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Sample records for broiler breeder flock

  1. Feeding broiler breeder flocks in relation to bird welfare aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure health and reproductive capacity of the birds, broiler breeders are fed restricted during the rearing period, and to a lesser extent also during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and thereby bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry a

  2. Effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed Salmonella vaccine on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment.

  3. Test profiles of broiler breeder flocks housed in farms with endemic Mycoplasma synoviae infection

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    Fiorentin L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS infection in broiler breeders in Brazil. Many features of the infection remain unrecognizable, because there are no clinical signs of the disease. A detailed testing was performed at each 6 to 8 weeks in three MS-free flocks introduced in farms with endemic MS infection for a follow-up epidemiological study. Every flock was monitored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, by serum plate agglutination (SPA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI for serology studies, and isolation of mycoplasmas from tracheal swabs. PCR was found to be the most sensitive test, detecting early MS infection. Serology was positive in less than 50% of the sera and MS was isolated only between 27 and 28 weeks of age and in a maximum of 60% positive hens. A similar profile was seen for MS infection in all three flocks. Infection started at brooding, whereas laboratory detection of the assymptomatic infection was more probable in the weeks of increasing egg production. This predictable profile during rearing may be very useful for the optimization of monitoring MS infection in broiler breeder flocks.

  4. Avian hepatitis E virus infection and possible associated clinical disease in broiler breeder flocks in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Chris J; Samu, Gyozo; Mátrai, Eszter; Klausz, Akos; Wood, Alasdair M; Richter, Susanne; Jaskulska, Barbara; Hess, Michael

    2008-10-01

    In broiler breeder flocks in one broiler integration in Hungary, a new syndrome appeared in January 2005 with initially four successive post-peak flocks experiencing significant decreases in egg production. Clinically birds became depressed and there was a small increase in the mortality rate. Postmortem examinations revealed enlarged livers in up to 19% of birds dying, and enlarged spleens in some. Also observed were birds with either clotted blood or serosanguineous fluid in the abdomen and subcapsular haemorrhages of the liver. Histopathology and polymerase chain reaction excluded tumours and the presence of common tumour-associated viruses. Chronic bacterial infections (especially causing hepatitis, peritonitis and airsacculitis) were common but many enlarged livers had no obvious bacterial involvement. After a 9-month period during which a majority of flocks became affected, no newly affected flocks occurred. Investigations showed that all tested affected flocks were seropositive in the big liver and spleen (BLS) Agar Gel Immunodiffusion test. Subsequent flocks without post-peak egg-production drops were shown to be seronegative in the BLS AGID test, as were all the parent flocks contributing to the affected flocks. Liver samples and cloacal swabs were positive by polymerase chain reaction (aHEV helicase target), and calicivirus-like particles were demonstrated in bile samples from affected birds. These observations are similar to hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome as described in North America and BLS syndrome as described in Australia. Histopathological features were a non-specific chronic hepatitis similar to those described in BLS and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome. Immunohistochemistry using a BLS-specific monoclonal antibody confirmed the presence of avian hepatitis E virus antigen in livers and spleen.

  5. The long-term dynamics of Campylobacter colonizing a free-range broiler breeder flock: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Bliss, Carly M; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J

    2015-04-01

    A free-range broiler breeder flock was studied in order to determine the natural patterns of Campylobacter colonization over a period of 63 weeks. Campylobacter sequence types (STs) were not mutually exclusive and on average colonized only 17.7% of the birds tested at any time. Campylobacter STs typically reached a peak in prevalence upon initial detection in the flock before tailing off, although the ST and antigenic flaA short variable region in combination were stable over a number of months. There was evidence that, with a couple of exceptions, the ecology of C. jejuni and C. coli differed, with the latter forming a more stable population. Despite being free range, no newly colonizing STs were detected over a 6-week period in autumn and a 10-week period in winter, towards the end of the study. There was limited evidence that those STs identified among broiler chicken flocks on the same farm site were likely to colonize the breeder flock earlier (R(2) 0.16, P 0.01). These results suggest that there is natural control of Campylobacter dynamics within a flock which could potentially be exploited in designing new intervention strategies, and that the two different species should perhaps be considered separately.

  6. Energy utilization and heat production of embryos from eggs originating from young and old broiler breeder flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.; Meijerhof, R.; Ruangpanit, Y.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the interaction between breeder age and egg size on the energy utilization (experiment 1) and heat production (experiment 2) of broiler embryos. In experiment 1, a total of 4,800 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder ages (29 and 53 wk of age, or young and old

  7. FOWL CHOLERA IN A BREEDER FLOCK

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    Z. Parveen, A. A. Nasir, K.Tasneem and A. Shah

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During January, 2003 Pasteurella multocida the causative agent of fowl cholera was isolated from a breeder flock in Lahore District. The age of the flock was 245 days. Increased mortality, swollen wattles and lameness were the clinical findings present in almost all the affected birds, while gross lesions were typical of fowl cholera. To prove the virulence of the organism, mice and six-week old cockerals were infected and P. multocida was reisolated.

  8. Big liver and spleen disease in broiler breeders in Italy

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    Gloria Torcoli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in Italy, we have reported two outbreaks resembling big liver and spleen disease in broiler breeder flocks. The combination of clinical signs and pathological findings and the laboratory investigation results appeared corrisponde to previously recorded outbreaks in other countries.

  9. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

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    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  10. Clearance of Escherichia coli After Intravenous Inoculation in Broiler Breeder Pullets Fed Skip a day, Every Day in the feeder and Every Day on the Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of feeding programs on the time of clearance of Escherichia coli in broiler breeder pullets was investigated. Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated at 19 d of incubation with a vector HVT (vHVT) vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine....

  11. Evaluation of nutrient specifications for broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H R; Harms, R H

    1984-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if previously suggested nutrient requirements of broiler breeders (23 g protein, 850 mg sulfur amino acids, 4.5 g calcium, and 750 mg phosphorus/bird/day) are in excess and could be reduced during the laying period. In Experiment 1, Cobb color-sex broiler breeders were fed daily nutrient allowances that were 100.0, 96.3, 92.5, 89.4, and 86.6% of the suggested requirements. In Experiment 2, Cobb feather-sex breeders were fed daily allowances that were 92.5, 89.4, 86.6, 83.4, and 80.9% of the suggested requirements. Birds on all diets were fed the same energy level; however, energy varied with season to maintain body weight. Egg production, fertility, hatchability, egg weight, and shell quality were not significantly affected by the reductions in nutrient intake in either experiment. The diet with the lowest nutrient level (80.9% of the suggested requirement) was adequate, indicating a considerable margin of safety for the stated requirements. Body weight was quite variable but tended to decrease with nutrient restriction. Weights of broilers hatched from treated breeders were not significantly affected at 49 days of age by the breeder dietary treatments. These results indicate that broiler breeder diets formulated to meet presently suggested requirements have a large margin of safety and a reduction of specifications by approximately 10% is suggested. The revised daily intakes recommended are: 20.6 g protein, 754 mg sulfur amino acids, 400 mg methionine, 938 mg lysine, 1379 mg arginine, 256 mg tryptophan, 4.07 g calcium, 683 mg total phosphorus, and 170 mg sodium.

  12. SALINOMYCIN TOXICOSIS IN BROILER BREEDERS AND TURKEYS: REPORT OF THE FIRST CASE

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    Konstantinos C. Koutoulis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe two clinical cases of toxicosis by accidental administration of salinomycin in feed in broiler breeders and turkeys. In the first clinical case, a 32000 broiler breeders flock, 30 weeks of age, suffered a severe mortality during the first week, a sharp decrease in egg production and a dramatic reduction in food consumption together with an increase of eating time. The pathological condition manifested itself mainly with leg paralysis and reluctance to move. In necropsy, signs of bile hyper-secretion, absence of feed in the digestive tract, liver degeneration, egg peritonitis, enlarged kidneys and spleen atrophy were found. Serological examinations for IBV, IBD, NDV, Mg, Ms, Ort, TRT, AE and CAA were negative. The broiler breeders flock was finally euthanized due to an irreversible condition, slow recovery and poor production indicators. In the second clinical case, a flock of 27000 turkeys fatteners, aged from 20 to 35 days, showed an increased daily mortality up to 10 and a 88% total death loss in 2 weeks period. The turkeys showed great growth retardation, reluctance to move and eat, ataxia and absence of gross lesions, except atrophy of the spleen and pica. Serological examinations for NDV and AI were negative. After removal and change of feed, the remaining flock recovered normally. These two clinical cases were initially associated with incorrect diet and, after obtaining detailed clinical history, laboratory tests and food analysis, the by error administration of salinomycin in feed was confirmed. The final concentrations of salinomycin in feed analysis reached 64.6-124 mg kg-1 for the broiler breeders and 298-944 mg kg-1 for turkeys. While salinomycin toxicosis has been reported worldwide in the literature in a number of animal species, including turkey breeders and fatteners with similar symptoms, in broiler breeders has never been reported on the field.

  13. Parameters for quantification of hunger in broiler breeders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Voorst, van A.S.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    The commercial restricted feeding programme of broiler breeders has a major negative effect on welfare, as the birds are continuously hungry. Objective parameters of hunger are needed to evaluate new management or feeding systems that may alleviate hunger and thus improve broiler breeder welfare. Th

  14. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Jong, Ingrid de; van de Werd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    , cover panels, and substrate (for broiler breeders housed in cage systems). However, most of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broiler breeders need to be further developed and studied with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and welfare, and the interaction with genotype and production...

  15. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

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    Sakaoporn Prachantasena

    Full Text Available Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  16. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  17. Body composition and reproduction in broiler breeders: impact of feeding strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Key words: broiler breeder, feeding strategies, body composition, reproduction, behavior Nowadays, welfare issues in broiler breeders associated with nutrition and reproductive characteristics, are becoming increasingly challenging. Due to genetic selection on broilers,

  18. Effect of sex ratios, spiking and extra artificial insemination on the breeding efficiency of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végi, Barbara; Váradi, Eva; Szőke, Zsuzsanna; Barna, Judit

    2013-09-01

    Since early fertility decline is a permanent problem of broiler breeders, the aim of this study was to test the effects of various sex ratios, spiking strategies and additional artificial inseminations (AI) on their breeding efficiency. Six breeder flocks were analysed during the whole reproduction cycle. In Flock A the sex ratio was maintained at 10% during the whole cycle (control), while in Flock B the number of males was increased to a final ratio of 16%. In Flocks C (technological control), D, E and F the ratio of males was gradually decreased from 10% to 6.5% until the end of the cycle. Moreover, at the age of 44 weeks in Flocks D and E 50 and 100% of cockerels were replaced by young ones, respectively, while in Flock F additional artificial inseminations were applied in the second half of the reproduction cycle. The increase of sperm transport was successful only in Groups B (increase in male numbers) and D (50% replacement of old cockerels with young ones); however, it was not sufficient for increasing the fertility rates in either group. Nor did additional artificial inseminations (Flock F) have an effect on fertility. As a conclusion, it can be established that increasing the sperm count in the hens' oviducts in any way could not improve fertility in the last third of the production cycle. The results also suggest that the expensive and labour-intensive spiking technique used in broiler breeder management is useless. The prime factor responsible for the shortened persistence of fertility may be the reduced ability of the female oviduct to accept and store sperm.

  19. Molecular characterization of motile serovars of Salmonella enterica from breeder and commercial broiler poultry farms in Bangladesh.

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    Himel Barua

    Full Text Available Contaminated poultry and poultry products are a major source of motile Salmonellae for human salmonellosis worldwide. Local circulation of any motile Salmonella serovar in poultry has a wider public health impact beyond its source of origin for being dispersed elsewhere through poultry trades or human travels. To investigate the status of motile Salmonella serovars in breeder farms in Bangladesh, multiple flocks of two breeder farms were observed for a period of six months. In addition, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and serovar distribution of motile Salmonella by randomly selecting 100 commercial broiler poultry farms. Five pooled faecal samples representing an entire housed flock of breeders or broilers were screened for presence of motile Salmonella following conventional bacteriological procedures. The Salmonella isolates obtained were subsequently serotyped, and characterized by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The results revealed that both the breeder farms were positive with three Salmonella serovars: S. Virchow, S. Paratyphi B var Java (S. Java and S. Enteritidis. Eleven of the 100 broiler farms investigated were positive for motile Salmonella, giving a farm-level prevalence of 11% (95% confidence interval 5-17%. S. Virchow and S. Kentucky were the two predominant serovars isolated from the broiler farms. The PFGE genotyping demonstrated that the isolates belonging to the same serovars were closely related due to variation in only 1-4 bands. All the S. Virchow and S. Java isolates, irrespective of breeder or broiler farm origin, were plasmid-free, except for one S. Virchow isolate from a broiler farm that harboured a 9.7 kb-sized plasmid. The S. Kentucky isolates belonged to three plasmid profiles having plasmids of four different sizes, ranging from 2.7 to 109 kb. This is the first report of any motile Salmonella serovars from breeder and commercial broiler poultry

  20. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, G D; Behura, N C; Sardar, K K; Mishra, P K

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. The overall regression was significant (pvariables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (pvariables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling these variables in adverse weathers may increase production.

  1. Quantifying Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in Commercial Broiler Flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.; Miflin, J.K.; Templeton, J.M.; Bouma, A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Stegeman, A.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2009-01-01

    Since meat from poultry colonized with Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, human exposure should be reduced by, among other things, prevention of colonization of broiler flocks. To obtain more insight into possible sources of introduction of Campylobacter into broiler f

  2. Serovars of Salmonella spp isolated from broiler chickens and commercial breeders in diverse regions in Brazil from July 1997 to December 2004

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    AMI Kanashiro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Avian salmonellosis is a worldwide problem to the poultry industry, from the point of view of animal health and public health as well. The aim of the present study was to survey the most common Salmonella serovars in commercial breeders or broiler flocks from several regions in Brazil. The results of the present study indicated a high incidence of S enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis in breeders (57.5% and broilers flocks (84.0%. The importance of these findings lies in the fact that S. Enteritidis has become the most frequent serovar responsible for foodborne outbreaks and sporadic cases of salmonellosis in humans.

  3. A retrospective study on salmonella infection in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Skov, M. N.; Chriél, Mariann

    1996-01-01

    -year period from 1992 to 1993 in Denmark. The AM database contains information collected by the ante-mortem veterinarians, from the slaughterhouses, and from the salmonella examinations carried out at the National Veterinary Laboratory. The epidemiological unit was the individual broiler flock....... The salmonella status of the flock was determined by examining the caecal tonsils from 16 3-week-old chickens from each flock. This procedure would detect a salmonella-infected flock, with a probability above 95%, if the prevalence is above 20%. Furthermore, the structure and quality of the collected data have...... been evaluated. Fourteen variables were selected for analysis by multivariable logistic regression. An increased risk of salmonella infection in the broiler Becks was associated with the biggest hatcheries and feedmill, with an increasing number of houses on the farm, if the preceding flock...

  4. Use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) typing to characterize Salmonella Typhimurium DT41 broiler breeder infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litrup, E.; Christensen, H.; Nordentoft, Steen

    2010-01-01

    of 102 isolates of Salm. Typhimurium phage type DT41 were MLVA typed. MLVA typing showed 4, 12, 25, 9 and 8 different alleles at the five MLVA loci 9, 5, 6, 10 and 3, respectively. A dendrogram based on MLVA types was constructed, and one large group, nine minor groups and 29 more unrelated MLVA types....... Major diversity was demonstrated for DT41 MLVA types. A persisting problem with infection of broiler breeder flocks with DT41 was not reflected in broiler flocks originating from these flocks....

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.;

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To determine the flock prevalence and to estimate the within flock prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks from different rearing systems, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to selected antimicrobial substances. Methods and Results: One hundred...

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuana, Suzete Lora; SANTOS Luciana Ruschel dos; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; Anderlise BORSOI; Moraes, Hamilton Luis do Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH) agar (27 samples) and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples). The ...

  7. Effect of litter quality on foot pad dermatitis, hock burns and breast blisters in broiler breeders during the production period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukonen, Eija; Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Foot pad dermatitis and hock burn lesions are a form of contact dermatitis, a condition affecting skin areas in contact with unsuitable or irritating material. Contact dermatitis is a common problem, reducing the welfare of broilers, and is believed to also affect broiler breeders. However, there is very little research on contact dermatitis in breeders. This study followed the severity of foot pad lesions in broiler breeders throughout the production period. At slaughter the presence of hock burns and breast blisters was also determined. In addition, changes in litter condition over time and the impact of litter quality on foot pads were evaluated. The study was performed on 10 broiler breeder farms, including altogether 18 flocks. Foot pads of 100 hens per flock were assessed at the end of rearing period, three times during the production period, and at slaughter. Foot pad and hock lesions, as well as litter condition were scored on a 5-point scale. Litter quality was evaluated as pH, moisture and ammonia content. The condition of foot pads deteriorated towards slaughter age, with the occurrence of severe lesions reaching a maximum of 64% on average at slaughter. Hock lesions and breast blisters were rare. The litter layer became drier over time. Although poorer litter condition and wetness influenced foot pad health negatively, the effect on severe lesions was not significant. We also observed a negative effect on foot pad condition of larger slat areas. In conclusion, maintaining good litter quality alone is not enough to ensure healthy foot pads in broiler breeders.

  8. Feeding broiler breeders to improve their welfare whilst maintaining productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    of their litter may have affected their thermoregulation. This experiment indicates that high fibre diets can alleviate the feeling of hunger currently experienced by broiler breeders, and a high ratio of insoluble fibre can reduce stereotypies and may improve the well-being of the birds....

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To determine the flock prevalence and to estimate the within flock prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks from different rearing systems, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to selected antimicrobial substances. Methods and Results: One hundred...... and sixty broiler flocks originating from organic, conventional and extensive indoor production farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter at the time of slaughter. Campylobacter isolates from a subsample of positive flocks were subjected to susceptibility testing. Campylobacter spp. were...... isolated from 100% of organic broiler flocks, from 36.7% of conventional broiler flocks and from 49.2% of extensive indoor broiler flocks. Six of 62 Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: These results indicate that the special characteristics...

  10. Analysis of factors important for the occurrence of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Heuer, Ole Eske; Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel

    2013-01-01

    of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. The study was based on a large data set consisting of Campylobacter positive status for nearly 6000 broiler flocks and 43 explanatory variables. Data were obtained from the Danish Campylobacter surveillance programme in poultry and from the responses to a standardized...... of positive flocks/total number of flocks delivered over the 2-year period).The following factors were found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of Campylobacter in the broiler flocks: old broiler houses, late introduction of whole wheat in the feed, relatively high broiler age at slaughter....... The results concerning chimneys may be explained by the easier access that flies have to the broiler houses, which seems in agreement with recent Danish studies on the significance of fly-screens to reduce Campylobacter in broiler flocks. The results of this study may be used in identification of effective...

  11. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start...... that batch depletion of broiler houses increased the prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-infected broilers in the flocks, that the introduction occurred a hen catching the first batch, and that campylobacter spreads through the entire flock within a week. Significance and Impact of the Study: The results from...

  12. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  13. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.W. van de; Tilburg, J.J.H.C.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Plas, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved.

  14. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.W. van de; Tilburg, J.J.H.C.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Plas, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved. Isol

  15. A revised artificial insemination schedule for broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Krey, H P; Siegel, P B

    1976-03-01

    Broiler type hens maintained in individual cages were artificially inseminated with either 0.023, 0.035, or 0.047 ml. of pooled semen. Insemination intervals were nine, nine, and ten days on a repetitive basis. This schedule was adopted because it allowed an extension of the conventional insemination interval and yet remained compatible with a five-day industrial work-week. The results demonstrated that maintaining broiler breeder hens in cages and utilizing artificial insemination as a means of obtaining fertile eggs were feasible. The data also indicated that extending the insemination interval to 10 days is possible providing the number of spermatozoa inseminated is increased.

  16. Non-commercial poultry industries: surveys of backyard and gamefowl breeder flocks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, L; Hill, G; Rodriguez, J; Gregory, G; Voelker, L

    2007-07-16

    The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Poultry '04 study was conducted to better describe non-commercial United States poultry populations, in particular, backyard and gamefowl breeder flocks. To estimate the density of backyard flocks in close proximity to commercial operations, a sample of 350 commercial poultry operations in 18 top poultry producing states was selected from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) list of poultry operations. A 1 mile radius circle was drawn around each operation, and door-to-door canvassing was conducted within these circles to enumerate premises with all species of birds. Premises with backyard poultry flocks completed a questionnaire focusing on bird health, bird movement, and biosecurity practices. A similar questionnaire, provided in both English and Spanish, was mailed to all members of State affiliates of the United Gamefowl Breeders Association (UGBA) as well as to members of State associations not affiliated with UGBA. An average of 29.4 residences was found within a 1 mile radius of commercial operations, of which 1.9 residences per circle had backyard poultry flocks. Gamefowl breeder flocks were larger, used more health care and biosecurity practices, and moved birds more frequently compared to backyard flocks.

  17. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks 5 years after the avoparcin ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was banned from animal production in Denmark in 1995. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks in the absence of the selective pressure exerted by the use of avoparcin. One hundred sixty......-two broiler flocks from rearing systems with different histories of avoparcin exposure were investigated for the presence of VRE. Using a direct selective plating procedure, VRE were isolated from 104 of 140 (74.3%) broiler flocks reared in broiler houses previously exposed to avoparcin on conventional...... and extensive indoor broiler farms. In contrast, only 2 of 22 (9.1%) organic broiler flocks reared on free-range farms with no history of previous exposure to avoparcin were VRE-positive. Furthermore, the occurrence of VRE over time in flocks reared in broiler houses previously exposed to avoparcin...

  18. Reproduction responses of broiler-breeders to anticoccidial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J E; Solis, J; Hughes, B L; Castaldo, D J; Toler, J E

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of anticoccidial agents on production and reproduction of broiler breeders. In Experiment 1, nicarbazin (NCZ) was fed at 20, 50, and 100 ppm. There was no depression in egg production, egg weight, or fertility from feeding these levels. As level of NCZ increased, there was a linear decrease in hatchability. The amount of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) in the egg yolks increased linearly as the levels of NCZ went up; the degree of egg-shell depigmentation was directly related to the level of NCZ fed starting at 50 ppm. Experiment 2 utilized a different strain of broiler breeders. Halofuginone (3 ppm), maduramicin (5 ppm), monensin (100 ppm), narasin (70 ppm), NCZ (125 ppm), robenidine (33 ppm), and salinomycin (60 ppm) were fed to broiler breeders at the levels listed. Only NCZ reduced egg production. Narasin induced a reduction in egg weight. Both narasin and salinomycin caused a significant drop in hatchability. Feeding NCZ also induced a rapid and more severe decrease in hatchability. Monensin was the only anticoccidial agent that reduced fertility. Halofuginone, maduramicin, and robenidine had no biologically significant effect on henday production, egg weight, hatch of fertile eggs, or shell depigmentation. Feeding NCZ at 125 ppm caused a complete bleaching of brown-shell eggs by the 3rd consecutive day of treatment; but 7 days after NCZ was withdrawn from the feed, pigmentation returned to the pretreatment level.

  19. Production aspects of broiler breeders submitted to different drinker types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Colvero

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was of evaluate the influence of different drinker types on the egg production, water intake, mortality, poultry litter relative humidity, egg weight, eggshell percentage, and egg specific gravity of broiler breeders. The experiment was carried out in a commercial farm with 37- to 44-wk-old broiler breeders. A randomized block experimental design, consisting of two treatments (bell or nipple drinkers with four replicates of 4.000 females each, was applied. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the test of Student-Newman-Keuls at 5% significance level. Birds submitted to nipple drinkers presented lower water intake (p0.05 of drinker type on egg production or mortality. Poultry litter relative humidity was lower (p<0.05 under the nipple-drinker system. Birds drinking from bell drinkers produced heavier eggs (p<0.05 between weeks 39 and 40. Hens drinking from bell drinkers laid eggs with higher specific gravity and eggshell percentage. It was concluded that nipple drinkers can be used for broiler breeders during lay.

  20. Identification of novel candidate genes for follicle selection in the broiler breeder ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDerment Neil A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Broiler breeders fed ad libitum are characterised by multiple ovulation, which leads to poor shell quality and egg production. Multiple ovulation is controlled by food restriction in commercial flocks. However, the level of food restriction raises welfare concerns, including that of severe hunger. Reducing the rate of multiple ovulation by genetic selection would facilitate progress towards developing a growth profile for optimum animal welfare. Results The study utilised 3 models of ovarian follicle development; laying hens fed ad libitum (experiment 2 and broiler breeders fed ad libitum or a restricted diet (experiments 1 & 3. This allowed us to investigate gene candidates for follicular development by comparing normal, abnormal and “controlled” follicle hierarchies at different stages of development. Several candidate genes for multiple ovulation were identified by combining microarray analysis of restricted vs. ad libitum feeding, literature searches and QPCR expression profiling throughout follicle development. Three candidate genes were confirmed by QPCR as showing significant differential expression between restricted and ad libitum feeding: FSHR, GDF9 and PDGFRL. PDGFRL, a candidate for steroidogenesis, showed significantly up-regulated expression in 6–8 mm follicles of ad libitum fed broiler breeders (P = 0.016, the period at which follicle recruitment occurs. Conclusions Gene candidates have been identified and evidence provided to support a possible role in regulation of ovarian function and follicle number. Further characterisation of these genes will be required to assess their potential for inclusion into breeding programmes to improve the regulation of follicle selection and reduce the need for feed restriction.

  1. Broiler health status has a major negative impact on broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaudaite-Lydekaitiene, Viktorija; Serniene, Loreta; Vismantaite, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    analysed using the statistical package SPSS. Study revealed that 59.3% of the examined broiler flocks were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Statistical analysis revealed that broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter was abattoir- and farm-dependent. Among a number of risk factors (e.g. the number...

  2. Reductive Effect of Fly Screens on the Campylobacter Prevalence of Broiler Flocks in Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle M.; Skovgård, Henrik

    Flies act as vectors in the introduction of Campylobacter from the environment to broiler flocks. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effect of fly screens on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. Cases were 52 broiler flocks reared in 20 houses on 11 farms between June...... and November 2006, where houses were equipped with fly screens made of glass fibre mesh. The controls consisted of 70 broiler flocks reared in 25 matched houses on 13 farms without screens. Other bio-security and management routines were strictly as before the study. All broiler houses were ventilated through...... wall inlets and roof outlets. The broiler flocks were sampled at days 21, 28, and 35 and at slaughter (on day 35 to 42). Samples were tested for Campylobacter by PCR. Campylobacter prevalence data were analyzed using SAS (SAS Institute). In fly screened houses, the Campylobacter prevalence was 15.4% (8...

  3. Occurrence of quinolone- and beta-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli in danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Guardabassi, Luca; Bisgaard, Magne

    ). In Denmark, antimicrobial resistance is annually monitored in both clinical and indicator E. coli isolated from poultry (DANMAP, 2006). However, very little is known on the prevalence of resistance at the flock level. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flocks positive for E. coli...... resistant to quinolones or ß-lactams. Sock samples were collected from 10 broiler parent flocks and 10 broiler offspring flocks. Five pairs of socks were collected from each house. Samples were enriched in McConkey broth and streaked on McConkey agar added with nalidixic acid (32 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (2 µg...... and nalidixic acid resistances were detected in all flocks. The numbers of E. coli resistant to these drugs were higher in plates from parent flocks than in those from offspring flocks. A broiler parent flock without any history of quinolone usage tested positive for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, although...

  4. Footpad dermatitis in Dutch broiler flocks: Prevalence and factors of influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Harn, van J.; Gunnink, H.; Hindle, V.A.; Lourens, A.

    2012-01-01

    In some European countries, footpad dermatitis (FPD) is measured as an indicator of broiler welfare. Prevalence and seasonal variation of FPD was determined within broiler flocks (fast-growing breeds) in the Netherlands. Samples were taken from 386 Dutch flocks at 8 slaughterhouses during a period o

  5. Effect of climate and farm environment on Campylobacter spp. colonisation in Norwegian broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Malin E.; Chriél, Mariann; Norström, Madelaine

    2012-01-01

    of Campylobacter spp. in Norwegian broiler flocks and factors related to the climate and the farm environment. Data from 18,488 broiler flocks from 623 different farms during 2002–2007 were included in the study. A logistic regression analysis was conducted where Campylobacter spp. status of a broiler flock...... at the time of slaughter was defined as the dependent variable and farm was modelled as a random effect. The following factors were found to increase the probability for a broiler flock to test positive for Campylobacter spp.: daily mean temperature above 6°C during the rearing period, private water supply......, presence of other livestock farms within a distance of 2km, presence of other broiler farms within a distance of 4km with flocks positive for Campylobacter spp. within 30 days prior to slaughter, heavy rainfall 11–30 days prior to slaughter, region and year. Daily mean temperature below 0°C reduced...

  6. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation on reproductive characteristics of male broiler breeders during the post-peak production phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Eugênio Triques

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of their membrane constitution, sperm cells of male broiler breeders are prone to lipid peroxidation, which affects their fertilizing capacity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of antioxidant diet supplementation on the reproductive characteristics of 12 male broiler breeders (Cobb older than 50 weeks. The roosters were randomly distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with two treatments (treatment 1: commercial feed; treatment 2: commercial feed supplemented with canthaxanthin, lycopene, and vitamin C and 6 replicates. Semen samples were collected by abdominal massage, and then underwent evaluation of semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, vigor, and morphology. Morphometric analyses of testes, combs, and dewlaps were performed at 68 weeks. Testes samples were collected for morphometric analysis of seminiferous tubules and analysis of cellular proliferation in the germinal epithelium by using immunohistochemical staining with anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (anti-PCNA antibodies. Statistical data analysis was performed using the SAS software (SAS, 2002. No significant effects of antioxidant supplementation were observed on semen characteristics (p > 0.05. A significant positive effect of the antioxidant blend was observed on the percentage of normal sperm, dewlap weight and width, and testes weight and length (p < 0.05. PCNA-positive cell counts and morphometry of the seminiferous tubules were not affected by the treatment. Dietary antioxidant supplementation may represent a nutritional tool to increase fertility in male broiler breeder flocks during the post-peak production phase.

  7. The role of litter beetles as potential reservoir for Salmonella enterica and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Spencer, A.G.; Hald, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the role of beetles infesting broiler chicken rearing facilities as potential reservoirs for Salmonella enterica infections between successive broiler flocks. In addition, their role as potential reservoirs for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was also investigated. Fourteen broiler h...

  8. Age effect of male and female broiler breeders on sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell, R K; McDaniel, C D; Wilson, J L; Howarth, B

    1996-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the effect of age (male and female) on the number of spermatozoa penetrating the perivitelline layer (PL) overlying the germinal disc (GD) in broiler breeders. Eighty young broiler breeder hens (39 wk old, Y), and 80 old spent broiler breeder hens (69 wk old, O) were randomly divided into eight groups of 20 hens each by age. Hens were inseminated weekly for 4 consecutive wk with 5 x 10(7) pooled sperm/50 microL from either young or old broiler breeder males. Sperm penetration (SP) of the PL at the GD was assessed in a random sample of 12 oviposited eggs from each hen group for each day postinsemination, with the remainder of the eggs incubated for 10 d to obtain fertility values. For the main effect of sex, and for age within sex, there were differences in mean SP (7.3 vs 4.8; Y vs O hens; P hens; P artificial insemination of a constant number of sperm, age of hens appears to contribute more to the decrease in SP and fertility than the age of male broiler breeders. Eggs were obtained from naturally mated broiler breeder flocks from different strains (A and B), lines (male and female), and ages. There was an effect on overall mean SP values due to strain (105.8 vs 78.6 holes per GD area; Strains A and B, respectively; P < 0.0001), and line within Strain B (106.4 vs 50.8 holes per GD; male and female line, respectively; P < 0.0001). There was a quadratic relationship between SP of the PL and age in Strain A with values ranging from 153.3 to 20.0 holes per GD area (P < 0.003). In Strain B, SP holes in the PL decreased in the male line due to age (127.8 to 59.7 per GD; P < 0.01), with an effect of age on the female line also (62.1 vs. 37.8 holes per GD; P < 0.05).

  9. Salmonellosis and Related Risk Factors in Broiler Flocks in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Prevention of foodborne pathogens is essential to control infectious diseases; Salmonella spp. is referred to as the most common causative agent of foodborne illnesses. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in broiler flocks in Mazandaran province, north of Iran and find the potential risk factors including: age, size of flock, strain, season, vaccination program and use of antibiotics. Materials and Methods From March 2012 to December 2013, a total of 50 flocks were selected in slaughterhouse and 20 cloacal samples were collected from each flock. Every five samples were pooled and investigated for Salmonella spp. using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results Thirteen flocks out of 50 (26% were positive for Salmonella species. Chances of Salmonella spp. detection was higher in flocks with lower age (P = 0.41. Increasing flock population was associated with increased chance of Salmonella spp. isolation (P = 0.21. The risk of salmonellosis in broiler flocks was increased when no antibiotics were given to day-old chicks. There was no significant difference (P = 0.30 in the prevalence of salmonellosis among different broiler strains. Conclusions In the current study, six risk factors were assessed for Salmonella spp. contamination in broiler flocks. Some of these factors contributed to the risk of salmonellosis in broiler flocks.

  10. SEROMONITORING OF AVIAN INFLUENZA H9 SUBTYPE IN BREEDERS AND COMMERCIAL LAYER FLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Numan, M. Siddique and M. S. Yousaf1

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey for detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H9 in vaccinated layer flocks was carried out. Serum samples were divided into age groups A, B, C, D (commercial layers and E, F, G, H (layer breeders. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI test was performed to determine serum antibodies against AIV-H9 subtype. Geometric mean titer (GMT values were calculated. Results showed the level of protection of vaccinated birds was satisfactory.

  11. Isolation of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale from the brains of commercial broiler breeder chickens with meningitis and encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banani, M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT has been identified as one of the respiratory bacterial pathogens in turkey and chicken flocks. Four live birds displaying severe torticollis were submitted from a 13-week-old commercial broiler breeder chicken flock located in Mazandaran province. These birds were suspected to pasteurellosis by the farm veterinarian. No other marked gross lesion except emaciation was seen. Histopathologic examination of the brains showed mild to moderate meningeal vasculitis, perivascular cuffing with lymphocytes, degeneration and necrosis of purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Viral culture of the brains especially for Newcastle disease and avian influenza viruses was negative. Bacterial culture of the brains onto the blood agar revealed pure growth of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale. In this study molecular confirmation of ORT by using of a very specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR was carried out. Amplification products of a 784 bp region of the 16S rRNA gene of ORT confirmed the bacterium identification. This is the first field case of ORT isolation from the brain of commercial chickens in Iran. These data suggest that this bacterium should be considered in differential diagnosis in cases of avian nervous signs. Further studies are necessary to confirm if ORT is a primary pathogen in such cases.

  12. Risk factors and seroprevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae infection in broiler breeder farms in Mazandaran province, North Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifi S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma Synoviae (MS is a considerable and economically crucial pathogen for avian species. This study was aimed to determine the risk factors (age, size of flock, season, and strain and seroprevalence of M. synoviae in broiler breeder farms in Mazandaran province, north of Iran. The study was conducted from May 2002 to October 2008. MS was confirmed by Rapid Serum Plate Agglutination (SPA and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA tests. Broiler breeder farms (n=315 were followed for this study and three samples for every thousand were obtained randomly. Sera that were SPA positive were analyzed for antibodies against MS using a commercially available ELISA antibody test kit. The highest (41.2% and lowest (0% prevalence of MS infection was found in 2003 and 2008, respectively. Results showed that the prevalence of MS infection increased with the increase of age. No relation between a special breed with M. synoviae status could be found. Seasonal variations of prevalence with MS infection were observed in the present study. The population of the flocks did not influence Mycoplasma Synoviae prevalence. The results showed that occurrence of M. synoviae has a significant relationship with the age and sampling district.

  13. Effects of preincubation heating of broiler hatching eggs during storage, flock age, and length of storage period on hatchability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucbilmez, M; Ozlü, S; Shiranjang, R; Elibol, O; Brake, J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of heating of eggs during storage, broiler breeder age, and length of egg storage on hatchability of fertile eggs were examined in this study. Eggs were collected from Ross 344 male × Ross 308 broiler breeders on paper flats, held overnight (1 d) at 18°C and 75% RH, and then transferred to plastic trays. In experiment 1, eggs were obtained at 28, 38, and 53 wk of flock age. During a further 10 d of storage, eggs either remained in the storage room (control) or were subjected to a heat treatment regimen of 26°C for 2 h, 37.8°C for 3 h, and 26°C for 2 h in a setter at d 5 of storage. In experiment 2, eggs from a flock at 28 wk of age were heated for 1 d of a 6-d storage period. Eggs from a 29-wk-old flock were either heated at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period in experiment 3. In experiment 4, 27-wk-old flock eggs were heated twice at d 1 and 5 of an 11-d storage period. Control eggs stored for 6 or 11 d were coincubated as appropriate in each experiment. Heating eggs at d 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 1. Although no benefit of heating 28-wk-old flock eggs during 6 d of storage in experiment 2 was observed, heating eggs from a 29-wk-old flock at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 3. Further, heating eggs from a 27-wk-old flock twice during 11 d of storage increased hatchability in experiment 4. These effects were probably due to the fact that eggs from younger flocks had been reported to have many embryos at a stage of development where the hypoblast had not yet fully developed (less than EG-K12 to EG-K13), such that heating during extended storage advanced these embryos to a more resistant stage.

  14. Risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M. N.; Angen, Øystein; Chriel, M.

    1999-01-01

    A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection in Danish broiler flocks. The data included all broiler flocks slaughtered in 1995, and the epidemiological unit was the individual broiler...... flock. The S. typhimurium status was determined by microbiological examination of 60 fresh fecal samples. This procedure should detect an infected flock with a probability above 95%, if the prevalence is above 5%, and given that the sensitivity of the test is 100%. Nineteen variables were selected...... for analysis. Five factors and an interaction term were found significant by multivariate logistic regression analysis. An increased risk for S, typhimurium infection was associated with two parent flocks, one confirmed infected and one suspected of being infected with S. typhimurium, with two...

  15. Pre-harvest surveillance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Danish broiler flocks: a 2-year study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Gradel, K.O.; Jorgensen, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In national surveillance programmes of broiler flocks carried out in Denmark during 1998 and 1999, 89,110 samples for Campylobacter representing 8911 broiler flocks were taken at 10 different abattoirs, and 44,550 samples for Salmonella were taken from the same flocks in the broiler houses...... at the farms. Of the swabs, 42.5% were Campylobacter positive. Most positive samples were found during July, August and September, while the lowest number of positive samples were found during January, February, March and April. Of the flocks, 5.5% were Salmonella positive, but no seasonal variation...... was observed. For each flock, the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella was recorded in order to estimate the possible correlation between colonisation with the two pathogens. In conclusion, no significant effects on intensive cleaning and disinfection procedures on Campylobacter occurrence could...

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of Campylobacter infection in broiler flocks from southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralbo, Alicia; Borge, Carmen; Allepuz, Alberto; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Sheppard, Samuel K; Perea, Anselmo; Carbonero, Alfonso

    2014-05-01

    An extensive epidemiological study was performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Campylobacter infection in broiler farms in Andalusia (southern Spain). A total of 2221 cloacal swabs and 747 environmental swabs from 291 broiler flocks were screened between April 2010 and May 2012. The prevalence of Campylobacter in individual animals was 38.1%, and the flock prevalence was 62.9%. Flocks were predominantly infected by C. jejuni and C. coli but were also infected by untyped Campylobacter spp., and mixed-species infection could be found. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection were assessed from direct interview of the farmers. The number of positive samples by flock was modelled assuming a binomial distribution. Analysis indicated five factors associated with increased intra-flock prevalence: presence of dogs or cats on the farm, older age of the broiler flock, the application of thinning of flocks, the presence of windows with canvas blinds, and the presence of rodents in the poultry house. Two factors were associated with decreased intra-flock prevalence: the treatment of drinking water and having an entrance room for access into the poultry house. This is the first study performed on broilers farms from Spain reporting the risk factors of Campylobacter infection and is the largest study on the prevalence of Campylobacter infection.

  17. Associations between vaccinations against protozoal and viral infections and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks presents a challenge for public health and for sustainability of the industry. A number of other infections are simultaneously controlled in grow-out broilers world-wide by vaccination. The purpose of this exploratory analysis was to test, in a f...

  18. Campylobacter detection in broiler ceca at processing - a three year 211 flock survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is associated with live broilers and chicken meat products. There is some discussion in the literature about the possibility that Campylobacter prevalence in broilers could be affected by season or weather conditions. The objective of this study was to measure the flock prevalence of...

  19. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  20. Age effect of broiler breeders on fertility and sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer of the ovum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Kapkowska, Ewa

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the age effect of a broiler breeder flock on duration of fertility and number of spermatozoa penetrating the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc (SP/mm(2) GDIPVL). Moreover, in the second half of the flock's reproductive life, the effect of using ejaculates of young roosters (CA2) in artificial insemination (AI) on the above parameters of fertility was estimated. The commercial flock of broiler breeder hens (n = 100) was inseminated six times from 31 to 62 weeks of age. Additional inseminations, with ejaculates of roosters aged 31 and 36 weeks (CA2), were performed at 56 and 62 weeks of age. AI was performed during two consecutive days (D0 and D1) with an insemination dose of 125 x 10(6) spermatozoa/0.06 ml containing pooled ejaculates. The following parameters were studied: the effective and maximum duration of fertility (De and Dm), percent of fertility on different days after AI (FD10, FD15 and FD20), indices of duration of sperm penetration (DSP, SP insemination of hens at different age, and correlations between some fertility indices. Both for De and Dm, the highest values were noted after AI of the layers at 36 weeks of age (14.8 +/- 0.49 and 17.4 +/- 0.46 days, respectively), which were about 2 days longer than at 56 weeks. All fertility indices decreased gradually with age, starting from AI at peak egg production (31-36 weeks of age), while the use of ejaculates from CA2 did not help to increase them significantly. Correlation coefficients between SP/mm(2) GDIPVL and the other fertility indices were positive and highest for eggs laid on D3. It is concluded that high De values can be obtained from broiler breeders in adequate environmental and technological conditions of AI. It is suggested that the age-related decrease in fertility is more pronounced in females, in which the efficiency of sperm storage tubules decreases. The present fertility indices indicate the possibility of lengthening AI

  1. Risk factors for Campylobacter colonization in Danish broiler flocks, 2010 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, M; Sørensen, L L; Steenberg, B

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the two studies presented were to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive farms and flocks and to acquire updated knowledge about risk factors for the introduction of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. In the first study, from September 2010 to September 2011...... in the Danish Broiler Production ( KIK: ) database. House- and flock-specific data collected in the surveys were supplemented with information obtained from the KIK database. Data obtained from the two studies were analyzed separately by logistic regression analysis. In both models, the dependent variable...... was "Campylobacter flock status (positive/negative)," which was based on real-time PCR testing of fecal material from the floor of each broiler house that had been collected preslaughter using a pair of tube gauze "socks." This material was pooled into one sample. Of the 25 farms visited, 17 had delivered...

  2. Climatic factors and prevalence of Campylobacter in commercial broiler flocks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, S; Charununtakorn, P; Muangnoicharoen, S; Hankla, L; Techawal, N; Chaveerach, P; Tuitemwong, P; Chokesajjawatee, N; Williams, N; Humphrey, T; Luangtongkum, T

    2017-04-01

    Campylobacter are bacteria associated with human foodborne disease worldwide. Poultry and poultry products are generally considered as a main source of these organisms. Compared to temperate zones, baseline information on Campylobacter in tropical regions is limited. Thus, the objectives of the present study were 1) to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in Thai broiler flocks and 2) to investigate the association between climatic factors (i.e., rainfall, ambient temperature, and relative humidity) and Campylobacter colonization status of broiler flocks in Thailand. A total of 442 commercial broiler flocks reared in the central and northeastern regions of Thailand during 2012 to 2014 were investigated. Campylobacter positive status was identified in 252 examined flocks (57.01%; 95% CI 52.39 to 61.63%). Prevalence of Campylobacter in the northeastern region (54.46%; 95% CI 44.76 to 63.83%) was slightly lower than that of the central region (57.77%; 95% CI 52.47 to 62.90%). More than 65% of Campylobacter positive flocks in the central and northeastern regions had within-flock prevalence higher than 75%. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) revealed that the increased rainfall and relative humidity were associated with the increase of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks (P ≤ 0.05), while no relationship between ambient temperature and Campylobacter colonization status was identified. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Effect of Lonicera japonica extract on Mycoplasma gallisepticum in naturally infected broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müştak, H K; Torun, E; Özen, D; Yücel, G; Akan, M; Diker, K S

    2015-01-01

    1. In this study, the effect of chlorogenic acid extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb. on Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections and the performance of broiler flocks was investigated. 2. A total of 360 Ross-308 broiler chicks taken from M. gallisepticum seropositive flocks were divided equally into three groups designated as control (nothing administered), antibiotic (Tylosin tartrate given for the first 3 d and d 20-22) and test group (chlorogenic acid extract given twice a day on d 16 and 22). 3. Broiler performance analysis, serological tests (slide agglutination), molecular identification (polymerase chain reaction) and histopathological examination were performed to detect M. gallisepticum. 4. The results show that chlorogenic acid not only increases live body weight but is also an alternative treatment option in M. gallisepticum-infected broiler flocks.

  4. Effect of Different Storage Periods and Temperatures on the Hatchability of Broiler Breeder Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud*, M. Z. U. Khan1, Saima1 and M. A. Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and humidity have been the two most common variables used to manipulate the storage environment of hatching eggs. To ascertain the effects of different egg storage periods and temperatures on hatchability; 400 eggs were obtained from a broiler breeder flock of 32 weeks of age on a single day collection basis. These eggs were randomly divided into 5 equal groups of 80 eggs each. After collection these were cleaned, fumigated and stored on four temperatures viz 4oC, 16oC, room temperature (25oC and ambient temperature (29oC. Each group was further subdivided into 4 replicates having 20 eggs each. Eggs of Group A (control were set in incubator with temperature of 37.5oC and relative humidity 60% after the storage of one day. Eggs of rest of the four groups were set in the incubator after the storage of 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Subsequently, these were shifted to hatchers on 18th day where the temperature and humidity were maintained at 36.5oC and 75%, respectively. The data on hatchability and dead-in-shell embryos for various groups were recorded. The results revealed that as the storage period increased at different temperatures, the hatchability decreased significantly (P<0.01. Similarly, as the storage time increased, the percentage of dead-in-shell embryos increased (P<0.01.

  5. Surveillance of Campylobacter ssp. in broiler flocks by PCR on boot sock samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Lund, Marianne; Hald, Birthe

    Detection of Campylobacter in feces is traditionally based on microbiological culture from caecum or cloacal swabs at the abattoir, but due to long time for analysis no intervention can be taken. By knowing the status of the flock before it reaches the abattoir, logistic slaughter becomes possible......, i. e. to allocate negative flocks before positive to slaughter, as well as channeling negative flocks to the fresh market and use positive flocks for freeze or marinated products. To know the status of the broiler flock before arriving at the abattoir, a Campylobacter surveillance system based...... before DNA purification, corresponding to 103 / gram feces. To evaluate the capability of the sock sample to predict the flock status at slaughter the same flocks were also tested at slaughter by pooling 10 cloacal swabs and analysed using the same PCR method. The accordance of the two sampling method...

  6. Reductive Effect of Fly Screens on the Campylobacter Prevalence of Broiler Flocks in Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle M.; Skovgård, Henrik

    Flies act as vectors in the introduction of Campylobacter from the environment to broiler flocks. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effect of fly screens on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. Cases were 52 broiler flocks reared in 20 houses on 11 farms between June...... wall inlets and roof outlets. The broiler flocks were sampled at days 21, 28, and 35 and at slaughter (on day 35 to 42). Samples were tested for Campylobacter by PCR. Campylobacter prevalence data were analyzed using SAS (SAS Institute). In fly screened houses, the Campylobacter prevalence was 15.4% (8...... as the significant protective factor (P=0.0002). The fly screens were more effective towards the end of the rotations, where the influx of flies increases with increased need for ventilation. The statistical model predicts the prevalence of Campylobacter positive broiler flocks during summer in Danish broiler...

  7. Bacterial orchitis and epididymo-orchitis in broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monleon, Rafael; Martin, Michael P; John Barnes, H

    2008-12-01

    Two cases of orchitis and epididymo-orchitis in broiler breeders are described. The first case occurred in a 62-week-old rooster showing signs of breeding inactivity. Grossly, the left testis was abnormally shaped and had multiple yellow foci, prominent blood vessels, and a gelatinous mass on the surface. The right testis and other tissues appeared normal. A pure, heavy growth of Staphylococcus aureus was obtained on bacterial culture, and intralesional Gram-positive cocci were numerous on histopathology. The second case occurred in a 28-week-old rooster that was found dead. Both testes were abnormally shaped, swollen, firm, and had irregular, dark, depressed areas, prominent vessels, and multiple petechial haemorrhages. Epididymides were enlarged and nodular. Other lesions in this rooster included poor nutritional condition, distended cloaca, and urate scalding of the abdominal skin below the vent. Microscopically, there was extensive, severe heterophilic intratubular orchitis and epididymitis with intralesional Gram-negative bacteria. A heavy, pure growth of Escherichia coli was obtained from the testes and epididymides. In both cases, the findings suggested that the most probable route of infection was ascending via the ductus deferens.

  8. Selected blood chemistry values in mobility-impaired broiler breeder hens with suspected calcium tetany using the i-STAT handheld clinical analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael P; Wineland, Michael; Fletcher, Oscar J; Barnes, H John

    2011-09-01

    Calcium tetany is a poorly defined disease of broiler breeder hens that results from acute hypocalcemia. It is characterized by impaired mobility, increased mortality, and absence of gross lesions that would explain the impaired mobility. To evaluate if hens with impaired mobility had calcium tetany or other abnormalities, blood values from normal and affected hens were determined using the i-STAT handheld clinical analyzer. Three flocks were evaluated weekly prior to peak production (range 25-30 wk of age) comparing normal hens to hens with clinically apparent calcium tetany. Calcium tetany suspect (CaTS) hens from four additional flocks were also evaluated. Significant hypocalcemia (P tetany is one cause of impaired mobility in breeder hens, but mobility impairment without hypocalcemia can also occur. Calcium tetany should be confirmed by finding significantly decreased levels of iCa in the blood, as diagnosis based on clinical presentation and necropsy results can be inaccurate. The i-STAT handheld clinical analyzer is an efficient, relatively low-cost method to determine iCa and other blood chemistry values that may be associated with impaired mobility in broiler breeder hens.

  9. Duration of fertility in ad libitum and feed-restricted caged broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerzen, P R; Julsrud, W L; Robinson, F E

    1996-08-01

    It has been shown in previous studies that fertility can be reduced in overweight broiler breeder (BB) flocks. In an effort to determine the effect of ad libitum feeding on the duration of fertility in BB hens, 60 52-wk-old Shaver Starbro hens were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, ad libitum feeding (F) or restricted feeding (R) to maintain breeder target weights. All hens were reared to 52 wk under conditions of feed restriction. All birds were weighed individually on a weekly basis. At the beginning of each of two 4-wk study periods (56 to 60 wk and 60 wk to 64 wk), all birds were inseminated on 2 consecutive d with 0.05 mL pooled BB semen. All eggs were weighed and placed in a forced air incubator the same day that they were laid. After 7 to 10 d of incubation, the eggs were broken out and scored macroscopically as fertile with live embryo, fertile with dead embryo (early embryonic death), or clear (assumed infertile). The duration of fertility was defined as the number of days from the day after the second insemination to the last fertile egg before two consecutive interfile eggs. Hen BW were significantly different between treatments within each of the two 4-wk studies. The mean BW of the F hens was 4,261 g in Study 1 and 4,448 g in Study 2. The BW of the R hens were 3,459 g in Study 1 and 3,565 g in Study 2. Egg production levels and average egg weight was not different between treatments in either study. In Study 1, the duration of fertility for the F hens (12.7 d) and the R hens (12.7 d) were not different. In Study 2, the durations of fertility were significantly higher (P hens (12.7 d) than in the F hens (10.0 d). These results support the theory that overweight BB have a reduced duration of fertility that may contribute to a reduced fertility in artificially inseminated and naturally mated flocks.

  10. Effect of scattered feeding and feeding twice a day during rearing on indicators of hunger and frustration in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Broiler breeders are routinely fed restricted during rearing which has a major negative effect on their welfare. They suffer from hunger and frustration from thwarting of feeding. The aim of this experiment was therefore to study if broiler breeder welfare can be improved by changes in the feeding s

  11. The Effect of Low-Density Diets on Broiler Breeder Development and Nutrient Digestibility During the Rearing Period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, H.; Veldman, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Aar, van de P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4 treatment

  12. Combined Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Rapid Testing and Molecular Epidemiology in Conventional Broiler Flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallegger, G; Muri-Klinger, S; Brugger, K; Lindhardt, C; John, L; Glatzl, M; Wagner, M; Stessl, B

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial zoonosis, most often transmitted by contaminated poultry meat. From an epidemiological and risk assessment perspective, further knowledge should be obtained on Campylobacter prevalence and genotype distribution in primary production. Consequently, 15 Austrian broiler flocks were surveyed in summer for their thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination status. Chicken droppings, dust and drinking water samples were collected from each flock at three separate sampling periods. Isolates were confirmed by PCR and subtyped. We also compared three alternative methods (culture-based enrichment in Bolton broth, culture-independent real-time PCR and a lateral-flow test) for their applicability in chicken droppings. Twelve flocks were found to be positive for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. during the entire sampling period. Seven flocks (46.6%) were contaminated with both, C. jejuni and C. coli, five flocks harboured solely one species. We observed to a majority flock-specific C. jejuni and C. coli genotypes, which dominated the respective flock. Flocks within a distance jejuni genotypes indicating a cross-contamination event via the environment or personnel vectors. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of C. jejuni revealed that the majority of isolates were assigned to globally distributed clonal complexes or had a strong link to the human interface (CC ST-446 and ST4373). The combination of techniques poses an advantage over risk assessment studies based on cultures alone, as, in the case of Campylobacter, occurrence of a high variety of genotypes might be present among a broiler flock. We suggest applying the lateral-flow test under field conditions to identify 'high-shedding' broiler flocks at the farm level. Consequently, poultry farmers and veterinarians could improve hygiene measurements and direct sanitation activities, especially during the thinning period. Ultimately, real-time PCR could be applied to quantify

  13. The role of litter beetles as potential reservoir for Salmonella enterica and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Spencer, A.G.; Hald, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the role of beetles infesting broiler chicken rearing facilities as potential reservoirs for Salmonella enterica infections between successive broiler flocks. In addition, their role as potential reservoirs for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was also investigated. Fourteen broiler...... houses located at 11 different farms were included in the study. The houses were nonrandomly selected on the basis of their salmonella status; nine were persistently contaminated with salmonella whereas five were salmonella negative. For each broiler house, two consecutive broiler flocks (i.e., 28...... broiler flocks in all) as well as beetles collected during both rotations of production and in the empty period (after cleaning and disinfection) between these flocks were monitored for the presence of salmonella. Examinations for the presence of campylobacter in the same sample materials were also...

  14. The Effect of Low-Density Broiler Breeder Diets on Performance and Immune Status of their Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, H.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Winden, van S.C.L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Aar, van de P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of low-density broiler breeder diets on offspring performance and mortality were studied using 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb 500 breeders. Breeder treatments involved 4 experimental groups and a control group with normal density diets (ND, 2,600 kcal of AME/kg during rearing and 2,800 kcal

  15. Digestible Threonine Levels in the Starter Diet of Broilers Derived from Breeders of Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CBGS Tanure

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible threonine supplementation in the starter diet on the performance, intestinal parameters, and nutrient metabolism of broilers derived from breeders of different ages. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb chicks, derived from 38-or 49-week-oldbreeders, were housed in experimental battery cages until 21 days of age and fed four different threonine levels (800, 900, 1,000, or 1,100 mg/kg in the starter feed. A completely randomized experimental design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (breeder age x threonine levels was applied, totaling eight treatments with five replicates of 12 birds each. Broilers from older breeders fed 800 mg digestible threonine/kg of diet presented higher weight gain, with a positive linear effect. There was also an interaction between breeder age and threonine levels for the weight gain of 21-d-old broilers supplemented at maximum level of 1,003 mg Thr/kg diet during the starter phase. There was no effect of breeder age or threonine levels on nutrient metabolism during the period of 17-21 days. There was no influence of breeder age or threonine levels in the starter diet on intestinal morphometric measurements, absorption area, or percentage of goblet cells.

  16. Evaluation of sampling methods for the detection of Salmonella in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Marianne N.; Carstensen, B.; Tornoe, N.

    1999-01-01

    The present study compares four different sampling methods potentially applicable to detection of Salmonella in broiler flocks, based on collection of faecal samples (i) by hand, 300 fresh faecal samples (ii) absorbed on five sheets of paper (iii) absorbed on five pairs of socks (elastic cotton...... tubes pulled over the boots and termed 'socks') and (iv) by using only one pair of socks. Twenty-three broiler flocks were included in the investigation and 18 of these were found to be positive by at least one method. Seven serotypes of Salmonella with different patterns of transmission (mainly...

  17. Comparative analysis as a management tool for broiler breeder farms: simulated individual farm analysis (IFAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a management information system to evaluate the tactical management of a breeder flock using individual farm analysis with a deterministic simulation model (IFAS). Individual farm analysis is a method that evaluates the performance of individual farms by

  18. Effect of refined functional carbohydrates from enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast on the presence of Salmonella spp. in the ceca of broiler breeder females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G K; Jalukar, S; Brake, J

    2017-03-31

    Broiler breeders hatched from Salmo-nella negative grandparents received either zero or 50 g/MT of refined functional carbohydrates (RFC) in their diets from d of placement to end of lay. There were no other treatments used. Pullets and cockerels were reared separately in an enclosed litter-floor house to 21 wk of age when 28 randomly selected pullets from each diet were transferred to individual cages for an additional 14 d before they were killed, and their ceca were excised aseptically and tested for Salmonella spp. The remaining birds were transferred to a two-thirds slat and one-third litter curtain-sided laying house. There were 8 pens of 60 to 65 females and 8 to 18 males, depending upon flock age and housing type, fed each diet, and there was no effort made to isolate pens from typical daily foot traffic between pens. At 51 wk of age, male progeny broiler chicks were hatched and received either zero or 50 g/MT of RFC to complete a 2 × 2 design with 4 replicate pens of 12 males per interaction. All broilers were tested for cecal Salmonella spp. at 34 d of age. Ceca were collected from 30 breeder hens from each treatment at 64 wk of age and tested for Salmonella spp. Of the ceca sampled at 23 wk from the control pullets, 71.4% were found to contain Salmonella spp., while none of the ceca from the RFC pullets tested positive. Of the ceca sampled from the control hens at 64 wk, 40% were found to contain Salmonella spp., while none of the ceca from the RFC hens tested positive. Salmonella spp. was isolated from broilers in one pen of the control broilers that were also progeny of control breeders out of 4 replicates but not from any pens in which the breeders had been fed RFC. These data demonstrated that RFC reduced natural Salmonella spp. colonization of broiler breeder hen and broiler progeny ceca during a complete production cycle. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Características físicas do sêmen de galos de matriz pesada com 35 e 68 semanas de idade Physical characteristics of semen from male broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Rocha Júnior

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty male broiler breeders (ISA-MPK breed 50 at their final reproductive life (68 week-old, and 10 at the pick of production (35 week-old, from six different flocks (10 males/flock were used to evaluate the effect of age on the motility, vigor and mass motility under normal management field conditions. A non-parametric test was applied and no differences were observed between ages for the analyzed traits. The regression analysis showed a significant effect of testicle weight on semen quality only for birds at 35weeks of age.

  20. Risk factors for Campylobacter colonization in Danish broiler flocks, 2010 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, M; Sørensen, L L; Steenberg, B; Chowdhury, S; Ersbøll, A K; Alban, L

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of the two studies presented were to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive farms and flocks and to acquire updated knowledge about risk factors for the introduction of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. In the first study, from September 2010 to September 2011, there were 25 Danish broiler farms visited, and a questionnaire was filled in by a veterinarian/consultant. In the second study, a similar questionnaire was distributed electronically to all Danish broiler farmers (n=164) that were on record with an email address in the Quality Assurance System in the Danish Broiler Production (KIK) database. House- and flock-specific data collected in the surveys were supplemented with information obtained from the KIK database. Data obtained from the two studies were analyzed separately by logistic regression analysis. In both models, the dependent variable was "Campylobacter flock status (positive/negative)," which was based on real-time PCR testing of fecal material from the floor of each broiler house that had been collected preslaughter using a pair of tube gauze "socks." This material was pooled into one sample. Of the 25 farms visited, 17 had delivered Campylobacter-positive flocks during the study period, and eight farms had no Campylobacter-positive flocks. Moreover, the flock prevalence of Campylobacter was 17% (n=418). Data obtained from the electronically distributed survey revealed that 63% (n=71) of the farms were Campylobacter-positive. Further, the flock prevalence of Campylobacter was 14% (n=1,286). The multivariable models from the two sets of data identified the following statistically significant risk factors: summer vs. winter; if the previous flock in the house was positive for Campylobacter vs. if the previous flock in the house was negative; and litter delivered into the house close to the time of arrival of new chickens vs. storing litter on the farm. Furthermore, the data showed that a vertically based ventilation

  1. Effect of low-density diets on broiler breeder and offspring performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, H.

