WorldWideScience

Sample records for brochure english version

  1. Antimatter brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Antimatter is the twin to matter, with an opposite electric charge. When they meet, they annihilate each other. In the first moments of the Universe there was a balance between antimatter and matter, but a second after the Big Bang, all the antimatter disappeared along with almost all of the matter, leaving a minute amount of matter that forms everything around us. Scientists are now trying to unravel the mystery of what happened to the antimatter.

  2. ALICE brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  3. ALICE brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE studies the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  4. CMS brochure (English version)

    CERN Document Server

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    CMS is the heaviest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which has started up in 2008. A multi-purpose detector, CMS is composed of several systems built around a powerful superconducting magnet.

  5. LHCb brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. LHCb studies a phenomenon which could partly explain why the Universe is all matter and practically no antimatter.

  6. LHC brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2010-01-01

    A presentation of the largest and the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which started up in 2008. Its role, characteristics, technologies, etc. are explained for the general public.

  7. LHC brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    A presentation of the largest and the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which started up in 2008. Its role, characteristics, technologies, etc. are explained for the general public.

  8. LHC brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2009-01-01

    A presentation of the largest and the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which started up in 2008. Its role, characteristics, technologies, etc. are explained for the general public.

  9. ATLAS Brochure (english version)

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  10. CMS Brochure (english version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, F.

    2006-01-01

    CMS is the heaviest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. A multi-purpose detector, CMS is composed of several systems built around a powerful superconducting magnet.

  11. ISOLDE brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2010-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility uses protons from CERN's accelerator complex to produce exotic nuclei of most of the elements. These radioactive nuclei are used for basic research in many areas of science: nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, atomic physics, condensed matter physics, radiobiology, and elementary particle physics.

  12. ISOLDE brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility uses protons from CERN's accelerator complex to produce exotic nuclei of most of the elements. These radioactive nuclei are used for basic research in many areas of science: nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, atomic physics, condensed matter physics, radiobiology, and elementary particle physics.

  13. ATLAS Brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  14. ATLAS Brochure (english version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, F

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  15. TOTEM brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    The TOTal cross section, Elastic scattering and diffraction dissociation Measurement at the LHC (TOTEM) experiment is designed to investigate the protons in the LHC collisions. By making precise measurements on particles that emerge from collisions very close to the direction of the LHC beams, the "forward" direction, TOTEM probes physics that is not easily accessible by other LHC experiments.

  16. LHCf brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's upper atmosphere is constantly hit by particles called cosmic rays, producing many secondary particles that collide with nuclei in the atmosphere. LHCf is designed to detect these secondary particles from ultra-high-energy cosmic rays to help confirm the theoretical models that explain what happens when these cosmic rays enter the atmosphere.

  17. CLIC brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    The world's biggest and most powerful accelerator, the LHC, is mapping the route of particle physics for the future. The next step, to complement the LHC in exploring this new region, is most likely to be a linear electron-positron collider. The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a novel approach to such a collider. It is currently under development by the CLIC collaboration, which is hosted at CERN.

  18. Technology Transfer brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2007-01-01

    A brief overview of how CERN's pioneering technologies for scientific research have branched out into various fields. Medicine, industrial processes, information and communication technology, as well as environment and energy fields make use of these innovative developments.

  19. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies (English/Portuguese Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This English/Portuguese brochure describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  20. [Coyote Tales. English Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Roy; And Others

    Hopi storytellers told, in Hopi, 20 stories for this supplementary reading series. Each story was translated into English, graded (1.1 to 3.8), and illustrated. These stories normally serve to entertain as well as to instruct both children and adults during the winter nights. Several of the stories have Coyote as the central character. He typifies…

  1. Medialogy (English Information Brochure on the education M.Sc.,Medialogy, 3rd to 10th semester (B.Sc. & M.Sc) - For graduates from higher study programmes such as Multimedia Design and IT Graduates)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    An information brochure, 24 pages, in English which describes the education M.Sc., Medialogy, offered by Aalborg University in Copenhagen and Esbjerg. The brochure describes the 3rd to 10th semester (B.Sc. and M.Sc. degree) of the education. The information is primarily directed toward potential...

