Sample records for brodman ahip fmla

  1. The impact of AHIP awareness campaigns on the public knowledge of the disease in Zanzibar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A household survey was conducted in Zanzibar between May and June 2008 to investigate the impact of the ongoing nationwide Avian and Human Influenza Pandemic (AHIP) awareness campaigns on people's understanding of the pandemic. A total of 500 families in 239 villages; all 10 districts of Zanzibar were interviewed. Factors: administrative district, age, sex, number of family members, level of education, occupational groups (farmer vs. non farmer) and access to AHIP training and other media tools were investigated in different models. Preliminary results showed that over 70 percent of respondents know the disease but less than 40 percent out of them understands the cause and ways to prevent the spread of infection in Zanzibar. The district of residence featured prominently (P < 0.001) as an important factor of people knowing the pandemic, the causative agent, transmission of the pandemic, self-protection, protection of the country and adequacy of the campaign. The level of education significantly influenced people knowing the pandemic (P < 0.05), the causative agent (P < 0.001), transmission of the pandemic (P < 0.001), self protection (P < 0.001), country protection (P < 0.001) and adequacy of the campaign (P < 0.05). The ongoing training on AHIP offered significant understanding of the pandemic, the cause, transmission, self-protection and protection of the country (P < 0.001). The family size appeared as a significant (P < 0.05) factor of the family knowing the cause of the pandemic. Finally, the habit of reading news article among the respondents increased the exposure to the knowledge of self (P < 0.01) and country (P < 0.001) protection against the pandemic. It was concluded that the future AHIP campaigns emphasis on particular disadvantaged districts and widening the use of alternative media of information. (author)

  2. 29 CFR 825.220 - Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise assert FMLA rights. (United States)


    ... otherwise assert FMLA rights. (a) The FMLA prohibits interference with an employee's rights under the law, and with legal proceedings or inquiries relating to an employee's rights. More specifically, the law... with” the exercise of an employee's rights would include, for example, not only refusing to...

  3. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 825 - Notice to Employees Of Rights Under FMLA (WH Publication 1420) (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice to Employees Of Rights Under FMLA (WH Publication 1420) C Appendix C to Part 825 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... 825—Notice to Employees Of Rights Under FMLA (WH Publication 1420) ER17NO08.008...

  4. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave. (United States)


    ...., if the employee is incapacitated, the employee's spouse, adult child, parent, doctor, etc., may... alternative caregiver for the seriously-ill son or daughter if the leave had been designated timely....

  5. 29 CFR 825.303 - Employee notice requirements for unforeseeable FMLA leave. (United States)


    ... employee's child has a severe asthma attack and the employee takes the child to the emergency room, the... receiving emergency treatment. However, if the child's asthma attack required only the use of an inhaler at... in “sick” without providing more information will not be considered sufficient notice to trigger...

  6. 29 CFR 825.302 - Employee notice requirements for foreseeable FMLA leave. (United States)


    ... than anticipated before the birth of a child. Similarly, little opportunity for notice may be given... qualifying exigency or for military caregiver leave (see §§ 825.309, 825.310). When an employee has...

  7. David Nolfi Receives NAHRS Award for Professional Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Diana Sasso


    Full Text Available News AnnouncementDavid A. Nolfi, MLS, AHIP, Health Sciences Librarian & Library Assessment Coordinator at Duquesne University’s Gumberg Library, received the 2013 NAHRS Award for Professional Excellence at the One Health Conference in Boston, MA.

  8. 29 CFR 825.700 - Interaction with employer's policies. (United States)


    ... Bargaining Agreements on Employee Rights Under FMLA § 825.700 Interaction with employer's policies. (a) An... rights to employees than the rights established by the FMLA. Conversely, the rights established by the...., provides lesser pay) is superseded by FMLA. If an employer provides greater unpaid family leave rights...

  9. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 825.207 Section 825.207 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY... FMLA leave. Employers may not discriminate against employees on FMLA leave in the administration...

  10. 29 CFR 825.113 - Serious health condition. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Serious health condition. 825.113 Section 825.113 Labor... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.113 Serious health condition. (a) For purposes of FMLA, “serious health condition” entitling an employee to FMLA leave means...