    2005-01-01

    Restricted feeding of broiler breeders is required to obtain good reproductive performance. Current practical feed restriction levels can result in hunger feeling and chronic stress, particularly during the rearing period. On the basis of literature data, low-density diets might improve bird welfare

  2. Do Low-Density Diets Improve Broiler Breeder Welfare During Rearing and Laying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Enting, H.; Voorst, van A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Low-density diets may improve welfare of restricted fed broiler breeders by increasing feed intake time with less frustration of feed intake behavior as a result. Moreover, low-density diets may promote satiety through a more filled gastrointestinal tract, and thus feelings of hunger may be reduced.

  3. Effects of restricted feeding on physiological stress parameters in growing broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Voorst, van S.; Ehlhardt, D.A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    In previous studies, a lack of agreement in measurements of plasma corticosterone concentrations and heterophil:lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as physiological indices of stress, caused by hunger and frustration in restricted-fed broiler breeders, was observed. It could be suggested that the differences bet

  4. Effect of low-density diets on broiler breeder and offspring performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, H.

    2005-01-01

    Restricted feeding of broiler breeders is required to obtain good reproductive performance. Current practical feed restriction levels can result in hunger feeling and chronic stress, particularly during the rearing period. On the basis of literature data, low-density diets might improve bird welfare

  5. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    , and the higher water content of their litter may have affected their thermoregulation. In exp. II, four diets based on different fibre sources were given to broiler breeders from day 12 to 19 weeks of age to increase feed quantity. Diet A (commercial control diet: 10.7MJ/kg), B (42% dietary fibre (DF); 7.25MJ...

  6. QUINOLONE- AND ETA-LACTAM- RESISTANCE IN Escherichia coli FROM DANISH AND ITALIAN BROILER FLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trevisani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of quinolone- and -lactam-resistant E. coli was investigated among healthy broiler flocks in Denmark and Italy. In Denmark, sock samples were collected from 10 parent flocks and 10 offspring flocks, according to the procedure currently used for the surveillance of Salmonella in the EU. Samples were enriched in McConkey broth and streaked on McConkey agar plates added with nalidixic acid (32 g/ml, ciprofloxacin (2 g/ml, ampicillin (32 g/ml, cefotaxime (2 g/ml or ceftiofur (8 g/ml. The -glucuronidase test was performed for verification of presumptive E. coli. The same methods were used to analyse sock samples collected from 6 Italian broiler flocks. PCR with primers for the CTX-M-type extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs was performed on cephalosporin-resistant isolates. While resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid was widespread in both countries, resistance to ciprofloxacin and cephalosporins was more common among Italian flocks. In Denmark, ciprofloxacin resistance was only detected in 1 parent flock without any history of quinolone usage and none of the flocks was positive for cephalosporin-resistant E. coli. In Italy, resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected in all flocks and resistance to ceftiofur and cefotaxime were detected in 5 flocks. Primers specific for the CTX-M-type ESBLs generated PCR amplicons from isolates from 3 of these flocks. In industrialized countries, the poultry production system is highly standardized, and therefore comparable. However, the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials is particularly limited in Danish poultry production. Accordingly, the results of this study could reflect the different policies in antimicrobial usage between the two countries.

  7. Unidentified Factors in Jojoba Meal Prevent Oviduct Development in Broiler Breeder Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaut; Onagbesan; Bruggeman; Verhoeven; Berghman; Flo; Cokelaere; Decuypere

    1998-01-19

    Supplementation of feed with jojoba meal, as a means for autonomous feed restriction, was successful in depressing feed intake and controlling body weight of broiler breeder pullets to the extent recommended by the breeder company. However, these broiler breeders never produced eggs. At the level of ovary, normal follicle development and maturation did occur. A considerable number of ovulations occurred which were not followed by oviposition. After ovulation, the ova could not be captured by the oviduct, because of the small size of the oviduct, resulting in "internal laying". The virtual absence of oviduct development cannot be explained presently but it must be due to some yet unidentified factor(s) in jojoba meal which prevent(s) the normal development of the oviduct. These factors may be acting by abnormally increasing plasma progesterone or triiodothyronin levels and/or directly by themselves interfering with oviduct development. The nature of these factors requires further investigations.

  8. Egg traits and physiological neonatal chick parameters from broiler breeder at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BC Luquetti

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out to study egg traits (weight, specific gravity and eggshell thickness, and neonatal chick parameters (weight, blood, cardiac and lung parameters from breeder at different ages. After hatching, neonatal chicks, male and female, from broiler breeder at three different ages (30, 45 and 60 weeks were sacrificed and blood (red blood cell number, hematocrit, mean cell volume, blood viscosity, and haemoglobin, cardiac (right ventricle and total ventricle weights, cardiac index and lung (mean pulmonary pressure, fresh relative lung weight parameters were measured. No significant differences in eggshell thickness or specific gravity were observed in eggs from the three different breeder age. The incubated eggs and neonatal chicks showed heavier absolute weights with increasing breeder age. Broiler breeder age did not affect blood parameters or cardiac index, but affected right ventricle and total ventricle absolute weights. Red blood cell number and hematocrit were higher and lung weight and lung weight:chick weight index were lower for female neonatal chicks. The findings of this study revealed that breeder age affects neonatal chick parameters such as body weight, heart and lung absolute weights, but not blood parameters.

  9. Effect of the ratio of dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on broiler breeder performance, egg quality, and yolk fatty acid composition at different breeder ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Aerts, J; Willems, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2014-03-01

    When added to the feed of broiler breeder hens, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can be incorporated into the yolk and therefore become available to the progeny during their early development. The mechanism involved in lipid metabolism and deposition in the egg may be influenced by breeder age. Before the effect of an elevated concentration of certain polyunsaturated FA on the embryo can be investigated, the effect at breeder level and egg quality must be further assessed. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6/n-3 ratios and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) ratios, provided to broiler breeder hens, in terms of their zoo technical performance, egg quality, and yolk FA composition. Starting at 6 wk of age, 640 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed 1 of 4 different diets. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA. The 3 other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). In fact, after analysis the EPA/DHA ratio was 0.8, 0.4, or 2.1, respectively. Dietary EPA and DHA addition did not affect the performance of the breeder hens, except for egg weight. Egg weight was lower (P < 0.001) for all n-3 treatments. Dietary EPA improved number of eggs laid in the first 2 wk of the production cycle (P = 0.029). The absolute and relative yolk weight of eggs laid by EPA = DHA fed hens was lowest (P = 0.004 and P = 0.025, respectively). The EPA and DHA concentrations in the yolk were highly dependent on dietary EPA and DHA concentrations with a regression coefficient equal to 0.89. It can be concluded that dietary EPA and DHA can be incorporated in the breeder egg yolk to become available for the developing embryo, without compromising the performance and egg quality of the flock.

  10. Evaluation of Size and Lesion Scores of Bursa Cloacae in Broiler Flocks in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sellaoui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The outbreaks of IBD (infectious bursal disease are frequently observed among correctly vaccinated broiler flocks in Algerian Nord-East region. The present study aimed to search for the immunosuppression state as possible consequence of IBD. Our investigation focused on nine broilers flocks whom one suffering from IBD. Total of 400 bursa cloacae (bursa Fabricius were collected from broiler chickens during the rearing period or at slaughtering. The parameters of the bursa cloacae are evaluated: body weight ratio, index bursal, morphometric characteristics and the histopathological observations. The results obtained show that the weight and diameter of bursa Fabricius are not proportional to the age and weight of chickens. The weight and size of the bursa Fabricius were found lower than the accepted standards. According to the evaluation system in effect, 58 % of examined chickens belong to the poor category and 29 % to the excellent category. Such results indicate bursa atrophy and confirm state of immunosuppression which was suspected because of poor performances recorded in some broiler flocks. In conclusion, the bursa characteristics (body weight ratio, morphometric and histopathological studies are practical and not expensive tools for any field investigation to evaluate the immune status of broilers

  11. Poultry flocks as a source of Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, K; Osek, J

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is the leading foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and the bacteria are frequently isolated from the intestines of chickens. The broiler meat contamination with C. jejuni or C. coli may occur during slaughter processing. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter in poultry flocks and the corresponding broiler carcasses in 15 districts (voivodeships) all over Poland. A total of 128 samples from broiler flocks and the corresponding carcasses were collected between February 2011 and April 2013. The Campylobacter isolation and species identification were performed according to ISO 10272-1 standard and with PCR. It was found that 112 flock (96.5%) were contaminated with campylobacters, either C. jejuni (77 samples; 68.7%) or C. coli (35 flocks; 31.3%). Analysis of the corresponding chicken carcasses tested after chilling revealed that 77 out of 128 (60.2%) samples were positive for Campylobacter, either C. jejuni (58; 75.3%) or C. coli (19; 24.7%). Most of the carcasses were contaminated with the same Campylobacter species as identified in the corresponding flock before slaughter. As tested by PCR, out of the 77 crops with C. jejuni 58 were positive for the same bacterial species. On the other hand, out of the remaining 35 flocks infected with C. coli, only 19 corresponding carcass samples were contaminated with C. coli. In three cases in the slaughtered flocks C. jejuni was identified but in the same carcasses C. coli was found. The opposite findings (flock positive for C. coli but the corresponding carcasses contaminated with C. jejuni) were seen in six voivodeships. It was also observed that several carcass samples were negative for C. jejuni and C. coli although the original flocks were Campylobacter-positive before slaughter (total 36 of the 77 samples; 46.7%). On the other hand, some carcasses were contaminated with Campylobacter although the flocks were negative for these bacteria (9 samples; 11

  12. Effects of environmental temperature and dietary energy on energy partitioning coefficients of female broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishnamazi, A; Renema, R A; Paul, D C; Wenger, I I; Zuidhof, M J

    2015-10-01

    With increasing disparity between broiler breeder target weights and broiler growth potential, maintenance energy requirements have become a larger proportion of total broiler breeder energy intake. Because energy is partitioned to growth and egg production at a lower priority than maintenance, accurate prediction of maintenance energy requirements is important for practical broiler breeder feed allocation decisions. Environmental temperature affects the maintenance energy requirement by changing rate of heat loss to the environment. In the ME system, heat production (energy lost) is part of the maintenance requirement (ME). In the current study, a nonlinear mixed model was derived to predict ME partitioning of broiler breeder hens under varied temperature conditions. At 21 wk of age, 192 Ross 708 hens were individually caged within 6 controlled environmental chambers. From 25 to 41 wk, 4 temperature treatments (15°C, 19°C, 23°C, and 27°C) were randomly assigned to the chambers for 2-week periods. Half of the birds in each chamber were fed a high-energy (HE; 2,912 kcal/kg) diet, and half were fed a low-energy (LE; 2,790 kcal/kg) diet. The nonlinear mixed regression model included a normally distributed random term representing individual hen maintenance, a quadratic response to environmental temperature, and linear ADG and egg mass (EM) coefficients. The model assumed that energy requirements for BW gain and egg production were not influenced by environmental temperature because hens were homeothermic, and the cellular processes for associated biochemical processes occurred within a controlled narrow core body temperature range. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual ME (RME) were used to estimate efficiency. A quadratic effect of environmental temperature on broiler breeder MEm was predicted ( Birds fed the HE diet were more efficient, with a lower RME than birds on the LE diet (-0.63 vs. 0.63 kcal/kg), translating to ME of 135.2 and 136.5 kcal

  13. Effects of incubational humidity and hen age on embryo composition in broiler hatching eggs from young breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, E D; Burnham, M R; Gardner, C W; Brake, J; Bruzual, J J; Gerard, P D

    2001-09-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding the influence of incubational humidity on the characteristics of broiler embryos from young hens that often produce chicks of marginal quality. Therefore, the effects of broiler breeder age (26, 28, and 30 wk) in young broiler breeders and incubator humidity (43, 53, and 63% RH) on embryonic growth between 16 and 21 d of incubation, hatching chick weight, and embryo and chick body compositions were evaluated. Hatching broiler chick BW at 21 d was lower for 26-wk-old breeders compared to those at 28 and 30 wk, and the lowest RH decreased relative wet embryo weight. Embryonic growth, on wet and DM bases, was increased in eggs from the youngest hens. Embryo moisture content (EM) was lower at 16, 17, and 19 d of incubation in eggs from breeders at 26 wk when compared to those at 28 wk of age. The effects of RH on embryo crude protein and fat composition were not consistent and varied with breeder age and length of incubation. It was demonstrated that broiler breeder age affects embryogenesis and hatching chick BW. Furthermore, EM was influenced by breeder age, and changes in incubational RH between 43 and 63% affected embryogenesis without having associated effects on EM or consistent effects on embryo crude fat and protein content. Nevertheless, a depression in embryogenesis with a reduction in incubational RH to 43% may accentuate poor posthatch performance of chicks from young breeders.

  14. Seroprevalence of avian hepatitis E virus and avian leucosis virus subgroup J in chicken flocks with hepatitis syndrome, China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yani; Du, Taofeng; Liu, Baoyuan; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Chen, Yiyang; Li, Huixia; Wang, Xinjie; Zhang, Gaiping; Zhou, En-Min; Zhao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2014 to 2015 in China, many broiler breeder and layer hen flocks exhibited a decrease in egg production and some chickens developed hepatitis syndrome including hepatomegaly, hepatic necrosis and hemorrhage. Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) both cause decreasing in egg production, hepatomegaly and hepatic hemorrhage in broiler breeder and layer hens. In the study, the seroprevalence of avian HEV and ALV-J in these flocks emerging the di...

  15. Molecular survey of avian respiratory pathogens in commercial broiler chicken flocks with respiratory diseases in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussan, D A; Haddad, R; Khawaldeh, G

    2008-03-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections are of paramount importance in the poultry industry. Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian pneumovirus (APV), and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) have been recognized as the most important pathogens in poultry. In this study, trachea swabs from 115 commercial broiler chicken flocks that suffered from respiratory disease were tested for AIV subtype H9N2, IBV, NDV, and APV by using reverse transcription PCR and for MG by using PCR. The PCR and reverse transcription PCR results showed that 13 and 14.8% of these flocks were infected with NDV and IBV, respectively, whereas 5.2, 6.0, 9.6, 10.4, 11.3, and 15.7% of these flocks were infected with both NDV and MG; MG and APV; IBV and NDV; IBV and MG; NDV and AIV; and IBV and AIV, respectively. Furthermore, 2.6% of these flocks were infected with IBV, NDV, and APV at the same time. On the other hand, 11.3% of these flocks were negative for the above-mentioned respiratory diseases. Our data showed that the above-mentioned respiratory pathogens were the most important causes of respiratory disease in broiler chickens in Jordan. Further studies are necessary to assess circulating strains, economic losses caused by infections and coinfections of these pathogens, and the costs and benefits of countermeasures. Furthermore, farmers need to be educated about the signs and importance of these pathogens.

  16. Isolation of Campylobacter from Brazilian broiler flocks using different culturing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; Pozza, J S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2014-11-01

    Conventional culturing methods enable the detection of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. However, laboratory culture of Campylobacter is laborious because of its fastidious behavior and the presence of competing nontarget bacteria. This study evaluated different protocols to isolate Campylobacter from broiler litter, feces, and cloacal and drag swabs. Samples taken from commercial Brazilian broiler flocks were directly streaked onto Preston agar (PA), Campy-Line agar (CLA), and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and also enriched in blood-free Bolton broth (bfBB) for 24 and 48 h followed by plating onto the different selective media. Higher numbers of Campylobacter-positive cloacal and drag swab samples were observed using either direct plating or enrichment for 24 h before plating onto PA, compared with enrichment for 48 h (P Campylobacter in broiler litter and feces samples. Analysis of directly plated samples revealed that higher Campylobacter levels were detected in feces streaked onto PA (88.8%), cloacal swabs plated onto mCCDA (72.2%), drag swabs streaked onto CLA or mCCDA (69.4%), and litter samples inoculated onto PA (63.8%). Preston agar was the best agar to isolate Campylobacter from directly plated litter samples (P Campylobacter in other samples. The isolated Campylobacter strains were phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The predominant contaminant observed in the Campylobacter cultures was Proteus mirabilis, which was resistant to the majority of antimicrobial agents in selective media. Together, these data showed that direct plating onto PA and onto either CLA or mCCDA as the second selective agar enabled the reliable isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter species from broiler samples. Finally, Campylobacter was detected in all broiler flocks sampled.

  17. Listeria spp. in broiler flocks: recovery rates and species distribution investigated by conventional culture and the EiaFoss method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Hedegård; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    using CHR.4.17; Fraser and Fraser broths. L. monocytogenes was isolated from two of 71 broiler hocks, yielding an estimated flock prevalence of 3%. The flock prevalence of L. inocua was estimated to 13%, and it was speculated that the potential of this apathogenic bacteria to grow faster than L...

  18. Effects of guanidinoacetic acid diet supplementation on semen quality and fertility of broiler breeder roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapeh, Ramin Shahabi; Zhandi, Mahdi; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Akhlaghi, Amir

    2017-02-01

    Decreased semen quality and fertility rate is a common feature in broiler breeder roosters. This decrease is associated with dysfunction of Sertoli cells and defective spermatogenesis. Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), as a precursor of creatine, plays an important role in the proper functioning of Sertoli cells and energy metabolism in sperm. Twenty, 29-wk-old broiler breeder roosters (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups and fed diets supplemented with different levels of GAA, including 0 (GAA-0), 600 (GAA-600), 1200 (GAA-1200), and 1800 (GAA-1800) mg GAA/kg of diet for 26 successive weeks. During a 24-wk period, the seminal characteristics were weekly evaluated. At the end of experiment, sperm penetration and fertility rates were determined, using 68 artificially inseminated age-matched broiler breeder hens of the same strain (for 2 weeks). Semen concentration (P = 0.003), total sperm number (P = 0.005) and sperm forward motility (P = 0.01) were increased by GAA-1200 group. Also, sperm plasma membrane functionality was marginally affected (P = 0.06) in roosters received all levels of GAA. Sperm abnormality and plasma membrane integrity were not affected by dietary GAA. The highest number of sperm penetration holes was recorded for the GAA-1200 group (P = 0.08). Interestingly, fertility rate was increased by the feeding of all levels of GAA (P = 0.01). In conclusion, dietary GAA was associated with improvement in most of the rooster's seminal characteristics and fertility rate, suggesting a potential for using GAA to attenuate the age-related sub-fertility in commercial broiler breeder roosters.

  19. Effect of dietary vitamin A on reproductive performance and immune response of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianmin; Roshdy, Abdelfatah Rashad; Guo, Yuming; Wang, Yongwei; Guo, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin A supplementation on reproductive performance, liver function, fat-soluble vitamin retention, and immune response were studied in laying broiler breeders. In the first phase of the experiment, 1,120 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed a diet of corn and soybean meal supplemented with 5,000 to 35,000 IU/kg vitamin A (retinyl acetate) for 20 weeks. In the second phase, 384 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed the same diet supplemented with 5,000 to 135,000 IU/kg vitamin A (retinyl acetate) for 24 weeks. The hens' reproductive performance, the concentrations of vitamins A and E in liver and egg yolk, liver function, mRNA expression of vitamin D receptor in duodenal mucosa, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus vaccine, and T-cell proliferation responses were evaluated. Supplementation of vitamin A at levels up to and including 35,000 IU/kg did not affect reproductive performance and quadratically affected antibody titer to Newcastle disease virus vaccine (pvitamin A linearly increased vitamin A concentration in liver and yolk and linearly decreased α-, γ-, and total tocopherol concentration in yolk (pvitamin A at doses of 45,000 IU/kg and above significantly decreased egg weight, yolk color, eggshell thickness and strength, and reproductive performance. Dietary vitamin A significantly increased mRNA expression of vitamin D receptor in duodenal mucosa (pvitamin A at 135,000 IU/kg decreased the proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (pvitamin A for broiler breeders appears to be 35,000 IU/kg, as excessive supplementation has been shown to impair liver function, reproductive performance, and immune response.

  20. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Danish broiler production: a cross-sectional survey and a retrospective analysis of risk factors for occurrence in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Wedderkopp, A.; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    In order to elucidate the rate of thermophilic Campylobacter spp, carriage in Danish broiler production and to identify risk factors for occurrence of campylobacter in broiler flocks, a total of 88 randomly selected broiler flocks were tested for campylobacter infection, and a subsequent study...... of risk factors based on a questionnaire was conducted, The sample material comprised cloacal swabs from live birds before slaughter, and neck skin samples from carcasses at the end of the processing line. A total of 52% of the flocks were found Campylobacter spp.-positive before slaughter. At the end...... of processing, 24% of the flocks were positive. The species distribution was 87% Campylobacter jejuni, 8% Campylobacter coli and 5% Campylobacter lari, The following parameters were identified as significant risk factors: lack of a hygiene barrier (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1, 1.1

  1. Translation of risk factor estimates into on-farm interventions and their effect on Campylobacter broiler flock prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Nauta, Maarten; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Before deciding upon interventions to control Campylobacter in broiler flocks, it would be useful to estimate the potential effects of different interventions. Certain previously identified risk factors for colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter may seem to have large impact...... on the broiler flock prevalence. Nevertheless, interventions related to these risk factors may have only limited effect on the overall prevalence estimate, since in practice only a relatively small fraction of farms are actually amenable for an intervention related to a given risk factor.We present a novel...... had shown to have significant impact on Campylobacter flock prevalence, were translated into practical on-farm interventions. Given the implementation of these interventions the population prevalence was predicted by developing and using a statistical method anchored in the ideas behind standardized...

  2. EFFECT OF STORAGE, PRE-HEATING AND TURNING DURING HOLDING PERIOD ON THE HATCHABILITY OF BROILER BREEDER EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAHMUD AND T. N. PASHA1

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred forty fertile eggs of an average weight of 52-55g were taken from 32 weeks old broiler breeder flock. These eggs were divided into four groups i.e. A (Without turning and preheating, B (No turning but preheated, C (Turned but without preheating, and D (given both treatments preheating and turning with 60 eggs in each group. The eggs were stored with broad end upward at 16-20°C and 65-75% humidity. After storage for 5 days, the pre-heating of eggs of groups B and D was performed in an incubator where hot air at 30°C temperature was circulated for 6-7 hours to provide gradual warmth to the eggs before setting in the same incubator. The temperature of the incubator was maintained at 37.6°C with relative humidity of 70%. The eggs of groups C and D were turned on hourly basis at an angle of about 45° till 17 days of incubation. The hatchability values of eggs of groups A, B, C and D were 88.30 ± 0.30, 76.30 ± 0.30, 83.30 ± 0.30 and 79.90 ± 0.10%, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data by Chi-square test showed non-significant differences among treatments.

  3. Effects of Climate on Incidence of Campylobacter spp. in Humans and Prevalence in Broiler Flocks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Mary Evans; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Wainø, Michael

    2004-01-01

    of sunlight on Campylobacter incidence in humans and broiler flocks by using lag dependence functions, locally fitted linear models, and cross validation methods. For humans, the best model included average temperature and sunlight 4 weeks prior to infection; the maximum temperature lagged at 4 weeks...... humidity predicted the incidence in humans equally well. For broiler flock incidence these factors explained considerably less. Future research should focus on elements within the broiler environment that may be affected by climate, as well as the interaction of microclimatic factors on and around broiler...... farms. There is a need to quantify the contribution of broilers as a source of campylobacteriosis in humans and to further examine the effect of temperature on human incidence after this contribution is accounted for. Investigations should be conducted into food consumption and preparation practices...

  4. Effects of acute and chronic heat stress on plasma metabolites, hormones and oxidant status in restrictedly fed broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjing; Tang, Li; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

    2015-07-01

    Heat tolerance can be improved by feed restriction in broiler chickens. It is unknown whether the same is true for broiler breeders, which are restrictedly fed. Therefore, the current study was conducted to study the effects of heat stress on plasma metabolites, hormones, and oxidative status of restricted fed broiler breeders with special emphases on the temperature and latency of heat exposure. In trial 1, 12 broiler breeders were kept either in a thermoneutral chamber (21°C, control, n = 6) or in a chamber with a step-wise increased environmental temperature from 21 to 33°C (21, 25, 29, 33°C, heat-stressed, n = 6). Changes in plasma total cholesterol, glucose, and triiodothyronine (T3) were closely related to the environmental temperature. When the temperature reached 29°C, plasma T3 (P stressed birds, whereas plasma glucose (P stressed birds than controls regardless of the temperatures applied. In Trial 2, 24 broiler breeders were divided into 2 groups and raised under 21°C and 32°C for 8 weeks, respectively. Total cholesterol was increased in chronic heat-stressed broiler breeders after 4 weeks. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, P = 0.047) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, P = 0.036) was up-regulated after 6 weeks of thermal treatment, whereas plasma CK (P = 0.009) was increased at the end of thermal treatment. Plasma malonaldehyde, protein carbonyl content, activity of total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and corticosterone content were not altered after acute and prolonged heat challenges. Taken together, acute heat stress primarily resulted in disturbance of plasma metabolites, whereas chronic heat stress caused tissue damage reflected by increased plasma LDA, GOT, and CK. During acute heat stress, plasma metabolites were minimally disturbed in broiler breeders until the environmental temperature reached 33°C. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Lysine requirements of pre-lay broiler breeder pullets: determination by indicator amino acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Russell A; Bertolo, Robert F; Moehn, Soenke; Leslie, Michael A; Ball, Ronald O; Korver, Doug R

    2003-09-01

    The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method allows the determination of amino acid requirements under conditions of low growth rate as found in pre-laying broiler breeder pullets. Cobb 500 breeder pullets (20 wk old; 2290 +/- 280 g, n = 4) were adapted (6 d) to a pelleted, purified control diet containing all nutrients at >or=110% of NRC recommendations. After recovery from surgery for implantation of a jugular catheter, each bird was fed, in random order, test diets containing one of nine levels of lysine (0.48, 0.96, 1.92, 2.88, 3.84, 4.80, 7.68, 9.60 and 14.40 g/kg of diet). Indicator oxidation was determined during 4-h primed (74 kBq/kg body), constant infusions (44 kBq x h(-1). kg body(-1)) of L-[1-(14)C]phenylalanine. Using the breakpoint of a one-slope broken-line model, the lysine requirement was determined to be 4.88 +/- 0.96 g/kg of diet or 366 +/- 72 mg x hen(-1) x d(-1) with an upper 95% CI of 6.40 g/kg of diet or 480 mg x hen(-1) x d(-1). IAAO allows determination of individual bird amino acid requirements for specific ages and types of birds over short periods of time and enables more accurate broiler breeder pullet diet formulation.

  6. Subclinical circulation of avian hepatitis E virus within a multiple-age rearing and broiler breeder farm indicates persistence and vertical transmission of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxler, Salome; Pać, Krzysztof; Prokofieva, Irina; Liebhart, Dieter; Chodakowska, Beata; Furmanek, Danuta; Hess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study, a broiler breeder flock and its progeny were monitored for the presence of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA and antibodies. The flock was part of a multiple-age farm where the presence of avian HEV with clinical signs (increased mortality and decreased egg production) was demonstrated in several previous production cycles. Samples were taken twice at the rearing site and several times at the production site from broiler breeders including cockerels and day-old chicks. The samples were investigated by conventional and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and histological methods. At all time points, samples from the hens were positive for avian HEV RNA. The birds did not show any clinical signs, even though histopathological lesions of non-specific aetiology in the liver and spleen could be demonstrated. A significant increase in the number of positive birds and viral load was seen in week 45, in accordance with an increase in antibody titres. In comparison, cockerels investigated in week 62 tested negative by RT-PCR and ELISA. Avian HEV RNA was also detected in day-old chicks hatched from eggs laid in week 25, indicating vertical transmission. All partial helicase and capsid sequences retrieved within this study clustered together and were identical to previous sequences obtained from the same multiple-age farm. In conclusion, avian HEV persisted on the farm over years and circulated between the rearing and the production sites without causing any clinical signs although high viral loads in the adult hens were observed.

  7. A Rare Case Report of duplicate Vents in a Broiler Breeder Hen (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madadi MS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Malformations which occur during the development of the avian body organs can lead to structural and functional abnormalities. Most defects are recognized at hatching, but some go undetected until somewhat later. The cause of the majority of animal congenital malformations is unknown. A significant proportion of congenital malformations of unknown cause are likely to have an important genetic component. Malformations of the gastrointestinal and urogenital systems have been observed. This report describes a rare case of duplicate vents in a broiler breeder 33 week-old hen. A normal calcified egg was present in the left oviduct and right oviduct was atrophied. Both cloaca were anatomically normal, and each of them had a complete structure of coprodeum, urodeum and proctodeum. Double vents’ anomalies in breeder hens were only reported by Crew and Roberts in 1928 - 1929 and have not been reported after this time yet.

  8. Effects of exposing broiler breeders to nicarbazin contaminated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, B L; Jones, J E; Toler, J E; Solis, J; Castaldo, D J

    1991-03-01

    Ten-mo-old broiler feeds were fed nicarbazin (NCZ) at 0, 25, 50 and 100 ppm of their diet for 2, 4, or 6 days to simulate accidental contamination of their feed with the medicant. Reduced egg production was observed in all treatments except 25 and 50 ppm NCZ for 2 days. A consistent reduction in egg weight occurred only at the maximum treatment level of 100 ppm for 6 days. Reduction in hatchability was generally evident by Days 5 and 6 of the experiment except for the lowest treatment of 25 ppm NCZ for 2 days. Due partially to the low number of eggs set, no statistically significant reduction in hatchability was seen for the group receiving 50 ppm NCZ for 4 days, but hatchability had dropped over 17 percentage points (from 93.3 to 75.5%) by Days 5 and 6 of the experiment, and continued to drop to a low of 31% on Days 11 and 12 of the experiment. Shell pigmentation was the most sensitive characteristic measured, with significant depigmentation occurring after only 2 days of feeding 25 ppm NCZ. Generally, the severity and duration of effects were in proportion to medicant concentration and length of treatment time. Fertility was not influenced by the medicant.

  9. Effect of dietary calcium intake on its retention by caged broiler breeder hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important mineral in bone development and egg shell formation of broiler breeder hens. A study was undertaken to further examine the effect of dietary calcium intake on calcium retention of broiler breeder hens and to investigate the relationship between calcium retention and egg characteristics. Ninety broiler breeder hens were obtained from a previous study and allocated to three dietary treatments, 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% calcium level. Feeds were isocaloric and isonitrogenous but differed only in calcium and phosphorus contents. Birds were fed and caged individually with metal trays placed below cages for excreta collection. Excreta samples (30 birds per treatment were collected for calcium and phosphorus determinations during a 7-day period at 3-weekly intervals, i.e., 27, 33, 36 and 42 weeks of age. Other parameters measured included calcium intake of hens, hen day production, egg mass, egg weight, shell weight, shell percentage, shell thickness, egg surface area, shell weight per unit surface area, total calcium retention, shell calcium excretion, shell calcium as a percentage of calcium intake and faecal calcium as percentage of calcium intake. These results showed that dietary calcium level had significant (P<.0001 effect on calcium intake and retention. Dietary calcium level had significant effect on all parameters except egg weight and shell calcium excretion as a percentage of calcium intake. Calcium retention of hens was correlated with age, calcium intake and eggshell characteristics. Age was significantly correlated with all traits except daily calcium intake, calcium retention and shell percentage. The net effect of calcium intake and total calcium excretion was that the 2.5% calcium level (3.8 g calcium /hen/day exhibit a significant (P<.05 higher calcium retention compared to 1.5% calcium level. This suggests that the calcium level of 2.5% and intake of 3.8 g/hen/day is adequate to support egg production, good shell

  10. Effects of method of mating on fertility in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, M G; Brown, H B

    1976-05-01

    Sexually mature commercial broiler breeder pullets were housed singly in laying cages or in floor pens and mated by means of artificial insemination alone, natural mating and natural mating supplemented by artificial insemination. The best fertility, was obtained by the combination method where natural mating was supplemented with artificial inseminations of 0.05 or 0.025 ml of undiluted pooled semen twice a week. Other reproductive traits including percent hatch of fertile eggs and chicks per hen were not affected by method of mating.

  11. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2011-01-01

    diets compared to feed A was detectable in the intestinal contents, with high fibre feed staying longer in the digestive system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dustbathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The onset of lay was delayed......, but the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders. Key...

  12. Detection of variant infectious bronchitis viruses in broiler flocks in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faez Awad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of broiler flocks with respiratory disease and high mortality in five broiler farms in Libya were sampled for detection of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Twelve IBV strains from these farms were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and differentiated by nucleotide sequencing of the hypervariable region of the S1 gene. A pair-wise comparison of the sequences showed two distinctive patterns. Those from farms 1, 2, 4 and 5, formed a separate cluster with 94–99% relatedness to the Egyptian IBV strains CK/Eg/BSU-2/2011, CK/Eg/BSU-3/2011 and Eg/1212B. Sequences from the farm 3 formed another cluster with 100% relatedness to Eg/CLEVB-2/IBV/012 and IS/1494/06. This appears to be the first report on the co-circulation these variant IBVs in Libya.

  13. Dynamics of CMY-2 producing E. coli in a broiler parent flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame-Korevaar, Anita; Fischer, Egil A J; Stegeman, Arjan; Mevius, Dik; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Velkers, Francisca; van der Goot, Jeanet

    2017-05-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamase (ESBL/pAmpC) producing bacteria are resistant to Extended Spectrum Cephalosporins (ESC), and are present in all levels of the broiler production chain. We determined the prevalence, concentration, and persistence of ESBL/pAmpC-Escherichia coli in a broiler parent flock during the rearing and laying period. One-day old chickens were housed in four separate pens. Until week 33 no antibiotics or coccidiostatics were used. During rearing 57 chickens in each pen (n=228), and in the laying period two groups of 33 chickens were individually sampled (n=66). Environmental samples were taken from week 16 onwards. ESBL/pAmpC-E. coli presence was determined by selective culturing. In the samples of week 16-19 the concentration of ESBL/pAmpC-E. coli was determined. All ESC-resistant isolates found were positive for pAmpC gene blaCMY-2 located on IncA/C plasmids, in several E. coli MLST types. CMY-2-E. coli prevalence decreased from 91% (95%CI 86-94%) at day 7 (week 1) to 0% (95%CI 0-5%) in week 21. However, CMY-2-E. coli remained present in the environmental samples during the whole study. CMY-2-E. coli concentration varied between detection limit (E. coli in this broiler parent flock in absence of antibiotics suggests a selective disadvantage of blaCMY-2 on IncA/C plasmids on animal level. The underlying mechanism should be studied further as this may provide new insights on how to reduce ESBL/pAmpC prevalence and transmission in the broiler production chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Observations on Arthritis in Broiler Breeder Chickens Experimentally Infected with Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qin Gu§, Xue-Ying Hu§, Chang-Qing Xie1, Wan-Po Zhang, De-Hai Wang, Quan Zhou and Guo-Fu Cheng1*

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of bacterial arthritis in broiler breeder chickens. In this study, we established a model of broiler breeder chicken arthritis inoculated with Staph. aureus isolated from a spontaneously occurring bacterial arthritis in chickens. We evaluated the model by bacteriology, serology, pathology, and immunology. The results showed that 2.5 × 109 cfu Staph. aureus injected into the right joint cavity can successfully induce a chicken arthritis model. The majority of the infected chickens suffered lameness and joint swelling at 3 days post-inoculation (DPI. The death peak time was on 7 DPI and the mortality rate was 51.1%. Staph. aureus can be continuously isolated from the blood and left joint synovial fluid of the infected chickens. Lesions found on the infected chickens consisted of swollen joints full of caseous exudates, cartilage injury, and synovial membrane thickening with infiltration of inflammatory cells. The center of the lesion contained many round bacterial cocci. With joint injury aggravation, intra-articular hyaluronic acid gradually decreased, and serum interleukin-6 became significantly higher compared with the control (P<0.01 from 3 DPI. The results indicated that the chicken models of Staph. aureus-mediated arthritis were successful, and can be used to gain a better understanding of the host-bacterium relationship.

  15. Effect of day length on flock behavioural patterns and melatonin rhythms in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwean-Lardner, K; Fancher, B I; Laarveld, B; Classen, H L

    2014-02-01

    1. Ross × Ross 308 male broilers were used to study the impact of 14, 17, 20 and 23 h of light (L) on flock behavioural patterns and 24 h melatonin rhythm synchrony during the photophase. 2. Behaviour in two pens (n = 53) per lighting treatment was digitally recorded for 24 h in trial 1 (27-28 d of age (d 27)) and two (42-43 d (d 42)), and quantified using a scan sampling technique at 10 min intervals. Regression procedures were used to test flock trend analysis between behavioural (resting, standing, walking and feeding) variables and time during the photophase. 3. The presence of a flock melatonin rhythm was determined by radioimmunoassay of blood samples collected at 6 times for birds raised on 23L and 8 times for 14, 17 and 20L birds (n = 6 per time) over a 24 h period (d 21) in experiment 1. 4. Quadratic and linear relationships between time and behaviour during the photophase were frequent in 14L and 17L birds, sporadic in 20L birds and non-existent in 23L birds. Relationships were noted in inactive resting (d 27: 14L and 17L; d 42: 14L and 20L), walking (d 27: 14L and 17L), standing (d 27 and d 42: 14L, 17L and 20L) and feeding (d 27: 14L and 17L). A quadratic time × melatonin relationship existed in 14L, 17L and 20L flocks only. 5. Behaviour during the photophase and 24 h melatonin production indicates that flocks exposed to 23L do not develop synchronised rhythms, increasing the risk of suffering from sleep fragmentation.

  16. A data envelope analysis to assess factors affecting technical and economic efficiency of individual broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Jeffrey, S R; Naeima, A; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feed allocation and energetic efficiency on technical and economic efficiency of broiler breeder hens using the data envelope analysis methodology and quantified the effect of variables affecting technical efficiency. A total of 288 Ross 708 pullets were placed in individual cages at 16 wk of age and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three of them had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent BW targets: standard, high (standard x 1.1), and low (standard x 0.9). The fourth group had feed allocated on an individual bird basis following the standard BW target. Birds were classified in 3 energetic efficiency categories: low, average, and high, based on estimated maintenance requirements. Technical efficiency considered saleable chicks as output and cumulative ME intake and time as inputs. Economic efficiency of feed allocation treatments was analyzed under different cost scenarios. Birds with low feed allocation exhibited a lower technical efficiency (69.4%) than standard (72.1%), which reflected a reduced egg production rate. Feed allocation of the high treatment could have been reduced by 10% with the same chick production as the standard treatment. The low treatment exhibited reduced economic efficiency at greater capital costs, whereas high had reduced economic efficiency at greater feed costs. The average energetic efficiency hens had a lower technical efficiency in the low compared with the standard feed allocation. A 1% increment in estimated maintenance requirement changed technical efficiency by -0.23%, whereas a 1% increment in ME intake had a -0.47% effect. The negative relationship between technical efficiency and ME intake was counterbalanced by a positive correlation of ME intake and egg production. The negative relationship of technical efficiency and maintenance requirements was synergized by a negative correlation of hen maintenance and egg production. Economic efficiency methodologies are effective

  17. Assessment of welfare of Brazilian and Belgian broiler flocks using the Welfare Quality protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyttens, F A M; Federici, J F; Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M

    2015-08-01

    The Welfare Quality consortium has proposed a science-based protocol for assessing broiler chicken welfare on farms. Innovative features make the protocols particularly suited for comparative studies, such as the focus on animal-based welfare measures and an integration procedure for calculating an overall welfare status. These protocols reflect the scientific status up to 2009 but are meant to be updated on the basis of inter alia implementation studies. Because only few such studies have been done, we applied the Welfare Quality protocol to compare the welfare of broiler flocks in Belgium (representing a typical European Union (EU) country which implies stringent animal welfare legislation) versus Brazil (the major broiler meat exporter to the EU and with minimal animal welfare legislation). Two trained observers performed broiler Welfare Quality assessments on a total of 22 farms in Belgium and south Brazil. All of the farms produced for the EU market. Although the overall welfare was categorized as 'acceptable' on all farms, many country differences were observed at the level of the welfare principles, criteria, and measures. Brazilian farms obtained higher scores for 3 of the 4 welfare principles: 'good feeding' (P = 0.007), 'good housing' (P potential of the protocol. The results also call for more research into the effect of animal welfare legislation as broiler welfare on the south Brazilian farms appeared to be superior to that on the Belgian farms. Animal-based welfare assessments on a larger sample of farms are needed to evaluate to what extent these findings may be generalized.

  18. Quinolone- and ß-lactam-resistance in Escherichia coli from Danish and Italian broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Guardabassi, Luca; Bisgaard, Magne

    Frederiksberg C, Denmark 2Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica Veterinaria e Patologia Animale, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università di Bologna, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy   The prevalence of quinolone- and ß-lactam-resistant E. coli was investigated among broiler flocks in Denmark and Italy. In Denmark...

  19. Potential risk factors associated with contact dermatitis, lameness, negative emotional state, and fear of humans in broiler chicken flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassler, A.; Arnould, C.; Butterworth, A.; Colin, L.; Jong, de I.C.; Ferrante, V.; Ferrari, P.; Haslam, S.A.; Wemelsfelder, F.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) identify determinants of poor welfare in commercial broiler chicken flocks by studying the associations between selected resource-based measures (RBM, potential risk factors), such as litter quality and dark period, and animal-based welfare indicators (ABM), s

  20. Oocyst output and transmission rates during successive infections with Eimeria acervulina in experimental broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkers, Francisca C; Bouma, Annemarie; Stegeman, J Arjan; de Jong, Mart C M

    2012-06-08

    The infection dynamics of Eimeria species determine the clinical manifestation of the disease coccidiosis in poultry flocks, and a better understanding of the dynamics may contribute to improvement of control measures. Our aim was to study the course of infection and the transmission of Eimeria acervulina in groups of broilers by quantifying the transmission rate parameter and oocyst output. Three transmission experiments were carried out with groups of 20 male SPF broilers. At 2 days of age, one bird in each trial was orally inoculated with five sporulated E. acervulina oocysts (D0 post-inoculation, pi). One day after inoculation (D1 pi), the inoculated bird was housed with 19 non-inoculated contact birds. Individual faecal droppings were examined daily from D3-D32 pi to quantify the number of oocysts per gram faeces. The inoculated bird started shedding oocysts at D5 pi and contact birds between D10 and D17 pi. Contact birds that became infected due to oocyst excretion by the inoculated bird were characterized as first generation contact birds (C1). Contact birds excreting from D15 pi onwards (C2) became infected after the first C1 birds had started shedding and were considered to belong to a successive generation of the flock infection. Oocyst output was significantly lower for C1 compared to C2 birds, but the transmission rate parameter remained constant for both infection generations. These results suggest that although oocyst load increases, the transmission rate of E. acervulina remains constant between successive generations of infection in a flock.

  1. Evaluating and improving terminal hygiene practices on broiler farms to prevent Campylobacter cross-contamination between flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Tara; Walsh, D; Whyte, P; Bolton, D

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate current cleaning practices in broiler houses by testing a range of sites after cleaning and disinfection and to test the efficacy of the most commonly used methods in a commercial broiler house after flock harvesting. Cleaning procedures on 20 broiler houses (10 separate farms) were examined by testing a range of sampling points (feeders, drinkers, walls, etc.) for total viable count (TVC), total Enterobacteriaceae count (TEC) and Campylobacter spp. after cleaning and disinfection, using culture based methods. In a second experiment, the six most commonly used commercially available disinfectants and/or detergent products were evaluated. The results of the first study demonstrated that critical areas in 12 of the 20 broiler houses were not effectively cleaned and disinfected between flocks as the tarmac apron, ante-room, house door, feeders, drinkers, walls, columns, barriers and/or bird weighs were Campylobacter positive. Thermal fogging with the combination of potassium peroxymonosulfate, sulfamic acid and sodium chloride (5%, v/v) or the glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium complex (0.3%, v/v) were the most effective treatments while other disinfectant treatments were considerably less effective. It was therefore concluded that farmers should review their broiler house cleaning and disinfection procedures if Campylobacter cross-contamination between successive flocks is to be prevented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An examination of the role of feeding regimens in regulating metabolism during the broiler breeder grower period. 2. Plasma hormones and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, M; McMurtry, J P; Brocht, D M; Coon, C N

    2008-02-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the effects of different feeding regimens on plasma hormone and metabolite levels in 16-wk-old broiler breeder pullets. A flock of 350 Cobb 500 breeder pullets was divided in 2 at 28 d of age and fed either every day (ED, 5 pens of 35 birds) or skip-a-day (SKIP, 5 pens of 35 birds) from 28 to 112 d of age. Total feed intake did not differ between the 2 groups. At 112 d, 52 randomly selected pullets from the larger flock of ED-fed pullets, and 76 from the SKIP-fed pullets were individually caged and fed a meal of 74 g (ED) or 148 g (SKIP). Blood samples were collected from 4 pullets in each group by cardiac puncture at intervals after feeding. Plasma was analyzed for insulin, glucagon, insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-II, triiodothyronine and thyroxine, corticosterone, leptin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, triglycerides, and uric acid. Feed retention in the crop was also noted at each interval. In ED birds, the crop was empty by 12 h and in SKIP birds, the crop was empty by 24 h after feeding. The physiological responses to fasting, such as increased glucagon and corticosterone and reduced plasma triglyceride, occurred at times coincidental with crop emptying in both ED and SKIP birds. Overall, mean insulin-like growth factor-I levels were higher (P birds. Triiodothyronine was higher (P = 0.09) in SKIP birds. Overall mean plasma corticosterone was 2-fold higher in SKIP-fed birds, which may be related to the increased length of fasting periods, hunger, and stress. Plasma leptin was consistently higher in ED-fed birds, which was indicative of their more consistent food supply and more stable energy status. In summary, the experiment reported here shows that different feeding regimens can alter hormone and metabolite profiles, in spite of total feed intakes being equal.

  3. Comparative study of the effects of organic selenium on hen performance and productivity of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashree, K; Muthukumar, T; Karthikeyan, N

    2014-01-01

    1. A 10-week experiment was conducted with Ross 308 broiler breeder chickens in cages to evaluate the influence of organic and inorganic sources of selenium (Se) supplementation. A total of 600 birds at 29 weeks of age were divided at random into 4 groups and fed on a maize-soya basal diet supplemented with different forms of Se. 2. The first (control) group was given the basal diet without Se supplementation, whereas the second, third and fourth groups were given, respectively, the basal diet with 0.3 mg/kg of inorganic Se in the form of sodium selenite or 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg of organic Se in the form of Se enriched yeast (Se-yeast). 3. The experiment was carried out for 10 weeks to compare and evaluate the influence of Se supplementation on breeder performance, egg production, hatchability and the quality of eggs. Samples were collected for analysis at weeks 0, 5 and 10 of the experimental period. 4. At the end of the experiment (39 weeks), there was a reduction in mortality in breeders given diets supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg of Se-yeast. Supplementation of feed with 0.5 mg/kg organic Se increased egg production, percentage of settable eggs and hatchability. 5. Selenium supplementation increased egg weight and specific gravity compared to the control diet. However, no significant variation was found in albumen or yolk protein content at the end of week 10. 6. Selenium accumulation and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity were lower in the egg albumen and yolk of control compared with Se-supplemented treatments. Se accumulation and GSHPx activity were higher in the group given 0.3 mg/kg organic compared to 0.3 mg/kg of inorganic Se. 7. The results favour the use of Se-yeast at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg in broiler breeder diets for better productivity of eggs, settable eggs, hatchability and higher Se accumulation and antioxidant status in eggs.

  4. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 1: Factors Related to Flock Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, Paul H.; Groves, Peter J.; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Free-range chicken meat consumption has increased. However, little is known about how meat chickens use the outdoor range. Understanding ranging behaviour could help improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. We tracked 1200 individual broiler chickens in four mixed sex flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. More chickens accessed the range in summer than winter. Chickens that accessed the range in winter did so less frequently and for a shorter period of time daily than chickens ranging in summer. The number of chickens ranging and the frequency and duration of range visits increased over the first two weeks of range access and stabilised thereafter. More chickens entered and exited the range through particular doors in the shed. More chickens ranged in the morning and evening compared to the middle of the day. Ranging behaviour decreased with increased rainfall and shed dew point. This study provides knowledge regarding ranging behaviour in commercial conditions that may guide improvements on farm to provide chickens with optimal ranging opportunities. Abstract Little is known about the ranging behaviour of chickens. Understanding ranging behaviour is required to improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 300 individual broiler chickens in each of four mixed sex ROSS 308 flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. Ranging behaviour was tracked from the first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter and 44 days of age in summer. Range use was higher than previously reported from scan sampling studies. More chickens accessed the range in summer (81%) than winter (32%; p < 0.05). On average, daily frequency and duration of range use was greater in summer flocks (4.4 ± 0.1 visits for a total of 26.3 ± 0.8 min/day) than winter flocks (3.2 ± 0.2 visits for a total

  5. Effects of incubator humidity and hen age on yolk composition in broiler hatching eggs from young breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, M R; Peebles, E D; Gardner, C W; Brake, J; Bruzual, J J; Gerard, P D

    2001-10-01

    The effects of broiler breeder age (26, 28, and 30 wk) and incubator relative humidity (43, 53, and 63% RH) on yolk sac weight and composition in broiler hatching eggs between 16 and 19 d of incubation were evaluated. Percentage yolk sac weight was reduced in eggs from the youngest (26 wk) breeder hens and in eggs incubated at 53% RH. Percentage yolk moisture, in eggs from the youngest hens, was lowest at 16 d and was highest at 19 d, and percentage yolk lipid was highest at 16 and 17 d of incubation in eggs from 30-wk-old hens. Percentage yolk lipid content was higher at 63% RH compared with 53% RH in eggs from 26-wk-old breeders but was lower in eggs incubated at a 43% RH compared with 53 and 63% RH from 30-wk-old breeders. Yolk stearic and arachidonic acid concentrations were higher and myristic acid concentration was lower in eggs from the 26-wk-old hens. Conversely, the highest yolk concentrations of linolenic and palmitoleic acids occurred in eggs from 30- and 28-wk-old breeders, respectively. At 16, 17, 18, and 19 d of incubation, yolk oleic acid concentrations were significantly, but variably, affected by breeder age, whereas linoleic acid concentration was highest in 26-wk-old breeders only at 19 d. Palmitic acid concentration at 17 d was lower in eggs incubated at 53% RH compared with 43 and 63% RH. Rate of yolk uptake from the yolk sac by embryos may be increased by incubating eggs at 53% RH, and the effects of changes in RH between 43 and 63% on yolk lipid content are influenced by breeder age.

  6. Jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis) in the diet of broiler breeder pullets: physiological and endocrinological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnouts, S; Buyse, J; Cokelaere, M M; Decuypere, E

    1993-09-01

    The present studies evaluated the ability of jojoba meal (JO) to inhibit feed intake of broiler breeder pullets to limit body weight gain as recommended by the breeder company. A first experiment, using graded levels of JO supplementation (0 to 12%), was conducted to establish appropriate JO supplementation. Adequate reduction of growth rate was obtained with 4% JO supplementation. However, notwithstanding their similar growth rate, 4% JO chickens consumed considerably more feed compared with feed-restricted chickens. The dose-dependent impairment of feed intake with increasing levels of JO supplementation was also associated with increased plasma growth hormone and thyroxine and with decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and triiodothyronine concentrations compared with 0% JO chickens. A second experiment included a pair-fed group. Notwithstanding their similar feed intake, 4% JO chickens gained significantly less body weight compared with their pair-fed counterparts. The 4% JO chickens also had a longer feed transit time per kilogram body weight. Again, circulating levels of the somatotrophic and thyrotrophic hormones were altered according to the dietary treatment. From all these observations, it was concluded that the growth retardation caused by JO supplementation was provoked by an inhibition of appetite linked with the simmondsin content of JO as well as by other antinutritional compounds affecting digestibility.

  7. Investigation of the pathogenesis of Enterococcus cecorum after intravenous, intratracheal or oral experimental infections of broilers and broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoefner, Ida; Christensen, Jens Peter

    be detected from the egg content. In the broilers, all birds in the IV high dose group died within 12h of peracute sepsis, despite massive bacteraemia very few lesions was observed. The PM findings in the low dose IV group resembled the field outbreaks, with severe pericarditis as the major manifestation......Enterococcus cecorum outbreaks has emerged in broiler flocks all over Europe, with considerable economical and animal welfare consequences. The infection has a broad range of manifestations (e.g. pericarditis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis) leading to increased mortality. Currently, little...

  8. Hematological values and body, heart and liver weights of male and female broiler embryos of young and old breeder eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS Morita

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed broiler breeder age (29 or 60 wk-old effects on physical characteristics of eggs (initial mass, mass loss, volume, diameter, surface area and density and of eggshells(weight, volume, thickness, conductance, and porosity , as well as the influence of embryo sex on hematological parameters and body, liver and heart weights during incubation (at days 13, 15, 18 and 21. Physical parameter values were lower in 29-wk-old broiler breeder eggs than those of 60-wk-old breeders, except for relative eggshell weight, which was higher. In both male and female embryos, erythrocytic parameters and the body, liver, and heart weights increased during the incubation. The embryos and their organs were heavier when derived from 60-wk-old breeder eggs as compared to 29-wk-old breeder eggs. At hatching, hematocrit values were higher in males than in females. Thrombocytes were the most frequent leukocytes in the blood. Thrombocyte percentage decreased and lymphocyte percentage increased during the last days of incubation. The results showed maternal age influence only on body, heart and liver weights, focal sex-related influence the hematocrit at hatching, and temporal effect of incubation on body and organ weights, as well as on red blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma glucose, and lymphocytes, which increased during the incubation period, while mean corpuscular volume and thrombocyte values decreased.

  9. Effects of maternal dietary EPA and DHA supplementation and breeder age on embryonic and post-hatch performance of broiler offspring: age and n-3 pufa affect embryonic and post-hatch performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Willems, E; Ampe, B; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2015-04-01

    Breeder age and nutrition are amongst the most important factors affecting progeny growth and development. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acid (FA), with special emphasis on the ratio of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6 n-3) acid, provided to the diet of ageing broiler breeder hens at different ratios, on the incubation parameters and the performance of the offspring. Four hundred and eighty Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment), with an equal fat content. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FAs (CON). Blends of fish oil were used to enrich the three other diets in n-3 FA and to obtain different EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1 (EPA=DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). Every 5 weeks, incubation parameters were assessed. Every 15 weeks, offspring was reared until slaughter age on a standard diet. Breeder age affected almost all incubation and post-hatch parameters, whereas n-3 FA treatment only lowered egg weight (p diet. DHA supplementation, on the other hand, resulted in a lower residual yolk weight (p = 0.0220) and a higher overall offspring mortality (p = 0.0125). In conclusion, supplementation of n-3 FA could not counter the adverse effect of breeder flock age, but did not harm incubation or improve post-hatch performance, either. EPA and DHA affected offspring development differently during early post-hatch life.

  10. Effect of Different Feed Structures and Bedding on the Horizontal Spread of Campylobacter jejuni within Broiler Flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Moen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of different feed structures and beddings on the spread of C. jejuni in broiler flocks, and the effect on the cecal microbiota. Broiler chickens raised in 24 eight-bird group cages on either rubber mat or wood shavings were fed either a wheat-based control diet (Control, a diet where 50% of the ground wheat was replaced by whole wheat prior to pelleting (Wheat, or a wheat-based diet, such as the control diet diluted with 12% oat hulls (Oat. Samples from the cloacal mucosa of all birds were taken daily for C. jejuni quantification and cecum samples were collected at the end of the experiment for C. jejuni quantification and microbiota analyses. We have shown a statistically significant effect of increased feed structure on the reduced spread of C. jejuni in chicken flocks, but no significant differences were detected between types of structure included in the feed. No significant changes in the dominating microbiota in the lower lower gastrointestinal (GI tract were observed, which indicates that feed structure only has an effect on the upper GI tract. Delaying the spread of C. jejuni in broiler flocks could, at time of slaughter, result in fewer C. jejuni-positive broilers.

  11. House-level risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 – 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berke Olaf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concurrent rise in consumption of fresh chicken meat and human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's in Iceland led to a longitudinal study of the poultry industry to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter. Because horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be the most likely source of Campylobacter to broilers, we aimed to identify broiler house characteristics and management practices associated with flock colonization. Between May 2001 and September 2004, pooled caecal samples were obtained from 1,425 flocks at slaughter and cultured for Campylobacter. Due to the strong seasonal variation in flock prevalence, analyses were restricted to a subset of 792 flocks raised during the four summer seasons. Logistic regression models with a farm random effect were used to analyse the association between flock Campylobacter status and house-level risk factors. A two-stage process was carried out. Variables were initially screened within major subsets: ventilation; roof and floor drainage; building quality, materials and repair; house structure; pest proofing; biosecurity; sanitation; and house size. Variables with p ≤ 0.15 were then offered to a comprehensive model. Multivariable analyses were used in both the screening stage (i.e. within each subset and in the comprehensive model. Results 217 out of 792 flocks (27.4% tested positive. Four significant risk factors were identified. Campylobacter colonization was predicted to increase when the flock was raised in a house with vertical (OR = 2.7, or vertical and horizontal (OR = 3.2 ventilation shafts, when the producer's boots were cleaned and disinfected prior to entering the broiler house (OR = 2.2, and when the house was cleaned with geothermal water (OR = 3.3. Conclusion The increased risk associated with vertical ventilation shafts might be related to the height of the vents and the potential for vectors

  12. The effect of low-density broiler breeder diets on performance and immune status of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, H; Boersma, W J A; Cornelissen, J B W J; van Winden, S C L; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J

    2007-02-01

    Effects of low-density broiler breeder diets on offspring performance and mortality were studied using 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb 500 breeders. Breeder treatments involved 4 experimental groups and a control group with normal density diets (ND, 2,600 kcal of AME/kg during rearing and 2,800 kcal of AME/kg during laying). In treatment 2, nutrient densities were decreased by 12% (LD12) and 11% (LD11) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively, whereas in treatment 3, nutrient densities were decreased by 23% (LD23) and 21% (LD21) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively. The nutrient density in these treatments was decreased through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal in the diets. Treatment 4 included diets with the same nutrient densities as in treatment 2 but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP) and LD11(OP)). In treatment 5, the same low-density diet was given to the breeders as in treatment 2 during the rearing period, but it was followed by a normal density diet during the laying period (LD12-ND). Treatments were applied from 4 to 60 wk of age. On low-density diets, offspring showed an increased 1-d-old weight. As compared with offspring of breeders that received ND, the d 38 live weight of chickens from 29-wk-old breeders fed LD11 was improved. Mortality was reduced in offspring from 60-wk-old parent stock given low-density diets. The IgM titers in 35-d-old offspring from eggs with a lower-than-average weight were reduced when 29-wk-old broiler breeders were fed low-density diets. In offspring from eggs with a higher-than-average weight from 60-wk-old parent stock given LD11 or LD21 diets, IgM titers were higher compared with ND. It was concluded that low-density broiler breeder diets can improve offspring growth rates, reduce mortality, and reduce or increase immune responses, depending on breeder age and egg weight.

  13. Comparison of genotypes and serotypes of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Danish wild mammals and birds and from broiler flocks and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Nielsen, E.M.; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    sources are believed to be important reservoirs of Campylobacter infection in broiler chicken flocks. We investigated the potential importance of wildlife as a source of infection in commercial poultry flocks and in humans by comparing the serotype distributions, fla types, and macrorestriction profiles...

  14. Effects of levamisole hydrochloride on cellular immune response and flock performance of commercial broilers

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    OA Oladele

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Levamisole hydrochloride (Lev.HCl has been acclaimed to boost immune response particularly in immunocompromised state. Its routine use as an immunomodulator in poultry production is yet to be well embraced, thus its effects of on cellular immunity and flock performance of commercial broilers were evaluated. One hundred and fifty Anak broiler chicks were separated into two groups of 75 each. Broilers in group 1 were sensitized with 150µg of Staphylococcus aureus antigen each at 4 and 5 weeks, while those in group 2 were not sensitized. Each group was further divided into subgroups A, B, and C. Levamisole hydrochloride (40 mg/kg was administered orally to 1A and 2A at 45 and 46 days of age and to 1B and 2B at 47 and 48 days of age, while 1C and 2C were not treated. At 47 days of age, 12 broilers from all subgroups were challenged with 75µg of S. aureus antigen each at the right wattle. Wattle thickness was measured till 72 hours post challenge (pc and delayed wattle reaction (DWR was determined. Tissues were harvested at 72 hours pc for histopathology. Morbidity, mortality and live weights at 8 weeks of age were recorded. DWR peaked at 4 hours pc in 1A (2.22 ± 0.21 mm and 1B (2.96 ± 0.21 mm and 24 hours pc in 1C (3.39 ± 0.34 mm, the difference being significant (p<0.05. Inflammatory lesions were observed in wattles of sensitized subgroups and were more severe in 1C. Mortality rates were 4.17% and 29.17% in 1A and 1C respectively. Mean live weights in A and B i.e. 1.57± 0.06 kg and 1.56 ± 0.06 kg respectively, were significantly higher (p<0.0 than 1.43 ± 0.08 kg in C. Levamisole enhanced DTH via an early response, improved broiler liveability, and its anti-inflammatory property was confirmed.