  2. Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, Version 2. English translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, Version 2 essentially includes the description of the Supplement Report to the Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, released in 1995, into the first version of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, published in 1988. The following two points are new: (1) exemplifying safety margins related to modeled dissolution and extraction processes, (2) describing evaluation methods and alarm system for criticality accidents. Revision has been made based on previous studies for the chapter that treats modeling the fuel system: e.g., the fuel grain size that the system can be regarded as homogeneous, non-uniformity effect of fuel solution, an burnup credit. This revision has solved the inconsistencies found in the first version between the evaluation of errors found in JACS code system and the criticality condition data that were calculated based on the evaluation. This report is an English translation of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, Version 2, originally published in Japanese as JAERI 1340 in 1999. (author)

  3. Analysis of 4 English Versions of Classical Chinese Poem Guanju

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奋

    2009-01-01

    Xu Yuanzhong, the famous Chinese transhtor, has put forward his popular theories--the Theory of Three Beauties and the Theory of Rivalry, which are held as judging standard in this essay in the analysis of four different English versions of Chinese poem Guanju. It is also pointed out that Xu yuanzhong's theories opens up new horizons for both transhtors and appreciators in the field of poem translation.

  4. LHC Brochure (norwegian version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, F

    2006-01-01

    A presentation of the largest and the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will start-up in 2008. Its role, characteristics, technologies, etc. are explained for the general public.

  5. LHC brochure (Norwegian version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2009-01-01

    A presentation of the largest and the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will start up in 2008. Its role, characteristics, technologies, etc. are explained for the general public.

  6. ALICE brochure (Norwegian version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2009-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  7. ATLAS brochure (Norwegian version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter. Français

  8. CMS brochure (Greek version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefèvre, C

    2006-01-01

    CMS is the heaviest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. A multi-purpose detector, CMS is composed of several systems built around a powerful superconducting magnet.

  9. LHC brochure (Greek version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefèvre, C

    2006-01-01

    A presentation of the largest and the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will start-up in 2008. Its role, characteristics, technologies, etc. are explained for the general public.

  10. ALICE brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  11. ALICE brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  12. ALICE brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  13. LHCb brochure (Italian version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. LHCb studies a phenomenon which could partly explain why the Universe is all matter and practically no antimatter.

  14. LHCb brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. LHCb studies a phenomenon which could partly explain why the Universe is all matter and practically no antimatter.

  15. Antimatter brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2009-01-01

    Antimatter is the twin to matter, with an opposite electric charge. When they meet, they annihilate each other. In the first moments of the Universe there was a balance between antimatter and matter, but a second after the Big Bang, all the antimatter disappeared along with almost all of the matter, leaving a minute amount of matter that forms everything around us. Scientists are now trying to unravel the mystery of what happened to the antimatter.

  16. LHC brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    A presentation of the largest and the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which started up in 2008. Its role, characteristics, technologies, etc. are explained for the general public.

  17. LHC brochure (Italian version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    A presentation of the largest and the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which started up in 2008. Its role, characteristics, technologies, etc. are explained for the general public.

  18. LHC brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    A presentation of the largest and the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will start-up in 2008. Its role, characteristics, technologies, etc. are explained for the general public.

  19. LHC brochure (Danish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2010-01-01

    A presentation of the largest and the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which started up in 2008. Its role, characteristics, technologies, etc. are explained for the general public.

  20. LHC brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2010-01-01

    A presentation of the largest and the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which started up in 2008. Its role, characteristics, technologies, etc. are explained for the general public.

  1. LHC brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    A presentation of the largest and the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which started up in 2008. Its role, characteristics, technologies, etc. are explained for the general public.

  2. CMS brochure (Polish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    CMS is the heaviest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. A multi-purpose detector, CMS is composed of several systems built around a powerful superconducting magnet.

  3. CMS Brochure (italian version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, F

    2007-01-01

    CMS is the heaviest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. A multi-purpose detector, CMS is composed of several systems built around a powerful superconducting magnet.

  4. CMS Brochure (french version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, F.

    2006-01-01

    CMS is the heaviest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. A multi-purpose detector, CMS is composed of several systems built around a powerful superconducting magnet.

