WorldWideScience

Sample records for brodman ahip fmla

  1. The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    incapacity due to the same condition; (2) any period of incapacity due to pregnancy or for prenatal care; (3) any period of incapacity or treatment...said it was very or somewhat difficult to deal with unplanned intermittent leave. Among employers with FMLA...According to one study, because of the FMLA, first-time mothers who work full-time during pregnancy may be more likely to work part-time than full

  2. Intraoperative electrocortical stimulation of Brodman area 4: a 10-year analysis of 255 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Brock Mario; Suess Silke; Suess Olaf; Kombos Theodoros

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Brain tumor surgery is limited by the risk of postoperative neurological deficits. Intraoperative neurophysiological examination techniques, which are based on the electrical excitability of the human brain cortex, are thus still indispensable for surgery in eloquent areas such as the primary motor cortex (Brodman Area 4). Methods This study analyzed the data obtained from a total of 255 cerebral interventions for lesions with direct contact to (121) or immediately adjacen...

  3. Intraoperative electrocortical stimulation of Brodman area 4: a 10-year analysis of 255 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brock Mario

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain tumor surgery is limited by the risk of postoperative neurological deficits. Intraoperative neurophysiological examination techniques, which are based on the electrical excitability of the human brain cortex, are thus still indispensable for surgery in eloquent areas such as the primary motor cortex (Brodman Area 4. Methods This study analyzed the data obtained from a total of 255 cerebral interventions for lesions with direct contact to (121 or immediately adjacent to (134 Brodman Area 4 in order to optimize stimulation parameters and to search for direct correlation between intraoperative potential changes and specific surgical maneuvers when using monopolar cortex stimulation (MCS for electrocortical mapping and continuous intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. Results Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs were recorded from the thenar muscles and forearm flexors in accordance with the large representational area of the hand and forearm in Brodman Area 4. By optimizing the stimulation parameters in two steps (step 1: stimulation frequency and step 2: train sequence MCS was successful in 91% (232/255 of the cases. Statistical analysis of the parameters latency, potential width and amplitude showed spontaneous latency prolongations and abrupt amplitude reductions as a reliable warning signal for direct involvement of the motor cortex or motor pathways. Conclusion MCS must be considered a stimulation technique that enables reliable qualitative analysis of the recorded potentials, which may thus be regarded as directly predictive. Nevertheless, like other intraoperative neurophysiological examination techniques, MCS has technical, anatomical and neurophysiological limitations. A variety of surgical and non-surgical influences can be reason for false positive or false negative measurements.

  4. 76 FR 18254 - Proposed Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Employee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... employees' and employers' experience with FMLA, two new surveys will be conducted to collect information about the need for and the experience with family and medical leave from employees' and employers... Proposed Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Employee and...

  5. 29 CFR 825.220 - Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise assert FMLA rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... otherwise assert FMLA rights. (a) The FMLA prohibits interference with an employee's rights under the law, and with legal proceedings or inquiries relating to an employee's rights. More specifically, the law... with” the exercise of an employee's rights would include, for example, not only refusing to...

  6. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 825 - Notice to Employees Of Rights Under FMLA (WH Publication 1420)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice to Employees Of Rights Under FMLA (WH Publication 1420) C Appendix C to Part 825 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... 825—Notice to Employees Of Rights Under FMLA (WH Publication 1420) ER17NO08.008...

  7. 26 CFR 1.125-3 - Effect of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) on the operation of cafeteria plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) on the operation of cafeteria plans. 1.125-3 Section 1.125-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... operation of cafeteria plans. The following questions and answers provide guidance on the effect of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), 29 U.S.C. 2601 et seq., on the operation of cafeteria plans:...

  8. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the employer's failure to timely designate leave does not cause harm or injury to the employee. In all... alternative caregiver for the seriously-ill son or daughter if the leave had been designated timely....

  9. Managing overlapping federal FMLA and state leave regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebowski, Lucinda S

    2002-03-01

    The overlap between the Family and Medical Leave Act and state leave laws can create complications. Employers, particularly those with multistate operations, may wish to consider an outsourced absence management system, which can remove the burden of day-to-day administration and the need to stay abreast of changing state regulations. However, employers cannot outsource the responsibility to set broad policy toward absence management.

  10. 29 CFR 825.302 - Employee notice requirements for foreseeable FMLA leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... member, or the planned medical treatment for a serious injury or illness of a covered servicemember. If... injury or illness; and the anticipated duration of the absence, if known. When an employee seeks leave... qualifying exigency or for military caregiver leave (see §§ 825.309, 825.310). When an employee has...

  11. 29 CFR 825.303 - Employee notice requirements for unforeseeable FMLA leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee's child has a severe asthma attack and the employee takes the child to the emergency room, the... receiving emergency treatment. However, if the child's asthma attack required only the use of an inhaler at... in “sick” without providing more information will not be considered sufficient notice to trigger...

  12. 29 CFR 825.700 - Interaction with employer's policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bargaining Agreements on Employee Rights Under FMLA § 825.700 Interaction with employer's policies. (a) An... rights to employees than the rights established by the FMLA. Conversely, the rights established by the...., provides lesser pay) is superseded by FMLA. If an employer provides greater unpaid family leave rights...

  13. David Nolfi Receives NAHRS Award for Professional Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Diana Sasso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available News AnnouncementDavid A. Nolfi, MLS, AHIP, Health Sciences Librarian & Library Assessment Coordinator at Duquesne University’s Gumberg Library, received the 2013 NAHRS Award for Professional Excellence at the One Health Conference in Boston, MA.

  14. For Insurers, a Battle Between 2 Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    Whether insurers are rejoicing at the prospect of a Trump presidency and the end of the Affordable Care Act or a Clinton presidency and modifications to the law is hard to say because of the industry's complicated relationship with the law. AHIP, for instance, has been conflicted about the ACA from the beginning.

  15. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM) | NIH ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the HIV virus and for his contributions to innovations in testing and treatments of the global AIDS epidemic. Michael E. DeBakey Medical Librarian Award Rita B. Smith, MLIS, AHIP, Outreach and Education Coordinator, Mercer University Medical Library and LRC Ms. Smith was honored for her ...

  16. 29 CFR 825.113 - Serious health condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which cosmetic treatments are administered (such as most treatments for acne or plastic surgery) are not... FMLA leave. Restorative dental or plastic surgery after an injury or removal of cancerous growths...

  17. 77 FR 8959 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... leave and the costs, benefits, and impact on productivity of such policies. Title IV contains provisions... AFCTCA are: Sec. 825.110 (Eligible employee); Sec. 825.205 (Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent...

  18. Integrated cockpit design for the Army helicopter improvement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennen, T.; Bowen, B.

    1984-01-01

    The main Army Helicopter Improvement Program (AHIP) mission is to navigate precisely, locate targets accurately, communicate their position to other battlefield elements, and to designate them for laser guided weapons. The onboard navigation and mast-mounted sight (MMS) avionics enable accurate tracking of current aircraft position and subsequent target location. The AHIP crewstation development was based on extensive mission/task analysis, function allocation, total system design, and test and verification. The avionics requirements to meet the mission was limited by the existing aircraft structural and performance characteristics and resultant space, weight, and power restrictions. These limitations and night operations requirement led to the use of night vision goggles. The combination of these requirements and limitations dictated an integrated control/display approach using multifunction displays and controls.

