteritis challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chake Keerqin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Broilers that have early access to feed have been shown to have enhanced immune system and gut development and heightened resilience against necrotic enteritis (NE. This study examined the effect of early feeding a high amino acid density diet on performance of broilers under a sub-clinical NE challenge model. Ross 308 broilers (n = 576 were assigned to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 feeding regimes (feed access either within 6 h post-hatch or after 48 h post-hatch, 2 diets (control diet or the control diet with an additional 10% digestible amino acids [HAA] and either presence or absence of NE challenge. Oral administrations of Eimeria species (d 9 and a field strain of Clostridium perfringens (d 14 were used to induce NE. Broiler performance was analysed at d 13, 23, 30 and 35. Intestinal lesion score and bacterial count were analysed on d 16. The NE challenge reduced overall bird performance and induced severe intestinal lesions, without causing notable mortality. At d 23 bird weight was significantly lower (P < 0.001 in the challenged birds compared with the unchallenged birds, but by d 30 the challenged birds had recovered and challenge no longer had an impact on bird performance. Birds fed the HAA diet had greater body weight by d 35 and heightened Lactobacillus content in the ileum at d 16 (P < 0.05. Birds that were fed the HAA diet after a period of fasting performed better in terms of feed conversion ratio (FCR under challenge. The findings from this study suggest there are beneficial effects of feeding high amino acid diets to birds in response to external stresses, such as post-hatch fasting and subclinical NE.

  8. Modelling responses of broiler chickens to dietary balanced protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Protein is an important nutrient for growing broiler chickens, as it affects broiler performance, feed cost as well as nitrogen excretion. The objective of this dissertation was to develop a growth model for broiler chickens that could be easily used by practical nutritionists. The model should

  9. Environmental temperature and stocking density effects on acute phase proteins, heat shock protein 70, circulating corticosterone and performance in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Pardis; Zulkifli, Idrus; Amat Jajuli, Nurfarahin; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Amir, Anna Aryani; O'Reily, Emily; Eckersall, David

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different stocking densities on serum corticosterone (CORT), ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations, brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression and performance in broiler chickens exposed to unheated and heated conditions. Day-old chicks were stocked at 0.100 m2/bird (low density (LD)) or 0.063 m2/bird (high density (HD)), in battery cages and housed in environmentally controlled rooms. From 21 to 35 days of age, birds from each stocking density group were exposed to either 24 or 32 °C. Growth performance was recorded during the heat treatment period, and blood and brain samples were collected to determine CORT, OVT, AGP, CP and HSP 70 levels on day 35. Heat treatment but not stocking density was detrimental to growth performance. There were significant temperature × density interactions for CORT, CP and OVT on day 35. Although HD elevated CORT, CP and OVT when compared to LD, the effects of the former were more obvious under heated condition. Both temperature and density had significant effect on AGP and HSP 70. In conclusion, irrespective of temperature, high stocking density was physiologically stressful to broiler chickens, as indicated by CORT, AGP, CP, OVT and HSP 70, but not detrimental to growth performance and survivability. As it was shown in the present study, AGP, CP and OVT could be useful biomarkers to determine the effect of overcrowding and high temperature on the welfare of broiler chickens.

  10. Effect of Digestible Protein and Sulfur Amino Acids in Starter Diet on Performance and Small Intestinal (Jejunum Morphology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avisa Akhavan khaleghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Protein is an essential constituent of all tissues of animal body and has major effect on growth performance of the bird. A better understanding of the nutritional requirements of amino acids allows a more precise nutrition, offering the possibility for the formulator to optimize the requirement of at least minimum levels of crude protein by essential amino acids requirements, generating better result and lower costs for the producer. Methionine + Cystine (total sulfur amino acid = TSSA perform a number of functions in enzyme reactions and protein synthesis. Methionine is an essential amino acid for poultry and has an important role as a precursor of Cystine. Methionine is usually the first limiting amino acid in most of the practical diets for broiler chicken. The efficiency of utilization of dietary nutrients partly depends on the development of the gastro intestinal tract. Material and methods A 2×3 factorial arrangement in a CRD experiment was conducted to study the effect of digestible protein (DP and sulfur amino acids (DSAA during the starter period on performance and small intestinal (jejunum villous morphology. A total number of 300 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 30 groups with 10 chicks each. Treatments consisted of two dietary levels of DP (19.5 and 21.5% and three dietary levels of DSAA (0.94, 1.02 and 1.1% that were fed for 10 days. For Each group and treatment, Feed Intake (FI, Weight Gain (WG and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were calculated and all the data were statistically analyzed by the SAS software. Results and Discussions The effects of different levels of protein and digestible sulfur amino acids on the mean feed intake, feed conversion ratio and daily weight gain are shown in the Table 3. Increase in the percentage of digestible sulfur amino acids, increased the levels of feed intake and feed conversion ratio in the starter period but, had no effect on the WG. Adding the DSAA

  11. Inclusion levels of sweet potato root meal in the diet of broilers I. Effect on performance, organ weights, and carcass quality

    OpenAIRE

    Beckford, R. C.; Bartlett, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The amount of corn available for animal and poultry feed has been unpredictable in recent years due to the increased use of corn for ethanol production. As a consequence, there has been an increase in the price of feed, chicken, and chicken products. Researchers are exploring alternative feed sources to substitute for corn in poultry ration. This study evaluated the performance and carcass quality of broilers fed diets containing sweet potato root meal (SPRM). After a complete nutrient analys...

  12. Duodenum Histomorphology and Performance as Influenced by Dietary Suplementation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Garlic (Allium sativum) and its Combinations as a Feed Additives in Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Purwanti, Sri; -, Zuprizal; Yuwanta, Tri; -, Supadmo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of turmeric water extract, garlic and combination turmeric and garlic as a feed additive in the broiler diet on performance, and duodenum histomorphology. Affectivity of treatments was assessed by addition of phytobiotic (control, 015% zinc bacitracin, 2.5% TE, 2.0% GE, 2.5% TGE) which were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design with 4 replications. The variables measured were duodenum histomorphology (villi height, villi surfac...

  13. Effects of Dietary Supplemental Vitamins and Periods of Administration on Growth Performance and Antibody Titre of Broiler Chickens Vaccinated against Newcastle Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Odutayo, O. J.; Sogunle, O. M.; Adeyemi, O.A.; Sonibare, A.O.; Oluwayinka, E.B.; Ekunseitan, D.A.; Safiyu1, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of supplemental vitamins and varying administration periods on growth performance and antibody titre of broiler chickens vaccinated against Newcastle Disease (ND). A total of 300 unvaccinated against ND Arbor Acre day-old chicks were used for the study for 8 wk. Birds were brooded together on day 1 of age, and 30 chicks were selected randomly for evaluating the maternally derived antibody titre against ND. At 2 days of age, the remaining 270 chicks were div...

  14. Comparison of the effects of semi-refined rice oil and soybean oil on meat oxidative stability, carcass yield, metabolism, and performance of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML de Moraes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments (EXP 1 and EXP 2 were conducted to compare soybean oil (SO and semi-refined rice oil (RBO added to broilers diets. In EXP 1, 400 male Ross x Ross 308 broilers were reared in battery cages, and their performance was evaluated. A metabolism assay was performed. In EXP 2, 1344 broilers from the same strain were reared in floor pens with rice husks litter. In addition to performance, carcass yield and meat oxidative stability were evaluated. In both EXP, birds were distributed in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with two types of oils (SO or RBO and four oil inclusion levels (1%, 2.5%, 4%, or 5.5%. Two periods were considered: starter (1 to 21 days of age and grower (22 to 42 days. In both EXP, oil type had no influence on starter performance. Although treatments promoted similar in weight gain (WG and feed intake (FI, grower birds fed RBO had better feed conversion (FCR in EXP 2, but not in EXP1. In both trials, increasing dietary oil levels negatively influenced FI and positively FCR. Weight gain was similar among all treatments in EXP 1, whereas in EXP 2, WG was higher when 4 and 5.5% oil was included in the feed. RBO presented 94% fat metabolizability, and crude energy and metabolizable energy levels of 9.260 and 8.714 kcal/kg, respectively. Carcass yield was not influenced by oil type; however, oil inclusion level negatively affected breast yield. The experimental treatments had no effect on meat oxidative stability. RBO can be used as an alternative to soybean oil in broilers diets.

  15. Productive performance of broiler chicks fed rations containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2001-12-01

    The changes in the feed efficiency (FE) (feed intake/body weight gain), energy efficiency (EE) (metabolizable energy intake/body weight gain), total protein efficiency (TPE) (body weight gain/protein intake), metabolized energy (ME) and body weight gain and in the biological aspects of the digestive organs by broiler chicks during different periods of age (14-21 days: 3 weeks, 21-28 days: 4 weeks, 28-35 days: 5 weeks, 35-42 days: 6 weeks) were evaluated in 5 groups fed on experimental diets containing irradiated meat (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy). the results showed that no significant (p 0.05) with age (comparing ages 5 and 6 weeks with 3 and 4 weeks) No significant (p<0.05) differences were noticed in FE, EE and TPE between the ages 3 and 4 weeks. There was a significant increase (p.0.05) in ME values for the age 6 weeks compared to 3, 4 and 5 weeks. No significant differences were observed in the ME values between the ages 4 and 5 weeks. (author)

  16. Supplementation of Morinda citrifolia waste as bioactive compound on the performances of broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.K Bintang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the use of dried Morinda citrifolia waste as feed additive in broiler ration was conducted. One hundred day old chicks (doc were allocated into 4 levels (control; 0.0; 1.2; 2.4 and 4.8 g/kg feed of M. citrifolia waste with 5 replication. Each replication had 5 birds. The treatments were allocated in a completely randomized design. Variables measured were: feed intake, live weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR, percentages of carcass and internal organs ( liver. gizard, abdominal fat, and thickness of intestine. The results showed that M citrifolia waste supply did not significantly (P>0.05 affect all variables measured, but feed intake of those fed with high levels (4,8 g/kg of M. citrifolia waste was significantly (P<0.05 lower than those fed with 1.2 g/kg. FCR was significantly (P<0.05 lower as compared to the control; 1.2 and 2.4 g/kg. It is concluded that the best treatment was the supplementation of M. citrifolia waste of 4.8 g/kg, this treatment improved feed efficiency by 5% as compared to the control.

  17. Effect of dietary supplementation with Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth performance, blood profile, intestinal microbial population, and carcass traits in broilers exposed to heat stress

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sugiharto; T. Yudiarti; I. Isroli; E. Widiastuti; F. D. Putra

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplementation of additives has recently been part of strategies to deal with the detrimental effects of heat stress (HS) on the performance and carcass traits in broiler chicks. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with the fungi Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth, blood profile, intestinal microbial population and carcass traits in broiler chicks subjected to HS. R. oryzae and C. crassa are filamentous fungi isolated from...

  18. Evaluation of the effect of different wheats and xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient and energy utilisation in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma González-Ortiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, nutrient utilisation and energy metabolism of broiler chicks fed 8 different wheat samples, supplemented or not with xylanase. Seven-hundred sixty eight male broilers (1-day-old were distributed to 16 experimental treatments (6 replicates per treatment. The treatments were in a factorial arrangement with 8 different wheats and 2 levels of xylanase (0 or 16,000 BXU/kg. The predicted apparent metabolisable energy (AME of the wheat samples ranged from 13.0 to 13.9 MJ/kg and all diets were formulated to contain the same amount of wheat. Body weight gain (BWG and feed intake (FI were measured at 21 d, as was jejunal digesta viscosity, and feed conversion ratio (FCR calculated. On day 24, one representative bird per pen was selected to calculate whole body energetics. At 21 d, 3 chicks per replicate were randomly allocated to metabolism cages for energy and nutrient utilisation determinations, and were continued on the experimental diets until 24-d-old. No interactions were observed for any performance response variables, ileal nutrient utilisation or digesta viscosity. Xylanase improved BWG and reduced FCR and digesta viscosity (P < 0.05. Wheat influenced dry matter (DM utilisation and xylanase increased ileal digestible energy (P = 0.04. Xylanase also improved (P < 0.05 DM and nitrogen retention. Apparent metabolisable energy and AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn were subject to an interaction whereby wheats 2 and 6, which returned the lowest AME and AMEn values, responded to xylanase supplementation and the remainder did not. Net energy for production and the efficiency of energy use for production were not influenced by xylanase, but were affected by wheat (P < 0.05. Despite the significant differences between wheats with regards to their nutrient utilisation and energy metabolism in birds, xylanase removed this variance and resulted in more homogeneous performance.

  19. Association of Apolipoprotein B and Adiponectin Receptor 1 Genes with Carcass, Bone Integrity and Performance Traits in a Paternal Broiler Line.

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    Valdecy Aparecida Rocha da Cruz

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein B (APOB and Adiponectin Receptor 1 (ADIPOR1 are related to the regulation of feed intake, fat metabolism and protein deposition and are candidate genes for genomic studies in birds. In this study, associations of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs g.102A>T (APOB and g.729C>T (ADIPOR1 with carcass, bone integrity and performance traits in broilers were investigated. Genotyping was performed on a paternal line of 1,454 broilers. The SNP detection was carried out by PCR-RFLP technique using the restriction enzymes HhaI for the SNP g.729C>T and MslI for the SNP g.102A>T. The association analyses of the two SNPs with 85 traits were performed using the restricted maximum likelihood (REML and Generalized Quasi-Likelihood Score (GQLS methods. For REML the model included the random additive genetic effect of animal and fixed effects of sex, hatch and SNP genotypes. In the GQLS method, a logistic regression was used to associate the genotypes with phenotypes adjusted for fixed effects of sex and hatch. The SNP g.729C>T in the ADIPOR1 gene was associated with thickness of the femur and breast skin yield. Thus, the ADIPOR1 gene seems implicated in the metabolism and/or fat deposition and bone integrity in broilers.

  20. Effect of Feeding Low-Oil Ddgs to Laying Hens and Broiler Chickens on Performance and Egg Yolk and Skin Pigmentation

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    A Cortes-Cuevas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional quality of two sources of low-oil distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS and their pigmenting ability for broiler chicken skin and egg yolks. In Experiment 1, 360 Bovan-White hens between 69 and 77 weeks of age were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 12 hens each. In Experiment 2, 375 Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five treatments with three replicates of 25 birds each. The chickens were fed the experimental diets from one to 42 d of age. In both experiments, treatments consisted of a basal diet with no DDGS, and diets with 6% or 12% inclusion of DDGS from two sources. In Experiment 1, no significant differences in performance were detected among treatments (p> 0.05. Egg yolk pigmentation, according to CR-400 Minolta Colorimeter redness (a and yellowness (b, linearly increased (p0.05 were detected among treatments in growth performance, carcass yield, or abdominal fat at 42 d of age. Yellowness linearly increased (p<0.05 in the skin and abdominal fat of the birds that consumed diets with DDGS. The results of the current study indicate that feeding two sources of low-oil DDGS to broiler chicks or laying hens does not negatively affect egg production or growth performance while improves egg yolk and skin yellowness.

  1. Effects of Immune Stress on Performance Parameters, Intestinal Enzyme Activity and mRNA Expression of Intestinal Transporters in Broiler Chickens

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    Y. Feng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune stress is the loss of immune homeostasis caused by external forces. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of immune stress on the growth performance, small intestinal enzymes and peristalsis rate, and mRNA expression of nutrient transporters in broiler chickens. Four hundred and thirty-two 1-d-old broilers (Cobb500 were randomly assigned to four groups for treatment; each group included nine cages with 12 birds per cage. Group 1 = no vaccine (NV; Group 2 = conventional vaccine (CV; group 3 = lipopolysaccharide (LPS+conventional vaccine (LPS; group 4 = cyclophosphamide (CYP+conventional vaccine (CYP. The results demonstrated that immune stress by LPS and CYP reduced body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI, small intestine peristalsis rate and sIgA content in small intestinal digesta (p<0.05. However, the feed conversion ratio (FCR remained unchanged during the feeding period. LPS and CYP increased intestinal enzyme activity, relative expression of SGLT-1, CaBP-D28k and L-FABP mRNAs (p<0.05. LPS and CYP injection had a negative effect on the growth performance of healthy broiler chickens. The present study demonstrated that NV and CV could improve growth performance while enzyme activity in small intestine and relative expression of nutrient transporter mRNA of NV and CV were decreased in the conditions of a controlled rational feeding environment. It is generally recommended that broilers only need to be vaccinated for the diseases to which they might be exposed.

  2. Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin C on Growth Performance and Blood Components in Broiler Chickens under Heat Stress

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    Raeisi-Zeydabad S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effects of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 and vitamin C (VC on growth performance and blood biochemistry in broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. One of three levels of CoQ10 (0, 20, and 40 mg/kg of diet and one of two levels of VC (0 and 250 mg/kg of diet were supplemented to diets of chicks (from 1-42 d of age in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment had four replicate pens (10 chicks/pen. In order to create chronic heat stress, the house temperature was set at an ambient temperature of 35±2°C for 8 hrs daily (09:00 to 17:00 between 25-42 d of age. Feed intake, body weight gain (BWG, and feed to gain ratio (F:G were recorded at d 10, 25 and 42. At the end of experiment, two chicks/pen were randomly selected to assess blood components. CoQ10 supplementation improved BWG and F:G during 11-25 days, 26-42 days, and the whole period of the experiment (P < 0.05, while VC supplementation improved BWG and F:G only during 11-25 d of age. Blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were reduced (P < 0.05 by addition of CoQ10 to the diet. Both Supplementation of CoQ10 and VC together lowered heterophil (H count but increased lymphocyte (L count, thereby reducing H/L ratio (P < 0.05. Serum concentrations of corticosterone and T4 were positively affected by dietary supplementation of CoQ10 (P < 0.05, but no differences were obtained with addition of VC to the diet. In conclusion, our observations demonstrated that dietary supplementation of 40 mg/kg CoQ10 or 250 mg/kg VC improves the growth performance of broiler chickens under the heat stress.