  5. CMS Brochure (german version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, F

    2007-01-01

    CMS is the heaviest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. A multi-purpose detector, CMS is composed of several systems built around a powerful superconducting magnet.

  6. CMS brochure (Catalan version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    CMS is the heaviest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. A multi-purpose detector, CMS is composed of several systems built around a powerful superconducting magnet.

  7. CMS brochure (Italian version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2010-01-01

    CMS is the heaviest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. A multi-purpose detector, CMS is composed of several systems built around a powerful superconducting magnet.

  8. ISOLDE brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility uses protons from CERN's accelerator complex to produce exotic nuclei of most of the elements. These radioactive nuclei are used for basic research in many areas of science: nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, atomic physics, condensed matter physics, radiobiology, and elementary particle physics.

  9. ATLAS brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  10. ATLAS brochure (Danish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  11. ATLAS brochure (Italian version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  12. ATLAS brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  13. ATLAS brochure (Catalan version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  14. ATLAS Brochure (german version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, F

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  15. ATLAS brochure (Polish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  16. ATLAS Brochure (french version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, F

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  17. CMS brochure (Spanish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    CMS is the heaviest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. A multi-purpose detector, CMS is composed of several systems built around a powerful superconducting magnet.

  18. ALICE brochure (Spanish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  19. LHC brochure (Spanish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    A presentation of the largest and the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will start-up in 2008. Its role, characteristics, technologies, etc. are explained for the general public.

  20. ATLAS brochure (Spanish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  1. LHCb brochure (Spanish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. LHCb will study a phenomenon which could partly explain why the Universe is all matter and practically no antimatter.

  2. 48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section 52.225-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-14 Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. As prescribed in 25.1103(b), insert the following clause: Inconsistency Between English...

  3. Antimatter brochure (English)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2009-01-01

    Antimatter is the twin to matter, with an opposite electric charge. When they meet, they annihilate each other. In the first moments of the Universe there was a balance between antimatter and matter, but a second after the Big Bang, all the antimatter disappeared along with almost all of the matter, leaving a minute amount of matter that forms everything around us. Scientists are now trying to unravel the mystery of what happened to the antimatter.

  4. CMS brochure (English)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2009-01-01

    CMS is the heaviest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. A multi-purpose detector, CMS is composed of several systems built around a powerful superconducting magnet.

  5. Some Thoughts on the English Version of "Fu Wa"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易高燕

    2009-01-01

    There have been many disputes about the translation of the Beijing 2008 Olympiad Mascots since it was first announced in 2005.And it was at last translated directly as the Chinese phonetic alphabet " Fu Wa".So this essay is going to explore some ideas of the English translation of "Fu Wa",and meanwhile discuss some translation approaches of culture-loaded words.

  6. Technology Transfer brochure (Polish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    A brief overview of how CERN's pioneering technologies for scientific research have branched out into various fields. Medicine, industrial processes, information and communication technology, as well as environment and energy fields make use of these innovative developments.

  7. Technology Transfer brochure (Swedish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    A brief overview of how CERN's pioneering technologies for scientific research have branched out into various fields. Medicine, industrial processes, information and communication technology, as well as environment and energy fields make use of these innovative developments.

  8. Do English and Chinese EQ-5D versions demonstrate measurement equivalence? an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Swee-Cheng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although multiple language versions of health-related quality of life instruments are often used interchangeably in clinical research, the measurement equivalence of these versions (especially using alphabet vs pictogram-based languages has rarely been assessed. We therefore investigated the measurement equivalence of English and Chinese versions of the EQ-5D, a widely used utility-based outcome instrument. Methods In a cross-sectional study, either EQ-5D version was administered to consecutive outpatients with rheumatic diseases. Measurement equivalence of EQ-5D item responses and utility and visual analog scale (EQ-VAS scores between these versions was assessed using multiple regression models (with and without adjusting for potential confounding variables, by comparing the 95% confidence interval (95%CI of score differences between these versions with pre-defined equivalence margins. An equivalence margin defined a magnitude of score differences (10% and 5% of entire score ranges for item responses and utility/EQ-VAS scores, respectively which was felt to be clinically unimportant. Results Sixty-six subjects completed the English and 48 subjects the Chinese EQ-5D. The 95%CI of the score differences between these versions overlapped with but did not fall completely within pre-defined equivalence margins for 4 EQ-5D items, utility and EQ-VAS scores. For example, the 95%CI of the adjusted score difference between these EQ-5D versions was -0.14 to +0.03 points for utility scores and -11.6 to +3.3 points for EQ-VAS scores (equivalence margins of -0.05 to +0.05 and -5.0 to +5.0 respectively. Conclusion These data provide promising evidence for the measurement equivalence of English and Chinese EQ-5D versions.