  11. 78 FR 8833 - The Family and Medical Leave Act (United States)


    .... Id. If an employee believes that his or her FMLA rights have been violated, the employee may file a... violated the employee's FMLA rights, the employee is entitled to reimbursement for any monetary loss... for airline flight crew employees. 77 FR 8962. Although the AFCTCA authorizes the Department...

  12. 29 CFR 825.300 - Employer notice requirements. (United States)


    ... workers who are not literate in English, the employer shall provide the general notice in a language in... may constitute an interference with, restraint, or denial of the exercise of an employee's FMLA...

  13. 76 FR 60086 - Proposed Extension of the Approval of Information Collection Requirements (United States)


    .... Documenting Family Relationship . An employer may require an employee giving notice of the need for FMLA leave to provide reasonable documentation or statement of family relationship. This ] documentation may... Pending Cancellation of Health Benefits: 5 minutes. Documenting Family Relationship: 5...

  14. ... But employer need not be a mind reader. Lanier v. Univ. of Texas SW Med. Ctr., 527 Fed. Appx. 312 (5th Cir. 2013). (United States)


    While employees need not use the specific words "FMLA leave" when providing such a request, they need to provide sufficient notice to the employer to make it aware of their needs for qualified leave. PMID:25181817

  15. The Risk Evaluation of Agricultural High-tech Investment Project%农业高新技术投资项目风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆迁; 苗姗姗


    The agricultural high-tech investment project (AHIP) is characterized by technology-intensive, high risk and great profit. This article analyzes essential factors of the risks of the agricultural high-tech investment projects and the traditional risk evaluation method of agricultural projects. We think that the applications of the sensitivity analysis and probability are defective. Therefore, this article introduces a structural model to evaluate the risks of the agricultural high-tech investment projects and the system of the concrete evaluation indexes.

  16. Family and Medical Leave Act; Definition of Spouse. Final rule. (United States)


    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses. PMID:27066615

  17. 29 CFR 825.101 - Purpose of the Act. (United States)


    ... of the Fourteenth Amendment in minimizing the potential for employment discrimination on the basis of sex, while promoting equal employment opportunity for men and women. (b) The FMLA was predicated on... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE...

  18. 29 CFR 825.210 - Employee payment of group health benefit premiums. (United States)


    ... the new premium rates. Maintenance of health insurance policies which are not a part of the employer's... FMLA leave is unpaid, the employer has a number of options for obtaining payment from the employee. The... charge may be added to the employee's premium payment for administrative expenses. The employer...

  19. 29 CFR 825.201 - Leave to care for a parent. (United States)


    ... foster care, or to care for a parent, the husband and wife would each be entitled to the difference... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave to care for a parent. 825.201 Section 825.201 Labor....201 Leave to care for a parent. (a) General rule. An eligible employee is entitled to FMLA leave...

  20. 29 CFR 825.304 - Employee failure to provide notice. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee failure to provide notice. 825.304 Section 825.304 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS... actions are taken in a manner that does not discriminate against employees taking FMLA leave and the...

  1. 29 CFR 825.209 - Maintenance of employee benefits. (United States)


    ... not increase in the event the employment relationship terminates. (b) The same group health plan..., hospital care, dental care, eye care, mental health counseling, substance abuse treatment, etc., must be... FMLA ceases if and when the employment relationship would have terminated if the employee had not...

  2. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave). (United States)


    ... may take leave to care for the covered servicemember in a continuous block of time or on an... is sufficient certification for an employee entitled to take FMLA leave to care for a covered... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification for leave taken to care for a...

  3. 29 CFR 825.312 - Fitness-for-duty certification. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fitness-for-duty certification. 825.312 Section 825.312... § 825.312 Fitness-for-duty certification. (a) As a condition of restoring an employee whose FMLA leave... provider to provide the information directly to the employer) in the fitness-for-duty certification...

  4. 29 CFR 825.311 - Intent to return to work. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intent to return to work. 825.311 Section 825.311 Labor... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.311 Intent to return to work. (a) An employer may require an employee on FMLA leave to report periodically...