  3. Effects of Dietary Fermented Seaweed and Seaweed Fusiforme on Growth Performance, Carcass Parameters and Immunoglobulin Concentration in Broiler Chicks

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    Y. J. Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida by-product and seaweed fusiforme (Hizikia fusiformis by-product supplementation on growth performance and blood profiles including serum immunoglobulin (Ig in broilers. Fermentation of seaweeds was conducted by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. In a 5-wk feeding trial, 750 one-d-old broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups, and were assigned to the control diet or experimental diets including control+0.5% brown seaweed (BS by-product, control+0.5% seaweed fusiforme (SF by-product, control+0.5% fermented brown seaweed (FBS by-product, and control+0.5% fermented seaweed fusiforme (FSF by-product. As a consequence, body weight gain (BWG and gain:feed of seaweed by-product groups were clearly higher, when compared to those of control diet group from d 18 to 35 and the entire experimental period (p<0.05. In mortality rate, seaweed by-product groups were significantly lower when compared to control diet group during entire experimental period (p<0.05. However, Feed Intake of experimental diets group was not different from that of the control group during the entire experimental period. Whereas, Feed Intake of fermented seaweed by-product groups was lower than that of non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05. Total organ weights, lipids, and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT of all treatment groups were not different from those of control group. However, glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT of all treatment groups was higher than that of control group at d 17 (p<0.05. In case of serum Igs concentration, the concentration of IgA antibody in BS, SF, FSF treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group at d 35 (p<0.01. IgA concentration in FBS supplementation groups was negligibly decreased when compared to the control group. IgM concentration in the serums of all treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group (p<0.05 and in

  4. Dietas para frangos de corte contendo quirera de arroz Performance of broiler feed with broken rice in diets

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    Berilo de Souza Brum Júnior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o uso da quirera de arroz na dieta de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 240 pintos machos, alojados em galpão, contendo 12 boxes de 2m² de área. Cada box continha comedouro tubular, bebedouro pendular e campânula nos 21 dias iniciais. As aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições, as quais receberam dietas contendo 0, 20 e 40% de inclusão de quirera de arroz. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão e à análise de variância e, quando houve diferença, aplicou-se o teste de Tukey. O ganho de peso, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar de 1-21, 1-35 e 1-42 dias (P>0,05 não foram afetados pela substituição do milho por quirera de arroz. A umidade de cama, o índice de eficiência produtivo, o rendimento de carcaça quente, de fígado, coração, coxa, sobre-coxa e peito não apresentaram diferença (P>0,05. No entanto, os rendimentos de moela, bem como a pigmentação da canela e do bico, diminuíram linearmente com o aumento do nível de quirera de arroz na dieta. Conclui-se que a quirera de arroz pode ser incluída nas dieta, substituindo o milho, para frangos de corte.An experiment was carried to evaluate the performance of broilers fed with diferent levels of broken rice. The experiment was conducted with 240 males broilers chicks, Cobb 500, were distributed in floor pens of 2m² each, with one tubular feeder, one pendular drinker, an electrical brooder and on the top of rice hulls. An entirely randomized experimental design was used, with 3 treatments and 4 replicates with 20 birds each, which received, diets containing 0, 20 and 40% of broken rice. Data were submitted to Analisis of regression. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion to the1- 21, 1- 35 and 1-42 days of age, litter humidity, carcass, liver, breast, thigh and drumstick yield did not present significant difference. The gizzard and the

  5. Enzimas exógenas em dietas de frangos de corte: desempenho Exogenous enzymes in broilers fed diets: performance

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    Nei André Arruda Barbosa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a eficiência de enzimas exógenas em dietas sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Um total de 1440 pintos de corte machos (Cobb 500® foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x2 (duas dietas com diferentes densidades nutricionais; com e sem a adição enzimática com 8 repetições de 45 aves em cada unidade experimental. As dietas com diferentes densidades nutricionais foram: controle positivo (níveis normais e um controle negativo (com redução de 4,3 e 4,5% de energia metabolizável; 16,7 e 17,7% de cálcio e 35 e 42,7% de fósforo, nas fases inicial e de crescimento, respectivamente. A suplementação enzimática consistiu da combinação das enzimas fitase (100g t-1 e amilase, xilanase e protease (500g t-1. Foi avaliado o desempenho das aves nas fases de 1 a 21 e 1 a 42 dias de idade. Na fase total de criação, as aves alimentadas com a dieta controle negativo com adição enzimática tiveram consumo de ração (5,97%, peso médio (8,47%, ganho de peso (8,64% e conversão alimentar (2,92% melhores (P0,05 ao grupo alimentado com a dieta controle positivo com ou sem enzima. A adição de enzimas exógenas em dieta de frangos de corte com redução de energia metabolizável, cálcio e fósforo, proporciona um consumo de ração, peso vivo médio e ganho de peso similar a uma dieta com níveis nutricionais adequados.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of enzyme efficiency in diets with and without nutrient reduction on the performance of broilers. Thousand and hundred forty male broiler chicks (Cobb 500® were distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments in a factorial 2x2 (two diets with different nutrient densities, with and without enzyme with 8 replications of 45 birds. The diets were: positive control (normal and a negative control (with a reduction of 4.3% and 4.5% of metabolizable energy, 16.7% and 17.7% of

  6. Effect of various fiber types and choice feeding of fiber on performance, gut development, humoral immunity, and fiber preference in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Amin; Toghyani, Majid; Gheisari, Abasali

    2015-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fibrous materials with one single diet or by choice feeding on performance, intestinal morphology, immunity, and fiber preference in broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 240-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to one of 4 treatments, comprising 5 replicates per treatment in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments included: a basal diet (control) or 30 g/kg sugar beet pulp (SBP), 30 g/kg rice hull (RH), or 30 g/kg equal combination of them (SBP/RH) added to the basal diet. Results showed SBP and SBP/RH impaired daily weight gain (DWG) in the growing period compared with control (P immunity. In addition, broilers had a tendency to use separate sources of fiber. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Studies on the incorporation of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis) as an alternative protein source in poultry feed and its effect on growth performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivel, Vellingiri; Pugalenthi, Muthiah

    2010-10-01

    The effect of replacement of soybean meal by the velvet bean meal as an alternative protein ingredient on the growth performance of broiler chickens was investigated. The raw seeds of velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. var. utilis (Wall. ex Wight) Baker ex Burck], an under-utilized food legume collected from South India, was found to contain appreciable levels of crude protein (273.2 g/kg DM), lipid (60.61 g/kg DM), neutral detergent fiber (84.3 g/kg DM), and ash content (56.04 g/kg DM). Soaking in 0.2% sodium bicarbonate solution + autoclaving treatment caused a substantial reduction on the levels of various antinutritional compounds such as tannins (84%), L: -Dopa (79%), phytic acid (87%), raffinose (93%), stachyose (83%), verbascose (73%), haemagglutinating activity (84%), trypsin inhibitor activity (77%), and alpha-amylase inhibitor activity (78%) without affecting the nutritional quality of velvet bean seeds. The processed velvet bean meal was incorporated as an alternative protein source by replacing soybean meal protein at 0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% levels in the broiler diets. Replacement of soybean meal protein up to 40% level, which corresponds to the inclusion of velvet bean meal up to 15.7% and 11% in the starter and finisher phase poultry feeds, respectively, exhibited better growth performance of broiler birds without any adverse effects.

  8. Processing diets containing corn distillers' dried grains with solubles in growing broiler chickens: effects on performance, pellet quality, ileal amino acids digestibility, and intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J S; Hosseindoust, A R; Shim, Y H; Lee, S H; Choi, Y H; Kim, M J; Oh, S M; Ham, H B; Kumar, A; Chae, B J

    2018-04-03

    The present study investigated the effects of feed form and distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestine microbiota in broilers. A total of 720 broilers (Ross 308; average BW 541 ± 6 g) was randomly allotted to 6 treatments on the basis of BW. There were 6 replicates in each treatment with 20 birds per replicate. Birds were fed 3 different feed forms (mash, simple pellet, and expanded pellet) and DDGS (0 or 20% of diet) in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Simple pellet (SP) and expanded pellet (EP) fed birds showed an increase in BW gain (P digestibility of CP compared to mash feed. The inclusion of DDGS decreased the digestibility of CP, and tended to decrease digestibility of DM (P = 0.056) and gross energy (P = 0.069). Expanded pellet feeding decreased (P digestibility of isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, cysteine, and glutamine compared with mash diet. Processed feed increased (P digestibility. In addition, DDGS supplementation (20%) decreased pellet quality and CP digestibility in broiler chickens; however, the growth performance and feed intake were not affected.

  9. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (pcoconut oil level increased (poil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers.

  10. Effect of oleic and conjugated linoleic acid in the diet of broiler chickens on the live growth performances, carcass traits and meat fatty acid profile

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    Stefano Rapaccini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil and CLA enriched olive oil were compared with each other in a growth trial with broiler chickens, as energy supplements to the diet. A commercial CLA blend was used at the level of 1 kg per 100 kg mixed integrated feed. Two hundred and forty commercial hybrid broilers (Ross 308 were randomly subdivided and allotted to 8 pens of 30 birds each. Four pens of birds were fed the olive oil diet and considered the control group; the other 4 pens were fed the olive oil supplemented with CLA and considered the treated group. The experiment lasted 47 days. The live performance of the treated birds resulted different from the performance of the control ones: the final body weight was slightly lighter (2.544 kg vs 2.639 kg; P≤0.05 with a lower feed intake (4.886 kg feed vs 4.998 kg, P≤0.05 and, of course, an almost perfectly overlapping feed/gain ratio (1.90 vs 1.91. The fatty acid composition of the breast fat of the CLA treated birds resulted enriched by the two major CLA isomers, trans 10 cis 12 and cis 9 trans 11, whereas oleic acid and the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic polyunsaturated acids showed a decrease (P≤0.05. CLA appears a recommendable ingredient in the diets of broilers as it improves the beneficial characteristics of poultry meat.

  11. Effects of different levels of hatchery wastes on the performance, carcass and tibia ash and some blood parameters in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipour, M; Shargh, M Shams; Dastar, B; Hassani, S

    2009-09-15

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of Hatchery Wastes (HW) on performance, tibia ash, blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations in broiler chickens. Birds were fed a corn-soybean meal diet for 7 days. The experimental treatments included a corn soybean meal diet and 3 other treatments containing 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% HW. five replicate groups of 15 Ross 308 broiler chicks were allocated to each dietary treatment. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in weight gains among different dietary treatments. Feed intake in the 4.5% treatment was significantly higher (p 0.05). Results of carcass analysis showed no significant differences between treatments. Also, there were no significant differences between blood calcium and phosphorous among treatments. The 4.5 and 3.0% hatchery wastes treatments had the highest tibia ash (p hatchery wastes as much as 3% can increase tibia strength without having adverse effect on broilers performance.

  12. Energy and protein levels in diets containing phytase for broilers from 22 to 42 days of age: performance and nutrient excretion

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    Adriano Kaneo Nagata

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of different levels of metabolizable energy and crude protein in diets formulated according to the ideal protein concept with phytase supplementation on performance and nutrient excretion of broilers from 22 to 42 days age. It was used 1,500 Coob lineage broilers at 22 days of age and with initial weight of 833 ± 7g, distributed in completely randomized design in a 3 × 3 + 1 factorial scheme composed of three levels of correct apparent metabolizable energy (2,950; 3,100 and 3,250 kcal/kg, three levels of crude protein (14, 16 and 18% and a control treatment, totaling ten treatments with six repetitions of 25 birds each. All diets, with the exception of the control, were supplemented with phytase. For determination of excretion of pollutants, it was used 180 broilers from the same lineage at 35 days of age,placed in metabolic cages, with ten treatments each one with six repetitions and three birds per experimental unit. The protein and energy levels in diets containing phytase influenced feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and excretion of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, copper and zinc by the birds. The corrected apparent metabolizable energy level in the diets for broilers in the studied period must be increased up to 3,250 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy and the levels of crude protein, calcium and phosphorus must be reduced down to 18, 0.70 and 0.31%, respectively, provided that supplemented with amino acids and phytase to improve the performance and to reduce excretion of pollutants by birds.

  13. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

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    F Karadas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105, with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet; T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast; T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate; T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB; T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB;T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rRed;T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rYellow; T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r; and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r. Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05.

  14. Lesions in Broiler Chicks Following Experimental Contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feed contamination with battery waste on the performance, organs weights as well as the histology of some internal organs of broiler chicks. A total of 120 1- d old broiler chicks were allotted to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design.

  15. Effects of four dim vs high intensity red color light regimens on growth performance and welfare of broilers

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    D. Senaratna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Broilers show clear preference towards red color light (RL. However setting of an optimum light intensity is difficult since dim intensities that favor growth reduce welfare. This experiment was conducted to test the most effective RL intensity regimen (Dim [5 lux; DI] vs high [320 lux; HI] in combination applied at different growth stages that favors for both performance and welfare. Methods Complete randomize design was adopted with 6 replicates. Treatments were; T1 = early DI (8–21 d+latter HI (22–35 d; T2 = early DI (8–28 d+latter HI (29–35 d, T3 = early HI (8–21 d+latter DI (22–35 d, T4 = early HI (8–28 d+latter DI (29–35 d and T5 = control (white light; WT (8–35 d at medium intensity (20 lux. Body weight (BW, weight gain (WG, water/feed intake and ratio, feed conversion ratios (FCR were assessed. Common behaviours (15 were recorded by scan sampling method. Lameness, foot pad dermatitis, breast blisters, hock burning damage were assessed as welfare parameters. Fear reactions were tested using Tonic Immobility Test. Ocular and carcass evaluations were done. Meat and tibiae were analyzed for fat and bone ash respectively. Results On 35 d, the highest BW (2,155.72±176 g, WG (1,967.78±174 g were recorded by T2 compared to WT (BWWT = 1,878.22±155, WGWT = 1,691.83±160. But, application of RL, either DI, or HI during early/latter stage had no significant effect on FCR. Under HI, birds showed much higher active behaviours. DI encourages eating. Though LI changed from DI to HI, same trend could be seen even under HI. The highest leg strength (218.5±120 s was recorded by T2. The lowest leg strength (64.58±33 s and the highest ocular weight (2.48±1 g were recorded by T1. Significantly (p<0.05 the highest skin weight (162.17±6 g but the lowest fat% in meat (13.03%±5% was recorded by T2. Conclusion Early exposure to DI-RL up to 28 days followed by exposure to HI-RL is the most favorable lighting regimen for

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid levels and general performance of commercial broilers fed practical levels of redfish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulan, H W; Ackman, R G; Ratnayake, W M; Proudfoot, F G

    1989-01-01

    A total of 1,200 day-old Arbor Acre broiler chickens was randomly assigned to 12 pens (50 males and 50 females/pen) and divided into three blocks of four pens each. Each of four different diets was fed ad libitum to one pen of birds within each block to determine the effect of feeding practical levels of redfish meal (RFM) on performance and omega-3 fatty acid content of edible meat and skin lipids of broiler chickens. The four diets included (control) 0%, 4.0%, 8.0%, and 12.0% RFM. Feeding diets containing RFM had no effect on overall mortality or feed efficiency but resulted in decreased incidence of sudden death syndrome and lower body weight (P less than .01) and feed consumption (P less than .05). Additions of RFM to the diets resulted in a substantial dietary enrichment of omega-3 fatty acids (especially eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA or 20:5n-3, and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA or 22:6n-3). Analyses (wt/wt%) revealed that breast meat (less skin) was lower (P less than .001) in lipid and triglyceride but higher in free cholesterol (P less than .001) and phospholipid (P less than .001) than thigh meat (less skin). Dietary treatment had no effect on carcass lipid content or composition. Breast meat lipid contained more (P less than .001) omega-3 fatty acids (especially EPA and DHA), more docosapentaenoic acid, (DPA or 22:5n-3) and more total omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA) than thigh meat lipids. Feeding additional RFM resulted in an increased (P less than .001) accumulation of EPA, DPA, DHA, and total n-3 PUFA primarily at the expense of two omega-6 fatty acids, linoleic (18:2n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). It can be calculated from the data presented that the consumption of 100 g of chicken that has been fed 12.0% RFM would contribute approximately 197 mg of omega-3 fatty acids (EPA + DPA + DHA) in contrast with the 138 mg of omega-3 fatty acids which would be realized from the consumption of 100 g of white fish such as cod.

  17. Effect of dietary Bacillus coagulans supplementation on growth performance and immune responses of broiler chickens challenged by Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Wenrui; Shao, Yujing; Gong, Xiuyan; Wu, Yuanyuan; Geng, Yanqiang; Wang, Zhong; Guo, Yuming

    2018-04-11

    This study was conducted to evaluate the protective efficacy of dietary Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) supplementation in birds receiving Salmonella enteritidis (SE). Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments with 2 levels of dietary B. coagulans (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 levels of SE challenge (0 or 1 × 109 SE between d 9 to 11). Results showed that SE infection did not affect growth performance, but caused intestinal inflammation and barrier function impairment by reducing intestinal goblet cells and beneficial bacteria numbers, increasing cecal Salmonella colonization and liver Salmonella invasion, downregulating jejunal mucin-2 (at 7 and 17 d post-infection, DPI), TLR2 (at 7 and 17 DPI), TLR4 (at 17 DPI), TNFSF15 (at 7 and 17 DPI) gene mRNA levels, and upregulating jejunal IFN-γ mRNA levels (at 17 DPI) compared to uninfected birds. Moreover, SE infection also elevated the concentration of jejunal anti-Salmonella IgA and sera anti-Salmonella IgG compared to uninfected birds. However, chickens received B. coagulans diets showed significant increase in body weight gain and weight gain to feed intake ratio from d 15 to 21, alkaline phosphatase activity (at 7 DPI), cecal Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium numbers (at 7 DPI; at 17 DPI), villous height: crypt ratio (at 17 DPI), and goblet cell numbers (at 7 and 17 DPI), whereas exhibiting reduced jejunal crypt depth (at 17 DPI), cecal Escherichia coli (at 7, 17, and 31 DPI), and Salmonella (at 7 and 17 DPI) levels compared with the non-supplemented birds, regardless of SE infection. In addition, B. coagulans supplement upregulated lysozyme mRNA levels (at 17 DPI), downregulated IFN-γ mRNA levels (at 7 and 17 DPI), showed an increased trend in Fowlicidin-2 mRNA levels (at 7 DPI) and a reduced trend in liver Salmonella load compared to the non-supplemented control. These data indicated that B. coagulans has a protective effect in SE infected

  18. Effects of four dim vs high intensity red color light regimens on growth performance and welfare of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2018-01-01

    Broilers show clear preference towards red color light (RL). However setting of an optimum light intensity is difficult since dim intensities that favor growth reduce welfare. This experiment was conducted to test the most effective RL intensity regimen (Dim [5 lux; DI] vs high [320 lux; HI]) in combination applied at different growth stages that favors for both performance and welfare. Complete randomize design was adopted with 6 replicates. Treatments were; T1 = early DI (8-21 d)+latter HI (22-35 d); T2 = early DI (8-28 d)+latter HI (29-35 d), T3 = early HI (8-21 d)+latter DI (22-35 d), T4 = early HI (8-28 d)+latter DI (29-35 d) and T5 = control (white light; WT) (8-35 d) at medium intensity (20 lux). Body weight (BW), weight gain (WG), water/feed intake and ratio, feed conversion ratios (FCR) were assessed. Common behaviours (15) were recorded by scan sampling method. Lameness, foot pad dermatitis, breast blisters, hock burning damage were assessed as welfare parameters. Fear reactions were tested using Tonic Immobility Test. Ocular and carcass evaluations were done. Meat and tibiae were analyzed for fat and bone ash respectively. On 35 d, the highest BW (2,155.72±176 g), WG (1,967.78±174 g) were recorded by T2 compared to WT (BW WT = 1,878.22±155, WG WT = 1,691.83±160). But, application of RL, either DI, or HI during early/latter stage had no significant effect on FCR. Under HI, birds showed much higher active behaviours. DI encourages eating. Though LI changed from DI to HI, same trend could be seen even under HI. The highest leg strength (218.5±120 s) was recorded by T2. The lowest leg strength (64.58±33 s) and the highest ocular weight (2.48±1 g) were recorded by T1. Significantly (plighting regimen for optimizing production, better welfare of broilers and improving health benefits of meat.