  19. Experimental Study of Flamespreading Processes in 155-mm, XM216 Modular Propelling Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    1500 8 Commander Huntsville, AL 35807-3801 US Army, ARDEC ATTN: SMCAR-AEE-B, Chairman A. Beardell DoD Explosives Safety Board B. Brodman Room 856-C D...project. or other area of interest for which the report will be used.) 4. Specifically, how is the report being used? (Information source, design data

  20. A Numerical Algorithm for the Multidimensional, Multiphase Viscous Equations of Interior Ballistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Commandant ATTN: SMCAR-LCW-A US Army Aviation School M. Salsbury ATTN: Aviation Agenc SMCAR-SCA Fort Rucker, AL 3636’ L. Stiefel B. Brodman I Commander...Does this report satisfy a need? (Comment on purpose, related project, or other area of interest for which the report will be used.) 4. How

  1. Re-Examine Liquid Propellant Nitromethane Hazard Classification Parameters and Address the Hazards Classification of Various Slurry Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED [] SAME AS RPT. F1 DTIC USERS UNCLASSIFIED 22a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE (INCLUDE AREA CODE) 22c. OFFICE...AEE-BR, B. Brodman W. Seals A. Beardell SMCAR-AEE-W, N. Slagg SMCAR-AEE, A. Bracuti J. Lannon M. Gupta J. Salo D. Chieu SMCAR-FSS-D, L. Frauen SMCAR

  2. NMR Investigations of Liquid Propellant Systems Consisting of Alkyl- and Hydroxylammonium Nitrates. Part 2. Measurement of Carbon-13 Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times and Activation Energies for Molecular Motion in Model Liquid Propellant Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    CONTRACTOR GRANT NUMBER(&) R. L. Dudley S. Bulusu 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS tO. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERSARDEC...SMCAR-AE, R. Bushey J. P. Picard SMCAR-AEE, J. A. Lannon Word Processing Office SMCAR-AEE-B, D. Downs SMCAR-AEE-BR, L. Harris A. Beardell B. Brodman Y

  3. Development of a Gun Wear Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA 6 WORK UNIT NUMBERSNaval Surface Weapons Center (G33) IL662618AH80 Dahlgren, VA 22448 I1. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS...Picard) DRDAR-QA (J. Rutkowski) DRDAR-QAS (G. Pap) DRDAR-TSS FC&SCWSL E. Barrieres * B. Brodman R. Corn D. Costa S. Cytron D. Downs H. Fair D. Gyorog J

  4. Computational Modeling of Multicomponent Diffusion Using Fortran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    58 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 410-278-6114 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 iii Contents List of...ARDEC SFAE AMO CAS J RUTKOWSKI BLDG 171 M PICATINNY ARSENAL NJ 07806-5000 1 US ARMY ARDEC AMSRD AAR AEI W B BRODMAN BLDG

  5. Prediction of Gun Muzzle Flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS ’ 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK US Army Ballistic Research Laboratory & Large AREA 6 WORK UNIT NUMBERS Large Caliber Weapon...Development Command Cameron Station ATTN- DRDAR-SCA-PE Alexandria, VA 22314 Mr. L. Stiefel Mr. B. Brodman I Commander Mr. D. Adams US Army Materiel

  6. Family and Medical Leave Act; Definition of Spouse. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses.

  7. The Risk Evaluation of Agricultural High-tech Investment Project%农业高新技术投资项目风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆迁; 苗姗姗

    2005-01-01

    The agricultural high-tech investment project (AHIP) is characterized by technology-intensive, high risk and great profit. This article analyzes essential factors of the risks of the agricultural high-tech investment projects and the traditional risk evaluation method of agricultural projects. We think that the applications of the sensitivity analysis and probability are defective. Therefore, this article introduces a structural model to evaluate the risks of the agricultural high-tech investment projects and the system of the concrete evaluation indexes.

  8. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth... condition. Note, too, that many State pregnancy disability laws specify a period of disability either...

  9. Definition of spouse under the Family and Medical Leave Act. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-25

    The Department of Labor's (Department) Wage and Hour Division (WHD) revises the regulation defining "spouse" under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA or the Act) in light of the United States Supreme Court's decision in United States v. Windsor, which found section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) to be unconstitutional.

  10. 29 CFR 825.702 - Interaction with Federal and State anti-discrimination laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pregnancy Discrimination Act, an employer should provide the same benefits for women who are pregnant as the... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction with Federal and State anti-discrimination laws... Federal and State anti-discrimination laws. (a) Nothing in FMLA modifies or affects any Federal or...

  11. Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that…

  12. Integrated absence management and the Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Judy A

    2008-05-01

    Intermittent unscheduled absenteeism often challenges employers to meet the needs of their employees, control direct absenteeism costs, and maintain the staff needed to serve customers. Occupational health nurses have opportunities to play an important role in addressing this challenge. Measurable financial impacts have been demonstrated from integrating the management of intermittent FMLA leave with an employer's existing absence management program.

  13. 29 CFR 825.311 - Intent to return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intent to return to work. 825.311 Section 825.311 Labor... Intent to return to work. (a) An employer may require an employee on FMLA leave to report periodically on the employee's status and intent to return to work. The employer's policy regarding such reports...

  14. 29 CFR 825.214 - Employee right to reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee right to reinstatement. 825.214 Section 825.214... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.214 Employee right to reinstatement. General rule. On return from FMLA leave,...

  15. 29 CFR 825.219 - Rights of a key employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights of a key employee. 825.219 Section 825.219 Labor....219 Rights of a key employee. (a) An employer who believes that reinstatement may be denied to a key... recover its cost of health benefit premiums. A key employee's rights under FMLA continue unless and...

  16. EEG PHASE RESET OF THE DEFAULT MODE NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Thatcher, Robert W.; North, Duane M.; Biver, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources located in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN) using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). Methods: The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodman areas c...

  17. Comparison of Scatter in Wear Measurements of Large Caliber Guns with Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    DRDAR-BLI Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK AREA 4 WORK UNIT NUMBERS 1L161102AH43 11. CONTROLLING...round. Not only does this scatter represent a fruit- ful area of research for understanding how guns wear, but the inherent scatter must be kept in...Research ^ Development Command ATTN: DRDAR-SC D. Gyorog H. Kaln B. Brodman S. Cytron No. of Copies Organization T. Dover, NJ Hung 07801

  18. An Evaluation of Muzzle Flash Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    21005 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS 1L161102AH43 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS US Army AMCCOM, ARDC...Bracuti Dover, NJ 07801 Commander Armament R&D Ctr, USAAMCCOM ATTN: DRSMC-SCA, L. Stiefel B. Brodman DRSMC-LCB-I, D. Spring DRSMC-LCE, R...Number 2. Does this report satisfy a need? (Comment on purpose, related project, or other area of interest for which report will be used.) 3. How

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of Michelson Type Microwave Interferometry for the Measurement of Projectile In-Bore Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    AND ADDRESS U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory ATTN: DRDAR-BLI Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT. TASK AREA ...B. Brodman G. Del Coco K. Pfleger M.J. Schmitz DRDAR-SCM, E. Bloore J. Mulherin DRDAR-SCS, J. Blumer D. Brandt T. Hung S. Jacobson Dover...reports. 1. BRL Report Number 2. Does this report satisfy a need? (Comment on purpose, related project, or other area of interest for which report

  20. Identification of cortical lamination in awake monkeys by high resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gang; Wang, Feng; Gore, John C.; Roe, Anna W.

    2011-01-01

    Brodman divided the neocortex into 47 different cortical areas based on histological differences in laminar myeloarchitectonic and cytoarchitectonic defined structure. The ability to do so in vivo with anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) methods in awake subjects would be extremely advantageous for many functional studies. However, due to the limitations of spatial resolution and contrast, this has been difficult to achieve in awake subjects. Here, we report that by using a combination of MR m...