  9. I Ching and Two of Its English Versions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雯

    2007-01-01

    I Ching, the essence of Chinese culture, has a history of three thousand years.It embodies a kind of philosophy, wisdom,even a kind of science, and greatly influeaces Chinese civilization.However, for its special style and abstract content, I Ching's meaning is far to reach, especially for foreigners.This paper is going to compare two well-known English editions from the aspects of comprehension, wording and expression.The author attempts to primarily probe into the practice and skills of the translation of I Ching.

  10. Examination of a short English version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyders, Melissa A; Littlefield, Andrew K; Coffey, Scott; Karyadi, Kenny A

    2014-09-01

    The current study examines a recently developed short English version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale. Participants were 251 undergraduate students (59.3% male; mean age=21.16 (SD=4.18); 72% Caucasian). The short version generally replicated the internal consistency (0.74-0.88 across subscales) and inter-scale correlations of the full English UPPS-P. Moreover, the estimated loss of shared variance was small (0%-6.4% reductions across subscales) as compared to a 66% time-savings. Structural equation modeling replicated previously supported factor structures and relationships to external outcomes using the full UPPS-P. This short UPPS-P scale should be considered a valid and reliable alternative to the full UPPS-P in English-speaking non-clinical adult samples. PMID:24636739

  11. Linguistic measures of the referential process in psychodynamic treatment: the English and Italian versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Rachele; Maskit, Bernard; Bucci, Wilma; De Coro, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    The referential process is defined in the context of Bucci's multiple code theory as the process by which nonverbal experience is connected to language. The English computerized measures of the referential process, which have been applied in psychotherapy research, include the Weighted Referential Activity Dictionary (WRAD), and measures of Reflection, Affect and Disfluency. This paper presents the development of the Italian version of the IWRAD by modeling Italian texts scored by judges, and shows the application of the IWRAD and other Italian measures in three psychodynamic treatments evaluated for personality change using the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200). Clinical predictions based on applications of the English measures were supported.

  12. A Reception Aesthetic View of Three English Versions of CHUN XIAO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕飞; 张燕玲

    2014-01-01

    Chun Xiao, a famous Tang poetry, written by Meng Haoran, has been translated by some great translators. In translat⁃ing poems, what is important is not only the transferring of the intended meaning of the source language into target language, but keeping its literariness, i.e. the style of the original text. Three English versions are selected to make a comparative study from the perspective of reception aesthetics in terms of lexicon, rhyme and syntax.

  13. A Constructive Study of Cohesion Between Autumn in Peiping and Its English version

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁杰阁

    2014-01-01

    Cohesion refers to the relations of meaning that exist within the text, and also defines it as a text. According to Holli-day, discoursal/textual cohesiveness can be realized by employing various cohesive devices: conjunction, ellipsis, lexical colloca-tion, lexical repetition, reference, substitution, etc. This paper attempts to analyze the differences between Autumn in Peiping and its English version from grammatical and lexical aspects.

  14. THE QUALITY OF ENGLISH TRANSLATION VERSION OF BILINGUAL BOOKS FOR PHYSICS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djatmika

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the quality of English translation of the course books of Physics, Economics, and History for Junior High School students in Indonesia. The research which becomes the base for the article is qualitative, conducted on five English version texts of bilingual books for Junior High School students in Indonesia. It selected one chapter of each book and analyzed the quality of its text structure as well as its text texture. The data were in the forms of discourse units and analyzed on the quality of the text structure and aspects of grammar quality such as the grammatical construction of the clauses and the lexical choices of the texts. In addition, it obtained data related to the readability of the texts from twenty students who were selected randomly. The results show that all of the English texts have good quality in their text structure. However, the grammar and choice of words show a number of weaknesses in each text. Text improvement should consider English grammatical rules and systems and Indonesian language interference for English grammatical constructions, word choice and technical terms.