  19. Effect of Essential Oils of Peppermint, Lemon, Thyme and Ajwain on Performance, Blood Metabolites and Hepatic lipogenic Gene Expression of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Samadian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction Essential oils (EOs are important aromatic components of herbs and spices which are complex mixtures of secondary plant metabolites consisting of low-boiling-phenylpropenes and terpenes. Their biological activities have been known and utilized since ancient times in perfumery, food preservation, flavoring, and medicine. Some of their biological activities include antibacterial, antifungal, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters has stimulated the search for alternative feed supplements in animal production. EOs have received attention in recent years as potential ‘natural’ alternatives for replacing antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs in animal diets due to their positive impact on growth performance and welfare. A number of studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of EOs on broiler performance rather than the physiological effects, but the results have not been consistent (or constant. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of four essential oils (Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita, Citrus lemon, Carum copticom on growth performance, some of the serum biochemistry parameters and lipogenic gene expression in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods A total of 312, 1-day-old broiler chicks were allocated in completely randomized design to 13 groups with 6 replicate cages per treatment. After 2-day adjustment with the basal diet, the birds were randomly assigned to the corresponding experimental diets supplemented with 0 (Control, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg diet essential oils extracted from Crum capticum, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita and Cirtus lemon. The basal diet composed of maize–soybean meal prepared in our laboratory and all birds had free access to water for the entire period. Food intake and BW were recorded to determine growth performance and feed: gain ratio. At the end of the experiment (42 day blood samples (6 samples per treatment

  20. Effects of Wine by-Products on Growth Performance, Complete Blood Count and Total Antioxidant Status in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Pascariu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the effect of whole grape pomace (GP, grape seed (GS and grape pomace polyphenolic extract (GPEP on growth performance, total antioxidant status (TAS and complete blood count (CBC of 40-day-old chicks (hybrid Cobb 500. A total of 432 unsexed one-day-old chicks were divided into six groups: control (CON and five experimental groups, 10 g/kg GP, 20 g/kg GP, 5 g/kg GS, 10 g/kg GS and 15 mL/L GPEP. The results showed a higher increase in growing rate in 5 g/kg GS group, from the first week of the chicks’ life throughout their growth, the average body weight of the chicks being significantly higher (p0.05 at 40 days of age. As a conclusion, the amount of 5 g/kg seeds, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg pomace, can be added to the diet of the broilers, the dose of 5 g/kg seeds in the diet offering advantages in growing rate and feed valorization in weight gain.

  1. Effect of different levels of copper nanoparticles and copper sulphate on performance, metabolism and blood biochemical profiles in broiler chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skot, Abdullah Talal Abdullah; Vadalasetty, Krishna Prasad; Lukasiewicz, M.

    2018-01-01

    the final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio in relation to the control group. Conversely, the provision of Cu in the drinking water had less of an effect on growth performance in comparison with the injected groups. A significant improvement was shown in energy and nitrogen......A study was conducted to investigate the influence of copper administration in ovo to chicken embryos and/or supplied in drinking water to growing chickens in the form copper nanoparticles (Cu-NP) or copper sulphate (CuSO4). The fertilised eggs were assigned to three groups (n = 50 per group......): control (not injected), injected with 50 mg/kg Cu-NP or with 50 mg/kg CuSO4 at day 1 of incubation. Thereafter, 126 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to seven post-hatched groups: control not injected and not provided with Cu in the drinking water, injected with 50 mg/kg Cu-NP + 20 mg...

  2. Soy-Milk Waste with Soybean Meal Dietary Substitution: Effects on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Dono

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty male broiler chickens was used to investigate the effects of dietary soybean meal (SBM with soy-milk waste (SMW substitution using growth performance, protein-energy efficiency ratio, and physical meat quality as response criteria. The birds were given control diet (SMW-0, or a control diets with 5% (SMW-1, 10% (SMW-2, and 15% (SMW-3 soy-milk waste substitutions. Each treatment was replicate 3 times, with 5 birds per replication. The obtained data were subjected to Oneway arrangement of ANOVA, and continued subsequently with Duncan’s new Multiple Range Test. Results showed that substituting SBM with SMW did not influence protein and energy consumption, as well as feed consumption and energy efficiency ratio. However, dietary substitution with 10% SMW improved (P<0.05 protein efficiency ratio, body weight gain, and slaughter weight, resulting in lower (P<0.05 feed conversion ratio. The meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness values did not influence by 5-15% SMW substitution.

  3. Effect of electron irradiation in hatching eggs experimentally inoculated with salmonella enteriditis, on hatch ability and broiler performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda S, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of four doses of electrons irradaition on bacteriologic population in hatching egg following experimental shell contamination with Salmonella enteriditis phage type 13 was investigated. Fresh, whole, intact raw eggs were inoculated with 10 9 Colony-Forming Units of Salmonella enteriditis, eggs were irradiated with a beam electron source at either: 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 KGy. The bacteriologic evaluation was made with Gentry's and Williams' technic. After the irradiation the groups were taken to commercial hatchery and were incubated in satndards conditions. The bacteriologic evaluation of the shell showed a significant 2.8 log reduction on the group of eggs that were irradiated with 1 KGy as compared with 0.5 KGy doses group and control group (P<0.05). A negative correlation (r=-0.93) between irradiation doses and CFU (P<0.05) was also observed. Bacteriologic evaluation of the internal shell membrane exhibited a highly significant inactivation (P<0.01) of S. enteriditis of 100% in the group of eggs irradiated at 2 and 3 kGy. A high negative correlation (r=-0.90) between irradiation doses and samples of internal structures (P<0.05) was observed. The results obtained suggested that the electrons irradiation may be use like a control system of salmonelosis on egg and like desinfection system on hatching eggs because it did not cause any effect on hatchability and broiler performance. (Author)

  4. The Effect of Olive Cake, with or Without Enzymes Supplementation, on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Lymphoid Organs and Lipid Metabolism of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Al-Harthi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of using olive cake (OC in broiler diets, when it is supplemented with multi-enzymes or phytase enzyme. The OC was included in isocaloric, isonitorgneous diets at 5 and 10% levels and fed to broilers from 1-28 days of age. Experimental diets were fed with or without either of the two enzymes: galzym or phytase. This resulted in 3 OC levels (0, 5, 10% × 3 enzyme supplementations (no enzyme, galzym enzyme, phytase enzyme. This included nine treatments, and each treatment was replicated eight times with seven broiler chickens each. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio, body weight gain, survival rate, dressing, inner and immune organ´s weights (compared to live body weight; and blood lipids constituents were investigated. According to the findings in this study, it could be concluded that OC is a valuable ingredient and might be included in the broiler diet up to 10% without galzym or phytase enzyme addition. Also, further studies should investigate the possibility of using higher ratios of it or mixed with another by-product in poultry diets; as a very cheap by-product. Moreover, these studies can be associated with suitable additives at different concentrations that might help to increase the utilization of olive cake or at least to keep performance equal to the control. On the other hand, it is worthwhile to follow the positive effect of phytase enzyme on cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL concentrations, which may relate it´s use with chicken´s health.

  5. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  6. Effects of ground thyme and probiotic supplements in diets on broiler performance, blood biochemistry and immunological response to sheep red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed A. Hosseini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to study the effects of the aromatic plant thyme, a commercial probiotic (Protexin and avilamycin on broiler performance, blood biochemical parameters and also the antibody response to sheep red blood cells. A total of 750 broilers were assigned into five replicate groups for each of five dietary treatments, namely; control (C, 2.5 mg/kg avilamycin (AB, 0.1 g/kg commercial probiotic (P, 5 g/kg ground thyme (T1, and 7.5 g/kg ground thyme (T2. In general, body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments compared to the control birds (P>0.05. Birds fed the P supplemented treatment had the greatest serum protein levels (P<0.001 and highest albumin levels (P<0.001 when compared with control birds, while the birds fed T2 had the lowest (P<0.001. Dietary supplementation reduced (P<0.001 cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum of broilers, with the effect were more noticeable by P supplements. Moreover, blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations were higher (P<0.001 in birds fed the P-supplemented diet compared to the birds fed the control diets. This study suggests that probiotic supplementation in particular, and to an intermediate extent ground thyme supplementation in diets of broiler, resulted in chicks with favorably improved blood biochemical parameters and mineral utilization, compared to the birds fed diets supplemented with avilamycin or without any supplementation.

  7. Ayam Pedaging Jantan yang Dipelihara di Dataran Tinggi Sulawesi Selatan Produktivitasnya Lebih Tinggi (HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE OF MALE BROILERS REARED IN THE HIGHLANDOF SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Syamsuryadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Study to determine the correlation between husbandry environment and sex to the performance, hematological characteristics, and meat quality of broilers have been conducted. Two hundred and eighty eight female and male Cobb broilers, were kept in cage where eight broilers with the same sex in each pen. A completely randomized experimental design with a 3x2 factorial arrangement (three different altitudes x two sexes with three replicates was applied. The three different altitudes included 50 m, 300 m, and 500 m above sea level, respectively. The results showed that differences in maintenance altitude and sex significantly influenced (P0.01 the animal srectal temperature, feed conversion, and meat chemical and organoleptic. It is concluded that better productivity can be achieved when male broilers are reared in a high altitude environment. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji hubungan lingkungan pemeliharaan dan jenis kelamin ayam pedaging terhadap performans, karakteristik hematologi, dan kualitas daging. Sebanyak 288 ekor ayam pedaging strain Cobb, berjenis kelamin jantan dan betina, dipelihara dalam petak kandang dan tiap petak diisi delapan ekor ayam dengan jenis kelamin yang sama. Penelitian disusun berdasarkan Randangan Acak Lengkap (RAL pola faktorial (3x2 dengan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama ialah ketinggian tempat pemeliharaan dengan tiga kategori yaitu: ketinggian (50 mdpl, ketinggian (300 mdpl, dan ketinggian (500 mdpl sedangkan faktor kedua ialah jenis kelamin jantan dan betina. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan ketinggian tempat pemeliharaan dan jenis kelamin nyata memengaruhi (P0.01 suhu rektal, konversi pakan, kimia daging dan organoleptik. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan performans yang lebih baik dapat dicapai apabila ayam pedaging dipelihara pada dataran tinggi dengan jenis kelamin jantan.

  8. Effects of Bacillus coagulans supplementation on the growth performance and gut health of broiler chickens with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Shao, Yujing; Song, Bochen; Zhen, Wenrui; Wang, Zhong; Guo, Yuming; Shahid, Muhammad Suhaib; Nie, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The poultry industry is in need of effective antibiotic alternatives to control outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens . This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding Bacillus coagulans on the growth performance and gut health of broiler chickens with C. perfringens -induced NE. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two dietary B. coagulans levels (0 or 4 × 10 9  CFU/kg of diet) and two disease challenge statuses (control or NE challenged). NE-induced reduction in body weight gain was relieved by the addition of B. coagulans into broiler diets compared with the NE-infected birds. NE infection damaged intestinal morphological structure, promoted intestinal C. perfringens growth and liver invasion, and enhanced anti- C. perfringens specific sIgA concentrations in the gut and specific IgG levels in serum compared with the uninfected birds. NE infection significantly ( P  coagulans showed a significant ( P  coagulans improved intestinal barrier structure, further increased specific sIgA levels and alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity in the jejunum, enhanced the expression of jejunum lysozyme mRNA, and inhibited the growth, colonization, and invasion of C. perfringens ; in contrast, it reduced serum-specific IgG concentrations and jejunum IFN-γ mRNA levels. These results indicated that dietary B. coagulans supplementation appeared to be effective in preventing the occurrence and reducing the severity of C. perfringens -induced NE in broiler chickens.

  9. Effects of dietary on antioxidant status, lipid profile, immune response and performance characteristics of broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mirzaie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Spirulina has been recognized formerly as a filamentous spiral-shaped blue-green algae but more recently as a genus of photosynthetic bacteria (Arthrospira. This microorganism is considered as a rich source of essential nutrients for human and animals. The present study was conducted to determine potential application of Spirulina for heat-exposed broilers. Methods Two hundred and fifty Cobb 500 chicks with male to female in equal ratio with average initial weight of 615.6 g at 17 days of age were divided into 5 treatments with 5 replicates of 10 chicks. Treatment groups were as follows: positive and negative controls with 0% Spirulina supplement and three Spirulina receiving groups with 5 g/kg (0.5%, 10 g/kg (1%, and 20 g/kg (2% supplementation. Spirulina receiving groups as well as positive control were exposed to high ambient temperature at 36°C for 6 h/d from 38 to 44 days of age. Biochemical variables were measured in serum samples at 35, 38, 42, and 45 days of broiler chickens age. Results The results showed that supplementation of the diet with Spirulina decreased concentration of stress hormone and some serum lipid parameters while enhanced humoral immunity response and elevated antioxidant status whereas it didn’t meaningfully affect performance characteristics. Nevertheless, feed conversion ratio was improved numerically but not statistically in broilers fed with 1% Spirulina under high ambient temperature. Conclusion Overall, the present study suggests that alleviation of adverse impacts due to high ambient temperature at biochemical level including impaired enzymatic antioxidant system, elevated stress hormone and lipid profile can be approached in broiler chickens through supplementation of the diet with Spirulina platensis.

  10. Effects of Satureja khuzistanica essential oils in drinking water on mortality, production performance, water intake, and organ weights in broiler chickens reared under heat stress condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravinia, H

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects on mortality, production performance, water intake (WI), and organ weight of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SkEO) using 720 1-day-old Arian broiler chicks in a 42-day trial. Experimental treatments were addition of 0 (control(-)), 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO or 500 mg/L polysorbate 80 (control(+)) into drinking water. The birds were kept under natural ambient temperatures 4 to 6 °C above standard recommendation from days 22 to 42 of age. Addition of SkEO into drinking water at 200 and 500 mg/L decreased weight gain (P  0.05). Supplementation of drinking water with 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO resulted in a 0.47, 4.40, 8.60, and 12.93% decrease in WI, respectively, from days 1 to 42 of age. The calculated European broiler index was greater for the birds received 400 mg/L of SkEO in their drinking water compared with that of the other birds (P water for heat-stressed broiler chickens improves economic efficiency possibly by promoting digestion process, creating miniscule improvement in FCR and lowered mortality rate.

  11. Performance characteristics and physiological response of broiler chickens at finisher stage to oral supplementation with fluted pumpkin, Telfairia occidentalis leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi ALABI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance characteristics and physiological response of broiler chickens to oral supplementation with Telfairia occidentalis leaf extract (TOLE at finisher stage were investigated. One hundred and twenty unsexed broilers of Arbor Acre strain at 28-day-old were randomly divided into four treatment groups of oral supplementation each with three replicates. The treatment groups are: T1=Water (control, T2=Vitalyte, T3=15% TOLE, and T4=30% TOLE. The experiment lasted for 70 days, during which data collection was carried out and blood obtained for analysis at the 70th day. Results revealed that average body weight gain, average daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were significantly (P0.05 affected by oral TOLE. Measured blood parameters of the groups on TOLE were significantly (P0.05 by the oral supplementations. Apart from creatinine, uric acid and globulin, other serum metabolites investigated were significantly (P<0.05 affected by TOLE inclusions. No mortality was recorded during the experiment. Oral supplementation of TOLE compared well with conventional vitamin supplement based on measured parameters, 30% supplementation can be used as vitamin supplement in broiler chicken at finisher phase.

  12. The effect of the additive containing Artichoke extract (APC on growth performance, blood cholesterol level, carcass characteristics and immune system of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farang Rouzmehr

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of the additive containing Artichoke premix concentrated (APC on growth performance, serum cholesterol level, carcass characteristics and immune responses of broilers two separate trials were conducted. In the first trial, APC was added at three levels of 0, 100 and 200 gr/ton diet during the first 21 days of growing period. One hundred and fifty unsexed day old broiler chickens of Ross strain were randomly divided in three groups with 5 replicate of 10 chicks in each cage, by a completely randomized design. At the end of each week, the birds were weighed individually and feed conversion ratios calculated. In order to determine serum cholesterol level, at day 21 blood sample was taken from 15 chickens per treatment. At the end of the 42nd day, 5 birds from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered for investigation of carcass characteristics. In the second trial, the effects of APC at 150gr/ton feed were studied on growth parameters and immune function of broiler chickens in a commercial farm. The results showed that application of APC in a level of 200 gr/ton diet significantly increased body weight of chickens at the first (p

  13. Comparative Effects of Nano-Multivitamin Supplementation on Performance, some Blood Parameters and Immune Responses of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sheikh Samani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Feed constitutes 70 to 75 percent of poultry flock costs which vitamins constitute 0.08 % of diet and 2 % of feed costs. Vitamins as a group of complex organic compounds are needed in small amounts for normal metabolism of the body. Researches have shown that vitamins with smaller particles as vitamin supplements, were more effective and showed higher bioavailability. Nano form of supplementation increases the surface area which possibly could increase absorption and thereby utilization of vitamins leading to reduction in the quantity of supplements and through higher bioavailability. Their greater bioavailability shows that nano-particulate vitamin compositions can be given in smaller doses with less amount of that vitamins passing through the body unabsorbed. Most vitamins and other substances that are insoluble in water when formulated as nanoparticles, can be easily solved in water and even can penetrate to the body parts that are impervious to the macro particles. this study was conducted to compare the efficacy of Nano-multivitamin (NMV with common vitamins premix (CVP on performance, some blood parameters and immune responses of broiler chickens to verify the beneficial effects of nano-vitamins in poultry nutrition,. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design for 45 days. A total of 600, 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross strain were randomly assigned to 10 treatments with 5 replicates and 12 chicks each. Mash basal diets were prepared and balanced for energy and all nutrient except vitamins according to the Ross Nutrition manual (2007, for starter (1-10 d, grower (11-24 d and finisher (25-45 d periods. Liquid NMV and Powder pure vitamins were added to diets after dilution with wheat bran to achieve weight of 2.5 kg of each premix for each ton of feed (2.5 kg premix/ton diet = 100% of recommended level. The size of NMV particles were 20-400 (nm and the manufacturer's recommendations

  14. Effects of in ovo supplementation of probiotics on performance and immunocompetence of broiler chicks to an Eimeria challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, C M; Kim, S; Potter, T D; Ritzi, M M; Young, M; Dalloul, R A

    2016-11-30

    Coccidiosis is regarded as the parasitic disease with the greatest economic impact on the poultry industry due to reduced performance and increased mortality. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo administration of probiotics on hatchability, performance, immune organ weights, and lesion scores in broiler chicks during a mixed Eimeria infection. At embryonic day 18, 210 eggs were injected with either sterile water or 1×10 6 cfu probiotic bacteria. On day 3 post-hatch, half of the chicks from each treatment group were challenged with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella. Measurements and tissue samples were taken on day of hatch (DOH) and days 3, 9 and 15. On day 9, 24 birds per treatment were scored for intestinal Eimeria lesions. No differences were seen among groups for hatchability as well as for body weight (BW), BW gain (BWG), or immune organ weights prior to the Eimeria challenge. On day 9, the non-challenged birds with probiotic supplementation had higher BW and BWG than the non-supplemented controls while no differences were seen among the challenged groups. On day 15, probiotic supplemented birds had improved BW compared to the non-supplemented birds as well as increased BWG from day 9 to 15. Bursa weight was not affected by treatment at any time point while spleen weight was greater in supplemented birds on day 15. Birds receiving the probiotic had significantly lower mortality than non-treated birds. Additionally, gross lesion severity was reduced due to probiotic supplementation in all intestinal segments evaluated. These results suggest that in ovo supplementation of probiotics may improve early performance and provide protection against a mixed Eimeria infection.