  15. SEROLOGICAL STATUS OF EGG DROP SYNDROME IN BREEDERS AND COMMERCIAL LAYERS IN MANSEHRA DISTRICT

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    S. T. BADAR1, M. SIDDIQUE, R. ALI1 AND M. H. RASOOL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey was conducted to see the prevalence of antibodies to egg drop syndrome (EDS virus in breeders and commercial layers in Mansehra district. A total of 50 flocks including broiler breeder (30, layer breeder (10 and commercial layers (10 were surveyed from September, 2002 to March, 2003. Paired serum samples were collected at random from 20 birds in each flock at fortnight interval and screened through haemagglutination inhibition (HI test. In broiler breeders, out of 30 flocks, 12(40% were serologically positive for EDS. In layer breeders and commercial layers, 30 and 20% flocks were found to be seropositive, respectively. On the basis of age, maximum seroprevalence (42.85% was observed in birds between 21-40 weeks of age. The seroprevalence was 33.33% in 1-20 weeks, 26.66% in 41-60 weeks and 25.00 % in 61 weeks and above old birds. No specific clinical signs were observed in all three types of birds. A drop in egg production (22.555% was observed in seropositive flocks along with misshapen soft shelled, shell-less and non-pigmented eggs. Based on these findings, the farmers were advised to vaccinate their flocks against EDS between 14-16 weeks of age using killed adjuvanted vaccines.

  16. The Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Prebiotic and Probiotic on Performance, Humoral Immunity Responses and Egg Hatchability in Broiler Breeders

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    Hajati H

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the influence of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation in the broiler breeder diets on body weight, mortality, feed intake, egg production, hatchability and humoral immunity response was investigated. A total number of 13140 female and 1260 male breeders (Cobb 500 with 26 wks of age were allocated to three treatments with six replicates (800 birds each replicate. Breeders were fed control basal diet, basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide or probiotic (Protexin® for 17 weeks. Body weight, feed intake and egg production were measured weekly during 26-40 wks of age. The hatchability of eggs was recorded on weeks 38, 39, and 40. Antibody production was recorded after 8 wks of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation. Prebiotic supplementation did not affect feed intake, the percentages of egg production and settable eggs percents. Prebiotic increased egg hatchability and reduced the percentages of infertile eggs, as well as dead embryo-in-shells. Antibody titers against influenza and reovirus were higher in prebiotic fed group, but there were no significant differences among the other blood antibody titers. Probiotic had no significant effect on the considered parameters. In conclusion, findings of present study showed that prebiotic improved egg hatchability and humoral immunity of broiler breeders.

  17. Effect of sesame seeds on blood physiological and biochemmical parameters in broiler breeder hens

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    S. Y. Abdul-Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of employing sesame seeds in broiler breeder diet on some physiological parameters. 30 Cobb breeder hens (36 week age were divided into 3 groups (10 hens each. The 1st group was reared on standard ration (control, the 2nd group was reared on standard ration and given orally Sesame seeds capsules daily (250 mg /kg and the 3rd group was reared on standard ration and given orally Sesame seeds capsules daily (500 mg/kg. The treatment continues for 4 weeks period. Results showed a significant increase in the RBCs, Hb and PCV in the 2nd and 3rd group compared with the control group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in MCV and MCH. Significant increase in the MCHC in the 3rd group compared with other groups after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment was noticed. Sesame seeds treatments for 4 weeks also caused a significant increase in the WBC count in the 2nd and 3rd group as compared with control. Hormonal Assay revealed that sesame seeds treatment with tow doses has no effects on plasma levels of LH hormone (4.94 and 4.48 miu/ml compared with control (3.93 miu / ml, but the sesame seeds treatment (500 mg/kg causes a significant increase in plasma levels of FSH (0.88 miu / ml compared with the control (0.64 miu/ ml. Sesame seeds treatment, also, increased the egg weight, shell weight and yolk weight and it reached the levels of significantly in the 3rd group (66.15, 7.33 and 20.65 g respectively as compared with control (61.48, 6.86 and 18.66 g, respectively. It is concluded that, sesame seeds treatment enhanced erythropoiesis, FSH activity and some productive parameters.

  18. Prevalence of antibodies against chicken anaemia virus (CAV in broiler breeders in Southern Brazil Prevalência de anticorpos contra o vírus da anemia das galinhas (CAV em matrizes de corte no Sul do Brasil

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    Cláudio W. Canal

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chicks infected during the first two weeks of life with chicken anaemia virus (CAV manifest clinical disease that can be avoided if the breeder hens transfer enough antibodies to their progeny. The objective of the present work was to establish the prevalence and titer of anti-CAV antibodies in some Brazilian broiler hen breeder flocks and verify in which phase of life the birds were infected. A total of 1,709 serum samples from 12 broiler hen flocks vaccinated against CAV and 64 unvaccinated flocks were analyzed for CAV antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All non-vaccinated breeder flocks were found to be infected with CAV, with 89% of the hens tested presenting antibodies, 52% of these with titers considered high enough to protect their progeny against CAV infection. Likewise, all vaccinated hens had antibody titer to CAV capable of conferring protection to their progeny. Thus, vaccination of hens seems capable of conferring protection to chicks against clinically apparent CAV-associated disease.A doença clínica causada pelo vírus da anemia das galinhas (CAV ocorre quando os pintos são infectados durante as primeiras duas semanas de vida e pode ser prevenida se as matrizes transferirem anticorpos suficientes para a sua progênie. Em vista disso, este estudo foi realizado visando determinar a prevalência de anticorpos contra o CAV em alguns lotes de matrizes pesadas no Brasil. Buscou-se ainda verificar em que fase da vida as reprodutoras seriam infectadas e quais seriam os títulos de anticorpos nessas aves. Um total de 1709 amostras de soro de 64 lotes de reprodutoras não vacinadas e 12 lotes de reprodutoras vacinadas contra o CAV foram analisados por ELISA. Todos os lotes de aves não vacinadas apresentaram anticorpos. Dentre esses, 89% dos indivíduos foram positivos, 52% com títulos de anticorpos capazes de conferir proteção a sua progênie contra o CAV. Igualmente, todos os lotes de matrizes vacinadas

  19. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in broiler flocks and broiler carcasses in Italy

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    Giacomo Migliorati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with European Union regulations, from 5 February until 15 December 2008, sampling and analysis activities were conducted in Italy to assess the extent of contamination caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter in broiler chickens farmed nationwide. The survey involved 48 poultry slaughterhouses distributed across eleven regions of Italy, where the caeca and carcasses of 393 slaughter batches were sampled. A total of 284 batches (72.3% gave positive results for Campylobacter spp. as follows: 52.1% were contaminated by C. jejuni, 55.6% by C. coli and 1.1% by C. lari. C. jejuni and C. coli were isolated together in 37 batches (13% of positive results. Campylobacter spp. was isolated only from the caeca in 251 slaughter batches (63.9% including caecal isolates of C. jejuni (48.2%, C. coli (50.6%, and C. lari (1.2%. Carcasses from 182 batches (46.3% were contaminated by C. jejuni in 40.7% of cases, C. coli in 57.7% and the absence of C. lari from all batches examined. The contamination level observed in the carcasses ranged between 10 and 1.6 × 107 cfu/g.

  20. Effects of supplementing broiler breeder diets with organic selenium and polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, A C; Acamovic, T; Sparks, N H C; Surai, P F; McDevitt, R M

    2005-06-01

    We assessed the effects of supplementation of broiler breeder diets with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and organic Se on hatching egg quality during storage. Broiler breeders (n = 352) were fed 1 of 4 diets: SO (soybean oil with no added Se), SO with Se (SO+Se), fish oil (FO), or FO and Se (FO+Se). Eggs from prepeak (23 wk) and peak production (27 wk) breeders were stored for 14 d under typical (15 degrees C, 78% RH) conditions. Eggs were analyzed for albumen Haugh units (HU) and pH, shell characteristics, egg component weight, Se content, and fatty acid (FA) profile. The efficiency of transfer of Se into the egg was greater in low Se treatments compared with in high Se treatments. The majority of Se from the low Se treatments was deposited in the yolk, whereas in high Se treatments, the Se was deposited evenly in the yolk and albumen. In the low Se treatments, the Se content of yolk and albumen was lower than in the high Se treatments and decreased as age increased. Albumen HU decreased with increased storage, although high Se treatments had greater HU compared with low Se treatments. Eggs from the FO treatment were smaller with thinner eggshells compared with the SO treatment, but addition of Se to the FO diets ameliorated some of these effects. The egg yolk FA profile from the SO+Se treatment was altered compared with that from the SO treatment, perhaps due to interactions between dietary PUFA and Se-dependent enzyme systems. Hatching egg quality during storage was affected by dietary PUFA and Se content, as well as broiler breeder age.

  1. Gluconeogenesis differs in developing chick embryos derived from small compared with typical size broiler breeder eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, N E; Bequette, B J

    2010-03-01

    We hypothesized that, as the supply of preformed glucose diminishes during development, the embryo would transition to a greater rate of gluconeogenesis (GNG) and that GNG would be greater in embryos from small vs. typical size eggs. Gluconeogenesis by embryos from small (51.1 +/- 3.46 g) and typical size (65 +/- 4.35 g) broiler breeder eggs was measured by dosing [(13)C(6)]glucose (15 mgxegg(-1)) into the chorio-allantoic fluid for 3 consecutive days to achieve isotopic steady-state before blood collection on embryonic day (e) 12, e14, e16, and e18 (4 to 5 eggsxsize(-1)xd(-1)). The (13)C-Mass isotopomer enrichment of blood glucose was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. On e14, e16, and e18, but not on e12, embryos from small eggs weighed less (P Cori cycling and glucose (13)C-recycling (% of entry rate) increased (P Cori cycle flux were greater (P Cori and non-Cori cycle fluxes were greater for embryos from small eggs. From e12 through e18, blood concentrations of gluconeogenic AA (threonine, glutamine, arginine, proline, isoleucine, and valine) were 25 to 48% less (P < 0.01) in embryos from small eggs. In conclusion, embryos from small eggs exhibit greater rates of GNG earlier in development compared with typical size eggs and, perhaps as a consequence, their reduced embryonic growth may result from diverting greater supplies of AA toward GNG.

  2. Vitamin E and selenium in broiler breeder diets: Effect on live performance, hatching process, and chick quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, U R A; Dahlke, F; Maiorka, A; Bueno, I J M; Schneider, A F; Surek, D; Rocha, C

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different dietary vitamin E levels and different selenium sources on the productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders. In total 640 females and 64 males between 22 and 52 weeks old were studied. A completely randomized experimental design in factorial arrangement, with 4 treatments of 8 replicates with 20 females and 2 males each, was applied. Treatments consisted of 2 vitamin E levels (30 and 120 mg/kg) and two selenium sources (sodium selenite and zinc-L-selenomethionine). Egg production (rate of lay and eggs per breeder), egg characteristics (egg, yolk, eggshell, and albumen weights), fertility, incubation responses (egg weight loss during incubation, hatchability, and hatching window), and hatchling characteristics (weight and yield) were evaluated. There was no influence of dietary vitamin E levels or selenium sources on egg production (P > 0.05). Mature breeders (47 weeks old) fed zinc-L-selenomethionine and 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed produced heavier eggs and albumen. Hatchability of the eggs of breeders fed 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed was higher than breeders fed 30 mg vitamin at 29 wks. The dietary inclusion of organic selenium also promoted heavier hatchling weight until egg production peak (33 wk), but did not influence hatchling quality or hatching window. It was concluded that the dietary supplementation of zinc-L-selenomethione and vitamin E (120 mg/kg feed) could be used to improve egg characteristics and incubation response.

  3. Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Conventional Broiler Flocks and the Impacts of Sampling Strategy and Laboratory Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, A B; Colles, F M; Rodgers, J D; McCarthy, N D; Davies, R H; Maiden, M C J; Clifton-Hadley, F A

    2016-04-01

    The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coliisolates from commercial broiler farms was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), with an assessment of the impact of the sample type and laboratory method on the genotypes of Campylobacter isolated. A total of 645C. jejuniand 106C. coli isolates were obtained from 32 flocks and 17 farms, with 47 sequence types (STs) identified. The Campylobacter jejuniisolates obtained by different sampling approaches and laboratory methods were very similar, with the same STs identified at similar frequencies, and had no major effect on the genetic profile of Campylobacter population in broiler flocks at the farm level. ForC. coli, the results were more equivocal. While some STs were widely distributed within and among farms and flocks, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among farms forC. jejuni, where farm effects accounted for 70.5% of variance, and among flocks from the same farm (9.9% of variance for C. jejuni and 64.1% forC. coli). These results show the complexity of the population structure of Campylobacterin broiler production and that commercial broiler farms provide an ecological niche for a wide diversity of genotypes. The genetic diversity of C. jejuni isolates among broiler farms should be taken into account when designing studies to understand Campylobacter populations in broiler production and the impact of interventions. We provide evidence that supports synthesis of studies on C. jejuni populations even when laboratory and sampling methods are not identical.

  4. Frequency of Salmonella detection in a broiler flock depending on different litter materials--a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Inger; Schmitz, Christina; Moors, Eva; Gauly, Matthias; Czerny, Claus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    During the fattening period of a broiler flock four different litter materials (peat, chopped straw, shavings, silage) were tested simultaneously.The separated sections were tested for the presence of Salmonella bacteria using the sock-sampling method as described in the regulation EC No. 646/2007 with slight modifications in the sampling technique and the laboratory protocol. In addition, some chemical and physical parameters regarding litter quality and house climate were analysed. Samples were taken at day 0 (housing of animals), day 14, and day 30. At the end of the fattening period Salmonella Paratyphi B (d-tartrate +), representing a common strain in German broiler flocks, were isolated from culture. According to the various types of bedding materials some differences in the frequency of Salmonella detection were found. With three samples out of six samples being positive, wood shavings showed the highest Salmonella prevalence, followed by peat with two positive results. Corn silage was found to be a suitable alternative for common litter materials and revealed only one positive sample. Chopped straw was found to be free of Salmonella in our study. However, the latter had a higher risk for negative side effects concerning animal health and house climate. The study showed that the choice of an appropriate litter material might be of considerable importance in order to decrease the Salmonella burden within poultry flocks.

  5. Inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the diet of broiler breeders on performance and incubation parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Duarte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of a diet containing canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3 on the production and reproductive performances of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aged 53 to 61 weeks. The study included 36,000 Cobb 500 female and 3,600 male broiler breeders aging 51 weeks. The birds were housed in three poultry houses divided into four plots, totaling 12 experimental units each containing 3,000 females and 300 males. The birds received the following treatments: control diet (without the studied additives or the control diet with the addition of 60mg kg-1feed of 25-(OH-D3 and canthaxanthin feed (6mg of canthaxanthin and 2,760,000IU of 25-(OH-D3 per kg of feed per the supplier's recommendations. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block design with two treatments and six replicates. The results were subjected to analysis of variance followed by the F-test. The treatments had no effect on egg production, usability of eggs and number of incubatable eggs per bird housed. The inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-(OH-D3 in the diet reduced embryonic mortality while increasing egg yolk pigmentation, hatching percentage, and number of viable chicks produced per bird. Therefore, the use of 60mg kg-1of 25-(OH-D3 plus canthaxanthin is recommended in the diet of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aging 53 to 61 weeks to improve important reproductive traits that have great economic impacts on poultry farms

  6. Broiler breeder semen quality as affected by trace minerals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, S J; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that trace elements, such as Se, Mn, and Zn, can alter reproductive functions. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the sperm quality index (SQI) and sperm viability as affected by various levels and sources of Se, Mn, and Zn when added in vitro to broiler breeder semen. In vitro treatments consisted of the following sources and levels of minerals: Control, no minerals added to sperm; seleno L-methionine, 4 levels ranging from 8.78 to 7,896 microg/L; sodium selenite, 4 levels ranging from 8.78 to 7,896 microg/L; MnSO4, 8 levels ranging from 6,500 to 65,000 mg/L; Zn 180 (Zinpro Corporation), 4 levels ranging from 0.65 to 650 mg/L; and ZnSO4, 4 levels ranging from 0.65 to 650 mg/L. The addition of 7,896 microg of sodium selenite/L to semen was detrimental to sperm motility. Also, MnSO4 adversely affected SQI and sperm viability at concentrations of 6,500 mg/L and greater. Sperm viability was decreased when 650 mg/L of Zn 180 was added to semen. Sperm motility was depressed by exposure to Zn 180 at 650 mg/L and ZnSO4 at 65 and 650 mg/L. Our results suggest that these trace minerals must act at the reproductive tissue level during spermatogenesis to improve semen quality. Direct in vitro application of these elements to semen appears to be detrimental to spermatozoa.

  7. Influence of spermatozoa numbers and insemination frequency on fertility in dwarf broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillard, J P; McDaniel, G R

    1986-12-01

    The effects of hen age (28 to 31 vs. 49 to 52 weeks of age), sperm concentration (dose used for artificial insemination), and frequency of insemination on fertility and embryonic survival of dwarf broiler breeder hens were examined. Hens in Groups 1 and 2 were inseminated weekly with single doses of either 250 million (Group 1) or 125 million (Group 2) sperm during the 4 weeks of each period. Hens in Groups 3 and 4 were inseminated every other week with duplicate doses on 2 consecutive days, with 250 million sperm/dose in Group 3 and 125 million/dose in Group 4. Hens in Groups 5 and 6 were inseminated weekly with either 250 million (Group 5) or 125 million (Group 6) sperm dose, except the 1st week of each period when they received duplicate doses as in Groups 3 and 4. In Groups 1 and 2, insemination with weekly single doses of semen (250 or 125 million sperm) had no significant effect on fertility of young or old hens. Percent fertility during the 2nd week after artificial insemination was lower in Group 4 than in Group 3 (73.0 vs. 82.9 in young hens and 70.4 vs. 80.7 in old hens). There were no significant differences in fertility between semen doses or age periods in Groups 5 and 6. In these two groups, overall fertility ranged from 94.3 to 95.9%. Complementary studies on individual fertility and embryonic survival showed the beneficial effects of duplicate followed by single inseminations of moderate doses (125 million sperm) practiced at weekly intervals in old hens. This method should be of practical application in commercial practice.

  8. Occurrence of weak mutators among avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates causing salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires dos Santos, Teresa M S; Bisgaard, Magne; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    A collection of 46 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates was examined for the presence of mutators by determining the rate of mutation to rifampicin resistance. The collection included 34 E. coli isolates obtained in pure culture from chronic lesions of salpingitis and peritonitis in 34...... broiler breeders, of which 12 were associated with the development of secondary septicemia. Twelve additional isolates were obtained from a clonal outbreak (ST95) of E. coli peritonitis syndrome (EPS), the lesions of which changed gradually over time into a subacute/chronic form. The hypothesis...

  9. Feeding motivation on the incidence of floor eggs and extraneously calcified eggs laid by broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, K C; Duncan, I J H

    2011-02-01

    1. Commercial broiler breeder hens lay many eggs on the floor rather than in nest boxes provided. A study was conducted to determine whether feeding feed-restricted broiler breeder hens during the sitting phase of nesting results in a higher incidence of floor eggs and/or retained eggs. 2. Sixty broiler breeder females (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 6 deep litter pens containing 10 nest-boxes. At 35 weeks of age and for 9 weeks, feed was distributed to all pens at lights-on every second day (fed normally, FN). On alternate days (feeding delay, FD), feed was distributed when 2-3 hens/pen were sitting in a nest box. Behaviour was sampled at 41 weeks of age, for 26 d. Eggs and egg location data were collected daily, and eggs were scored for extra-cuticular calcium. 3. Of 81 instances in which the hen was sitting firmly in a nest box at the time of feeding, on 80 instances the hen left the nest-box to feed, and on one instance the hen laid her egg then exited to the feeder. Of these 80 instances, on 58 occasions the hen returned to a nest-box to lay her egg; on 12 the hen returned to the nest-box but laid no egg; on 7 the hen did not return to the nest box and laid no egg; and on three the hen laid her egg on the floor. 4. Mean floor egg percentage was 13·3 ± 3·2% on FN and 13·3 ± 4·7% on FD days; these did not differ significantly. 5. The mean extra-cuticular calcium score over all pens was 0·9 ± 0·06 on FN days and 1·2 ± 0·06 on FD days; these differed significantly. 6. In conclusion, feeding broiler breeder hens during nesting results in a conflict between feeding and nesting motivation and higher numbers of extraneously calcified eggs, but does not result in a significant increase in floor eggs even though nesting hens will leave the nest box for food.

  10. Artificial insemination of individually caged broiler breeders. 1. Reproductive performance of males in relation to age and strain of females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, G A; Crober, D C; Buckland, R B; Sefton, A E; Kennedy, B W

    1980-02-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the reproductive capacity of male broiler breeders used for artificial insemination over an extended period and mated to females of six strains. Biweekly determinations were made of semen volume, semen concentration, and spermatozoal motility for each of the 47 males caged individually from their 39th to 63rd week of age. The percent fertility, duration of fertility, and percent hatchability were determined at five-week intervals (periods) using three young and three force-molted broiler female strains. With young female strains, the mean percent fertility for a 7-day collection of eggs following a single insemination (1 to 7 days) ranged from 95.7 to 81.1 over six consecutive periods. The mean duration of fertility (days) and the mean percent hatchability of fertile eggs was 13.3 and 13.0, and 92.5 and 84.9 respectively, for the first two periods. With force-molted hens, the mean percent fertility (1 to 7 days) ranged between 97.2 and 86.0 over the first three periods, and the mean duration of fertility and the mean percent hatchability was 13.2 and 12.8, and 91.5 and 84.1, respectively, for the first two periods. Fertility of eggs collected for 10 days following a single insemination was slightly but consistently lower than fertility over 7 days for both female groups. Significant differences among males and between periods existed for each semen trait. The effects of male, young female strain and period on fertility and duration of fertility were significant. Hatchability was significantly affected by period only. No male by female strain interaction existed for percent fertility or hatchability. A significant male by period interaction existed for percent fertility, semen volume and concentration. The results obtained are considered to support the feasibility of maintaining broiler breeders in cages and the use of artificial insemination (AI) to produce broiler hatching eggs.

  11. Effect of Broiler Breeder Age and Glutamine Supplementation on the Development of the Intestinal Mucosa of 7-Day-Old Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of glutamine and broiler breeder age on the development of intestinal mucosa in broiler chicks during first week of age. For this purpose, 32 one-day-old broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of two broiler breeder ages (30 and 60 weeks and two dietary glutamine supplementation levels (0% and 1%. The morphological development of intestinal mucosa, particularly villus height and crypt depth, was evaluated. The results showed that the supplementation with 1% of glutamine influenced the development of villus height in the duodenum (p=0.009, jejunum (p = 0.006, and ileum (p = 0.001, as well as crypt depth in the jejunum (p = 0.037 of 7-day-old broilers. These results suggest that the presence of glutamine influenced the development of intestinal mucosa during the first week of age, when these tissues are highly influenced by dietary components, especially by trophic agents. The results show that broiler breeder age (30 or 60 weeks did not influence the evaluated parameters.

  12. A farm-level study of risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 – 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berke Olaf

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following increased rates of human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's, and their apparent association with increased consumption of fresh chicken meat, a longitudinal study was conducted in Iceland to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter. Our objective in this study was to identify risk factors for flock colonization acting at the broiler farm level. Methods Between May 2001 and September 2004, pooled caecal samples were obtained from 1,425 flocks at slaughter and cultured for Campylobacter. Due to the strong seasonal variation in flock prevalence, analyses were restricted to a subset of 792 flocks raised during the four summer seasons. Flock results were collapsed to the farm level, such that the number of positive flocks and the total number of flocks raised were summed for each farm. Logistic regression models were fitted to the data using automated and manual selection methods. Variables of interest included manure management, water source and treatment, other poultry/livestock on farm, and farm size and management. Results The 792 flocks raised during the summer seasons originated from 83 houses on 33 farms, and of these, 217 (27.4% tested positive. The median number of flocks per farm was 14, and the median number of positive flocks per farm was three. Three farms did not have any positive flocks. In general, factors associated with an increased risk of Campylobacter were increasing median flock size on the farm (p ≤ 0.001, spreading manure on the farm (p = 0.004 to 0.035, and increasing the number of broiler houses on the farm (p = 0.008 to 0.038. Protective factors included the use of official (municipal (p = 0.004 to 0.051 or official treated (p = 0.006 to 0.032 water compared to the use of non-official untreated water, storing manure on the farm (p = 0.025 to 0.029, and the presence of other domestic livestock on the farm (p = 0.004 to 0.028. Conclusion

  13. Efficacy of several vaccination programmes in commercial layer and broiler breeder hens against experimental challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; de Paiva, Jacqueline Boldrin; Arguello, Yuli Melisa Sierra; da Silva, Mariana Dias; Gardin, Yannick; Resende, Fernando; Berchieri Junior, Angelo Berchieri; Sesti, Luiz

    2009-10-01

    Two experiments were performed to evaluate the protective effect of various vaccination combinations given at 5 and 9 weeks of age against experimental challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) phage type 4 at 12 weeks of age. In Experiment 1, groups of commercial layers were vaccinated by one of the following programmes: Group 1, two doses of a SE bacterin (Layermune SE); Group 2, one dose of a live Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum vaccine (Cevac SG9R) followed by one dose of the SE bacterin; Group 3, one dose of each of two different multivalent inactivated vaccines containing SE cells (Corymune 4K and Corymune 7K; and Group 4, unvaccinated, challenged controls. In Experiment 2, groups of broiler breeders were vaccinated by the same programmes as Groups 1 and 2 above while Group 3 was an unvaccinated, challenged control group. All vaccination programmes and the challenge induced significant (P liver and caeca) colonization by the challenge strain as well as reducing faecal excretion for at least 3 weeks. Vaccinated layers in Groups 1 and 2 and broiler breeders in Group 2 showed the greatest reduction in organ colonization and the least faecal excretion. In Experiment 1, layers vaccinated with multivalent inactivated vaccines containing a SE component (Group 3) were only moderately protected, indicating that such a vaccination programme may be useful in farms with good husbandry and housing conditions and low environmental infectious pressure by Salmonella.

  14. Dynamic Pathology and Antigen Location Study on Broiler Breeders with Coinfection of Marek's Disease Virus and Reticuloendotheliosis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO Xiu-guo; ZHU Guo; CHENG Zi-qiang,; WANG Gui-hua; MENG Xiang-kai; GAO Ting-ting; CUI Zhi-zhong

    2008-01-01

    To further understand the generation and development of coinfection of Marek's disease virus (MDV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in broiler breeders, and then find the method and optimal time of differential diagnosis for complex clinic multiple infection, the authors studied the pathohistological changes, apoptosis, immunohistochemistry (immunofluorescence), and ultrastrueture of tumor tissues of broiler breeders inoculated with MDV and REV. The study showed that proliferation of small lymphocytes was seen in the main organs at the age of 1 week, then immature lymphocytes, all kinds of lymphocytes, primitive reticulum cells, and Marek's disease cells (MDCs) were observed at 2-9 weeks. Apoptosis of lymphocytes could not be seen until the age of 10 weeks in the immune system. Immunohistochemistry detection showed that the positive signs of MDV and REV antigen were observed in the main organs at 2 weeks of age. Multi-morphology lymphocytes, MDV, and REV, mitotic figures and apoptosis of lymphocytes were observed with the help of transmission electron microscopy. MDV cooperating with REV promotes the course of disease of coinfection. Differential diagnosis can be done by immunohistochemistry in the early stage (before 2 weeks), and histopathology in the late stage (post 4 weeks). MDCs, primitive reticulum cells, immature lymphocytes, and two kinds of virions can serve as a basis for histopathology differential diagnosis.

  15. Restoration of sensitivity to salinomycin in Eimeria following 5 flocks of broiler chickens reared in floor-pens using drug programs and vaccination to control coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D; Jeffers, T K

    2015-05-01

    Five successive flocks of broilers were reared in floor-pens and given different drug programs or were vaccinated against coccidiosis. Oocysts of Eimeria were isolated from the litter of pens during the fifth flock and their sensitivity to salinomycin (Sal) investigated by measuring new oocyst production following infection of medicated and unmedicated birds. Parasites obtained following 5 flocks given Sal were not well-controlled and it was concluded that they were partially resistant to the drug. Parasites obtained following 4 unmedicated flocks and one medicated flock were better controlled by Sal and it was concluded that in the absence of continuous medication there had been an improvement in drug efficacy. Sal almost completely suppressed oocyst production of isolates from treatments in which medication was followed by vaccination, indicating that when a drug program is followed by vaccination, restoration of sensitivity to Sal had occurred.

  16. Sistema fuzzy para estimativa do bem-estar de matrizes pesadas System fuzzy for estimate of welfare of broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo F. Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entender o comportamento e suas pequenas variações decorrentes das mudanças do ambiente térmico e desenvolver modelos que simulem o bem-estar a partir de respostas das aves ao ambiente constituem o primeiro passo para a criação de um sistema de monitoramento digital de aves em galpões de produção. Neste trabalho, foi desenvolvido um sistema de suporte à decisão com base na teoria dos conjuntos fuzzy para a estimativa do bem-estar de matrizes pesadas em função de frequências e duração dos comportamentos expressos pelas aves. O desenvolvimento do sistema passou por cinco etapas distintas: 1 organização dos dados experimentais; 2 apresentação dos vídeos em entrevista com "especialista"; 3 criação das funções de pertinência com base nas entrevistas e na revisão da literatura; 4 simulação de frequências de ocorrências e tempos médios de expressão dos comportamentos classificados como indicadores de bem-estar utilizando equações de regressão obtidas na literatura, e 5 construção das regras, simulação e validação do sistema. O sistema fuzzy desenvolvido estimou satisfatoriamente o bem-estar de matrizes pesadas, tendo na sua última versão, com maior número de regras, acertado 77,8% dos dados experimentais, comparados com as respostas esperadas por um especialista. O sistema pode ser utilizado como instrumento matemático-computacional para apoiar decisões em galpões de produção de matrizes pesadas.To understand the behavior and its small variations originated from changes of the thermal environment and to develop models that simulate the welfare from broiler breeders' answer to the environment constitute the first step for the creation of a system for digital monitoring of broiler breeders housing. In this paper it was developed a system of decision support based on the fuzzy conjuncts' theory to estimate the welfare of broiler breeders in function of frequencies and times of occurrences of behaviors. The

  17. Bone mineral density of tibae and femura of broiler breeders: growth, development and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICL Almeida Paz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow-up the physiological variations in the development of the bone tissue, associating them with the egg production curve. This study was carried out in the facilities of the Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia of the UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil. Twenty-three families of Ross broiler breeders were used, each family consisting of 13 females and 1 male, distributed in 23 pens of 5.0m² each. The management was that recommended by the genetic company manual (Agroceres Ross, 2003, with daily feeding until 6th week of age; and birds were fed according to a 5:2 schedule (5 days fed, 2 days of fasting between 7 and 17 weeks of age, returning to daily feeding starting at 18 weeks of age. Birds did not receive afternoon calcium supplementation. On the fourth week of rearing, 84 females were removed for bone analyses of the right tibia and femur, using optical densitometry in radiographic images technique. These analyses were sequentially carried out in 4, 8, 12, 15, 20, 24, 30, 35, 42, 47, and 52 week-old birds. The egg production curve of the birds was followed-up and associated to bone mineral density results. For bone mineral density evaluation (BMD birds were divided by weight categories as light, intermediate, or heavy within each data age. BMD values of the tibias were not influenced by weight range, but by the age at collection. On the other hand, interactions were found among femur BMD values and weight and age categories. There was no correlation between eggshell quality and femur BMD. A negative correlation (-0.15 was observed between tibia BMD and eggshell percentage. It was possible to conclude that the egg production has little influence on bone mineral density of the birds probably because there was no need of bone mineral mobilization during the production period, since the observed egg production was below that observed under commercial conditions.

  18. Comparison of selenium levels and sources and dietary fat quality in diets for broiler breeders and layer hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Caston, L; Durosoy, S; Schlegel, P

    2008-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out with broiler breeders (experiment 1) and laying hens (experiment 2) to study the effects of Se sources, in interaction with dietary level of Se or dietary fats on performance, Se incorporation into tissues (blood, liver, breast muscle, and egg) and eggs, hatchability, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in tissues and blood. Both experiments involved a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of 3 Se sources (selenite, Se yeast, or B-Traxim Se) and either 2 levels of each source (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg) or 2 fats (fresh or oxidized). Egg production was not affected by Se source or dietary fat in both experiments. Egg production was greater (P Hatchability of eggs from hens fed 0.1 mg/kg of Se was lower (P Selenium in egg, liver, and breast muscle was greater (P Selenium contents in liver and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed Se yeast compared with hens fed other sources of Se. In experiment 1, liver GPX was greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed selenite or Se yeast, whereas plasma GPX was greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed selenite compared with B-Traxim Se or Se yeast. Supplementation with oxidized fat increased (P < 0.05) GPX in blood and liver. B-Traxim Se decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde content in breast muscle of layers. It is concluded that broiler breeders require supplementation of 0.3 mg/kg of Se, and that there are numerous measurable advantages in using organic rather than inorganic sources for both breeders and layers.

  19. Effects of growth patterns and dietary crude protein levels during rearing on body composition and performance in broiler breeder females during the rearing and laying period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The combined effects of growth pattern (GP) and dietary CP level during rearing (2 to 22 wk of age) on body composition and performance were investigated in broiler breeder females from 0 to 40 wk of age. One-day-old pullets (n = 768) were randomly allotted to 48 pens according to 2 growth

  20. Effects of growth patterns and dietary crude protein levels during rearing on body composition and performance in broiler breeder females during the rearing and laying period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The combined effects of growth pattern (GP) and dietary CP level during rearing (2 to 22 wk of age) on body composition and performance were investigated in broiler breeder females from 0 to 40 wk of age. One-day-old pullets (n = 768) were randomly allotted to 48 pens according to 2 growth

  1. Effect of feeding guanidinoacetic acid and L-arginine on the fertility rate and sperm penetration in the perivitelline layer of aged broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharideh, H; Esmaeile Neia, L; Zaghari, M; Zhandi, M; Akhlaghi, A; Lotfi, L

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and L-arginine (ARG) on fertility and sperm penetration (SP) rate of broiler breeder hens. In the first experiment, a total of 200 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) aged 53 weeks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments (0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g GAA/kg diet) with five replicates of 10 birds each. In the second experiment, 320 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) were used from 53 to 62 weeks of age in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (0 or 1.2 g GAA/kg diet along with 0, 3, 6 or 9 g ARG/kg diet). The hens received a diet containing 2800 kcal ME/kg and 14% CP. Sixteen sexually mature Ross 308 breeder roosters (34 weeks old) were used to artificially inseminate the hens. Fertility of the hens was determined in 61 and 62 weeks of age. The sperm penetration holes in the inner perivitelline layer (IPL) overlying the germinal disc were enumerated on days 3 and 7 following each insemination. Adding GAA to the breeder diet increased the number of SPs in the IPL and fertility in both experiments (p hens at the later phase of the egg production period.

  2. Temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, with an underlying assumption that at minimum ambient temperatures, flies (Musca domestica) play a role in the epidemiology and seasonality of...

  3. Risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M. N.; Angen, Øystein; Chriel, M.;

    1999-01-01

    , breed of the laying flock, animal density, size of the flock, area of the house, age of the house, geographical location of the farm, observation of beetles, number of days between disinfection and replacement, visual appearance of the bedding, and age of the chickens when they were tasted...

  4. Comparison of different sampling types across the rearing period in broiler flocks for isolation of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; González-Bodí, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2015-04-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in most developed countries. It is generally accepted that poultry products are a significant source of foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans. Assessing the effectiveness of any potential intervention at farm level requires monitoring of the Campylobacter status of broiler flocks, using appropriate sampling methods. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the sample type across the rearing period for the detection of Campylobacter spp. at farm level. During this study, 21 commercial broiler farms were intensively sampled. Each farm was visited and sampled at different times during the rearing period (d 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42). On the first day of rearing, the status of the house and the day-old flock was evaluated, and environmental and cecal samples were collected. During rearing, 4 different sample types were collected: feces with sock swabs (sock swabs), feces directly from the litter (feces), cloacal swabs, and cecal content. All samples were analyzed according to ISO 10272-1:2006 (Annex E) and also by direct culture. The results of this study showed that Campylobacter spp. were detected in all of the sample types on d 14 of rearing. From this point on, the detection increased significantly, with a maximum detection rate by the end of rearing, regardless of the sample type. All samples that were negative upon direct culture were also negative after pre-enrichment. At the end of rearing, the percentage of samples positive for Campylobacter spp. was 71.4% for cecal samples, 61.9% for cloacal swabs, 45.2% for sock swabs, and 69.1% for fecal samples. C. jejuni was detected in all the sample types, with positive rates ranging from 67.1 to 76.0% for cecal samples and cloacal content, respectively. Cecal samples, cloacal swabs, and fecal samples cultured by direct plating onto modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) without pre-enrichment have

  5. Potential risk factors associated with contact dermatitis, lameness, negative emotional state, and fear of humans in broiler chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, A W; Arnould, C; Butterworth, A; Colin, L; De Jong, I C; Ferrante, V; Ferrari, P; Haslam, S; Wemelsfelder, F; Blokhuis, H J

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) identify determinants of poor welfare in commercial broiler chicken flocks by studying the associations between selected resource-based measures (RBM, potential risk factors), such as litter quality and dark period, and animal-based welfare indicators (ABM), such as foot pad dermatitis and lameness, and 2) establish the breadth of effect of a risk factor by determining the range of animal welfare indicators associated with each of the risk factors (i.e., the number of ABM related to a specific RBM). Eighty-nine broiler flocks were inspected in 4 European countries (France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands) in a cross-sectional study. The ABM were contact dermatitis (measured using scores of foot-pad dermatitis and hock burn, respectively), lameness (measured as gait score), fear of humans (measured by the avoidance distance test and the touch test), and negative emotional state (measured using qualitative behavior assessment, QBA). In a first step, risk factors were identified by building a multiple linear regression model for each ABM. Litter quality was identified as a risk factor for contact dermatitis. Length of dark period at 3 wk old (DARK3) was a risk factor for the touch test result. DARK3 and flock age were risk factors for lameness, and the number of different stockmen and DARK3 were risk factors for QBA results. Next, the ABM were grouped according to risk factor and counted. Then, in a second step, associations between the ABM were investigated using common factor analysis. The breadth of a risk factor's effect was judged by combining the number (count) of ABM related to this factor and the strength of association between these ABM. Flock age and DARK3 appeared to affect several weakly correlated ABM, thus indicating a broad range of effects. Our findings suggest that manipulation of the predominant risk factors identified in this study (DARK3, litter quality, and slaughter age) could generate

  6. The effect of low-density diets on broiler breeder development and nutrient digestibility during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, H; Veldman, A; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J

    2007-04-01

    Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4 treatments. The control treatment was a normal density diet (ND; 2,600 kcal/kg). Treatments 2 and 3 had a 12 and 23% lower nutrient density than ND (LD12 and LD23, respectively) through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal. Treatment 4 also had a 12% lower nutrient density than ND but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP)). Total daily intake of energy, digestible lysine, calcium, retainable phosphorus, sodium, and linoleic acid was kept constant in the low-density dietary treatments. Animal performance and development of the intestinal tract and reproductive tract were determined in addition to digestibility and feed passage rate. The LD12(OP) provided a lower AME and nutrient digestibility than calculated and was related to lower live weights. Birds given LD23 and LD12(OP) showed a faster ovarian and oviduct development between wk 24 and 26 compared with ND. At 22 wk of age, LD23 and LD12(OP) diets resulted in higher empty jejunum and ileum weights. Low-density diets did not affect intestinal tract contents and decreased mean retention time of the contents. It was concluded that low-density diets can affect live weight and development of digestive and reproductive tracts.

  7. Arginine, soy isoflavone and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose have protective effects against obesity in broiler breeder hens fed on high-energy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, S; Zaghari, M; Ganjkhanloo, M; Ghaziani, F

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of arginine, soy isoflavone (ISF) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on obesity in broiler breeder hens. 2. A total of 320 Cobb 500 hens, 45 weeks of age, were assigned to 64 floor pens. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomised design in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2 × 2 × 2) with 4 replicates of 5 hens in each pen. Factors included two concentrations of HPMC (0 and 1%), two concentrations of arginine (8.4 and 12 g/kg), two concentrations of ISF (zero and three times more than that present in basal diets) and two contents of energy (11.7 and 14.6 MJ/kg). Performance criteria and blood characteristics of hens were measured during the experimental period. Expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined in the liver at 55 weeks of age. 3. Hens given high-energy diets showed increased BW (body weight), ovary weight and abdominal fat pad and enhanced plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, haemoglobin, haematocrit and low lymphocyte percentages. The expression of malic enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) increased and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) decreased with increasing energy content of diets. Arginine addition decreased TG, cholesterol and A1-c haemoglobin concentration and increased PPARα, PPARγ and iNOS expression. Inclusion of ISF and HPMC decreased BW, egg weight, plasma TG, cholesterol and increased egg production and also enhanced PPARγ and iNOS expression. Significant interactions were observed between energy concentration and ISF and HPMC on BW. 4. The results of the current study revealed that ISF, HPMC and arginine have beneficial effects on controlling the metabolism of obese broiler breeder hens and using a mix of these products minimises the harmful effects of obesity.

  8. First Report of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype B Field Strain in a Romanian Broiler Flock During an Outbreak of Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Enache, Mirel; Bejan, Violeta; Ramon, Gema; Koutoulis, Konstantinos C; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2017-06-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) represents one of the most prevalent diseases of turkey, especially in combination with other pathogens, and its frequency is also increasing among chickens. Despite this evidence, epidemiologic data are poor and scattered, severely preventing control of the disease even in highly developed areas such as Europe. In the present study, the detection and characterization of an aMPV subtype B strain circulating in a vaccinated but symptomatic Romanian broiler flock is reported for the first time. The phylogenetic analysis based on the partial G gene sequence demonstrates the close relationship of the Romanian virus with a group of recently emerged Italian field strains for which vaccine-induced protection was experimentally proven to be partial. These preliminary results allow us to hypothesize the spreading of vaccine-escaping aMPV subtype B strains through Europe and, consequently, dictate the carrying out of a more systematic survey to confirm this theory and enforce adequate countermeasures.

  9. Effect of broiler breeders fed with corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin supplementation on production and reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, C E V; Rosa, A P; Londero, A; Giacomini, C B S; Orso, C; Fernandes, M O; Paixão, S J; Bonamigo, D V

    2017-03-04

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin (CX) supplementation on performance in broiler breeders. A total of 440 females with similar body weight (BW) (3.71 ± 0.14 kg) and 60 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 20 pens, randomly distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2). There were 4 diets of 2 ingredients; corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and 2 levels of CX; 6 mg/kg (CX) and 0 mg/kg (NCX) totaling 5 replicate pens of 22 females and 3 males each, from 42 to 65 wk, divided in 2 periods (from wk 42 to 53 and wk 54 to 65). Birds' BW was measured every 28 d and mortality rate was calculated at the end of trial. Egg production (%), egg specific gravity (g/cm3), egg weight (g), yolk weight (%), albumen weight (%), eggshell weight (%) and yolk colorimetric score were measured weekly. Incubation parameters were recorded in 12 incubations to evaluate hatching eggs, hatching (%), hatchability (%), fertility (%), weight of the chicks born and their quality. The BW, mortality, percentage of yolk and albumen weight, fertility and some incubation parameters were not affected (P > 0.05) by diets used. An increase in the egg production, hatching eggs, chicks born and first quality chick by hen at the second period were observed in CX breeder's diets (P = 0.0066; P = 0.0060; P = 0.0368; P = 0.0326). Egg specific gravity and eggshell weight were improved at the first period by SO+CX diet (P = 0.0138; P = 0.0209) and the same effect to egg weight, but at the second period (P = 0.0251). The CX was well absorbed from the diet and effectively transferred to the egg yolk, thereby increasing egg yolk pigmentation in the both periods (P < 0.0001). The CX supplementation in broiler breeder diets improved the productive and reproductive performance (laying% and hatchable eggs) at the second period, also to the both periods improved the egg yolk pigmentation.

  10. Quantitative Estimation of the Number of Contaminated Hatching Eggs Released from an Infected, Undetected Turkey Breeder Hen Flock During a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malladi, Sasidhar; Weaver, J Todd; Alexander, Catherine Y; Middleton, Jamie L; Goldsmith, Timothy J; Snider, Timothy; Tilley, Becky J; Gonder, Eric; Hermes, David R; Halvorson, David A

    2015-09-01

    The regulatory response to an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the United States may involve quarantine and stop movement orders that have the potential to disrupt continuity of operations in the U.S. turkey industry--particularly in the event that an uninfected breeder flock is located within an HPAI Control Area. A group of government-academic-industry leaders developed an approach to minimize the unintended consequences associated with outbreak response, which incorporates HPAI control measures to be implemented prior to moving hatching eggs off of the farm. Quantitative simulation models were used to evaluate the movement of potentially contaminated hatching eggs from a breeder henhouse located in an HPAI Control Area, given that active surveillance testing, elevated biosecurity, and a 2-day on-farm holding period were employed. The risk analysis included scenarios of HPAI viruses differing in characteristics as well as scenarios in which infection resulted from artificial insemination. The mean model-predicted number of internally contaminated hatching eggs released per movement from an HPAI-infected turkey breeder henhouse ranged from 0 to 0.008 under the four scenarios evaluated. The results indicate a 95% chance of no internally contaminated eggs being present per movement from an infected house before detection. Sensitivity analysis indicates that these results are robust to variation in key transmission model parameters within the range of their estimates from available literature. Infectious birds at the time of egg collection are a potential pathway of external contamination for eggs stored and then moved off of the farm; the predicted number of such infectious birds was estimated to be low. To date, there has been no evidence of vertical transmission of HPAI virus or low pathogenic avian influenza virus to day-old poults from hatching eggs originating from infected breeders. The application of risk analysis methods was beneficial

  11. EFFECT OF DIETARY CALCIUM LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION AND EGG SHELL QUALITY IN BROILER BREEDER HENS FROM 36 TO 60 WEEKS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different calcium (Ca levels in diet on shell quality and egg production of Ross broiler breeder hens from 36 to 60 weeks of age. A total of 198 pullets were reared on restricted diets with 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% Ca, up to 22 weeks. The pullets in each experimental diet were further randomly divided into three treatments with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% dietary Ca (66 birds per treatment and fed from 23 to 60 weeks. The hens were caged individually. The cages were fitted with feed troughs and water nipples. Birds were fed breeder diet (23 to 34 weeks, breeder diet phase 2 (35 to 46 weeks and breeder diet phase 3 (47 to 60 weeks feed intake was administered according to Ross Breeders recommendations. The rations were isocaloric and isonitrogenous with different levels of Ca and P and were administered according to Ross Breeders Recommendations. Dietary treatment significantly (P0.05 differences were found in these variables between 2.5 and 3.5% Ca levels. All the eggshell quality variables increased over time while egg mass and egg production declined. From the results of the present study, it is concluded that increasing Ca level from 1.5 to 2.5% could improve eggshell quality. Present results suggest that the 2.5% Ca (3.8 g Ca/hen/day seems to be adequate to support egg production and improving eggshell quality of broiler breeders.

  12. Oocyst output and transmission rates during successive infections with Eimeria acervulina in experimental broiler flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The infection dynamics of Eimeria species determine the clinical manifestation of the disease coccidiosis in poultry flocks, and a better understanding of the dynamics may contribute to improvement of control measures. Our aim was to study the course of infection and the transmission of Eimeria acer

  13. Oocyst output and transmission rates during successive infections with Eimeria acervulina in experimental broiler flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The infection dynamics of Eimeria species determine the clinical manifestation of the disease coccidiosis in poultry flocks, and a better understanding of the dynamics may contribute to improvement of control measures. Our aim was to study the course of infection and the transmission of Eimeria acer

  14. Sex-reversed correlation between stress levels and dominance rank in a captive non-breeder flock of crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Minami; Asaba, Akari; Miyazawa, Eri; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi; Izawa, Ei-Ichi

    2015-07-01

    Group living has both benefits and costs to individuals; benefits include efficient acquisition of resources, and costs include stress from social conflicts among group members. Such social challenges result in hierarchical dominance ranking among group members as a solution to avoid escalating conflict that causes different levels of basal stress between individuals at different ranks. Stress-associated glucocorticoid (corticosterone in rodents and birds; CORT) levels are known to correlate with dominance rank in diverse taxa and to covary with various social factors, such as sex and dominance maintenance styles. Although there is much evidence for sex differences in the basal levels of CORT in various species, the correlation of sex differences in basal CORT with dominance rank is poorly understood. We investigated the correlation between CORT metabolites (CM) in the droppings and social factors, including rank and sex, in a captive non-breeder group of crows. In this group, all the single males dominated all the single females, and dominance ranks were stable among single males but relatively unstable among single females. CM levels and rank were significantly correlated in a sex-reversed fashion: males at higher rank (i.e., more dominant) had higher CM, whereas females at higher rank exhibited lower CM. This is the first evidence of sex-reversed patterns of CM-rank correlation in birds. The results suggest that different mechanisms of stress-dominance relationships operate on the sexes in non-breeder crow aggregations; in males, stress is associated with the cost of aggressive displays, whereas females experience subordination stress due to males' overt aggression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The epizootiology of Eimeria infections in commercial broiler chickens where anticoccidial drug programs were employed in six successive flocks to control coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D; Barta, J R; Hafeez, M A; Matsler, P; Rathinam, T; Raccoursier, M

    2016-08-01

    The course of natural Eimeria infections in 6 successive broiler flocks at a commercial farm comprising 4 houses, where different anticoccidial drug programs were employed, was studied by counting the number of oocysts in the litter at weekly intervals. The course of infection in all flocks followed a bell shaped curve in which oocyst numbers, initially low, increased to a peak ranging from 36 × 10(3) to 74 × 10(3) oocysts/g (OPG) of litter around 3 to 4 wk of age. Numbers subsequently declined to 3 × 10(3) to 15 × 10(3) OPG. Oocysts could be detected between flocks when birds were not present. Species of Eimeria identified included E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella Despite the presence of large numbers of oocysts in the litter, coccidial lesions were not observed in the intestines of the birds. The performance of broilers at the study site was comparable to that of other farms in the area where birds from the same settlement were reared to a similar age using the same drug programs. The results indicate the ubiquitous nature of Eimeria spp. infections in commercial broilers despite prophylactic medication. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Feeding broiler breeder males. 2. Effect of cumulative rearing nutrition on body weight, shank length, comb height, and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, H; Plumstead, P W; Leksrisompong, N; Brake, J

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of 2 planes (low and high) of cumulative nutrient intake during the rearing period on performance of broiler breeder males. The low cumulative nutrition program supplied 29,580 kcal of ME and 1,470 g of CP, whereas the high cumulative nutrition program supplied 33,500 kcal of ME and 1,730 g of CP to photostimulation at 21 wk of age. Two diets (LoDiet and HiDiet) were used with a single feeding program in experiment 1. In experiment 2, a single diet with 2 feeding programs (LoFeed and HiFeed) was used. In experiment 1, the 2 diets were blended from 21 to 24 wk to provide a gradual transition to a single common laying breeder diet that was fed during the production period. At 21 wk of age in experiment 2, males were divided into light or heavy BW groups to complete a 2 x 2 factorial design during the production period. The high plane of nutrition increased BW, shank length, and comb height during the rearing period, but the differences disappeared after 28 wk of age. Retrospective analysis showed that the heavy males at 21 wk of age in experiment 2 were also the heaviest males at 8 wk of age. Both low plane groups (LoDiet in experiment 1 and LoFeed in experiment 2) exhibited better fertility during late production. A cumulative nutrient intake during the rearing period of 29,580 kcal of ME and 1,470 g of CP was minimally sufficient for subsequent male reproductive performance.

  17. Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis outbreaks in broiler flocks : clinical and pathological characteristics and molecular epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F C; van de Graaf-Bloois, L; Wagenaar, Jaap; Westendorp, S T; van Bergen, M A P; Dwars, R M; Landman, W J M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis, characterized by a peak in mortality during the second week of the grow-out, and occasionally lameness, was diagnosed at Dutch broiler farms. OBJECTIVES: Field cases were studied to increase knowledge on clinical and pathological

  18. Evidence that certain clones of Campylobacter jejuni persist during successive broiler flock rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Wedderkopp, A.

    2001-01-01

    Through the national surveillance program for Campylobacter spp,, nine broiler chicken farms that were infected with Campylobacter jejuni in at least five rotations in 1998 were identified. One additional farm, located at the island of Bornholm where divided slaughter is used extensively, was also...

  19. Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis outbreaks in broiler flocks : clinical and pathological characteristics and molecular epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F C; van de Graaf-Bloois, L; Wagenaar, J A; Westendorp, S T; van Bergen, M A P; Dwars, R M; Landman, W J M; Wagenaar, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis, characterized by a peak in mortality during the second week of the grow-out, and occasionally lameness, was diagnosed at Dutch broiler farms. OBJECTIVES: Field cases were studied to increase knowledge on clinical and pathological characteristic

  20. Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis outbreaks in broiler flocks: clinical and pathological characteristics and molecular epidemiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.; Graaf-Blois, Van de L.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Westendorp, S.T.; Bergen, Van M.A.P.; Dwars, R.M.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis, characterized by a peak in mortality during the second week of the grow-out, and occasionally lameness, was diagnosed at Dutch broiler farms. Objectives: Field cases were studied to increase knowledge on clinical and pathological characteristic

  1. Leptin receptor in the chicken ovary: potential involvement in ovarian dysfunction of ad libitum-fed broiler breeder hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Anne

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In hens, the ovarian follicles committed to ovulation are arranged in an ordered follicular hierarchy. In standard broiler breeders hens genetically selected for high growth rate the reproductive function is clearly dysfunctional. Feed restriction is needed during reproductive development to limit the formation of excessive numbers of ovarian yellow follicles arranged in multiple hierarchies. To determine whether leptin is involved in the nutritional and reproductive interactions controlling follicular hierarchy in hens, blood leptin levels and ovarian expression of the leptin receptor mRNA were determined during follicle maturation in three chicken lines; a slow growing broiler "Label" genotype without reproductive dysfunction, a fast growing "Standard" genotype fed ad libitum or restricted and a fast growing "Experimental" line with intermediate reproductive performance levels. Whereas expression of the leptin receptor mRNA did not change in the theca, it clearly decreased with follicular differentiation in the granulosa of slow growing hens. In fast growing standard hens fed ad libitum and presenting significant reproductive dysfunction, the decrease was disrupted and dramatic up-regulation of granulosa cell expression of the leptin receptor was observed. On the other hand, feed restriction decreased the overall level of expression of the leptin receptor mRNA and restored the decrease with follicular growth. The level of expression of the leptin receptor probably modulates the action of leptin on follicular differentiation. Since blood leptin and other metabolic factors were not affected by the genotype or by nutritional state, the factors involved in the regulation of leptin receptor gene expression remain to be determined. This study demonstrates the involvement of leptin in the nutritional control of reproduction in birds. Leptin action on the ovary probably controls follicular hierarchy through the regulation of steroidogenesis.

  2. Effect of dietary manganese on antioxidant status and expressions of heat shock proteins and factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders under normal and high environmental temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Wen; Lu, Lin; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zhang, Li-Yang; Ji, Cheng; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xu-Gang

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effect of Mn on antioxidant status and on the expressions of heat shock proteins/factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders subjected to heat challenge, we used a completely randomised design (n 6) with a factorial arrangement of 2 environmental temperatures (normal, 21±1°C, and high, 32±1°C)×3 dietary Mn treatments (a Mn-unsupplemented basal diet (CON), or a basal diet supplemented with 120 mg Mn/kg diet, either as inorganic Mn sulphate (iMn) or as organic Mn proteinate (oMn)). There were no interactions (P>0·10) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in any of the measured indices. High temperature decreased (P<0·003) Mn content, and also tended (P=0·07) to decrease Cu Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity in the liver and heart. However, an increased Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity (P<0·05) and a slight increase in malondialdehyde level (P=0·06) were detected in breast muscle. Up-regulated (P<0·05) expressions of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and HSF3 mRNA and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA and protein were found in all three tissues. Broiler breeders fed either iMn or oMn had higher tissue Mn content (P<0·0001), heart MnSOD and CuZnSOD activities (P<0·01) and breast muscle MnSOD protein levels (P<0·05), and lower (P<0·05) breast muscle HSP70 mRNA and protein levels compared with those fed CON. Broiler breeders fed oMn had higher (P<0·03) bone Mn content than those fed iMn. These results indicate that high temperature decreases Mn retention and increases HSP70, HSF1 and HSF3 expressions in the tissues of laying broiler breeders. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with Mn in either source may enhance the heart's antioxidant ability and inhibit the expression of HSP70 in breast muscle. Finally, the organic Mn appears to be more available than inorganic Mn for bone in laying broiler breeders regardless of environmental temperatures.

  3. Image analysis for assessing broiler breeder behavior response to thermal environment Análise de imagem para a avaliação de frangos de corte de resposta ao comportamento criador ambiente térmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenilza de A. Nääs

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The research proposes a methodology for assessing broiler breeder response to changes in rearing thermal environment. The continuous video recording of a flock analyzed may offer compelling evidences of thermal comfort, as well as other indications of welfare. An algorithm for classifying specific broiler breeder behavior was developed. Videos were recorded over three boxes where 30 breeders were reared. The boxes were mounted inside an environmental chamber were ambient temperature varied from cold to hot. Digital images were processed based on the number of pixels, according to their light intensity variation and binary contrast allowing a sequence of behaviors related to welfare. The system used the default of x, y coordinates, where x represents the horizontal distance from the top left of the work area to the point P, and y is the vertical distance. The video images were observed, and a grid was developed for identifying the area the birds stayed and the time they spent at that place. The sequence was analyzed frame by frame confronting the data with specific adopted thermal neutral rearing standards. The grid mask overlapped the real bird image. The resulting image allows the visualization of clusters, as birds in flock behave in certain patterns. An algorithm indicating the breeder response to thermal environment was developed.Esta pesquisa propõe uma metodologia para avaliação da resposta de matrizes pesadas a mudanças no ambiente térmico de criação. A gravação contínua em vídeo de um grupo de aves, quando analisada, pode oferecer evidências interessantes de conforto térmico, bem como outras indicações de bem-estar. Um algoritmo foi desenvolvido para classificar o comportamento de matrizes de frangos de corte. Vídeos foram registrados sobre três boxes onde 30 matrizes foram alojadas. Os boxes foram montados dentro de uma câmara climática onde a temperatura ambiente variou de frio para quente. As imagens digitais foram

  4. Compliance/non-compliance with biosecurity rules specified in the Danish Quality Assurance system (KIK) and Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks 2012 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, M; Dahl, J; Lindegaard, L L; Pedersen, J R

    2017-01-01

    One source for Campylobacter jejuni infections in humans could be consumption of broiler meat. Transmission of Campylobacter into broiler houses/flocks occurs via many routes. A number of biosecurity rules is specified in the Quality Assurance System in Danish Chicken Production (KIK) - for which the broiler producers annually are audited for compliance with, by bureau Veritas. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigated the association between Compliance/non-compliance with biosecurity rules and Campylobacter-positive flocks - on KIK data from 2012 and 2013. Month and before after audit period were also included in the models. KIK rules important to comply with were: no vegetation around houses, closed systems for feed storage and distribution, and division between clean and unclean zones within broiler houses. A Campylobacter-reducing effect was observed of audit visits (in itself), indicating that there is more focus on compliance with KIK at the time of an audit visit, and that adequate daily biosecurity behavior is important.

  5. A Study on Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli through Commercial Broiler Production Chains in Thailand: Antimicrobial Resistance, the Characterization of DNA Gyrase Subunit A Mutation, and Genetic Diversity by Flagellin A Gene Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomrongsuwannakij, Thotsapol; Blackall, Patrick J; Chansiripornchai, Niwat

    2017-06-01

    Contaminated poultry meat is regarded as the main source of human campylobacteriosis. During September 2014 and February 2015, breeder flocks, hatcheries, and broiler farms from two chicken production chains were investigated chronologically. Five commercial breeder flocks (Breeder Flocks 1-5), two hatcheries (Hatcheries A and B), and five broiler flocks (Broiler Flocks 1-5) were sampled in this study. Campylobacter colonization of both breeder and broiler flocks was determined from cloacal swabs and environmental samples (pan feeders, footwear, darkling beetles, flies, feed, and water). The eggs from the breeder flocks were followed to hatcheries. At the hatcheries, early embryonic deaths, egg trays, eggshells, hatchers, and water were investigated. Cloacal swabs were taken from broilers at Days 1, 14, and 28 (all broiler flocks), and either 35 (Broiler Flocks 1 and 2) or 43 (Broiler Flocks 3-5). Thirty-six Campylobacter jejuni and 94 Campylobacter coli isolates collected through two broiler production chains were tested by twofold agar dilution for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Most Campylobacter isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), defined as being resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes ( C. jejuni : 100%; C. coli : 98.9%), and exhibited high resistance to enrofloxacin ( C. jejuni : 100%; C. coli : 98.9%). The vast majority of C. coli were resistant to tetracycline (97.9%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (81.9%), and doxycycline (79.8%), but only 55.6%, 36.1%, and 50% of C. jejuni isolates revealed resistance to these antimicrobial agents, respectively. A selected subset of 24 C. jejuni and 24 C. coli were characterized for their mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region of the DNA gyrase subunit A gene by nucleotide sequence analysis. The Thr-86-Ile substitution (ACA-ATA in C. jejuni or ACT-ATT in C. coli ) was found in all isolates. Moreover, a total of 130 Campylobacter isolates were typed with the use of polymerase

  6. MX1 exon 13 polymorphisms in broiler breeder chickens and associations with commercial traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livant, E J; Avendano, S; McLeod, S; Ye, X; Lamont, S J; Dekkers, J C M; Ewald, S J

    2007-04-01

    The Mx1 gene in mice is induced by type I interferons and is the major determinant of resistance to influenza virus and related orthomyxoviruses. It has been previously shown that a SNP in exon 13 of the chicken MX1 gene determines differential antiviral activity of the protein. We evaluated this SNP and two additional SNPs in elite broiler lines by PCR amplification and sequence analysis. Associations between MX1 exon 13 SNPs and several traits of economic interest were evaluated. Significant associations were found between the SNP determining antiviral activity and mortality in one line and leg defects in another line.