  15. A Comparative Study on the Two English Versions of Lu Xun’s Stories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shi-pei

    2015-01-01

    The two English versions of Lu Xun’s stories, translated by Julia Lovell and the Rangs, are to be studied from the eco-translatological perspective. A comparative study of the two English versions is made to figure out how the two translators linguis⁃tically and culturally make adaptive selections in the process of translation of Lu Xun ’s stories—In other words, how the eco-en⁃vironment has greatly influenced the two translators’decisions to make adaptations and choices in linguistic and cultural aspects. The thesis discovers that the eco-environment has greatly influenced the process of translating Lu Xun ’s stories into English and eco-translatology is feasible to analyze the two translations, that both the Yangs and Lovell have offered successful translations by making adaptive selections and selective transformations. Therefore, neither of the two translations is superior or inferior to one another in different translational eco-environments. Hopefully, the thesis may enrich current researches on the Yang ’s and Lovell’s translations and may be useful for the further study of applying eco-translatology to studies on other translators and their works.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of English and Chinese Versions of Twilight from the Perspective of Three Metafunctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雪莹

    2013-01-01

    The Twilight Saga written by American novelist Stephenie Meyer, tells the love story about an ordinary girl, Bella, and a handsome vampire, Edward. The novel sales hit the one hundred million mark from its release. And its Chinese version also gains much popularity among Chinese readers. Up to now, fantasy novel and its translation have drawn increasing attention of scholars from home and abroad. This paper focuses on a fantasy novel which has never been analyzed from this perspective. The paper makes a comparison between the English and Chinese versions of the novel Twilight from the perspective of Halliday’s three metafunctions, interpersonal function, ideational function and textual function, to give an in-depth study on the similarities and differences of two different languages and then put forward some beneficial suggestions for translators to understand and trans-late fantasy novel comprehensively.

  17. Psychometric Validation of the English and French Versions of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Andrea R.; Houle-Johnson, Stephanie; Herbert, Christophe; El-Hage, Wissam; Brunet, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of a French version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and to further validate the existing English version of the measure. Undergraduate students (n = 838 English, n = 262 French) completed the PCL-5 as well as other self-report symptom measures of PTSD and depression online. Both the English and French versions PCL-5 total scores demonstrated excellent internal consistency (English: α = .95; French: α = .94), and strong convergent and divergent validity. Strong internal consistency was also observed for each of the four subscales for each version (α’s > .79). Test-retest reliability for the French version of the measure was also very good (r = .89). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the four-factor DSM-5 model was not a good fit of the data. The seven-factor hybrid model best fit the data in each sample, but was only marginally superior to the six-factor anhedonia model. The French version of the PCL-5 demonstrated the same psychometric qualities as both the English version of the same measure and previous versions of the PCL. Thus clinicians serving French-speaking clients now have access to this highly used screening instrument. With regards to the structural validity of the PCL-5 and of the new PTSD diagnostic structure of the DSM-5, additional research is warranted. Replication of our results in clinical samples is much needed. PMID:27723815

  18. International Defense Acquisition Resource Mangement Program / IDARM Resident Course Offerings Brochure / March 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Elisabeth; Adame, Brooke Love; Schwellenbach, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Brochure includes course offerings, program overview, and contact information. Files for brochures in English, Spanish, French, and Arabic available for viewing. The International Defense Acquisition Resource Management (IDARM) program at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, offers a wide range of defense acquisition resource management programs to our partner nations. The IDARM program is intended to strengthen democratic relationships and internatio...