  15. Influence of drinking water containing Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller gel on growth performance, intestinal microflora, and humoral immune responses of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Shokraneh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The risk of bacteria resistance to specific antibiotics possibly by continuous subtherapeutical administration of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs in poultry feed led to a ban on the use of AGP in poultry production. As a result of this ban, alternative substances for poultry growth promotion and disease prevention are being investigated, among which phytogenic and herbal products have received increased attention as natural additives because they have been accepted by consumers as natural additives. The effect of water supplementation of Aloe vera (AV as an AGP substitute on performance, intestinal microflora, and immune responses of broilers. Materials and Methods: The five experimental treatments were allocated to four replicates. The following treatments were applied (1 a basal broiler diet (C and normal drinking water, (2 0.5% AV gel in drinking water, (3 0.75% AV gel in drinking water, (4 1% AV gel in drinking water, and (5 diet C supplemented with flavophospholipol at 4.5 mg/kg and drinking normal water. Vaccines against influenza disease and sheep red blood cell (SRBC were administrated to immunological stimuli. The populations of Lactobacilli spp. and coliforms were enumerated in ileum. Results: Body weight of broilers supplemented with different levels of AV increased compared with control group (p<0.05. Birds supplemented with antibiotic had the best feed-to-gain ratio (F:G in different periods. Supplementation of 0.5% and 0.75% AV improved F:G entire experimental period compared with control group (p<0.05. Coliform bacteria were reduced in broilers supplemented with different levels of AV or antibiotic (p<0.05. The Lactobacilli spp. population in birds supplemented with 0.75%, 1% AV or antibiotic significantly was higher than other groups (p<0.05. Supplementation with 1% AV led to greater antibody titers against SRBC compared with other groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated a possibility of supplementing

  16. Effects of different levels of dietary crude protein and threonine on performance, humoral immune responses and intestinal morphology of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Abbasi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the effects of different dietary crude protein (CP and threonine (Thr levels on the performance, immune responses and jejunal morphology of broiler chicks. A total of 432 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments including three different CP dietary levels (90, 95, and 100% of Ross 308 recommendations and Thr (100, 110, and 120% of Ross specifications dietary levels. Performance parameters were recorded for the starter (1-12 days, grower (13-24 days and finisher (25-42 days periods. Birds were subjected to different antigen inoculations to evaluate antibody responses. At day 42 of age, two randomly-selected birds per replicate were slaughtered to measure carcass traits. Although Thr dietary supplementation had no marked effect on Newcastle antibody titers, particularly the supplementation of Thr up to 110% of Ross specifications improved (p<0.05 antibody titers against sheep red blood cells during both primary and secondary responses. Reduction of dietary CP level resulted in significant decrease in villus height (p<0.05 and crypt depth (p<0.01 in jejunal epithelial cells, but the supplementation of low-CP diets with Thr up to 110 and 120% of the recommended values allowed overcoming these changes. Except for the starter period, reducing dietary CP level to 90% of Ross recommendations had no harmful effects on performance parameters; however, the best values were obtained with diets containing 110% Thr. The present results indicate that it is possible to reduce dietary CP level up to 10% after the starter period without any detrimental impact on growth performance, and dietary Thr supplementation up to 110% of Ross values may compensate for low CP-induced growth delay in broiler chicks.

  17. Effect of wheat cultivar and enzyme addition to broiler chicken diets on nutrient digestibility, performance, and apparent metabolizable energy content.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.; Villamide, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 5,000 one-day-old male broiler chickens were assigned to 8 different treatments in a 4 x 2 factorial design. Four wheat cultivars (Amiro, Guadalupe, Isengrain, and Horzal) and 2 levels (0 or 1 kg/t of feed) of an enzyme cocktail (Avizyme 1300, xylanase, 2,500 U/kg and protease, 800 U/kg)

  18. Effect of copper sulphate supplementation on performance of broiler chickens, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of meat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skřivan, M.; Ševčíková, S.; Tůmová, E.; Skřivanová, V.; Marounek, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 7 (2002), s. 275-280 ISSN 1212-1819 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Grant - others:GA NATO(XX) MO2-99-04 Keywords : broiler * copper sulphate * quality of meat Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.187, year: 2002

  19. Impact of technical and economic performance on costs of campylobacter spp. interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. is one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide and human Campylobacter spp. infections can result in severe sequelae. Because broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter spp. infections, it is relevant to control Campylobacter spp.

  20. Evaluation of Broiler Performance when fed insect-protected, control, or commercial varieties of dehulled Soybean Meal1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Hartnell, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the nutritional value of broiler diets containing approximately 35% soybean meal from insect-protected soybean containing Cry1Ac protein, or from a similar nontransgenic control, or from 7 reference commercial soybean varieties. The feeding trial lasted 41 d, and each treatment

  1. Dietary supplementation with dimethylglycine affects broiler performance and plasma metabolites depending on dose and dietary fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, I D; Cools, A; Verstegen, M W A; Huyghebaert, G; Buyse, J; Roose, P; Janssens, G P J

    2011-04-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with N,N-dimethylglycine sodium salt (Na-DMG) was evaluated in a feeding trial with 1500 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500). DMG was supplemented at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 or 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed to a ration with either animal fat (chicken fat) or vegetal fat (soy oil) as main fat source. In the vegetal fat diets, production value was significantly linearly improved by supplementation with DMG up to 11%. Irrespective of dietary fat source, abdominal fat percentage was significantly linearly reduced up to 24% and meat yield tended to increase linearly with DMG level up to 4%. In the vegetal fat groups, DMG significantly lowered abdominal fat pad by up to 38% and tended to increase meat yield up to 6% at the highest dose. Fasted non-esterified fatty acid level significantly decreased with increasing DMG level up to 36% and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) decreased with a statistical trend up to 46% at the highest dose. In vegetal fat diets, addition of DMG resulted in significant lower TBARS level by 56% at the highest dose. Finally, a significant quadratic effect on ascites heart index was present in the vegetal fat diets, with a minimal value at 0.5 g Na-DMG/kg. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with DMG may improve technical and slaughter performance, and may reduce oxidative stress and pulmonary hypertension, but the degree of effects is modulated by fatty acid profile of the diet. Herewith, effects are more pronounced in a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with a diet rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Effect of Nutrient Dilution and Glutamine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Small Intestine Morphology and Immune Response of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid gheshlagh olyayee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Glutamine (Gln, a semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acid, is an abundant amino acid in plasma and skeletal muscle. It is the main energy substrate for cells that undergo intense replication, such as enterocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and kidney cells and plays an important role in their function and homeostasis. Apart from providing nitrogen for protein synthesis, Gln is a precursor for nucleic acids, nucleotides, hexose amines, the nitric oxide precursor arginine (Arg, and the major antioxidant-glutathione. It plays a central role in nitrogen transport between tissues, specifically from muscle to gut, kidney, and liver. In addition to its role as a gluconeogenic substrate in the liver, kidney, and intestine, Gln is involved in the renal handling of ammonia, serving as a regulator of acid base homeostasis. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nutrient dilution and L- glutamine (Gln supplementation on growth performance, intestine morphology and immune response of broilers during starter (0 to 10 days, growth (11 to 24 days and finisher (25 to 42 days periods. Materials and methods A total of 320 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to eight treatments with 4 replicates and 10 chicks per each. In this study two levels of nutrient dilution (Ross 308 broiler nutrition recommendation and 5% diluted and 4 levels of Gln supplementation (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% were used in a completely randomized design as factorial arrangement 2×4. Growth performance was measured periodically. In order to investigate jejenual histomorphology such as villus height, depth of crypt, villus height to depth of crypt ratio, villus width, muscle layer thickness and epithelium thickness, on day 42 after 4 h fasting, one bird per each replicate was randomly selected, slaughtered and 1 cm of middle section of jejenum was cut. Cellular immune response was assessed in 40-d-old chick using the in

  3. Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on live performance of broilers under Clostridium perfringens challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 30-day broiler cage trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS from one commercial product (SAF-Mannan on growth parameters, gut health and control pathogen colonization of broilers under Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens challenge. One hundred, 0-day old male Ross 308 broilers were allocated in 4 experimental treatments for 30 days. The four dietary treatments were T1, standard broiler basal diets without any medication as a control (+CONT; T2, basal diets as in T1 plus C. perfringens challenge (-CONT; T3, enramycin 0.1 g/kg of feed plus C. perfringens challenge (ENRA; T4, SAF-Mannan at 0.5 g/kg in starter and finisher diets plus C. perfringens challenge (SAF. Overall, feed conversion ratio (FCR and body weight gain (BWG in treatments ENRA and SAF were significantly better (P<0.01 than the –CONT treatment, whereas treatment +CONT was intermediate and not different from SAF. Feed intake (FI was not influenced by treatment. SAF-Mannan supplementation was able to lower the ileal C. perfringens count as compared to all other treatments (P<0.05. The changes in C. perfringens count appear in parallel to observed improvement in the cumulative FCR.  The results from this study clearly indicated that SAF-Mannan could act as a replacement for antimicrobial growth promoters in broilers (AGPs. SAF-Mannan level of 0.05% was enough to achieve a response competitive with that of the antibiotic.

  4. The influence of the selection of macronutrients coupled with dietary energy density on the performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sonia Y; Chrystal, Peter V; Cowieson, Aaron J; Truong, Ha H; Moss, Amy F; Selle, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    A total of 360 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a feeding study to assess the influence of macronutrients and energy density on feed intakes from 10 to 31 days post-hatch. The study comprised ten dietary treatments from five dietary combinations and two feeding approaches: sequential and choice feeding. The study included eight experimental diets and each dietary combination was made from three experimental diets. Choice fed birds selected between three diets in separate feed trays at the same time; whereas the three diets were offered to sequentially fed birds on an alternate basis during the experimental period. There were no differences between starch and protein intakes between choice and sequentially fed birds (P > 0.05) when broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch, protein and lipid concentrations. When broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch and protein but similar lipid concentrations, both sequentially and choice fed birds selected similar ratios of starch and protein intake (P > 0.05). However, when broiler chickens selected from diets with different protein and lipid but similar starch concentrations, choice fed birds had higher lipid intake (129 versus 118 g/bird, P = 0.027) and selected diets with lower protein concentrations (258 versus 281 g/kg, P = 0.042) than birds offered sequential diet options. Choice fed birds had greater intakes of the high energy diet (1471 g/bird, P macronutrients from 10-31 days in choice and sequential feeding groups were plotted and compared with the null path if broiler chickens selected equal amounts of the three diets in the combination. Regardless of feeding regimen, the intake paths of starch and protein are very close to the null path; however, lipid and protein intake paths in choice fed birds are father from the null path than sequentially fed birds.

  5. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in different stages on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z Y; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Jiang, Y; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of basal dietary supplementation with 500 mg/kg alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in different stages in broiler chickens. A total of 240 Arbor Acre chickens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups, each treatment containing 6 replicates of 10 chickens each. Group 1 was the control group without LA supplementation; Group 2 was supplied with LA in the starter period; Group 3 was supplied with LA in the grower period; and Group 4 was supplied with LA in the whole period. The results showed that LA supplementation improved average feed intake and body weight gain in all three experimental groups, especially in Group 2. LA supplementation significantly decreased abdominal fat yield in Groups 3 and 4. LA supplementation all improved hepatic total antioxidant capacity, the level of glutathione, the activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase, in particular in Group 4. LA supplementation decreased the activity of liver xanthine oxidase (XO) in all experimental groups, and that of liver monoamine oxidase in Group 3. The activities of liver CAT and XO in Group 2 were higher than that in Group 3. LA supplementation elevated the pH24 h and decreased drip loss in breast meat in Groups 3 and 4. In conclusion, LA supplementation can improve growth performance, antioxidant properties and meat quality in broiler chicken. LA supplementation in the starter period can improve growth performance and supplementation in the grower - and in the whole period can improve carcass characteristics. There was no significant difference in meat quality of broiler chickens fed on LA-supplemented diet in different stages.

  6. Effects of different limestone particle sizes in the diet of broiler breeders post molting on their performance, egg quality, incubation results, and pre-starter performance of their progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, I J M; Surek, D; Rocha, C; Schramm, V G; Muramatsu, K; Dahlke, F; Maiorka, A

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse limestone diet improves productivity, reproductive performance and the calcium utilization of molted broiler breeders. In total, 640 broiler breeder females, 73-week-old and sixty-four 27-week-old cockerels, Cobb 500, were evaluated during 10 weeks, according to a randomized block design composed of 4 treatments with 8 replicates each. Treatments consisted of diets with the inclusion of 100% fine limestone-fine PS (0.2 mm GMD-geometric mean diameter); PS1: 30% fine limestone+70% limestone with 1.0 mm GMD; PS2: 30% fine limestone+70% limestone with 2.0 mm GMD; and PS3: 30% fine limestone+70% limestone with 3.0 mm GMD. Calcium retention in the gizzard of the breeders, bone characteristics, and breeder performance, egg characteristics, eggshell quality, incubation performance, chick quality and yield, chick pre-starter live performance, and chick bone characteristics were determined. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the rate of lay, percentage of non-settable eggs, egg weight, egg shape index, egg specific gravity, eggshell weight, thickness, and percentage hatchability and egg weight loss of broiler breeders fed with diets with different limestone particle sizes. The chick quality and yield, chick pre-starter live performance, and chick bone characteristics were not affected (P>0.05) by any of the limestone particle sizes. It was concluded that live and reproductive performance parameters of broiler breeders post molting is not affected by limestone particle size in the feed. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) on caecum microbioma and productive performance in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    De Cesare, Alessandra; Sirri, Federico; Manfreda, Gerardo; Moniaci, Paola; Giardini, Alberto; Zampiga, Marco; Meluzzi, Adele

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) (LA) on productive performances, incidence of foot pad dermatitis and caecum microbioma in broiler chickens. A total of 1,100 one-day old male Ross 308 chicks were divided into 2 groups of 16 replicates with 25 birds each and reared from 1-41 d. One group was fed a basal diet (CON) and the other group the same diet supplemented with LA. Caecum contents were collected from 4 selecte...

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation with a chlorella by-product on the growth performance, immune response, intestinal microflora and intestinal mucosal morphology in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H K; Park, S B; Kim, C H

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of different dietary levels of a Chlorella by-product (CBP) on the growth performance, immune response, intestinal microflora and intestinal mucosal morphology of broilers. In total, 480 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments with four replicated pens consisting of 30 chicks. The basal diet was formulated to be adequate in energy and nutrients. Three additional diets were prepared by supplementing 25, 50 or 75 g/kg of CBP to the basal diet. The diets were fed to the broilers ad libitum for 35 days. Result indicated that increasing inclusion level of CBP improved BW gain (linear, p < 0.05). There was no effect of inclusion level of CBP in diets on total cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels during the 35 days. Plasma IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations increased (linear, p < 0.05) with inclusion level of CBP in diets. Supplementation of CBP in the diets increased (linear, p < 0.05) the concentrations of Lactobacillus in the caecal content and decreased (linear, p < 0.05) the concentrations of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in the caecal content. Villus height increased (linear and quadratic, p < 0.05) with inclusion level of CBP in diets. Crypt depth increased (quadratic, p < 0.05) with inclusion level of CBP, and a decreased villus height: crypt depth ratio (quadratic, p < 0.05) was observed as inclusion level of CBP in diets increased. The results of the current experiment indicate that dietary supplementation of CBP improves growth performance of birds. Dietary CBP has improving Lactobacillus spp. concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract, plasma immunoglobulin concentrations and intestinal mucosal morphology. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation with turmeric rhizome extract on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability, and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfa Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of turmeric rhizome extract (TRE on performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens. Three hundred, 1-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were brooded together for 2 weeks, then randomly allocated into four treatments with five replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with TRE at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg for 12 weeks. The results revealed that a TRE-supplemented diet had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the body weight, although birds fed a diet with TRE at 100 and 200 mg/kg had higher average daily weight gains and average daily feed as compared to controls from 9 to 12 week (P<0.05. Also, the addition of TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg had a better feed conversion ratio compared to controls from week 9 to 12 (P<0.05. Dietary supplementation with TRE at 300 mg/kg increased the breast muscle weight ratio (P<0.05. Meanwhile, dietary supplementation with TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg reduced the abdominal fat ratio (P<0.05, compared to that of the control group. TRE increased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondiadehhyde concentrations, compared to the control group. Dietary TRE supplementation at 300 mg/kg decreased the drip loss in both breast muscle and thigh muscles, compared with the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, dietary TRE supplementation enhanced antioxidant capability, growth performance, breast muscle weight ratio, and reduced the abdominal fat ratio of Wenchang broiler chickens.