  7. Effect of age and physiological status on sperm storage 24 hours after artificial insemination in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, E E; Krista, L M; McDaniel, G R

    1988-06-01

    1. Uterovaginal junction (UVJ) tissues were collected 24 h after artificial insemination (AI) from 85- and 125-week-old broiler breeder hens in three physiological states: laying hard shell eggs (HS), laying shell-less eggs (SL) and non-laying (NL). This was confirmed by egg production records and visual appraisal of the oviduct at the time of necropsy. 2. Three longitudinal sections of each UVJ were evaluated microscopically and sperm host glands (SHG) were scored in 5 categories: glandular morphology evident but not lumen present, basophilic stained epithelium and no spermatoza present, glands that contained one to five spermatozoa; glands that contained 6 to 20 spermatozoa and glands that contained more than 20 spermatozoa. 3. Laying hens (HS and SL) at 85 weeks of age had significantly more sperm host glands (SHG) containing spermatozoa than NL hens. At 125 weeks of age HS and SL hens had significantly more unscorable glands. 4. The only category that showed no difference between age and physiological status group was the empty category. No significant differences were observed for any gland category in 82- and 125-week-old NL hens. 5. A greater proportion of the 85-week-old group of HS and SL hens had more SHG containing spermatozoa and fewer unscorable glands that the 125-week-old birds. The only category that showed any difference within the SL group was the low category.

  8. Efficacy of several Salmonella vaccination programs against experimental challenge with Salmonella gallinarum in commercial brown layer and broiler breeder hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JB de Paiva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of various Salmonella vaccines regimens against an experimental Salmonella Gallinarum challenge (SGNalr strain at 12 wk of age was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1 commercial brown layers were vaccinated according to one of the following programs: (i two doses of a SE bacterin (Layermune SE; group 1; (ii a first dose of a live SG9R vaccine (Cevac SG9R followed by a SE bacterin (Layermune SE; group 2; (iii one dose of each of two different multivalent inactivated vaccines containing SE cells (Corymune 4 & Corymune 7; group 3 or (iv not vaccinated (group 4. In Experiment 2, broiler breeders were given the same vaccination treatments except for the group vaccinated with the multivalent vaccines. Overall, in both experiments, all vaccination schemes were effective in reducing mortality after challenge with a SG field strain. Primary vaccination with an initial dose of a live SG9R vaccine followed some weeks later by a dose of an inactivated SE bacterin was the most effective (p<0.05 vaccination program against mortality induced by field SG experimental challenge in both experiments. In conclusion, Salmonella vaccination programs containing SE bacterins alone or in combination with a live SG9R vaccine are effective in preventing mortality induced by infection of field SG. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that any vaccination program against any Salmonella serotype will only be effective if it is part of a sound and comprehensive biosecurity program designed for Salmonella control in poultry farms.

  9. Effect of climatic elements on Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks reared in southern Japan from 2008 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, K; Chuma, T; Andoh, M; Yamashita, M; Asakura, H; Yamamoto, S

    2017-04-01

    To demonstrate the effect of climatic elements on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens reared in Japan, the correlation between Campylobacter isolated from chickens (191 of 236 flocks, 80.9%) between 2008 and 2012 and climatic elements was analyzed by logistic regression. We divided the rearing process into 13 terms of 5 d each (total: 65 d). Terms were numbered backwards, wherein a 0-term lag was considered as the sampling day plus 4 d before sampling; 1-term lag was the 5-d term before the 0-term lag, and so on, until the 12-term lag. We obtained climatic data tracing back from the 0-term to the 12-term lags. For evaluation in each season, we divided chickens reared during periods of rising temperature (spring, summer) and decreasing temperature (autumn, winter). Air temperature showed a positive correlation with Campylobacter colonization from the 0- to 12-term lags in chickens reared during the period of rising temperature (odds ratio [OR], 1.069 to 1.104), and from the 0- to 4- and 6-term lags (OR, 1.079 to 1.105) in chickens reared during the period of decreasing temperature. The strong positive effect of air temperature on Campylobacter colonization, particularly during the period of rising temperature, may be associated with the effect on the Campylobacter environmental sources and/or vectors. A positive correlation was observed between Campylobacter colonization and humidity when chicken houses were empty and new chicks were introduced (from the 9- to 12-term lags) during the period of decreasing temperature (OR, 1.076 to 1.141). Thus, high humidity would be an important factor causing carry-over of Campylobacter infection during the period of decreasing temperature. We also found that solar radiation increased Campylobacter colonization during the period of decreasing temperature, from the 2- to 8-term lags, except for the 4- and 5-term lags, in Japan. The results of this study demonstrate the effects of air temperature, humidity, and solar

  10. Effects of selenium sources and levels on reproductive performance and selenium retention in broiler breeder, egg, developing embryo, and 1-day-old chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dong; Zhan, XiuAn; Wang, YongXia

    2011-12-01

    An 8-week experiment was conducted using 540 48-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders to evaluate the effect of the sources and levels of selenium (Se) on reproduction and Se retention. After receiving basal diet for 8 weeks, breeders were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments and fed corn-soy-based diets supplemented with 0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg of Se from sodium selenite (SS) or from Se-enriched yeast (SY) or from selenomethionine (SM). The Se concentration of basal diet was 0.04 mg/kg of Se. With the increase of dietary Se level, hatchability decreased (P < 0.05), but the Se concentrations were elevated in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle of breeders, yolk and albumen, liver and breast muscle of developing embryos, and tissues (liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle) of 1-day-old chicks (P < 0.01). Irrespective of the Se level, the Se concentrations in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in breeders fed SY or SM compared with breeders fed SS, and kidney from breeders fed SM had greater Se concentration than that from breeders fed SY (P < 0.01). Yolk and albumen from SM treatments also had the greatest Se concentrations (P < 0.01). The embryonic liver and breast muscle from SM treatments had higher (P < 0.01) Se concentrations than those of SS treatments. The Se concentrations in liver, kidney, and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks were greater (P < 0.01) in SY or SM treatments compared with SS treatments, and there was a more significant increase in Se concentrations in kidney and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks from SM treatments than those from SY treatments (P < 0.01). The results suggest that the Se retention efficiency of SM is higher than that of SY, which, in turn, is higher than that of SS for broiler breeders and their offspring.

  11. Sensitivity of Direct Culture, Enrichment and PCR for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Broiler Flocks at Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J D; Simpkin, E; Lee, R; Clifton-Hadley, F A; Vidal, A B

    2017-06-01

    Broiler chicken flocks are a significant source of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli that result in the major public health problem of campylobacteriosis. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of both C. coli and C. jejuni in flocks would enhance epidemiological understanding, risk assessment and control options. This study combined results from a panel of 10 detection tests (direct culture, enrichment and PCR) on caecal samples from flocks at slaughter. A parallel interpretation approach was used to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp. and for C. jejuni and C. coli individually. The sample was considered positive if at least one method detected the target and this interpretation was taken to represent a 'proxy gold standard' for detection in the absence of a gold standard reference test. The sensitivity of each individual method to detect Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni and C. coli was then estimated relative to the proxy gold standard. Enrichment in adapted Exeter broth (deficient in polymyxin B) with a resuscitation step was 100% sensitive, whilst direct culture on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) was highly sensitive (97.9%). Enrichment methods using Preston broth and Bolton broth were significantly less sensitive. Enrichment in Exeter broth promoted the recovery of C. jejuni, whilst enrichment in Bolton broth favoured C. coli. A RT-PCR detection test could identify 80% of flocks that were co-colonised with both species. This study found that 76.3% (n = 127) of flocks were colonised with Campylobacter spp. The majority (95.9%) of Campylobacter-positive flocks were colonised with C. jejuni; however, approximately one-third of positive flocks were simultaneously colonised with both C. jejuni and C. coli. The findings highlight the impact of different detection methodologies on the accuracy of the estimated incidence of both C. jejuni and C. coli entering the abattoir within broiler flocks and the associated

  12. Use of Direct LAMP Screening of Broiler Fecal Samples for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in the Positive Flock Identification Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabike, Islam I; Uemura, Ryoko; Kirino, Yumi; Mekata, Hirohisa; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Goto, Yoshitaka; Yamazaki, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Rapid identification of Campylobacter-positive flocks before slaughter, following freezing and heat treatment for the Campylobacter-positive carcasses at the slaughterhouses is an effective control strategy against foodborne campylobacteriosis. We evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the direct screening of naturally contaminated chicken cloacal swabs for C. jejuni/C. coli to compare this assay with conventional quantitative culture methods. In a comparison study of 165 broilers, the LAMP assay showed 82.8% (48/58 by conventional culture) sensitivity, 100% (107/107) specificity, 100% (48/48) positive predictive value (PPV), and 91.5% (107/117) negative predictive value (NPV). In a comparison of 55 flocks, LAMP showed 90.5% (19/21) sensitivity, 100% (34/34) specificity, 100% (19/19) PPV, and 94.4% (34/36) NPV. In the cumulative total of 28 farm-level comparisons, LAMP showed 100% (12/12) sensitivity, 100% (16/16) specificity, 100% (12/12) PPV, and 100% (16/16) NPV. The LAMP assay required less than 90 min from the arrival of the fecal samples to final results in the laboratory. This suggests that the LAMP assay will facilitate the identification of C. jejuni/C. coli-positive broiler flocks at the farm level or in slaughterhouses before slaughtering, which would make it an effective tool in preventing the spread of Campylobacter contamination.

  13. Effect of bacteriophage application on Campylobacter jejuni loads in commercial broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, Sophie; Fischer, Samuel; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Glünder, Gerhard; Klein, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent food-borne human enteritis. The major source for infection with Campylobacter spp. is broiler meat. Risk assessments consider the reduction of Campylobacter in primary production to be most beneficial for human health. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a bacteriophage application under commercial conditions which had proved to be effective in previous noncommercial studies under controlled experimental conditions. A phage cocktail for Campylobacter reduction was tested on three commercial broiler farms each with a control and an experimental group. Colonization of Campylobacter was confirmed prior to phage application in fecal samples. Subsequently, a phage cocktail was applied via drinking water in the experimental group (log10 5.8 to 7.5 PFU/bird). One day after phage application, Campylobacter counts of one experimental group were reduced under the detection limit (log10 3.2 CFU/g cecal content compared to the control was still detected (P=0.0011). No significant reduction was observed in the experimental groups of the other trials. However, a significant drop in cecal Campylobacter counts occurred in a phage-contaminated control. These results suggest that maximum reduction of Campylobacter at the slaughterhouse might be achieved by phage application 1 to 4 days prior to slaughter.

  14. Colonisation of a phage susceptible Campylobacter jejuni population in two phage positive broiler flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Kittler

    Full Text Available The pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are commensals in the poultry intestine and campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequent foodborne diseases in developed and developing countries. Phages were identified to be effective in reducing intestinal Campylobacter load and this was evaluated, in the first field trials which were recently carried out. The aim of this study was to further investigate Campylobacter population dynamics during phage application on a commercial broiler farm. This study determines the superiority in colonisation of a Campylobacter type found in a field trial that was susceptible to phages in in vitro tests. The colonisation factors, i.e. motility and gamma glutamyl transferase activity, were increased in this type. The clustering in phylogenetic comparisons of MALDI-TOF spectra did not match the ST, biochemical phenotype and phage susceptibility. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni strains and phage susceptibility types with different colonisation potential seem to play a very important role in the success of phage therapy in commercial broiler houses. Thus, mechanisms of both, phage susceptibility and Campylobacter colonisation should be further investigated and considered when composing phage cocktails.

  15. The cysteine, total sulfur amino acid, tyrosine, phenylalanine + tyrosine, and non-essential amino acid maintenance requirements of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmay, R D; Mei, S J; Sakomura, N K; Coon, C N

    2016-06-01

    Two hundred and fifty Cobb-Vantress broiler breeders were used to determine the maintenance requirement and efficiency of utilization of dietary Cys, Tyr, and non-essential amino acids (AA) in a 21-day experiment. The breeders were fed crystalline amino acid diets containing graded levels of Cys or Tyr representing 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% of their suggested requirement level with all other amino acids maintained at 40% of their suggested requirement level. To determine the non-essential AA maintenance requirement, graded levels of non-essential AA were provided by glutamic acid to represent 12, 19, 26, 33, and 40% of the ideal level of glutamic acid with all other amino acids maintained at their maintenance requirement level. The total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) and Phe + Tyr requirements were calculated by combining Cys and Tyr results, respectively, with previously determined Met and Phe, respectively. The slope of Cys, Tyr, and non-essential AA accretion regression line indicated that 29% Cys, 24% TSAA, 21% Tyr, 20% Phe + Tyr, and 9% non-essential AA of crystalline amino acids were retained. The Cys requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 30.48 mg/d or 17.006 mg/ kgBW(0.75)/d or 75.426 mg/kgCP/d. The TSAA requirement for zero accretion was calculated to be 132.25 mg/b/d, 71.48 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d, and 307.55 mg/kgCP/d. The Tyr requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 65.907 mg/d or 37.233 mg/ kgBW(0.75)/d or 175.566 mg/kgCP/d. The Phe + Tyr requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 352.18 mg/b/d, 190.37 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d, and 749.33 mg/kgCP/d. The non-essential AA requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 3715.194 mg/d or 2003.155 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d or 9452.954 mg/kgCP/d.

  16. Protection of broiler breeders by an inactivated combined water-in-oil-in-water viral vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidin, Z; Cajavec, S; Sladić, D; Ergotić, N; Cizelj, A; Pokrić, B

    1998-01-01

    A four-component vaccine, prepared by combining the single vaccines, contains subunits of Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis viruses, as well as whole inactivated infectious bursal disease and egg drop syndrome viruses. The vaccine is prepared in the form of a low-viscosity water-in-oil-in-water emulsion with low mineral oil content. Heavy breeders were vaccinated at the age of 20 weeks by intramuscular administration of 0.5 ml vaccine/bird in an experiment carried out under field conditions, involving 5000 female and 450 male parents. The birds had previously been vaccinated with live vaccines according to an obligatory field vaccination programme. Vaccination with the WOWE vaccine near the point of lay elicited serological responses protecting both the parents and their progeny. Each of the antigens administered in the four-component vaccine was as effective as the respective single component vaccine. The mortality, recorded during the 31-week experimental period, was 6.2%. Mortality and morbidity were not triggered by viruses against which vaccination was carried out. Egg production was not affected by the vaccination and was 170.2 eggs per hen during the 28-week production period.

  17. Measuring motivation for appetitive behaviour: food-restricted broiler breeder chickens cross a water barrier to forage in an area of wood shavings without food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Dixon

    Full Text Available Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R, and twice (2R or three times (3R this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests than 2R and 3R birds (P2R>3R. This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds.

  18. Measuring motivation for appetitive behaviour: food-restricted broiler breeder chickens cross a water barrier to forage in an area of wood shavings without food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Laura M; Brocklehurst, Sarah; Sandilands, Vicky; Bateson, Melissa; Tolkamp, Bert J; D'Eath, Rick B

    2014-01-01

    Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens) are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding) but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R), and twice (2R) or three times (3R) this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests) than 2R and 3R birds (P2R>3R). This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching) was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds.

  19. High-fibre pelleted rations decrease water intake but do not improve physiological indexes of welfare in food-restricted female broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, P M

    2006-02-01

    1. A 3x2 factorial experiment was conducted with three diets and two lines of broiler breeder females to evaluate the contribution of low-energy rations for improving the welfare of feed-restricted birds during rearing. Experimental diets were fed from 6 to 16 weeks of age and were created by diluting a conventional grower (Control) ration containing 11.0 MJ ME/kg with 200 (8.8 MJ ME/kg) or 400 (6.6 MJ ME/kg) g oat hulls/kg using Optimoist to facilitate the pelleting process. Welfare was assessed by changes in behaviour and physiological variables at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Birds were fed restricted quantities of feed to meet recommended body weight targets. 2. There was a decrease in the proportion of observations of drinking and an increase of preening in birds fed on the two experimental diets compared with the control. There was a linear decrease in litter moisture and the number of litter changes with increasing diet dilution, and water intake at 12 weeks was higher in the control than in the two experimental diets. There were no changes in physiological indexes of welfare (heterophil-lymphocyte ratio, plasma corticosterone and antibody responses) associated with the dietary treatments. 3. There were no important differences in the growth, behaviour or physiological responses to dietary treatment between the two lines of broiler breeders. Changes with age were similar to those reported in other experiments. 4. It was concluded that low-energy pelleted diets would improve litter conditions but not improve indexes of welfare in feed-restricted broiler breeders.

  20. Increased iNOS gene expression in the granulosa layer of F1 follicle of over-fed and under-fed broiler breeder hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sheikh Ahmadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the effects of high (20 and 40% more than normal and low (20% less than normal daily feed allowance on egg and body parameters, ovarian morphology and plasma glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, leptin-like hormone, nitrite/nitrate and gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in the granulosa layer of F1 follicle, broiler breeder hens (30-week-old were fed for 30 days. Egg and body parameters significantly changed between treatments (p<0.05. Effect of different level of feed intake on ovarian morphology parameters was significant (p<0.05, except for white follicles. After 30 days of experiment, plasma nitrite/nitrate (as a index of plasma nitric oxide and leptin-like hormone increased in FI+20% and FI+40% groups as compared to controls (p<0.05. Plasma level of leptin-like hormone also significantly (p<0.05 increased in FI+40% group. The relative amount of iNOS mRNA expression in the granulosa layer of F1 follicles was significantly higher in FI-20% and FI+40% groups than in control group only after 4 weeks of experiment. The amount of these elevations in the FI-20% and FI+40% groups were 32.4% and 60.9% respectively. It was concluded that iNOS gene is normally expressed in follicular granulosa cells of F1 follicle of broiler breeder hens 2-4 hours before ovulation. However, over- and underfeeding of hens increased iNOS expression in F1 follicle, which may be one of the atresia-inducing factors in hierarchical follicles as shown by the significant (p<0.05 increase of shrunken follicles in the ovary of over- and under-fed broiler breeder hens after 30 days of feeding.

  1. The Effect of Phytase Enzyme on the Performance of Broiler Flock (A-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan SA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From the last few years, the inclusion of microbial phytase in poultry diets has increased significantly, mainly in response to heightened concerns over phosphorus pollution of the environment and as cheaper means to make phosphorus available to birds from phytate. Phytate is the major form of phosphorus, abundantly found in cereal grains, beans and oilseed meals used in poultry diet but the monogastric animals like poultry birds are unable to utilize this source of phosphorus due to lack of endogenous phytase enzyme. To meet the phosphorus requirements of poultry birds, inorganic phosphates are added to the poultry rations, which lead to the problem of environmental pollution as a large amount of phosphorus is excreted in the manure. Microbial phytase is used as an alternative of this, which has beneficial effects on the growth performance, feed efficiency, protein/amino acid digestibility, energy utilization, mineral retention, and bone growth of broilers due to the direct hydrolytic effects on phytate.

  2. Effect of age wise incubation programme on broiler breeder hatchability and post hatch performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbar A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and humidity are most important environmental factors during incubation. The age of birds affect the eggs, its internal as well as external quality, that’s why dissimilar conditions require for incubation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age wise incubation profile on hatchability and chick’s performance. For this experiment, eggs were collected from Ross-308 breeders which were divided into four groups according to the age of breeders having equal number of eggs in all groups (n=538560 eggs. Group A (Young, 24-31 weeks, B (Prime, 32-50 weeks, C (Old, 50+weeks and D (control. For groups, A, B and C duration of incubation in setter machine was 456 hours (19th day while for D (control, incubator duration was 449 hours (18.7 days. Fertility of eggs were performed through candling and shifted to hatchers for next 50 hours for A, B and C while 56 hours for D. Group B was significantly better (P<0.05 as compare to A in term of hatchability. Candling was significantly better for group B (P<0.05 than C. Group C was significantly (P<0.05 better for candling than A and D which contain same candling i.e. A and D. Groups A and B have significantly (P< 0.05 same dead in shell (DIS (6.18±0.29 and 6.20±0.37 respectively as compare to C (7.13±0.60. Group D (6.70±0.67 was same for DIS as groups A, B and C. Excellent performances of chicks with mortality (P<0.01 for A (2.93±0.60, B (2.77±0.49, C (2.85±0.53, D (3.10±0.82, weight gain (gram/bird (P<0.01 for A (1972.66±0.33, B (2012.33±35.92, C (1996±14, D (1985.33±18.58, FCR (P<0.01 for A (1.55±0.12, B (1.51±0.15, C (1.54±0.13, D (1.57±0.11 and feed intake (gram/bird (P<0.01 for A (3146.92±189.13, B (3138.63±203.4, C (3139.75±201.55, D (3166.72±154.84 all were same in all groups. Water loss was different for A (11.93±0.60 then B (12.34±0.76, C (12.24±0.65 as compare to D (10.17±0.55. Chick yield was same for A (69.28±0.18, B (69.51±1.12 and C (69.28

  3. Effects of intramuscular injections of vitamin E-selenium and a gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) on reproductive performance and blood metabolites of post-molt male broiler breeders

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Hezarjaribi; Vahid Rezaeipour; Rohullah Abdollahpour

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of intramuscular injection of vitamin E-selenium and a GnRH analogue (GnRHa) on reproductive performance and serum biochemical parameters in post-molt male broiler breeders. Methods: A total of 32 ROSS 308 male broiler breeders (60 weeks of age) were induced to molt and then were randomly distributed into four groups: group 1 (control) without any injection, group 2 subjected to intramuscular of 0.1 mL/kg body weight of vitamin E-selenium, group 3 subj...

  4. Quinolone- and ß-lactam-resistance in Escherichia coli from Danish and Italian broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Guardabassi, Luca; Bisgaard, Magne

    , sock samples were collected from 10 parent flocks and 10 offspring flocks, according to the procedure currently used for the surveillance of Salmonella in the EU. Samples were enriched in McConkey broth and streaked on McConkey agar plates added with nalidixic acid (32 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (2 µg...... on cephalosporin-resistant isolates. While resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid was widespread in both countries, resistance to ciprofloxacin and cephalosporins was more common among Italian flocks. In Denmark, ciprofloxacin resistance was only detected in one parent flock without any history of quinolone...... usage and none of the flocks was positive for cephalosporin-resistant E. coli. In Italy, resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected in all flocks and resistances to ceftiofur and cefotaxime were detected in five flocks. Primers specific for the CTX-M-type ESBLs generated PCR amplicons from isolates from...

  5. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses detected in vaccinated commercial broiler flocks in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndashe, Kunda; Simulundu, Edgar; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Moonga, Ladslav; Ogawa, Hirohito; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S

    2016-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive viral disease of young chickens and remains one of the economically most important diseases threatening the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, 16 and 11 nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) and part of VP1, respectively, of IBD virus (IBDV) detected in vaccinated broiler chickens in Lusaka in 2012 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Zambian IBDVs separated into three genotypes of very virulent (VV) IBDVs. Although the majority of these viruses belonged to the African VV type (VV1), which consisted of viruses from West Africa, South Africa and Zambia, one virus belonged to the East African VV type (VV2). Interestingly, a Zambian IBDV belonging to the VV3 genotype (composed of viruses from several continents) clustered with attenuated vaccine strains. Although sequence analysis of VP2-HVR showed that all detected Zambian IBDVs had conserved putative virulence marker amino acids (i.e., 222A, 242I, 256I, 294I and 299S), one virus had two unique amino acid substitutions, N280S and E300A. This study demonstrates the diversity of Zambian IBDVs and documents for the first time the possible involvement of attenuated vaccine strains in the epidemiology of IBD in Zambia. Strict biosecurity of poultry farms, monitoring of live vaccine use in the field, surveillance and characterization of IBDV in poultry and development of a vaccine from local or regional IBDV field strains are recommended for improved IBD control in Zambia.

  6. EFFECT OF OSMOTIC PRESSURE AND pH ON THE SHORT-TERM STORAGE AND FERTILITY OF BROILER BREEDER SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Latif, A. Ijaz, M. Aleem and A. Mahmud1

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of osmotic pressure and pH on the short-term storage of cockerel semen using modified Van Wambeke milk based extender ‘Experimental Extender’ was studied. Six broiler breeder cockerels were used and 7 ejaculates were collected from each cockerel every second day. In experiment 1, semen was diluted in the Experimental Extender with osmotic pressures 350, 375 or 400 mOsm and pH 7.0 and stored at 5ºC. In experiment 2, semen was diluted in the Experimental Extender with osmotic pressure 375 mOsm and pH 6.4, 7.0 or 7.4 and stored at 5ºC. The effect of osmotic pressure and pH on percentage motility, sperm speed and clumping was evaluated at 4, 24 and 48 hr. There was a significant difference (P<0.05 among the osmotic pressures evaluated in terms of percentage motility, speed of sperm cells and extent of clumping during 48 hr of semen storage. The 375 mOsm osmotic pressure was found to be best (P<0.05 for the short-term storage of cockerel semen. There was a significant difference (P<0.05 among different pH values evaluated in terms of percentage motility after 24 and 48 hr of semen storage. pH 7.0 and/or 7.4 were found to be optimum (P<0.05 for the short-term storage of cockerel semen. Fertility/hatchability was higher (88%, P<0.05 when sperm were stored in the Experimental Extender with osmotic pressure 375mOsm and pH 7.0, and in Fecondil (86% as compared to normal saline (79%. In conclusion, the Experimental Extender with 375 mOsm osmotic pressure and pH 7.0 is suitable for the short-term storage of poultry semen and it improves fertility of the spermatozoa as well.

  7. Fowl adenovirus Group I as a causal agent of inclusion body hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome (IBH/HPS outbreak in brazilian broiler flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mettifogo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Commercial broiler flocks from a farm located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, presented diarrhea, depression, increased mortality and poor weight gain. Upon post-mortem examination, classical signs of Inclusion Body Hepatitis/Hydropericardium Syndrome (IBH/HPS were observed, including enlarged pale yellow-colored livers and straw-colored liquid in the pericardial sac. In addition, gross lesions were also observed in the kidneys, pancreas, thymus, intestines and gallbladder. Samples of these organs were analyzed by PCR for the detection of the hexon gene of the Fowl Adenovirus (FAdVs Group I. The results were positive for both flocks (A and B assayed by PCR. The macroscopic lesions associated with the detection of FAdV Group I by PCR in several of these affected organs allowed for the identification of IBH/HPS. In fact, this is the first report in Brazil of IBH/HPS in broilers, which identifies FAdVs group I as a causal agent of the disease. These findings may contribute to the worldwide epidemiology of the adenovirus-mediated hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome.

  8. The impact of biosecurity and partial depopulation on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broiler flocks with differing levels of hygiene and economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Smith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union (EU, and poultry meat is the primary route for transmission to humans. Material and methods: This study examined the impact of partial depopulation (thinning, season, and farm performance (economic, hygiene, and biosecurity on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broilers over a 13-month period. Ten caecal samples were taken per flock, for a total of 211 flocks from 23 farms during the duration of the study. Campylobacter was isolated and enumerated according to modified published ISO methods for veterinary samples. Biosecurity was evaluated through a questionnaire based on risk factors for Campylobacter identified in previous studies. Hygiene compliance was assessed from audit records taken over the course of 1 year. All information relating to biosecurity and hygiene was obtained directly from the processing company. This was done to ensure farmers were unaware they were being monitored for Campylobacter prevalence and prevent changes to their behaviour. Results and discussion: Farms with high performance were found to have significantly lower Campylobacter prevalence at first depopulation compared with low-performance farms across all seasons (P≤0.01. Peak Campylobacter levels were observed during the summer season at first thin in both the high- and low-performance groups. Campylobacter prevalence was found to increase to ≥85% in both high- and low-performance farms across all seasons at final depopulation, suggesting that Campylobacter was introduced during the first depopulation. On low-performance farms, four biosecurity interventions were found to significantly reduce the odds of a flock being Campylobacter positive (physical step-over barrier OR=0.17, house-specific footwear OR=0.13, absence of water body within 0.5 km OR=0.13, two or more broiler houses on a farm OR=0.16, compared with farms without these interventions. For high

  9. Aceitação sensorial de reestruturados empanados elaborados com filé de peito de galinhas matrizes de corte e poedeiras comerciais Sensory acceptance of nuggets prepared with broiler breeder and spent layer hens breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pacheco Nunes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 2005, no Brasil, o alojamento de galinhas poedeiras comerciais e de matrizes de corte somados foi de 109 milhões de cabeças, sendo que um número próximo a este deve ter sido descartado no mesmo período. Este grande número de galinhas descartadas contrasta com a falta de mercado consumidor e o baixo valor comercial alcançado por estas aves. A utilização da carne de galinhas na elaboração de produtos de conveniência poderia agregar valor e ampliar o consumo desta matéria-prima. Diante do exposto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar produtos empanados tipo nuggets, utilizando carne de galinhas de descarte (matrizes de corte e poedeiras comercias brancas e avaliar a aceitação pelo consumidor destes produtos, em comparação com nuggets elaborados com carne de frango. Os produtos desenvolvidos foram avaliados por análise sensorial, utilizando testes de aceitação e de intenção de compra em localização central (400 provadores. Não foram encontradas diferenças (p > 0,05 na aceitação sensorial nem na intenção de compra entre os três diferentes produtos avaliados. Concluiu-se que a elaboração de produtos empanados pode representar uma boa alternativa para a utilização de filés de peito de galinhas, agregando maior valor a estas aves ao final do ciclo de postura.In Brazil, the flock size of layer and broiler breeder hens housed in 2005 was 109 million. A similar number of hens might be spent in this period. This great number of spent hens contrasts with the absence of consumer market and the low commercial value reached by these birds. The manufacture of convenience products using spent hens meat could add value and elevate the consumption of this raw material. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop nuggets made with spent hens (white layers and broiler breeders meat and evaluate the consumer acceptance of these products in comparison to nuggets elaborated with broiler meat. Sensory evaluation of acceptance

  10. Evaluation of a Double-Deck Cage Design for Broiler Breeders%评价一种新型肉用种鸡双层饲养笼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德义; 饶绍奇; 张庆普; 李霞

    2001-01-01

    1 524只艾维茵肉用种鸡被随机安置在一种新型自然交配笼中或以常规方式(1/3竹床,2/3垫料)饲养了一个产蛋周期.笼养种鸡繁殖、生产性能优于常规组:成活率提高15.5%;产蛋数增加20.9枚;大群用药减少75%.肉用种鸡双层饲养笼的优点还包括无垫料购置和贮藏费用、改良种鸡生产环境、减轻工人劳动强度和降低生产成本等.%Avian broiler breeders were raised through an egg production cycle either in a naturally mating cage or on a conventional system of one third bamboo slat floor and two thirds litter. The reproductive performance of hens raised in the cages was superior to that of hens raised on the conventional system. Survival rate was increased by 15.5% (P < 0. 05). On average, the hens in the cages produced 20. 9 more eggs. Raising breeders in cages reduced medication rate by 75%. No significant differences between the two systems were observed for fertility, but significantly higher hatchability of fertile eggs (93.4%) was found for breeders in cages at 32 wk of age. Housing density was 40 % higher (6.9 birds per squared meter) in mating cages. The advantages of the mating cage system included eliminating litter and storage cost, improving the environment for breeders, and reducing labor intensity and cost. Therefore, the new system was an economically attractive alternative to the conventional system.

  11. Effect of vitamins, probiotics and protein level on semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters of post-moult male broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R U; Rahman, Z U; Javed, I; Muhammad, F

    2013-01-01

    1. A study was designed to investigate the comparative effect of supplementary vitamin E, vitamin C, probiotics and dietary crude protein concentration on semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters in male broiler breeders after Zn-induced moulting. 2. A total of 180 male broiler breeders were induced to moult at 65 weeks of age by mixing ZnO in diet at the rate 3000 mg/kg of feed. After moulting, the males were divided into six groups that were given feed supplemented with: vitamin C (500 IU/kg), vitamin E (100 IU/kg), protein (140 g CP/kg), probiotics (50 mg/kg) and the combination of these components, while one group was kept as a control. Semen samples were collected weekly and semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, motility and dead spermatozoa percentage were determined. Seminal plasma was separated to determine the concentration of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), homocysteine, paraoxonase (PON1), arylesterase, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. 3. Semen volume was significantly higher in the vitamin E and C groups compared to the control. Spermatozoa motility was higher in the vitamin E group and dead spermatozoa percentage was significantly lower in the vitamin C group compared with the control group. 4. Seminal plasma TAC was higher in the vitamin E group, homocysteine was lower in the vitamin C and E groups. PON1 was higher in the combination group. Arylesterase increased significantly in the vitamin C and combination groups over time. Seminal plasma AST was significantly lower in the vitamin C and E supplemented groups whereas ALT decreased significantly only in the vitamin E group compared with the control. Higher concentrations of ceruloplasmin were observed in the combination group compared with the other treatments. 5. It was concluded that additional vitamin E and C or their combination was the most potent nutrient treatment for improving the semen traits and

  12. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Lund, Marianne; Skov, J.

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the ...

  13. Estimation of the prevalence of Salmonella species on the slatted area compared to the scratch area of broiler breeder chicken houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Elena L; Hofacre, Charles L; Berghaus, Roy D

    2013-09-01

    With the objective of detecting Salmonella species in the poultry house environment, sampling broiler breeder houses in the two-thirds slatted area and the one-third scratch area with pine shavings bedding can be difficult. The slatted area is where the females, consisting of approximately 90% of the population, eat, drink, and spend the majority of their time. The scratch area is where the males eat and drink, as well as where mating and mortality occur. Besides the nest boxes, the female feeders and water lines make the slatted areas more difficult to sample. However, it is important to take samples from the area with the greatest likelihood of isolating Salmonella. Therefore, boot swab samples were collected from 21 commercial broiler breeder chicken houses representing three different companies in north Georgia to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on the slat vs. the scratch area in each chicken house. Every house sampled had a central scratch area covered with litter and two elevated slat areas constructed of wood. Four boot swab samples were collected on each side slat area by walking the entire length of the house for each swab. Eight samples were collected in the same manner from the scratch area. Results of 335 total samples were acquired, 167 of which were obtained from the slat area and 168 of which came from the scratch area, yielding 242 total Salmonella isolations. Salmonella was found in 117 of the slat samples, representing 70.1%, compared to 125 of the scratch area samples, representing 74.4%. Both the univariate (P = 0.311) and the multivariable (P = 0.303) analysis showed that sampling location was not associated with Salmonella prevalence.

  14. Effects of inorganic and organic manganese supplementation on gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I and follicle-stimulating hormone expression and reproductive performance of broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjing; Tian, Chuanhuan; Zhu, Yongwen; Zhang, Liyang; Lu, Lin; Luo, Xugang

    2014-04-01

    Manganese is an essential microelement. Manganese deficiency affects reproduction performance and reproductive hormones in layers. However, little is known about its effects and the possible mechanism in regulating reproduction in broiler breeder hens. In the current study, broiler breeder hens at peak production were fed with diets supplemented with 0, 120, or 240 mg of Mn/kg as MnSO4 or Mn proteinate for 13 wk. Manganese supplementation did not alter egg laying rate, egg weight, fertility, hatchability, or hatchling weight over a 13-wk trial period. However, 240 mg of Mn/kg supplementation significantly increased serum Mn (P Manganese supplements increased the eggshell breaking strength (P < 0.05) without affecting the eggshell thickness. There was no difference in serum cholesterol and estradiol. Expression of follicle-stimulating hormone) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) genes was significantly elevated by 240 mg of Mn/kg (P < 0.05). Furthermore, inorganic Mn supplementation doubled GnRH-I expression compared with supplementation with the organic form (P < 0.05), although serum Mn was comparable between these 2 supplements. No obvious difference was shown in gene expression of luteinizing hormone, prolactin, GnRH-I receptor, inducible NO synthase, and dopamine receptor D1 in the pituitary as well as tyrosine hydroxylase and inducible NO synthase in the hypothalamus. This suggests that dietary Mn supplementation could improve eggshell quality in the long term. The central mechanism of nontoxic high doses of Mn suggested the transcriptional activation of GnRH-I and follicle-stimulating hormone genes. The central effect of inorganic Mn activating GnRH-I genes compared with the reduced effect by organic Mn could possibly be due to a decreased capacity of the latter passing through the blood-brain barrier.

  15. Morphometric Documentation of a High Prevalence of Left Ventricular Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Both Clinically Normal and Cyanotic Mature Commercial Broiler Breeder Roosters with Comparisons to Market-Age Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Floyd D; Magee, Danny L; Jones, Kelli H; Baravik-Munsell, Erica; Cummings, Timothy S; Wills, Robert W; Pace, Lanny W

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies documented the common occurrence of transitory cyanosis and echocardiographic aortic insufficiency in mature commercial broiler breeder roosters. During further investigations, we observed a high prevalence of hearts exhibiting extensive dilation of the left ventricle chamber compatible with dilated left ventricular cardiomyopathy present in both cyanotic and normal subpopulations. We conducted quantitative studies focused on documentation of cardiac ventricle parameters by using simple gross morphometric methods performed on formalin-fixed hearts obtained from both clinically normal roosters and those exhibiting variable transitory cyanosis, echocardiographic aortic insufficiency, or both. A high prevalence of often dramatic left ventricular dilation reflected in enlarged left ventricular chamber areas and elevated left ventricle-to-total ventricle area ratios was morphometrically documented. However, no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of ventricular abnormalities were observed between normal and cyanotic roosters. Age-associated changes were also demonstrated by comparative morphometric studies on hearts from normal market-age broilers (average age of 7 wk) and those of mature roosters (average age of 42 wk). Elevation in both left and right ventricular weight-to-total heart weight ratios dramatically increased with aging. In addition, values (average ± SD) for the left ventricle chamber area-to-total ventricle area ratios increased from 3.2 ± 2.0% in broilers up to 10.0 ± 8.8% in roosters. None of the normal broilers studied demonstrated left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, whereas 33% of the roosters had left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, including 13% with ratios of 20% or higher. However, the left ventricle wall area-to-body weight ratios were much closer for the two age groups (0.85 ± 0.18 cm(2)/kg in broilers and 0.79 ± 0.13 cm(2)/kg in roosters). Also, the standard right ventricle-to-total ventricle

  16. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Contaminated Larval and Adult Lesser Mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)can Transmit Salmonella Typhimurium in a Broiler Flock

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), commonly known as the darkling beetle, to transmit a marker strain Salmonella Typhimurium to day-of-hatch broiler chicks was evaluated, as well as the spread to non-challenged pen mates. Day-of-hatch chicks were orally gavaged wit...

  18. Effect of dietary manganese on antioxidant status and expression levels of heat-shock proteins and factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders under normal and high environmental temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Wen; Lu, Lin; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zhang, Li-Yang; Ji, Cheng; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xu-Gang

    2015-12-28

    To investigate the effect of Mn on antioxidant status and expression levels of heat-shock proteins/factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders subjected to heat challenge, we used a completely randomised design (n 6) with a factorial arrangement of 2 environmental temperatures (normal, 21 (sem 1)°C and high, 32 (sem 1)°C)×3 dietary Mn treatments (an Mn-unsupplemented basal diet (CON), or a basal diet supplemented with 120 mg Mn/kg diet as inorganic Mn sulphate (iMn) or organic Mn proteinate (oMn)). There were no interactions (P>0·10) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in all of the measured indices. High temperature decreased (Pmanganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity (P<0·05) and a slight increase of malondialdehyde level (P=0·06) were detected in breast muscle. Up-regulated (P<0·05) expression levels of heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) and HSF3 mRNA and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA and protein were found in all three tissues. Broiler breeders fed either iMn or oMn had higher tissue Mn content (P<0·0001), heart MnSOD and CuZnSOD activities (P<0·01) and breast muscle MnSOD protein levels (P<0·05), and lower (P<0·05) breast muscle HSP70 mRNA and protein levels than those fed CON. Broiler breeders fed oMn had higher (P<0·03) bone Mn content than those fed iMn. These results indicate that high temperature decreases Mn retention and increases HSP70 and HSF1, HSF3 expression levels in tissues of laying broiler breeders. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with Mn in either source may enhance heart antioxidant ability and inhibit the expression of HSP70 in breast muscle. Finally, the organic Mn appears to be more available than inorganic Mn for bone in laying broiler breeders regardless of environmental temperatures.

  19. Genetic analysis of H9N2 avian influenza viruses circulated in broiler flocks: a case study in Iraq in 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraidi, Qayssar Ali; Madadgar, Omid; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Karimi, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been recorded in Eurasian for several years. Since 2004-2005, the disease has become endemic in Iraq, causing serious economic losses in the poultry industry. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), two out of eight protein-coding genes, play an important role during the early stage of infection and hinder virus assembling. Little is known about the genetic information of the H9N2 viruses currently circulating in Iraq; thus, gene sequences of six AIVS of the H9N2 subtype have been detected and analyzed in the period of 2014-2015 from different outbreaks of broiler flocks in five provinces situated in the middle and southern parts of Iraq. Genetic comparison of the partial sequences of HA gene indicated that all Iraqi viruses are related to each other and could be divided into two subgroups. Viruses of the first and the second subgroups demonstrated a high similar identity with Pakistani and Iranian viruses, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the NA protein of the all studied Iraqi viruses were very similar (95.2-100% identity), and shared high nucleotide sequence identity with Iranian, Pakistani, and Lebanese strains. All six recent viruses possessed histidine, alanine, and leucine at positions 183, 190, and 226, respectively, which are the key residues in receptor-binding sites. The Iraqi viruses were closely related to viruses of G1-like lineage isolated from poultry flocks of Iran and Pakistan, suggesting that possible epidemiological links could be derived from a common origin. Further investigations are required and should include the viral isolation and full-length molecular characterization of H9N2 AIVs in this area.

  20. Effect of trypsin inhibitor activity in soya bean on growth performance, protein digestibility and incidence of sub-clinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyeguru, M W C D; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M

    2011-06-01

    1. The effect of three different levels of dietary trypsin inhibitor activity (achieved by varying the amount of non-toasted full fat soya bean in replacement for toasted full fat soya bean) on the incidence of spontaneously-occurring sub-clinical necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens was compared. A fourth dietary treatment compared the effect of a diet that used potato protein concentrate as the major protein source. The determined trypsin inhibitor activity increased with the increasing content of non-toasted soya bean: 1·90, 6·21, 8·46 and 3·72 mg/g for the three soya bean diets (0, 100 and 200 g of non-toasted soya bean/kg) and the potato protein diet respectively. 2. Although increasing amounts of the non-toasted full-fat soya bean increased the feed intakes of the birds, there was a marked reduction in protein digestibility, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. 3. There was a linear increase in sub-clinical NE lesions in the duodenum, jejunum, mid small intestine and ileum with increasing non-toasted soya bean. Caecal Clostridium perfringens counts increased with the increasing dietary content of non-toasted soya bean. Serum α-toxin antibodies were higher in the birds fed the 200 g non-toasted soya bean/kg diet compared with the other diets. 4. The results demonstrated that variation in the amount of non-toasted dietary soya bean not only affects growth performance of broilers but also affects the incidence of sub-clinical necrotic enteritis in the flock. Ensuring the lowest possible trypsin-inhibitor activity in soya bean samples is a valuable tool to improve the health and welfare of birds and in reducing the financial losses from this disease.

  1. Occurrence of quinolone- and beta-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli in danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Guardabassi, Luca; Bisgaard, Magne

    An increased concern for the possible transfer of resistant bacteria or mobile resistance elements from food animals to humans has resulted in rigorous legislation preventing i.e. practical use of fluoroquinolones in the Danish broiler industry (Olesen et al., 2004; Petersen et al., 2006). In Den......An increased concern for the possible transfer of resistant bacteria or mobile resistance elements from food animals to humans has resulted in rigorous legislation preventing i.e. practical use of fluoroquinolones in the Danish broiler industry (Olesen et al., 2004; Petersen et al., 2006......, and F. M. Aarestrup. 2004. Prevalence of ß-lactamases among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food animals in Denmark. Micr. Drug Res. 10:334-340. Petersen, A., J. P. Christensen, P. Kuhnert, M. Bisgaard, J. E. Olsen. 2006. Vertical transmission of a fluoroquinolone...

  2. 蛋氨酸硒对大恒肉种鸡繁殖性能的影响%Effects of Selenomethionine on Reproductive Performance in Daheng Broiler Breeders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丹; 邹成义; 殷勤; 申雅鸽; 宋小燕

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究不同水平蛋氨酸硒对大恒肉种鸡繁殖性能的影响。将500只32周龄大恒肉种鸡随机分成5组(每组5个重复,每个重复20只)。对照组饲粮为基础饲粮,试验组饲粮为在基础饲粮中分别添加0.10、0.25、0.40和0.55 mg/kg硒(蛋氨酸硒)的试验饲粮,试验期6周。结果表明:1)对照组入孵蛋受精率显著低于0.40 mg/kg硒组(P<0.05),极显著低于0.10和0.25 mg/kg硒组(P<0.01);对照组入孵蛋孵化率极显著低于各加硒组(P<0.01);对照组和0.40 mg/kg硒组受精蛋孵化率显著低于0.10 mg/kg硒组(P<0.05)。2)0.10 mg/kg硒组血浆孕酮水平显著高于对照组和0.40 mg/kg硒组( P<0.05);0.10 mg/kg硒组种蛋哈氏单位显著高于0.55 mg/kg硒组( P<0.05)。3)各组产蛋性能,血浆雌二醇水平,种蛋蛋形指数、蛋壳厚度和蛋壳强度差异均不显著(P>0.05)。由此可见,在硒水平为0.12 mg/kg 的基础饲粮中,添加0.10~0.55 mg/kg 蛋氨酸硒来源的硒对大恒肉种鸡产蛋性能没有显著影响,添加0.10~0.25 mg/kg蛋氨酸硒来源的硒可显著改善大恒肉种鸡种蛋孵化性能。%This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of selenomethionine on reproductive performance in Daheng broiler breeders. A total of five hundred Daheng broiler breeders hens at age of 32 weeks were randomly allocated into 5 groups with 5 replicates per group and 20 hens per replicate. The control group was fed a basal diet, the experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.10,0.25,0.40 and 0.55 mg/kg selenium coming from selenomethionine, respectively. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. The results showed as follows:1) fertility of the incubated eggs in control group was significantly lower than that in 0.40 ( P0.05) . It is concluded that there is no significant

  3. Prevalence, molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from northwestern Spanish broiler flocks (2011-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, A; Fernandez-No, I C; Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance to twenty antibiotics, and class 1 integron and virulence genes of Salmonella isolated from poultry houses of broilers in northwestern Spain between 2011 and 2015. Strains were classified to the serotype level using the Kauffman-White typing scheme and subtyping with enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 1.02%. Sixteen different serotypes were found, with S. typhimurium and S. arizonae 48:z4, z23:- being the most prevalent. A total of 59.70% of strains were resistant to at least one, and 19.70% were resistant to multiple drugs. All Salmonella spp. were susceptible to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, levofloxacin, neomycin, and trimethoprim. The highest level of resistance was to sulfamethoxazole (40.29%), doxycycline (17.91%), and nalidixic acid (17.91%). None of the isolates carried class 1 integron and only isolates of S. enterica subspecies enterica were positive for all virulence factors tested, whereas S. arizonae lacked genes related to replication and invasion in nonphagocytic cells. This study demonstrates that the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in poultry houses of broilers of northwestern Spain is low compared with those found in other studies and in other steps of the food chain. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Detection of Campylobacter bacteria in air samples for continuous real-time monitoring of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Katja N; Lund, Marianne; Skov, Julia; Christensen, Laurids S; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2009-04-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the sensitivity of detection of Campylobacter in air is comparable to that in other sample materials. Profiling of airborne particles in six poultry houses revealed that the aerodynamic conditions were dependent on the age of the chickens and very comparable among different poultry houses, with low proportions of particles in the 0.5- to 2-microm-diameter range and high proportions in the 2- to 5-microm-diameter range. Campylobacter could also be detected by PCR in air samples collected at the hanging stage during the slaughter process but not at the other stages tested at the slaughterhouse. The exploitation of airborne dust in poultry houses as a sample material for the detection of Campylobacter and other pathogens provides an intriguing possibility, in conjunction with new detection technologies, for allowing continuous or semicontinuous monitoring of colonization status.

  5. Effect of time of day of artificial insemination and oviposition-insemination interval of the fertility of broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, A F; McDaniel, G R; Sexton, T J

    1980-11-01

    Two experiments using two populations of 160 broiler-type females in each were conducted to study the effect of time of day of artificial insemination and the effect of oviposition-insemination interval on fertility. Each population was subdivided into eight groups of 20 hens and inseminated with .05 ml of semen once a week at one of the following times: 2400, 0300, 0600, 0900, 1200, 1500, 1800, or 2100 hr for 5 weeks in Experiment 1 and for 6 weeks in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, the highest level of fertility was obtained from hens inseminated at 2100 hr, while in Experiment 2, significantly higher levels of fertility were obtained from hens inseminated at 2100, 2400, and 0300 hr. In both experiments, fertility of females inseminated in mid-morning and mid-afternoon did not differ significantly and lower levels of fertility were obtained when hens oviposited within 3 hr after insemination. Lower fertility occurred when morning and mid-day inseminations were followed by oviposition within 3 hr after insemination.

  6. Reproductive performance and oviductal expression of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in young and old broiler breeder hens orally exposed to supplementary biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabari, H; Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Mianji, G Rahimi; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N

    2014-09-01

    Published data on the probable involvement of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) in sustaining sperm viability in sperm storage tubules in 38-wk-old turkeys, and the high affinity of avidin or its analogs to biotin suggest that supplementary biotin may increase oviductal avidin and AVR2 expression, thereby attenuating the adverse effect of aging on hen reproductive performance. Broiler breeder hens (n = 120) were randomly assigned to receive 0 (T0), 0.30 (T1), or 0.45 (T2) mg of biotin/L of drinking water from 30 to 33 (young) and 53 to 56 (old) wk of age, and artificially inseminated to determine their reproductive performance. At the end of each period of biotin administration, 8 hens from each treatment group were killed for RNA extraction from the uterovaginal junction. Egg production was lower in the old hens (44%) compared with the young ones (82%), and biotin supplementation increased egg production only in the latter. Administering supplementary biotin to young hens increased their oviductal expression of AVR2, which was much higher in the old hens (1.0 and 4.6 for young and old groups, respectively). Fertility rate was not different between young and old hens, and was increased (4.4%) at the higher level of biotin supplementation. Hatchability and hatchling quality were not affected by biotin supplementation. Embryonic mortality between 17 to 21 d of incubation was higher in young (5.2%) compared with old (1.4%) birds. Egg fertility rate showed a moderate correlation (P biotin supplementation on AVR2 expression, and the relationship between biotin administration and oviductal expression of avidin and AVR2 was dependent on the hen's age, being higher in the young hens.

  7. Reproductive efficiency and metabolism of female broiler breeders as affected by genotype, feed allocation, and age at photostimulation. 3. Reproductive efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2007-10-01

    A 3 x 4 x 2 factorial trial was performed to test the effect of 3 broiler breeder strains, 4 target BW profiles, and 2 photostimulation ages on egg and chick production. Hubbard Hi-Y, Ross 508, and Ross 708 pullets were reared on BW profiles that separated at 4 wk and converged at 32 wk: standard (approximate mean target BW profile of the 3 strains used), low (12-wk BW target = 25% lower than standard followed by rapid gain to 32 wk), moderate (12-wk BW target = 150% of standard followed by lower rate of gain to 32 wk), and high (12-wk BW target = 200% of standard followed by minimal growth to 32 wk). Birds were photostimulated at 18 (18WK) or 22 wk (22WK). Twelve birds per interaction (n = 288) were individually caged at 17 wk and monitored for egg and chick production to 58 wk of age. The low BW profile delayed onset of lay, particularly in 18WK hens. Low and standard birds had a greater initial egg weight than moderate birds. The 18WK photostimulation age resulted in production of 31 small eggs (birds. A settable (52 g) egg weight was reached earliest by standard birds (187 d of age). Average prime sequence length was reduced by 7.0 eggs in moderate and high birds compared with other profiles. The 18WK hens laid 9 more eggs (174) than 22WK birds, with no effect on unsettable eggs. The 22WK birds laid 7 more settable eggs due to increased early egg size. Total egg output was similar among BW profile treatments, although Ross 708-high hens under-performed compared with the other 708 profiles. The Ross 508-high birds laid the same number of eggs as Ross 508-standard birds (mean = 178.7). Feeding profiles affected egg production traits differently among strains. Feed intake had more effect on egg size and early production traits than BW profile or BW.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks Resistência antimicrobiana em Campylobacter spp isoladas de frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzete Lora Kuana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH agar (27 samples and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed a 62.5% resistance to at least one drug, especially to enrofloxacin (71%, neomycin (50%, lincomycin (50%, tetracycline (43%, penicillin (42%, ceftiofur (33% amoxicillin (27%, spiramycin (20%, ampicillin (18% and norfloxacin (14%, whereas a lower percentage of strains was resistant to erythromycin (10% and doxycycline (10%. All strains were sensitive to gentamicin and lincomycin-spectinomycin and 80% of them to colistin. These results indicate that it is necessary to reduce the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de 62 amostras de Campylobacter spp. em amostras isoladas de 22 lotes de frango de corte, pelo método de difusão em Agar. As amostras de Campylobacter spp foram isoladas de frangos com idade entre 3 e 5 semanas, isoladas a partir de swabs cloacais, fezes e descarga cecal obtidos nas granjas e de rinsagem de carcaças no abatedouro. Das 62 amostras avaliadas, 27 foram testadas em ágar MH e 35 no ágar MH com TTC. O perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana apresentou 62,5% de resistência para, no mínimo, uma droga, sobretudo para enrofloxacina (71%, neomicina (50%, lincomicina (50%, tetraciclina (43%, penicilina (42%, ceftiofur (33% amoxicilina (27%, espiramicina (20%, ampicilina (18% e norfloxacina (14%, enquanto uma percentagem menor foi observada frente eritromicina (10% e doxiciclina (10%. Todas as amostras foram

  9. Uso de Redes Neurais Artificiais para Estimar Parâmetros de Produção de Galinhas Reprodutoras Pesadas em Recria Use of Artificial Neural Networks to Estimate Production Parameters of Broiler Breeders in the Breeding Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CTP Salle

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma atividade com a magnitude da avicultura, que usa equipamentos de última geração e serviços atualizados, é levada, na maioria dos casos, a tomar decisões que envolvem todos aspectos de produção, apoiada em critérios subjetivos. O presente trabalho objetiva estudar a utilização das redes neurais artificiais para serem usadas na predição dos parâmetros de desempenho das aves em recria, pertencentes a uma integração avícola sul-brasileira. Foram utilizados os registros de 11 lotes de reprodutoras pesadas para a análise por redes neurais artificiais, no período compreendido entre 09/11/97 a 10/01/99. Os dados utilizados corresponderam a 273 linhas de registros semanais. Os modelos de redes neurais artificiais foram comparados e selecionados como melhores, baseados no coeficiente de determinação múltipla (R², Quadrado Médio do Erro (QME, bem como pela análise de gráficos, plotando a predição da rede versus a predição menos o real. Os autores concluem que é possível explicar os parâmetros de desempenho das aves em recria, através da utilização de redes neurais artificiais. A técnica permite a tomada de decisões por parte do corpo técnico, baseadas em critérios objetivos obtidos cientificamente. Além disso, esse método permite simulações das conseqüências de tais decisões e fornece a percentagem de contribuição de cada variável no fenômeno em estudo.An economic activity with the magnitude of the poultry industry, which uses top line equipment, generally is lead to make decisions involving all production parameters, based in subjective criteria. The aim of this paper is to study the use of artificial neural networks to predict performance parameters in breeding birds, belonging to a South Brazilian poultry farm. Data from 11 broiler breeder flocks was recorded between November, 11th 1997 and October, 1st 1999. These data were processed by artificial neural networks. They corresponded to 273 data

  10. Reproductive efficiency and metabolism of female broiler breeders as affected by genotype, feed allocation, and age at photostimulation. 1. Pullet growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, F E; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A

    2007-10-01

    A 3 x 4 x 2 factorial design was carried out to determine the effect of 3 broiler breeder strains, 4 target BW profiles, and 2 photostimulation ages on pullet growth and development. A total of 560 pullets from each strain (Hubbard Hi-Y, Ross 508, and Ross 708) were reared on BW profiles that separated at 4 wk and converged at 32 wk of age as follows: standard (mean target BW profile of the 3 strains used), low (12-wk BW target = 25% lower than standard followed by rapid gain to 32 wk), moderate (12-wk BW target = 150% of standard followed by lower rate of gain to 32 wk), and high (12-wk BW target = 200% of standard followed by minimal growth to 32 wk). Birds were photostimulated at 18 (18WK) or 22 wk (22WK). During the prephotostimulation phase (2 to 18 wk of age), 4 birds were killed for each of the 12 interactions at 14-d intervals to characterize changes in carcass traits. After 18 wk (wk 20, 22, and 24), 4 birds from each of the 24 interactions were killed and dissected (n = 768). Growth rate restricted frame size (e.g., 18-wk shank length: low = 101.8; standard = 105.6; moderate = 109.5; and high = 112.3 mm). At 24 wk of age, the 22WK birds had similar amounts of breast muscle compared with 18WK birds, whereas the later photostimulated hens had heavier abdominal fat pads. Early photo-stimulation resulted in increased 24-wk liver weights in all strains, but the difference was greatest in Ross 708 birds. The 22-wk ovary weight was influenced by age at photostimulation in high (18WK = 17.3; 22WK = 1.6 g) and moderate (18WK = 14.1; 22WK = 1.1 g) birds. The more extensive feed restriction of LOW birds before 12 wk of age appeared to limit breast muscle and fat pad growth and slow reproductive tract development following photostimulation. Pullets on heavier BW profiles respond to early PS by developing the reproductive system at the expense of breast muscle and fat pad growth. Genetic strain modulates some of the effect of very different target BW profiles.

  11. Yolk sac nutrient composition and fat uptake in late-term embryos in eggs from young and old broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadgary, L; Cahaner, A; Kedar, O; Uni, Z

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the composition, amount, and uptake of yolk nutrients [fat, protein, water, and carbohydrates (COH)] during incubation of eggs from 30- and 50-wk-old broiler breeder hens. Eggs were sampled at embryonic d 0 (fresh eggs), 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 (hatch). Egg, embryo, yolk content, and yolk sac membrane were weighed, and the yolk sac (YS; i.e., yolk content + yolk sac membrane) composition was analyzed. From 30 to 50 wk of age, the albumen weight increased by 13.3%, whereas the yolk increased by more than 40%. The proportion of fat in the fresh yolk of the 30-wk-old group was 23.8% compared with 27.4% in the 50-wk-old group, whereas the proportion of protein was 17.9% compared with 15.6%, respectively. During incubation, results indicated that water and protein infiltrated from other egg compartments to the YS. Accordingly, the calculated change in the content of water and protein between fresh yolk and sampled YS does not represent the true uptake of these components from the YS to the embryo, and only fat uptake from the YS can be accurately estimated. By embryonic d 15, fat uptake relative to embryo weight was lower in the 30-wk-old group than in the 50-wk-old group. However, by embryonic d 21, embryos of both groups reached similar relative fat uptake, suggesting that to hatch, embryos must attain a certain amount of fat as a source of energy for the hatching process. The amount of COH in the YS increased similarly during incubation in eggs from hens of both ages, reaching a peak at embryonic d 19, suggesting COH synthesis in the YS. At hatch, the amount of protein, water, and COH in the residual YS, relative to the weight of the yolk-free chick, was similar in eggs from young and old hens. However, chicks from the younger hens had less fat in the YS for their immediate posthatch nutrition compared with those from the older hens.