  1. Multizone Artillery Propelling Charge Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    PROJECT, TASK AREA 4 WORK UNIT NUMBERS IL162618AH80 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS US Army Armament Research & Development Command...are affected by the many interrelated components comprising the charge. We have identified areas of concern for bagged multizone charges; studies...B. Brodman DRDAP-LCB-I, D. Spring DRDAR-LCE, R. Walker DRDAR-LCU-CT E. Barrleres R. Davitt DRDAR-CLU-CV C.Mandala E. Moore DRDAR-LCM-E S

  2. The aging of cortical cytoarchitectonics in the light of stereological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, H; Knebel, G; Mecke, E; Orün, C; Sass, N L

    1981-01-01

    With the help of stereological procedures quantitative results concerning the aging of the human cortex could be found. 1. Older brains shrink less during the histological treatment than younger ones. 2. The neuronal density does not change in all four estimated areas (Brodman 6, 7, 11, 17). 3. In two areas (frontal lobe) a statistical significant decrease of neuronal cell size could be found. The conclusion allows the statement that the various parts of cortex age differently.

  3. Risk for Early-Onset Schizophrenia Assessed via Gray-Matter Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Automated image analysis algorithms were used to measure regional gray matter volumes in children with early-onset schizophrenia. Logistic regression analysis of gray matter volumes within Brodman areas was used to test the ability to predict whether a subject was normal or schizophrenic. The ROC area-under-the-curve was 0.84 ± 0.15 across the 10 cross validation groups indicating good discrimination between schizophrenic and normal subjects.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Sabot Petal Impact Data for M392 Type Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory ATTN: DRDAR-BLI Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK AREA ft WORK...the i-th interval an area which is proportionally weighted to the number of observations in that interval and in its neighboring intervals. In the...Commander B. Brodman US Army ARRADCOM G. Del Coco Benet Weapons Laboratory K. Pfleger ATTN: DRDAR-LCB, T. R. T. Allen Billington E. Davidson

  5. Risk for early-onset schizophrenia assessed via gray-matter distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, James D

    2005-01-01

    Automated image analysis algorithms were used to measure regional gray matter volumes in children with early-onset schizophrenia. Logistic regression analysis of gray matter volumes within Brodman areas was used to test the ability to predict whether a subject was normal or schizophrenic. The ROC area-under-the-curve was 0.84 +/- 0.15 across the 10 cross validation groups indicating good discrimination between schizophrenic and normal subjects.

  6. Evaluation of Propellant Erosivity with Vented Erosion Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Controlling Olllca) 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS 12. REPORT DATE MARCH 1981 13. NUMBER OF PAGES 50 15...surface area , etc. Another important factor in determining the relative erosivi- ties of various propellants and p-vs-t programs is the dynamics of...Ellington DRDAR- -LCS- -D, K. Rubin J. Houle DRDAR- -QA, J Rutkowski DRDAR- -SC, D. Gyorog H. Kahn B. Brodman S. Cystron L. Stiefel DRDAR- -TSS (5

  7. Predicting Football Players' Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Body Composition Using Standard Anthropometric Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jonathan M.; Lambert, Brad S.; Martin, Steven E.; Green, John S.; Crouse, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The recent increase in athlete size, particularly in football athletes of all levels, coupled with the increased health risk associated with obesity warrants continued monitoring of body composition from a health perspective in this population. Equations developed to predict percentage of body fat (%Fat) have been shown to be population specific and might not be accurate for football athletes. Objective: To develop multiple regression equations using standard anthropometric measurements to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry %Fat (DEXA%Fat) in collegiate football players. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Patients and Other Participants: One hundred fifty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA football athletes (age  =  20 ± 1 years, height  =  185.6 ± 6.5 cm, mass  =  103.1 ± 20.4 kg, DEXA%Fat  =  19.5 ± 9.1%) participated. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants had the following measures: (1) body composition testing with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; (2) skinfold measurements in millimeters, including chest, triceps, subscapular, midaxillary, suprailiac, abdominal (SFAB), and thigh; and (3) standard circumference measurements in centimeters, including ankle, calf, thigh, hip (AHIP), waist, umbilical (AUMB), chest, wrist, forearm, arm, and neck. Regression analysis and fit statistics were used to determine the relationship between DEXA%Fat and each skinfold thickness, sum of all skinfold measures (SFSUM), and individual circumference measures. Results: Statistical analysis resulted in the development of 3 equations to predict DEXA%Fat: model 1, (0.178 • AHIP) + (0.097 • AUMB) + (0.089 • SFSUM) − 19.641; model 2, (0.193 • AHIP) + (0.133 • AUMB) + (0.371 • SFAB) − 23.0523; and model 3, (0.132 • SFSUM) + 3.530. The R2 values were 0.94 for model 1, 0.93 for model 2, and 0.91 for model 3 (for all, P < .001). Conclusions: The equations developed provide an accurate way to assess DEXA

  8. Cerebral decreases in opioid receptor binding in patients with central neuropathic pain measured by [11C]diprenorphine binding and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anthony K P; Watabe, Hiroshi; Cunningham, Vin J; Jones, Terry

    2004-10-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is pain resulting from damage to the central nervous system. Up till now, it has not been possible to identify a common lesion or pharmacological deficit in these patients. This preliminary study in a group of patients with CNP with predominantly post-stroke pain, demonstrates that there is significantly less opioid receptor binding in a number of cortical and sub-cortical structures that are mostly, but not exclusively, within the medial pain system in patients compared to age-matched pain-free controls. The reductions in opioid receptor binding within the medial system were observed mainly in the dorsolateral (Brodman area 10) and anterior cingulate (Brodman area 24 with some extension into area 23) and insula cortices and the thalamus. There were also reductions in the lateral pain system within the inferior parietal cortex (Brodman area 40). These changes in binding could not be accounted for by the cerebral lesions shown by CT or MRI, which were outside the areas of reduced binding and the human pain system. To our knowledge this is the first systematic demonstration of a reduction in opioid receptor-binding capacity in neurones within the human nociceptive system in patients with CNP. This may be a key common factor resulting in undamped nociceptor activity within some of the structures that are predominantly within the medial nociceptive system. If confirmed, these findings may explain why certain patients with CNP require high doses of synthetic opiates to achieve optimum analgesia. The findings also raise the possibility of new pharmacological approaches to treatment.

  9. Baseline Evaluation of the TDNOVA Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    AREA ft WORK UNIT NUMBERS 1L161102AH43 12. REPORT DATE September 1982 13. NUMBER OF PAGES 57 IS. SECURITY CLASS, (ol this report...as lumped parameter, quasi-one-dimensional (i.e., one-dimensional-with- area -change), or two- dimensional, in accordance with user-definable criteria...Westley S. Bernstein P. Kemmey C. Heyman Dover, NJ 07801 US Army Armament R&D Command ATTN: DRDAR-SCA. L. Stlefel B. Brodman DRDAR-LCB-I, D

  10. Automatic Plotting Routines for Estimating Static Aerodynamic Properties of Flared Projectiles for 2M5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Research Laboratory, LABCOM AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS ATTN: SLCBR-IB-M Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12...force on body Xc.p.F Center of pressure of normal force on flare Aref Reference area (.785 cal 2) Awetted Surface Area of lateral surface producing...SMCAR-SCM ATTN: SMCAR-TDC SMCAR-SCS, Dover, NJ 07801 B. Brodman T. Hung 2 Commander J. Jacobson Armament R&D Center D. Brandt . USA AMCCOM, ARDC W

  11. A Fast Response Thermal Conductivity Gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    NUMBER(s) N.ATOR(&) IM JAME~S 0. PILCiEIR, 11 MELINDA B. KRUZMPICH 9LPERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA 6... area of the temperature gage. The gage was then removed and the beam 15 placed in im.ltipulse mode. The energy delivered by each pulse was calculated...Army AMCCOM, ARDC HQDA ATTN: SMCAR-SCMI- DAMA-ART-M SMCAR-SCS, B. Brodman Washington, D.C. 20310 SMCAR-SCS, T. Hung SMCAR-SCA, W. Cadomski Commander