  5. 29 CFR 825.214 - Employee right to reinstatement. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee right to reinstatement. 825.214 Section 825.214... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.214 Employee right to reinstatement. General rule. On return from FMLA leave,...

  6. 29 CFR 825.219 - Rights of a key employee. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights of a key employee. 825.219 Section 825.219 Labor....219 Rights of a key employee. (a) An employer who believes that reinstatement may be denied to a key... recover its cost of health benefit premiums. A key employee's rights under FMLA continue unless and...

  7. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for adoption or foster care. 825.121 Section 825.121... Leave for adoption or foster care. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for placement with the employee of a son or daughter for adoption or foster care as follows: (1) Employees...

  8. 29 CFR 825.127 - Leave to care for a covered servicemember with a serious injury or illness. (United States)


    ... covered servicemember's biological, adopted, or foster child, stepchild, legal ward, or a child for whom... for purposes of military caregiver leave under the FMLA. When no such designation is made, and there... 12-month periods” corresponding to the different military caregiver leave entitlements overlap,...

  9. Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act (United States)

    Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.


    In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that…

  10. Predicting Future Information Resource Utilization Under Conditions of Scarcity: The First Cohort Study in Health Sciences Librarianship. A review of: Postell, William Dosité. “Further Comments on the Mathematical Analysis of Evaluating Scientific Journals.” Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 34.2 (1946: 107-9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Eldredge


    Full Text Available Objective – To predict future use of journal titles for making subscription decisions.Design – Retrospective cohort study.Setting – Louisiana State University School of Medicine Library in New Orleans.Subjects – All library users, estimated to consist of primarily faculty members or their designees such as research assistants.Methods – Estelle Brodman’s previous citation analysis and reputational analysis (1944 that produced a list of eleven top-ranked physiology journal titles served as the catalyst for Postell’s retrospective cohort study. Postell compiled data on all checkouts for these specific eleven journal titles in his library for the years 1939 through approximately 1945.Main Results – Postell performed a Spearman rank-difference test on the rankings produced from his own circulation use data in order to compare it against journal title rankings produced from three other sources: (1 citation analysis from the references found in the Annual Review of Physiology based upon a system pioneered in 1927 by Gross and Gross; (2 three leading national physiology journals; and, (3 a reputational analysis list of top-ranked journals provided by the faculty members at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons Department of Physiology. Postell found a relatively high correlation (.755, with 1.000 equaling a perfect correlation between his retrospective cohort usage data and the reputational analysis list of top-ranked journals generated by the Columbia faculty members. The two citation analyses performed by Brodman did not correlate as highly with Postell’s results. Conclusion – Brodman previously had questioned the use of citation analysis for journal subscription purchase decisions. Postell’s retrospective cohort study produced further evidence against basing subscription purchases on citation analysis. Postell noted that the citation analysis method “cannot always be relied upon as a valid criterion” for

  11. 触觉刺激三叉神经上颌支面部支配区的功能性MRI研究%Brain Activity and Facial Tactile in Trigeminal Maxillary Division: An Functional MRI Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家; 刘洪臣; 李科; 金真; 朱霞


    Objective: To evaluate the brain cortical response to facial tactile in maxillary trigeminal division. Methods; 8 healthy volunteers participated in the study. Cotton-tipped swab stimuli was applied to right side of face in maxillary trigeminal division, and block designed BOLD functional MRI scan covering the whole brain was carried out. Results: Increased BOLD signals during tactile stimulation were found in left SI (BA3), insula/SII, Brodman's area 22,45, and right Brodman's area 40,9,38,41. Conclusion:Tactile stimuli activated contralateral primary, secondary somatosensory cortex, superior temporal gyrus, ipsilateral postcentral gyrus , inferior temporal gyrus, transverse temporal gyrus, bilateral prefrontal cortex .%目的:观察触觉刺激三叉神经上颌支(简称V2)面部支配区引起的大脑中枢反应区.方法:选取8名健康志愿者.用棉签刺激右侧面部三叉神经上颌支的支配区,采用触觉刺激减静息的组块设计方法,采集全脑血氧水平依赖对比的功能性MRI扫描数据.结果:脑激活区为左侧初级躯体感觉皮质(BA3)、岛叶/SII、BA22、BA45,右侧BA40、BA9 、BA38 、BA41.结论:对侧初级躯体感觉皮质、岛叶/SII和颞上回,同侧中央后回、颞下回和颞横回及双侧前额皮质是面部V2区触觉刺激激活的脑部功能区.