  19. Discrepancies between bilinguals' performance on the Spanish and English versions of the WAIS Digit Span task: Cross-cultural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Enrique; Steiner, Alexander J; Hardy, David J; IsHak, Waguih W; Anderson, W Brantley

    2016-01-01

    This study explored within-subjects differences in the performance of 40 bilingual participants on the English and Spanish versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Span task. To test the linguistic hypothesis that individuals would perform worse in Spanish because of its syllabic demand, we compared the number of syllables correctly recalled by each participant for every correct trial. Our analysis of the correct number of syllables remembered per trial showed that participants performed significantly better (i.e., recalling more syllables) in Spanish than in English on the total score. Findings suggest the Spanish version of the Digit Span (total score) was significantly more difficult than the English version utilizing traditional scoring methods. Moreover, the Forward Trial, rather than the Backward Trial, was more likely to show group differences between both language versions. Additionally, the Spanish trials of the Digit Span were correlated with language comprehension and verbal episodic memory measures, whereas the English trials of the Digit Span were correlated with confrontational naming and verbal fluency tasks. The results suggest that more research is necessary to further investigate other cognitive factors, rather than just syllabic demand, that might contribute to performance and outcome differences on the WAIS Digit Span in Spanish-English bilinguals.

  20. Discrepancies between bilinguals' performance on the Spanish and English versions of the WAIS Digit Span task: Cross-cultural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Enrique; Steiner, Alexander J; Hardy, David J; IsHak, Waguih W; Anderson, W Brantley

    2016-01-01

    This study explored within-subjects differences in the performance of 40 bilingual participants on the English and Spanish versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Span task. To test the linguistic hypothesis that individuals would perform worse in Spanish because of its syllabic demand, we compared the number of syllables correctly recalled by each participant for every correct trial. Our analysis of the correct number of syllables remembered per trial showed that participants performed significantly better (i.e., recalling more syllables) in Spanish than in English on the total score. Findings suggest the Spanish version of the Digit Span (total score) was significantly more difficult than the English version utilizing traditional scoring methods. Moreover, the Forward Trial, rather than the Backward Trial, was more likely to show group differences between both language versions. Additionally, the Spanish trials of the Digit Span were correlated with language comprehension and verbal episodic memory measures, whereas the English trials of the Digit Span were correlated with confrontational naming and verbal fluency tasks. The results suggest that more research is necessary to further investigate other cognitive factors, rather than just syllabic demand, that might contribute to performance and outcome differences on the WAIS Digit Span in Spanish-English bilinguals. PMID:26786894

  1. Destination Universe: The Incredible Journey of a Proton in the Large Hadron Collider (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    This brochure illustrates the incredible journey of a proton as he winds his way through the CERN accelerator chain and ends up inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC is CERN's flagship particle accelerator which can collide protons together at close to the speed of light, creating circumstances like those just seconds after the Big Bang.

  2. Prueba de Aptitud para el Aprendizaje de Lenguas Extranjeras (PAPALE) Language Aptitude Test (LAT) (First and Second Versions). English for Special Purposes. Emergency Care Attendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Gertrude

    This book contains two versions of the Language Aptitude Test. It is part of a package of materials developed for use in an English for Special Purposes project, which offers classes in reading, grammar, and emergency care attendant training for limited English proficient students. Introductory material describes the parts of two versions and…

  3. SALT 2010 Bilingual S/E Version: A Tool for Assessing the Language Production of Bilingual (Spanish/English) Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles; Rojas, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the language development of bilingual children can be a challenge--too often, children in the complex process of learning both Spanish and English are under- or over-diagnosed with language disorders. SLPs can change that with "SALT 2010 Bilingual S/E Version" for grades K-3, the first tool to comprehensively assess children's language…

  4. The Strategies of Metaphor translation in Yang Xianyi' English version of The True Story of Ah Q

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘露霞

    2008-01-01

    This essay takes Yang xianyi's English version of the true story of Ah Q as a sample, giving a summary on the strategies when dealing with the images in metaphor translation. The SL culture-orientated translation principles and methods play a major role in introducing the Chinese culture to the world.

  5. Self-Efficacy for Managing Work-Family Conflict: Validating the English Language Version of a Hebrew Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Kelly D.; Lent, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    The Self-Efficacy for Work-Family Conflict Management Scale (SE-WFC), developed in Israel, was designed to assess beliefs regarding one's ability to manage conflict between work and family roles. This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of an English language version of the SE-WFC in a sample of 159 working mothers in…

  6. Performance of bilingual speakers on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Deborah; Dempsey, James J

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the performance of bilingual participants on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). The participants were divided into an early bilingual (EB) group and a late bilingual (LB) group based on age of second-language acquisition. All participants acquired Spanish as their first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Care was taken to ensure that all participants demonstrated at least a "good competence level" for self-rated speaking, understanding, reading, and writing skills in both English and Spanish. Results revealed superior performance on the Spanish HINT versus the English HINT in both quiet and in noise for both groups of participants. Significant differences in performance were noted for the EB versus the LB participants. A number of possible explanations for superior performance in L1 are provided, and implications for educating students in their L2 are discussed.