  10. Performance of broilers fed increased levels energy in the pre-starter diet and on subsequent feeding programs having with acidulated soybean soapstock supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate broiler responses to increases in feed energy (2,870, 3,000 and 3,100 kcal ME/kg and the inclusion of Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS when compared to Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO in feeds from placement to 7 days of age. From 7 to 42 days ASS or DSO were included in diets that contained similar energy and nutrient levels. Metabolizable energy values used to formulate the diets for ASS and DSO were 8,351 and 7,701 kcal ME/kg in the first week and 9,314 and 8,559 kcal ME/kg afterwards, respectively. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and were fed to 1,600 one-d-old male broiler chicks randomly placed in 40 floor pens. No differences in performance due to fat source were seen at 7 days. However, the increase in energy levels to 3,100 kcal ME/kg reduced feed intake, whereas feed conversion was improved with energy at 3,000 kcal ME/kg. Live performance, and the yields of carcass and commercial cuts were not affected by the type of fat included in the feeds from 7 to 42 days, except for increased body weight at 21 and 35 days with ASS supplementation. Litter moisture at 7, 21, 35 and 42 days was not affected by any of the factors and there were no residual effects of treatments at 21, 35 and 42 days of age. On the other hand, body weight at 35 days was affected by the interaction of diets fed in the first week with those provided afterwards. The results showed that ME values used for DSO and ASS are adequate and that ASS may be used as fat source in broiler feeds from placement to 42 days of age.

  11. Effects of dietary coarsely ground corn and 3 bedding floor types on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gizzard and proventriculus weight, and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Lin, Y M; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Brake, J

    2017-07-01

    The effects of zero or 50% dietary coarsely ground corn (CC) in pelleted and screened grower and finisher diets on broilers reared on 3 bedding floor types (plastic net [NET], new pine wood shavings litter [NEW], or old pine wood shavings litter [OLD]) on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gizzard and proventriculus weight, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) were studied in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Fine corn was produced with a hammermill (271 μm) and CC with a roller mill (1145 μm). Utilization of CC reduced milling cost by 9.47 cents per MT with similar nutrient content of screened pellets. The 50% CC treatment exhibited improved (P ≤ 0.05) feed intake at 42 d (2.5%) and 49 d (3.0%), and BW (5.4%) and FCR from 28 d (1.4%). Birds on NEW litter exhibited improved (P litter birds exhibited increased (P ≤ 0.05) gizzard weight at 28 d and 49 d and decreased proventriculus weight as compared to NET at 49 days. The 50% CC treatment exhibited decreased (P ≤ 0.05) litter moisture at 35 and 42 d, litter N at 35 and 49 d, and litter pH at 49 days. OLD litter birds exhibited greater (P litter N at 14, 35, and 49 d, as well as litter moisture, pH, and ammonia concentration at 49 days. The 50% CC group also exhibited improved AID of nitrogen (P Broilers fed pelleted and screened diets containing 50% CC exhibited improved live performance and reduced litter moisture while use of NEW litter resulted in a somewhat similar effect, which indicated that consumption of NEW litter also facilitated gastric development and function. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. The effects of increasing levels of dietary garlic bulb on growth performance, systolic blood pressure, hematology, and ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmaghany, Saifali; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Lotfollahian, Houshang; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The effects of dietary garlic bulb were studied separately on hematological parameters, ascites incidence, and growth performance of an ascites susceptible broiler hybrid under both standard temperature conditions ( STC: ) and cold temperature conditions ( CTC: ). A total of 336 one-day-old male broiler chickens were allocated to 4 experimental groups with 4 replicates of 21 birds each under STC. In addition, the same grouping with another 336 birds was used for CTC. Under CTC, the birds were exposed to cold temperatures for induction of ascites. Experimental groups were defined by the inclusion of 0 (control), 5, 10 or 15 g/kg garlic bulbs in the diets under both STC and CTC. Growth performance, systolic blood pressure (as a measure of systemic arterial blood pressure), physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as ascites indices (right ventricle [ RV: ], total ventricle [ TV: ] weights, and RV/TV: ) were evaluated. Systolic blood pressure was determined using an indirect method with a sphygmomanometer, a pediatric cuff, and a Doppler device. The final body weight decreased quadratically (P = 0.003), with increasing garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. The feed conversion ratio showed no significant differences among all groups under both STC and CTC. No significant differences were observed in total mortality and ascites-related mortality in all groups under STC, although total mortality (L: P = 0.01; Q: P = 0.001) and ascites-related mortality (L: P = 0.007; Q: P = 0.001) were significantly different among the diets under CTC. Under STC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, RV, TV, and RV/TV did not vary significantly among the diets. However, red blood cell count and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased linearly (P garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. Under CTC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased (P garlic levels. It is

  13. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing event DP-3O5423-1, nontransgenic near-isoline control, or commercial reference soybean meal, hulls, and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Smith, B; Rice, D; Hinds, M; Sanders, C; Layton, R; Lamb, I; Delaney, B

    2008-12-01

    DP-3Ø5423-1 (305423) is a genetically modified soybean that was produced by biolistic insertion of the gm-fad2-1 gene fragment and gm-hra genes into the germline of soybean seeds. Expression of gm-fad2-1 results in greater concentrations of oleic acid (18:1) by suppressing expression of the endogenous FAD2-1 gene, which encodes an n-6 fatty acid desaturase enzyme that catalyzes desaturation of 18:1 to linoleic acid (18:2). The GM-HRA protein expressed by the gm-hra gene is a modified version of the soybean acetolactate synthase enzyme that is used as a selectable marker during transformation. A 42-d feeding trial was conducted with broiler chickens to compare the nutritional performance of 305423 soybeans with nontransgenic soybeans. Diets were prepared using processed fractions (meal, hulls, and oil) from 305423 soybean plants. For comparison, additional diets were produced with soybean fractions obtained from a nontransgenic near-isoline (control) and nontransgenic commercial Pioneer brand varieties (93B86, 93B15, and 93M40). Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers (n = 120/group, 50% male and 50% female) in 3 phases. Starter, grower, and finisher diets contained 26.5, 23, and 21.5% soybean meal, respectively. Soybean hulls and oil were added at 1.0 and 0.5%, respectively, across all diets in each phase. No statistically significant differences were observed in growth performance (BW, mortality, feed efficiency), organ yield (liver and kidney), or carcass yield (breast, thigh, leg, wing, and abdominal fat) variables between broilers consuming diets prepared with isolated fractions from 305423 or near-isoline control soybean. Additionally, all performance and carcass variables from control and 305423 soybean treatment groups fell within tolerance intervals constructed for each response variable using data from broilers fed diets prepared with reference soybean fractions. Based on the results from this study, it was concluded that 305423 soybeans were nutritionally

  14. The influence of the selection of macronutrients coupled with dietary energy density on the performance of broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Y Liu

    Full Text Available A total of 360 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a feeding study to assess the influence of macronutrients and energy density on feed intakes from 10 to 31 days post-hatch. The study comprised ten dietary treatments from five dietary combinations and two feeding approaches: sequential and choice feeding. The study included eight experimental diets and each dietary combination was made from three experimental diets. Choice fed birds selected between three diets in separate feed trays at the same time; whereas the three diets were offered to sequentially fed birds on an alternate basis during the experimental period. There were no differences between starch and protein intakes between choice and sequentially fed birds (P > 0.05 when broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch, protein and lipid concentrations. When broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch and protein but similar lipid concentrations, both sequentially and choice fed birds selected similar ratios of starch and protein intake (P > 0.05. However, when broiler chickens selected from diets with different protein and lipid but similar starch concentrations, choice fed birds had higher lipid intake (129 versus 118 g/bird, P = 0.027 and selected diets with lower protein concentrations (258 versus 281 g/kg, P = 0.042 than birds offered sequential diet options. Choice fed birds had greater intakes of the high energy diet (1471 g/bird, P < 0.0001 than low energy (197 g/bird or medium energy diets (663 g/bird whilst broiler chickens were offered diets with different energy densities but high crude protein (300 g/kg or digestible lysine (17.5 g/kg concentrations. Choice fed birds had lower FCR (1.217 versus 1.327 g/g, P < 0.0001 and higher carcass yield (88.1 versus 87.3%, P = 0.012 than sequentially fed birds. This suggests that the dietary balance between protein and energy is essential for optimal feed conversion efficiency. The intake path

  15. The influence of the selection of macronutrients coupled with dietary energy density on the performance of broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrystal, Peter V.; Cowieson, Aaron J.; Truong, Ha H.; Moss, Amy F.; Selle, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 360 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a feeding study to assess the influence of macronutrients and energy density on feed intakes from 10 to 31 days post-hatch. The study comprised ten dietary treatments from five dietary combinations and two feeding approaches: sequential and choice feeding. The study included eight experimental diets and each dietary combination was made from three experimental diets. Choice fed birds selected between three diets in separate feed trays at the same time; whereas the three diets were offered to sequentially fed birds on an alternate basis during the experimental period. There were no differences between starch and protein intakes between choice and sequentially fed birds (P > 0.05) when broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch, protein and lipid concentrations. When broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch and protein but similar lipid concentrations, both sequentially and choice fed birds selected similar ratios of starch and protein intake (P > 0.05). However, when broiler chickens selected from diets with different protein and lipid but similar starch concentrations, choice fed birds had higher lipid intake (129 versus 118 g/bird, P = 0.027) and selected diets with lower protein concentrations (258 versus 281 g/kg, P = 0.042) than birds offered sequential diet options. Choice fed birds had greater intakes of the high energy diet (1471 g/bird, P broiler chickens were offered diets with different energy densities but high crude protein (300 g/kg) or digestible lysine (17.5 g/kg) concentrations. Choice fed birds had lower FCR (1.217 versus 1.327 g/g, P broiler chickens selected equal amounts of the three diets in the combination. Regardless of feeding regimen, the intake paths of starch and protein are very close to the null path; however, lipid and protein intake paths in choice fed birds are father from the null path than sequentially fed birds. PMID:29053729

  16. Sodium butyrate improved performance while modulating the cecal microbiota and regulating the expression of intestinal immune-related genes of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, C; Pedroso, A A; Mallo, J J; Puyalto, M; Kim, W K; Applegate, T J

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) on performance, expression of immune-related genes in the cecal tonsils, and cecal microbiota of broiler chickens when dietary energy and amino acids concentrations were reduced. Day-old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed dietary treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial design (8 pens per treatment) with 3 dietary formulations (control diet; reduction of 2.3% of amino acids and 60 kcal/kg; and reduction of 4.6% of amino acids and 120 kcal/kg) with or without the inclusion of 0.1% of SB. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BW gain), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded until 28 d of age. From 14 to 28 d, there was an interaction of nutrient density by SB (P = 0.003) wherein BW gain of birds fed SB was impaired less by the energy/amino acids reduction than unsupplemented birds. A similar result was obtained from 1 to 28 d (P = 0.004). No interaction (P density by SB was observed for FCR. Nutritional density of the diets and SB modified the structure, composition, and predicted function of the cecal microbiota. The nutritionally reduced diet altered the imputed function performed by the microbiota and the SB supplementation reduced these variations, keeping the microbial function similar to that observed in chickens fed a control diet. The frequency of bacterial species presenting the butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene increased in the microbiota of chickens fed a nutritionally reduced diet without SB supplementation, and was not changed by nutrient density of the diet when supplemented with SB (interaction; P = 0.01). SB modulated the expression of immune related genes in the cecal tonsils; wherein SB upregulated the expression of A20 in broilers fed control diets (P broilers fed nutritionally reduced diets, partially by modulating the cecal microbiota and exerting immune-modulatory effects. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Effects of dietary onion ( extract supplementation on performance, apparent total tract retention of nutrients, blood profile and meat quality of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Aditya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary onion (Allium cepa extract (OE supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract retention (ATTR, blood profile, carcass characteristics and meat quality in broilers. Methods Four hundred male broiler chicks (Ross 308, 3-d old were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments for 28 d feeding trial. Each treatment has five replications with 20 birds each. Four dietary treatments were designated according to the OE supplementation levels (0 as control, 5, 7.5, and 10 g of OE per kg of basal diet respectively. On d 28, a total of 20 birds from each treatment were subjected for ATTR, serum biochemical assay, carcass characteristic and organ weight measurement. Results Overall weight gain of OE 7.5 g/kg group was higher (p = 0.04 than control group. The ATTRs of dietary energy (p<0.01 and ether extract (p = 0.04 linearly increased with increasing levels of dietary OE. However, no difference in ATTR of dry matter and crude protein was evident. Furthermore, serum IgG concentration increased linearly (p<0.01 and quadratically (p = 0.03 with increasing OE supplementation. No differences in carcass dressing weight and amount of abdominal fat by treatments were observed. Also, the weight of organ including immune organ was not different among the treatments. The TBARS values of 10 d stored breast meat decreased linearly (p<0.01 and quadratically (p<0.01 with increasing dietary OE levels. The meat color was also affected, with lower (p<0.01 redness score in meats from OE supplemented groups. This study showed that dietary OE improved broiler weight gain presumably by increasing feed intake and ATTR of both energy and ether extract. The dietary OE increased serum IgG level and meat anti-oxidation capacity. Conclusion This study implies that the recommended level of dietary OE supplementation could be beneficial for improving broiler performance and meat quality.

  18. Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Turmeric (Curcuma longa and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Powders on Performance, Organs Relative Weight and Some Immune System Parameters in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naderi M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 240 Ross 308 day-old male broiler chicks within a completely randomized design were used in this experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of turmeric powder and cinnamon powder on performance and some immune responses of broiler chickens. Dietary treatments were as follow: a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; basal diet + 10 ppm avilamycin; basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg turmeric powder; basal diet + 7.5 g/Kg turmeric powder; basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg cinnamon powder; and basal diet + 7.5 g/Kg cinnamon powder. During the experiment, feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio were measured in the beginning and the end of starter (0-21 d. and grower (22-42 d. periods. On 21 d. of age, two chicks from each replicate were randomly selected and blood samples were taken. Differential enumeration of heterophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were done. Also, antibody titers against IBV, IBD, and NDV vaccines were measured. Addition of 2.5 g/Kg turmeric powder increased body weight gain in the starter period and improved feed conversion ratio in the starter and entire periods of the experiment, when compared to the control (P. Also, inclusion of 10 ppm avilamycin into diet improved feed conversion ratio in the grower and entire periods of the experiment, comparing to the control (P. Inclusion of turmeric powder at 2.5 g/Kg or 7.5 g/Kg and cinnamon powder at 7.5 g/Kg declined the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P. The results of this study showed that turmeric powder at the level of 2.5 g/Kg would be a potential alternative for antibiotic growth promoters. Also, reducing heterophil to lymphocyte ratio by turmeric and cinnamon powders, introduce them as potential stress alleviators in broiler chickens.

  19. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Rajput, Shahid; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Mohamed Khalil, Mahmoud; Gao, Xin; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng

    2017-11-15

    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B₁-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB₁ in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB₁ contaminated corn (AFB₁); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB₁ + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB₁ + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB₁ alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB₁ significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB₁ contaminated diet reduced AFB₁ residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB₁ negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB₁ in broiler chickens.

  20. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB1 in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB1 contaminated corn (AFB1); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB1 (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB1 + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB1 (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB1 + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB1 alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB1 significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB1 contaminated diet reduced AFB1 residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB1 negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB1 in broiler chickens. PMID:29140290

  1. Influence of drinking water containing Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel on growth performance, intestinal microflora, and humoral immune responses of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokraneh, Meisam; Ghalamkari, Gholamreza; Toghyani, Majid; Landy, Nasir

    2016-11-01

    The risk of bacteria resistance to specific antibiotics possibly by continuous subtherapeutical administration of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in poultry feed led to a ban on the use of AGP in poultry production. As a result of this ban, alternative substances for poultry growth promotion and disease prevention are being investigated, among which phytogenic and herbal products have received increased attention as natural additives because they have been accepted by consumers as natural additives. The effect of water supplementation of Aloe vera (AV) as an AGP substitute on performance, intestinal microflora, and immune responses of broilers. The five experimental treatments were allocated to four replicates. The following treatments were applied (1) a basal broiler diet (C) and normal drinking water, (2) 0.5% AV gel in drinking water, (3) 0.75% AV gel in drinking water, (4) 1% AV gel in drinking water, and (5) diet C supplemented with flavophospholipol at 4.5 mg/kg and drinking normal water. Vaccines against influenza disease and sheep red blood cell (SRBC) were administrated to immunological stimuli. The populations of Lactobacilli spp. and coliforms were enumerated in ileum. Body weight of broilers supplemented with different levels of AV increased compared with control group (pantibiotic had the best feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) in different periods. Supplementation of 0.5% and 0.75% AV improved F: G entire experimental period compared with control group (pantibiotic (pantibiotic significantly was higher than other groups (pwater with 1% AV gel as an alternative for AGP substitution.

  2. Effects of in ovo feeding of creatine pyruvate on the hatchability, growth performance and energy status in embryos and broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M M; Gao, T; Zhang, L; Li, J L; Lv, P A; Yu, L L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2017-10-01

    The effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on the hatchability, growth performance and energy status of embryos and broilers (Arbor Acres) were investigated. Five treatments were arranged as non-injected treatment (Control), 0.6 ml physiological saline (0.75%) injected treatment (Saline), and IOF treatments injected with 0.6 ml physiological saline (0.75%) containing 3, 6 or 12 mg CrPyr (CrPyr3, CrPyr6 or CrPyr12) into the amnion per fertile egg on day 17.5 of incubation. After hatching, 80 male chicks from each treatment with similar weight close to the average BW of their pooled group were selected and randomly assigned into eight replicates of 10 chicks each. The results showed that the hatchability was not affected among groups, whereas the hatching weight of broilers in CrPyr12 was significantly higher than the control and saline groups (P0.05). Irrespective of dosage, the concentrations of creatine and phosphocreatine, and activities of creatine kinase in embryos were enhanced in CrPyr treatments at 19 E when compared with the control and saline groups (P<0.05). The activities of glucose-6-phosphatase in liver in CrPyr6 and CrPyr12 treatments were higher than the control and saline groups at 19 E (P<0.05). In conclusion, these results indicated that IOF of CrPyr, especially at the level of 12 mg/egg, could improve energy status of embryos and hatchlings, which was useful for enhancing hatching weight, BW and pectoral muscle weight until the end of the experiments at 21 days post-hatch in broilers.