  12. Interior Ballistics Modeling Applied to Small Arms Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    ball cartridge M2, Projectile weight 150 grains (9.72 x I0-3 kg) Propellant weight 49.9 grains (3.23 x l0" kg) Bore area 0.0732 in.’ (4.72 x 10" mi...recoil (ref. Si). The small bore area of small arms also creates greater problems with heat transfer and erosion (ref. 52). Gas Transmission Systems...34 Olin Corporation, Winchester Western Division Technical Report WWR-68-2, 15 January 1968 I 11. B.W. Brodman , M.P. Devine, and M.T. Gurbarg

  13. Studies on the Biodegradation of Ordnance-Related Hazardous Waste, Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    16 shows the response peak area versus time for NG at an initial concentration of 50 mg/L. Clearly NG concentration decreases with time. The...containing NG, TMETN, TEGDN and PGDN. 16 REFERENCES [1] K. Gold and B.W. Brodman . U.S. Patent No. 4,756832 (july 12, 1988). [2] T.M. Wendt, J.H...anaerobic serum bottle. Figure 16. Response peak area versus time for NG at an initial concentration of 50 mg/L. Figure 17. Response peak area versus time

  14. Automatic Plotting Routines for Estimating Aerodynamic Properties of Spin Stabilized Projectiles in Flat Fire Trajectories at 2M

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS 1L162618AH80 It. CONTROLLING 9fFICE NAME AND ADDRESS U.S. Army Ar.,iament Research...x Distance from nose to center of pressure of normal force c.p. A „ Reference area , (.785 cal) ref Drag Force D i 2 A r...Bloore Mr. J. Mulherin DRDAR-SCS, Dr. T. Hung Mr. B. Brodman Dover, NJ 07801 Commander US Army Armament Research and Development Command Dover

  15. Angiotensin converting enzyme in Alzheimer's disease increased activity in caudate nucleus and cortical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, A; Perry, E K; Rossor, M; Tomlinson, B E

    1982-05-01

    The activity of the dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, angiotensin converting enzyme, was assayed in several brain regions of patients dying with Alzheimer's disease and compared to that of appropriately age-matched controls. Enzyme activity was found to be elevated by 44% and 41% in the medial hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, respectively, and by 27% and 29% in the frontal cortex (area 10 of Brodman) and caudate nucleus, respectively, in Alzheimer's disease patients. Converting enzyme activity did not differ from controls in the nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, temporal cortex, anterior or posterior hippocampus, amydgala, and septal nuclei.

  16. Simulations of Special Interior Ballistic Phenomena with and without Heat Transfer to Gun Tube Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Schmitt 9 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 1C. PROGPAM ELEMENT. PROJEC7, -’,,, AREA ’i WORK UNIT NUMSEPS U.S. Army Ballistic Research laboratory...the projectile base, we set Tw =Tamb, across the wall thickness, that is, we assume that the projectile moves into an area which is at ambient...Communications - SMCAR-SCA Electronics Command L. Stiefel ATTN: AMSEL-ED B. Brodman Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703-5301 Dover, NJ 07801-5001 1 Commander 4 Commander

  17. Projectile Foundation Moment Generation Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    simulated bore contact area . The shaded portion of that region is the nylon which is to simulate the obturator or sealing band. The center of the model...inches. There are two sides to the frame, and thus,the stress area is 6 square inches. At a load of 10,000 pounds, the maximum deflection that we...AMCCOI4 Mr. B. Brodman ATTN: DRSMC-LCU(D), Dr. T. Hung Mr. E. Barrieres DRSMC-SCA(D), Mr. R. Davitt Mr. W. Gadomski DRSMC-LCU-M(D), Mr. E. Malatesta Mr

  18. Analysis and Characterization of High-Purity Talc for Use in Propellants; Determination of Talc in Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Commander FRANKFORD ARSENAL, ATTN: SARFA-TSE-M-64-1 Philadelphia, PA 19137 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK AREA A...Cl.C 06b), May 31, 1968, U.S. Appl., Jan 24, 1966. 2. B. W. Brodman and M. P. Devine, Frankford Arsenal Report FA-R-3016, The Effect of Inorganic...Research & Engineering Co. P. 0. Box 8 ATTN: M. T. Melchior Linden, NJ 07036 Chemical Analysis Unit OOAMA(OOMQQCA) Odgen Air Material Area ATTN

  19. A Short-Barrelled 105-mm Howitzer for Interior Ballistic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK AREA 4 WORK UNIT NUMBERS US Army Ballistic Research Laboratory ATTN: DRDAR-BLI 1L162618AH80 Aberdeen Proving Ground...P )A b f where Pb = Pressure acting on base of the projectile Pf = Engraving and resistive pressure and A = Cross-sectional area of the bore; w...Army Armament R&D Command ATTN: DRDAR-SCA, L. Stiefel B. Brodman DRDAR-LCB-I, D. Spring DRDAR-LCE, R. Walker DRDAR-LCU-CT E. Barrieres R

  20. Proceedings of the 1982 Army Science Conference Held at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York on 15-18 June 1982. Volume I. Principal Authors A through G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-18

    been utilized for the preparation of 323 pI DEVENUTO & ZEGNA drinking water in a desalinization project (8). The system evaluated in these studies...1 Phase 23 CqOiws, John s. Aqu ttiqt~utiu fGon- 4 4.ivft, Lewis I. Ee ta.t intV Salti AsO’ IaU.4 Cen*ge "Wbert Hedf f $vn4Vehicle Suspen., 1 2$.Sto" C...Purified Sterile 1 315 Zegna,, Angelo 1. Water from Available Water Sources. by Using a Portable Apparatus Devtne, Uchasi P. See Brodman, Bruce W. 1

  1. Absence and leave; sick leave. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill covered servicemember, as authorized under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, including up to 30 days of advanced sick leave for this purpose. Finally, we are reorganizing the existing sick leave regulations to enhance reader understanding and administration of the program.

  2. Specific binding of [3H]phenytoin in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spero, L

    1985-05-01

    Competition between cold phenytoin and [3H]phenytoin binding was observed in normal human brain. Binding was observed in all areas examined. The highest number of sites was in the amygdala (a total of 717.71 fmol/mg protein) and the lowest in the Brodman area (BA) 4 of the motor cortex (153.91 fmol/mg protein) and cerebellar cortex (154.4 fmol/mg protein). In three areas, amygdala, cortex area BA 38 (inferior parietal lobe), and cortex area BA 8 (premotor cortex), two sets of binding sites were observed. In these areas the Kd for the higher affinity sites ranged from 35 to 116 nM, and for the lower affinity site, from 328 to 866 nM. In the four areas where only one binding site was observed the KdS ranged from 164 to 311 nM and the Scatchard plot was linear.

  3. 触觉刺激三叉神经上颌支面部支配区的功能性MRI研究%Brain Activity and Facial Tactile in Trigeminal Maxillary Division: An Functional MRI Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家; 刘洪臣; 李科; 金真; 朱霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the brain cortical response to facial tactile in maxillary trigeminal division. Methods; 8 healthy volunteers participated in the study. Cotton-tipped swab stimuli was applied to right side of face in maxillary trigeminal division, and block designed BOLD functional MRI scan covering the whole brain was carried out. Results: Increased BOLD signals during tactile stimulation were found in left SI (BA3), insula/SII, Brodman's area 22,45, and right Brodman's area 40,9,38,41. Conclusion:Tactile stimuli activated contralateral primary, secondary somatosensory cortex, superior temporal gyrus, ipsilateral postcentral gyrus , inferior temporal gyrus, transverse temporal gyrus, bilateral prefrontal cortex .%目的:观察触觉刺激三叉神经上颌支(简称V2)面部支配区引起的大脑中枢反应区.方法:选取8名健康志愿者.用棉签刺激右侧面部三叉神经上颌支的支配区,采用触觉刺激减静息的组块设计方法,采集全脑血氧水平依赖对比的功能性MRI扫描数据.结果:脑激活区为左侧初级躯体感觉皮质(BA3)、岛叶/SII、BA22、BA45,右侧BA40、BA9 、BA38 、BA41.结论:对侧初级躯体感觉皮质、岛叶/SII和颞上回,同侧中央后回、颞下回和颞横回及双侧前额皮质是面部V2区触觉刺激激活的脑部功能区.