  12. Effect of pre-fracture mobility on the early post-operative functional outcome in elderly patients with a hip fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adam


    Full Text Available Background: Hip fractures are among the most commoncauses of disability and hospitalisation in the elderly. There are no studies inSouth Africa that determine the effect of pre-fracture functional mobility onearly post-operative functional outcome in elderly patients with a hip fracture.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-fracture functionalmobility on early post-operative functional outcome in elderly patients with ahip fracture.Methodology: A prospective pre-test post-test observational study designwas done. Assessments were conducted pre-operatively, at discharge and sixweeks post discharge at two public hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Thepre-fracture functional mobility of the participants was determined using theNew Mobility Score (NMS pre-operatively. At discharge and at six weeks post discharge the participants post-operative functionallevel was assessed using the Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS.Results: More than two thirds of participants were independently mobile prior to the fracture. Pre-fracture functional mobilityis a strong determinant of early post operative functional outcome in elderly patients with a hip fracture(β = 1.39, p = 0.0001.Conclusion: Independent pre-fracture mobility predicts better early post-operative functional outcomes in the elderly.

  13. The functional architecture of the left posterior and lateral prefrontal cortex in humans. (United States)

    Volle, Emmanuelle; Kinkingnéhun, Serge; Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Mondon, Karl; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Seassau, Magali; Duffau, Hugues; Samson, Yves; Dubois, Bruno; Levy, Richard


    The anatomical and functional organization of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is one of the most debated issues in cognitive and integrative neurosciences. The aim of this study is to determine whether the human LPFC is organized according to the domain of information, to the level of the processing or to both of these dimensions. In order to clarify this issue, we have designed an experimental protocol that combines a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in healthy subjects (n = 12) and a voxel-by-voxel lesion mapping study in patients with focal prefrontal lesions (n = 37) compared with normal controls (n = 48). Each method used the same original cognitive paradigm ("the domain n-back tasks") that tests by a cross-dimensional method the domain of information (verbal, spatial, faces) and the level of processing (from 1- to 3-back). Converging data from the 2 methods demonstrate that the left posterior LPFC is critical for the higher levels of cognitive control and is organized into functionally different subregions (Brodman's area 9/46, 6/8/9, and 44/45). These findings argue in favor of a hybrid model of organization of the left posterior LPFC in which domain-oriented (nonspatial and spatially oriented) and cross-domain executive-dependent regions coexist, reconciling previously divergent data.

  14. Comparison between the standard SPM2 template and Korean-standard template in FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Lee, Byeong Il; Song, Ho Chun; Min, Jung Joon; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The preprocessing step of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) requires the procedure of spatial normalization that consists of applying the nonlinear deformations needed to force every particular PET scan to match a reference template. The purpose of this study is to asses the statistic influence of using 2 different templates (the standard SPM2-PET template and Korean-standard PET template) in the normalization. We compared the regional metabolic patterns on 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) images obtained from 4 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 16 normal subjects. The statistical outcome of between- group comparison was analyzed with SPM2 and was applied into two levels of thresholds (an uncorrected P value of P <0.001, a corrected P value of P < 0.05). As a result, the most significant hypometabolic region was commonly found in the left temporal gyrus regardless of template type or thresholds. However, inconsistent results including different extent and the t-score statistics representing metabolic changes could be also observed between two templates. While the standard SPM2 template showed hypometabolic regions corresponding to Brodman area (BA) 7 and 9, Korean-standard template was not observed these regions. In addition, hypometabolic regions corresponding to BA 38 and 46 indicated not the standard SPM2 template but Korean-standard template. Statistic result showed that the standard SPM2 template effectively reflects the dorsal region of the brain while Korean-standard template is more sensitive to the medial region of the brain.