  12. Indicadores de bem-estar baseados em reações comportamentais de matrizes pesadas Welfare pointers in function of behavior reactions of broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo F. Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Dada a importância da avicultura de corte para a economia brasileira, este trabalho buscou compreender e identificar novos indicadores de bem-estar inerentes ao animal que contribuíssem para o aumento da eficácia produtiva, estudando-se diferentes reações comportamentais de matrizes de frango de corte, em câmara climática. O experimento foi delineado como um Quadrado Latino 3x3x3, em que as variáveis temperatura do ar, ração e idade das aves foram controladas, sendo as aves de diferentes idades alojadas em boxes distintos. Foram feitas observações do comportamento das aves em dois horários do dia, sendo uma observação na parte da manhã e outra na parte da tarde, durante períodos de 15 minutos cada, por meio de câmeras de vídeo instaladas no teto da câmara climática, não havendo interferência humana no registro das informações. Constatou-se, nos dados, a influência das variáveis controladas em diversos comportamentos observados, concluindo-se que a presença do alimento é um fator experimental relevante, pois aumenta as reações comportamentais agressivas.Knowing the importance that the poultry industry represents for the Brazilian economy, this work, searched to understand and to identify new welfare pointers inherent to the animal that contributed for the increase of the productive effectiveness, studying different behavior reactions in broiler breeders, in climatic chamber. The experiment was delineated as a Latin Square 3x3x3, where the variable: temperature of air, birds ration and birds age had been controlled. The birds of different ages had been lodged in distinct boxes. Observations of the behavior of the birds in two schedules of the day had been made, being one in the morning and the other one in the afternoon, during a period of 15 minutes each through video cameras, installed in the ceiling of the climatic chamber, having no interference of human being in the register of the data. It was verified the

  13. Effect of dietary levels of methionine + cystine on performance of broiler breeders Efeito dos níveis dietéticos de metionina + cistina no desempenho de matrizes pesadas

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    Paulo Cezar Gomes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate levels of methionine + cystine levels for broiler breeders from 40 to 60 weeks of age. It was used 288 Cobb broiler breeders, distributed in a randomized experimental design with six levels of methionine+ cystine in the diets (0.39; 0.47; 0.55; 0.63; 0.71 and 0.79%, eight repetitions and six breeders per experimental unit. The diets were isocaloric and isoprotein (2,850 kcal ME/kg and 12.58% CP and oferred at a fixed amount (155 g per bird. For the entire studied period, by using polynomial analysis, it was observed a quadratic effect of methionine + cystine levels on the percentage of egg production, on number of eggs per hen housed, on number of eggs per hen and egg weight. There was also a linear effect on shell weight when it was calculated in relation to egg weight. The total methionine + cystine requirement for broiler breeders was calculated at 0.521% for percentage of egg production and number of eggs per hen, which corresponds to a daily intake of 808 mg of methionine + cystine/day. The digestible methionine + cystine requirement for broiler breeders was estimated at 727 mg for laying percentage and number of eggs per hen.Com o objetivo de avaliar níveis de metionina + cistina para matrizes pesadas de 40 a 60 semanas de idade, conduziu-se um experimento com 288 matrizes da linhagem Cobb-500, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis níveis de metionina + cistina nas dietas (0,39; 0,47; 0,55; 0,63; 0,71 e 0,79%, oito repetições e seis matrizes por unidade experimental. As rações foram isocalóricas e isoproteicas (2.850 kcal EM/kg e 12,58% PB e fornecidas em quantidade fixa (155 g por ave. No período total estudado, por meio de análise polinomial, foi observado efeito quadrático dos níveis de metionina + cistina sobre o percentual de produção de ovos, o número de ovos por ave alojada, o número de ovos por ave e o peso dos ovos. Houve também efeito

  14. Campylobacter multi-locus sequence types and antimicrobial susceptibility of broiler cecal isolates: a two year study of 143 commercial flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and coli recovered from broiler ceca at slaughter. Ceca from one broiler were collected from the evisceration line in a commercial processing plant, once or twice weekly for two year...

  15. A comparison of the reproductive and growth performances of offspring from broiler breeder males selected for early growth rate using artificial insemination and unselected males kept on deep litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wambeke, F; Moermans, R; De Groote, G

    1981-01-01

    Broiler breeder males were selected for early growth rate at 5 weeks of age (average weight + 0.5 SD). The reproductive and growth performances of the offspring of these males using artificial insemination with stored semen was compared with those from non-selected males kept on deep litter under conditions of natural mating. On three different occasions (31, 41 and 51 weeks of age), the eggs of the two treatments were incubated and, although the reproductive performances showed little difference over the entire period, hatchability of eggs set was significantly (p less than 0.01) higher for the field hens on the first occasion. The opposite was true after 50 weeks of age due to a serious decline in fertility in natural mating. At all periods, the selected males produced significantly (p less than 0.01) heavier offspring at six weeks of age.

  16. Desempenho de frangos de corte oriundos de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorvente Performance of broilers derived from breeder hens fed with diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannan as adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pires Rosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho da progênie de matrizes de corte que consumiram aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorvente por quatro ou oito semanas. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. Em cada estudo foram utilizados 160 machos de 1 dia provenientes de matrizes alimentadas com dietas contendo aflatoxinas e adsorvente. Em ambos os ensaios, foi adotado um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado para avaliação de cinco dietas (tratamentos, cada uma avaliada com quatro repetições de oito aves. Nas dietas fornecidas às matrizes, as aflatoxinas foram adicionadas nos níveis 0; 0,500; ou 0,750 mg/kg de ração em combinação ou não a 0,10% de adsorvente. Os dois ensaios com frangos de corte foram conduzidos em baterias instaladas em unidade experimental climatizada, onde os pintos receberam uma dieta comprovadamente isenta de aflatoxinas durante todo o período experimental. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: peso corporal, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar pelo ganho de peso, proteínas plasmáticas totais, albumina sérica e pesos de fígado e bursa de Fabrícius ao primeiro dia de idade. A adição de até 0,750 mg aflatoxinas/kg e adsorvente durante oito semanas na dieta de matrizes de corte não influencia o desempenho zootécnico nem os parâmetros sanguíneos da progênie das matrizes.The performance of the progeny from breeders hens fed diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannans as a mycotoxins adsorbent during four and eight weeks was evaluated. Two experiments were carried out with broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age. In each study, one hundred and sixty 1-day old male chicks from broiler breeders fed diets with aflatoxins and mycotoxins adsorbent were used. The chicks were allocated in a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments and four replicates of eight birds each. In the diets supplied to the breeder chickens, aflatoxins were added at

  17. Effects of breeder age and egg weight on morphological changes in the small intestine of chicks during the hatch window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, S; Izzetoğlu, G T; Aktaş, A

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of breeder age and egg weight on hatching performance and morphological changes in segments of the small intestine of broiler chicks during a 21 h hatch window. 2. Eggs from Ross broiler breeder flocks aged 29 (young) and 48 weeks (old) were classified as light (LE) or heavy (HE) and incubated at the same conditions. At 475 h of incubation, eggs were checked every 3 h to determine time of external pipping and hatching. The first 42 chicks to emerge from each group were weighed and chick length was measured and 14 chicks from each group were sampled to collect residual yolk and intestine segments. The rest of chicks were placed back in the incubator and chick weight and length were measured individually at 9, 15 and 21 h after chicks hatched. At the end of 21 h, 14 chicks from each group were sampled again and the same procedure was followed. 3. The HE chicks pipped and hatched later than LE, regardless of breeder age. From hatch to the end of the hatch window, chick weight, but not yolk-free chick weight, gradually reduced. Relative residual yolk weight of chicks from both egg weights was similar at hatch, however, yolk sac utilisation was higher for LE chicks during the 21 h post-hatch period. At hatch, jejunum and ileum villus development was very similar for HE and LE chicks but greater development was observed for villus area with an increase in the jejunum villus length, width and goblet cell numbers in HE chicks. 4. The longest jejunum villus and the widest duodenum and jejunum villus were obtained for HE chicks from old breeders indicating that HE chicks from old breeders would have a greater surface area for nutrient absorption.

  18. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of genotype 1 avian hepatitis E virus: characterization of its pathogenicity in broiler breeders and demonstration of its utility in studying the role of the hypervariable region in virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Byung-Woo; Moon, Hyun-Woo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2015-05-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genotype 1 Korean avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) (pT11-aHEV-K) was constructed and its infectivity and pathogenicity were investigated in leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) chicken cells and broiler breeders. We demonstrated that capped RNA transcripts from the pT11-aHEV-K clone were translation competent when transfected into LMH cells and infectious when injected intrahepatically into the livers of chickens. Gross and microscopic pathological lesions underpinned the avian HEV infection and helped characterize its pathogenicity in broiler breeder chickens. The avian HEV genome contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1. To demonstrate the utility of the avian HEV infectious clone, several mutants with various deletions in and beyond the known HVR were derived from the pT11-aHEV-K clone. The HVR-deletion mutants were replication competent in LMH cells, although the deletion mutants extending beyond the known HVR were non-viable. By using the pT11-aHEV-K infectious clone as the backbone, an avian HEV luciferase reporter replicon and HVR-deletion mutant replicons were also generated. The luciferase assay results of the reporter replicon and its mutants support the data obtained from the infectious clone and its derived mutants. To further determine the effect of HVR deletion on virus replication, the capped RNA transcripts from the wild-type pT11-aHEV-K clone and its mutants were injected intrahepatically into chickens. The HVR-deletion mutants that were translation competent in LMH cells displayed in chickens an attenuation phenotype of avian HEV infectivity, suggesting that the avian HEV HVR is important in modulating the virus infectivity and pathogenicity.

  19. Desempenho produtivo de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorventes Productive performance of broiler breeders fed diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannan as adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uttpatel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e adsorvente à base de glucomananos esterificados. Foram utilizados 300 fêmeas e 40 machos da linhagem Ross 308 alojados em 20 boxes experimentais na fase de 61 a 72 semanas de idade. Da 61ª à 68ª semana, as aves receberam dietas contendo três níveis de aflatoxina (0; 0,500; 0,750 mg/kg em combinação ou não a adsorvente (0,10% e, nas quatro últimas semanas, receberam dietas isentas de aflatoxina e adsorvente. As aves foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (níveis de aflatoxina vs níveis de adsorvente com 4 repetições, cada uma de 15 fêmeas e 2 machos. A partir da 65ª semana, as aves alimentadas com dietas contendo aflatoxina e adsorvente apresentaram menor taxa de postura em relação àquelas que receberam dietas comuns, sem esses aditivos. O peso corporal das matrizes, assim como o peso, o peso específico dos ovos, a eclodibilidade, e a qualidade dos pintos produzidos não são afetados pelos níveis de aflatoxinas e adsorvente presentes na dieta.The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of broiler breeder hens fed diets containing aflatoxins and adsorbent on the basis of esterified glucomannan. It was used 300 Ross 308 females and 40 males broiler breeders, housed in 20 experimental pens in the 61-72 week of age phase. From the 61st to the 68th week, birds were fed diets containing three levels of aflatoxin (0; 0.500; 0.750 mg/kg combined or not to adsorbent (0.10% and on the last four weeks they received diets without aflatoxin and adsorbent. The birds were distributed in a complete randomized design in a factorial scheme (levels of aflotoxin vs levels of adsorbents with 4 replicates, each one with 15 females and 2 males. From the 65th week, birds fed diets with aflotoxin and adsorbent showed lower laying rate

  20. Monitoring Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in traditional free-range 'Label Rouge' broiler production: a 23-year survey programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, G; Guyot, M; Protino, J

    2017-01-01

    'Label Rouge' broiler free-range carcasses have been monitored since 1991, and broiler flocks since 2010, for contamination by the main foodborne zoonotic bacteria. Initially, the monitoring plan mainly focused on the surveillance of Salmonella, and on indicators of the overall microbiological quality of free-range broiler carcasses such as Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms, but was extended in 2007 to include Campylobacter enumeration on carcasses and in 2010, to Salmonella in the environment of live birds. Salmonella contamination of free-range broiler carcasses rose to a peak of 16% in 1994 but less than 1% of carcasses are now regularly found to be positive. Indicators of the overall microbiological quality of carcasses are also improving. These results correlate with the low prevalence of Salmonella in free-range broiler breeding and production flocks, and with the continuous improvement of hazard analysis and critical control points in slaughterhouses, the implementation of a good manufacturing practice guide since 1997 and the application of EU regulations on Salmonella since 1998 in France. Regarding Campylobacter counts on carcasses, the situation has been improving continuously over the last few years, even if 2·5% of the carcasses are still contaminated by more than 1000 Campylobacter per g of skin. Although the current control system focusing on Salmonella is based on firm epidemiologic data and offers effective means of control (e.g. slaughtering of positive breeder flocks), existing information on Campylobacter makes it more difficult to formulate an effective control plan for free-range broilers, due to their particular exposure to environmental contamination. This long-term surveillance programme provided an extended view of the evolution of the contamination of free-range broilers and a direct measurement of the impact of mandatory and profession-driven interventions on the microbiological quality of carcasses. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  1. Modelos estatísticos indicadores de comportamentos associados a bem-estar térmico para matrizes pesadas Statistic models of behavior indicator associated with thermal welfare for female broiler breeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas D. Salgado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de reprodutoras de frangos de corte é de grande importância para o País, uma vez que o frango de corte é um dos maiores itens agropecuários em exportação, sendo o Brasil o segundo maior exportador mundial dessa carne. O comportamento animal é conceituado como reflexo do efeito da interação de diversos fatores, entre os quais o ambiental. Dessa forma, o ambiente interno do galpão de produção constitui um dos elementos que fornecem indicações sobre o conforto térmico das aves. O comportamento de matrizes expressa, sob a forma de padrões específicos, a saúde e o bem-estar dessas aves. Este trabalho teve como objetivo a aplicação dos modelos estatísticos preditivos, por meio da construção de cenários, apresentando resultados do conforto animal perante diversas condições ambientais. O trabalho foi desenvolvido com dados coletados em ambiente controlado, utilizando a linhagem Hybro-PG®, submetida a diferentes níveis de temperatura ambiente, tipos padronizados de ração e idade. Foram procedidas as análises descritiva e exploratória e, posteriormente, a modelagem, utilizando as Equações de Estimação Generalizadas (EEG. A pesquisa permitiu o desenvolvimento de indicadores de bem-estar térmico por meio das equações dos modelos estatísticos de predição, sob os distintos cenários estudados.The study of female broiler breeders is of great importance for the country as poultry production is one of the largest export items, and Brazil is the second largest broiler meat exporter. Animal behavior is known as a response to the effect of several interaction factors among them the environment. In this way the internal housing environment is an element that gives hints regarding to the bird’s thermal comfort. Female broiler breeder behavior, expresses in form of specific pattern the bird’s health and welfare. This research had the objective of applying predictive statistical models through the use of

  2. Using management information in broiler supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch broiler supply chain involves several interdependent firms such as breeding and feed companies, rearing farms, breeder farms, broiler hatcheries and broiler farms. To stay competitive and sustain continuity, evaluation of production at each level of the chain is crucial. Good quality data

  3. Avaliação de Programas de Alimentação para Matrizes de Corte na Fase de Produção Evaluation of Feeding Programs for Broiler Breeders Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Artur Argenta

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar o melhor programa de fornecimento de ração para matrizes de corte pós - pico de produção de ovos. Três mil, cento e sessenta e oito fêmeas e 352 machos matrizes de corte da linhagem Cobb foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições por tratamento, sendo 99 fêmeas e 11 machos por unidade experimental. Os programas avaliados consistiram em: Programa 1 - Redução de 1 g de ração/ave/dia/semana para cada redução de 0,5 pontos na massa de ovos; Programa 2 - Redução de 1 g de ração/ave/dia/semana após o pico até o final do período de produção; Programa 3 - Redução de 3 g de ração/ave/dia/semana na 1ª semana após o pico, 2 g de ração/ave/dia/semana na 2ª semana e 1 g de ração/ave/dia/semana nas semanas subsequentes; Programa 4 - Redução de 5 g de ração/ave/dia/semana na 1ª semana após o pico, 3 g de ração/ave/dia/semana na 2ª semana e 1 g de ração/ave/dia/semana nas semanas subseqüentes. De acordo com os resultados obtidos para consumo de ração por ovo produzido, característica de importância na avaliação do desempenho das matrizes de corte, o melhor programa foi o programa 1, seguido pelo 3, 2 e 4. Para matrizes de corte da linhagem Cobb que atingem pico de postura no inverno, período no qual foi realizado este experimento, recomenda-se o programa 1 para alimentação após pico por ter proporcionado uma boa relação entre consumo de ração e produção de ovos.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the best feeding program post peak egg production for broiler breeders. Cobb broiler breeders (3168 females and 352 males were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments and eight replicates per treatment, with 99 females and 11 males per replicate. The evaluated programs were: Program 1 - Reduction 1 g of feed/bird/day/week for each drop of 0

  4. Microbial population analysis of broilers in different flock and embryonic ages from GI, yolk and egg wash via Illumina MiSeq and QIIME pipeline (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several food-safety issues related to broiler egg production, including the introduction/proliferation of zoonotic pathogens during embryonic gastrointestinal (GI) tract development. Little is known about the overall GI bacterial communities, how they change over time, or how their composi...

  5. Transition of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids from the yolk to the liver of broiler breeder progeny via the residual yolk sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, Astrid; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia; Willems, Els; Wang, Yufeng; Franssens, Lies; Delezie, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the transfer of maternal dietary fatty acids (FA) from the yolk to the developing offspring, with special emphasis on n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Six hundred forty Ross 308 breeders were housed from 6 to 58 wk of age in 16 pens resulting in 4 replicates per dietary treatment. They were fed 1 of 4 diets: a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA (CON), or an n-3 FA enriched diet formulated to obtain an EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA=DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). At 28, 43, and 58 wk of age, 20 eggs per treatment were collected and analyzed for FA composition. At these same breeder ages, 600 fertilized eggs per treatment were incubated. At hatch the residual yolks of 25 chicks per treatment were collected and analyzed for FA composition. At every hatch, 180 chicks per treatment were raised under standard conditions and livers were sampled at d 1, 14, 28, and 38 d for FA analysis. Concentrations of EPA in the yolk and residual yolk of eggs laid by EPA-fed breeders were highest, next-to-highest for EPA=DHA-fed breeders, next-to-lowest for DHA-fed breeders, and lowest in those laid by control hens, reflecting the inclusion levels in the maternal diets. Yolk and residual yolk DHA concentrations, however, were not only elevated due to DHA supplementation, compared with the control diet, but also due to EPA supplementation. Offspring hepatic EPA concentrations were elevated until d 28 in all n-3 enriched groups, whereas hepatic DHA concentrations were only affected by EPA=DHA and DHA supplementation at d 1. No differences were found in hepatic DHA concentrations at later offspring ages. Considering the role of EPA and DHA in early development and growth, the maternal supply of these n-3 FA might improve offspring health and performance.

  6. Níveis de Ruídos na Produção de Matrizes Pesadas: Estudo de Caso Sound Levels in Broilers Breeder Production System: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O setor econômico de produção de matrizes pesadas emprega um grande número de pessoas que permanecem cerca de 44 horas semanais dentro tanto das granjas de recria e produção, como nas salas adjacentes à câmara incubatória. O trabalho levantou os dados de níveis de ruídos em um sistema de produção de matrizes pesadas e de ovos férteis, nos galpões de recria do tipo Dark House, e produção de ovos nas salas de vacinação de pintinhos e de acondicionamento de ovos férteis, em dois dias consecutivos, por um período de 8 horas, durante as horas em que os trabalhadores se encontravam dentro dos locais. Os registros de nível de ruídos foram efetuados utilizando-se um equipamento nível sonoro marca Lutron SL 4001. Foram coletados os dados médios de nível normal e de intensidade alta intermitente. Os resultados obtidos mostram que, no galpão de produção e na sala de vacinação de pintinhos, é recomendado o uso de protetores auriculares para que se atenda à legislação vigente brasileira sobre salubridade, com relação a níveis de ruídos.The economical sector of broiler breeder production employs a large number of workers who stay around 44 hours per week within the buildings for both growing and production, as well as the areas surrounding the incubator chamber. This research evaluated the sound level in the broiler breeder production system , in the Dark House and in the egg production housing, in the chickling vaccination room and inside the room where the fertile eggs are conditioned for both transportation or to go inside the incubator chamber. The trial took place during two consecutive days, during 8 hours while the workers where in side the buildings. The level of noise was registered using the sound level equipment Lutron SL 4001. The results showed that inside the egg production housing, as well as the room where the vaccination of chickling takes place, there are levels of critical values where ear protection

  7. Epidemic investigation of the co-infection of MDV, REV, CAV and ARV from commercial broilers flocks%商品肉鸡群中MDV、REV、CAV和ARV多重感染的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜赟; 刁有祥; 孙杰; 刘霞; 吴焕荣

    2012-01-01

    从山东省东营、日照、潍坊、聊城等地区自然发病和临床健康AA商品肉鸡群中分别采集脏器样品,用特异性核酸探针对样品进行马立克氏病病毒(Marek’s disease virus,MDV)、网状内皮组织增生症病毒(Reticuloendotheliosis virus,REV)、鸡传染性贫血病病毒(Chicken anemia virus,CAV)和禽呼肠孤病毒(Avian reoviruses,ARV)检测。结果显示,自然发病AA商品肉鸡群中MDV、REV、CAV和ARV的检出率均较高,分别为69.30%、57.46%、63.60%和67.11%;临床健康AA商品肉鸡群中MDV、REV、CAV的检出率分别为36.96%、43.48%和30.42%,且自然发病和健康鸡群中均存在不同病毒组合的多重感染,感染率分别为85.96%和43.46%。用x2检验进行分析发现,自然发病商品肉鸡群与临床健康商品肉鸡群中MDV、CAV、MDV+REV、REV+CAV的检出率和未检出的比例差异极显著(P〈0.01);REV、MDV+CAV检出率差异显著(P〈0.05)。对自然发病商品肉鸡的肝脏、脾脏、法氏囊中4种病毒检出率进行X2检验分析发现,MDV在脾脏中检出率显著高于肝脏和法氏囊;REV在法氏囊中检出率显著高于肝脏和脾脏,而CAV和ARV分别在脾脏和肝脏中检出率较高。结果表明,多种免疫抑制性病毒的共感染已普遍存在,是目前AA商品肉鸡易发病且生长缓慢的重要流行病学因素之一。%Detection of Mareks disease virus (MDV), reticuloendotheliosis virus(REV), chicken anemia virus (CAV) and avian reoviruses(ARV) was done with a specific nucleic acid probes on the samples which were collected from natural incidence and clinical health AA commercial broilers flocks at Dongying, Rizhao, Weifang, Liaocheng and other areas of Shandong province. The detected ratios of MDV, REV, CAV, and ARV were all higher in natural incidence AA commercial broilers and they were 69.30%, 57.46 % , 63

  8. Breeder nutrition and offspring performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Calini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertical integration in poultry industry strongly emphasizes the importance of cost control at all levels. In the usual broiler production operations, the costs involved with the production of the hatching egg or the day old chick are negligible if seen in the perspective of the cost per kg of live bird. From a research point of view, anyway, the greatest attention is usually given to the performance of broiler breeders, and most of the research in the field is focused on the improvement of their relative performance, mainly in terms of saleable chicks produced per hen, while less attention has been given to the quality of the chick and to the improvement of its growth performances, even if these last parameters have an effective impact on the overall economics of the poultry growing business. Most of the data available is quite dated, as can be seen from some recent reviews, and in general little attention is given to the impact of parental nutrition on the subsequent broiler performance. It is in fact more usual to find data about dam nutrition influence on egg fertility and hatchability than on subsequent progeny performance. The objectives of this review were to assess, on the basis of published reports, the effects of selected nutrients and anti-nutrients normally prevailing in commercial broiler breeder feeds - vitamins, micro-minerals, mycotoxins, - trying to pinpoint which could be the positive and the negative effects of both on the subsequent broiler performance, with a particular attention to the impact on immune function and carcass yield.

  9. Unexpected consequences of genetic selection in broilers and turkeys: problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, P M

    2014-02-01

    1. Genetic theory leads to the expectation that unexpected consequences of genetic selection for production traits will inevitably occur and that these changes are likely to be undesirable. 2. Both artificial selection for production efficiency and "natural" selection for adaptation to the production environment result in selection sweeps that increase the frequencies of rare recessive alleles that have a negative effect on fitness. 3. Fitness is broadly defined as any trait that affects the ability to survive, reproduce and contribute to the next generation, such as musculoskeletal disease in growing broiler chickens and multiple ovulation in adult broiler parents. 4. Welfare concerns about the negative effects of genetic selection on bird welfare are sometimes exaggerated but are nevertheless real. Breeders have paid increasing attention to these traits over several decades and have demonstrated improvement in pedigree flocks. There is an urgent need to monitor changes in commercial flocks to ensure that genetic change is accompanied by improvements in that target population. 5. New technologies for trait measurement, whole genome selection and targeted genetic modification hold out the promise of efficient and rapid improvement of welfare traits in future breeding of broiler chickens and turkeys. The potential of targeted genetic modification for enhancing welfare traits is considerable, but the goal of achieving public acceptability for the progeny of transgenic poultry will be politically challenging.

  10. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Traldi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval determined for each breeder age were weighed, broken, and their components were separated and weighed. At hatch, hatchlings were sexed and weighed, determining the average initial weight of the progeny of each breeder age. Data were analyzed using the Analyst program of SAS® software package. In Experiment 1, the weight difference between eggs produced by young and mature breeders was 10.92 g, and the component that mostly influenced this difference was the yolk (7.51 g heavier in mature breeders, compared with 4.23 g difference in albumen and 0.8 g in eggshell weights. Hatchling weight difference was 9.4 g higher in eggs from mature breeders. In Experiment 2, egg weight difference was only 0.74 g, but yolk weight was 4.59 g higher in the eggs of mature breeders. The results obtained in the present study indicate that hatchling weight is influenced by egg weight, and not by breeder age.

  11. Comparison of sample types and analytical methods for the detection of highly campylobacter-colonized broiler flocks at different stages in the poultry meat production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Duarte, Alexandra; Baré, Julie; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Dierick, Katelijne; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-05-01

    Exclusion of broiler batches, highly colonized with Campylobacter (>7.5 log10 colony-forming units/g), from the fresh poultry meat market might decrease the risk of human campylobacteriosis. The objective of this study was to compare different sample types (both at the farm and the slaughterhouse) and methods (direct culture, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], propidium monoazide [PMA]-qPCR) applied for the quantification of the Campylobacter colonization level. In addition, the applicability of the lateral flow-based immunoassay, Singlepath(®) Direct Campy Poultry test (Singlepath(®) test), was evaluated as a rapid method for the qualitative detection of Campylobacter in highly colonized broiler batches. Campylobacter counts differed significantly between sample types collected at farm level (cecal droppings, feces, boot swabs) and at slaughterhouse level (cecal content, fecal material from crates). Furthermore, comparison of Campylobacter counts obtained by different methods (direct culture, qPCR, PMA-qPCR) in cecal droppings revealed significant differences, although this was not observed for cecal-content samples. Evaluation of the Singlepath(®) test on cecal droppings and cecal-content samples revealed an acceptable level of sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, cecal droppings and cecal content are proposed as the most representative sample types for quantification of Campylobacter colonization level of broilers at farm and slaughterhouse, respectively. Direct culture and qPCR are equally sensitive for quantification of Campylobacter in fresh cecal-content samples. PMA treatment before qPCR inhibits the signal from dead Campylobacter cells. Consequently, when samples are extensively stored and/or transported, qPCR is preferred to direct culture and PMA-qPCR. Furthermore, the Singlepath(®) test offers a convenient alternative method for rapid detection of Campylobacter in highly colonized broiler batches.

  12. Effects of Daidzein on Laying and Reproductive Performance of Broiler Breeders%大豆黄酮对肉种鸡产蛋和繁殖性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钱保; 黎寿丰; 赵振华; 黄华云; 李春苗; 薛龙岗

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of daidzein on laying and reproductive per-formance of broiler breeders.Two hundred and forty 43-week-old broiler breeders S2 hens with similar body weight and laying rate were randomly divided into 4 groups with 6 replicates per group and 10 hens per repli-cate, which were fed basal diet added with daidzein 0 ( control group) , 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. Twenty health S2 cocks were selected for semen collection.And use artificial insemination of mixed semen in experimental chickens.The experimental period lasted for 15 weeks.The results showed as follows:compared with the control group, 1) diet added with daidzein had no significant effects on the body weight gain, feed in-take and mortality of S2 broiler breeders ( P>0.05) .2) Diet added with daidzein had significant effects on lay-ing rate ( P<0.05) .Laying rate of 10 mg/kg group was increased by 4.1%( P<0.05) , daily egg mass was in-creased by 3.5%( P<0.05 ) , and 10 mg/kg group was the best group.The ratio of feed to egg of 5 and 10 mg/kg groups was decreased by 8.0%and 11.2%( P<0.05) , respectively.3) Fertilized rate, hatchability and health chicken rate of 10 mg/kg group were increased by 13.1%, 20.5%and 5.8%( P<0.05) , respec-tively.Therefore, the diet added with daidzein can significantly improve the laying and reproductive perform-ance of broiler breeders, particularly for the diet added 10 mg/kg daidzein.%本试验旨在探索添加大豆黄酮后对肉种鸡产蛋和繁殖性能的影响。选取43周龄体况接近一致(体重、产蛋率)的肉种鸡S2系母鸡240只,随机分成4组,每组6个重复,每个重复10只:选取1组作为对照组,饲喂无大豆黄酮的基础饲粮,其余3组分别在基础饲粮基础上添加5、10、20 mg/kg大豆黄酮。再挑选20只强健的S2系公鸡采集精液,混精对试验鸡进行人工授精,试验期为15周。结果表明:与对照组相比,1

  13. Resposta produtiva de reprodutoras pesadas recriadas com diferentes quantidades de ração Productive results of broiler breeders hens that during the growing period received differents quantities of feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Budel

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Na área de produção animal, mais especificamente no caso de matrizes avícolas tipo corte, tem sido dada atenção especial ao melhoramento genético das mesmas. Recomendações quanto ao manejo geral das aves não tem tido a mesma evolução. Existem dúvidas quanto a quantidade ideal de ração a ser fornecida por ave/dia, principalmente durante a recria, para que ela tenha um desenvolvimento corporal adequado e, conseqüentemente, expresse ao máximo o seu potencial produtivo. Este experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar parâmetros produtivos de matrizes de corte recriadas com diferentes quantidades de ração. Da 5ª a 20ª semana as aves foram alimentadas com 15% a menos de ração do que recomenda o manual da linhagem (ARBOR ACRES, 1992; T1, 10% a menos (T2, a quantidade padrão (T3 e 10% a mais de ração sobre a quantidade padrão (T4. Os resultados mostram que o peso corporal das aves é diretamente afetado (P0,05 que as mais leves (T1 e T2, sendo que estas por sua vez, produziram maior número de ovos incubáveis (PIn animal production, particularly in the área of broiler breeders, special attention has been given to the genetic improvement of these birds. General management practices of these birds have not suffered the same development. There are doubts in relation to the ideal quantity of feed to be offered per bird/day, particularly during the growing period, só that the bird may have an adequate corporal development and expresses to the maximum all of the productive potential. This experiment was conducted in order to analyse production parameters of broiler breeders grown with varying quantities of feed. From the 5th to the 20th week of age the birds were fed 15% less ration than that recommended by the breed manual (ARBOR ACRES, 1992; T1, 10% less (T2 the quantity recommended (T3 and 10% more than the recommended quantity. The results show that the body weight of the birds is directly affected by the quantity

  14. Condição microbiológica de cama tratada com Impact P® em matrizes de frangos de corte Broiler breeder microbiological litter condition following treatment with Impact P®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fernando Büttow Roll

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da aplicação de Impact P® sobre a cama de aviário de matrizes de corte mediante o monitoramento de parâmetros microbiológicos. O Impact P® é um produto formulado através de Bacillus subtillis e suas enzimas que atuam sobre os dejetos animais e matéria orgânica, utilizando-os como fonte alimentar, visando melhorar as condições da cama dentro de aviários. Na 58ª semana de idade das matrizes foi trocado todo material de cama e então aplicados os seguintes tratamentos: T1- controle; T2 - Impact P® na dosagem de 2,5gm-2 de cama; T3 - Impact P® na dosagem de 5,0g m-2 de cama. Foram realizadas contagens de enterobactérias totais em agar McConkey em amostra de cama nova e após 3, 10, 17, 24 e 31 dias de uso da cama pelas aves e tratamentos com Impact P®. A análise estatística foi realizada no procedimento General Linear Models - GLM que utiliza o método dos quadrados mínimos, em um esquema fatorial 3x4 (tratamento x tempo de uso da cama em delineamento completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições por tratamento, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. A dosagem de 5,0g de Impact P® por m² de cama foi eficiente para reduzir em aproximadamente 13% a contagem logarítmica total de enterobactérias em comparação com o grupo não tratado (2,89 versus 3,31log10 (UFC, respectivamente, PThis study aimed to evaluate the utilization of Impact P® in used litter from floor pens of broiler breeders through the monitoring of microbiological parameters. Impact P® is a commercial product obtained from Bacillus subtillis and it enzymes. Using animal litter and organic matter as a feed source, the product was designed to improve the quality of floor pens of broiler breeders. When hens aged 58 weeks, all used floor pens material was replaced with a new one and the following treatments were tested: T1 - control; T2 - 2.5g Impact P® m-2 litter; T3- 5.0g Impact P® m-2 litter. Counting of number of

  15. Effect of the level of cholecalciferol supplementation of broiler breeder hen diets on the performance and bone abnormalities of the progeny fed diets containing various levels of calcium or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atencio, A; Edwards, H M; Pesti, G M

    2005-10-01

    Four experiments were conducted using Ross x Ross chicks hatched from broiler breeder hens fed various levels of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3; 0 to 4,000 IU/kg of diet) to determine the effect of the maternal diet on the performance and leg abnormalities of the progeny. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by the hens at different ages were used in experiments 1 to 4. The studies were conducted in an ultraviolet light-free environment as split plot designs, with Ca levels or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) in the chicks' diet as the whole plot, and vitamin D3 in the maternal diet as a subplot. Chicks in experiments 1 and 2 were fed 2 levels of Ca (0.63% or 0.90%) and chicks in experiments 3 and 4 were fed 6 levels of 25-OHD3 (0 to 40 microg/kg of diet). Significant increases in body weight gain (BWG) of the progeny were observed in experiments 1, 2, and 4 as the vitamin D3 level in the maternal diet increased. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by hens fed the highest levels of D3 had the highest tibia ash. Significant reductions in Ca rickets incidence (experiments 1 and 2) and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) incidence (experiment 1) were observed as the level of vitamin D3 in the maternal diet increased. Chicks fed lower levels of Ca had lower BWG and tibia ash and higher incidences of TD and Ca rickets than chicks fed higher levels of Ca. Increasing the level of 25-OHD3 in the chicks' diet significantly improved BWG, tibia ash, and plasma Ca and reduced TD and Ca rickets incidence. An overall evaluation of the study indicates that chicks from hens fed the highest levels of vitamin D3 and fed high levels of Ca or 25-OHD3 had the highest BWG, tibia ash, and plasma Ca, and the lowest incidences of TD and Ca rickets.

  16. Incubabilidade e Qualidade de Pintos de Ovos Matrizes de Frangos de Corte Submetidos a Estresse de Temperatura Hatchability and Chick Quality of Broiler Breeder Eggs Submitted to Stress Due to Temeperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NSM Leandro

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito do estresse de temperatura sobre as características de incubabilidade e qualidade dos pintos nascidos. Trezentos ovos, obtidos de um lote de matrizes de frangos de corte com 42 semanas, foram distribuídos em três incubadoras, reguladas para manter uma temperatura de 37,8ºC, umidade relativa de 60% e viragem mecânica a cada duas horas. Aos 16 dias de incubação (D16, aplicou-se uma variação de temperatura de calor (40ºC ou frio (32ºC durante cinco horas em duas máquinas. Os embriões da terceira máquina foram usados como controle. Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente, obedecendo-se a um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 3 tratamentos. A eclodibilidade e a qualidade dos pintainhos, avaliados pelo peso ao nascer e qualidade de pernas e umbigo não foram significativamente diferentes entre o grupo controle e os grupos estressados. Os resultados revelaram que os ovos exposto ao estresse pelo frio ou calor tiveram um período de incubação maiores - 506,5h e 504,2h, respectivamente - do que aqueles expostos a temperatura normal - 496,3h - como conseqüência no atraso de bicagem interna (7 e 6 h e externa (13 e 14 h. Concluiu-se que a alteração da temperatura normal de incubação, com resfriamento ou aquecimento por 5 h no D16, não foi suficiente para prejudicar a eclodibilidade e a qualidade dos pintainhos, mas causou uma dilatação do período total de incubação, indicando que mesmo um breve período de variação da temperatura normal de incubação em um período crítico de desenvolvimento é suficiente para determinar estresse nos embriões de frangos de corte.This trial was carried out in order to evaluate the effect in broiler embryos of cold or heat stress on the hatching characteristics, and on the quality of the newborn chicks. Three hundred eggs obtained from 42-week-old broiler breeders were distributed in three incubators maintained at a

  17. Typhlocolitis associated with spirochaetes in duck flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glávits, Róbert; Ivanics, Eva; Thuma, Akos; Kaszanyitzky, Eva; Samu, Péterné; Ursu, Krisztina; Dencso, László; Dán, Adám

    2011-02-01

    The aetiology of increased mortality observed in two breeder duck flocks (Flock A consisting of 3500 laying ducks and Flock B comprising 4300 laying ducks) during the first egg-laying season was studied. In Flocks A and B, 773 ducks and 715 ducks (18.4% and 16.6%) died within a 24-week and a 20-week period, respectively. Death was preceded by clinical signs including movement difficulties, lack of appetite and depression lasting for 1 to 2 days. Diarrhoea was not observed. On gross pathological examination, the ducks were found to have haemorrhagic to fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis, renal degeneration accompanied by fibrosis and mineralization, hepatic and splenic amyloidosis, and swelling of some of the metatarsal and phalangeal joints. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination consistently demonstrated spirochaetes in the mucous membrane of the affected large intestine. On the basis of their cultural and biochemical properties and polymerase chain reaction sequencing analysis, four out of seven spirochaete strains isolated from the ducks (Flock A) by culture on special media under anaerobic conditions were identified as Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, and five out of eight strains (Flock B) were identified as Brachyspira pilosicoli. This is the first report on the isolation of B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli from laying ducks affected by fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis.

  18. Isolation and molecular characterization of infectious bronchitis virus from recent outbreaks in broiler flocks reveals emergence of novel strain in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Vikshe; Singh, Shambhu Dayal; Dhama, Kuldeep; Gowthaman, Vasudevan; Barathidasan, Rajamani; Sukumar, Kuppannan

    2012-10-01

    In this study, two isolates of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) from field outbreaks in 2008 (India/LKW/56/IVRI/08) and 2010 (India/NMK/72/IVRI/10) from broiler chickens in India were isolated and characterized. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the entire S1 gene revealed that these isolates belong to two different genotypes, India/LKW/56/IVRI/08 as Mass strain whereas India/NMK/72/IVRI/10 as of different genotype. Nucleotide sequencing analysis showed that India/LKW/56/IVRI/08 shared 99 % homology with THA280252 (Thailand) and India/NMK/72/IVRI/10 shared greater than 99 % homology with 4/91 pathogenic strain (UK), JP/Wakayama/2/2004 (Japan) and TA03 (China), while the two Indian IBV isolates shared 73 % identity between them. Phylogenetic data allowed classification of two Indian isolates, India/LKW/56/IVRI/08 as having unique lineage within Mass genotype and India/NMK/72/IVRI/10 as of 4/91 genotype. Our study confirmed the presence of 4/91 (793/B) IBV nephropathogenic strain for the first time in India by virus isolation and sequencing.

  19. Comparative efficacy of a yeast product and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in enhancing early growth and intestinal maturation in broiler chicks from breeder hens of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, Y O; Thanissery, R R

    2011-05-01

    The intestine of the newly hatched chick is immature at hatch. Yeast contains nucleotides and β-glucans that enhance intestinal development and chick growth. Accordingly, a 14-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a novel yeast product and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in enhancing early growth and intestinal maturation in chicks obtained from young (26-27 wk old) and old (58 to 59 wk old) breeder hens. Chicks (384) were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Treatment 1 (YH) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet alone. Treatment 2 (YHB) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which BMD was added at 0.055 g/kg. Treatment 3 (YHE) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which yeast extract (YE) was added at 0.075% level. Treatment 4 (YHED) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which YE was added at 0.15% level. Treatments 5 (OH), 6 (OHB), 7 (OHE), and 8 (OHED) consisted of chicks from old hens fed diets similar to those given to YH in treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Growth performance (body weight gain and feed conversion ratio) was evaluated on d 7 and 14. Intestinal tissue samples were also analyzed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as an indicator of intestinal maturation on d 4 and 13 of experiment. Results showed that by d 14 of experiment, only BMD treatments (YHB and OHB) improved body weight gain (P yeast-supplemented treatments (YHE, YHED, OHE, and OHED) were statistically similar (P > 0.05) to those of the BMD treatments. Ileal ALP activity was consistently enhanced by BMD and yeast product supplemented at 0.075% of the diet. It was concluded that antibiotic BMD and our novel yeast product supplemented at 0.075% of the diet improved early chick growth and maturation of the ileal segment of the small intestine.

  20. Utilization of a novel autologous killed tri-vaccine (serogroups B [Typhimurium], C [Mbandaka] and E [Orion]) for Salmonella control in commercial poultry breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavic, Anthony; Groves, Peter J; Cox, Julian M

    2010-02-01

    An autologous killed trivalent vaccine (3x10(8) colony-forming units [CFU]), based on three Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium - serogroup B, Mbandaka - serogroup C, and Orion - serogroup E) prevalent in the flocks of Australian poultry companies, was developed using Salenvac techniques. At 20 weeks, hens vaccinated at 12 and 17 weeks as well as non-vaccinated hens were challenged (250 microl of 10(7) CFU) with autologous and heterologous serovars belonging to serogroup B (Typhimurium and Agona), serogroup C (Mbandaka and Infantis) and serogroup E (Orion and Zanzibar). Overall, vaccination resulted in a significant difference in carriage of Salmonella between non-vaccinated and vaccinated commercial Cobb hens (P 0.05) could be determined for serogroup E. All vaccinated flocks produced a significant antibody response (P<0.001) to the S. Typhimurium vaccine strain, measured using a S. Typhimurium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Guildhay), which peaked at 20 weeks of age, with 39% of the hens positive. Maternal antibodies were detected in 16% of the yolks from eggs produced by these flocks. There was a significant difference after challenge with Salmonella (P <0.05) among 1-day-old chicks from vaccinated versus non-vaccinated parents, when challenged using 10(4) CFU but not when challenged with 10(8) CFU. The success of this trial resulted in the incorporation of this vaccine into a Salmonella control system in commercial broiler breeder production.

  1. Inclusion body hepatitis associated with an outbreak of fowl adenovirus type 2 and type 8b in broiler flocks in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis H. Maartens

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion body hepatitis is an acute disease of chickens ascribed to viruses of the genus Aviadenovirus and referred to as fowl adenovirus (FAdV. There are 12 FAdV types (FAdV1to FAdV8a and FAdV8b to FAdV11, classified into five species based on their genotype (designated FAdVA to FAdVE. A total of 218 000 chickens, 2–29 days of age, were affected over a 1-year period, all testing positive by microscopy, virus isolation and confirmation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Affected birds were depressed, lost body weight,were weak and had watery droppings. Pathological changes observed during necropsy indicated consistent changes in the liver, characterised by hepatomegaly, cholestasis and hepatitis. Lesions were also discernible in the spleen, kidney and gizzard wall and were characterised by splenomegaly, pinpoint haemorrhages, nephritis with haemorrhage,visceral gout and serosal ecchymosis of the gizzard wall. Histopathological lesions were most consistently observed in the liver but could also be seen in renal and splenic tissue. Virus isolation was achieved in embryonated eggs and most embryos revealed multifocalto diffuse hepatic necrosis, with a mixed cellular infiltrate of macrophages and heterophils(necro-granulomas, even in the absence of macroscopic pathology. Virus isolation results were verified by histopathology and PCR on embryonic material and further characterised by nucleotide sequence analysis. Two infectious bursal disease virus isolates were also made from the Klerksdorp flock. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the L1 hexon loop of all the FAdV isolates indicated homology (99% with prototype strains P7-A for FAdV-2, as well as for FAdV-8b.

  2. 9 CFR 145.83 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POULTRY Special Provisions for Primary Meat-Type Chicken Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.83 Terminology... for primary meat-type breeders wishing to assure their customers that the chicks produced are... flock collected and cultured as described in § 147.12(a)(5) of this subchapter; or (B) A sample of chick...

  3. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Sandberg, M; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz

    2012-01-01

    logistic regression model with a random effect of farm was performed. The analysis revealed that flocks had a higher risk of acquiring positive infection status during summer time: odds ratio = 12.59 (95% CI: 6.79–23.36) and when more than one person entered the broiler house: odds ratio = 2.03 (95% CI: 1......Data from the Quality Assurance System in Danish Broiler Production (KIK system) were analyzed to identify within farm biosecurity- and management-related risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler flocks. In the study, data from 2,835 flocks originating from 187 farms in the time...... during summer time were related to areas where clustering of infected farms was identified in previous conducted studies. The median number of people working in or entering broiler houses was 2 (from 1 to 7). The median slaughter age of Danish broiler flocks was 35 d (from 31–61 d). A multivariable...

  4. Serotype and genotype diversity and hatchery transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in commercial poultry flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Nielsen, E.M.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the genotype and serotype diversity of Campylobacter coli and C jejuni in two parent flocks of adult hens and their offspring over two rotations in order to evaluate the role of hatchery mediated transmission and/or vertical transmission of campylobacters in broiler flocks. In tot...

  5. Within-Flock Mortality During the High-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza (H7N7) Epidemic in the Netherlands in 2003: Implications for an Early Detection System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Holtslag, J.B.; Bouma, A.; Koch, G.

    2007-01-01

    Daily within-flock mortality data, from a few days before until a few days after onset of increased mortality, from H7N7-infected flocks were analyzed with nonlinear regression for layer (organic and free-range or caged), broiler, and turkey flocks. The following notification thresholds were recomme

  6. A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  7. A systematic review characterizing on-farm sources of Campylobacter spp. for broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Agunos

    Full Text Available Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95 conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32, animals (n = 57, humans (n = 26, environment (n = 54, and water (n = 63. Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping

  8. Evidência sorológica de Pneumovírus aviário em lotes de frangos de corte em municípios de Mato Grosso do Sul Serological evidence of avian pneumovirus infections in broiler flocks in counties of Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia F. Peres

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O Pneumovírus aviário (PVA é um importante patógeno respiratório que acomete galinhas reprodutoras e frangos de corte. Apesar da importância econômica da pneumovirose não ter sido bem elucidada em frangos de corte, sabe-se que a infecção pode induzir a formação de anticorpos específicos nestas aves, e tais reações sorológicas podem servir de base ao conhecimento da epidemiologia das infecções pelo PVA. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de anticorpos contra PVA em lotes de frangos de corte em municípios de Mato Grosso do Sul. Quinhentos e trinta e seis soros sanguíneos oriundos de 54 lotes de frangos de corte com idade entre 42 e 51 dias de idade foram testados com um ensaio de imunoadsorção enzimática (ELISA disponível comercialmente. Os resultados demonstraram 330 (61,6% amostras negativas, 108 (20,1% suspeitas e 98 (18,3% positivas para presença de anticorpos contra PVA. Do total de lotes analisados, 49 (90,7% foram caracterizados como positivos ou suspeitos. O percentual de lotes positivos ou suspeitos foi semelhante entre lotes de frangos de corte com faixa etária entre 42 e 46 dias e entre 47 e 51 dias nos meses de verão e inverno. A maioria dos lotes de frangos de corte foi considerada como positiva independentemente do tipo de aviário de criação (convencional, semi-climatizado ou climatizado. Concluiu-se que há forte evidência indicando a circulação de PVA em lotes de frangos de corte nos municípios de Mato Grosso do Sul. Os percentuais de resultados positivos foram semelhantes nos lotes de frangos de corte em ambas as idades e épocas do ano analisadas. Independentemente do tipo de aviário de criação constatou-se a presença de frangos de corte soropositivos para o PVA.Avian pneumovirus (APV is an important respiratory pathogen of hens and broilers. Although it was not clearly elucidated whether APV may cause economical losses in broiler flocks, it is known that APV infection can

  9. Development of the Intestinal RNA Virus Community of Healthy Broiler Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigna D Shah

    Full Text Available Several RNA viruses such as astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus and parvovirus have been detected in both healthy and diseased commercial poultry flocks. The aim of this study was to characterize (a the development of the RNA viral community in the small intestines of healthy broiler chickens from hatch through 6 weeks of age (market age and (b the contribution of the breeder source vs. bird age in development of the community structure. Intestinal tissue samples were harvested from breeders and their progeny, processed for viral RNA extraction and sequenced using Illumina Hiseq sequencing technology resulting in 100 bp PE reads. The results from this study indicated that the breeder source influenced the RNA viral community only at hatch but later environment i.e. bird age had the more significant effect. The most abundant RNA viral family detected at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age was Astroviridae, which decreased in abundance with age while the abundance of Picornaviridae increased with age.

  10. Hatching distribution of eggs varying in weight and breeder age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chicks from one incubator hatch within long periods of time, which leads to dehydration and reduction in yolk sac reserves of those chicks that have hatched earlier and potentially impairs early performance. The present research investigated the hatching distribution at intervals of incubation using eggs of different weights within one breeder age or eggs from widely different breeder ages. Eggs from breeders at 27 and 59 weeks of age (54 and 69 g and from breeders at 40 weeks of age, which were graded as light (58 g and heavy (73 g, were placed in a commercial incubator. There were a total of 1,184 eggs distributed in four treatments and eight replicates: eggs from 27-week-old breeders (27B, eggs from 59-week-old breeders (59B, light eggs from 40-week-old breeders (40BL and heavy eggs from 40-week-old breeders (40BH. Replicates were comprised of 37 eggs that were placed in each incubator tray. The treatments were physically separated from each other using a plate. Eggs were transferred to a hatcher after 432 hours of incubation and the first chick hatched at 449 hours of incubation. Afterwards, the number of completely hatched chicks from each replicate was recorded at six-hour intervals until 503 hours of incubation, when the hatchings stopped. Hatched chicks were removed from the trays after each measurement. Data were submitted to an analysis of variance with repeated measures. There was a significant interaction between breeder age and incubation length. The hatching onset of eggs from the old breeders was later compared to young breeders. Hatchability (%incubated eggs was lower for the old breeders; however, differences in hatchability as a percentage of the hatched eggs were not so evident. Complete hatchability occurred only at 503 hours of incubation; however, more than 90% eggs had hatched 18 hours earlier.

  11. 肉种鸡产蛋中期饲喂不同能量水平饲粮对子代生长性能和肉品质的影响%Effects of Dietary Energy Level of Broiler Breeders during the Medium Laying Period on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕荣创; 徐良梅; 路磊; 牛树鹏; 张慧; 田博

    2012-01-01

    This experiment researched on the effects of dietary energy level of broiler breeders during the medium laying period (40 to 42 weeks of age) on growth performance and meat quality of the offspring. A single factor design was adopted, and 300 Arbor Acres (AA) broiler breeders (20 weeks of age) with similar body weight were randomly divided into 3 groups with 5 replicates per group and 20 birds in each replicate. The experiment was conducted when laying rate reached 5% . The broiler breeders in the control group were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and those in high energy group and low energy group were fed the diets with the 120% and 80% energy levels of the basal diet, respectively. During the experiment period, feed intake in each group was restricted and set the same. Three hundred 1-day-old male broilers were divided into 3 groups as same as the broiler breeders. The offspring were allowed to feed and drink ad libitum, and fed normal energy level diet. The experiment was lasted for 49 days. The results showed as follows: 1) compared with the control diet, the offspring of broiler breeders fed high energy diet had lower birth body weight, average daily feed intake at 28 and 49 days of age, protein content of thigh muscle and shear force of breast muscle at 28 days of age, and L * value of breast muscle and thigh muscle at 49 days of age (P < 0.05) ; and had higher fat content and drip loss of breast muscle and thigh muscle at 28 and 49 days of age (P < 0.05). 2) Compared with the control diet, the offspring of broiler breeders fed low energy diet had lower birth body weight (P < 0. 05) ; and had higher average daily feed intake and daily gain at 49 days of age (P <0.05) ; and had higher fat content of breast muscle at 28 days of age (P <0.05) ; and had lower shear force of breast muscle and thigh muscle at 28 days of age, drip loss of thigh muscle at 49 days of age (P <0.05) ; and had higher L * and a * values of thigh muscle at 49 days of age, b * value of

  12. Interventions to reduce the bacterial load in recycled broiler litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; de Avila, V S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2017-03-23

    Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the bacterial load in recycled litter between broiler flocks following addition of quicklime (T1), windrowing (T2), shallow fermentation (T3), and control (no intervention, T4). The first experiment was developed in field conditions in which the broiler houses were accompanied by 6 consecutive flocks and the effect of the treatments was assessed on enterobacteria and aerobic mesophiles. The second experiment was conducted in an experimental broiler house with recycled litter for assessment of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4). In the field study, T3 presented the best results in reducing enterobacteria in broiler litter in relation to the other treatments, with the highest reduction occurring in the first 3 flocks, tending to stabilization from the fourth flock onward for all the treatments assessed. From the third to sixth flocks, enterobacteria level at the end of the treatments (d 12) was lower than the average in the fresh litter, except in T4. All treatments reduced aerobic mesophiles throughout the flocks, where T2 showed the highest reduction. The percentage of dry matter in the broiler litter diminished in T4 and increased in T3 over the course of the flocks. In the second experiment, the drop in the SE PT4 level in the broiler litter first occurred in T2 and T3. However, all the treatments except for T4 eliminated SE PT4 within 12 d. The temperature of the broiler litter in T2 was higher in relation to the other treatments. The results show that litter treatment prior to reutilization by the successive broiler flock is required to reduce the level of residual bacteria. The fermentative treatments (T2 and T3) were found to be superior to the others in terms of reducing the bacterial load, with shallow fermentation standing out with the highest reduction of enterobacteria and equivalent SE PT4 elimination when compared to windrowing.

  13. House-Level Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be an important source of Campylobacter to broilers. Our objective was to identify broiler house characteristics and house-level management practices associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Icel...

  14. Colonization of Campylobacter spp. in Broiler Chickens and Laying Hens Reared in Tropical Climates with Low-Biosecurity Housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalupahana, R.S.; Kottawatta, K.S.A.; Kanankege, K.S.T.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Abeynayake, P.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The onset and prevalence of Campylobacter colonization in broilers and layers at commercial farms with low biosecurity in tropical climates were tested. Despite the presence of positive animals at the same farms, the broiler flocks tested negative until, on average, 21 days. Prelaying flocks showed

  15. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denm...

  16. Programas de alimentação para matrizes pesadas após o pico de postura, com base em modelos para predizer a exigência energética Feeding programs for broiler breeder hens after peak production based on models to predict energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilva Kazue Sakomura

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de matrizes pesadas, submetidas a diferentes programas de alimentação estabelecidos pela aplicação de modelos para predizer as exigências energéticas, após o pico de postura. O experimento foi conduzido no setor de avicultura da UNESP Campus Jaboticabal, com duração de 84 dias (três períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 740 matrizes de corte Hubbard Hy-Yield e 80 machos Petterson, com 55 semanas de idade. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições de 37 aves por repetição (box e um modelo fatorial 4´3 (quatro tratamentos ´ três períodos. Os programas de alimentação avaliados foram: T1 - Fornecimento de ração de acordo com o padrão da linhagem (428 kcal/ave/dia de 55 a 66 semanas de idade; T2 - Redução semanal de energia (2 kcal de EM/ave em cada semana; T3 - Fornecimento de ração de acordo com o modelo de exigência de EM, UNESP (2000; e T4 - Fornecimento de ração de acordo com o modelo, NRC (1994. O programa de alimentação com redução semanal de energia foi adequado para manter os desempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo das aves, indicando a possibilidade de redução de 2 kcal/ave/dia, em cada semana, na alimentação de matrizes pesadas após 55 semanas de idade. Os modelos UNESP e NRC proporcionaram estimativas mais elevadas das exigências energéticas que o modelo padrão, provavelmente em decorrência do ganho de peso das matrizes, que esteve acima do recomendado para a linhagem, promovendo maiores exigências de energia para mantença.This research was carried out to evaluate the performance of broiler breeder hens submitted to different feeding programs applying models to predict the metabolizable energy requirements after peak production. The experiment was conducted during 84 days (three periods of 28 days, at the Sao Paulo State University - Jaboticabal. Seven hundred and forty female broiler

  17. Índice e histologia gonadal em reprodutores de frangos de corte da linhagem Avian Farm submetidos à restrição alimentar Testicular index and histology in breeder broilers of the lineage Avian Farm submitted to the feed restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Delarete Drummond

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos reprodutores de frangos de corte, a restrição alimentar precoce é usada para limitar o ganho de peso corporal e otimizar o desempenho reprodutivo. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da utilização da restrição alimentar no período de 14 a 121 dias de idade das aves sobre o índice gonadal e histologia testicular em galos reprodutores de corte. Foram avaliados os seguintes tratamentos: controle; 6 dias de alimentação e 1 não (6:1; e 5 dias de alimentação e 2 não (5:2. Foram utilizados 36 animais da linhagem Avian Farm, avaliando-se o peso corporal, o peso gonadal, o índice gonadal, procedendo-se à avaliação histológica testicular de 6 animais por tratamento aos 54 e 121 dias de idade. Foi usado um DIC em estrutura fatorial 2x3 (idade x restrição. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P>0,05 para as variáveis analisadas entre os tratamentos à idade de 54 dias. O peso testicular e o índice gonadal foram menores (PIn breeder broilers the feed restriction is used to limit the gain of corporal weight and to optimize the reproductive performance. It is necessary to moderate the rate of precocious growth through programs of feed restriction. This work had as objective to evaluate the effect of the use of the feed restriction on the testicular index and histology in breeder broilers males. They were evaluated the following treatments: control; 6 days of feeding and 1 day without feeding (6:1; and 5 days of feeding and 2 day without feeding (5:2. 36 animals of the lineage Avian Farm were used being evaluated the corporal weight, the testicular weight, the testicular index and histology testicular evaluation of 6 animals for treatment to the 54 and 121 days of age. A factorial structure 2x3 (age x feed restriction was used for test the effects of treatments. Significant differences were not observed (P>0.05, for the analyzed variables, among the treatments to the age of 54 days. The

  18. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  19. Haemorrhagic enteritis seroconversion in turkey breeders: field observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Ceruti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroconversion to viral haemorrhagic enteritis (HE was studied in seven flocks of turkey breeders (17.974 birds in total, after 20 weeks of the onset of egg production. They showed no clinical signs, and mortality rate was normal. However, the infection caused a drop in egg production lasting about five weeks (-2.32 eggs laid during this period, but had no effect on hatching parameters.

  20. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  1. Avaliação de uma equação de predição das exigências protéicas para aves reprodutoras pesadas na fase de produção Evaluation of a prediction equation of crude protein for broiler breeder hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bôa-Viagem Rabello

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar uma equação de predição das exigências de proteína bruta (PB para reprodutoras pesadas na fase de produção. O experimento foi realizado com 600 aves reprodutoras pesadas, Hubbard HI-Y, durante o período de 31 a 46 semanas de idade, alojadas em boxes num delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e cinco repetições de 40 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de: T1- Fornecimento de PB de acordo com o manual da linhagem (controle, T2- Fornecimento de PB de acordo com a equação de predição determinada, utilizando os dados de desempenho médio das aves do tratamento controle para predizer as exigências e T3- Fornecimento de PB de acordo com a equação de predição determinada, utilizando os dados de desempenho de cada parcela experimental para predizer as exigências, onde a equação de predição avaliada foi: PB=2,282.P0,75+0,356.G+0,262.MO, sendo PB a exigência de proteína bruta (g/ave/dia, P o peso corporal (kg, G o ganho de peso (g e MO a massa de ovos (g. As rações foram formuladas para atender as exigências nutricionais e quando necessário eram incluídos os aminoácidos sintéticos, metionina, lisina, triptofano, treonina e arginina. As aves alimentadas de acordo com a equação ingeriram menores quantidades de proteína (20,8g/dia quando comparadas às alimentadas de acordo com as recomendações (23,80g, entretanto isto levou a menores pesos dos ovos refletindo no peso dos pintos. A equação de predição proporcionou melhores resultados quanto à eficiência protéica. Assim, concluiu-se que a equação de predição não forneceu a quantidade mínima de proteína bruta para atender as exigências dos aminoácidos não suplementados na dieta.The objective of this study was to evaluated a crude protein requirement equation elaborated for broiler breeders. The experiment was conducted with 600 31-weeks old Hubbard HI-Y broiler breeders in a

  2. Asymmetric exchange in flocks

    CERN Document Server

    Dadhichi, Lokrshi Prawar; Maitra, Ananyo; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2016-01-01

    As the constituents of a flock are polar, one expects a fore-aft asymmetry in their interactions. We show here that the resulting antisymmetric part of the "exchange coupling" between a bird and its neighbours, if large enough, destabilizes the flock through spontaneous turning of the birds. The same asymmetry also yields a natural mechanism for a difference between the speed of advection of information along the flock and the speed of the flock itself. We show that the absence of detailed balance, and not merely the breaking of Galilean invariance, is responsible for this difference. We delineate the conditions on parameters and wavenumber for the existence of the turning instability. Lastly we present an alternative perspective based on flow-alignment effects in an active liquid crystal with turning inertia in contact with a momentum sink.