  4. Predicting Future Information Resource Utilization Under Conditions of Scarcity: The First Cohort Study in Health Sciences Librarianship. A review of: Postell, William Dosité. “Further Comments on the Mathematical Analysis of Evaluating Scientific Journals.” Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 34.2 (1946: 107-9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Eldredge

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To predict future use of journal titles for making subscription decisions.Design – Retrospective cohort study.Setting – Louisiana State University School of Medicine Library in New Orleans.Subjects – All library users, estimated to consist of primarily faculty members or their designees such as research assistants.Methods – Estelle Brodman’s previous citation analysis and reputational analysis (1944 that produced a list of eleven top-ranked physiology journal titles served as the catalyst for Postell’s retrospective cohort study. Postell compiled data on all checkouts for these specific eleven journal titles in his library for the years 1939 through approximately 1945.Main Results – Postell performed a Spearman rank-difference test on the rankings produced from his own circulation use data in order to compare it against journal title rankings produced from three other sources: (1 citation analysis from the references found in the Annual Review of Physiology based upon a system pioneered in 1927 by Gross and Gross; (2 three leading national physiology journals; and, (3 a reputational analysis list of top-ranked journals provided by the faculty members at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons Department of Physiology. Postell found a relatively high correlation (.755, with 1.000 equaling a perfect correlation between his retrospective cohort usage data and the reputational analysis list of top-ranked journals generated by the Columbia faculty members. The two citation analyses performed by Brodman did not correlate as highly with Postell’s results. Conclusion – Brodman previously had questioned the use of citation analysis for journal subscription purchase decisions. Postell’s retrospective cohort study produced further evidence against basing subscription purchases on citation analysis. Postell noted that the citation analysis method “cannot always be relied upon as a valid criterion” for

  5. Effect of pre-fracture mobility on the early post-operative functional outcome in elderly patients with a hip fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hip fractures are among the most commoncauses of disability and hospitalisation in the elderly. There are no studies inSouth Africa that determine the effect of pre-fracture functional mobility onearly post-operative functional outcome in elderly patients with a hip fracture.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-fracture functionalmobility on early post-operative functional outcome in elderly patients with ahip fracture.Methodology: A prospective pre-test post-test observational study designwas done. Assessments were conducted pre-operatively, at discharge and sixweeks post discharge at two public hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Thepre-fracture functional mobility of the participants was determined using theNew Mobility Score (NMS pre-operatively. At discharge and at six weeks post discharge the participants post-operative functionallevel was assessed using the Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS.Results: More than two thirds of participants were independently mobile prior to the fracture. Pre-fracture functional mobilityis a strong determinant of early post operative functional outcome in elderly patients with a hip fracture(β = 1.39, p = 0.0001.Conclusion: Independent pre-fracture mobility predicts better early post-operative functional outcomes in the elderly.

  6. Clinical application of versapulse laser in the treatment of skin pigmentation diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Li; Yuan, Wai-Hua; Yuan, Wei-Wei; Fu, Qiang

    1998-11-01

    387 cases of various skin pigmentous diseases were treated by Versapulse 'C' laser in our department Versapulse 'C' laser consist of 4 kinds of laser with wavelength of VP532nm, Q532nrn, Q755nm, Q1064nm. The vascular lesions, prot wine strain, cherry angioma, strawberry nevus, perckles, solar lentigines, melasma and junctional moles were treated by VP532 or Q532 laser; the nevus of Ota and tattoo were treated by Q755 or Q1064 laser. Satisfactory results were obtained in this paper, we also discussed the therapeutic and the main points of varying diseases with varying laser of wavelength, the use of FMLA anesthesia, controlled cold therapy an the physical protection to laser.

  7. Parenting and the workplace: The construction of parenting protections in United States law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichner Maxine

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, I discuss the shortcomings of the legal protections that exist for pregnancy, breastfeeding, and parenting for United States' workers. The two main sources of protection for pregnancy and parenting in United States employment law are the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA and the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA. Both, I argue, contain inadequate protections for the needs of pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers, as well as their infants. I consider what it is about the way these statutes conceptualize the needs of pregnant women, mothers, and their babies, that prevents more robust protection of their needs. I then compare the minimal protection afforded American women and families with more progressive policies in other countries to highlight the possibilities that arise when the state affirmatively supports working parents and their children.

  8. Human posterior parietal cortex flexibly determines reference frames for reaching based on sensory context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Pierre-Michel; Grafton, Scott T

    2010-11-18

    Current models of sensorimotor transformations emphasize the dominant role of gaze-centered representations for reach planning in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Here we exploit fMRI repetition suppression to test whether the sensory modality of a target determines the reference frame used to define the motor goal in the PPC and premotor cortex. We show that when targets are defined visually, the anterior precuneus selectively encodes the motor goal in gaze-centered coordinates, whereas the parieto-occipital junction, Brodman Area 5 (BA 5), and PMd use a mixed gaze- and body-centered representation. In contrast, when targets are defined by unseen proprioceptive cues, activity in these areas switches to represent the motor goal predominantly in body-centered coordinates. These results support computational models arguing for flexibility in reference frames for action according to sensory context. Critically, they provide neuroanatomical evidence that flexibility is achieved by exploiting a multiplicity of reference frames that can be expressed within individual areas.

  9. A region of mesial prefrontal cortex tracks monetarily rewarding outcomes: characterization with rapid event-related fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Brian; Fong, Grace W; Bennett, Shannon M; Adams, Charles M; Hommer, Daniel

    2003-02-01

    The function of the mesial prefrontal cortex (MPFC: including Brodman areas 10/12/32) remains an enigma. Current theories suggest a role in representing internal information, including emotional introspection, autonomic control, and a "default state" of semantic processing. Recent evidence also suggests that parts of this region may also play a role in processing reward outcomes. In this study, we investigated the possibility that a region of the MPFC would be preferentially recruited by monetary reward outcomes using a parametric monetary incentive delay (MID) task. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in functional magnetic resonance scans while playing the MID task. Group analyses indicated that while the ventral striatum was recruited by anticipation of monetary reward, a region of the MPFC instead responded to rewarding monetary outcomes. Specifically, volume-of-interest analyses indicated that when volunteers received $5.00 after anticipating a $5.00 win, MPFC activity increased, whereas when volunteers did not receive $5.00 after anticipating a $5.00 win, MPFC activity decreased, relative to outcomes with no incentive value. These findings suggest that in the context of processing monetary rewards, a region of the MPFC preferentially tracks rewarding outcomes.

  10. Heterogeneous afferents to the inferior parietal lobule of the rhesus monkey revealed by the retrograde transport method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divac, I; Lavail, J H; Rakic, P; Winston, K R

    1977-03-11

    The sources of afferent connections to the inferior parietal lobule (rostral part of the area 7 of Brodman; PF and rostral part of PG of von Bonin and Bailey) were examined with the retrograde transport method in infant and adult rhesus monkeys. Two to 3 days after injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the cortex, the animals were anesthetized, and the brains fixed and processed for the histochemical demonstration of the enzyme marker. Labeled neurons were found in layer III in the ipsilateral prefrontal, parietal, occipital and temporal cortices, notably in areas 5, 19, 22 and 46 of Brodmann, and in area 7 of the contralateral parietal cortex. In the thalamus, HRP-positive cells were located ipsilaterally in the medial pulvinar nucleus in the nuclei centrum medianum and parafascicularis, as well as in the rostral thalamus, lateral and medial to the mammillothalamic tract, in the nucleus ventralis anterior and nucleus paracentralis. Numerous labeled cells were also identified in the magnocellular nuclei of the basal forebrain, in the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei, and in the locus coeruleus. Most of the cells in these regions were located in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the injections, but a number of them were also found in the contralateral hemispher. In adult monkeys, brownish granules in the cytoplasm of some cells were interpreted as endogenous pigment or due to various pigment precursors. However, all 14 locations listed above were identified in the infant monkey in which endogenous pigment was not a confounding factor.