  15. Allowable shipment frequencies for the transport of toxic gases near nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One part of the safety analysis of offsite hazards for a nuclear power plant is consideration of accidents which could release toxic gases or vapors and thus jeopardize plant safety through incapacitation of the control room operators. The purpose of this work is to provide generic, bounding estimates of the maximum allowable shipping frequencies for the transport of a chemical near the plant, such that the regulatory criteria for the protection of the operators are met. A probabilistic methodology was developed and then applied to the truck and rail transport of an example chemical, chlorine. The current regulatory criteria are discussed in detail. For this study, a maximum allowable probability of occurrence of operator incapacitation of 10-5 per year was used in the example calculation for each mode of transport. Comprehensive tables of conditional probabilities are presented. Maximum allowable ahipping frequencies are then derived. These frequencies could be used as part of a generic, bounding criterion for the screening of toxic hazards safety analyses. Unless a transport survey assures shipping frequencies within 8 km of the plant on the order of or lower than 4/week for rail or 35/week for truck, the contol room should be isolatable and the shipping frequency then determines the degree of isolation needed. The need for isolation implies the need for toxic chemical detection at the air intake.For a self-detection case in which the smell threshold is significantly lower than the incapacitation threshold and the control room is isolatable, the corresponding trequencies are 11/week for rail or 115/week for truck. Self-contained breathing equipment is assumed to be used after 5 minutes

  16. Nicotine effects on regional cerebral blood flow in awake, resting tobacco smokers. (United States)

    Domino, E F; Minoshima, S; Guthrie, S; Ohl, L; Ni, L; Koeppe, R A; Zubieta, J K


    The hypothesis for this research was that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) would increase following nasal nicotine administration to overnight abstinent tobacco smokers in relationship to the known brain distribution of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs). Nine male and nine female healthy adult smokers were studied. They abstained overnight from tobacco products for 10 or more hours prior to study the next morning. Nicotine nasal spray was given in doses of 1-2.5 mg total with half in each nostril while the subject was awake and resting in a supine position. Oleoresin of pepper solution in a similar volume was used as an active placebo to control for the irritating effects of nicotine. Both substances were given single blind to the subjects. Positron emission tomography (PET) with H(2)(15)O was used to measure rCBF. The data from each subject volunteer were normalized to global activity to better assess regional brain changes. Both nasal nicotine and pepper spray produced similar increases in CBF in somesthetic area II, consistent with the irritant effects of both substances. The mean rCBF effects of nasal pepper were subtracted from those of nasal nicotine to determine the actions of nicotine alone. The latter produced increases in rCBF in the thalamus, pons, Brodman area 17 of the visual cortex, and cerebellum. Some brain areas that contain a large number of nAChRs, such as the thalamus, showed an increase in CBF. Other areas that have few nAChRs, such as the cerebellum, also showed an increase in relative CBF. The hippocampal/parahippocampal areas showed greater regional decreases (left) and lesser increases (right) in CBF that correlated with the increase in plasma arterial nicotine concentrations. The results obtained indicate complex primary and secondary effects of nicotine in which only some regional brain CBF changes correlate with the known distribution of nAChR. No gender differences were noted. PMID:11020234