  3. Quantifying transmission of Campylobacter spp. among broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.J.; Bouma, A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Broek, van den E.W.F.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J.A.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter species are frequently identified as a cause of human gastroenteritis, often from eating or mishandling contaminated poultry products. Quantitative knowledge of transmission of Campylobacter in broiler flocks is necessary, as this may help to determine the moment of introduction of

  4. Avaliação do perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus da linhagem Avian Farm Serum protein electrophoresis evaluation in adult broiler breeders (Gallus Gallus Domesticus of the Avian Farm strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MY Hasegawa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus sadias, da linhagem Avian Farm. Foram utilizadas 15 matrizes com 63 semanas de idade, provenientes do município de Conchas, São Paulo. Utilizou-se o método de biureto para a obtenção dos valores da proteína sérica total e a separação das frações protéicas pela técnica da eletroforese em gel de agarose, e a leitura do filme realizada por densitometria em 520nM. Obteve-se um total de sete frações, sendo que a beta1 - globulina e beta2 - globulina encontradas não foram citadas pelos autores consultados na literatura. A fração pré-albumina foi identificada em apenas seis das 15 amostras examinadas. Observou-se em cinco matrizes a divisão da gama - globulina em duas frações, denominadas gama - 1 e gama - 2, de acordo com suas mobilidades eletroforéticas. A relação albumina/globulina (A/G encontrada corrobora com os autores citados, demonstrando que esta diminui com o aumento da idade.This work is aimed to determine the profile of electrophoretic serum protein in healthy adult broiler breeders (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Avian farm strain. Fifteen breeders aging 63 weeks from Conchas, city located in the State of São Paulo, were assessed. The biuret method was used to obtain the total serum protein values and protein fractions separation through electrophoresis technique in agarose gel, and film reading through densitometry in 520nM. Seven fractions were obtained, whereas, beta1 - globulin and beta2 - globulin were not cited by the authors in the textbooks checked. The prealbumin fraction was identified only in six out of 15 samples analyzed. In five breeders, it was observed the division of gamma - globulin into two fractions named gamma - 1 and gamma - 2, according to the electrophoretic mobilities. The relation albumin/globulin (A/G found in the experiment agrees with the other

  5. A single vaccination of commercial broilers does not reduce transmission of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poetri Okti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vaccination of chickens has become routine practice in Asian countries in which H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI is endemically present. This mainly applies to layer and breeder flocks, but broilers are usually left unvaccinated. Here we investigate whether vaccination is able to reduce HPAI H5N1 virus transmission among broiler chickens. Four sets of experiments were carried out, each consisting of 22 replicate trials containing a pair of birds. Experiments 1-3 were carried out with four-week-old birds that were unvaccinated, and vaccinated at day 1 or at day 10 of age. Experiment 4 was carried out with unvaccinated day-old broiler chicks. One chicken in each trial was inoculated with H5N1 HPAI virus. One chicken in each trial was inoculated with virus. The course of the infection chain was monitored by serological analysis, and by virus isolation performed on tracheal and cloacal swabs. The analyses were based on a stochastic SEIR model using a Bayesian inferential framework. When inoculation was carried out at the 28th day of life, transmission was efficient in unvaccinated birds, and in birds vaccinated at first or tenth day of life. In these experiments estimates of the latent period (~1.0 day, infectious period (~3.3 days, and transmission rate parameter (~1.4 per day were similar, as were estimates of the reproduction number (~4 and generation interval (~1.4 day. Transmission was significantly less efficient in unvaccinated chickens when inoculation was carried out on the first day of life. These results show that vaccination of broiler chickens does not reduce transmission, and suggest that this may be due to the interference of maternal immunity.

  6. Campylobacter contamination and the relative risk of illness from organic broiler meat in comparison with conventional broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Krogh, Anne Louise;

    2013-01-01

    , as also documented for conventional broiler flocks. When contaminated, the mean concentration of Campylobacter on neck skin samples of organic and conventional carcasses was not significantly different (P=0.428); 2.0±0.65log10cfu/g and 2.1±0.93log10cfu/g, respectively. Assessing the relative risk...... of becoming ill following exposure to Campylobacter on conventional or organic broiler meat indicated that the risk per serving from organic carcasses was 1.7 times higher than that of conventional carcasses. The higher risk of illness from organic broiler carcasses compared with conventional broiler...

  7. Logistic regression to estimate the welfare of broiler breeders in relation to environmental and behavioral variables Regressão logística para estimativa do bem-estar de matrizes pesadas em função de variáveis comportamentais e ambientais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo F Pereira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of consumer markets for the welfare of birds in poultry house has motivated many scientific researches to monitor and classify the welfare according to the production environment. Given the complexity between the birds and the environment of the aviary, the correct interpretation of the conduct becomes an important way to estimate the welfare of these birds. This study obtained multiple logistic regression models with capacity of estimating the welfare of broiler breeders in relation to the environment of the aviaries and behaviors expressed by the birds. In the experiment, were observed several behaviors expressed by breeders housed in a climatic chamber under controlled temperatures and three different ammonia concentrations from the air monitored daily. From the analysis of the data it was obtained two logistic regression models, of which the first model uses a value of ammonia concentration measured by unit and the second model uses a binary value to classify the ammonia concentration that is assigned by a person through his olfactory perception. The analysis showed that both models classified the broiler breeder's welfare successfully.As crescentes demandas e exigências dos mercados consumidores pelo bem-estar das aves nos aviários têm motivado diversas pesquisas científicas a monitorar e a classificar o bem-estar em função do ambiente de criação. Diante da complexidade com que as aves interagem com o ambiente do aviário, a correta interpretação dos comportamentos torna-se uma importante maneira para estimar o bem-estar dessas aves. Este trabalho criou modelos de regressão logística múltipla capazes de estimar o bem-estar de matrizes pesadas em função do ambiente do aviário e dos comportamentos expressos pelas aves. No experimento, foram observados diversos comportamentos expressos por matrizes pesadas alojadas em câmara climática sob três temperaturas controladas e diferentes concentrações de am

  8. Spread of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli ST117 O78:H4 in Nordic broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronco, Troels; Stegger, Marc; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann

    2017-01-01

    and have in general been characterized as being a genetically diverse population. In the Nordic countries, poultry farmers depend on import of Swedish broiler breeders which are part of a breeding pyramid. During 2014 to 2016, an increased occurrence of colibacillosis on Nordic broiler chicken farms...... nucleotide polymorphisms. In general, the characterized poultry isolates constituted a genetically diverse population. However, the phylogenetic analyses revealed a major clade of 47 closely related ST117 O78:H4 isolates. The isolates in this clade were collected from broiler chickens and breeders...... diseased broilers and breeders. The data indicate that the closely related ST117 O78:H4 strains have been transferred vertically through the broiler breeding pyramid into distantly located farms across the Nordic countries....

  9. Persistence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler houses after the avoparcin ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    2002-01-01

    to molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Forty-one PFGE-profiles were observed. VRE with indistinguishable or highly similar PFGE profiles were isolated from consecutive broiler flocks and from environmental samples from the houses in which the flocks were reared, whereas VRE...

  10. Detection of Campylobacter in 100 commercial flocks - evaluation of plating media and filtration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is a natural member of the gut microflora in many commercial broilers and as such can become a contaminant on edible surfaces during processing. Culturing gut contents or feces can be a means to determine flock status prior to live-haul. The wide variety of non-Campylobacter backgrou...

  11. How to assess fitness for transport of Danish broiler chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene; Lund, Vibe Pedersen; Dam Otten, Nina;

    2015-01-01

    for the veterinary authorities in that transport fitness is not very well defined. The aim of this project (2013-2016) is therefore to establish knowledge about useful indicators to assess broilers suitability for transport. The objective is to develop a practical protocol which can be applied to assess...... the transport fitness of a flock on-farm within 24 hours prior to harvesting. During 2015, a number of Danish broiler flocks will be visited within the last 24h before the birds are mechanically harvested and transported to slaughter at approx. 36-37 days of age. Each flock will be assessed at 3 different...... with recommendations for indicators that should be included in an assessment protocol performed prior to transport in order to perform an evaluation of the fitness for transport on broilers farms....

  12. How to assess fitness for transport of Danish broiler chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene; Lund, Vibe Pedersen; Dam Otten, Nina

    2015-01-01

    and a random sample of focal animals will be assessed clinically. Resource- and management data will be included, such as litter quality, house and flock characteristics as well as personnel background and empathy. During the mechanical harvesting, data on e.g. the speed and height of the harvester, light...... for the veterinary authorities in that transport fitness is not very well defined. The aim of this project (2013-2016) is therefore to establish knowledge about useful indicators to assess broilers suitability for transport. The objective is to develop a practical protocol which can be applied to assess...... the transport fitness of a flock on-farm within 24 hours prior to harvesting. During 2015, a number of Danish broiler flocks will be visited within the last 24h before the birds are mechanically harvested and transported to slaughter at approx. 36-37 days of age. Each flock will be assessed at 3 different...

  13. Temperature-Related Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction A summertime increased risk of Campylobacter is well-established in humans and broilers. Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Iceland, with an assumption that flies play a role in the epidemiology an...

  14. Medium chain fatty acid feed supplementation reduces the probability of Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.; Bouma, A.; Klinkenberg, D.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Stegeman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis in humans is associated with handling and consumption of contaminated broiler meat. Reduction of the number of Campylobacter-colonized broiler flocks could potentially be realized by decreasing their susceptibility for colonization. The aim of this study was to determine the effec

  15. Effects of breeder hen age and dietary L-carnitine on progeny embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, E D; Kidd, M T; McDaniel, C D; Tanksley, J P; Parker, H M; Corzo, A; Woodworth, J C

    2007-06-01

    1. Ross 308 broiler breeder hens were given diets containing 0 or 25 mg L-carnitine/kg (8 replications per treatment) from 21 weeks of age. 2. Hens were inseminated with semen from Ross broiler breeder males. In a common facility, subsequent progeny hatchability and embryonic mortality at 25, 30, 32, and 38 weeks of breeder age were evaluated. 3. Subsequent egg component weights, incubational egg water loss, progeny embryo growth, and embryo, yolk sac and liver composition through 18 d of incubation at 27, 32, and 38 weeks of breeder age were evaluated. 4. Calculated additions of L-carnitine were in agreement with analysed contents of 3.5 and 31.1 mg free L-carnitine/kg of diet, respectively, and total L-carnitine concentrations increased by 48.6, 21.7, and 10.0% in 0-d yolk, 18-d yolk sac, and 18-d liver samples, respectively, due to the addition of dietary L-carnitine. 5. Supplemental L-carnitine resulted in increased (0.6%) relative 0-d egg yolk weight across weeks 27, 32, and 38, and reduced (0.38%) 18-d yolk sac palmitoleic acid concentration at week 27 without altering embryogenesis. 6. In conclusion, dietary L-carnitine (25 mg/kg of the diet) was deposited in the yolks of broiler breeder hens and was subsequently transferred to the embryonic liver via yolk sac absorption through 18 d of incubation. Furthermore, dietary L-carnitine supplementation increased ovarian follicle yolk deposition in 27-, 32-, and 38-week-old breeder hens, and influenced yolk sac fatty acid beta-oxidation in embryos from 27-week-old breeder hens causing yolk sac palmitoleic acid concentrations to be reduced by 18 d of incubation.

  16. Exigências de energia e composição da carcaça de galos reprodutores pesados em função do consumo energético na fase de reprodução Energy requirements and carcass composition of male broiler breeders as a function of energy intake during the reproduction period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Quadro Borges

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para estimativa da exigência e da composição de carcaça de machos reprodutores de corte em resposta a cinco níveis de ingestão de energia metabolizável (EM. Para avaliar o peso corporal, o volume de sêmen, a concentração espermática, a motilidade, o vigor e a fertilidade dos espermatozóides, foram selecionadas 450 fêmeas e 75 machos da linhagem Cobb-500 e, para avaliar a composição química da carcaça em MS, PB e gordura em função do consumo de energia, foram utilizados 30 machos. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos (290, 310, 330, 350 e 370 kcal de EM/ave/dia. No ensaio de desempenho reprodutivo, cada tratamento foi composto de 15 repetições de um galo e seis fêmeas e, no ensaio de avaliação da carcaça, cada tratamento continha duas repetições de três galos (três abatidos às 45 e três às 61 semanas de idade. A motilidade, o vigor e a fertilidade dos espermatozóides foram influenciados de forma quadrática pelo nível de ingestão de EM. O peso corporal e os teores de gordura e proteína da carcaça cresceram linearmente com o aumento do consumo de EM. Com base nas estimativas obtidas para motilidade, vigor e fertilidade, recomenda-se nível médio de 347 kcal de EM/galo/dia para atender às necessidades de machos reprodutores de 26 a 61 semanas de idade.Two trials were carried out to estimate the nutritional requirement and carcass composition of male broiler breeders according to five levels of metabolizable energy (ME ingestion. Four hundred and fifty females and 75 males of Cobb-500 strain were selected to evaluate body weight, semen volume, spermatic concentration, motility, vigor and fertility of spermatozoa. Thirty males were used for evaluation of carcass chemical composition (DM, CP and crude fat [CF] as a function of energy intake. The experiment was analyzed as a completely randomized design with five treatments (290, 310

  17. Influência da temperatura de incubação em ovos de matrizes de corte com diferentes idades e classificados por peso sobre os resultados de incubação Effect of incubation temperature on hatching results of broiler breeders eggs classified by weight and hen age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Rosa

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram incubados 61.920 ovos, provenientes de uma única linhagem comercial de matrizes de frangos de corte. Foi avaliado o efeito da utilização de diferentes temperaturas de incubação (T, medidas pelo termômetro de bulbo úmido em graus Celsius (ºC, em ovos de matrizes categorizados por peso (P, com idades (I distintas, sobre o percentual de nascidos totais (eclosão, a eclodibilidade, o percentual da perda de peso dos ovos e a mortalidade embrionária. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado num esquema fatorial 3 x 4 x 5, representando, respectivamente, três temperaturas de incubação (28,6, 29,6 e 30,6ºC, quatro idades em semanas (34, 39, 53 e 63 e cinco categorias de pesos de ovos, com médias de peso (g de 60,0; 65,1; 66,6; 69,0; e 73,2. A mortalidade embrionária total (Metot foi menor na temperatura de 28,6ºC . Na idade de 39 semanas, obteve-se a menor Metot e para categorias de peso os ME apresentaram as menores médias. Houve efeito significativo dos fatores idade e categorias de peso e das interações entre I x P, T x I e T x I x P no peso médio dos ovos (Povo. Para o percentual da perda de peso dos ovos (Pppeso até a transferência, verificou-se efeito significativo para temperatura, idade e categorias de peso de ovos. Os percentuais de eclosão e eclodibilidade (Eclod foram otimizados com 10,3% de perda do peso durante a incubação a 28,6ºC.A total of 61,920 eggs from a single commercial line of broiler breeders was incubated. The effect of different incubation temperatures (T, measured by the wet bulb thermometer in degrees Celsius (ºC, was evaluated with eggs classified by weight (P from broiler breeders with different ages (I. Evaluation of the percentages of total hatched, hatchability, egg weight loss and embryo mortality was performed. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial 3 x 4 x 5, representing, respectively, three T (28.6, 29.6 and 30.6ºC, four I in weeks (34, 39, 53 and 63

  18. An economic analysis of the impact of subclinical (mild) necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, James T; Bauer, Sharon; Young, Virginia; Pauling, Gail; Wilson, Jeff

    2010-12-01

    Costs to broiler producers associated with subclinical (mild) necrotic enteritis (SNE) were estimated using published information on impacts on body weight and feed conversion rate (FCR) associated with SNE and costs and revenues associated with broiler production. Estimates were expressed in U.S. dollars from the perspective of poultry producers. SNE was estimated to result in a 12% reduction in body weight and a 10.9% increase in FCR compared with healthy birds. For the purposes of this analysis, we considered scenarios involving hypothetical flocks of 20,000 birds raised to final body weights ranging from 4.63 to 7.94 lb. The incidence of SNE was assumed to occur at 20% based on the literature. For flocks raised for the length of time required to reach these target weights, SNE resulted in a loss to producers ranging from US$878.19 to US$1480.52 per flock. When feed costs required to obtain SNE flocks having a total live body weight equal to equivalent healthy flocks at market age were calculated, the increased cost to producers ranged from US$370.49 to US$739.38 per flock. SNE has the potential to cause a significant negative economic impact in broiler flocks. Strategies to reduce the incidence of SNE may help to increase the profitability of broiler production.

  19. Effects of Dietary Calcium Level on Reproductive Performance and Tibia Quality of Yellow-Feathered Broiler Breeders Aged from 49 to 56 Weeks%饲粮钙水平对49~56周龄黄羽肉种鸡繁殖性能和胫骨性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪平; 周桂莲; 蒋守群; 阮栋; 陈芳

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of dietary calcium level on production performance, reproductive performance (laying performance, hatching performance, egg quality), serum calcium and phosphorus contents and tibia quality of yellow-feathered broiler breeders aged from 49 to 56 weeks, five hundred and forty 49-week-old parent yellow-feathered broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 treatments. Each treatment had 6 replicates with 18 birds per replicate. Treatment 1 was the control group, in which the birds were fed corn-soybean meal based diet with 2. 75% calcium. Treatments 2 to 6 were test groups, in which dietary calcium level was adjusted to 3.00% , 3.25% , 3.50% , 3. 75% and 4. 00% based on the basal diet through adding different levels of limestone instead of zeolite powder, respectively. Other nutrient levels in the 6 treatment diets except calcium level were the same. Experimental birds were fed 125 g of diet per bird every day and watered ad libitum during the experimental period of 8 weeks. Results showed that different dietary calcium levels did not significantly affect the final weight, average daily gain, average egg weight, broken egg rate, unqualified egg rate, hatching performance, serum calcium and phosphorus contents and tibia quality of birds (P >0.05). Feed to egg ratio of birds in 3. 00% calcium group was significantly lower than that in 3. 50% calcium group (P 0.05). Laying rate and daily egg mass of birds in 3.00% calcium group were significantly higher than those in the other groups except 3.25% calcium group (P <0.05). Based on the estimated result by two-slope broken-line model, the calcium requirement of yellow-feathered broiler breeders aged from 49 to 56 weeks for the optimal laying rate and daily egg mass both is 3. 00% or 3. 75 g/d.%本试验旨在研究不同饲粮钙水平对49~56周龄黄羽肉种鸡生产性能、繁殖性能(产蛋性能、孵化性能、蛋品质)、血清钙和磷含量及胫骨性能的影响.选用49

  20. Molecular Tracking, through Processing, of Campylobacter Strains Colonizing Broiler Flocks▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvers, Karen T.; Morris, Victoria K.; Newell, Diane G.; Allen, Vivien M.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the poultry flocks produced in the United Kingdom are colonized with Campylobacter, and the intensive nature of poultry processing usually results in contaminated carcasses. In this study, a previously reported molecular oligonucleotide probe method was used to track a specific flock-colonizing strain(s) on broiler carcasses during processing in two United Kingdom commercial poultry processing plants. Five Campylobacter-positive flocks were sampled at four points along the processing line, postbleed, postpluck, prechill, and postchill, and two Campylobacter-negative flocks processed immediately after positive flocks were sampled prechill. flaA was sequenced from Campylobacter strains isolated from these flocks, and strain-specific probes were synthesized. Skin and cecal samples were plated onto selective agar to give individual colonies, which were transferred onto membranes. These were then hybridized with the strain- and genus-specific probes. For all the 5 positive flocks, there was a significant reduction in campylobacters postbleed compared to postpluck but no subsequent fall on sampling pre- and postchill, and the strain(s) predominating on the carcasses throughout processing came from the flock being processed. This indicates that strains from the abattoir environment were not a significant cause of carcass contamination in flocks with well-established campylobacter colonization. However, negative flocks that were preceded by positive flocks were contaminated by strains that did not generally originate from the predominating strains recovered from the ceca of the previous positive flocks. This suggests that the abattoir environment has a significant role in the contamination of carcasses from negative but not fully colonized flocks. PMID:21705532

  1. Detection of avian nephritis virus in Australian chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Kylie A; O'Rourke, Denise; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2010-09-01

    Avian nephritis virus (ANV) is thought to infect poultry flocks worldwide, but no confirmed case has been reported in Australia. The first such case is described in this study. Cases of young chickens with clinical signs of dehydration and diarrhea were submitted to our laboratory and histopathology detected interstitial nephritis. Vaccine strains of infectious bronchitis virus were detected in some of these cases but were not considered to be the causative agent. A total of seven fresh submissions from broiler chicken flocks were collected at 8-11 days of age. Degenerate PCR primers were designed based on published ANV polymerase gene sequences and used to analyze historic cases as well as the fresh submissions. Six of the seven fresh submissions, and one historic case, were positive for ANV with nucleotide sequencing confirming these results. These results establish ANV as an infectious pathogen circulating in Australian poultry.

  2. Type C and C/D toxigenic Clostridium botulinum is not normally present in the intestine of healthy broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Simon P; Kaldhusdal, Magne

    2013-08-30

    Toxigenic Clostridium botulinum spores are widely distributed in wetland environments and are frequently recovered from healthy wild birds, where ingestion of toxic maggots from carcasses is considered a major initiating factor for botulism outbreaks. Toxic carcasses can perpetuate an existing outbreak also in poultry, but their importance as an initiating factor for poultry botulism is less clear. Although toxigenic C. botulinum can be recovered from healthy broilers during outbreaks, there are almost no data on the prevalence in healthy broiler flocks (and, by extension, carcasses) and their environment. To test the hypothesis that toxigenic C. botulinum is frequently present in healthy broilers, we examined 100 healthy broiler flocks and environmental samples from 30 broiler houses 3 to 4 years after an epidemic of botulism in the broiler population. None of the 100 flocks yielded type C or C/D botulinum toxin genes using real time PCR whereas a flock house that had remained empty since the most recent outbreak yielded type C (or C/D) toxin genes. The absence of toxigenic C. botulinum in all examined flocks indicates that botulism is a sporadic and exogenously acquired event in this broiler population and unlikely to mirror the epidemiology in wild birds.

  3. Risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease among Danish broiler chickens in 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensburg, Mimi Folden; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) among Danish broiler chickens in 1998. Data on 218 flocks were collected from hatcheries, abattoirs, farmers and veterinarians; 49 of the flocks had...

  4. Effect of dietary phytoestrogens, feed restriction, and their interaction on reproductive status of broiler pullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Madnurkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: A major problem faced by the broiler industry around the world is a lowered reproductive fitness of breeding hens which can cause major economic impact in terms of lowered hatchable egg production. In broiler breeders, a lot of the selection pressure has been exerted on growth, conformation and feed efficiency as a result broiler breeder hens are prone to several metabolic disorders and reproductive anomalies. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of phytoestrogen, feed restrictions (75% of their control ad libitum, and their interaction on reproductive parameters in high and low body weight broiler breeder hens. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty-eight healthy female broiler breeder pullets were divided randomly into eight groups from the same hatch and strain. They were transferred to individual laying cages. Birds received ad libitum drinking water and feeding, depend on divided group i.e., ad libitum or restricted feeding (75% of control ad libitum counterpart separately for heavy or low body weight till first egg laid in respective groups. Experimental diets made with practical feed ingredients as per institution recommendation (broiler breeder ration as per experimental planning. Results: Phytoestrogen significantly (p<0.05 improved egg number and size in broiler breeding hens by checking reproductive anomalies (internal laying, double hierarchy, and follicular atresia, restructuring ovarian, and oviductal functional development besides improved physiological maturation of infundibulum. Unlike phytoestrogen, feed restriction as expected delayed the age of sexual maturity but helped in a reduction of ovary weight, number of yellow follicle, number of atretic yellow follicle, incidence of double hierarchy, and internal ovulation. Interaction between phytoestrogen and feed restriction did not give any additional remunerative advantage. Conclusions: It is concluded that phytoestrogens and limited feed

  5. The effect of presence of infected neighbouring farms for the Campylobacter infection status in Danish broiler farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Sharmin; Sandberg, Marianne; Themudo, Gonçalo E;

    2012-01-01

    Neighbourhood risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broilers were evaluated. Campylobacter infection status of a flock was identified by PCR analysis of cloacal swab samples collected as a part of national surveillance program. Included into the study were, in total, 10,876 broiler...

  6. In ovo Administration of Ghrelin and Subsequent Intestinal Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP Activity in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghiasi Ghaleh-kandi,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigation on effect of in ovo administration of ghrelin on subsequent Leucine Aminopeptidase (LAP activity in broiler chickens. In this experiment 250 fertilized eggs were collected from commercial breeder flock. The eggs were divided into five experimental groups; control T1 (without injection, group T2 (in ovo injected with solution, group T3 (in ovo injected with 50 μg/egg ghrelin, group T4 (in ovo injected with 100 μg/egg ghrelin and group T5 (in ovo injected with 150 μg/egg ghrelin. All of groups were incubated. In ovo injection was done at day 7 of incub ation. in ovo administration of 150 μg/egg ghrelin in embryonic period, could stimulate LAP activity at 21-day- old chicks in 10, 30 and 50% of intestine with 3520.4, 266.9, 4595.6 IU/g protein, also in ovo injected 50 and 150 μg/egg ghrelin could stimulate LAP activity in 1, 50 and 70% of intestine with 3071.4, 4779.3 and 5013.4 IU/g. In 42-day-old chicks, in ovo injected 50 μg/egg ghrelin could stimulate LAP activity in 1, 10, 30, 40, 70, and 90% percent of intestine. These findings demonstrated stimulatory effects of ghrelin in low doses (50 μg in chicken intestine LAP activity.

  7. Effects of initial body weight and litter material on broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Mendes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in a 104 m² poultry house located between the geographical coordinates 25°45'00" south latitude and 53°03'25" west longitude and an average altitude of 550 m, from September to November, 2008. The chickens were placed in 12 pens measuring 2 m² each at a stocking density of 12 chickens m-2. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of two different initial weights (chick weight on first day of experiment and two types of litter material on broiler production parameters, litter humidity, as well as on breast and footpad lesions. A total of 240 female Cobb® chickens, derived from the same flock of breeders, was distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 2 (initial weight by 2 (litter material factorial arrangement with three replicates per treatment. Initial weights were classified as light (34.40 - 35.22 g or heavy (39.29 - 41.30 g, whereas wood shavings and sawdust were used as litter material. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by Tukey's test at 95% confidence level. Initial weight significantly influenced bird performance, as chickens with heavy initial weight presented higher feed intake and body weight. Type of litter did not have any effect on breast injuries and litter humidity. However, the wood shavings litter significantly influenced footpad lesions.

  8. Flocking ferromagnetic colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S.

    2017-01-01

    Assemblages of microscopic colloidal particles exhibit fascinating collective motion when energized by electric or magnetic fields. The behaviors range from coherent vortical motion to phase separation and dynamic self-assembly. Although colloidal systems are relatively simple, understanding their collective response, especially under out-of-equilibrium conditions, remains elusive. We report on the emergence of flocking and global rotation in the system of rolling ferromagnetic microparticles energized by a vertical alternating magnetic field. By combing experiments and discrete particle simulations, we have identified primary physical mechanisms, leading to the emergence of large-scale collective motion: spontaneous symmetry breaking of the clockwise/counterclockwise particle rotation, collisional alignment of particle velocities, and random particle reorientations due to shape imperfections. We have also shown that hydrodynamic interactions between the particles do not have a qualitative effect on the collective dynamics. Our findings shed light on the onset of spatial and temporal coherence in a large class of active systems, both synthetic (colloids, swarms of robots, and biopolymers) and living (suspensions of bacteria, cell colonies, and bird flocks). PMID:28246633

  9. Standardized data in the broiler value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, H; Velthuis, A G J; Boerjan, M; Lourens, A; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2011-02-01

    In the Dutch broiler chain, data are collected as a routine practice. However, there is wide variation in the content of data collected and in data collection systems. This variability hampers the use of field data in management information systems to support decisions. The objective of this study was to analyze the quality of data and to standardize the content of data sets in the broiler production chain. To evaluate the quality of data, data sets from 3 Dutch hatcheries, from 23,637 batches of eggs, were assessed. The quality of data was assessed intuitively based on 7 quality attributes. To standardize the content of the data set, a protocol was proposed and validated. The protocol was validated at 30 breeder farms, 3 hatcheries, and 104 broiler farms by using 3 quality attributes: consistency, uniformity, and completeness. Results of the data quality analysis of the 3 Dutch hatcheries showed that the data sets had some fields with inaccurate, incorrect, inconsistent, nonuniform, incomprehensible, missing relevant, or incomplete data. Results of the validation protocol were as follows: feedback was obtained from 23 (77%) breeder farms, 3 (100%) hatcheries, and 7 (7%) broiler farms. Of all the questions, on average 88% were answered on breeder farms; 57, 65, and 82% were answered at each of the 3 hatcheries, respectively; and 79% were answered on the broiler farms. Data collected at 2 hatcheries were more consistent than those collected at the third hatchery. Hatchery data were less consistent than breeder farm data, but the number of data entries at hatcheries far exceeded the number at the farm level. Data from the hatcheries, breeder farms, and broiler farms were not always uniform, possibly because of differences in management strategies. This protocol enables the listing of relevant and standard contents of a data set whereby information exchange along the chain can be simplified. However, it is recommended that the protocol be supplemented with some rules

  10. Coordinated Behaviour in Pigeon Flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Yomosa

    Full Text Available We analysed pigeon flock flights using GPS trajectory data to reveal the most important kinematic aspects of flocking behaviour. We quantitatively investigated the internal motion of the flock based on pairwise statistics and found the following general relationships in all datasets: i the temporal order of decisions characterised by the delay between directional changes is strictly related to the spatial order characterised by the longitudinal relative position within the flock; ii during circling motion, pigeons use a mixture of two idealised and fundamentally different turning strategies, namely, parallel-path and equal-radius type turning. While pigeons tend to maintain their relative position within the flock on average, as in the parallel-path approximation, those who turn later also get behind as in the equal-radius case. Equal-radius type turning also tends to be expressed more during smaller radius turns.

  11. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Hill, Andy; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    In recent years. several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial...... of Campylobacter in flocks implies that monitoring for Campylobacter at the farm up to one week before slaughter may result in flocks that are falsely tested negative: once Campylobacter is established at the farm, the within-flock prevalence increases dramatically within a week. Consequently, at the point...... at reducing the Campylobacter concentration, rather than reducing the prevalence. During the stage where the consumer handles the food, cross-contamination is generally considered to be more relevant than undercooking. An important finding, shared by all, is that the tails of the distributions describing...

  12. Contamination of poultry environment with campylobacter Spp. and significance for colonisation of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lydekaitiene, Viktorija Legaudaite; Malakauskas, Mindangas; Kudirkiene, Egle

    2016-01-01

    to identify the sources of Campylobacter in poultry farm environment and their significance for broiler colonisation. For this purpose, Campylobacter spp. were isolated from broilers and their environment (litter, water of puddle, concentric zones, tap water) by both direct inoculation on mCCDA selective...... genotypes, which had not been transmitted to other broiler flocks reared in the same building. Studies have shown that Campylobacter can survive in poultry environment. They can be transferred from the environment into broiler houses by shoes, cloths and wildlife. Therefore, strict bio-security and hygiene...

  13. Estimativa do conforto de matrizes de frango de corte baseada em análise do comportamento de preferência térmica Identification of the maximum critical temperature of female broiler breeders based on analysis of their thermal preference behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo F. Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o comportamento social, é sugestivo que a freqüência e a intensidade de interações agressivas, o total de coesão social e compreensão da extensão de vícios sociais possam ser utilizados para avaliação de bem-estar. Este trabalho propõe que a freqüência de utilização de determinados locais dentro do galpão possa ser usada como variável para monitorar estados de bem-estar térmico e/ou estresse das aves alojadas. A partir de dados registrados no verão de 2000-2001, esta pesquisa identificou as temperaturas críticas máximas (tc máx de matrizes pesadas, individualmente, por meio de análise estatística da freqüência de uso de locais previamente estabelecidos, utilizando a tecnologia de identificação eletrônica. Os valores das tc máx individuais variaram de 30 °C ± 0,2 ºC a 32,3 ºC ± 0,2 ºC e a temperatura crítica máxima média para o grupo foi 30,9 ºC ± 0,8 ºC.Considering the social behavior, it is suggested that the frequency and the intensity of aggressive interactions, as the well as the total social cohesion, and the understanding of social behavior can be used for welfare evaluation. This research proposes that the frequency of use of specific places inside the bird's housing can be used as variable to monitor thermal welfare status and/or the stress level of the lodged birds. From data registered in the summer of 2000/2001, this study identified the maximum critical temperatures (ct max of the female broiler breeders individually, using statistical analysis of the use of previously determined places, applying the technology of electronic identification. The ct max values varied from 30 °C ± 0,2 ºC to 32,3 ºC ± 0,2 ºC and the critical temperature maximum average for the group was 30,9 ºC ± 0,8 ºC.

  14. SEROLOGIC DYNAMIC OF INFECTIO US BRONCHITIS VIRUS IN A BROILER FLOCK IN CUNDINAMARCA DINÁMICA SEROLÓGICA DEL VIRUS DE BRONQUITIS INFECCIOSA EN UNA GRANJA DE POLLO DE ENGORDE DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE CUNDINAMARCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Alfonso Victor Julio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The infectious bronchitis virus (IBV causes a highly contagious disease, spread worldwide, leading to serious economic losses. Sometimes the disease is associated with other entities such as infectious bursal disease virus, Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli. The highly genetic variability of the virus has generated a large number of viral strains with different clinical presentations. The objective was to assess the dynamics of the virus antibodies in birds vaccinated and not vaccinated against IBV, hosted on a broiler farm where the agent was detected by RT-PCR in Fusagasuga, Colombia and vaccinated birds in semi-isolation conditions in Bogotá. To order this, 3 groups of birds (Ross 308 from 1 day of age (44 birds/group, which were vaccinated with a live attenuated virus strain Massachusetts H120, and the immune response was evaluated through the Elisa test. Since day 24 of age the birds showed a progressive decrease in antibody titers in all three groups, although in the vaccinated and unvaccinated birds kept at the farm were found higher levels of antibodies in the group of semi-isolation. Starting at day 28 in the birds housed in field, the antibodies titles rose slightly until the end of cycle. The slight increase in the level of antibodies may result from exposure to the virus vaccine generated a reversal of pathogenic viral persistence or a late exposure to field virus.El virus de bronquitis infecciosa (IBV causa una enfermedad altamente contagiosa, distribuida mundialmente, que conlleva graves pérdidas económicas. En algunas oportunidades se asocia con otras entidades como los virus de las enfermedades de Gumboro y de Newcastle, Mycoplasma gallisepticum y Escherichia coli. La alta variabilidad genética del virus ha generado una gran cantidad de cepas virales con diferentes cuadros clínicos. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la dinámica de anticuerpos del IBV en aves vacunadas y no vacunadas

  15. Leg disorders in broiler chickens: prevalence, risk factors and prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby G Knowles

    Full Text Available Broiler (meat chickens have been subjected to intense genetic selection. In the past 50 years, broiler growth rates have increased by over 300% (from 25 g per day to 100 g per day. There is growing societal concern that many broiler chickens have impaired locomotion or are even unable to walk. Here we present the results of a comprehensive survey of commercial flocks which quantifies the risk factors for poor locomotion in broiler chickens. We assessed the walking ability of 51,000 birds, representing 4.8 million birds within 176 flocks. We also obtained information on approximately 150 different management factors associated with each flock. At a mean age of 40 days, over 27.6% of birds in our study showed poor locomotion and 3.3% were almost unable to walk. The high prevalence of poor locomotion occurred despite culling policies designed to remove severely lame birds from flocks. We show that the primary risk factors associated with impaired locomotion and poor leg health are those specifically associated with rate of growth. Factors significantly associated with high gait score included the age of the bird (older birds, visit (second visit to same flock, bird genotype, not feeding whole wheat, a shorter dark period during the day, higher stocking density at the time of assessment, no use of antibiotic, and the use of intact feed pellets. The welfare implications are profound. Worldwide approximately 2 x 10(10 broilers are reared within similar husbandry systems. We identify a range of management factors that could be altered to reduce leg health problems, but implementation of these changes would be likely to reduce growth rate and production. A debate on the sustainability of current practice in the production of this important food source is required.

  16. Natural zeolites in diet or litter of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter.

  17. The Effect of Supplemental Carbon Dioxide in Chicken Incubation with Eggs from Heavy Breeder Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Carlea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study followed the results of 0.85% CO2 influence on chick embryonic development. Biological material wascomposed of chicken eggs obtained from COBB500 hybrid broiler breeder parents. After weight determination ofchick embryos in different stages of development, egg components and embryos annexes, pH measurements ofalbumen and yolk sac were made. All of this analysis was made in order to determine the positive influence of 0.85%CO2 level on multistage chick incubation.

  18. Equação de predição da exigência de proteína bruta para aves reprodutoras pesadas na fase de produção Prediction equation of crude protein requirements for broiler breeders hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bôa-Viagem Rabello

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar as exigências de proteína para aves reprodutoras pesadas através do método fatorial. A exigência de proteína bruta para mantença (PBm foi determinada por intermédio da técnica do balanço de nitrogênio por meio de ensaio de metabolismo com aves submetidas a quatro dietas com níveis decrescentes de proteína, proporcionando balanço positivo, próximo a zero e negativo. Para determinar a exigência de proteína bruta para o ganho de peso (PBg dois experimentos foram conduzidos, sendo que em um, determinou-se as exigências líquidas de nitrogênio e no outro, a eficiência de utilização do nitrogênio para o ganho, por meio de abates semanais de aves no período de 26 a 33 semanas de idade. A exigência de proteína bruta para produção de ovos (PBo foi determinada através de análises semanais de proteína bruta dos ovos coletados, no período de 31 a 37 semanas de idade, considerando a eficiência de deposição da proteína no ovo. A exigência e eficiência de utilização da proteína para mantença foram 2.282 mg PB/kg0,75/dia e 60,79%; respectivamente. As exigências de PBg e PBo determinadas foram: 356 mg PB/g e 262 mg PB/g, respectivamente, e as eficiências de utilização do nitrogênio, 40 e 46,80%, respectivamente. A equação de predição elaborada para aves reprodutoras pesadas na fase de produção foi: PB=2,282.P0,75+0,356.G+0,262.MO, onde PB é a exigência de proteína bruta (g/ave/dia, P o peso corporal (kg, G o ganho de peso (g/dia e MO a massa de ovos (g/dia.The objective of this study was to determine the protein requirement for broiler breeder hens using factorial method. The requirement of crude protein for maintenance (CPm was determined using nitrogen balance technique in metabolism assay. The birds were fed with four protein levels in order to get a positive, a close to zero and a negative nitrogen balance. To determine the crude protein weight gain

  19. Draft genome sequences of five clinical Enterococcus cecorum strains isolated from different poultry species in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolka, Beata; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida;

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report five draft genome sequences of Enterococcus cecorum strains that were isolated from different bird species of affected poultry flocks (commercial broilers [CB], broiler breeders [BB], commercial layers [CL], ducks [D], and geese [G]) in Poland....

  20. The effect of discontinuing the use of antimicrobial growth promoters on the productivity in the Danish broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Ersboll, A. K.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2001-01-01

    On 15 February 1998, the Danish poultry industry voluntarily decided to discontinue the use of all antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs). To investigate how the removal of AGPs influenced the broiler productivity in Denmark, data from 6815 flocks collected from November 1995 to July 1999 by the D......On 15 February 1998, the Danish poultry industry voluntarily decided to discontinue the use of all antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs). To investigate how the removal of AGPs influenced the broiler productivity in Denmark, data from 6815 flocks collected from November 1995 to July 1999...... the rotation/number of broilers put in the house per rotation) x 100). Data were analysed using a mixed model, allowing the correlation structures in the data to be taken into account. The analyses showed that kilogram broilers produced per square meter and percent dead broilers in total were not affected...

  1. The effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chicks on growth of embryo and skeletal traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    Incubation temperature is one of the important environmental factors that can induce epigenetic thermal adaptation of different physiological control systems. Thus, post hatch thermo tolerance ability of birds may be gained using these manipulations during different incubation periods. The current study was carried out to reveal the effects of temperature manipulations during early and late embryogenesis on weight of embryo and size of skeletal bilateral traits (face, wings, metatarsus, tibia, and femur) in broiler chicken embryos. One thousand commercial broiler eggs from 46 week old breeder flock were used in study. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C and 55% relative humidity throughout (control; DG1), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 0 to 8 (DG2), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 10 to 18 (DG3), heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 8 to 10 (DG4), and heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 16 to 18 (DG5). Measurements of embryo weight and bilateral traits were obtained at 20 day of incubation and at hatch (at day 21). It was determined that the live weights of embryo and chick were affected significantly by treatment; DG3 group has shown higher mean values than the other treatment groups (Ptibia and metatarsus among treatment groups at hatch. Particularly, the high incubator temperatures at the second half of incubation accelerated growth of body and bone in embryos. These consequences of the treatments performed at different temperatures and times indicate that the different metabolic shifts realized by the embryos.

  2. The effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chicks on growth of embryo and skeletal traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aygün, Ali, E-mail: aaygun@selcuk.edu.tr [Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Konya, 42075 (Turkey); Narinç, Doğan, E-mail: narincd@gmail.com [Namik Kemal University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Genetics, Tekirdag, 59100 (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Incubation temperature is one of the important environmental factors that can induce epigenetic thermal adaptation of different physiological control systems. Thus, post hatch thermo tolerance ability of birds may be gained using these manipulations during different incubation periods. The current study was carried out to reveal the effects of temperature manipulations during early and late embryogenesis on weight of embryo and size of skeletal bilateral traits (face, wings, metatarsus, tibia, and femur) in broiler chicken embryos. One thousand commercial broiler eggs from 46 week old breeder flock were used in study. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C and 55% relative humidity throughout (control; DG1), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 0 to 8 (DG2), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 10 to 18 (DG3), heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 8 to 10 (DG4), and heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 16 to 18 (DG5). Measurements of embryo weight and bilateral traits were obtained at 20 day of incubation and at hatch (at day 21). It was determined that the live weights of embryo and chick were affected significantly by treatment; DG3 group has shown higher mean values than the other treatment groups (P<0.05). There were differences in lengths of femur, tibia and metatarsus among treatment groups at hatch. Particularly, the high incubator temperatures at the second half of incubation accelerated growth of body and bone in embryos. These consequences of the treatments performed at different temperatures and times indicate that the different metabolic shifts realized by the embryos.

  3. Hatchery-borne Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee infections in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.P.; Brown, D.J.; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    A substantial increase in the prevalence of S. enterica serovar Tennessee was observed in broiler flocks in Denmark at the turn of the year 1994 and in the following months. Epidemiological data indicated that a single hatchery was involved in spreading of the infection. Molecular characterization...... of S. enterica serovar Tennessee isolates from Danish broilers (1992 to 1995), the suspected hatchery and strains from various other sources included for comparison was initiated in order to trace the source of infection of the broilers. In general, strains of S. enterica ser. Tennessee showed only....... Restriction enzyme analysis of the plasmid ensured that the plasmids from broilers and the hatchery were identical. By analysis of cleaning and disinfection procedures and by sampling of different control points in the hatchery it was shown that S. enterica ser. Tennessee had colonized areas of the hatchers...

  4. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin.

  5. Comparison of strategies for substantiating freedom from scrapie in a sheep flock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducrot Christian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The public health threat represented by a potential circulation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in sheep population has led European animal health authorities to launch large screening and genetic selection programmes. If demonstrated, such a circulation would have dramatic economic consequences for sheep breeding sector. In this context, it is important to evaluate the feasibility of qualification procedures that would allow sheep breeders demonstrating their flock is free from scrapie. Classical approaches, based on surveys designed to detect disease presence, do not account for scrapie specificities: the genetic variations of susceptibility and the absence of live diagnostic test routinely available. Adapting these approaches leads to a paradoxical situation in which a greater amount of testing is needed to substantiate disease freedom in genetically resistant flocks than in susceptible flocks, whereas probability of disease freedom is a priori higher in the former than in the latter. The goal of this study was to propose, evaluate and compare several qualification strategies for demonstrating a flock is free from scrapie. Results A probabilistic framework was defined that accounts for scrapie specificities and allows solving the preceding paradox. Six qualification strategies were defined that combine genotyping data, diagnostic tests results and flock pedigree. These were compared in two types of simulated flocks: resistant and susceptible flocks. Two strategies allowed demonstrating disease freedom in several years, for the majority of simulated flocks: a strategy in which all the flock animals are genotyped, and a strategy in which only founders animals are genotyped, the flock pedigree being known. In both cases, diagnostic tests are performed on culled animals. The less costly strategy varied according to the genetic context (resistant or susceptible and to the relative costs of a genotyping exam and of a

  6. Preliminary survey on the impact of Schmallenberg virus on sheep flocks in South of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegerman, C; Martinelle, L; Dal Pozzo, F; Kirschvink, N

    2014-10-01

    Between late February and May 2012, a preliminary anonym survey was conducted among sheep farmers in south of Belgium in order to contribute to future estimations of the economic losses caused by Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Based on clinical signs consistent with SBV infection, this survey involved 13 meat sheep flocks considered as positive flocks with subsequent SBV detection by RT-qPCR [SBV-positive flocks (PF); total of 961 animals], and 13 meat sheep flocks considered as negative flocks (NF; total of 331 animals). These preliminary results indicated several significant characteristics that were more present in PF than in NF. These include an increased rate of abortions (6.7% in PF versus 3.2% in NF), of lambs born at term but presenting malformations (10.1% in PF versus 2.0% in NF) and of dystocia (10.1% in PF versus 3.4% in NF). Lamb mortality during the first week of life was reported more frequently in PF (8 of 13 PF, 61.5%) than in NF (1 of 13 NF, 7.7%). In PF, the observed prolificacy rate was 2-fold lower (93%) than expected (186%). The implementation of a survey at larger scale, including a high number of breeders, is necessary to allow a more detailed analysis of the SBV impact in the sheep sector.

  7. Serological monitoring of ornitobacteriosis in broilers in South Banat district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Pavle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a relatively recently discovered bacterium and its role in the pathology of avian respiratory infections has not yet been clarified. Since there was no data relating to the prevalence of this infection in Serbia at the time of carrying out our investigations, we decided to explore the prevalence of the infection in broilers and its influence on clinical manifestations at the selected apizootiological area with developed poultry industry. A total of 430 blood samples from 26 flocks of broilers of different ages, from five municipalities were taken for examination. The serum samples were tested by ELISA for the presence of specific antibodies to the agent. Epizootiological investigation was carried out based on the results obtained with serological testing and epizootiological data, collected from the farms. The data were analyzed statistically to identify association between the infection and manifestation of clinical symptoms by Fisher’s exact test. Seropositive chickens were detected in 16 out of 26 examined broiler flocks at the age of 3 to 56 days. The percentage of seropositive samples per flock was 5-30%. The titer values of specific antibodies ranged from 946 to 6886. Serological response to O. rhinotracheale was evidenced in five flocks which had clinical symptoms in the form of respiratory tract disorders or stunting. However, specific antibodies against the agent were discovered in 11 flocks which did not show clinical symptoms. Statistical analysis revealed no association between the presence of infection and the appearance of clinical symptoms (p = 0.1213. The results are in agreement with those of other authors who investigated the prevalence of this infection and its manifestations in other countries. The present investigation determined indirectly, serologically a presence of O. rhinotracheale in the majority of examined broiler flocks (61,54% and a small average number of individual

  8. Mature Turkey Breeder Hens Exposed to Pandemic Influenza H1N1: Resultant Effects on Morbidity, Mortality, and Fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert; Bommineni, Yugendar; Falk, Jonathan; Blackway, Adam; Young, Brent; Isenhart, Connie

    2015-03-01

    During the artificial insemination process, turkey breeder hens may become infected with influenza virus acquired from humans. The virus has been shown, through experimental infection, to localize in the reproductive tract, with limited dissemination in other tissues. A limited number of hens were used during these studies, and the overall flock morbidity, mortality, and fecundity were not able to be determined. The current case follows the progression of clinical signs in a flock of commercial breeder hens from onset of egg production losses in one house through the subsequent drops in four remaining houses. Each house contained approximately 3000 hens and followed a sequential loss of shell quality, reduced numbers of eggs, and fertility, while mild clinical signs were observed and mortality was slightly increased in a house with concurrent fowl cholera (Pasturella multocida) infection.

  9. Surface temperature distribution in broiler houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Baracho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian meat production scenario broiler production is the most dynamic segment. Despite of the knowledge generated in the poultry production chain, there are still important gaps on Brazilian rearing conditions as housing is different from other countries. This research study aimed at analyzing the variation in bird skin surface as function of heat distribution inside broiler houses. A broiler house was virtually divided into nine sectors and measurements were made during the first four weeks of the grow-out in a commercial broiler farm in the region of Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil. Rearing ambient temperature and relative humidity, as well as light intensity and air velocity, were recorded in the geometric center of each virtual sector to evaluate the homogeneity of these parameters. Broiler surface temperatures were recorded using infrared thermography. Differences both in surface temperature (Ts and dry bulb temperature (DBT were significant (p<0.05 as a function of week of rearing. Ts was different between the first and fourth weeks (p<0.05 in both flocks. Results showed important variations in rearing environment parameters (temperature and relative humidity and in skin surface temperature as a function of week and house sector. Air velocity data were outside the limits in the first and third weeks in several sectors. Average light intensity values presented low variation relative to week and house sector. The obtained values were outside the recommended ranges, indicating that broilers suffered thermal distress. This study points out the need to record rearing environment data in order to provide better environmental control during broiler grow-out.

  10. Identification and molecular characterization of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV from an outbreak in a broiler flock in midwestern Brazil Identificação e caracterização molecular do vírus da doença infecciosa da bolsa cloacal de um surto em lotes de frangos no centro-oeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de Paula

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify and characterize the agent of a suggestive clinical case of Gumboro disease (GD that affected a 34-day-old broiler flock in Buriti Alegre (Goias State, Midwestern Brazil in the year 2001, we carried out a combination of classic and modern virological methods. Histopathological analysis of the bursa revealed necrosis, presence of depleted follicles, some infiltration of heterophils, edema and formation of cystic cavities that are compatible with lesions observed in GD. Inoculation of embryonated eggs of specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens with macerated bursa suspension resulted in embryo mortality and lesions which were also compatible with those caused by IBDV. A sample of bursa was submitted to a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR procedure to amplify the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene. The amplicon that was obtained from this sample (BR-GO was digested with the restriction enzymes TaqI, StyI and SspI, but not with SacI, a pattern similar to that observed with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV strains. Furthermore, nucleotide sequence analysis revealed alanine, isoleucine, and isoleucine at amino acid positions 222, 256, and 294, respectively, which are also found in vvIBDV strains. Finally, phylogenetic analysis grouped BR-GO isolate with other vvIBDV strains.Para identificar e caracterizar o agente causador de um quadro clínico sugestivo de doença de Gumboro (DG que afetou um plantel de frangos de corte com 34 dias de idade, em Buriti Alegre (estado de Goiás, centro-oeste do Brasil, no ano de 2001, procedeu-se uma combinação de métodos virológicos clássicos e modernos. Análises histopatológicas de bursas revelaram necrose, depleção de folículos linfóides, infiltração de heterófilos, edema e formação de cistos, lesões compatíveis com DG. A inoculação em ovos embrionados de galinhas SPF (specific pathogen-free de uma suspensão de macerado de amostras de bursas resultou em

  11. Spread of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli ST117 O78:H4 in Nordic broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronco, Troels; Stegger, Marc; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli infections known as colibacillosis constitute a considerable challenge to poultry farmers worldwide, in terms of decreased animal welfare and production economy. Colibacillosis is caused by avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). APEC strains are extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and h...... diseased broilers and breeders. The data indicate that the closely related ST117 O78:H4 strains have been transferred vertically through the broiler breeding pyramid into distantly located farms across the Nordic countries....

  12. 9 CFR 147.21 - Flock sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flock sanitation. 147.21 Section 147... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.21 Flock sanitation. To aid in the maintenance of healthy flocks, the following procedures should...

  13. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck Høg, B; Sommer, H M; Larsen, L S; Sørensen, A I V; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Rosenquist, H

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis has become the leading bacterial zoonosis in humans in the European Union and other developed countries. There are many sources of human Campylobacter infections, but broilers and broiler meat have been shown to be the most important. In order to implement effective interventions that reduce the probability of Campylobacter colonisation of broiler flocks, it is essential to fully understand the risk factors involved. We present a bi-national risk factor survey comprising Campylobacter data from more than 5200 Danish and Norwegian indoor, conventional broiler flocks and the responses to a standardised questionnaire, with more than 40 explanatory variables from 277 Danish and Norwegian farms. We explored several models by using different combinations of the Danish and Norwegian data, including models with single-country datasets. All models were analysed using a generalized linear model using backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses older than five years; longer downtime (no. of days between flocks), probably a consequence of longer downtimes being associated with less focus on maintaining a high biosecurity level; broiler houses without a separate ante-room or barrier; and the use of the drinker nipples with cups or bells compared with nipples without cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low stocking density increased the risk of a flock becoming Campylobacter positive. The different model approaches allowed us to explore the effect of having a large

  14. Serological and molecular detection of avian pneumovirus in chickens with respiratory disease in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, S M; Algharaibeh, G R

    2007-08-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes upper respiratory tract infection in chickens and turkeys. There is a serious respiratory disease in chickens, resulting in catastrophic economic losses to chicken farmers in Jordan. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of APV as a factor in the respiratory disease of chickens in Jordan by serological and molecular methods. Thirty-eight chicken flocks were examined by competitive ELISA (23 broilers, 8 layers, and 7 broiler breeders), and 150 chicken flocks were examined by reverse-transcription PCR (133 broiler flocks, 7 layer flocks, and 10 broiler breeder flocks). Avian pneumovirus antibodies were detected in 5 out of 23 broiler flocks (21.7%), 6 out of 8 layer flocks (75%), and 7 out of 7 broiler breeder flocks (100%). Avian pneumovirus nucleic acid was detected in 17 broiler flocks (12.8%) and 3 layer flocks (42.9%). None of the broiler breeder flocks tested by reverse-transcription PCR was positive. All of the 20 detected APV isolates were subtype B. This is the first report of APV infection in Jordan. In conclusion, the Jordanian poultry industry, vaccination programs should be adjusted to include the APV vaccine to aid in the control of this respiratory disease.

  15. A comparison of post-mortem findings in broilers dead-on-farm and broilers dead-on-arrival at the abattoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelsen, K E; Granquist, E G; Kolbjørnsen, Ø; Nafstad, O; Moe, R O

    2015-11-01

    Broiler mortality during transport to abattoirs (dead-on-arrival/DOA) evokes concern due to compromised animal welfare and associated economic losses. The general aim of this study was to characterize pathological lesions associated with mortality in broilers close to slaughter. The specific aim was to investigate whether disease at the end of the growth period may be a predisposing factor for DOA by describing and comparing the pathological findings in broilers dead-on-farm (DOF) in the final days of the production cycle and in broilers DOA from the same flocks. Gross post-mortem examinations were performed on 607 broilers from 32 flocks, either DOF (371) or DOA (236). In DOF broilers, the most common pathological lesions were lung congestion (37.7%), endocarditis (29.4%), and ascites (24.0%), whereas the most common findings in broilers DOA were lung congestion (57.2%) and trauma (24.6%). Lung congestion was more prevalent among DOA broilers compared to DOF broilers (P-value of > 0.001). A possible cause behind the pathological finding lung congestion is sudden death syndrome (SDS). The study indicates that steps in the transportation process per se cause the majority of pathological lesions such as lung congestion and trauma that may have led to the mortalities registered. Pre-existing diseases such as ascites and osteomyelitis may also predispose for DOA. Thus, factors relating to on-farm health, catching, and transportation are all areas of future investigation in order to reduce transport mortalities and to enhance welfare in broilers.

  16. Turkey knockdown in successive flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R D; Edson, R K; Watkins, K L; Robertson, J L; Meldrum, J B; Novilla, M N

    2000-01-01

    Turkey knockdown was diagnosed in three of five flocks of hen turkeys on a single farm within a 12-mo period. The age of birds in the flocks affected ranged from 6 wk 2 days to 7 wk 4 days. The attack rate ranged from 0.02% to 0.30% with a case fatality rate in affected birds ranging from 0 to 74%. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs and histopathologic lesions associated with knockdown. The feed in all flocks contained bacitracin methylene disalicylate and monensin (Coban). Affected birds were recumbent, demonstrated paresis, and were unable to vocalize. Postmortem examination revealed few significant lesions although pallor of the adductor muscles and petechiation in adductor and gastrocnemius muscles were noted. Birds that had been recumbent for extended periods were severely dehydrated. Consistent microscopic lesions included degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration of adductor, gastrocnemius, and abdominal muscles. No lesion in cardiac tissue was noted. Results of our investigation indicated that changes in water consumption, vitamin E status, and brooder to finisher movement correlated with the occurrence of knockdown. Turkey knockdown was defined in 1993 as any condition identified in a turkey flock that has affected the neuromuscular system to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand. This definition was later modified to...neuromuscular or skeletal systems to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand properly. Knockdown may be associated with numerous feed, management, or disease factors alone or in combination. Dosage of monensin, feed restriction/gorging, water restriction, heat stress, copper, mycotoxins, sodium chloride in feed, and sulfa drugs have all been suggested as contributing factors; however, laboratory studies to duplicate this have not been successful. This report presents observations from a single farm at which three of five hen flocks in a single year experienced knockdown. When a flock was reported as

  17. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from broiler houses in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions from two mechanically ventilated commercial broiler houses located in the Southeastern United States were continuously monitored over 12 flocks during the one-year period of 2006-2007 as a joint effort between Iowa State University a...

  19. Effect of acidified feed on suscebtibility of broiler chickens to intestinal infection by Campylobacter and Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Engel, B.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumption of poultry meat is associated with human Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. One way to control the presence of these bacteria in broiler flocks is to make chickens less susceptible for colonisation. Acidification of feed may be a tool to reduce the Campylobacter and Salmonella carr

  20. Campylobacter and Salmonella control in broilers and the role of fermented feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.

    2004-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are undesirable pathogens on poultry. Therefore the effect of fermented feed on the colonization in the gastro-intestinal tract of the chicken, the introduction of both bacteria in a chicken flocks, and the transmission between chickens was studied. Broilers that were fe

  1. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from broiler houses with downtime windrowed litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    An emerging poultry manure management practice is in house windrowing to disinfect the litter. With this practice, growers windrow the litter in broiler houses between flocks, usually for 2 weeks. This results in high litter temperatures that can reduce pathogens in the litter. However, this practi...

  2. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Williams, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study was part of the EU financed project CamCon. The objective of the study was to identify on-farm risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broiler flocks based on comparable data from six European countries. The data included explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerni...

  3. Analysis of farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Larsen, Lars Stehr

    2016-01-01

    This study presents on-farm risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter based on comparable data from six European countries: Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, and the UK. The study includes explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerning prod...

  4. Farm-Level Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction A longitudinal study was conducted in Iceland to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter, thereby reducing the burden of foodborne illness associated with poultry consumption. Our objective in this study was to identify risk factors...

  5. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royden, A.; Wedley, A.; Merga, J. Y.;

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran...

  6. Use of fly screens to reduce Campylobacter spp. introduction in broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgaard, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Fly screens that prevented influx of flies in 20 broiler houses during the summer of 2006 in Denmark caused a decrease in Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks from 51.4% in control houses to 15.4% in case houses. A proportional reduction in the incidence of chicken-borne campylobacteriosis can...

  7. Use of Fly Screens to Reduce Campylobacter spp. Introduction in Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle M.; Skovgård, Henrik

    2007-01-01

     Fly screens that prevented influx of flies in 20 broiler houses during the summer of 2006 in Denmark caused a decrease in Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks from 51.4% in control houses to 15.4% in case houses. A proportional reduction in the incidence of chicken-borne campylobacteriosis can...

  8. Cultivation and qPCR Detection of Pathogenic and Antibiotic-Resistant Bacterial Establishment in Naive Broiler Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R; Adeli, A; Miles, D M

    2016-05-01

    Conventional commercial broiler production involves the rearing of more than 20,000 broilers in a single confined space for approximately 6.5 wk. This environment is known for harboring pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, but studies have focused on previously established houses with mature litter microbial populations. In the current study, a set of three naive houses were followed from inception through 11 broiler flocks and monitored for ambient climatic conditions, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistance. Within the first 3 wk of the first flock cycle, 100% of litter samples were positive for and , whereas was cultivation negative but PCR positive. Antibiotic resistance genes were ubiquitously distributed throughout the litter within the first flock, approaching 10 to 10 genomic units g. Preflock litter levels were approximately 10 CFU g for heterotrophic plate count bacteria, whereas midflock levels were >10 colony forming units (CFU) g; other indicators demonstrated similar increases. The influence of intrahouse sample location was minor. In all likelihood, given that preflock levels were negative for pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes and 4 to 5 Log lower than flock levels for indicators, incoming birds most likely provided the colonizing microbiome, although other sources were not ruled out. Most bacterial groups experienced a cyclical pattern of litter contamination seen in other studies, whereas microbial stabilization required approximately four flocks. This study represents a first-of-its-kind view into the time required for bacterial pathogens and antibiotic resistance to colonize and establish in naive broiler houses.

  9. The effect of discontinuing the use of antimicrobial growth promoters on the productivity in the Danish broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Ersboll, A. K.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2001-01-01

    On 15 February 1998, the Danish poultry industry voluntarily decided to discontinue the use of all antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs). To investigate how the removal of AGPs influenced the broiler productivity in Denmark, data from 6815 flocks collected from November 1995 to July 1999 by the D...... by the discontinued use of AGPs. However, the feed-conversion ratio increased marginally 0.016 kg/kg and has remained at this level throughout the rest of the study period. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....... by the Danish Poultry Council were analysed. The three flock parameters were: kilogram broilers produced per square meter (per rotation), feed-conversion ratio (total kilogram feed used per rotation/total kilogram live weight per rotation) and total percent dead broilers ((number of dead broilers during...

  10. Development of a seroprevalence map for avian influenza in broiler chickens from Comunidad Valenciana, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to design and implement a seroprevalence map based on business intelligence for low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) in broilerchickens in Comunidad Valenciana (Spain). The software mapping tool developed for this study consisted of three main phases: data collection, data analysis and data representation. To obtain the serological data, the authors analysed 8,520 serum samples from broiler farms over three years. The data were represented on a map of Comunidad Valenciana, including geographical information of flock locations to facilitate disease monitoring. No clinical signs of LPNAI were reported in the studied flocks. The data from this study showed no evidence of contact with LPNAI in broiler flocks and the novel software mapping tool proved a valuable method for easily monitoring on the serological response to avian influenza information, including geographical information.