  3. Performance and meat quality characteristics of broilers fed fermented mixture of grated cassava roots and palm kernel cake as replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwukaelo, A K; Aladi, N O; Okeudo, N J; Obikaonu, H O; Ogbuewu, I P; Okoli, I C

    2018-03-01

    Performance and meat quality characteristics of broilers fed fermented mixture of grated cassava roots and palm kernel cake (FCP-mix) as a replacement for maize were studied. One hundred and eighty (180), 7-day-old broiler chickens were divided into six groups of 30 birds, and each group replicated thrice. Six experimental diets were formulated for both starter and finisher stages with diets 1 and 6 as controls. Diet 1 contained maize whereas diet 6 contained a 1:1 mixture of cassava root meal (CRM) and palm kernel cake (PKC). In diets 2, 3, 4, and 5, the FCP-mix replaced maize at the rate of 25, 50, 75, and 100%, respectively. Each group was assigned to one experimental diet in a completely randomized design. The proximate compositions of the diets were evaluated. Live weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass weight, and sensory attributes of the meats were obtained from each replicate and data obtained was analyzed statistically. The results showed that live weight, average daily weight gain (ADWG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and FCR of birds on treatment diets were better than those on the control diets (Diets 1 and 6). The feed cost per kilogram weight gained decreased with inclusion levels of FCP-mix. Birds on diet 1 recorded significantly (p  0.05) affected by the inclusion of FCP-mix in the diets. FCP-mix is a suitable substitute for maize in broiler diet at a replacement level of up to 100% for best live weight, carcass weight yield, and meat quality.

  4. Effects on health, performance, and tissue residues of the ionophore antibiotic salinomycin in finishing broilers (21 to 38 d).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Aguillón, Yandy; Cortés, Amparo

    2018-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding salinomycin at the recommended prophylactic level, and at 2 and 3 times this level, to finishing male broilers (d 21 to 38). Four treatment groups were given the experimental diets containing 0, 60, 120, or 180 parts per million (ppm) salinomycin from d 21 to 38. Performance, relative organ weights, selected serum enzymes, and salinomycin residues in liver, muscle, and serum were determined. Salinomycin supplementation had no effect on body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion, and caused no overt signs of toxicity. After a week of being fed the salinomycin diets, the serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase was significantly increased in chickens fed 180 ppm compared with controls. These birds also showed microscopic lesions in breast and thigh muscles, but not in cardiac muscle. Salinomycin residues were not detected by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in liver or muscle samples from the birds fed 0, 60, or 120 ppm salinomycin. However, chickens fed 180 ppm salinomycin had detectable levels in liver and muscle above the maximum residue level of 5 μg/kg established by the European Union. All birds fed salinomycin had salinomycin in their sera with levels ranging from N.D. (not detected) in the controls to 24.4 ± 7.9, 61.4 ± 18.9, and 94.5 ± 9.1 μg/L for salinomycin dietary levels of 60, 120, and 180 ppm, respectively. Serum salinomycin concentration was linearly related with salinomycin content in feed (y = 0.584x - 10, r2 = 0.999). The results showed that even at 3 times the prophylactic level, salinomycin does not induce clinical toxicosis or mortality. No salinomycin residues were found in edible tissues at the recommended dietary level or at 2 times this level. However, salinomycin was detected in serum regardless of the dietary level. A simple method for salinomycin determination in serum is described which can be used as a marker of exposure

  5. Influence of dietary non-phytate phosphorous levels and phytase supplementation on the performance and bone characteristics of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karimi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Precise phosphorus nutrition is important for significant reductions in both P pollution and ration costs. The influence of different levels (% of dietary nPP fed from 0 to 20 d (0.45, 0.40, 0.35, 0.30, 0.25, compared with feeding 0.20 nPP with and without 500 F.T.U. of phytase per kg of diet and from 21 to 36 d of age (0.414, 0.364, 0.314, 0.264, 0.214, compared with 0.164 nPP with and without 500 F.T.U. of phytase per kg of diet were evaluate using a total of 588 day-old commercial broiler chicks. Each treatment was replicated four times in a completely randomized design. Body weight (BW, daily gain (DG, feed intake (DFI, feed conversion ratio, plasma P level and bone characteristics were determined, and from these data the P equivalency of the phytase was estimated. Feeding diets containing less than 0.40% of nPP to birds between 0 and 20d resulted in inferior BW, DFI, plasma P level and bone characteristics compared with the control. However, optimum FCR and mortality was supported at lower levels of nPP (0.25%. Between 21 and 36 d, 0.364% was enough to optimise BW, DFI, and femur ash (%; whilst only 0.314% or greater was needed to support optimum DG, toe and tibia ash and only 0.214 to 0.264% was required to optimise shank, femur and tibia lengths; FCR and survivability. A broken line analysis also showed that the nPP (% requirement ranged from 0.267 to 0.410 and 0.272 to 0.380% during 0 to 20 and 21 to 36 d, respectively. Phytase supplementation improved performance and bone criterion and its P equivalency, depending upon the response of interest and birds age, ranged from 0.00 to 0.110%. In conclusion, the results showed that the combination of a lower level of nPP and phytase may be used to increase dietary P utilization, without severe changes in performance and bone quality.

  6. ESSENTIAL OILS AND NATURAL ZEOLITE INFLUENCE ON PRODUCTION AND HEALTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS, AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION OF CHICKEN MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Brigita Hengl

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils and their components, as a group of phytogenic feed additive, have great potential uses in broiler fattening. Due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and effects on improved food digestibility their positive impact on animals the health status can be expected, and therefore better final fattening results. In this research we studied the impact of XTRACTTM (a combination of essential oils components carvacrol, cinnamaldehid and capsicum Oleoresin), Arom Korm ® (ess...

  7. Live performance of male broilers subjected to constant or increasing air velocities at moderate temperatures with a high dew point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, W A; Lott, B D; Branton, S L

    2005-08-01

    This study examined the effects of varying air velocities vs. a constant air velocity with a cyclic temperature curve of 25-30-25 degrees C and a dew point of 23 degrees C on broilers from 28 to 49 d of age. Four replicate trials were conducted. In each trial, 742 male broilers were randomly allocated to 6 floor pens or 2 air velocity tunnels, with each tunnel consisting of 4 pens. Bird density, feeder, and waterer space were similar across all pens (53 birds/ pen; 0.07 m2/bird). The treatments were control (still air), constant air velocity of 120 m/min, and increasing air velocity (90 m/min from 28 to 35 d, 120 m/min from 36 to 42 d, and 180 m/min from 43 to 49 d). Birds grown in a still air environment gained less weight, consumed less feed, and converted feed less efficiently between 28 and 49 d than birds subjected to moving air (constant or increasing). Growth responses between the air velocity treatments were similar from 28 to 35 and 36 to 42 d of age. Increasing air velocity to 180 m/min improved (P < or = 0.02) the growth rate of broilers from 43 to 49 d of age over birds receiving an air velocity of 120 m/min, but the incidence of mortality was not affected. These results provide evidence that increasing air velocity from 120 to 180 m/min is beneficial to broilers weighing 2.5 kg or greater when exposed to moderate temperatures.

  8. Growth performance, carcass yield and gait score of Marshal broiler chicken reared on intensive and semi intensive management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwadiya, B. O.; Adeyemi, O.A.; Sogunle, O.M.; Obasa O.A.; Ladokun, A.O.

    2017-01-01

    The rearing system used in highly productive farms is often subjected to harsh criticism, one of the reasons being its failure to provide adequate welfare. A number of attempts have been made to introduce new technologies in rearing poultry for meat production aiming at improving rearing conditions, protecting the environment and enhancing the quality of poultry products. Given the above, one hundred and sixty eight unsexed 14-day old Marshall broiler chicks were used in a completely randomiz...

  9. Dietary supplementation with dimethylglycine affects broiler performance and plasma metabolites depending on dose and dietary fatty acid profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, I.D.; Cools, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Huyghebaert, G.; Buyse, J.; Roose, P.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with N,N-dimethylglycine sodium salt (Na-DMG) was evaluated in a feeding trial with 1500 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500). DMG was supplemented at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 or 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed to a ration with either animal fat (chicken fat) or vegetal fat (soy oil)

  10. The impact of biosecurity and partial depopulation on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broiler flocks with differing levels of hygiene and economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Smith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union (EU, and poultry meat is the primary route for transmission to humans. Material and methods: This study examined the impact of partial depopulation (thinning, season, and farm performance (economic, hygiene, and biosecurity on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broilers over a 13-month period. Ten caecal samples were taken per flock, for a total of 211 flocks from 23 farms during the duration of the study. Campylobacter was isolated and enumerated according to modified published ISO methods for veterinary samples. Biosecurity was evaluated through a questionnaire based on risk factors for Campylobacter identified in previous studies. Hygiene compliance was assessed from audit records taken over the course of 1 year. All information relating to biosecurity and hygiene was obtained directly from the processing company. This was done to ensure farmers were unaware they were being monitored for Campylobacter prevalence and prevent changes to their behaviour. Results and discussion: Farms with high performance were found to have significantly lower Campylobacter prevalence at first depopulation compared with low-performance farms across all seasons (P≤0.01. Peak Campylobacter levels were observed during the summer season at first thin in both the high- and low-performance groups. Campylobacter prevalence was found to increase to ≥85% in both high- and low-performance farms across all seasons at final depopulation, suggesting that Campylobacter was introduced during the first depopulation. On low-performance farms, four biosecurity interventions were found to significantly reduce the odds of a flock being Campylobacter positive (physical step-over barrier OR=0.17, house-specific footwear OR=0.13, absence of water body within 0.5 km OR=0.13, two or more broiler houses on a farm OR=0.16, compared with farms without these interventions. For high-performance

  11. The impact of biosecurity and partial depopulation on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broiler flocks with differing levels of hygiene and economic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shaun; Messam, Locksley L McV; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union (EU), and poultry meat is the primary route for transmission to humans. This study examined the impact of partial depopulation (thinning), season, and farm performance (economic, hygiene, and biosecurity) on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broilers over a 13-month period. Ten caecal samples were taken per flock, for a total of 211 flocks from 23 farms during the duration of the study. Campylobacter was isolated and enumerated according to modified published ISO methods for veterinary samples. Biosecurity was evaluated through a questionnaire based on risk factors for Campylobacter identified in previous studies. Hygiene compliance was assessed from audit records taken over the course of 1 year. All information relating to biosecurity and hygiene was obtained directly from the processing company. This was done to ensure farmers were unaware they were being monitored for Campylobacter prevalence and prevent changes to their behaviour. Farms with high performance were found to have significantly lower Campylobacter prevalence at first depopulation compared with low-performance farms across all seasons (P≤0.01). Peak Campylobacter levels were observed during the summer season at first thin in both the high- and low-performance groups. Campylobacter prevalence was found to increase to ≥85% in both high- and low-performance farms across all seasons at final depopulation, suggesting that Campylobacter was introduced during the first depopulation. On low-performance farms, four biosecurity interventions were found to significantly reduce the odds of a flock being Campylobacter positive (physical step-over barrier OR=0.17, house-specific footwear OR=0.13, absence of water body within 0.5 km OR=0.13, two or more broiler houses on a farm OR=0.16), compared with farms without these interventions. For high-performance farms, no single biosecurity intervention was identified as

  12. The performance of broilers on a feed depends on the feed protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds were initially offered one of two feeds with widely different protein to energy ratios until they reached a pre-defined liveweight, after which they were given one of two feed protein contents in Experiment 1 and four in Experiment 2. Their performance was monitored until a second pre-defined liveweight was reached, ...

  13. Performance and oocyst shedding in broiler chickens orally infected with Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Tůmová, E.; Skřivan, M.; Pavlásek, I.; Ledvinka, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 46, - (2002), s. 203-207 ISSN 0005-2086 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/99/0480; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Keywords : chickens * experimental cryptosporidiosis * performance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.151, year: 2002

  14. The performance of broilers on a feed depends on the feed protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    liveweight, after which they were given one of two feed protein contents in ... Their performance was monitored until a second pre-defined liveweight was .... procedure ensured that all feeds contained the same amino acid balance. ... Keeping birds to 2500 g liveweight in cages led to some problems with leg weakness.

  15. Effects of fumonisin B1 and mycotoxin binders on growth performance, tibia characteristics, gut physiology, and stress indicators in broiler chickens raised in different stocking densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Kim, D-H; Keum, M-C; Han, E; An, B-K; Chang, H-H; Choi, Y-H; Moon, B-H; Lee, K-W

    2018-03-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of stocking density, fumonisin B1 (FB), and mycotoxin binder (TB) on growth performance, bone quality, physiological stress indicators, and gut health in broiler chickens. Day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks (n = 1,440/experiment) were randomly allocated to 72 floor pens in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, using 3 stocking densities (12.5 birds/m2 [HSD], 10 birds/m2 [MSD], or 7.5 birds/m2 [LSD]), 2 levels of purified FB (0 or 10 ppm), and 2 levels of TB (0 or 0.2%). Each treatment had 6 replicates (n = 6/treatment) and experiments lasted 34 days. All data were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA with stocking density level, FB, and TB as main factors. Body weight gain and feed intake were lower (P FB-contaminated diet exhibited a higher feed-to-gain ratio compared with those fed an FB-free diet (P FB-contaminated diet compared with the control diet-fed counterparts. Significant interaction (P FB and TB on serum NO levels was noted. In summary, increasing stocking density lowered growth performance and bone quality, but increased the H/L ratio. Dietary TB did not affect FB-induced increases in the feed-to-gain ratio. No interaction was observed between stocking density and FB for the measured variables.

  16. Multiple-enzyme supplementation on digestive traits, carcass characteristics, blood lipid parameters and growth performance of broilers fed a wheat-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Taheri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective A trial was conducted from 11 to 42 d post-hatch to investigate the effectiveness of the supplementation of a multiple-enzyme preparation (Natuzyme Plus in a wheat-based diet on digesta viscosity, pH and microbial population, villus morphology, feed passage time, nutrient retention, carcass characteristics, blood lipid parameters and growth performance of broiler chickens. Methods Three hundreds 10-d-old male Ross 308 chicks were allocated to three diets with five replicates of 20 birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were i a wheat-based diet (W, ii W+Natuzyme Plus (WN; 500 mg/kg of the diet, and iii a corn-based diet (C. Results Birds fed on the C diet had higher average daily gain (ADG, p0.05 difference compared to those of the C diet. Compared to those of the W diet, the WN diet showed the higher count of Lactobacilli and lower count of coliforms (p<0.01 and digesta viscosity (p<0.01. Conclusion In general, the results of this study showed that Natuzyme Plus supplementation in a wheat-based diet can be appropriate to achieve a comparable growth performance in broiler chickens to those given the C diet probably through improving digesta viscosity, VH, ET, TTAR of NT and EE, AMEn, count of Lactobacilli and coliforms.

  17. EFFECT OF AGE AND BODY WEIGHT AT MOLTING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER BREEDER HENS UNDER ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL HOUSES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN M. MALIK, EHSAN-UL-HAQ AND F. AHMAD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 2700 broiler breeder hens of Arbor Acre strain were divided into 27 experimental units (100 each and allotted to nine treatments randomly having three replications each. The birds were kept under uniform managemental conditions throughout the experimental period of 32 weeks post molt period. The birds were molted under conventional method at 50, 55 and 60 weeks of age having three different body weights i.e. 3000, 3500 and 4000 ± 50g under 3x3 factorial design. At the time of 5% production, data on production performance (weekly eggs/hen, hen day production, body weight and feed consumption were recorded. Data collected was analyzed by analysis of variance technique under 3x3 factorial arrangement of treatment and the differences among the treatment means were analyzed by Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Significant (P<0.05 differences due to body weight and age were noted for feed consumption, weekly eggs per hen, hen day production and hen house production. Broiler breeders having low age group (50 weeks and medium body weight (3500g resulted in maximum production performance/net profit.

  18. The Effects of Agave fourcroydes Powder as a Dietary Supplement on Growth Performance, Gut Morphology, Concentration of IgG, and Hematology Parameters in Broiler Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Maidelys; Martínez, Yordan; Ni, Hengjia; Jiang, Hongmei; Valdivié Navarro, Manuel; Wu, Xiaosong; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Rosales, Manuel; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Fang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Agave fourcroydes powder as a dietary supplement on the growth performance, gut morphology, serum concentration of IgG, and the hematology parameters of broiler rabbits. A total of 32 rabbits [New Zealand × Californian] were weaned at 35 days. They were randomly selected for two dietary treatments (eight repetitions per treatment), which consisted of a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% dried-stem powder of A. fourcroydes . On day 60 from the initiation of treatment, gut histomorphology (duodenum and cecum), serum concentration of IgG, and hematology parameters were all measured. The results showed that A. fourcroydes powder supplementation improved ( P < 0.05) the ADFI, ADG, and final BW. Correspondingly, this treatment increased ( P < 0.05) the muscle and mucosa thickness and height and width of villi. However, duodenum crypts depth was lower ( P < 0.05) when rabbits were fed with this natural product, compared with the basal diet treatment. Results also indicated that the A. fourcroydes powder increased ( P < 0.05) the serum concentration of IgG but did not change the hematology parameters. This data indicates that A. fourcroydes powder, as a supplement, had beneficial effects on increasing the growth performance and serum concentration of IgG, as well as improving the gut morphology without affecting the hematology parameters in broiler rabbits.

  19. The Effects of Agave fourcroydes Powder as a Dietary Supplement on Growth Performance, Gut Morphology, Concentration of IgG, and Hematology Parameters in Broiler Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidelys Iser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of Agave fourcroydes powder as a dietary supplement on the growth performance, gut morphology, serum concentration of IgG, and the hematology parameters of broiler rabbits. A total of 32 rabbits [New Zealand × Californian] were weaned at 35 days. They were randomly selected for two dietary treatments (eight repetitions per treatment, which consisted of a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% dried-stem powder of A. fourcroydes. On day 60 from the initiation of treatment, gut histomorphology (duodenum and cecum, serum concentration of IgG, and hematology parameters were all measured. The results showed that A. fourcroydes powder supplementation improved (P<0.05 the ADFI, ADG, and final BW. Correspondingly, this treatment increased (P<0.05 the muscle and mucosa thickness and height and width of villi. However, duodenum crypts depth was lower (P<0.05 when rabbits were fed with this natural product, compared with the basal diet treatment. Results also indicated that the A. fourcroydes powder increased (P<0.05 the serum concentration of IgG but did not change the hematology parameters. This data indicates that A. fourcroydes powder, as a supplement, had beneficial effects on increasing the growth performance and serum concentration of IgG, as well as improving the gut morphology without affecting the hematology parameters in broiler rabbits.