  11. Cortical activity during rotational and linear transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J; Howard, R J; Senior, C; Brammer, M; Bullmore, E T; Simmons, A; Woodruff, P; David, A S

    2000-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of cortical activation during image transformation tasks have shown that mental rotation may rely on similar brain regions as those underlying visual perceptual mechanisms. The V5 complex, which is specialised for visual motion, is one region that has been implicated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate rotational and linear transformation of stimuli. Areas of significant brain activation were identified for each of the primary mental transformation tasks in contrast to its own perceptual reference task which was cognitively matched in all respects except for the variable of interest. Analysis of group data for perception of rotational and linear motion showed activation in areas corresponding to V5 as defined in earlier studies. Both rotational and linear mental transformations activated Brodman Area (BA) 19 but did not activate V5. An area within the inferior temporal gyrus, representing an inferior satellite area of V5, was activated by both the rotational perception and rotational transformation tasks, but showed no activation in response to linear motion perception or transformation. The findings demonstrate the extent to which neural substrates for image transformation and perception overlap and are distinct as well as revealing functional specialisation within perception and transformation processing systems.

  12. On the role of the anterior prefrontal cortex in cognitive 'branching': An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, George; Diekhof, Esther Kristina; Tinnermann, Alexandra; Gruber, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    The most anterior portion of prefrontal cortex (aPFC), more specifically Brodman Area 10 (BA10), has been implicated in 'branching operations', or the ability to perform tasks related to one goal, while keeping in working memory information related to a secondary goal. Such findings have been based on fMRI recordings under complex behavioral paradigms that compare 'branching' tasks with tasks where one goal is pursued at a time, but are limited by their complete reliance on verbal working memory and by small sample sizes. Here, we test the specificity of BA 10 to branching in similar behavioral paradigms but with a larger sample and in two different conditions involving verbal and visual working memory respectively. We find that BA 10 and other frontal and parietal brain areas are activated in all tasks, with an extent and level of significance increasing with the complexity of the task. We conclude that the activation of BA 10 is not specific to branching as previously hypothesized, but is related to the level of complexity of working memory performance. For further insight into the specific role of anterior portions of the frontal cortex we highlight the importance of simple control tasks with gradual and incremental increase in complexity.

  13. Sequences of abstract nonbiological stimuli share ventral premotor cortex with action observation and imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubotz, Ricarda I; von Cramon, D Yves

    2004-06-16

    Activation triggered by either observed or imagined actions suggests that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) provides an action vocabulary that allows us to detect and anticipate basically invariant perceptual states in observed actions. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the same PMv region is also recruited by nonbiological (abstract) stimulus sequences as long as the temporal order of stimuli has to be processed. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we instructed participants to assess expected outcomes in observed actions [external biological cues (EB)], motor imagery [internal biological cues (IB)], or geometrical figure sequences [external nonbiological cues (EN)]. As hypothesized, we found that each condition elicited significant activation within PMv [left hemisphere, Brodman Area (BA) 6], in contrast to a sequential target detection control task. In addition, cue-specific activations were identified in areas that were only engaged for biologically (action) cued (EB, IB) and nonbiologically cued (EN) tasks. Biologically cued tasks elicited activations within inferior frontal gyri adjacent to PMv (BA 44/45), in the frontomedian wall, the extrastriate body area, posterior superior temporal sulci, somatosensory cortices, and the amygdala-hippocampal-area, whereas the nonbiologically cued task engaged presupplementary motor area, middle frontal gyri, intraparietal sulci, and caudate nuclei of the basal ganglia. In sum, findings point to a basic premotor contribution to the representation or processing of sequentially structured events, supplemented by different sets of areas in the context of either biological or nonbiological cues.

  14. Individual functional anatomy of verb generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, K; Thiel, A; Wienhard, K; Pietrzyk, U; von Stockhausen, H M; Karbe, H; Kessler, J; Bruckbauer, T; Halber, M; Heiss, W D

    1996-06-01

    Examination of the individual functional anatomy of language is of particular interest in clinical neurology to explain the variability of aphasic symptoms after focal lesions and to avoid damage of language-related brain areas by surgery. For a silent verb generation task, we examined whether activation PET with 3D data acquisition, multiple replication of conditions, and coregistration with MRI provides results that are consistent and reproducible enough to be useful clinically. Visual analysis was performed on PET-MRI fusion images, including renderings of the brain surface. Quantitative analysis was based on volumes of interest. In seven right-handed normals, activation of the triangular part of the left inferior frontal cortex [Brodman area (BA) 45] was the most significant finding that was present in each subject. Two subjects showed minor anatomical variants of the ascending or horizontal ramus of the sylvian fissure that were associated with the least activation of BA 45. In the left hemisphere the other frontal gyri, the superior temporal and posterior part of the middle temporal gyrus, and the paracingulate gyrus were also significantly activated. There was significant bilateral cerebellar activation, but it was significantly more intense on the right than on the left side. The consistency and high interindividual reproducibility of these findings suggest that this technique may be useful for clinical assessment of language-related areas.

  15. The functional architecture of the left posterior and lateral prefrontal cortex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volle, Emmanuelle; Kinkingnéhun, Serge; Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Mondon, Karl; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Seassau, Magali; Duffau, Hugues; Samson, Yves; Dubois, Bruno; Levy, Richard

    2008-10-01

    The anatomical and functional organization of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is one of the most debated issues in cognitive and integrative neurosciences. The aim of this study is to determine whether the human LPFC is organized according to the domain of information, to the level of the processing or to both of these dimensions. In order to clarify this issue, we have designed an experimental protocol that combines a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in healthy subjects (n = 12) and a voxel-by-voxel lesion mapping study in patients with focal prefrontal lesions (n = 37) compared with normal controls (n = 48). Each method used the same original cognitive paradigm ("the domain n-back tasks") that tests by a cross-dimensional method the domain of information (verbal, spatial, faces) and the level of processing (from 1- to 3-back). Converging data from the 2 methods demonstrate that the left posterior LPFC is critical for the higher levels of cognitive control and is organized into functionally different subregions (Brodman's area 9/46, 6/8/9, and 44/45). These findings argue in favor of a hybrid model of organization of the left posterior LPFC in which domain-oriented (nonspatial and spatially oriented) and cross-domain executive-dependent regions coexist, reconciling previously divergent data.

  16. Comparison between the standard SPM2 template and Korean-standard template in FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Lee, Byeong Il; Song, Ho Chun; Min, Jung Joon; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The preprocessing step of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) requires the procedure of spatial normalization that consists of applying the nonlinear deformations needed to force every particular PET scan to match a reference template. The purpose of this study is to asses the statistic influence of using 2 different templates (the standard SPM2-PET template and Korean-standard PET template) in the normalization. We compared the regional metabolic patterns on 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) images obtained from 4 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 16 normal subjects. The statistical outcome of between- group comparison was analyzed with SPM2 and was applied into two levels of thresholds (an uncorrected P value of P <0.001, a corrected P value of P < 0.05). As a result, the most significant hypometabolic region was commonly found in the left temporal gyrus regardless of template type or thresholds. However, inconsistent results including different extent and the t-score statistics representing metabolic changes could be also observed between two templates. While the standard SPM2 template showed hypometabolic regions corresponding to Brodman area (BA) 7 and 9, Korean-standard template was not observed these regions. In addition, hypometabolic regions corresponding to BA 38 and 46 indicated not the standard SPM2 template but Korean-standard template. Statistic result showed that the standard SPM2 template effectively reflects the dorsal region of the brain while Korean-standard template is more sensitive to the medial region of the brain.