  11. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, E; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Thissen, J; van Asselt, E D

    2012-09-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages of the broiler supply chain. Three different sampling points were considered: departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, and the end of the slaughterline. Strong associations were found between Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence at a particular sampling point and their prevalence at the preceding point of the chain. Statistical analyses showed that the country of origin of the broiler farm had a significant effect on the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter at slaughterhouse arrival. The feeding company delivering to the farm also showed a significant effect on the occurrence of both pathogens at departure from the broiler farm. The prevalence of Campylobacter decreased with an increasing number of birds per flock, whereas the prevalence of Salmonella increased with an increasing number of birds per flock. The number of flocks processed within a specific slaughterhouse was not associated with an increased or decreased prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella. The results provide more insight into factors related to the occurrence of both pathogens and in understanding their epidemiology. The results can be supportive in decision making on measures to reduce the contamination of broiler products with Salmonella and Campylobacter.

  12. Efeito da transformação do ninho manual modelo holandês em mecânico na postura de ovos de cama em matrizes de frangos de corte Effect of the transformation of a hand-operated Dutch nest into a mechanical nest on the laying of floor eggs in broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pilotto

    2010-10-01

    accepted by the parental broiler lines, to a new model aiming the mechanical egg collection. Adaptation consisted on replacing wood shaving by stuffed wood sheet and the placement of a conveyor belt for egg collection. This adaptation was evaluated in two experiments in the same shed with breeders from 25 to 35 weeks of age. In both experiments, there were 69 available modules, each one with 24 nests (manual nest for collection of eggs from 7,690 hens and one adapted module with 24 nests (mechanical nest for mechanical collection of eggs from 110 hens. In experiment 1, weekly percentages of produced eggs and floor eggs were compared and in experiment 2, besides those variables, percentages of cracked eggs and dirty eggs in the nest were observed. Also in experiment 2, aiming to reduce floor eggs observed in experiment 1, wood shavings were added on the stuffed wood sheet, from lodging to the 26th week. It was used a 2 õ 11 factorial design, in which the main plot was constituted by the mechanical and manual nests and the sub-plots were composed of the eleven weeks of evaluation. The weekly percentage of produced weeks was similar for the two nest types, in both 1 and 2 experiments. Percentage of floor eggs (experiments 1 and 2, dirty eggs and cracked eggs (experiment 2 obtained with mechanical nest were worse than with manual nest. In experiment 2, placement of wood shavings in the mechanical nest did not contribute for reduction on floor egg percentage. Transformation of manual nest to mechanical nests increased the number of floor, dirty and cracked eggs, showing a worse acceptance of this type of nest by the hens.

  13. Histopathology and serum clinical chemistry evaluation of broilers with femoral head separation disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...

  14. Comparisons of sampling procedures and time of sampling for the detection of Salmonella in Danish infected chicken flocks raised in floor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Andersen, J.; Madsen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriological follow-up samples were taken from 41 chicken (Gallus gallus) flocks in floor systems, where Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) had been detected either directly in bacteriological samples or indirectly by serological samples. Three types of follow-up samples were compared to each...... other within each flock: 1) 5 pairs of socks, analysed as 5 samples, 2) 2 pairs of socks, analysed as one sample, and 3) 60 faecal samples, analysed as one pooled sample. Agreement between sampling methods was evaluated by the following statistical tests: 'Kappa', 'The adjusted rand', McNemar"s test...... in detecting S. enterica as the 60 faecal samples. In broiler flocks, 5 pairs of socks were used both in the routine samples taken at about 3 weeks of age for the establishment of infection of the flock, and as one of the follow-up samples taken shortly before slaughter age, which means that the only notable...

  15. Fertility and hatchability of eggs laid in the pullet-to-breeder transition period and in the initial production period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Adriana Ayres; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Café, Marcos Barcellos; Leandro, Nadja Susana M; Menten, José Fernando M; Stringhini, José Henrique

    2005-12-01

    The initial eggs produced by broiler breeder hens are relatively small compared with later in the production cycle. An evaluation of indices related to hatchability is required when these eggs are to be used for the production of broiler chicks. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate characteristics related to the hatchability of eggs from pullet-to-breeder transition phase, at 25 and 27 weeks of age, and from the peak of production period and five weeks later, at 32 and 37 weeks of age. Eggs from birds 25 weeks had a lesser fertility in Experiment 1. Mortality occurred unevenly in early (1-5 days), middle (6-17 days) and late (18-21 days) incubation, and greater mortality was observed after the internal membrane was ruptured. The younger the hen, the lighter the egg, chick, and shell, and the longer the time required to complete the hatching process. In Experiment 2, greater mortalities were observed at the early period (1-5 days) and after "pipping" of the internal and external membranes. Embryos from heavy eggs of breeder hens 37 weeks of age took less time to complete the hatching process. Results indicated the larger the egg, the heavier the chick and shell, and the lesser the shell percentage. As breeder age advanced, characteristics related to egg fertility and hatchability improved.

  16. Local equilibrium in bird flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The correlated motion of flocks is an example of global order emerging from local interactions. An essential difference with respect to analogous ferromagnetic systems is that flocks are active: animals move relative to each other, dynamically rearranging their interaction network. This non-equilibrium characteristic has been studied theoretically, but its impact on actual animal groups remains to be fully explored experimentally. Here, we introduce a novel dynamical inference technique, based on the principle of maximum entropy, which accommodates network rearrangements and overcomes the problem of slow experimental sampling rates. We use this method to infer the strength and range of alignment forces from data of starling flocks. We find that local bird alignment occurs on a much faster timescale than neighbour rearrangement. Accordingly, equilibrium inference, which assumes a fixed interaction network, gives results consistent with dynamical inference. We conclude that bird orientations are in a state of local quasi-equilibrium over the interaction length scale, providing firm ground for the applicability of statistical physics in certain active systems.

  17. Campylobacter and Salmonella are prevalent in broiler farms in Kyushu, Japan: results of a 2-year distribution and circulation dynamics audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, W; Uemura, R; Sekiguchi, S; Dong, J-B; Watanabe, S; Kirino, Y; Mekata, H; Nonaka, N; Norimine, J; Sueyoshi, M; Goto, Y; Horii, Y; Kurogi, M; Yoshino, S; Misawa, N

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate the distribution and circulation dynamics of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Japanese chicken broiler flocks. A 2-year investigation of the distribution of Campylobacter and Salmonella was conducted in 25 broiler flocks at nine farms in Japan from 2013 to 2014. Campylobacter and Salmonella tested positive in 11 (44·0%) and 24 (96·0%) broiler flocks respectively. One hundred and ninety-five Campylobacter and 184 Salmonella isolates were characterized into 12 Campylobacter (including two novel genotypes) and three Salmonella MLST genotypes. Only Salmonella isolation between caecal and environmental samples were significantly correlated. Further, one litter sample tested positive for Salmonella before new chicks were introduced. The Campylobacter strains rapidly lost culturability within 2-18 days; in contrast, the Salmonella strains survived from 64-211 days in artificially inoculated water samples. No persistent circulation-mediated Campylobacter contamination was observed. In contrast, circulation of Salmonella in broiler houses was seen, apparently due to the litter excreted from broiler flocks, as well as Salmonella-contaminated water and feed. This paper provides the distribution, genotypic data and circulation dynamics of Campylobacter and Salmonella as recently observed in Japanese chicken broiler farms. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Model-predicted ammonia emission from two broiler houses with different rearing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Duarte Silva Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 emissions from broiler production can affect human and animal health and may cause acidification and eutrophication of the surrounding environment. This study aimed to estimate ammonia emissions from broiler litter in two systems of forced ventilation, the tunnel ventilation (TV and the dark house (DH. The experiment was carried out on eight commercial broiler houses, and the age of the birds (day, d, pH and litter temperature were recorded. Broilers were reared on built-up wood shaving litter using an average flock density of 14 bird m–2. Temperature and relative humidity inside the broiler houses were recorded in the morning during the grow-out period. A factorial experimental design was adopted, with two types of houses, four replicates and two flocks with two replicates each. A deterministic model was used to predict ammonia emissions using the litter pH and temperature, and the day of grow-out. The highest litter temperature and pH were found at 42 d of growth in both housing systems. Mean ambient air temperature and relative humidity did not differ in either system. Mean model predicted ammonia emission was higher in the DH rearing system (5200 mg NH3 m−2h−1 at 42 d than in the TV system (2700 mg NH3m−2 h−1 at 42 d. TV presented the lowest mean litter temperature and pH at 42 d of growth. In the last week of the broilers’ grow-out cycle, estimated ammonia emissions inside DH reached 5700 mg m−2h−1 in one of the flocks. Ammonia emissions were higher inside DH, and they did not differ between flocks. Assuming a broiler market weight in Brazil of close to 2 kg, ammonia emissions were equivalent to 12 g NH3 bird-marketed−1. Model-predicted ammonia emissions provided comprehensible estimations and might be used in abatement strategies for NH3 emission.

  19. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds.

  20. PREVALENT DISEASES AND OVERALL MORTALITY IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahir-ud-Din, F .R. Durrani, M.A. Mian, N. Chand and J. Ahmed1

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Records from 62-broiler farms located in Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP, Pakistan were, collected during the year 1998 to investigate prevalent diseases and overall mortality in broilers. Losses due Hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS were the highest (17.05 ± 2.08% and the lowest due to coccidiosis 9.39 ± 3.82%. Non-significant differences existed in mortality caused by Newcastle, IBD and yolk sac infection. Differences in losses caused by infectious coryza, enteritis and coccidiosis were also non- significant. Average overall mortality was 13.05 ± 1.16%, representing 7.59 ± 0.46% losses from day-1 to day 14 and 18.52 ± 0.95% from day-15 till marketing of broilers (42-50 days. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was observed in broilers reared on well-finished concrete floors (12.43 ± 1.45 % than in those on brick+mud made floors (14.36 ± 1.55. Higher (p<0.05 overall mortality was found in overcrowded houses 5.60 ± 5.62% than in optimally utilized houses (10.69 ± 1.51%. Overall mortality was higher (p<0.05 in flocks under substandard vaccination schedule (15.92 ± 1.55% than in those maintained under standard lancination schedule (10.20 ± 1.21%. Overall mortality was higher (21.11 ± 3.39% when the interval between two batches was ≤ 7 days than 16-20 days (5.72 ± 3.01%. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was und in broilers maintained under good hygienic ( 11.59 ±1.93% and sanitary conditions ( 10.82 ± 1.16% compared to those under poor hygienic and sanitary conditions (14.12 ± 2.81% and 15.15 ± 1.68 %respectively. Maintenance of broilers under good hygienic conditions on well finished concrete floor, providing the required space/broiler, following recommended vaccination schedule without HPS vaccine and keeping 8.20 days interval between two batches were suggested as key factors in reducing mortality among broilers in Swat

  1. Prevalence and sources of Campylobacter spp. contamination in free-range broiler production in the southern part of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeplas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A one year epidemiological study was carried out between February 2005 and February 2006 in the southern part of Belgium to assess the Campylobacter prevalence in free-range broiler production. Three successive broiler flocks from six Belgian farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter spp. during the rearing period. Each flock was visited four times, before and after the outdoor rearing period. During each visit, samples were taken in the broiler house (litter, cecal droppings, water-lines, feed, anteroom as well as from the outer rearing environment (open-air range. The Campylobacter detection in all samples was carried out according to the ISO 10272 standard. Identification was based on colonial morphology, microscopic examination, and biochemical tests. PCR multiplex was used for genetic confirmation. Campylobacter jejuni was the main species isolated from all contaminated samples. Overall, mixed infections C. jejuni / Campylobacter coli represented 40.6%, while C. jejuni and C. coli represented 46.9% and 12.5% of chicken samples respectively. A 100% flock contamination was observed in the 6 farms during the summer-autumn period, whereas only 66.7% and 33.3% of the flocks became Campylobacter-positive in spring and winter respectively, at the end of the rearing period. Half of contaminated flocks were infected before chickens have access to the open-air range. Environmental samples, especially the open-air range soil, were found to be Campylobacter-positive before flock infection. The other potential sources of contamination were delivery tray, anteroom floor and water-lines. Other animal productions like cattle on the farm, no applied rodent control, no cleaning and disinfection of water-lines between flocks, no detergent used for cleaning and thinning were recorded as risk factors. In conclusion, the contact with the environment, particularly the access to an open-air range, appeared to be the major way of Campylobacter

  2. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  3. PERAN PEMERINTAH DAERAH DALAM PENYULUHAN PEMELIHARAAN AYAM BROILER DI DESA TANRARA KECAMATAN BONTONOMPO SELATAN KABUPATEN GOWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Pebrianti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain a picture of how the role of the local government in the counseling of medical care of broiler chickens in the village of Tanrara, South Bontonompo District, Regency of Gowa and analysis counseling medical care of broiler chicken farms. Type of research used is descriptive qualitative , Data is collected using a technical field research, library research and data searches on line. The data were then analyzed qualitatively to explain or describe the data examined of the field, both primary data obtained from interviews, as well as from secondary data. The results of this study indicate that the Agency's role in the maintenance of broiler chickens counseling is to provide education to farmers (educational roles, provide assistance to farmers, as a facilitator for the farmers, as well as help increase the productivity of resources and ranchers. Counseling of medical care of broiler chickens may improve outcomes farm broiler chickens caused by could encourage increased production and productivity of poultry broiler, encourage availability  broiler chickens is always stable on the market, local goverment encourage increased incomes and welfare of broiler breeders as well as help the marketing of chicken broiler widespread.     Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh gambaran tentang bagaimana peran Dinas Perikanan, Kelautan, dan Peternakan dalam penyuluhan pemeliharaan ayam broiler di Desa Tanrara Kecamatan Bontonompo Selatan Kabupaten Gowa serta ananlisis mengenai penyuluhan pemeliharaan ayam broiler. Tipe penelitian yang dipergunakan adalah diskriptif kualitatif. Pengumpulan data dilakukan menggunakan teknis field research library research dan penelusuran data on line. Data yang diperoleh selanjutnya dianalisis secara kualitatif dengan menjelaskan atau menggambarkan data yang diteliti dari lapangan, baik data primer yang diperoleh dari hasil wawancara, maupun dari data sekunder. Hasil penelitian ini

  4. Transfer of nitrofuran residues from parent broiler breeder chickens to broiler progeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCracken, R.J.; Rhijn, van J.A.; Kennedy, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    1. The use of nitrofuran antibiotics in food-producing animals is prohibited within the EU. Countries in the EU, as well those intending to export food to the EU, must ensure that their products are free from nitrofuran residues. 2. As a result of recent global problems where chicken meat from a wid

  5. Transfer of nitrofuran residues from parent broiler breeder chickens to broiler progeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCracken, R.J.; Rhijn, van J.A.; Kennedy, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    1. The use of nitrofuran antibiotics in food-producing animals is prohibited within the EU. Countries in the EU, as well those intending to export food to the EU, must ensure that their products are free from nitrofuran residues. 2. As a result of recent global problems where chicken meat from a wid

  6. Design of Connectivity Preserving Flocking Using Control Lyapunov Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Erfianto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cooperative flocking control design with connectivity preserving mechanism. During flocking, interagent distance is measured to determine communication topology of the flocks. Then, cooperative flocking motion is built based on cooperative artificial potential field with connectivity preserving mechanism to achieve the common flocking objective. The flocking control input is then obtained by deriving cooperative artificial potential field using control Lyapunov function. As a result, we prove that our flocking protocol establishes group stabilization and the communication topology of multiagent flocking is always connected.

  7. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  8. Fast breeder reactor protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, J.B.

    1973-10-01

    Reactor protection is provided for a liquid-metal-fast breeder reactor core by measuring the coolant outflow temperature from each of the subassemblies of the core. The outputs of the temperature sensors from a subassembly region of the core containing a plurality of subassemblies are combined in a logic circuit which develops a scram alarm if a predetermined number of the sensors indicate an over temperature condition. The coolant outflow from a single subassembly can be mixed with the coolant outflow from adjacent subassemblies prior to the temperature sensing to increase the sensitivity of the protection system to a single subassembly failure. Coherence between the sensors can be required to discriminate against noise signals. (Official Gazette)

  9. Influence of Covering Reused Broiler Litter with Plastic Canvas on Litter Characteristics and Bacteriology and the Subsequent Immunity and Microbiology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In broiler production, the litter is reused for consecutives flocks, and it is treated during down time between flocks to reduce its microbial load. Although covering the litter with a plastic canvas is a common litter treatment in the field, there is little scientific information available on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of covering broiler litter with a plastic canvas for eight days on litter microbiological, physical, and chemical parameters, and on the intestinal microbiota and immunity of broilers. In the first trial, reused litter from a previous flock was distributed into three treatments, with six replicates each: L1 (negative control, litter free from Salmonella Enteritidis (SE and Eimeria maxima (EM and not covered, L2 (positive control, litter with SE and EM, and not covered, and L3 (litter with SE and EM, and covered with plastic canvas for eight days. Litter total bacteria, Enterobacteria, Lactobacillus, SE, and EM counts, and litter pH, temperature, moisture, and ammonia emission were determined on days 1 and 8. In the second trial, broilers were housed on those litters according to the treatments described above, and their intestinal microbiota, gut CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and macrophages, and liver and intestinal pro-inflammatory interleukin (IFN-γ, IL-1β e IL-18 levels were evaluated on days 14 and 28. A significant reduction of litter bacterial populations was observed in the litter covered with plastic canvas. A significantly higher mRNA IFN-γ gene expression (12.5-fold was observed in the jejunum and liver of broilers reared on the litter with Enterobacteria counts. No EM reduction was observed in the covered litter. Covering reused broiler litter with plastic canvas reduces initial litter bacterial load as a result of the interaction between physical and chemical parameters.

  10. Relations between the consumption of antimicrobial growth promoters and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Andersen, J. S.; Seyfarth, A.M.;

    2004-01-01

    that I randomly selected E. faecium isolate was resistant to avilamycin, erythromycin or virginiamycin was 0.91, 0.92 and 0.84, respectively if the isolate originated from a broiler flock fed either avilamycin- or virginiamycin-supplemented feed. As the time-span between sampling and the last AGP...

  11. Occurrence and genotypes of Campylobacter species in broilers during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yin, Tiantian; Du, Xueqing; Yang, Wenbin; Huang, Jinlin; Jiao, Xinan

    2017-04-01

    Poultry are the main source of Campylobacter infection worldwide. To obtain information on Campylobacter-infected flocks and create a reference for preventing and controlling Campylobacter at farm level, Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broilers and the environments of nine chicken flocks in two farms during growth. The genetic relationship between the Campylobacter isolates was determined using multilocus sequence typing. Flocks were colonized as early as 3 weeks after introduction to the farm. The highest colonization rate was more than 90% and occurred 4-6 weeks after introduction to the farm. Quantitative data showed that the highest Campylobacter loads appeared at 1-2 weeks after initial colonization. Campylobacter loads in cloacal swabs in four flocks were significantly higher at 5 weeks than at 3 weeks (P Campylobacter jejuni and eight for Campylobacter coli isolates. The STs of the Campylobacter isolates recovered from farm 1 were more diversified than those from farm 2. The STs of environmental samples were highly consistent with those of the cloacal swab samples. The consistency between Campylobacter STs in the environmental and cloacal swab samples suggested that the environment might be one of the main sources of infection. Thus, our study highlights the prevalence and contamination load of Campylobacter in broilers during their rearing period and emphasizes the need for control and prevention measures for Campylobacter infection in broilers, which is also important for human health.

  12. Cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli in broiler farms-A cross-sectional investigation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Johanna; Frömke, Cornelia; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Hartmann, Maria; Schneider, Bettina; Friese, Anika; Rösler, Uwe; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Hille, Katja

    2016-03-01

    In this investigation the farm prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC) in German broiler farms was evaluated. In total, 59 flocks on 34 broiler farms were sampled in four agricultural regions of Germany. Per broiler flock, three faecal samples, a pair of boot swabs and one dust sample were taken and examined for the presence of CREC. After pre-enrichment of sample material in Luria-Bertani-broth, the broth was streaked onto MacConkey agar containing 1mg/l cefotaxime (CTX). CREC isolates were detected in at least one sample from each flock resulting in a farm prevalence of 100%. The proportion of positive samples was high in all three sample types. Of 177 collective faecal samples 81.9% were positive, of 59 boot swabs and 59 dust samples 79.7% and 62.7% were positive. In conclusion, the prevalence of broiler farms with cefotaxime-resistant E. coli in Germany is very high. We suggest that the analysis of collective faecal samples is sufficient to determine the CREC farm status. In addition to other studies our study supports the finding that cefotaxime resistance is a good proxy for the presence of ESBL- or plasmidic AmpC-beta-lactamases.

  13. Serologic reactions against Salmonella in samples from broiler parent stock with and without preceding colibacillosis: A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Feld, Niels Christian; Andersen, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    (colibacillosis) from two Danish hatcheries, supplying about 62% of the Danish broiler production, is described. In order to eliminate a possible bias from age and season, the controls were matched on age of the birds and on time of submitting the samples. This study shows that flocks with preceding......In the Danish Salmonella Control Program, eggs from broiler parent flocks are surveyed by serologic analysis every 4 wk for antibodies against Salmonella lipopolysaccharide O-antigens 1, 4, 5, 9, and 12 (Mix-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and 6 and 7 (Infantis-ELISA). The antibody...... response is measured in percentage optical density (OD%) of a strong positive reaction, and the cutoff value has been determined to be 40 OD%. Two or more reactors above 40 OD% will place the parent flock under suspicion. There has been concern about possible cross-reactions between Salmonella spp...

  14. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Maarten; Hill, Andy; Rosenquist, Hanne; Brynestad, Sigrid; Fetsch, Alexandra; van der Logt, Peter; Fazil, Aamir; Christensen, Bjarke; Katsma, Elly; Borck, Birgitte; Havelaar, Arie

    2009-02-15

    In recent years, several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial processing, consumer food preparation, and the dose-response relationship. The modelling approaches vary between the models, and this has supported the progress of risk assessment as a research discipline. The risk assessments are not only used to assess the human incidence of campylobacteriosis due to contaminated broiler meat, but more importantly for analyses of the effects of control measures at different stages in the broiler meat production chain. This review paper provides a comparative overview of models developed in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany, and aims to identify differences and similarities of these existing models. Risk assessments developed for FAO/WHO and in New Zealand are also briefly discussed. Although the dynamics of the existing models may differ substantially, there are some similar conclusions shared between all models. The continuous introduction of Campylobacter in flocks implies that monitoring for Campylobacter at the farm up to one week before slaughter may result in flocks that are falsely tested negative: once Campylobacter is established at the farm, the within-flock prevalence increases dramatically within a week. Consequently, at the point of slaughter, the prevalence is most likely to be either very low (95%). In evaluating control strategies, all models find a negligible effect of logistic slaughter, the separate processing of positive and negative flocks. Also, all risk assessments conclude that the most effective intervention measures aim at reducing the Campylobacter concentration, rather than reducing the prevalence. During the stage where the consumer handles the food, cross-contamination is generally

  15. Can breeder reproductive status, performance and egg quality be enhanced by supplementation and transition of n-3 fatty acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delezie, E; Koppenol, A; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplemented diets on breeder performance, productivity and egg quality. Breeders (n = 480) were fed the supplemented diet from 18 weeks onwards; the inclusion level of n-3 FA was increased from 1.5% to 3.0% from 34 weeks of age onwards until 48 weeks of age. Ross-308 broiler breeders (n = 480) were fed one of four different diets: a basal diet rich in n-6 FA (control diet) or one of three diets rich in n-3 FA. For the n-3 FA diets, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) were fed to the broiler breeders at different ratios formulated to obtain EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1, 1/2 or 2/1. Differences in performance, reproduction and egg quality parameters due to n-3 supplementation were noted more for the 1.5% followed by the 3.0% fed broilers than their 1.5% supplemented counterparts. Egg weight (p n-3 FA (at 3.0% inclusion level) fed broilers compared to the control group. For the EPA- and DHA-fed breeders, a higher proportional abdominal fat percentage (p = 0.025) and proportional albumen weight (%) (p = 0.041) were found respectively. Dietary treatments did not affect reproduction. It can be concluded that the results of the present experiment indicate no significant differences between treatments at 1.5% inclusion levels. However, increasing this level to 3.0% is not recommended due to the rather negative effects on the measured parameters. It should be further investigated whether these adverse effects were obtained due to (i) the higher supplementation level, (ii) combining a supplementation level of 1.5% with 3% or (iii) the duration of supplementation.

  16. Diversity of ectoparasites in sheep flocks in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, N G; Amarante, A F; Padovani, C R

    2000-08-01

    The occurrence of ectoparasites in sheep flocks is frequently reported but seldom quantified. Sheep production used to be a predominantly family activity in the state of São Paulo (Brazil), but it began to become a commercial activity in the past decade. Thus, information about the ectoparasites existing in sheep flocks has become necessary. The present data were obtained by means of questionnaires sent to all sheep breeders belonging to the 'Associação Paulista de Criadores de Ovinos' (ASPACO; São Paulo State Association of Sheep Breeders). Response reliability was tested by means of random visits paid to 10.6% of the respondents. Most of the properties (89.5%) reported the presence of one or more ectoparasites. Screw-worm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) was the most frequent ectoparasite (72.5%), followed by bot fly larvae (Dermatobia hominis, 45.0%), ticks (Amblyomma cajennense) and Boophilus microplus, 31.3%) and finally lice (Damalinia ovis, 13.8%). Combined infestations also occurred, the most common one being screw-worm with bot fly larvae (36.0%) followed by bot fly larvae with ticks (13.9%), screw-worm with ticks (9.3%), bot fly larvae with lice (6.9%), and ticks with lice (5.0%). The most common triple combination was screw-worm, bot fly larvae and ticks (12.8%). Breeds raised for meat or wool were attacked by bot fly larvae and ticks more often than other breeds. Lice were only absent from animals of indigenous breeds. The relationships among these ectoparasites are discussed in terms of sheep breeds, flock size, seasonality and the ectoparasitic combinations on the host.

  17. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on a quantitative estimation of the public health impact of setting a new target for the reduction of Salmonella in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This assessment relates the percentage of broiler-associated human salmonellosis cases to different Salmonella prevalences in broiler flocks in the European Union. It considers the contribution and relevance of different Salmonella serovars found in broilers to human salmonellosis. The model......, laying hens (eggs), pigs and turkeys respectively. Of the broiler-associated human salmonellosis cases, around 42% and 23% are estimated to be due to the serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Infantis respectively, while other serovars individually contributed less than 5%. Different scenarios...

  18. Bipartite flocking for multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming-Can; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Miaomiao

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses the bipartite flock control problem where a multi-agent system splits into two clusters upon internal or external excitations. Using structurally balanced signed graph theory, LaSalle's invariance principle and Barbalat's Lemma, we prove that the proposed algorithm guarantees a bipartite flocking behavior. In each of the two disjoint clusters, all individuals move with the same direction. Meanwhile, every pair of agents in different clusters moves with opposite directions. Moreover, all agents in the two separated clusters approach a common velocity magnitude, and collision avoidance among all agents is ensured as well. Finally, the proposed bipartite flock control method is examined by numerical simulations. The bipartite flocking motion addressed by this paper has its references in both natural collective motions and human group behaviors such as predator-prey and panic escaping scenarios.

  19. Every flock generalised quadrangle has a hemisystem

    CERN Document Server

    Bamberg, John; Royle, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    We prove that every flock generalised quadrangle contains a hemisystem, and we provide a construction method which unifies our results with the examples of Cossidente and Penttila in the classical case.

  20. Characterization of fowl adenoviruses associated with hydropericardium syndrome and inclusion body hepatitis in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out for detection and molecular characterization of fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) associated with hydropericardium syndrome or inclusion body hepatitis in commercial broiler chickens. The FAdVs were detected in liver samples from 33 commercial broiler chicken flocks by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using hexon gene specific primers. The restriction enzyme analysis using StyI, BsiWI, MluI, AspI, BglI and ScaI enzymes of all the 33 FAdV-positive samples revealed FAdV...

  1. Molecular epidemiology of avian leukosis virus subgroup J in layer flocks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yulong; Yun, Bingling; Qin, Liting; Pan, Wei; Qu, Yue; Liu, Zaisi; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei

    2012-03-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-type chickens in 1988. No field cases of ALV-J infection or tumors in layer chickens were observed worldwide until 2004. However, layer flocks in China have experienced outbreaks of this virus in recent years. The molecular epidemiology of ALV-J strains isolated from layer flocks was investigated. The env genes of 77.8% (21/27) of the ALV-J layer isolates with a high degree of genetic variation were significantly different from the env genes of the prototype strain of ALV-J (HPRS-103) and American and Chinese strains from meat-type chickens (designated ALV-J broiler isolates). A total of 205 nucleotides were deleted from the 3' untranslated region of 89.5% (17/19) of the ALV-J layer isolates. Approximately 94.7% (16/17) of the layer isolates contained a complete E element of 146 to 149 residues. The U3 sequences of 84.2% (16/19) of the ALV-J layer isolates displayed less than 92.5% sequence homology to those of the ALV-J broiler isolates, although the transcriptional regulatory elements that are typical of avian retroviruses were highly conserved. Several unique nucleotide substitutions in the env gene, the U3 region, and the E element of most of the ALV-J layer isolates were detected. These results suggested that the env gene, E element, and U3 region in the ALV-J layer isolates have evolved rapidly and were significantly different from those of the ALV-J broiler isolates. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of layer tumor diseases induced by ALV-J.

  2. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royden, A; Wedley, A; Merga, J Y; Rushton, S; Hald, B; Humphrey, T; Williams, N J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran flies are proven carriers of Campylobacter and their ingress into broiler houses may contribute to its transmission to broiler chickens. However, this has not been investigated in the UK. Campylobacter was cultured from 2195 flies collected from four UK broiler farms. Of flies cultured individually, 0·22% [2/902, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0-0·53] were positive by culture for Campylobacter spp. Additionally, 1293 flies were grouped by family and cultured in 127 batches: 4/127 (3·15%, 95% CI 0·11-6·19) from three broiler farms were positive for Campylobacter. Multilocus sequence typing of isolates demonstrated that the flies were carrying broiler-associated sequence types, responsible for human enteric illness. Malaise traps were used to survey the dipteran species diversity on study farms and also revealed up to 612 flies present around broiler-house ventilation inlets over a 2-h period. Therefore, despite the low prevalence of Campylobacter cultured from flies, the risk of transmission by this route may be high, particularly during summer when fly populations are greatest.

  3. 饲粮非植酸磷水平对39~46周龄黄羽肉种母鸡繁殖性能、胫骨指标和血浆生化指标的影响%Effect of Dietary Non-Phytate Phosphorus Level on Reproduction Performance, Tibial Indexes and Plasma Biochemical Indexes of Yellow-Feathered Broiler Breeders Aged from 39 to 46 Weeks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋守群; 蒋宗勇; 郑春田; 丁发源; 阮栋

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在研究不同非植酸磷( NPP)水平对39~46周龄黄羽肉鸡父母代种鸡繁殖性能、胫骨指标和血浆生化指标的影响,探讨该阶段适宜磷供给量。试验选用39周龄岭南黄羽肉鸡父母代种母鸡810只,根据体重和产蛋率分为5个组,每组6个重复,每重复27只鸡。组1为对照组,饲喂玉米-豆粕型基础饲粮( NPP水平为0.30%),组2、3、4和5饲粮分别在基础饲粮中添加不同水平的磷酸氢钙,使饲粮NPP水平分别为0.35%、0.40%、0.45%和0.50%,其他营养成分各组基本一致。试鸡限饲122 g/(只·d),自由饮水。试验期8周。结果表明:1)试验期内, NPP水平未显著影响试鸡平均日增重、平均日产蛋量、料蛋比、平均蛋重和破蛋率(P>0.05),显著影响了产蛋率和不合格蛋率(P0.05)。4)饲粮 NPP 水平显著增加了试鸡脱脂胫骨粗灰分中钙、磷含量(P0.05), had significant effects on laying rate and unqualified egg rate ( P0.05) . 4) The contents of calcium and phosphorus in dry defatted tibi-al ash were significantly increased by dietary NPP supplementation (P<0.05). 5) The contents in plasma of parathyroid hormone was significantly higher in birds fed diets containing 0.40% and 0.45% NPP than in those of 0.30% and 0.35% NPP (P<0.05) and calcitonin was higher in birds fed 0.50% NPP than all other NPP levels ( P<0.05) . The results indicate that the optimal dietary NPP level for yellow-feathered broiler breeders aged from 39 to 46 weeks is 0.40% to 0.45%, equivalent to 0.488 to 0.549 g/d on the basis of calculated by feed intake.

  4. Factors that impact the financial performance of broiler production in southern states of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Mendes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the factors that affect the financial performance of broiler chicken production in Southwest of Paraná state in Brazil, as well as to study the relationship of these factors with the social-economic situation of poultry farmers. Data were obtained from a questionnaire applied to broiler chicken farmers between February and March, 2011. The questionnaire included 39 questions relative to farmer's age, family size, land possession, capital invested in broiler farming, gross income per flock, training and broiler farming experience, production size, credit needs, technical service, labor, production problems, and bird weight at slaughter. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. The relationship between production data and financial performance was determined using Pearson correlation coefficient, at 95% confidence level. Approximately 64.84% of the interviewed broiler farmers in Paraná state presented medium to low financial performance. Factors such as education level, facility size, labor, gross income per flock, and average bird weight at slaughter had a positive impact on financial performance. The production problems that most affected the broiler production were environmental challenges, poor feed conversion, as well as management problems and low-quality chicks.

  5. Effective dimension in flocking mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglietto, Gabriel; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2011-03-01

    Even in its minimal representation (Vicsek Model, VM [T. Vicsek, A. Czirok, E. Ben-Jacob, I. Cohen and O. Shochet. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 (1995).]), the widespread phenomenon of flocking raises intriguing questions to the statistical physicists. While the VM is very close to the better understood XY Model because they share many symmetry properties, a major difference arises by the fact that the former can sustain long-range order in two dimensions, while the latter can not. Aiming to contribute to the understanding of this feature, by means of extensive numerical simulations of the VM, we study the network structure of clusters showing that they can also sustain purely orientational, mean-field-like, long-range order. We identify the reason of this capability with the key concept of "effective dimension." In fact, by analyzing the behavior of the average path length and the mean degree, we show that this dimension is very close to four, which coincides with the upper critical dimension of the XY Model, where orientational order is also of a mean-field nature. We expect that this methodology could be generalized to other types of dynamical systems.

  6. The pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms; external and internal sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, T; Whyte, P; Bolton, D J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the most sensitive molecular techniques in combination with culture-based methods to characterize broiler farms in terms of the timeline ('appearance' and 'pattern') of Campylobacter contamination prior to and post detection in the birds. Faecal and environmental samples were collected from three broiler farms (two flocks per farm). Real-time PCR was used to test for the presence of Campylobacter. Culture-based methods (enrichment and direct plating) were also applied and isolates were subject to a range of confirmatory tests before speciation (multiplex PCR). All flocks were colonized by Campylobacter before first thin and a similar pattern of Campylobacter contamination was observed; (day -1) a range of external and internal samples real-time PCR positive but culture negative; (day 0) chicks negative; (6-9 days pre-detection in the birds) internal samples (feeders, drinkers, barrier and/or bird weigh) culture positive and (post broiler infection) increasing concentrations of Campylobacter in internal samples but also on the tarmac apron and anteroom. It was concluded that; (i) vertical transmission did not occur; (ii) the environment was a potential source of Campylobacter; (iii) testing areas frequented by all birds (e.g. feeders and drinkers), may offer an opportunity for early Campylobacter detection and (iv) once the broilers are infected with Campylobacter, these bacteria are spread from the birds, through the anteroom to the areas surrounding the broiler house, highlighting the need for improved biosecurity. This study has established the pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms, identified an early detection opportunity, highlighted the need to better understand the role of viable but nonculturable Campylobacter in the ecology of Campylobacter on broiler farms and demonstrated the need for improved biosecurity to prevent the spread of Campylobacter from within the house to the surrounding environment.

  7. Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) outbreak associated with fowl adenovirus type 8b in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The causative agent of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was identified as fowl adenovirus (FAdV) type 8b, a member of the Fowl adenovirus E species, based on PCR results of adenoviral polymerase and the hexon gene in an outbreak of acute mortality that affected a broiler flock of 12,000 animals. In two waves of elevated mortality rate, a total of 264 chickens were found dead. Affected birds showed ruffled feathers, depression, watery droppings and limping. Th...

  8. Detection of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in serum of broiler chickens of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a common problem in poultry farms of Iran. Several serological and molecular tools are applied to diagnose the infection and predict its effects. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is a serologic test that commonly used in diagnostic laboratories. In order to determine NDV antibody status in broiler flocks of West and East Azarbayjan at the end of rearing period, 383 blood samples collected from 2 slaughterhouses in West Azarbayjan and subjected to HI test. 40.6% of sa...

  9. A longitudinal study to assess the persistence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) on an intensive broiler farm in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Liebana, Ernesto; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    2007-01-01

    Seven years after the ban of avoparcin, VREF could still be isolated within sectors of the UK broiler industry. The aim of this study was to assess whether there is a carryover of VREF between consecutive flocks of birds, to conduct a preliminary investigation of possible routes of entry of VREF ...

  10. Farmers flock to coastal cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M; Mulley, S

    1994-01-01

    China's rural-urban migration flows, particularly into Shanghai, Guangdong province, Beijing, and coastal areas, present challenges for urban development. The impact on rural and urban areas and suggestions for minimizing undesirable consequences were discussed. Professor Zhang Qingwu, deputy director of the Population Research Institute of Xiamen University in Fujian province, believes that the large migrating populations and those without residence cards pose problems for heavily populated cities: they strain resources (housing, water and electricity supplies, transportation, telecommunication, environmental hygiene, food supplies, and educational facilities). Crime increases. Municipal departments must increase their administrative load in service sectors. The general idea is that rural-to-urban migration reflects social progress and adds to a productive work force. Flexible policies are recommended. In Guangdong province, where migrants arrived from Sichuan and Hunan provinces, counties from the latter two provinces have established offices for supervising their former residents. Employment adjustment can be anticipated when the major flock of migrants arrive after the Lantern Festival. Professor Gui Shixun of the Population Research Institute of East China Normal University and advisor to the State Family Planning Commission recommends that development strategies incorporate planning for imbalances between local population and migrant urban workers. In some areas, women represent the bulk of migrants, while in other areas men do. Cultural development should be stressed, with investments also improved in telecommunications, traffic and transportation, education, and hygiene. Professor Jiang Zhixue recommends shifting from labor-intensive enterprises to technology-intensive enterprises and a better trained work force. Other schemes, such as the purchase by migrants of residence cards in Xiamen, would entitle migrants to the same rights and obligations as

  11. Risk factors for malformations and impact on reproductive performance and mortality rates of Schmallenberg virus in sheep flocks in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttikholt, Saskia; Veldhuis, Anouk; van den Brom, René; Moll, Lammert; Lievaart-Peterson, Karianne; Peperkamp, Klaas; van Schaik, Gerdien; Vellema, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In Northwestern Europe, an epizootic outbreak of congenital malformations in newborn lambs due to infection with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) started at the end of 2011. The objectives of this study were to describe clinical symptoms of SBV infection, the effect of infection on mortality rates, and reproductive performance in sheep, as well as to identify and quantify flock level risk factors for SBV infections resulting in malformations in newborn lambs. A case-control study design was used, with 93 case flocks that had notified malformed lambs and 84 control flocks with no such lambs. Overall animal seroprevalence in case flocks was estimated at 82.0% (95% CI: 74.3-87.8), and was not significantly different from the prevalence in control flocks being 76.4% (95% CI: 67.2-83.6). The percentages of stillborn lambs or lambs that died before weaning, repeat breeders, and lambs with abnormal suckling behaviour were significantly higher in case flocks compared to control flocks. However, effect of SBV infection on mortality rates and reproductive performance seemed to be limited. Multivariable analysis showed that sheep flocks with an early start of the mating season, i.e. before August 2011 (OR = 33.1; 95% CI: 10.0-109.8) and in August 2011 (OR = 8.2; 95% CI: 2.7-24.6) had increased odds of malformations in newborn lambs caused by SBV compared to sheep flocks with a start of the mating season in October 2011. Other flock-level risk factors for malformations in newborn lambs were purchase of silage (OR 5.0; 95% CI: 1.7-15.0) and flocks with one or more dogs (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.3-8.3). Delaying mating until October could be a potential preventive measure for naïve animals to reduce SBV induced losses. As duration of immunity after infection with SBV is expected to last for several years, future SBV induced congenital malformations are mainly expected in offspring of early mated seronegative animals.

  12. Risk factors for malformations and impact on reproductive performance and mortality rates of Schmallenberg virus in sheep flocks in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Luttikholt

    Full Text Available In Northwestern Europe, an epizootic outbreak of congenital malformations in newborn lambs due to infection with Schmallenberg virus (SBV started at the end of 2011. The objectives of this study were to describe clinical symptoms of SBV infection, the effect of infection on mortality rates, and reproductive performance in sheep, as well as to identify and quantify flock level risk factors for SBV infections resulting in malformations in newborn lambs. A case-control study design was used, with 93 case flocks that had notified malformed lambs and 84 control flocks with no such lambs. Overall animal seroprevalence in case flocks was estimated at 82.0% (95% CI: 74.3-87.8, and was not significantly different from the prevalence in control flocks being 76.4% (95% CI: 67.2-83.6. The percentages of stillborn lambs or lambs that died before weaning, repeat breeders, and lambs with abnormal suckling behaviour were significantly higher in case flocks compared to control flocks. However, effect of SBV infection on mortality rates and reproductive performance seemed to be limited. Multivariable analysis showed that sheep flocks with an early start of the mating season, i.e. before August 2011 (OR = 33.1; 95% CI: 10.0-109.8 and in August 2011 (OR = 8.2; 95% CI: 2.7-24.6 had increased odds of malformations in newborn lambs caused by SBV compared to sheep flocks with a start of the mating season in October 2011. Other flock-level risk factors for malformations in newborn lambs were purchase of silage (OR 5.0; 95% CI: 1.7-15.0 and flocks with one or more dogs (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.3-8.3. Delaying mating until October could be a potential preventive measure for naïve animals to reduce SBV induced losses. As duration of immunity after infection with SBV is expected to last for several years, future SBV induced congenital malformations are mainly expected in offspring of early mated seronegative animals.

  13. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, A M

    1981-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  14. Hierarchical group dynamics in pigeon flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Máté; Akos, Zsuzsa; Biro, Dora; Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-04-08

    Animals that travel together in groups display a variety of fascinating motion patterns thought to be the result of delicate local interactions among group members. Although the most informative way of investigating and interpreting collective movement phenomena would be afforded by the collection of high-resolution spatiotemporal data from moving individuals, such data are scarce and are virtually non-existent for long-distance group motion within a natural setting because of the associated technological difficulties. Here we present results of experiments in which track logs of homing pigeons flying in flocks of up to 10 individuals have been obtained by high-resolution lightweight GPS devices and analysed using a variety of correlation functions inspired by approaches common in statistical physics. We find a well-defined hierarchy among flock members from data concerning leading roles in pairwise interactions, defined on the basis of characteristic delay times between birds' directional choices. The average spatial position of a pigeon within the flock strongly correlates with its place in the hierarchy, and birds respond more quickly to conspecifics perceived primarily through the left eye-both results revealing differential roles for birds that assume different positions with respect to flock-mates. From an evolutionary perspective, our results suggest that hierarchical organization of group flight may be more efficient than an egalitarian one, at least for those flock sizes that permit regular pairwise interactions among group members, during which leader-follower relationships are consistently manifested.

  15. The influence of the season and market class of broiler chickens on breast meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M; Petracci, M; Sirri, F; Folegatti, E; Franchini, A; Meluzzi, A

    2007-05-01

    The influence of the season and market class of broiler chickens on breast meat quality traits was determined on a total of 18 flocks reared and processed under commercial conditions. According to the Italian poultry production system the following classes of birds were considered: light size (1.2 kg of carcass weight; n = 90) and medium size (1.8 kg of carcass weight; n = 90), represented by females slaughtered at 40 and 52 d old, respectively, whereas heavy size were 57-d-old male broilers (2.4 kg of carcass weight; n = 90). After slaughter, 15 carcasses per flock (n = 270) were randomly collected during winter (n = 135) and summer (n = 135) seasons and used at 24 h postmortem to determine breast (pectoralis major) meat color (lightness, redness, and yellowness), pH, drip and cook loss, as well as Allo-Kramer (AK) shear values. Furthermore, pectoralis minor muscles were used to determine lipid, protein, moisture, and ash content. Finally, because the flocks included white- and yellow-skinned broilers, the color of the carcass skin was measured to assess the relationship between skin and raw breast meat color. With regard to the season, breast meat from birds slaughtered during summer exhibited a paler and less red color, lower pH, higher drip and cook losses, lower AK-shear, and a higher content of moisture and a lower content of protein and ash. In respect to medium and heavy birds, light broilers produced breast meat with higher values of redness, lower pH and cook loss, higher AK-shear values, and a higher content of moisture and ash. Finally, a positive correlation (r = +0.92; P < or = 0.001) between skin and breast meat yellowness was found. These results indicate that during summer, broiler breast meat undergoes a depression of its functionality and quality. Moreover, the market class of birds also determined some differences in breast meat quality attributes.

  16. Farm-scale evaluation of ozonation for mitigating ammonia concentrations in broiler houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingjuan; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O; Small, John; Liu, Zifei; Sheldon, Brian W; Havenstein, Gerald B; Williams, C Mike

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of in-house ozonation within the public health standard limit (0.1 parts per million [ppm]) for mitigating ammonia (NH3) concentrations inside commercial broiler houses. The project was conducted in four identical tunnel-ventilated houses. Two houses served as treatment and the other two served as control units. The experiment was replicated in five consecutive flocks. Except for ozonation treatment, all other operational parameters including feed, broiler strain, age and number of broilers, and ventilation system were the same among four houses. NH3 and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the treatment and control houses were measured for a minimum of 48 hr/week throughout the five flocks of 8 or 9 weeks each. The gas measurements were conducted using portable multigas units (PMUs). House temperatures were recorded with data loggers in each flock. Comparison of temperatures and CO2 concentrations among houses indicated no significant differences in ventilation rates among treatment and control houses in any of the five flocks. As a result, comparisons of NH3 concentrations inside houses were used to evaluate the effectiveness of house ozonation for NH3 emission mitigation. Statistical test of mean NH3 concentrations for each flock separated by house indicated that the house-to-house variation was significantly smaller than the flock-to-flock variation. There was a substantial variation in NH3 concentrations across different flocks, but no house had consistently higher or lower mean NH3 concentrations than any other. Evaluations for differences in mean NH3 from week to week, between treatment groups, and differences in week-to-week variations between treatment groups suggested that ozone effect was not uniform for each week and the effect was not statistically significant for any week. Tests of overall ozone treatment effect and treatment-week interaction indicated there was no difference in mean NH3 between the control and

  17. A Quantitative Real-Time PCR Approach for Assessing Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Colonization in Broiler Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Katrin; Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is a major public health concern in developed countries, with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry recognized as the main source of human infection. Identification of Campylobacter-positive broiler herds before slaughter is essential for implementing measures to avoid carryover of pathogens via the slaughter process into the food chain. However, appropriate methods that have been validated for testing poultry flocks antemortem are lacking for Campylobacter. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) that allows simultaneous detection and quantification of C. jejuni and C. coli was adapted and optimized to be applied on boot socks. The adjusted qPCR serves as an easy, sensitive, and quantitative method for Campylobacter detection in poultry flocks antemortem by analysis of boot socks. An adequate correlation was found between qPCR and culture, as well as between boot socks and cecal samples, which are regarded as the "gold standard." Therefore, boot sock sampling followed by qPCR analysis provides a reliable and simple method for assessing Campylobacter load within a flock prior to slaughter. The approach allows categorization of broiler herds into negative, low, moderate, or high Campylobacter colonization. Based on the results of this new approach, risk assessment models, such as evaluating the possible effect of sorting flocks before slaughter, can be easily implemented. Similarly, targeted identification of highly colonized flocks for improvement of biosecurity measures at the farm level will become feasible, presenting an opportunity to increase food safety.

  18. Functional Diversification within a Predatory Species Flock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Edward D.; Duarte, Alejandro; Serra, Wilson S.; Loueiro, Marcelo; Gangloff, Michael M.; Siefferman, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Ecological speciation is well-known from adaptive radiations in cichlid fishes inhabiting lentic ecosystems throughout the African rift valley and Central America. Here, we investigate the ecological and morphological diversification of a recently discovered lotic predatory Neotropical cichlid species flock in subtropical South America. We document morphological and functional diversification using geometric morphometrics, stable C and N isotopes, stomach contents and character evolution. This species flock displays species-specific diets and skull and pharyngeal jaw morphology. Moreover, this lineage appears to have independently evolved away from piscivory multiple times and derived forms are highly specialized morphologically and functionally relative to ancestral states. Ecological speciation played a fundamental role in this radiation and our data reveal novel conditions of ecological speciation including a species flock that evolved: 1) in a piscivorous lineage, 2) under lotic conditions and 3) with pronounced morphological novelties, including hypertrophied lips that appear to have evolved rapidly. PMID:24278349

  19. Flocking and rendezvous in distributed robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    This brief describes the coordinated control of groups of robots using only sensory input – and no direct external commands. Furthermore, each robot employs the same local strategy, i.e., there are no leaders, and the text also deals with decentralized control, allowing for cases in which no single robot can sense all the others. One can get intuition for the problem from the natural world, for example, flocking birds. How do they achieve and maintain their flying formation? Recognizing their importance as the most basic coordination tasks for mobile robot networks, the brief details flocking and rendezvous. They are shown to be physical illustrations of emergent behaviors with global consensus arising from local interactions. The authors extend the consideration of these fundamental ideas to describe their operation in flying robots and prompt readers to pursue further research in the field.  Flocking and Rendezvous in Distributed Robotics will provide graduate students a firm grounding in the subject, w...

  20. Topological Sound and Flocking on Curved Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Shankar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Active systems on curved geometries are ubiquitous in the living world. In the presence of curvature, orientationally ordered polar flocks are forced to be inhomogeneous, often requiring the presence of topological defects even in the steady state because of the constraints imposed by the topology of the underlying surface. In the presence of spontaneous flow, the system additionally supports long-wavelength propagating sound modes that get gapped by the curvature of the underlying substrate. We analytically compute the steady-state profile of an active polar flock on a two-sphere and a catenoid, and show that curvature and active flow together result in symmetry-protected topological modes that get localized to special geodesics on the surface (the equator or the neck, respectively. These modes are the analogue of edge states in electronic quantum Hall systems and provide unidirectional channels for information transport in the flock, robust against disorder and backscattering.

  1. Clinical and morphological investigations on the incidence of forms of rickets and their association with other pathological states in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinev, I

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of investigations was to determine, by means of pathomorphological methods, the incidence of different rickets forms and their role for the occurrence of other illnesses in broiler chickens in Bulgaria. Clinical, blood biochemical, gross anatomy and histological investigations were carried out in broiler chickens with signs of rickets. The studies were performed in 12 broiler flocks in 4 farms located in different regions of the country. Based on macro- and microscopic lesions, alterations specific for hypocalcaemic rickets were observed in two farms, whereas signs of hypophosphataemic rickets - in the other two. The rickets diagnosis was confirmed by analysis of blood serum calcium, magnesium and inorganic phosphate concentrations. At the age of 30-35 days, various pathological states were observed in the same farms. The presented results suggested that existing problems in studied flocks were associated with an earlier occurrence of rickets.

  2. Space needs of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Koene, P.

    2011-01-01

    There is continuing debate about the space needs and requirements of broiler chickens, The aims of this study were to measure the amount of floor area a six-week-old broiler occupies for different behaviours and to use the obtained results in two models to estimate the number of birds that can be

  3. Impulsive Flocking of Dynamical Multiagent Systems with External Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flocking motion of multiagent systems is influenced by various external disturbances in complex environment. By applying disturbance observer, flocking of multiagent systems with exogenous disturbances is studied. Based on the robust features of impulsive control, a distributed impulsive control protocol is presented with disturbance observer, and flocking motion of multiagent systems is analyzed. Moreover, a sufficient condition is obtained to ensure the flocking motion of multiagent systems following a leader. Finally, simulation results show the validity of the theoretical conclusion.

  4. Risk Priority Number: A Measuring Instrument for Hygienic Management on Broiler Farms, Reflecting Their Campylobacter Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pless

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hygiene management is essential for rearing Campylobacter free broiler flocks. In this study, several hygiene factors (e.g., thinning, water supply, stable cloths, stable condition, stable environment, etc. are categorized and aggregated in a developed risk priority number (RPN. This number is measuring the quality of hygiene management of a broiler farm with one single value (range: 801–4005 points, the higher the RPN, the better is the hygiene status. The distribution of the values is left skewed and none of the 53 examined Austrian broiler farms reached the maximum. Cecal samples (n = 610 from broilers at the point of slaughter determined the Campylobacter status of the farms. Farms with a high RPN consistently produced more Campylobacter free batches than farms with a low RPN. Ranking of the broiler farms based on their RPN was significantly correlated with their microbiological results for Campylobacter detection (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.646. The risk priority number is an easy tool for the assessment and measurement of the hygiene management system at a broiler farm. Besides the educational benefits of the RPN, benchmarking against the mean value or the maximum is possible.

  5. SURVEY ON CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. PREVALENCE IN BROILER CHICKENS SLAUGHTERED IN EMILIA-ROMAGNA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tamba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne infections in many countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases of human campylobacteriosis. An European baseline study (Dec. 516/07/UE was carried out in the year 2008 with the aim of determining the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and the contamination level on the broiler carcasses. One hundred broiler flocks were sampled in 4 poultry slaughterhouses in Emilia Romagna and 52% (IC 95%: 41,8%-62,1% were positive for Campylobacter jejuni/coli. The prevalence of thermophylic Campylobacter on carcasses was 26,0% (IC 95%: 17,7%- 35,7% and it was correlated to finding of these bacteria in the broilers’ gut (O.R.: 3,8; I.C. 95%: 1,4-9,9.

  6. Seroprevalence of avian influenza (H9N2) in broiler chickens in Northwest of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Ghaniei; Manoochehr Allymehr; Ali Moradschendi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate seroprevalence of avian invluenza (H9N2) subtybe in broiler chickens in Northwest of Iran. Materials:A total of 310 blood samples were collected from 25 broiler flocks in slaughterhouses of West Azarbayjan, Iran. Serum samples were subjected to haemagglutination inhibition test. Results:The test showed 40.6%of positive serums. Mean antibody titer of avian influenza virus differed between geographical locations in this survey. Conclusions:High prevalence of avian influenza virus antibodies in serum of birds emphasize that avian influenza has an important role in respiratory complexes in broiler chickens in this region, and probably throughout Iran. Biosecurity measures, monitoring and surveillance programs, and to some degree vaccination are effective tools to prevent introduction of H9N2 infection and its economic losses.

  7. Cryptosporidiosis in broiler chickens in Zhejiang Province, China: molecular characterization of oocysts detected in fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lengmei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is one of the most important parasites in poultry, and this pathogen can infect more than 30 avian species. The present study investigated the infection rate of Cryptosporidium among broiler chicken flocks. A total of 385 fecal samples from broiler chickens in 7 regions of Zhejiang Province collected from November 2010 to January 2012 were examined by microscopy. Thirty-eight (10% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium infection, and 3 genotypes (Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and avian genotype II were identified by PCR and sequencing. A phylogenetic tree of the isolates was analyzed. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is widespread in poultry in Zhejiang Province, and is a potential threat to public health as well as the economy. This is the first report about the infection rate and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in broiler chickens in Zhejiang.

  8. Genetic diversity of Gallibacterium anatis isolates from different chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, A.M.; Torpdahl, Mia; Christensen, H.

    2003-01-01

    of chickens from an organic, egg-producing flock and a layer parent flock. A subset of strains was also characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and biotyping. The organic flock isolates were characterized by more than 94% genetic similarity, indicating that only a single clone was apparent...

  9. 78 FR 25943 - Changes to Scrapie Flock Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Changes to Scrapie Flock Certification Program AGENCY: Animal... giving notice of changes to the Scrapie Flock Certification Program (SFCP), a voluntary program for sheep and goat flock owners who wish to reduce and/or eliminate the risk of introducing classical...

  10. Some causes of the variable shape of flocks of birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte K Hemelrijk

    Full Text Available Flocks of birds are highly variable in shape in all contexts (while travelling, avoiding predation, wheeling above the roost. Particularly amazing in this respect are the aerial displays of huge flocks of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris above the sleeping site at dawn. The causes of this variability are hardly known, however. Here we hypothesise that variability of shape increases when there are larger local differences in movement behaviour in the flock. We investigate this hypothesis with the help of a model of the self-organisation of travelling groups, called StarDisplay, since such a model has also increased our understanding of what causes the oblong shape of schools of fish. The flocking patterns in the model prove to resemble those of real birds, in particular of starlings and rock doves. As to shape, we measure the relative proportions of the flock in several ways, which either depend on the direction of movement or do not. We confirm that flock shape is usually more variable when local differences in movement in the flock are larger. This happens when a flock size is larger, b interacting partners are fewer, c the flock turnings are stronger, and d individuals roll into the turn. In contrast to our expectations, when variability of speed in the flock is higher, flock shape and the positions of members in the flock are more static. We explain this and indicate the adaptive value of low variability of speed and spatial restriction of interaction and develop testable hypotheses.

  11. How backyard poultry flocks influence the effort required to curtail avian influenza epidemics in commercial poultry flocks

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the evidence that the contribution of backyard poultry flocks to the on-going transmission dynamics of an avian influenza epidemic in commercial flocks is modest at best. Nevertheless, while disease control strategies need not involve the backyard flocks, an analysis of the contribution of each element of the next generation matrix to the basic reproduction number indicates that models which ignores the contribution of backyard flocks in estimating the effort required of...

  12. Efeitos das condições ambientais no período entre a postura e o armazenamento de ovos de matrizes pesadas sobre o rendimento de incubação Effect on time between oviposition and the beginning of cool storage on hatchability of broiler breeder eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Fiuza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito das condições ambientais no período entre a postura e o armazenamento de ovos sobre o rendimento de incubação de 2.742 ovos de matrizes pesadas da linhagem Ross com 31 semanas de idade. Os tratamentos foram definidos pelo período de permanência dos ovos sob temperatura ambiente do galpão antes do armazenamento. Para cada tratamento foram utilizados 860 ovos, distribuídos em 10 repetições de 86 ovos cada. No tratamento A, os ovos foram enviados para a sala fria imediatamente após a coleta; no B, foram enviados para a sala fria após cinco horas de permanência no galpão; e, no C, permaneceram no galpão por 10 horas, antes de serem enviados para a sala fria. As condições ambientais da sala fria foram: temperatura 18,2 a 21,0 ºC e umidade relativa do ar de 72,8 a 76,8%. O período de armazenamento dos ovos foi de quatro dias. A mortalidade embrionária no tratamento A foi maior que no tratamento B (PThe effect on hatchability of time post-oviposition until initiation of cool storage was examined using 2,742 eggs from 31-week-old Ross hens. Treatments were defined by the length of time that eggs remained at breeder house temperature, prior to cool storage. In treatments A, B and C, respectively, eggs were taken to the cooling room immediately after collection, after 5 hours in the aviary or after 10 hours in the aviary. From each treatment, 860 eggs were distributed into 10 replicates of 86 eggs each and stored for 4 days at 18.2 - 21.0ºC and 75% humidity. After cool storage, they were incubated. Embryo mortality in treatment A was higher than in B (P<0.05. The hatchability of eggs of treatment B was higher (P<0.05 than that of treatment A. Average chick weight at hatching was higher for treatment A than for treatment C (P<0.05. Eggs that were cooled beginning five hours after oviposition produced the highest incubation yield.

  13. Scale-free correlations in starling flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Cimarelli, Alessio; Giardina, Irene; Parisi, Giorgio; Santagati, Raffaele; Stefanini, Fabio; Viale, Massimiliano

    2010-06-29

    From bird flocks to fish schools, animal groups often seem to react to environmental perturbations as if of one mind. Most studies in collective animal behavior have aimed to understand how a globally ordered state may emerge from simple behavioral rules. Less effort has been devoted to understanding the origin of collective response, namely the way the group as a whole reacts to its environment. Yet, in the presence of strong predatory pressure on the group, collective response may yield a significant adaptive advantage. Here we suggest that collective response in animal groups may be achieved through scale-free behavioral correlations. By reconstructing the 3D position and velocity of individual birds in large flocks of starlings, we measured to what extent the velocity fluctuations of different birds are correlated to each other. We found that the range of such spatial correlation does not have a constant value, but it scales with the linear size of the flock. This result indicates that behavioral correlations are scale free: The change in the behavioral state of one animal affects and is affected by that of all other animals in the group, no matter how large the group is. Scale-free correlations provide each animal with an effective perception range much larger than the direct interindividual interaction range, thus enhancing global response to perturbations. Our results suggest that flocks behave as critical systems, poised to respond maximally to environmental perturbations.