  20. The effect of feeding wheat varieties with different grain pigmentation on growth performance, texture, colour and meat sensory traits of broiler chickens

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    Ondřej Šťastník

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding effect of of three spring wheat genotypes (Vánek, Konini and UC66049 with different grain colour on growth performance, body composition and meat quality parameters of broiler chickens was tested. Ninety chickens were divided into three groups (control, Konini and UC with 30 chickens in each. The tested genotypes were compares with standard variety Vánek (control with common (red grain colour. The two experimental groups received feed mixtures containing 38.2% of wheats with different grain colour: groups Konini (n = 30 and UC (n = 30 with. The third group (n = 30 had 38.2% of common wheat Vánek cultivar (Control group. The live weight of chickens between the experimental groups and control group was not significant different, as well as body composition and chemical analysis of breast and thigh meat of chickens. The feeding of wheat with different grain colour had no effect on performance parameters of broiler chickens. Breast meat tenderness according to the Razor Blade Shear Force was higher in control group against experimental groups. The colour change was not significantly different in all coordinates. pH values (measured after 1-hour post mortem were found significantly higher in the group fattening with Konini wheat than control and UC groups. Chickens meat from the experimental group was characterised by steady overall quality. The effect of various feeding had no effect on meat quality in terms of relevance to consumers.

  1. Dietary sugarcane bagasse and coarse particle size of corn are beneficial to performance and gizzard development in broilers fed normal and high sodium diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheravii, S K; Swick, R A; Choct, M; Wu, Shu-Biao

    2017-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of sugarcane bagasse (SB) and particle size on broiler performance, gizzard development, ileal microflora, litter quality, and bird welfare under a wet litter challenge model. A total of 672 one-day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with corn particle size-coarse 3,576 μm (CC) or fine 1,113 μm (FC) geometric mean diameter, SB - 0 or 2% and sodium (Na) - 0.16 or 0.40% with increased Na level to induce wet litter. A 3-way particle size × Na × SB interaction (P litter quality and bird welfare were observed, but higher Na increased litter moisture and footpad dermatitis (FPD) scores (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that SB independently or in combination with CC improves performance in older birds regardless of Na level in diets, possibly through improved gizzard development and gut microflora of birds. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Dried Distillers Grain with Solubles (DDGS and Yucca (Yucca schidigera on Broiler Performance, Carcass Traits, Intestinal Viscosity and Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Sariozkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of dried distillers’ grain with soluble (DDGS and yucca (Yucca schidigera on broiler performance, intestinal viscosity, carcass traits, and marketing. A total of 360, 21-d-old male broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups as 1: Control (C, corn based diet, without DDGS and yucca (Y supplementation, 2: DDGS (30%, 3: C + Y (120 mg/kg Yucca and 4: DDGS (30% + Y (120 mg/kg with 6 replicates (15 chicks x 6 replicates. The study was performed between 21 to 42 days of age. As a result, there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate (P>0.05. The carcass traits and effects of different marketing type (whole sale or cutting parts on profit were compared. A slight decrease was determined in group 4 in terms of leg quarter ratio to cold carcass weight and carcass yield. Intestinal viscosity, bacterial counts and pH values (in duodenum and ileum were not different among the groups (P>0.05. The lowest production cost was determined in DDGS and DDGS+Y groups (P

  3. Performance of broiler chicks fed on irradiated full-fat soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaa El-Din, M.; Farag, H.; Abd El-Hakeim, N.F.; Ali, S.Y.

    1999-01-01

    A N experiment was conducted to evaluate physiological and biochemical responses of arbor chicks from 7 to 49 days fed on diets containing raw and full-fat soybeans processed at 20 and 50 KGy. The results demonstrate that feeding chicks on raw soybeans significantly depressed growth rate and increased feed intake. A significant thyroid, liver, pancreas and gizzard enlargement were also noticed, in addition a significant reduction was found in total plasma protein and albumin during the experimental period. These responses were not as pronounced as when soybeans irradiated at 20 KGy were fad. Soybeans processed at 50 KGy markedly reduced trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinating agent (71% and 87%, respectively) and resulted in improved chick performance and normalized thyroid, liver, pancreas and gizzard weight and total plasma protein and albumin concentrations. Plasma transaminase activities were similar in all chicks during the experimental period. The improvement in performance of groups fed processed soybeans was the correlated with reduction of trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinating agent. It is concluded that the radiation processing of soybeans up to 50 KGy is sufficiently suitable to have potential in the feed industry without any deleterious effect on chicks' performance as evidenced by the physiological and biochemical responses

  4. PERFORMANCE OF INTEGRATED CONTRACT AND INDEPENDENT BROILER PRODUCTION IN EAST LOMBOK, WEST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of vertical integration and independent poultry producers in East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, during the period July to September 2011. Data was collected from a primary field survey of integrated contract and independent producers. The sample producers were interviewed to collect the required data using a questioner. Supporting data were obtained from the relevant institution, and poultry association. Thirty integrated contract and fourteen independent growers were involved to measure farms performance with references on numerical performance (NP and farmer returns. This study indicates that the NP of integrated contract and independent farms were 315.7 and 317.1, respectively, both was higher than the standard that is 200. Returns for integrated contract farmers were lower than the independent when calculated based on the production cycle when this study was undertaken. Integrated contract farmers were attractive to various types of professions, the graduated people of university or college (43.3% was the most, whilst independent farmers were dominated by senior high school (50% with higher experience which was more than 20 years.

  5. [Lung Abscess with Acute Empyema Which Improved after Performing by Video Assissted Thoracic Surgery( Including Pneumonotomy and Lung Abscess Drainage);Report of a Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabe, Atsushi; Nagamine, Naoji

    2017-05-01

    We herein report the case of a patient demonstrating a lung abscess with acute empyema which improved after performing pnemumonotomy and lung abscess drainage. A 60-year-old male was referred to our hospital to receive treatment for a lung abscess with acute empyema. At surgery, the lung parenchyma was slightly torn with pus leakage. After drainage of lung abscess by enlarging the injured part, curettage in the thoracic cavity and decortication were performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Direct drainage of an abscess into the thoracic cavity is thought to be a choice for the treatment of lung abscesses.

  6. PERFORMANCE OF INTEGRATED CONTRACT AND INDEPENDENT BROILER PRODUCTION IN EAST LOMBOK, WEST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of vertical integration and independentpoultry producers in East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, during the period July to September 2011.Data was collected from a primary field survey of integrated contract and independent producers. Thesample producers were interviewed to collect the required data using a questioner. Supporting data wereobtained from the relevant institution, and poultry association. Thirty integrated contract and fourteenindependent growers were involved to measure farm’s performance with references on numericalperformance (NP and farmer’ returns. This study indicates that the NP of integrated contract andindependent farms were 315.7 and 317.1, respectively, both was higher than the standard that is 200.Returns for integrated contract farmers were lower than the independent when calculated based on theproduction cycle when this study was undertaken. Integrated contract farmers were attractive to varioustypes of professions, the graduated people of university or college (43.3% was the most, whilstindependent farmers were dominated by senior high school (50% with higher experience which wasmore than 20 years.

  7. Efficiency of lung ventilation for people performing wind instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Anna; Famuła, Anna; Kowalczyk, Anna; Plinta, Ryszard

    Wind instruments musicians are particularly prone to excessive respiratory efforts. Prolonged wind instruments performing may lead to changes in respiratory tracts and thus to respiratory muscles overload. It may result in decreasing lung tissue pliability and, as a consequence, in emphysema. Aim of the research has been to describe basic spirometric parameters for wind players and causes of potential changes. Slow and forced spirometry with the use of Micro Lab Viasys (Micro Medical, Great Britain) was conducted on 31 wind musicians (group A). A survey concerning playing time and frequency, weight of instruments, and education on diaphragmatic breathing was conducted. The control group included 34 healthy persons at similar age (group B). The results were statistically described using Excel and Statistica programmes. The respiratory parameters were within the range of physiological norms and forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) exceeded in both groups the values of 100%. Forced vital capacity and expiratory vital capacity (EVC) values were significantly lower in the group of musicians than in the control group (p wind instrument. Spirometric parameters relative to standards may prove a good respiratory capacity. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) and FEV1 may indicate that a proper technique of respiration during performance was acquired. The length of time when performing wind instrument may influence parameters of dynamic spirometry. Med Pr 2016;67(4):427-433. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Inclusion levels of sweet potato root meal in the diet of broilers I. Effect on performance, organ weights, and carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford, R C; Bartlett, J R

    2015-06-01

    The amount of corn available for animal and poultry feed has been unpredictable in recent years due to the increased use of corn for ethanol production. As a consequence, there has been an increase in the price of feed, chicken, and chicken products. Researchers are exploring alternative feed sources to substitute for corn in poultry ration. This study evaluated the performance and carcass quality of broilers fed diets containing sweet potato root meal (SPRM). After a complete nutrient analysis of the SPRM, diets were formulated where 0, 10, 20, and 30% of corn was substituted with SPRM. The study utilized 360 1-d-old Cornish X Rock male broiler chickens randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments; 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% SPRM. Body weights and feed intake (FI) were monitored weekly for 7 wk. Birds were slaughtered on d 50 and FI, BW gain, ADG, ADFI, abdominal fat, dressing percentage, and organ weights measured. White (breast) and dark (leg and thigh) meat were evaluated for nutrient content (protein, moisture, fat, and ash). Results showed birds fed 20% SPRM had lower (Pdressing percentage among treatments. Abdominal fat was highest (PPoultry Science Association.

  9. Effects of genotype and population density on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost-benefits of broiler chickens in north central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Abdulmojeed; Ayoade, John A; Dahiru, Yakubu M

    2010-04-01

    The influence of genotype and stocking densities on growth performance, carcass qualities, and cost-benefits of broilers were examined in a 28-day trial. Two hundred and seven 4-week-old birds each of Anak Titan and Arbor Acre hybrid broiler types were randomly assigned to three stocking density treatments of 8.3, 11.1, and 14.3 birds/m(2) in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Final body weight, average weekly body weight and average weekly feed intake were affected (P Arbor Acres. However, average weekly body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were similar (P > 0.05) in both genetic groups. The effect of placement density on some growth parameters did not follow a linear trend. Arbor Acres had significantly (P 0.05) influenced by genotype and housing density. The economic analysis revealed that higher gross margin was recorded for Arbor Acres compared to Anak Titans (euro 2.76 versus euro 2.19; P 0.05) on profit margin. Genotype x stocking density interaction effect was significant for some of the carcass indices investigated. It is concluded that under sub-humid conditions of a tropical environment, the use of Arbor Acre genetic type as well as a placement density of 14.3 birds/m(2) appeared to be more profitable.

  10. The effect of partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with graded levels of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf meal on growth performances and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, Aberra; Alemu, Temesgen; Banerjee, Sandip; Berihun, Kefyalew

    2016-06-30

    This study was designed to assess the effects of partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performances and carcass components of broiler chickens. The experiment was a completely randomized design consisting of five dietary treatments replicated four times with ten chicks each. The control diet (treatment 1, T1) contained roasted soybean seed as the major protein source without SPLM and treatment diets containing SPLM at the levels of 30 g/kg (treatment 2, T2), 60 g/kg (treatment 3, T3), 90 g/kg (treatment 4, T4) and 120 g/kg (treatment 5, T5) by partially substituting the roasted soybean seed in the control diet. The results indicated that the body weight gain in chickens reared in T1 was (pchickens reared in T1 was (pchickens fed on T1 was (pChickens fed with T2 diet had numerically higher values of slaughter, dressed carcass and breast than those reared in T4 and T5 diets. It can be concluded that the partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with sweet potato leaf might be economically feasible feeding strategy of broiler chickens in smallholder poultry farm settings.

  11. Evaluation of dried vegetables residues for poultry: II. Effects of feeding cabbage leaf residues on broiler performance, ileal digestibility and total tract nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, A F; Baurhoo, B

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacing corn and soybean meal with dried cabbage leaf residues (DCR) on broiler growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and apparent total tract nutrient utilization. Dietary treatments include 4 levels of DCR (0, 3, 6, and 9%). Two hundred and twenty-four day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (8 cage replicates; 7 birds/cage) and grown over a 35-d experimental period. Results showed that feeding DCR had no effects on daily body weigh gain (average 53.4 g/d), daily feed intake (average 94.9 g/d), and feed conversion ratio (average 1.78 g of feed/g of gain). Inclusion of DCR reduced apparent ileal DM (quadratic effect, P digestibility of younger birds (d 21) while incremental levels of DCR had no effect on apparent ileal nutrient digestibilities of older birds (d 35). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP increased (linear effect, P digestibility of older birds and improved apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal as substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Rajat

    2016-05-01

    The study was for assessment of growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed rations with varying levels of Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM) as a substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram. A total of 180, 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six homogeneous groups and fed rations incorporated with TDLM (TDLM at 0% [TDLM-0], 2% [TDLM-2], 4% [TDLM-4], 6% [TDLM-6], 8% [TDLM-8], and 10% [TDLM-10] level as substitute of conventional feed ingredients) for 6 weeks. The chicks were reared in battery brooders for the first 2 weeks, and thereafter, in well-ventilated deep litter house following standard management protocols. Feed and drinking water were provided ad libitum to all the groups throughout the experiment. The daily feed intake and weekly body weight gain were recorded, and a metabolic trial for 3 days was conducted at the end of the 6(th) week. Feed consumption decreased for inclusion of TDLM but without any significant differences, except during the 3(rd) week where it reduced significantly (pbroilers reared under deep litter system of management in Mizoram.

  13. An alternative to antibiotic-based drugs in feed for enhancing performance of broilers grown on Eimeria spp.-infected litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, V G; Gray, C; Daley, M; Krueger, W F; Sefton, A E

    2004-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of lasalocid, an anticoccidial feed additive (90.7 kg/ton); bacitracin, a growth-promoter (50 g/ton); and yeast culture residue (YCR) (1 kg/ton) on the performance of broiler chicks reared to 42 d of age on recycled litter. Recycled litter consisted of pine wood shavings containing droppings from chicks infected with 3 select strains of coccidia (Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria acervulina). Response variables (BW, intestinal tract and litter coliform counts, cecal and liver relative weights, and litter moisture content) were recorded biweekly. Mean BW of chicks fed the diet supplemented with YCR was higher than that of the controls (P litter aged and moisture content increased. The mean intestinal coliform population from YCR-treated chicks was lower (P litter coliform counts increased with increased use of the litter. Cecal and liver relative weights calculated from the chicks in trial 3 showed that only the liver was significantly affected by treatments. YCR appeared to be a viable alternative to bacitracin and lasalocid medication in enhancing growth of broiler chicks reared on recycled litter.

  14. Effects of yeast cell wall on growth performance, immune responses and intestinal short chain fatty acid concentrations of broilers in an experimental necrotic enteritis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Da Xue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE causes devastating economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised free of in-feed antibiotics. Prebiotics are potential alternatives to in-feed antibiotics. Yeast cell wall extract (YCW derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a prebiotic with known immune modulating effects. This study examined the effects of YCW and antibiotics (AB during subclinical NE on broiler growth performance, intestinal lesions, humoral immune response and gut microflora metabolites. The study employed a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were: NE challenge (yes or no and feed additive (control, AB, or YCW. Each treatment was replicated in 8 floor pens with 15 birds per pen. Challenged birds had higher feed conversion ratio (FCR than unchallenged birds on d 35 (P < 0.05. Dietary inclusion of AB decreased FCR regardless of challenge (P < 0.05 on d 24 and 35. Inclusion of YCW reduced serum interleukin-1 (IL-1 concentration in NE challenged birds (P < 0.01 and increased immunoglobulin (Ig G (P < 0.05 and Ig M (P < 0.05 levels compared to other dietary treatments regardless of challenge. Yeast cell wall extract increased formic acid concentration in cecal contents during challenge and increased butyric acid concentration in unchallenged birds on d 16. This study indicates YCW suppressed inflammatory response, promoted generation of immunoglobulin and increased short chain fatty acid production suggesting potential benefits to bird health.

  15. The effects of selenium, zinc and vitamin E supplementation on performance of Broiler Breeder Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zezza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from the literature and practical experiences suggests that nutritional factors are perhaps the most crucial for their direct effects on the reproductive phenomenon. Several studies and reviews (Barnes et al., 1996; Brake and Garlich, 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Donoghue et al., 1995; Donoghue et al., 1997; Froman et al., 1997; Hocking and Bernard, 1997; Holm, 1998 describe the effects of quantitative feed and energy on reproductive performance of farm animals but only recently there was an increasing attention for the effects of micronutrients intake. The aim of the present work was to verify and compare the effects of a supplementation of selenium, zinc and vitamin E on quality of poultry semen, with a particular attention to the selenium, because its beneficial effects on reproduction (Surai, 2002 needs further elucidation. These micronutrients were chosen because play a fundamental role in semen quality, in fact it was known that chicken semen contains the natural antioxidant vitamin E (Surai, 1997; Surai, 2000 together with antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD...

  16. Rape seed glucosinolate: radiation inactivation and physiological performance of broiler fed irradiated rapeseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.Diaa El-Din H.

    1994-01-01

    Rape seeds meal (RSM) is a high quality protein supplement suitable for all classes of livestock. The major area of concern in animal nutrition has been glucosinolates and their derivative products which cause depressed performance in poultry or may be even toxic. Therefore, these substances must be removed or inactivated before the meal can be used as potential protein source for food or feed. I the current study, RSM has been used to test whether gamma radiation processing can inactivate glucosinolates as a step towards detoxication. Samples were exposed to gamma rays of 10, 50, 100 and 250 kGy. Approximated analysis showed that RSM was not affected by irradiation processing up to 250 kGy. However, the crude fiber content decreased at the highest dose while at doses of 10, 50 100 and 250 kGy the available lysine decreased by 6.76%, 9.46%, 17.84% and 22.43%, respectively. Radiation processing at 250 kGy significantly inactivated glucosinolate by 85% from its initial value. In a 8-week chick-feeding study, raw and irradiated RSM were applied at 30%. The diets containing raw and irradiated (at 10, 50 and 100 kGy) RSM had somewhat low growth and thyroid, liver and kidney enlargement compared to the basal control group. No significant difference was observed between chicks fed on RSM irradiated at 250 kGy and those fed on basal diet. No significant differences were observed in the serum protein, albumin, GPT, uric acid, creatine and basal diet groups. Those kept on raw and irradiated at 10, 50 and 100 kGy RSM had higher GOT than those kept on irradiated at 250 kGy RSM and basal diet. Radiation treatment of RSM up to 250 kGy improved its nutritional quality by decreasing the glucosinolate and consequently maintained the chicks in a better health condition. (author)

  17. Effect of adding crushed Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa seeds and Thymus vulgaris mixture to antibiotics-free rations of vaccinated and non-vaccinated male broilers on growth performance, antibody titer and haematological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Z. Athamneh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explores an experimental study conducted to investigate the effect of crushed Pimpinella anisum (PA, Nigella sativa (NS seeds and Thymus vulgaris (TV mixture as a feed additive on growth performance and mortality rate (MR, selected antibodies titer (Ab’s and blood hematological profile of vaccinated and non-vaccinated Lohman male broiler chicks fed free-antibiotics ration. A total of 400 one-day old chicks were distributed into 16 groups (4 treatment x 4 replicates x 25chicks. The experiment lasted from one to 42 days of age. The statistical findings of this experiment prove that the use of medicinal plants mixture improves live body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and MR of vaccinated male broilers at 21 and 42 days of age. antibodies titer against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease of non-vaccinated and vaccinated male broilers were significantly improved at 21 and 42 days as a result of the addition of medicinal plant mixture to the basal ration. Concerning Newcastle disease, the use of PA, NS and TV mixture did not reflect in any additional improvement of Ab's than vaccines did. The addition of medicinal plants mixture increases WBC's, RBC's, thrombocytes count and Hb concentration of vaccinated and non-vaccinated male broilers at 21 days of age. Meanwhile, heterophils, lymphocytes and monocytes of vaccinated male broilers (VMB were significantly improved by adding medicinal plant mixture to their basal diet. Moreover, at 42 days of age the use of PA, NS seeds and TV mixture indicate significant increase in total WBC’s, lymphocytes and monocytes and monocytes count of VMB and non-vaccinated male broiler (NVMB. No significant differences were noticed in RBC’s and Hct as a result of feeding crushed medicinal plants mixture.