  17. The work of Emil Kraepelin and his research group in München. (United States)

    Hippius, Hanns; Müller, Norbert


    Emil Kraepelin is well known due to his development of the psychiatric classification. The ICD-10 and DSM-IV classification is based on the dichotomy of endogenous psychoses into affective psychoses and schizophrenia as early as 1899. Moreover, beside his classification system he put enormous impact on the development of psychiatry to an empirical field of science. The research activities of Kraepelin and his coworkers show that he was not only the most active researcher in the field of psychiatry in his time but also that his research activities included a lot of clinical and experimental work in different disciplines of psychiatry, including psychology, pharmacology and natural sciences as 'Hilfswissenschaften'. Due to his extraordinary position also in his time he brought together important researchers of this time, in particular after the foundation of a psychiatric research institute. Alois Alzheimer, Franz Nissl, Robert Gaupp, or Korbinian Brodman are only a few of his well known coworkers. Kraepelin tried to bring foreward the empirical knowledge in psychiatry, he did not want to have cessation in psychiatry in general and in the classification of psychiatric disorders in particular. He discussed and partly revisted his view and his theoretical approach in the different editions of his textbook according to the state of his empirical knowledge. This is also true for the dichotomy. More than twenty years after the 6th edition of his textbook, he wrote in an essay 'Die Erscheinungsformen des Irreseins' ('The manifestations of insanity') regarding the dichotomy: "No experienced diagnostician would deny that cases where it seems impossible to arrive to a clear decision, despite extremely careful observation, are unpleasantly frequent." and "....therefore, the increasingly obvious impossibility to separate the two respective illnesses satisfactorily should raise the suspicion that our question is wrong". This contribution shows that Kraepelin himself questioned

  18. Parenting and the workplace: The construction of parenting protections in United States law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichner Maxine


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, I discuss the shortcomings of the legal protections that exist for pregnancy, breastfeeding, and parenting for United States' workers. The two main sources of protection for pregnancy and parenting in United States employment law are the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA and the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA. Both, I argue, contain inadequate protections for the needs of pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers, as well as their infants. I consider what it is about the way these statutes conceptualize the needs of pregnant women, mothers, and their babies, that prevents more robust protection of their needs. I then compare the minimal protection afforded American women and families with more progressive policies in other countries to highlight the possibilities that arise when the state affirmatively supports working parents and their children.

  19. Clinical application of versapulse laser in the treatment of skin pigmentation diseases (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Li; Yuan, Wai-Hua; Yuan, Wei-Wei; Fu, Qiang


    387 cases of various skin pigmentous diseases were treated by Versapulse 'C' laser in our department Versapulse 'C' laser consist of 4 kinds of laser with wavelength of VP532nm, Q532nrn, Q755nm, Q1064nm. The vascular lesions, prot wine strain, cherry angioma, strawberry nevus, perckles, solar lentigines, melasma and junctional moles were treated by VP532 or Q532 laser; the nevus of Ota and tattoo were treated by Q755 or Q1064 laser. Satisfactory results were obtained in this paper, we also discussed the therapeutic and the main points of varying diseases with varying laser of wavelength, the use of FMLA anesthesia, controlled cold therapy an the physical protection to laser.

  20. Functional MRI activation of primary and secondary motor areas in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghai Li; Honghan Gong; Xiangzuo Xiao; Jinhua Wan


    images.Active signal changes in the primary(M1)and secondary motor(M2)areas,as well as the relationship between the hand knobs and M1 area activation,were analyzed.Region of interest was selected for signal change quantitative graphic analysis.RESULTS:All 7 enrolled volunteers were included in the final analysis.In the present study,hand knob structures were recognized on Tl-weighted images in all subjects and were omega-shaped in the axial plane.Significant functional activations were observed in the contralateral primary motor area of all subjects. Activation signals were distributed mainly in the central sulcus around the hand knob.The contralateral primary sensory(S1)cortex was activated in most cases,and ipsilateral M1 was activated in 3 subjects. Contralateral or bilateral supplementary motor area(SMA)was also activated in 6 cases.Premotor area,or super parietal lobe,was activated in two subjects.Three-dimensional reconstruction demonstrated that the active signal of M1 was primarily located at the middle-lateral surface of the contralateral precentral gyrus in Brodman's area 4,and the signal of SMA activation was located in the mesial surface of the premotor area. CONCLUSION:The knob structure of the precentral gyrus is the representative motor area for hand movement.The cerebral cortical motor network was extensively activated during voluntary hand movements in normal subjects.In alert,conscious human subjects,the activated fMRI signal safely and non-invasively localized and lateralized the motor cortical activity associated with simple voluntary repetitive hand movements.Whether higher cognitive functions,such as perception and speech,can be similarly mapped using the fMRI technique and the BOLD method remains to be determined in future well-designed human studies.