  14. Kinematic analysis quantifies gait abnormalities associated with lameness in broiler chickens and identifies evolutionary gait differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplen, Gina; Hothersall, Becky; Murrell, Joanna C; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Colborne, G Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat) chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10) would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12) and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult). Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy) and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers) presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity) presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated with

  15. Kinematic analysis quantifies gait abnormalities associated with lameness in broiler chickens and identifies evolutionary gait differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Caplen

    Full Text Available This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10 would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12 and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult. Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated

  16. How backyard poultry flocks influence the effort required to curtail avian influenza epidemics in commercial poultry flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G; Dunipace, S

    2011-06-01

    This paper summarizes the evidence that the contribution of backyard poultry flocks to the on-going transmission dynamics of an avian influenza epidemic in commercial flocks is modest at best. Nevertheless, while disease control strategies need not involve the backyard flocks, an analysis of the contribution of each element of the next generation matrix to the basic reproduction number indicates that models which ignores the contribution of backyard flocks in estimating the effort required of strategies focused one host type (e.g. commercial flocks only) necessarily underestimate the level of effort to an extent that may matter to policy makers.

  17. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  18. Serologic reactions against Salmonella in samples from broiler parent stock with and without preceding colibacillosis: A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Feld, Niels Christian; Andersen, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    In the Danish Salmonella Control Program, eggs from broiler parent flocks are surveyed by serologic analysis every 4 wk for antibodies against Salmonella lipopolysaccharide O-antigens 1, 4, 5, 9, and 12 (Mix-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and 6 and 7 (Infantis-ELISA). The antibody....... and other Enterobacteriaceae, e.g., Escherichia coli, because a high specificity of a Salmonella antibody test is desirable. Moreover, false-positive Salmonella results have economic consequences and impede planning the production. A case-control study based on cases of clinical E. coli infections...... (colibacillosis) from two Danish hatcheries, supplying about 62% of the Danish broiler production, is described. In order to eliminate a possible bias from age and season, the controls were matched on age of the birds and on time of submitting the samples. This study shows that flocks with preceding...

  19. The economic impact of infection with Eimeria spp. in broiler farms from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Györke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A survey was conducted on chicken broiler farms from Romania in August-November 2010 to evaluate economic losses due to coccidiosis. Data were collected from six broiler farms of different capacity regarding chemoprophylaxis program, weight gain, feed conversion, and mortality, for two previous flocks in two houses of each farm, and finally we evaluated the economic losses. Also, faeces samples were collected and oocysts were classified according to their size, and virulence of each Eimeria spp. field isolate was determined by lesion scoring. Correlations between economic performance, oocysts category, and virulence of Eimeria were assessed by multiple linear regression. Total economic losses per 24 flocks of 18,000 chicks each were about €37,948.2, with an average of €3,162.4 per flock, and they were caused by mortality (34.8% and poor feed conversion (65.2%. Poor body weight gain was associated with AM oocyst category (presumptively E. acervulina and/or E. mitis, high lesion score in the duodenum, and coccidiostat used for chemoprophylaxis. Feed conversion ratio was linked to the same parameters as body weight gain, minus chemoprophylaxis programme, plus total lesion score. The percentage of mortality was influenced by the lesion score in the caecum and total lesion score. Statistical analysis showed that epidemiological survey of broiler flocks during the grower period can help the farmer to avoid important economic losses due to coccidiosis. As in other countries, the economic losses caused by coccidiosis in Romania are important, and a good prophylaxis programme can reduce the economic impact of coccidiosis.

  20. BREEDER: a microcomputer program for financial analysis of a large-scale prototype breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.

    1984-04-01

    This report describes a microcomputer-based, single-project financial analysis program: BREEDER. BREEDER is a user-friendly model designed to facilitate frequent and rapid analyses of the financial implications associated with alternative design and financing strategies for electric generating plants and large-scale prototype breeder (LSPB) reactors in particular. The model has proved to be a useful tool in establishing cost goals for LSPB reactors. The program is available on floppy disks for use on an IBM personal computer (or IBM look-a-like) running under PC-DOS or a Kaypro II transportable computer running under CP/M (and many other CP/M machines). The report documents version 1.5 of BREEDER and contains a user's guide. The report also includes a general overview of BREEDER, a summary of hardware requirements, a definition of all required program inputs, a description of all algorithms used in performing the construction-period and operation-period analyses, and a summary of all available reports. The appendixes contain a complete source-code listing, a cross-reference table, a sample interactive session, several sample runs, and additional documentation of the net-equity program option.

  1. Fermented liquid feed reduces susceptibility of broilers for Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heres, L; Engel, B; van Knapen, F; de Jong, M C M; Wagenaar, J A; Urlings, H A P

    2003-04-01

    The presence of Salmonella in chickens is a problem because poultry meat is recognized as a source of human salmonellosis. Fermented feed has characteristics like a high number of lactobacilli and high concentration of lactic acid, which could make chickens less susceptible for infection with Salmonella. Fermented feed might therefore prevent the colonization of chickens with Salmonella. Two studies were performed to quantify the effect of fermented liquid feed on the susceptibility of broilers for Salmonella. The fermented feed was prepared by fermenting a dry broiler feed supplemented with 1.4 parts of water. Lactobacillus plantarum was used for fermentation. The fermented liquid feed (FLF) contained 10(9) to 10(10) cfu lactobacilli per gram, and the pH was 4. Individually housed control chickens and FLF-fed chickens were inoculated with 10(2) to 10(7) cfu Salmonella enteritidis (SE). Colonization was estimated by cloacal swabs and quantitative caecal culture. The proportion of SE-shedding chickens was decreased in FLF-fed chickens. FLF-fed chickens required a longer time after inoculation or a higher inoculation dose to get the same proportion of infected chickens in comparison with dry feed-fed chickens. The level of cecal colonization with Salmonella in the ceca was not different at the end of the experimental period. The results indicate that FLF can hamper the introduction of Salmonella in broiler flocks because the chickens are less susceptible for infection. Fermented liquid feed might therefore be a new hurdle in the strategy to control Salmonella in chicken flocks.

  2. Quantifying risk factors of coccidiosis in broilers using on-farm data based on a veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graat, E A; van der Kooij, E; Frankena, K; Henken, A M; Smeets, J F; Hekerman, M T

    1998-01-01

    A study was done to find and quantify risk factors for coccidiosis. The study population consisted of 4774 broiler flocks kept on 177 farms. Flocks were considered a case when at least one bird in the flock showed microscopic presence of oocysts in intestinal scrapings in a grow-out cycle. Other flocks were defined as controls. This was done for three types of Eimeria: Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima. Logistic regression was used to assess variables that influence the occurrence of Eimeria species. There were 49 variables, based on animal, flock or farm level. There was an enhanced risk of coccidiosis due to environmental and management factors that increase the risk of introducing contamination or that are related to hygienic measures. These include lack of use of overalls by visitors, a farmyard which is difficult to clean, bad hygienic status, personnel who might also be working on other farms, presence of other animals on the farm, and feeding and drinking systems which are more difficult to clean. Also, the presence of other diseases on the farm and Eimeria species found in the previous flock increased the risk of coccidiosis.

  3. Transmission of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 within flocks during the 2004 epidemic in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiensin, Thanawat; Nielen, Mirjam; Vernooij, Hans; Songserm, Thaweesak; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Chotiprasatintara, Sirikan; Chaisingh, Arunee; Wongkasemjit, Surapong; Chanachai, Karoon; Thanapongtham, Weerapong; Srisuvan, Thinnarat; Stegeman, Arjan

    2007-12-01

    This present study is the first to quantify the transmission of avian influenza virus H5N1 within flocks during the 2004 epidemic in Thailand. It uses the flock-level mortality data to estimate the transmission-rate parameter ( beta ) and the basic reproduction number (R(0)). The point estimates of beta varied from 2.26/day (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01-2.55) for a 1-day infectious period to 0.66/day (95% CI, 0.50-0.87) for a 4-day infectious period, whereas the accompanying R(0) varied from 2.26 (95% CI, 2.01-2.55) to 2.64 (95% CI, 2.02-3.47). Although the point estimates of beta of backyard chickens and fighting cocks raised together were lower than those of laying hens and broiler chickens, this difference was not statistically significant. These results will enable us to assess the control measures in simulation studies. They also indicate that, for the elimination of the virus, a critical proportion of the susceptible poultry population in a flock (i.e., 80% of the population) needs to be vaccinated.

  4. The toxicological impacts of the Fusarium mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol, in poultry flocks with special reference to immunotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha; Ghareeb, Khaled; Böhm, Josef; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-04-29

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common Fusarium toxin in poultry feed. Chickens are more resistant to the adverse impacts of deoxynivalenol (DON) compared to other species. In general, the acute form of DON mycotoxicosis rarely occurs in poultry flocks under normal conditions. However, if diets contain low levels of DON (less than 5 mg DON/kg diet), lower productivity, impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infectious diseases can occur. The molecular mechanism of action of DON has not been completely understood. A significant influence of DON in chickens is the impairment of immunological functions. It was known that low doses of DON elevated the serum IgA levels and affected both cell-mediated and humoral immunity in animals. DON is shown to suppress the antibody response to infectious bronchitis vaccine (IBV) and to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in broilers (10 mg DON/kg feed) and laying hens (3.5 to 14 mg of DON/kg feed), respectively. Moreover, DON (10 mg DON/kg feed) decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the plasma of broilers. DON can severely affect the immune system and, due to its negative impact on performance and productivity, can eventually result in high economic losses to poultry producers. The present review highlights the impacts of DON intoxication on cell mediated immunity, humoral immunity, gut immunity, immune organs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in chickens.

  5. The Toxicological Impacts of the Fusarium Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol, in Poultry Flocks with Special Reference to Immunotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageha Awad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a common Fusarium toxin in poultry feed. Chickens are more resistant to the adverse impacts of deoxynivalenol (DON compared to other species. In general, the acute form of DON mycotoxicosis rarely occurs in poultry flocks under normal conditions. However, if diets contain low levels of DON (less than 5 mg DON/kg diet, lower productivity, impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infectious diseases can occur. The molecular mechanism of action of DON has not been completely understood. A significant influence of DON in chickens is the impairment of immunological functions. It was known that low doses of DON elevated the serum IgA levels and affected both cell-mediated and humoral immunity in animals. DON is shown to suppress the antibody response to infectious bronchitis vaccine (IBV and to Newcastle disease virus (NDV in broilers (10 mg DON/kg feed and laying hens (3.5 to 14 mg of DON/kg feed, respectively. Moreover, DON (10 mg DON/kg feed decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α in the plasma of broilers. DON can severely affect the immune system and, due to its negative impact on performance and productivity, can eventually result in high economic losses to poultry producers. The present review highlights the impacts of DON intoxication on cell mediated immunity, humoral immunity, gut immunity, immune organs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in chickens.

  6. Water cooled breeder program summary report (LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.

  7. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 2: Individual Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Peter J.; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Although the consumption of free-range chicken meat has increased, little is known about the ranging behaviour of meat chickens on commercial farms. Studies suggest range use is low and not all chickens access the range when given the opportunity. Whether ranging behaviour differs between individuals within a flock remains largely unknown and may have consequences for animal welfare and management. We monitored individual chicken ranging behaviour from four mixed sex flocks on a commercial farm across two seasons. Not all chickens accessed the range. We identified groups of chickens that differed in ranging behaviour (classified by frequency of range visits): chickens that accessed the range only once, low frequency ranging chickens and high frequency ranging chickens, the latter accounting for one-third to one half of all range visits. Sex was not predictive of whether a chicken would access the range or the number of range visits, but males spent more time on the range in winter. We found evidence that free-range chicken ranging varies between individuals within the same flock on a commercial farm. Whether such variation in ranging behaviour relates to variation in chicken welfare remains to be investigated. Abstract Little is known about broiler chicken ranging behaviour. Previous studies have monitored ranging behaviour at flock level but whether individual ranging behaviour varies within a flock is unknown. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 1200 individual ROSS 308 broiler chickens across four mixed sex flocks in two seasons on one commercial farm. Ranging behaviour was tracked from first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter flocks and 44 days of age in summer flocks. We identified groups of chickens that differed in frequency of range visits: chickens that never accessed the range (13 to 67% of tagged chickens), low ranging chickens (15 to 44% of tagged chickens) that accounted for <15

  8. Role of projection in the control of bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Daniel J G; Miller, Adam M; Rowlands, George; Turner, Matthew S

    2014-07-22

    Swarming is a conspicuous behavioral trait observed in bird flocks, fish shoals, insect swarms, and mammal herds. It is thought to improve collective awareness and offer protection from predators. Many current models involve the hypothesis that information coordinating motion is exchanged among neighbors. We argue that such local interactions alone are insufficient to explain the organization of large flocks of birds and that the mechanism for the exchange of long-range information necessary to control their density remains unknown. We show that large flocks self-organize to the maximum density at which a typical individual still can see out of the flock in many directions. Such flocks are marginally opaque--an external observer also still can see a substantial fraction of sky through the flock. Although this seems intuitive, we show it need not be the case; flocks might easily be highly diffuse or entirely opaque. The emergence of marginal opacity strongly constrains how individuals interact with one another within large swarms. It also provides a mechanism for global interactions: an individual can respond to the projection of the flock that it sees. This provides for faster information transfer and hence rapid flock dynamics, another advantage over local models. From a behavioral perspective, it optimizes the information available to each bird while maintaining the protection of a dense, coherent flock.

  9. Temporal and contextual consistency of leadership in homing pigeon flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos D Santos

    Full Text Available Organized flight of homing pigeons (Columba livia was previously shown to rely on simple leadership rules between flock mates, yet the stability of this social structuring over time and across different contexts remains unclear. We quantified the repeatability of leadership-based flock structures within a flight and across multiple flights conducted with the same animals. We compared two contexts of flock composition: flocks of birds of the same age and flight experience; and, flocks of birds of different ages and flight experience. All flocks displayed consistent leadership-based structures over time, showing that individuals have stable roles in the navigational decisions of the flock. However, flocks of balanced age and flight experience exhibited reduced leadership stability, indicating that these factors promote flock structuring. Our study empirically demonstrates that leadership and followership are consistent behaviours in homing pigeon flocks, but such consistency is affected by the heterogeneity of individual flight experiences and/or age. Similar evidence from other species suggests leadership as an important mechanism for coordinated motion in small groups of animals with strong social bonds.

  10. A Flocking Based algorithm for Document Clustering Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Gao, Jinzhu [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Social animals or insects in nature often exhibit a form of emergent collective behavior known as flocking. In this paper, we present a novel Flocking based approach for document clustering analysis. Our Flocking clustering algorithm uses stochastic and heuristic principles discovered from observing bird flocks or fish schools. Unlike other partition clustering algorithm such as K-means, the Flocking based algorithm does not require initial partitional seeds. The algorithm generates a clustering of a given set of data through the embedding of the high-dimensional data items on a two-dimensional grid for easy clustering result retrieval and visualization. Inspired by the self-organized behavior of bird flocks, we represent each document object with a flock boid. The simple local rules followed by each flock boid result in the entire document flock generating complex global behaviors, which eventually result in a clustering of the documents. We evaluate the efficiency of our algorithm with both a synthetic dataset and a real document collection that includes 100 news articles collected from the Internet. Our results show that the Flocking clustering algorithm achieves better performance compared to the K- means and the Ant clustering algorithm for real document clustering.

  11. Hierarchical group dynamics in pigeon flocks

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Mate; Biro, Dora; Vicsek, Tamas; 10.1038/nature08891

    2010-01-01

    Animals that travel together in groups display a variety of fascinating motion patterns thought to be the result of delicate local interactions among group members. Although the most informative way of investigating and interpreting collective movement phenomena would be afforded by the collection of high-resolution spatiotemporal data from moving individuals, such data are scarce and are virtually non-existent for long-distance group motion within a natural setting because of the associated technological difficulties. Here we present results of experiments in which track logs of homing pigeons flying in flocks of up to 10 individuals have been obtained by high-resolution lightweight GPS devices and analyzed using a variety of correlation functions inspired by approaches common in statistical physics. We find a well-defined hierarchy among flock members from data concerning leading roles in pairwise interactions, defined on the basis of characteristic delay times between birds' directional choices. The averag...

  12. Misinformed leaders lose influence over pigeon flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Isobel; Nagy, Máté; Burt de Perera, Theresa; Biro, Dora

    2016-09-01

    In animal groups where certain individuals have disproportionate influence over collective decisions, the whole group's performance may suffer if these individuals possess inaccurate information. Whether in such situations leaders can be replaced in their roles by better-informed group mates represents an important question in understanding the adaptive consequences of collective decision-making. Here, we use a clock-shifting procedure to predictably manipulate the directional error in navigational information possessed by established leaders within hierarchically structured flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia). We demonstrate that in the majority of cases when leaders hold inaccurate information they lose their influence over the flock. In these cases, inaccurate information is filtered out through the rearrangement of hierarchical positions, preventing errors by former leaders from propagating down the hierarchy. Our study demonstrates that flexible decision-making structures can be valuable in situations where 'bad' information is introduced by otherwise influential individuals.

  13. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks.

  14. Involvement of Mycoplasma synoviae in Respiratory Distress Cases of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ehtisham-ul-Haque*, S. U. Rahman, M. Siddique and A. S. Qureshi1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma synoviae (MS is an important pathogen of poultry worldwide, causing respiratory tract infection and infectious synovitis in chickens and turkeys. The study was designed to detect M. synoviae through serology, culture isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay to document the involvement of MS infection in respiratory distress cases of broiler birds. The validated PCR assay amplifying the conserved gene region of 16SrRNA gene was applied for the detection of M. synoviae from culture as well as in clinical samples. The results indicated that 04 out of total 17 commercial broiler flocks showing respiratory distress signs were found positive with M. synoviae infection indicating 76.57% sero-positivity as, determined with rapid serum agglutination (RSA test. Out of 85 clinical specimens (collected from sero-positive birds; M. synoviae culture isolation was successfully attained in 36 (42.35% samples. Whereas, PCR test has detected 84 (98.82% positive cases. The prevalence of MS in broiler birds was observed maximum as measured through PCR. It is suggested that the true prevalence of MS may best be reflected by combining RSA and PCR test findings.

  15. A Monocular Vision Based Approach to Flocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The bird represented with the green triangle desires to move away from its neighbors to avoid overcrowding . The bird reacts the most strongly to the... brightness gradients [35], neural networks [18, 19], and other vision-based methods [6, 26, 33]. For the purposes of this thesis effort, it is assumed that...Once started, however, maneuver waves spread through the flock at a mean speed of less than 15 milliseconds [43]. 2.5.3 Too Perfect. In nature, a bird

  16. Flocking in Distributed Control and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control . In this paper, In this paper we develop a mathematical model for analyzing the benefits...Z. Lin “Noise Reduction by Swarming in Social Foraging” under review at IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control . 10. P. Shi and A. Garcia “Flocking...P. Shi, A. Garcia and Z. Lin ``Noise Reduction by Swarming in Social Foraging" under review at IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control . 10. P.

  17. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dienst, W. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Material- und Festkoerperforschung; Flament, T. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Commissariat A L`Energie Atomique; Lorenzetto, P. [NET Team, Garching (Germany); Noda, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takai, Ibaraki, (Japan); Roux, N. [CEA Centre d`Etudes et de Recherches Les Materiaux (France). Commissariat a L`Energie Atomique

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li{sub 2},O, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2}) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized.

  18. Nylon flocked swab severely reduces Hexagon Obti sensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frippiat, Christophe; De Roy, Gilbert; Fontaine, Louis-Marie; Dognaux, Sophie; Noel, Fabrice; Heudt, Laeticia; Lepot, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    Hexagon Obti immunological blood test and flocked swab are widely used in forensic laboratories. Nevertheless, up to now, no compatibility tests have been published between sampling with the ethylene oxide treated flocked swab and the Hexagon Obti blood detection strip. In this study, we investigated this compatibility. Our work shows that sampling with ethylene oxide treated flocked swab reduces by a factor of at least 100 the detection threshold of blood using the Hexagon Obti immunological test.

  19. Some Causes of the Variable Shape of Flocks of Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Hanno Hildenbrandt

    2011-01-01

    Flocks of birds are highly variable in shape in all contexts (while travelling, avoiding predation, wheeling above the roost). Particularly amazing in this respect are the aerial displays of huge flocks of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) above the sleeping site at dawn. The causes of this variability are hardly known, however. Here we hypothesise that variability of shape increases when there are larger local differences in movement behaviour in the flock. We investigate this hypothesis with the...

  20. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Penned Broiler and Scavenging Local Chickens in Arusha, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugumisa, Bernadether T; Call, Douglas R; Mwanyika, Gaspary O; Mrutu, Rehema I; Luanda, Catherine M; Lyimo, Beatus M; Subbiah, Murugan; Buza, Joram J

    2016-08-01

    We compared the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from household-level producers of broiler (commercial source breeds) and local chickens in the Arusha District of Tanzania. Households were composed of a single dwelling or residence with independent, penned broiler flocks. Free-range, scavenging chickens were mixed breed and loosely associated with individual households. A total of 1,800 E. coli isolates (1,200 from broiler and 600 from scavenging local chickens) from 75 chickens were tested for their susceptibility against 11 antibiotics by using breakpoint assays. Isolates from broiler chickens harbored a higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli relative to scavenging local chickens, including sulfamethoxazole (80.3 versus 34%), followed by trimethoprim (69.3 versus 27.7%), tetracycline (56.8 versus 20%), streptomycin (52.7 versus 24.7%), amoxicillin (49.6 versus 17%), ampicillin (49.1 versus 16.8%), ciprofloxacin (21.9 versus 1.7%), and chloramphenicol (1.5 versus 1.2%). Except for resistance to chloramphenicol, scavenging local chickens harbored fewer resistant E. coli isolates (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens harbored more isolates that were resistant to ≥7 antibiotics (P < 0.05). The higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from broiler chickens correlated with the reported therapeutic and prophylactic use of antibiotics in this poultry population. We suggest that improved biosecurity measures and increased vaccination efforts would reduce reliance on antibiotics by these households.

  1. Self-Organized Fission Control for Flocking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the self-organized fission control problem for flocking system. Motivated by the fission behavior of biological flocks, information coupling degree (ICD is firstly designed to represent the interaction intensity between individuals. Then, from the information transfer perspective, a “maximum-ICD” based pairwise interaction rule is proposed to realize the directional information propagation within the flock. Together with the “separation/alignment/cohesion” rules, a self-organized fission control algorithm is established that achieves the spontaneous splitting of flocking system under conflict external stimuli. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Research on an Infectious Disease Transmission by Flocking Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation. However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1 only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2 the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human.

  3. Pathological and microbiological investigations into cases of bacterial chondronecrosis and osteomyelitis in broiler poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesurendra, Dinidu S; Chamings, Anthony Neal; Bushell, Rhys Nathan; Rourke, Denise O'; Stevenson, Mark; Marenda, Marc Serge; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Stent, Andrew

    2017-08-16

    Bacterial chondronecrosis and osteomyelitis (BCO) is increasingly recognized as a major cause of lameness in commercial broilers chickens worldwide, but the pathogenesis of the condition is incompletely understood. This was a longitudinal study of 20 commercial broiler farms in Victoria, Australia, to investigate the aetiology and pathology of BCO. Thorough postmortem examination was performed on culled and dead birds (n = 325) from 20 different flocks at either 1 week, 4 weeks or 5 weeks of age and samples were analysed by conventional bacteriology, molecular identification of infectious organisms detected, serology and histopathology. BCO occurs throughout the life of broiler flocks at a very high rate, with lesions detected in 28% (95% CI 23-34%) of the mortalities and culls. The condition occurs with similar prevalence in both the femur and tibiotarsus. BCO is an infectious process that appears to result from bacteraemia and haematological spread of bacterial pathogens, especially Escherichia coli, to the bones, with 65.3% bacterial isolates from histologically confirmed BCO identified as E. coli, 11.5% as Staphylococcus and the remainder composed of mixed infections or a range of other minor isolates. We observed that almost all E. coli isolated from cases of BCO are avian pathogenic E. coli, suggesting that preventative measures should be directed at this organism.

  4. Industrial solar breeder project using concentrator photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, R; Wohlgemuth, J; Burkholder, J; Levine, A; Storti, G; Wrigley, C; McKegg, A

    1979-08-01

    The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the use of a concentrating photovoltaic system to provide the energy for operating a silicon solar cell production facility, i.e., to demonstrate a solar breeder. Solarex has proposed to conduct the first real test of the solar breeder concept by building and operating a 200 kW(e) (peak) concentrating photovoltaic system based on the prototype and system design developed during Phase I. This system will provide all of the electrical and thermal energy required to operate a solar cell production line. This demonstration would be conducted at the Solarex Rockville facility, with the photovoltaic array located over the company parking lot and on an otherwise unusable flood plain. Phase I of this program included a comprehensive analysis of the application, prototype fabrication and evaluation, system design and specification, and a detailed plan for Phases II and III. A number of prototype tracking concentrator solar collectors were constructed and operated. Extensive system analysis was performed to design the Phase II system as a stand-alone power supply for a solar cell production line. Finally, a detailed system fabrication proposal for Phase II and an operation and evaluation plan for Phase III were completed. These proposals included technical, management, and cost plans for the fabrication and exercise of the proposed system.

  5. Field evaluation of broiler gait score using different sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFS Cordeiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is today the world's largest broiler meat exporter; however, in order to keep this position, it must comply with welfare regulations while maintaining low production costs. Locomotion problems restrain bird movements, limiting their access to drinking and feeding equipment, and therefore their survival and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate locomotion deficiency in broiler chickens reared under stressful temperature conditions using three different sampling methods of birds from three different ages. The experiment consisted in determining the gait score of 28, 35, 42 and 49-day-old broilers using three different known gait scoring methods: M1, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then stimulated to walk out of the circle; M2, ten birds were randomly selected and gait scored; and M3, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then observed while walking away from the circle without stimulus to walking. Environmental temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity inside the poultry houses were recorded. No evidence of interaction between scoring method and age was found however, both method and age influenced gait score. Gait score was found to be lower at 28 days of age. The evaluation using the ten randomly selected birds within the house was the method that presented the less reliable results. Gait score results when birds were stimulated to walk were lower than when they were not simulated, independently of age. The gait scores obtained with the three tested methods and ages were higher than those considered acceptable. The highest frequency of normal gait score (0 represented 50% of the flock. These results may be related to heat stress during rearing. Average gait score incresead with average ambient temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity. The evaluation of gait score to detect locomotion problems of broilers under rearing conditions seems subjective and

  6. CONTRACT BROILER FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract farming looks quite attractive for farmers as well as for private companies but most of the farmers complained about long waiting until the delivery of the next cycle of chicks have started.

  7. The role of vaccines and biosecurity in control of H3N2 swine influenza infection in turkey breeder flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type A influenza virus infection in turkeys results in clinical signs ranging from asymptomatic to severe. Symptoms may include respiratory disease, drop in egg production, reduced hatchability, eggshell abnormalities, decreased feed efficiency, and increased mortality. In 2003, an H3N2 subtype of...

  8. In ovo supplementation of 25(OHD3 to broiler embryos

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    E Gonzales

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A dose of 0.3 mL of water solution containing 0.00 (control, 0.625, 1.250 or 1.875 µg of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25(OHD3 was administered to 312 fertile eggs derived from 49-w-old Cobb 500 broiler breeders on the 17th day of incubation (DE17 via allantoic cavity. After treatment, eggs were distributed and maintained until hatching in four incubators set at 37.8 ºC and 55% RH. Each incubator received eggs from all treatments, according to a block design with four treatments of 77-79 replicates each. Hatching was checked every two hours from 484h to 512h of incubation to evaluate productivity and chick qualities. Chicks were housed until 10 days of age in heated battery cages according to a block design with four treatments of 10 replicates of six chicks each for performance and mortality evaluation. Mean hatching time of the chicks treated with 25(OHD3 during the embryonic phase occurred 4 to 5 h earlier than control group (502:31h, with no effects on hatching or neonate qualities. An inverse linear effect of 25(OHD3 dose on chick body weight at hatching was observed, but 10-d-old broiler performance and mortality were not affected. The fast body weight recovery of the broilers obtained from the embryos supplemented with the highest 25(OHD3 level was recorded until 10 days of rearing, equaling final mean body weights (p>0.05 among experimental groups. The results of this study indicate the potential use of 25(OHD3 as exogenous vitamin supplementation to embryos a few days before hatching without affecting neonate qualities and 10-d-old broiler chicken performance.

  9. Co-infection of Avian Leukosis Virus and Salmonella pullorum with the Preliminary Eradication in Breeders of Chinese Local “ShouGuang” Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Qiang Huang, Jing Kai Xin, Cui Mao, Feng Zhong and Jia Qian Chai*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the infection status and to finish the preliminary eradication of avian leukosis virus (ALV and Salmonella pullorum (SP in breeders of Chinese local “ShouGuang” chickens. ALV antigen and antibody was tested via ELISA, and SP antibody was detected by serum plate agglutination test (SPAT. The etiology and pathology was also studied. The ALV-P27 antigen, ALV-A/B and SP antibody positive chickens were eliminated in turn, and then the negative were retained as the breeder flocks. The results showed that the positive rate of antigen to ALV-P27, antibody to ALV-A/B, ALV-J and SP was 57.8, 6.7, 0 and 17.8% in this breeder farm, respectively. The co-infection of ALV and SP was confirmed and the positive rate of both SP and ALV-P27 or ALV-A/B was 10 and 1%, respectively. There were obvious tumor nodules and lymphoid tumor cells in the comb, liver and spleen of the co-infected chickens. The degenerative and atrophic ovarian follicles, inflammatory cell infiltration in muscle biopsies were also found. The elimination rate of ALV-p27, ALV-A/B and SP positive chickens was 55.4, 13 and 6.1%, respectively. The final amount of the breeder conservation was 309 chickens. In conclusion, the co-infection of ALV-B and SP was found and more emphasis should be given on its prevention; the preliminary eradication of “ShouGuang” breeder chickens was finished.

  10. Starling flock networks manage uncertainty in consensus at low cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F Young

    Full Text Available Flocks of starlings exhibit a remarkable ability to maintain cohesion as a group in highly uncertain environments and with limited, noisy information. Recent work demonstrated that individual starlings within large flocks respond to a fixed number of nearest neighbors, but until now it was not understood why this number is seven. We analyze robustness to uncertainty of consensus in empirical data from multiple starling flocks and show that the flock interaction networks with six or seven neighbors optimize the trade-off between group cohesion and individual effort. We can distinguish these numbers of neighbors from fewer or greater numbers using our systems-theoretic approach to measuring robustness of interaction networks as a function of the network structure, i.e., who is sensing whom. The metric quantifies the disagreement within the network due to disturbances and noise during consensus behavior and can be evaluated over a parameterized family of hypothesized sensing strategies (here the parameter is number of neighbors. We use this approach to further show that for the range of flocks studied the optimal number of neighbors does not depend on the number of birds within a flock; rather, it depends on the shape, notably the thickness, of the flock. The results suggest that robustness to uncertainty may have been a factor in the evolution of flocking for starlings. More generally, our results elucidate the role of the interaction network on uncertainty management in collective behavior, and motivate the application of our approach to other biological networks.

  11. Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH outbreak associated with fowl adenovirus type 8b in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadravec M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The causative agent of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH was identified as fowl adenovirus (FAdV type 8b, a member of the Fowl adenovirus E species, based on PCR results of adenoviral polymerase and the hexon gene in an outbreak of acute mortality that affected a broiler flock of 12,000 animals. In two waves of elevated mortality rate, a total of 264 chickens were found dead. Affected birds showed ruffled feathers, depression, watery droppings and limping. The most common pathological lesions seen on necropsy were pale, swollen and friable livers. On histological examination, acute hepatitis characterized by necrosis of hepatocytes, with large basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, were observed. In addition, infectious bursal disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus were detected in the same flock.

  12. Dynamic model of Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyanathan, G., E-mail: vaidya@igcar.gov.i [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Kasinathan, N.; Velusamy, K. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2010-04-15

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 M Wt/13.2 MWe sodium cooled reactor operating since 1985. It is a loop type reactor. As part of the safety analysis the response of the plant to various transients is needed. In this connection a computer code named DYNAM was developed to model the reactor core, the intermediate heat exchanger, steam generator, piping, etc. This paper deals with the mathematical model of the various components of FBTR, the numerical techniques to solve the model, and comparison of the predictions of the code with plant measurements. Also presented is the benign response of the plant to a station blackout condition, which brings out the role of the various reactivity feedback mechanisms combined with a gradual coast down of reactor sodium flow.

  13. Age is not a determinant factor in susceptibility of broilers to H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Lee, Dong-Hun; Balzli, Charles; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E

    2016-11-21

    In 2014-2015, the US experienced an unprecedented outbreak of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. The H5N2 HPAI virus outbreak in the Midwest in 2015 affected commercial turkey and layer farms, but not broiler farms. To assess any potential genetic resistance of broilers and/or age-related effects, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of A/turkey/Minnesota/12582/2015 (H5N2) (Tk/MN/15) virus in commercial 5-week-old broilers, 8-week-old broilers, and >30-week-old broiler breeders. The mean bird lethal dose (BLD50) was 5.0 log10 mean egg infectious dose (EID50) for all age groups. The mean death time (MDT) was statistically not different among the three age groups, ranging between 3.2 and 4.8 days. All broilers that became infected shed high levels of virus with transmission to contacts and demonstrated severe pathology. Mortality and virus shedding results indicated that age is not a determinant factor in susceptibility of broilers to H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI virus. Previously, the Tk/MN/15 virus had a BLD50 of 3.6 log10 EID50 and MDT of 2 days in White Leghorn chickens and a BLD50 of 5.0 log10 EID50 and MDT of 5.9 days in turkeys, suggesting that the broiler breed is less susceptible to Midwestern H5N2 virus than the layer breed but similarly susceptible to turkeys. Therefore, genetic resistance of broilers to infection may have accounted only partially for the lack of affected broiler farms in the Midwestern outbreaks, with other contributing factors such as fewer outside to on farm exposure to contacts, type of production management system or enhanced biosecurity.

  14. Stability of model flocks in a vortical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, A. W.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the stability of self-propelled particle flocks in the Taylor-Green vortex, a steady vortical flow. We consider a model in which particles align themselves to a combination of the orientation and the acceleration of particles within a critical radius. We identify two distinct regimes: If alignment with orientation is dominant, the particles tend to be expelled from regions of high vorticity. In contrast, if anticipation is dominant, the particles accumulate in areas of large vorticity. In both regimes, the relative order of the flock is reduced. However, we show that there can be a critical balance of the two effects that stabilizes the flock in the presence of external fluid forcing. This strategy could provide a mechanism for animal flocks to remain globally ordered in the presence of fluid forcing, and it may also have applications in the design of flocking autonomous drones and artificial microswimmers.

  15. Malabsorption syndrome in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebel, J.M.J.; Balk, F.R.M.; Post, J.; Hemert, van S.; Zekarias, B.; Stockhofe, N.

    2006-01-01

    Malabsorption syndrome (MAS) is a multifactorial disease that causes intestinal disorders in broilers due to infection of the gastrointestinal tract with different infectious agents. The exact aetiology is unknown, although several viruses are isolated from MAS affected chickens. None of these

  16. Effect of Feed Additives on Productivity and Campylobacter spp. Loads in Broilers Reared under Free Range Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Guyard-Nicodème

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The poultry reservoir, especially broiler meat, is generally recognized as one of the most-important sources for human Campylobacteriosis. The measures to control Campylobacter targeted essentially the primary production level. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments against natural Campylobacter colonization in a French experimental farm of free-range broilers during the whole rearing period. Five commercial products and a combination of two of them were tested and all the products were added to feed or to water at the dose recommended by the suppliers. Campylobacter loads in caeca and on carcasses of broilers at the slaughter were determined by culture methods. Natural contamination of the flock occurred at the end of the indoor rearing period between day 35 and day 42. At day 42, the multispecies probiotic added to the feed reduced the contamination of 0.55 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.02 but was not significant (p > 0.05 at the end of rearing at day 78. However, another treatment, a combination of a cation exchange clay-based product in feed and an organic acid mixture (formic acid, sodium formate, lactic acid, propionic acid in water, led to a slight but significant reduction of 0.82 ± 0.25 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.02 compared to the control group at day 78. Testing this combination in field conditions in several flocks is needed to determine if it is biologically relevant and if it could be a valuable measure to reduce Campylobacter in broiler flocks.

  17. An epidemiological study of Salmonella enterica serovar 4, 12 : b :- in broiler chickens in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadfield, M.; Skov, Marianne; Christensen, J.;

    2001-01-01

    -free. The remaining isolates exhibited a common trend in plasmid content of 105 and 2 kb. Although no specific correlation to any particular source within the poultry industry was discernible using plasmid analysis, there were indications of clonality with local divergence. Ribotyping with EcoRI demonstrated limited...... profiles were also apparent. Eighteen variables were selected for multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to identify risk areas associated with broiler flocks within the industry. An increased risk for S. 4. 12:b:-infection was only associated with the feedmills used. Random effects...

  18. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Danish broilers at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Wedderkopp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Aims : To investigate the prevalence of quinolone resistance among Campylobacter jejuni and Camp. coli isolates from Danish poultry at the farm level, as well as for the whole country. Methods and Results : Data and isolates were collected from a national surveillance of Campylobacter in poultry......-resistant variant. Conclusions : Overall, quinolone resistance among Campylobacter isolates from Danish broilers was 7.5% in 1998 and 1999; it was higher among Camp. coli than Camp. jejuni . Genetic diversity among resistant isolates was lower than among susceptible isolates, and certain clones existed in both...... a resistant and a susceptible variant. Some resistant clones appeared to persist on the farms and were repeatedly isolated from poultry flocks. Significance and Impact of the Study : The study is important for the understanding of persistence and dynamics of Campylobacter in broiler houses. It also highlights...

  19. Survey of Salmonella serovars in broilers and laying breeding reproducers in East of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Ayachi; Alloui, Nadir; Bennoune, Omar; Kassah-Laouar, Ahmed

    2010-03-08

    Avian salmonellosis affects the poultry industry in underdeveloped and in developed countries. The aim of this study was to identify the most common Salmonella serovars in broilers and laying breeding reproducers in Eastern Algeria according to the ISO 6579 method. A total of 294 samples were obtained from two flocks of 10,000 broilers and laying breeding reproducers. Samples included livers and spleens, drag swabs of bottom boxes of young chickens, cloacal swabs, and faecal samples of chickens. Additional samples were also taken from water, feed and dusty surfaces. Only the cloacal swabs, poultry faeces and samples from dusty surfaces were positive for Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Livingstone with a detection rate of 12% and 1.6% respectively. The results showed evidence of legislative failure regarding biosafety within the poultry industry in the area of Batna, Eastern Algeria.

  20. Ceruminous otitis in native chicken breeders belonging to Robusta Lionata breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Schiavon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of 2005, an outbreak of ceruminous otitis has been observed in a breeders flock belonging to the Robusta Lionata breed, a native chicken breed reared in a Centre for the valorisation and conservation of native poultry breeds. The disease caused a high morbidity rate (90% of birds, whereas the mortality affected only 10% of the birds. The death of the birds was preceded by clinical signs, such as worsening of the ceruminous otitis with abundant secretion of bad-smelling cerumen, lack of appetite and depression. The otitis externa, mainly bilateral, was the only evident finding at necropsy. Laboratory examinations showed only the presence of Mycoplasma synoviae, either by isolation on culture media or by PCR, on ear and choana samples. Aspergillus fumigatus was detected only in one bird. In this paper, the Authors report for the first time on an outbreak of ceruminous otitis in native chicken breeds and point out that the only pathogenic agent isolated from the birds has been Mycoplasma synoviae.

  1. Ceruminous otitis in native chicken breeders belonging to Robusta Lionata breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mutinelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of 2005, an outbreak of ceruminous otitis has been observed in a breeders flock belonging to the Robusta Lionata breed, a native chicken breed reared in a Centre for the valorisation and conservation of native poultry breeds. The disease caused a high morbidity rate (90% of birds, whereas the mortality affected only 10% of the birds. The death of the birds was preceded by clinical signs, such as worsening of the ceruminous otitis with abundant secretion of bad-smelling cerumen, lack of appetite and depression. The otitis externa, mainly bilateral, was the only evident finding at necropsy. Laboratory examinations showed only the presence of Mycoplasma synoviae, either by isolation on culture media or by PCR, on ear and choana samples. Aspergillus fumigatus was detected only in one bird. In this paper, the Authors report for the first time on an outbreak of ceruminous otitis in native chicken breeds and point out that the only pathogenic agent isolated from the birds has been Mycoplasma synoviae.

  2. Pathology and localization of Avibacterium endocarditidis in experimentally infected broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, B. Horne; Bisgaard, Magne; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate bacterial growth and the development of lesions. Abundant growth in pure culture of A. endocarditidis was always obtained from valvular lesions, while only poor growth or no growth was obtained from liver and spleen lesions, confirming previous observations from naturally occurring cases. Gross...... ranged from very small infarcts to large areas of coagulative necrosis. Arthritis occurred in 19 birds, 15 of which tested positive for A. endocarditidis. Most birds developed bacteraemia, but the inability to isolate bacteria from the liver and spleen and the lack of bacteria demonstrated by FISH...

  3. Seminal characteristics evaluation of the male broiler breeder selected by comb development to reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneiva Carla Carvalho Celeghini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A seleção de galos para a reprodução pelo desenvolvimento da crista vem sendo empregada rotineiramente na avicultura, sendo necessários estudos para verificar a eficiência deste método de seleção. Este trabalho teve por objetivo comparar as características seminais de galos selecionados para a reprodução pelo desenvolvimento da crista. Foram utilizados 65 galos matrizes da linhagem AgRoss, selecionados na 20ª semana de idade e divididos em dois grupos: grupo A, animais sem crista desenvolvida (n=33, e grupo B, animais com crista desenvolvida (n=32. Foram realizadas colheitas semanais de sêmen dos galos de 24 a 71 semanas de idade, para avaliar as características seminais. Foram realizados os testes t de Student e de Wilcoxon para comparar os grupos e análises de perfis para verificar efeitos do grupo, idade e interação grupo x idade. Os valores de volume seminal, concentração espermática, motilidade e vigor foram maiores (p < 0,01 para o grupo B no período de 24-31 semanas de idade. A percentagem de defeitos espermáticos para o grupo A foi maior nos períodos de 24-27 (p < 0,01 e de 32-35 semanas de idade (p < 0,05. O peso corporal foi maior (p < 0,05 para os animais do grupo B no período entre 24-39 semanas de idade e para os galos do grupo A no período de 60-71 semanas de idade. Foram observados efeitos da idade e interação grupo x idade para as características seminais, exceto para vigor. Em conclusão, a observação do desenvolvimento da crista na 20ª semana de idade é um método eficiente na seleção de galos para a reprodução.

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy of an autogenous Escherichia coli vaccine in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Thøfner, Ida; Christensen, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    In poultry production Escherichia coli autogenous vaccines are often used. However, the efficacy of autogenous E. coli vaccinations has not been evaluated experimentally in chickens after start of lay. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of an autogenous E. coli...... infection, significant protection of an autogenous E. coli vaccine against neither a homologous nor a heterologous E. coli challenge could not be documented....

  5. Relationship between fertility duration and in vivo sperm storage in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, E E; McDaniel, G R; Krista, L M

    1988-06-01

    1. Seventy Hubbard hens, 75 weeks of age, were divided into groups containing equal numbers of hens on the basis of duration of fertility. Average fertile periods were 14.5 d (long, L) and 6.9 d (short, S). Each hen was artificially inseminated (AI) on three consecutive days with an average of 1.61 X 10(9)/0.05 ml spermatozoa per insemination. Seven hens from each group were killed 1, 3, 6, 9, and 13 d after insemination. 2. Three longitudinal sections of uterovaginal junction were evaluated microscopically for spermatozoal storage capacity by assigning each sperm host gland (SHG) to one of 5 categories: unscorable, empty, one to 5 spermatozoa, 6 to 20 spermatozoa and greater than 20 spermatozoa. 3. The only significant difference in sperm storage at any time between the L and S duration groups occurred at day 1 after AI, when L duration hens possessed significantly more glands with more than 20 spermatozoa. 4. One day after AI the proportion of SHG containing sperm were 28.8% (L group) and 18.6% (S group). There was a significant decrease in the number of glands containing 1 to 5, 6 to 20 and greater than 20 spermatozoa between days 1 to 3 in both groups. 5. Numbers of glands in all categories containing sperm decreased throughout the 13-d period. The L duration group possessed 18.5% more glands with 1 to 5, 6 to 20 and greater than 20 spermatozoa than the S duration group. 6. There were no significant differences between groups in the proportion of unscorable or empty glands throughout, which ranged from 35.9 to 56.8% and 36.3 to 47.1%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    Different types of fibre sources were used in high fibre diets to increase feeding quantity and measure the effect on different parameters in two experiments. In exp. I, three diets (A, commercial control diet; B, high insoluble fibre content; and C, high soluble fibre content) were fed to 10...... significantly more in a hunger test than birds on diets B and C, indicating that these two high-fibre diets did reduce the level of hunger experienced by the birds. Stereotypic pecking was most frequently seen in birds fed A and never observed in birds fed B. Birds on diet C appeared scruffier in their plumage...... fibre feed staying longer in the intestinal system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dust bathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The results from the two experiments show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce...

  7. The effects of selenium, zinc and vitamin E supplementation on performance of Broiler Breeder Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zezza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from the literature and practical experiences suggests that nutritional factors are perhaps the most crucial for their direct effects on the reproductive phenomenon. Several studies and reviews (Barnes et al., 1996; Brake and Garlich, 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Donoghue et al., 1995; Donoghue et al., 1997; Froman et al., 1997; Hocking and Bernard, 1997; Holm, 1998 describe the effects of quantitative feed and energy on reproductive performance of farm animals but only recently there was an increasing attention for the effects of micronutrients intake. The aim of the present work was to verify and compare the effects of a supplementation of selenium, zinc and vitamin E on quality of poultry semen, with a particular attention to the selenium, because its beneficial effects on reproduction (Surai, 2002 needs further elucidation. These micronutrients were chosen because play a fundamental role in semen quality, in fact it was known that chicken semen contains the natural antioxidant vitamin E (Surai, 1997; Surai, 2000 together with antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD...

  8. Light programme for AA+ broiler breeder%AA+肉种鸡的强照管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀

    2011-01-01

    @@ 一种鸡舍光照系统的管理 AA肉种鸡鸡舍的光照系统可使用下列光源:白炽灯、荧光灯、高压钠灯等.在鸡舍内光照系统控制中重要的是要有24小时定时装置控制.定时钟应每周至少检查一次,如果在某一地区经常发生停电现象,有必要每天检查定时钟.

  9. ESTIMATION OF THE PROCESS OF SYNTHESIS OF MEAT BROILER THROUGH MODERN METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA PÂRVU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In vivo experiments on broilers were conducted in order to elaborate a mathematical model for body synthesis, the experimental data being processed with Gompertz time functions and linear functions. The experiment used 166, Ross 308 day-old chicks through an experimental period of 42 days. The broilers received diets according to the growth period (1 – 14, 15 – 28, 29 – 42 days. The dietary energy and nutrient supply for group 1 (control were according to the recommendation of Ross Breeders. The birds had free access to the feed. Group 2 received 90% and group 3 received 80% of the amount of feed received by group 1; the dietary energy supply was 90% in group 4 and 80% in group 5, also related to group 1. Mathematical modelling was used to evaluate the evolution of the body chemical composition (water, protein and lipid content, starting from the protein content at hatching.

  10. Exploring new coolants for nuclear breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A., E-mail: anlafuente@etsii.upm.e [ETSII-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Piera, M. [ETSII:UNED, c/Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Breeder reactors are considered a unique tool for fully exploiting natural nuclear resources. In current Light Water Reactors (LWR), only 0.5% of the primary energy contained in the nuclei removed from a mine is converted into useful heat. The rest remains in the depleted uranium or spent fuel. The need to improve resource-efficiency has stimulated interest in Fast-Reactor-based fuel cycles, which can exploit a much higher fraction of the energy content of mined uranium by burning U-238, mainly after conversion into Pu-239. Thorium fuel cycles also offer several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle. The coolant initially selected for most of the FBR programs launched in the 1960s was sodium, which is still considered the best candidate for these reactors. However, Na-cooled FBRs have a positive void reactivity coefficient. Among other factors, this fundamental drawback has resulted in the canceled deployment of these reactors. Therefore, it seems reasonable to explore new options for breeder coolants. In this paper, a proposal is presented for a new molten salt (F{sub 2}Be) coolant that could overcome the safety issues related to the positive void reactivity coefficient of molten metal coolants. Although it is a very innovative proposal that would require an extensive R and D program, this paper presents the very appealing properties of this salt when using a specific type of fuel that is similar to that of pebble bed reactors. The F{sub 2}Be concept was studied over a typical MOX composition and extended to a thorium-based cycle. The general analysis took into account the requirements for criticality (opening the option of hybrid subcritical systems); the requirements for breeding; and the safety requirement of having a negative coolant void reactivity coefficient. A design window was found in the definition of a F{sub 2}Be cooled reactor where the safety requirement was met, unlike for molten metal-cooled reactors, which always have positive void

  11. Exploring new coolants for nuclear breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A. [ETSI Industriales-Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Breeder reactors are considered the unique tool for fully exploiting the natural nuclear resources. In current LWR, only a 0.5% of the primary energy contained in the nuclei removed from the mine is converted into useful heat, with the rest remaining in the depleted uranium or in the spent fuel. The objective of resource-efficiency stimulated the interest in Fast- Reactor-based fuel cycles which can exploit a much higher fraction of the energy content of the mined uranium by burning U-238, mainly after conversion into Pu-239. Thorium fuel cycles would also offers several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle. The coolant initially chosen for most of the FBR programs launched in the 60's was sodium, which still is considered the best candidate for these reactors. However, Na-cooled FBR have a positive void reactivity coefficient, which has been among others, a fundamental drawback that has cancelled the deployment of these reactors. Therefore, it seems reasonable to explore totally new options on coolants for breeders. In this paper, a proposal is presented on a new molten salt (F{sub 2}Be) coolant that could overcome the safety issues related to the positive void reactivity coefficient of molten metal coolants. Although it is a very innovative proposal that would need an extensive R and D programme, this paper presents the very appealing properties of this salt, in the case of using a specific type of fuel, similar to that of pebble bed reactors. The concept will be studied over a typical MOX composition and extended to a Thorium-based cycle. The general analysis takes into account requirements for criticality (opening the option of hybrid subcritical systems); requirements for breeding; and the safety requirement of having a negative coolant void reactivity coefficient. A design window is found in the definition of a F{sub 2}Be cooled reactor where the safety requirement is met, unlike for molten metal cooled reactors which always have positive void

  12. Histopathological features of Marek’s disease infections in broiler chicken in Districts of Tasikmalaya and Ciamis West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Damayanti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Marek’s disease was reported to occur in broiler chicken in Districts of Tasikmalaya and Ciamis. A total number of 58 tissues samples of broiler chicken were collected from 7 flocks of commercial broiler chicken farms in both Districts. The disease affected broiler chicken aged 17 to 24 days. Those chickens had been vaccinated to Newcastle Disease (ND and at age of 10 days had been vaccinated to Gumboro using blended bursa of fabricius. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% of buffered neutral formalin (BNF prior to haematoxilin and eosin (H and E stain using standard procedures. Histopathological features show that out of 58 samples, 32 (55.2% were infected by Marek’s Disease (19.0% were infected by Marek’s Disease, 20.1% were infected by Marek’s Disease and Gumboro, 16.1% Marek’s Disease and other infections, whereas 44.8% were infected by Gumboro alone or accompanied by other infections, ND and Colibasillosis. The study reveals that Marek’s Disease infection in broiler chicken tends to be mild i.e. infiltration of neoplastic cells (lymphoid, pleomorphic in proventriculus, intestine, spleen, livers and bursa of fabricius. In addition to this, there were mild non-supurative inflammation in heart, lung, peripheral nerve and brain, as well as a severe demyelination in brain. It is concluded that the histopthological features confirm the diagnosis of Marek’s Disease.

  13. Progress and problems in vaccination against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis in broilers is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains that produce the NetB toxin. Necrotic enteritis is one of the gastrointestinal diseases in poultry that has gained worldwide importance during the last decade due to efforts to improve broiler performance. Prevention strategies include avoiding predisposing factors, such as coccidiosis, and in-feed supplementation with a variety of feed additives. However, vaccination with modified toxin or other secreted immunogenic proteins seems a logical preventive tool for protection against a toxin-producing bacterium. Formalin-inactivated crude supernatant has been used initially for vaccination. Several studies have been carried out recently to identify the most important immunogenic and protective proteins that can be used for vaccination. These include the NetB toxin, as well as a number of other proteins. There is evidence that immunization with single proteins is not protective against severe challenge and that combinations of different antigens are needed. Most published studies have used multiple dosage vaccination regimens that are not relevant for practical use in the broiler industry. Single vaccination regimens for 1-day-old chicks appear to be non-protective. This review describes the history of vaccination strategies against necrotic enteritis in broilers and gives an update on future vaccination strategies that are applicable in the field. These may include breeder hen vaccination, in ovo vaccination and live attenuated vectors to be used in feed or in drinking water.

  14. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates throughout an integrated broiler supply chain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, X; Li, M; Xu, C; Cui, K; Feng, Z; Fu, Y; Zhang, J; Liao, M

    2016-10-01

    A total of 1145 samples were collected from chicken breeder farms, hatcheries, broiler farms, a slaughterhouse and retail refrigerated chicken stores in an integrated broiler supply chain in Guangdong Province, China, in 2013. One-hundred and two Salmonella enterica strains were isolated and subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, virulence profile determination and molecular subtyping by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The contamination rates in samples from breeder farms, hatcheries, broiler farms, the slaughterhouse and retail stores were 1·46%, 4·31%, 7·00%, 62·86% and 54·67%, respectively. The isolated strains of S. enterica belonged to 10 serotypes; most of them were S. Weltevreden (46·08%, 47/102) and S. Agona (18·63%, 19/102). Isolates were frequently resistant to streptomycin (38·2%), tetracycline (36·3%), sulfisoxazole (35·3%) and gentamicin (34·3%); 31·4% of isolates were multidrug resistant. The isolates were screened for 10 virulence factors. The Salmonella pathogenicity island genes avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, and sopB and the fimbrial gene bcfC were present in 100% of the strains. PFGE genotyping of the 102 S. enterica isolates yielded 24 PFGE types at an 85% similarity threshold. The PFGE patterns show that the genotypes of S. enterica in the production chain are very diverse, but some strains have 100% similarity in different parts of the production chain, which indicates that some S. enterica persist throughout the broiler supply chain.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in enterococci isolated from Turkey flocks fed virginiamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, L A; Thal, L A; Perri, M B; Donabedian, S; McMahon, J; Chow, J W; Zervos, M J

    1998-03-01

    From 125 separate cloacal cultures from three turkey flocks fed virginiamycin, 104 Enterococcus faecium and 186 Enterococcus faecalis isolates were obtained. As the turkeys aged, there was a higher percentage of quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium isolates, with isolates from the oldest flock being 100% resistant. There were no vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) indicated there were 11 PFGE types of E. faecalis and 7 PFGE types of E. faecium that were in more than one group of flock cultures.

  16. Zoonoses, public health, and the backyard poultry flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L

    2011-09-01

    Raising a small flock of poultry for eggs, meat, and possibly companionship is becoming an increasingly popular hobby in the United States. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus, forma domestica), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo, forma domestica), and members of the family Anatidae including ducks, geese, and swans are commonly kept in these privately owned backyard flocks. Multiple bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic diseases which affect poultry are known zoonotic pathogens. This article reviews these zoonoses and gives recommendations for flock biosecurity, as well as for prevention of infection in both birds and humans. Diseases associated with other gallinaceous birds are only selectively discussed.

  17. Cucker-Smale Flocking with Bounded Cohesive and Repulsive Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes two Cucker-Smale-type flocking models by introducing both cohesive and repulsive forces to second-order multiagent systems. Under some mild conditions on the initial state of the flocking system, it is shown that the velocity consensus of the agents can be reached independent of the parameter which describes the decay of communication rates. In particular, the collision between any two agents can always be avoided by designing an appropriate bounded repulsive function based on the initial energy of the flock. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  18. Fabrication, properties, and tritium recovery from solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Kondo, T. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Roux, N. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Tanaka, S. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)); Vollath, D. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 133 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Exploding the myths about the fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the facts and figures about the effects of conservation policies, the benefits of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor demonstration plant, the feasibility of nuclear weapons manufacture from reactor-grade plutonium, diversion of plutonium from nuclear plants, radioactive waste disposal, and the toxicity of plutonium. The paper concludes that the U.S. is not proceeding with a high confidence strategy for breeder development because of a variety of false assumptions.

  20. Safeguards in prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshimaru, Takehide; Tomura, Katsuji; Okuda, Yosihisa; Iwamoto, Tomonori [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    MONJU is the prototype fast breeder reactor in Japan designed to have the electricity output of 280 MWe. Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) started its construction in the autumn of 1985 in Tsuruga site. The loading of the core fuel assemblies to the core have been started since October 1993 and the pre-operational test is undergoing. MONJU uses 198 MOX fuel assemblies as core fuel and 172 DU assemblies as blanket fuel. Assemblies loaded in core and stored in the ex-vessel storage tank (EVST) exist in liquid sodium. These Pu containing fuel assemblies, MOX and irradiated DU, are regarded as in the difficult-to-access area, and the flows of fuel assemblies into and out of the area are requested to be verified. The verification of the flows is designed to be made with fuel flow monitors measuring radiations, which can abridge the inspector attendance during the fuel handling. This paper describes the detailed aspects of the fuel transfers in MONJU facility and the verification of them through flow monitors together with the functions of other safeguards equipments. (author).

  1. Effects of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, residual feed intake, and residual maintenance metabolizable energy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Naeima, A; Robinson, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth and energy efficiency from 7 to 40 d of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual maintenance ME requirement (RME) were used to measure energetic efficiency. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between observed and predicted ME intake, and RME(m) as the difference between observed and predicted maintenance ME requirements. A total of 144 Ross-708 broiler breeder pullets were placed in individual laying cages at 16 wk of age. Hens with the greatest RFI (n = 32) and lowest RFI (n = 32) values from 20 to 56 wk of age were selected (maternal RFI; RFI(mat)). Selected hens were retrospectively assigned to a high- or low-RME(m) category (maternal RME(m); RME(mmat)). At 59 wk, eggs were collected for 8 d and pedigree hatched. A total of 338 broilers grouped by dam and sex were raised in 128 cages where feed intake, BW, and temperature were recorded from 7 to 40 d to calculate broiler feed conversion ratios, RFI, and RME(m). The design was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with 2 levels of RFI(mat), 2 levels of RME(mmat), and 2 sexes. Neither the RFI(mat) nor RME(mmat) category affected broiler offpring BW or total conversion ratio. The high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had decreased growth to 40 d. Low-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had a lower RME(m) (-5.93 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day) and RFI (-0.86 kcal of ME/d) than high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers (RME(m) = 1.70 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day; RFI = 0.38 kcal of ME/d). Overall, hens with low maintenance requirements (low RME(m)) produced more efficient broilers when other efficiency related traits, represented in a lower RFI, were present. Exclusion of high-RFI × low-RME(m) hens from selection programs may improve energy efficiency at the broiler level. The RME(m) methodology is a viable alternative to evaluate energy efficiency in broilers because it avoids confounding environmental effects and allows

  2. Complex Network Structure of Flocks in the Standard Vicsek Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglietto, Gabriel; Albano, Ezequiel V.; Candia, Julián

    2013-10-01

    In flocking models, the collective motion of self-driven individuals leads to the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns. The Standard Vicsek Model (SVM) considers individuals that tend to adopt the direction of movement of their neighbors under the influence of noise. By performing an extensive complex network characterization of the structure of SVM flocks, we show that flocks are highly clustered, assortative, and non-hierarchical networks with short-tailed degree distributions. Moreover, we also find that the SVM dynamics leads to the formation of complex structures with an effective dimension higher than that of the space where the actual displacements take place. Furthermore, we show that these structures are capable of sustaining mean-field-like orientationally ordered states when the displacements are suppressed, thus suggesting a linkage between the onset of order and the enhanced dimensionality of SVM flocks.

  3. Flocking shape analysis of multi-agent systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we consider the shape control in flocking behavior of a multi-agent system with a virtual leader.Besides the traditional flocking control terms,which include a gradient-based term,a velocity consensus term and a navigational feed-back in general,a new piecewise smooth neighbor-based local controller is added to regulate the configuration to the desired flocking shape.All agent velocities approach the desired velocity asymptotically,while collisions among agents can be avoided.Furthermore,based on the proved stability,we obtain three kinds of flocking shapes,such as those in a single line,vee shape or corner shape.Some numerical simulation results are provided to demonstrate theoretical issues.

  4. Flocking in the depths of strategic iterated reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Must it be the case that increasingly deep levels of strategic iterated reasoning by humans give increasingly close approximations of normative economic rationality? And if not, what might they do instead? We argue that human higher-level reasoning processes may support non-equilibrium, non-convergent "flocking" behavior. Flocking in the physical world is the sustained convergence of both the positions and velocities of the members of a group. We make the metaphor to flocking in our experiments by introducing decision environments in which participants' choices and reasoning processes function as their positions and velocities, respectively. With this definition, we demonstrate flocking in multiple group experiments over three unrelated economic games. The first game is the classic Beauty Pageant, the second is called the Mod Game, and we introduce the Runway Game. Though they three bear no formal resemblance to each other, subjects play them the same: as eliciting iterated reasoning in a way that causes indi...

  5. A report on the Agassiz flock of Canada geese

    Data.gov (United Stat