  18. The effect of lemon grape and apple pulps on performance, carcass traits, digestive tract characteristic, intestinal morphology and immune status of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kivan Sadighi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iran has good condition in fruit production among all countries in the world. Lemon, grape and apple are fruits that are produced in large scale in our country. For economical use of these fruits, there are different factories which produce fruit juices. Pulps are the main waste that remain after juicing fruits. Pulps contain some nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and secondary substances, also in contrast to common diets ingredients, there are very cheap and using them in diets may reduce the production price. As pulps contain high level of fiber, can be easily used without any adverse effects in ruminant, but in poultry, especially in broilers using higher level of pulps may be not possible. However, using low level of pulps do not have any adverse effects on performance and blood parameters and can improve the meat quality and blood biochemical and immune parameters. Moreover discharge of these wastes to environment can cause serious environmental problems. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of lemon, grape and apple pulps on performance, carcass traits, digestive tract characteristic, intestinal morphology and immune status of broilers. Materials and Methods In this experiment 240 Ross-308 broilers were used in 5 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 chicks in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Experimental groups included: 1 control group (without using pulp, 2 group with 150 mg/kg vitamin E (as positive control group, 3 group with 3% lemon pulp, 4 group with 3% grape pulp, 5 group with 3% apple pulp. Grower diets from 11 to 24 days and finisher diets from 25 to 42 days were used by broilers. In the experimental periods all chickens in experimental groups had free accsess to feed and water. The lighting program included: 23 h light and 1 h darkness in all the experimental period.Feed intake and weight gain were measured at the end of growing and finishing and whole periods. Feed conversion

  19. Effects of Atenolol on Growth Performance, Mortality Due to Ascites, Antioxidant Status and Some Blood Parameters in Broilers under Induced Ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mokhtar fathi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Broiler chickens are intensively selected for productive traits. The management of these highly productive animals must be optimal to allow their full genetic potential to be expressed. If this is not done, inefficient production and several metabolic diseases such as ascites become apparent. Investigations in mammals indicated that the b- adrenoreceptor characteristics are differentially regulated by chronic hypoxia and play an important role in the cardiovascular system. The density of b-adrenergic receptors was higher in cardiac cells of ascites sensitive birds compared with ascites-resistant ones. Moreover, the characteristics of b-adreno receptors are different in cardiac cells of birds with right ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure compared with healthy birds. Treatment with the selective b1-adrenoceptor blocker, atenolol, abolished right ventricular hypertrophy in response to hypoxia compared with normoxic condition in rats. Materials and Methods This study investigated the comparative effects of different levels of atenolol Growth performance, Mortality due to ascites, antioxidant status and blood parameters in broilers under induced ascites. Six hundred one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308 in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments (Positive control, negative control, and two levels of 30 and 60 ppm atenolol with five replicates of thirty birds were applied. Birds in positive control were reared in natural temperature without atenolol, the other bird groups were reared in cold temperature with 0, 30 and 60 ppm atenolol. The average daily feed intake (ADFI, average daily weight gain (ADWG and feed conversion ratio (FCR for each group of birds were calculated and mortality was daily weighed, recorded and used to correct the FCR. Observations were made daily to record the incidence of ascites and mortality. Diagnosis of ascites generally depends on observation of the following symptoms: (1 right

  20. Effect of exogenous xylanase, amylase, and protease as single or combined activities on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broilers fed corn/soy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerah, A M; Romero, L F; Awati, A; Ravindran, V

    2017-04-01

    Two trials (a 42-d performance and a 21-d cohort digestibility) were conducted to evaluate the performance and nutrient digestibility of broilers fed corn diets supplemented with exogenous xylanase, amylase, and protease as single or combined activities. A nutritionally adequate, positive control (PC) diet was formulated. The negative control (NC) diet was formulated to be lower in metabolizable energy (∼86 kcal/kg diet) and digestible amino acids (1 to 2%) compared to PC. The other 4 treatments were based on the NC and they were either supplemented with xylanase (X), amylase (A), protease (P), or a combination of X, A, and P (XAP; to provide 2,000 U of X, 200 U of A, and 4,000 U of P/kg diet). All diets were marginal in AvP and Ca and contained a background of phytase (1,000 FTU/kg). In each trial, male broiler (Ross 308) chicks were allocated to the 5 treatments (10 replicates of 20 birds/pen and 9 replicates of 8 birds/cage for the performance and digestibility trials, respectively). In the digestibility trial, ileal digesta was collected on d21 for the determination of nutrient utilization. Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and means were separated by Tukey's HSD test. Only the XAP improved (P digestibility and apparent ileal digestible energy (AIDE). Both P and XAP improved N retention. The relative improvement in energy digestibility due to enzyme supplementation was greater at the ileal level than that measured in the excreta. The measured changes on AIDE due to supplemental enzymes were much higher than the sum of calculated contributions from starch, fat, and protein. Supplementation of all enzymes reduced (P  0.05) by dietary treatments. Both X and XAP had lower (P  0.05) FCR compared to PC. In conclusion, these results suggest a synergistic effect between X, A and P on broiler performance and nutrient digestibility. In the current study, AIDE measurements appeared to overestimate the enzyme response. Calculation of the energy contribution by

  1. Influence of a direct-fed microbial and xylanase enzyme on the dietary energy uptake efficiency and performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj; Persia, Michael E

    2015-09-01

    Efficacy of a multi-strain direct-fed microbial product (PoultryStar(®) ME; PS) and a xylanase enzyme product on the dietary energy utilization efficiency and resulting performance in broiler chickens was evaluated. Apart from performance parameters, cecal and serum metabolites and activities of hepatic enzymes involved in energy metabolism were also determined. Ross 308 chicks were fed one of four experimental diets [control (CON), CON + PS, CON + xylanase and CON + PS + xylanase] using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement from 1-21 days of age. Cecal proportions of propionate and butyrate, as well as total short-chain fatty acid concentration were increased (P energy uptake and hepatic energy retention. The combination additively increased the FCR, suggesting involvement of synergistic modes of actions. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of Dietary Omega-3 to Omega-6 Ratio on Growth Performance, Immune Response, Carcass Traits and Meat Fatty Acids Profile of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Katcha MI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary n-3 to n-6 ratio on performance, immune response, blood parameters and fatty acids profile of broiler chickens. A total number of 192 one day old broiler chicks were randomly alloctted into 6 groups. Chicks of groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were fed balanced corn-soybean diets containing n-3 to n-6 ratios of 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9 and 1:11, respectively. Different n-3 to n-6 ratioes had no significant effect on growth performance parameters. The best dressing percentage was recorded in group 3 while no significant difference was noticed in the weight of organs except for a significant increase in the weight of gizzard in group 4. There was a variable effect of the n-3 to n-6 ratio on parameters of innate immunity. The highest lymphocyte percentage was detected in group 5. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease (ND and Avian Influenza (AI increased in wider ratio groups. The lowest glucose level was detected in group 4. Though serum albumin and total protein were decreased in group 3, serum globulin increased in groups 2 and 3. The lowest cholesterol content of breast meat was detected in group 3 and the highest content was detected in group 6. The cholesterol content of the thigh recorded opposite results. Narrow dietary n-3 to n-6 groups tended to record higher n-3 PUFAs content especially DHA in breast meat. While wider n-3 to n-6 ratio groups tended to deposit more SFAS, MUFAs and n-6 PUFAs than the narrower ratio groups. The best n-3 to n-6 ratio of breast meat was recorded in group 2 receiving dietary n-3 to n-6 ratio of 1:3. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that the dietary n-3 to n-6 ratio had no significant effect on growth performance of broiler chickens. The best dressing percentage was detected in group with the ratio of 1:5. The ratio of 1:3 recorded the best health state parameters.

  3. Growth performance and gastrointestinal responses of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal diet without or with exogenous epidermal growth factor upon challenge with Eimeria1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Leung, H.; Akhtar, N.; Li, J.; Barta, J. R.; Wang, Y.; Yang, C.; Kiarie, E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a protein known for its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects was fed to broiler chickens to evaluate growth performance, gastrointestinal measurements, and apparent retention (AR) of components upon challenge with Eimeria. A total of 216, d old male broiler chicks (Ross 708) were placed in cages (6 birds/cage) and allocated to treatments. The treatments were: 1) control (Lactotobacilli lactis fermentation supernatant without EGF), 2) 80 μg of EGF/kg BW/d, and 3) 160 μg of EGF/kg BW/d. A basal antibiotic-free corn-soybean diet containing TiO2 was used. Birds were offered fresh feed with respective treatments on daily basis and had free access to drinking water for 14 d. On d 5, birds (6 replicates per treatment) were challenged with 1 mL of E. acervulina and E. maxima mixture via oral gavage and the other 6 replicates were given sham. Growth performance was measured in pre- (d 0 to 5) and post- (d 6 to 14) challenge periods. Two birds per cage were necropsied on d 10 for intestinal lesion scores and tissue samples for histomorphology and expression of select intestinal genes. Excreta samples for AR of components and oocyst shedding were taken d 10 to 13 and all birds were necropsied on d 14 for gastrointestinal weight. The EGF linearly (P Eimeria interaction (P > 0.05) on growth performance, AR of GE, and intestinal histomorphology; the main effects were such that Eimeria depressed (P Eimeria (P Eimeria challenged birds whilst no effect in non-challenged control. In conclusion, Eimeria challenge reduced growth performance and impaired gut function; EGF showed beneficial effects on growth pre-challenge and improved indices of gut function upon Eimeria challenge. PMID:28938785

  4. Growth performance and gastrointestinal responses of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal diet without or with exogenous epidermal growth factor upon challenge with Eimeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E; Leung, H; Akhtar, N; Li, J; Barta, J R; Wang, Y; Yang, C; Kiarie, E

    2017-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a protein known for its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects was fed to broiler chickens to evaluate growth performance, gastrointestinal measurements, and apparent retention (AR) of components upon challenge with Eimeria. A total of 216, d old male broiler chicks (Ross 708) were placed in cages (6 birds/cage) and allocated to treatments. The treatments were: 1) control (Lactotobacilli lactis fermentation supernatant without EGF), 2) 80 μg of EGF/kg BW/d, and 3) 160 μg of EGF/kg BW/d. A basal antibiotic-free corn-soybean diet containing TiO2 was used. Birds were offered fresh feed with respective treatments on daily basis and had free access to drinking water for 14 d. On d 5, birds (6 replicates per treatment) were challenged with 1 mL of E. acervulina and E. maxima mixture via oral gavage and the other 6 replicates were given sham. Growth performance was measured in pre- (d 0 to 5) and post- (d 6 to 14) challenge periods. Two birds per cage were necropsied on d 10 for intestinal lesion scores and tissue samples for histomorphology and expression of select intestinal genes. Excreta samples for AR of components and oocyst shedding were taken d 10 to 13 and all birds were necropsied on d 14 for gastrointestinal weight. The EGF linearly (P Eimeria interaction (P > 0.05) on growth performance, AR of GE, and intestinal histomorphology; the main effects were such that Eimeria depressed (P Eimeria (P Eimeria challenged birds whilst no effect in non-challenged control. In conclusion, Eimeria challenge reduced growth performance and impaired gut function; EGF showed beneficial effects on growth pre-challenge and improved indices of gut function upon Eimeria challenge. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  5. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions. During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70 % (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.

  6. Efficacy of dimethylglycine as a feed additive to improve broiler production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, I.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Vanrompay, D.; Maenner, K.; Zentek, J.; Iben, C.; Leitgeb, R.; Schiavone, A.; Prola, L.; Janssens, G.

    2014-01-01

    Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a naturally occurring glycine derivative, which is useful as additive to broiler diets as it improves nutrient digestibility and reduces the development of broiler ascites syndrome. This study evaluated the efficacy of dietary DMG to enhance performance of broiler chickens.

  7. Effect of Bedding Material on Dust and Ammonia Emission from Broiler Houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harn, van J.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Mosquera Losada, J.; Riel, van J.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia emission, Bedding material, Broilers, Dust emission The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different bedding materials on fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5) and ammonia emissions from broiler houses. The effects on broiler performance and footpad lesions were also studied. The

  8. Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, G.L.; Blankenship, W.J.; Burdine, J.A. Jr.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    At present no simple statement can be made relative to the role of radionuclidic lung studies in the pediatric population. It is safe to assume that they will be used with increasing frequency for research and clinical applications because of their sensitivity and ready applicability to the pediatric patient. Methods comparable to those used in adults can be used in children older than 4 years. In younger children, however, a single injection of 133 Xe in solution provides an index of both regional perfusion and ventilation which is easier to accomplish. This method is particularly valuable in infants and neonates because it is rapid, requires no patient cooperation, results in a very low radiation dose, and can be repeated in serial studies. Radionuclidic studies of ventilation and perfusion can be performed in almost all children if the pediatrician and the nuclear medicine specialist have motivation and ingenuity. S []ontaneous pulmonary vascular occlusive disease which occurs in infants and pulmonary emboli in children are easily detected using radionuclides. The pathophysiologic defects of pulmonary agenesis, bronchopulmonary sequestration, and foreign body aspiration may be demonstrated by these techniques. These techniques also appear to be useful in following patients with bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital emphysema, and postinfection pulmonary abnormalities. (auth)

  9. A Comparison of Natural (D-α-tocopherol) and Synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol Acetate) Vitamin E Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Oxidative Status of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K; Niu, Y; Zheng, X C; Zhang, H; Chen, Y P; Zhang, M; Huang, X X; Zhang, L L; Zhou, Y M; Wang, T

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the supplementation of natural (D-α-tocopherol) and synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E on the growth performance, meat quality, muscular antioxidant capacity and genes expression related to oxidative status of broilers. A total of 144 1 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 8 birds each. Birds were given a basal diet (control group), and basal diet supplemented with either 20 IU D-α-tocopherol or DL-α-tocopherol acetate for 42 days, respectively. The results indicated that treatments did not alter growth performance of broilers (p>0.05). Compared with the control group, concentration of α-tocopherol in the breast muscle was increased by the supplementation of vitamin E (pnatural vitamin E group (pnatural vitamin E group (pnatural rather than synthetic vitamin E reduced MDA accumulation in the thigh (pnatural nor synthetic vitamin E supplementation altered muscular mRNA abundance of genes related to oxidative stress (p>0.05). It was concluded that vitamin E supplementation, especially the natural vitamin E, can enhance the retention of muscular α-tocopherol, improve meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity of broilers.

  10. A Comparison of Natural (D-α-tocopherol and Synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol Acetate Vitamin E Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Oxidative Status of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to compare the supplementation of natural (D-α-tocopherol and synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol acetate vitamin E on the growth performance, meat quality, muscular antioxidant capacity and genes expression related to oxidative status of broilers. A total of 144 1 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 8 birds each. Birds were given a basal diet (control group, and basal diet supplemented with either 20 IU D-α-tocopherol or DL-α-tocopherol acetate for 42 days, respectively. The results indicated that treatments did not alter growth performance of broilers (p>0.05. Compared with the control group, concentration of α-tocopherol in the breast muscle was increased by the supplementation of vitamin E (p0.05. It was concluded that vitamin E supplementation, especially the natural vitamin E, can enhance the retention of muscular α-tocopherol, improve meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity of broilers.

  11. Effects of Xylanase Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Non-starch Polysaccharide Degradation in Different Sections of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Broilers Fed Wheat-based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was performed to investigate the effects of exogenous xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility and the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP in different sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT of broilers fed wheat-based diets. A total of 120 7-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to two wheat-based experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 1.0 g/kg xylanase. Each treatment was composed of 6 replicates with 10 birds each. Diets were given to the birds from 7 to 21 days of age. The results showed that xylanase supplementation did not affect feed intake, but increased body weight gain of broiler at 21 day of age by 5.8% (pjejunum>duodenum>>gizzard> caecum. The supplementation of xylanse increased ileal isomaltriose concentration (p<0.05, but did not affect the concentrations of isomaltose, panose and 1-kestose in the digesta of all GIT sections. These results suggest that supplementation of xylanase to wheat-based diets cuts the arabinoxylan backbone into small fragments (mainly arabinose and xylose in the ileum, jejunum and duodenum, and enhances digestibilites of nutrients by decreasing digesta viscosity. The release of arabinose and xylose in the small intestine may also be the important contributors to the growth-promoting effect of xylanase in broilers fed wheat-based diets.

  12. Exploring the effects of inclusion of dietary fresh Azolla on the performance of White Pekin broiler ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Parag; Mohanty, G P; Pradhan, C R; Mishra, S K; Beura, N C; Moharana, B

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the dietary advantages of inclusion of unconventional nutrient source, i.e., Azolla in the basal diet of White Pekin broilers. All ducklings were randomly distributed into three treatment groups with three replicates each and each replicate having 12 ducklings and were reared in deep litter system. Groups were subjected to three dietary treatments such as G1: Basal diet, G2: Basal diet + 5% fresh Azolla of basal diet, G3: Basal diet + 10% fresh Azolla of basal diet. During experimental period, parameters, such as bodyweight, bodyweight gain, feed consumption,feed conversion ratio(FCR), and economic of production,wererecorded. The result showed that body weights in every week, except the 5(th) week, did not differ significantly between groups. However, no significant difference was observed between the groups in any week in terms of absolute body weight gain and feed consumption. As regard to FCR, the 10% Azolla group (G3) showed the best feed efficiency followed by the 5% Azolla group (G2) and the control group (G1). On the basis of profit/bird or profit/kg live weight, each of the Azolla-fed group showed a higher economic efficiency than the con