  17. Epworth嗜睡量表和颈围对阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征患者病情评估的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国平; 金前; 许雯; 姜琴华

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价Epworth嗜睡量表(epworth sleepiness scale, ESS)和颈围对评估阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征(OSAHS)患者病情的意义。方法经多导睡眠监测仪(polysomnography, PSG)确诊的OSAHS患者96例,单纯鼾症30例,所有对象均进行ESS评分和颈围测量,并比较两组患者ESS评分、颈围和睡眠呼吸暂停低通气指数(AHI)、夜间最低血氧饱和度(LSaO2)的关系。结果 ESS评分、颈围在鼾症组、OSAHS组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且ESS评分、颈围与AHI呈正相关,而与LSaO2呈负相关。结论 ESS评分、颈围与OSAHS患者的病情严重程度相关,可用于基层医院及在人群疾病普查时对可疑OSAHS患者进行初筛诊断。%Objective To understand the significance of Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and neck circumference on evaluating severity of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods 96 patients were diagnosed with OSAHS by polysomnography (PSG),other 30 patients were diagnosed with simple snoring. All subjects received ESS test and neck circumference measurement. Then we evaluated the relationship between ESS score, neck circumference and apnea hyponea index (AHI), nocturnal lowest oxygen saturation(LSaO2),compared these data between OSAHS group and simple snoring group. Result There were significant differences between simple snoring group and OSAHS for ESS score and neck circumference respectively(P<0.05). ESS score and neck circumference showed positive correlation to AHI(P<0.01) and negative correlation to nocturnal LSaO2(P<0.01). Conclusion ESS score and neck circumference are related with the severity of OSAHS, and can be used in the prescreening of OSAHS during general investigation of disease in basic unit hospitals.

  18. Cortical thickness and semantic fluency in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jennifer A; Hwang, Kristy S; Lazaris, Andreas; Chow, Nicole; Ramirez, Leslie; Babakchanian, Sona; Woo, Ellen; Thompson, Paul M; Apostolova, Liana G

    2013-01-01

    The hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is declarative memory loss, but deficits in semantic fluency are also observed. We assessed how semantic fluency relates to cortical atrophy to identify specific regions that play a role in the loss of access to semantic information. Whole-brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were analyzed from 9 Normal Control (NC)(M=76.7, SD=5.6), 40 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) (M=74.4, SD=8.6), and 10 probable AD (M=72.4, SD=8.0) subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). They all were administered the Category Fluency (CF) animals and vegetables tests. Poorer semantic fluency was associated with bilateral cortical atrophy of the inferior parietal lobule (Brodman areas (BA) 39 and 40) and BA 6, 8, and 9 in the frontal lobe, as well as BA 22 in the temporal lobe. More diffuse frontal associations were seen in the left hemisphere involving BA 9, 10, 32, 44, 45, and 46. Additional cortical atrophy was seen in the temporoparietal (BA 37) and the right parastriate (BA 19, 18) cortices. Associations were more diffuse for performance on vegetable fluency than animal fluency. The permutation-corrected map-wise significance for CF animals was pcorrected=0.01 for the left hemisphere, and pcorrected=0.06 for the right hemisphere. The permutation-corrected map-wise significance for CF vegetables was pcorrected=0.009 for the left hemisphere, and pcorrected=0.03 for the right hemisphere. These results demonstrate the profound effect of cortical atrophy on semantic fluency. Specifically, tapping into semantic knowledge involves the frontal lobe in addition to the language cortices of the temporoparietal region.

  19. Nicotine effects on regional cerebral blood flow in awake, resting tobacco smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, E F; Minoshima, S; Guthrie, S; Ohl, L; Ni, L; Koeppe, R A; Zubieta, J K

    2000-12-01

    The hypothesis for this research was that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) would increase following nasal nicotine administration to overnight abstinent tobacco smokers in relationship to the known brain distribution of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs). Nine male and nine female healthy adult smokers were studied. They abstained overnight from tobacco products for 10 or more hours prior to study the next morning. Nicotine nasal spray was given in doses of 1-2.5 mg total with half in each nostril while the subject was awake and resting in a supine position. Oleoresin of pepper solution in a similar volume was used as an active placebo to control for the irritating effects of nicotine. Both substances were given single blind to the subjects. Positron emission tomography (PET) with H(2)(15)O was used to measure rCBF. The data from each subject volunteer were normalized to global activity to better assess regional brain changes. Both nasal nicotine and pepper spray produced similar increases in CBF in somesthetic area II, consistent with the irritant effects of both substances. The mean rCBF effects of nasal pepper were subtracted from those of nasal nicotine to determine the actions of nicotine alone. The latter produced increases in rCBF in the thalamus, pons, Brodman area 17 of the visual cortex, and cerebellum. Some brain areas that contain a large number of nAChRs, such as the thalamus, showed an increase in CBF. Other areas that have few nAChRs, such as the cerebellum, also showed an increase in relative CBF. The hippocampal/parahippocampal areas showed greater regional decreases (left) and lesser increases (right) in CBF that correlated with the increase in plasma arterial nicotine concentrations. The results obtained indicate complex primary and secondary effects of nicotine in which only some regional brain CBF changes correlate with the known distribution of nAChR. No gender differences were noted.

  20. Glucose metabolic changes in the prefrontal cortex are associated with HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Simone; Oakes, Terrence R; Stone, Charles K; McAuliff, Emelia M; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Davidson, Richard J

    2008-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been well known for its role in higher order cognition, affect regulation and social reasoning. Although the precise underpinnings have not been sufficiently described, increasing evidence also supports a prefrontal involvement in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here we investigate the PFC's role in HPA axis regulation during a psychosocial stress exposure in 14 healthy humans. Regional brain metabolism was assessed using positron emission tomography (PET) and injection of fluoro-18-deoxyglucose (FDG). Depending on the exact location within the PFC, increased glucose metabolic rate was associated with lower or higher salivary cortisol concentration in response to a psychosocial stress condition. Metabolic glucose rate in the rostral medial PFC (mPFC) (Brodman area (BA) 9 and BA 10) was negatively associated with stress-induced salivary cortisol increases. Furthermore, metabolic glucose rate in these regions was inversely coupled with changes in glucose metabolic rate in other areas, known to be involved in HPA axis regulation such as the amygdala/hippocampal region. In contrast, metabolic glucose rate in areas more lateral to the mPFC was positively associated with saliva cortisol. Subjective ratings on task stressfulness, task controllability and self-reported dispositional mood states also showed positive and negative associations with the glucose metabolic rate in prefrontal regions. These findings suggest that in humans, the PFC is activated in response to psychosocial stress and distinct prefrontal metabolic glucose patterns are linked to endocrine stress measures as well as subjective ratings on task stressfulness, controllability as well as dispositional mood states.

  1. EEG PHASE RESET OF THE DEFAULT MODE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Thatcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources located in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA of the human electroencephalogram (EEG. Methods: The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodman areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st & 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Results: Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: 1- 30 msec,, 2- 55 msec and, 3- 65 msec. Phase lock duration present primarily at: 1- 300 to 350 msec and, 2- 350 msec to 450 msec. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. Conclusions: The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a ‘shutter’ that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations.

  2. Combined eye tracking and fMRI reveals neural basis of linguistic predictions during sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhage, Corinna E; Mueller, Jutta L; Friederici, Angela D; Fiebach, Christian J

    2015-07-01

    It is widely agreed upon that linguistic predictions are an integral part of language comprehension. Yet, experimental proof of their existence remains challenging. Here, we introduce a new predictive eye gaze reading task combining eye tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that allows us to infer the existence and timing of linguistic predictions via anticipatory eye-movements. Participants read different types of word sequences (i.e., regular sentences, meaningless jabberwocky sentences, non-word lists) up to the pre-final word. The final target word was displayed with a temporal delay and its screen position was dependent on the syntactic word category (nouns vs verbs). During the delay, anticipatory eye-movements into the correct target word area were indicative of linguistic predictions. For fMRI analysis, the predictive sentence conditions were contrasted to the non-word condition, with the anticipatory eye-movements specifying differences in timing across conditions. A conjunction analysis of both sentence conditions revealed the neural substrate of word category prediction, namely a distributed network of cortical and subcortical brain regions including language systems, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Direct contrasts between the regular sentence condition and the jabberwocky condition indicate that prediction of word category in meaningless jabberwocky sentences relies on classical left-hemispheric language systems involving Brodman's area 44/45 in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left superior temporal areas, and the dorsal caudate nucleus. Regular sentences, in contrast, allowed for the prediction of specific words. Word-specific predictions were specifically associated with more widely distributed temporal and parietal cortical systems, most prominently in the right hemisphere. Our results support the presence of linguistic predictions during sentence processing and demonstrate the validity of the predictive eye gaze

  3. Depicting the inner and outer nose: the representation of the nose and the nasal mucosa on the human primary somatosensory cortex (SI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastl, Mareike; Brünner, Yvonne F; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    The nose is important not only for breathing, filtering air, and perceiving olfactory stimuli. Although the face and hands have been mapped, the representation of the internal and external surface of the nose on the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is still poorly understood. To fill this gap functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to localize the nose and the nasal mucosa in the Brodman areas (BAs) 3b, 1, and 2 of the human postcentral gyrus (PG). Tactile stimulation during fMRI was applied via a customized pneumatically driven device to six stimulation sites: the alar wing of the nose, the lateral nasal mucosa, and the hand (serving as a reference area) on the left and right side of the body. Individual representations could be discriminated for the left and right hand, for the left nasal mucosa and left alar wing of the nose in BA 3b and BA 1 by comparing mean activation maxima and Euclidean distances. Right-sided nasal conditions and conditions in BA 2 could further be separated by different Euclidean distances. Regarding the alar wing of the nose, the results concurred with the classic sensory homunculus proposed by Penfield and colleagues. The nasal mucosa was not only determined an individual and bilateral representation, its position on the somatosensory cortex is also situated closer to the caudal end of the PG compared to that of the alar wing of the nose and the hand. As SI is commonly activated during the perception of odors, these findings underscore the importance of the knowledge of the representation of the nasal mucosa on the primary somatosensory cortex, especially for interpretation of results of functional imaging studies about the sense of smell.

  4. Differential damage in the frontal cortex with aging, sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuba, Geneviève; Vernay, André; Zimmermann, Vincent; Saini, Krishan; Kraftsik, Rudolf; Savioz, Armand

    2009-10-28

    In order to understand relationships between executive and structural deficits in the frontal cortex of patients within normal aging or Alzheimer's disease, we studied frontal pathological changes in young and old controls compared to cases with sporadic (AD) or familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). We performed a semi-automatic computer assisted analysis of the distribution of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits revealed by Abeta immunostaining as well as of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) revealed by Gallyas silver staining in Brodman areas 10 (frontal polar), 12 (ventro-infero-median) and 24 (anterior cingular), using tissue samples from 5 FAD, 6 sporadic AD and 10 control brains. We also performed densitometric measurements of glial fibrillary acidic protein, principal compound of intermediate filaments of astrocytes, and of phosphorylated neurofilament H and M epitopes in areas 10 and 24. All regions studied seem almost completely spared in normal old controls, with only the oldest ones exhibiting a weak percentage of beta-amyloid deposit and hardly any NFT. On the contrary, all AD and FAD cases were severely damaged as shown by statistically significant increased percentages of beta-amyloid deposit, as well as by a high number of NFT. FAD cases (all from the same family) had statistically more beta-amyloid and GFAP than sporadic AD cases in both areas 10 and 24 and statistically more NFT only in area 24. The correlation between the percentage of beta-amyloid and the number of NFT was significant only for area 24. Altogether, these data suggest that the frontal cortex can be spared by AD type lesions in normal aging, but is severely damaged in sporadic and still more in familial Alzheimer's disease. The frontal regions appear to be differentially vulnerable, with area 12 having the less amyloid burden, area 24 the less NFT and area 10 having both more amyloid and more NFT. This pattern of damage in frontal regions may represent a strong neuroanatomical support for the

  5. Category-specific organization of prefrontal response-facilitation during priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzeck, Nico; Schütze, Hartmut; Düzel, Emrah

    2006-01-01

    Perceptual priming is a fundamental long-term memory capability that allows more efficient and faster responding to a stimulus as a result of prior exposure to that stimulus. The two major components of priming are facilitated response expression and improved stimulus identification. Recent fMRI studies have identified a potential neural correlate for response-facilitation, namely the repetition-related activity decrements in prefrontal cortex that are linearly correlated with improvements in reaction times. However, the neural processes underlying such response-facilitation are still unclear. They could be stimulus-selective stimulus-response mapping processes or general response-learning mechanisms. In human imaging studies, behavioral priming has been associated with decreased hemodynamic responses in prefrontal cortex and in category-specific brain regions of the ventral visual stream. Currently, it is unclear whether priming-related response decreases in prefrontal cortex are also category-specific. In this fMRI study, 16 subjects performed a repetition priming task employing category-specific identification judgments on pictures of faces (male/female judgment), scenes (indoor/outdoor judgment) and scrambled 'noise' pictures (simple button press). The repeated faces and scenes were identified faster than first presentations indicating priming. Hemodynamic decreases for repetitions were observed in a left inferior (near Brodman Area, BA, 44) and middle frontal (BA8) region of the prefrontal cortex, in category-specific areas of the ventral stream (bilateral fusiform face area, FFA, parahippocampal place area, PPA), and two category-specific right lateral occipital (LOC) regions. Hemodynamic increases for repetitions appeared in the caudate and cerebellum. However, the prefrontal areas were the only regions that showed a correlation between repetition-related reaction time improvement and hemodynamic decrease. Importantly, the correlations were category

  6. Functional MRI activation of primary and secondary motor areas in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghai Li; Honghan Gong; Xiangzuo Xiao; Jinhua Wan

    2008-01-01

    images.Active signal changes in the primary(M1)and secondary motor(M2)areas,as well as the relationship between the hand knobs and M1 area activation,were analyzed.Region of interest was selected for signal change quantitative graphic analysis.RESULTS:All 7 enrolled volunteers were included in the final analysis.In the present study,hand knob structures were recognized on Tl-weighted images in all subjects and were omega-shaped in the axial plane.Significant functional activations were observed in the contralateral primary motor area of all subjects. Activation signals were distributed mainly in the central sulcus around the hand knob.The contralateral primary sensory(S1)cortex was activated in most cases,and ipsilateral M1 was activated in 3 subjects. Contralateral or bilateral supplementary motor area(SMA)was also activated in 6 cases.Premotor area,or super parietal lobe,was activated in two subjects.Three-dimensional reconstruction demonstrated that the active signal of M1 was primarily located at the middle-lateral surface of the contralateral precentral gyrus in Brodman's area 4,and the signal of SMA activation was located in the mesial surface of the premotor area. CONCLUSION:The knob structure of the precentral gyrus is the representative motor area for hand movement.The cerebral cortical motor network was extensively activated during voluntary hand movements in normal subjects.In alert,conscious human subjects,the activated fMRI signal safely and non-invasively localized and lateralized the motor cortical activity associated with simple voluntary repetitive hand movements.Whether higher cognitive functions,such as perception and speech,can be similarly mapped using the fMRI technique and the BOLD method remains to be determined in future well-designed human studies.