  7. FCC Official Brochure - 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Charitos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The FCC brochure describes the main scope of the study and give more information about the main scenarios explored under the study. It also highlights the R&D efforts under the study that will go into a Conceptual Design Report. Finally, it offers more information about the collaboration and a list of useful contact details.

  8. CMS Comic Book Brochure

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    To raise students' awareness of what the CMS detector is, how it was constructed and what it hopes to find. Titled "CMS Particle Hunter," this colorful comic book style brochure explains to young budding scientists and science enthusiasts in colorful animation how the CMS detector was made, its main parts, and what scientists hope to find using this complex tool.

  9. Suitability assessment of health education brochures in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulat Jahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health education is the cornerstone of primary health care. Health education materials distributed to the community should, therefore, be suitable and effective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health education brochures, designed and disseminated by Ministry of Health institutions in the Qassim province. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional review of health education brochures. We used a structured evaluation form, comprising general information on the brochures and a modified Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM score sheet. The SAM consisting of 22 criteria in six groups, includes content, literacy demands, graphics, layout/typography, learning stimulation/motivation, and cultural appropriateness. SAM criteria categorize written material into "superior," "adequate" and "not suitable." Two qualified consultant family physicians evaluated the brochures. Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 3.4 statistical package. Results: We evaluated 110 brochures, the majority of which addressed chronic health conditions such as mental health, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Seventy-four (67.3% brochures were evaluated as "adequate," 34 (30.9% as "not suitable" and 2 (1.8% as "superior." "Cultural appropriateness" was the highest scoring factor, with 92 (83.6% brochures falling into either the "superior" or "adequate" category. With regard to "content," 88 (80.0% brochures fell into either the "superior" or "adequate" category. This was the second highest scoring factor. Graphics was the factor that scored the least. Seventy-five (68.2% brochures were rated in this factor as "not suitable." Conclusions: Although two-thirds of our brochures were considered "adequate," the majority needed improvement to their graphics and learning stimulation factors. We recommend that guidelines for designing health education brochures should be formulated to improve the quality of health education brochures.

  10. Developing effective marketing brochure

    OpenAIRE

    Semenenko, Vitalii

    2013-01-01

    Following report is produced with a goal of developing effective marketing communication channel (brochure) for a case company. Report covers findings in the areas of − model of communication − influences during communication process − target audience identification − decision-making process − types of decision-making process − role of marketing communication in decision-making − channels of marketing communication − practical recommendations from field expert Rep...

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation into Punjabi of the English version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Rod S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We wanted to use a Punjabi version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS to enable non-English speaking patients to participate in a clinical trial. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale into Punjabi. Methods The HADS was translated into Punjabi by a multidisciplinary team, verified against the original version, and administered to 73 bilingual patients attending an outpatient clinic. Results One sample t-tests and the Bland-Altman plots demonstrated acceptable linguistic agreement between the two versions of the HADS. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients (p Conclusion The Punjabi HADS is an acceptable, reliable and valid measure of anxiety and depression among physically ill Punjabi speaking people in the United Kingdom.

  12. SANREM-CRSP Kenya Brochure

    OpenAIRE

    Ongugo, Paul O.

    2007-01-01

    Brochure produced by Kenya research team to explain the SANREM project in Kenya. The brochure discusses the aim, objective, areas of coverage, current work and ways to learn more about the SANREM CRSP activities in Kenya. LTRA-1 (Decentralization Reforms and Property Rights)

  13. LEXICOGRAPHY. HISTORY OF ENGLISH, PART ONE. LANGUAGE CURRICULUM III, STUDENT VERSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    AN OUTLINE OF THE NEED FOR AND USES OF LEXICOGRAPHY AND A HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, PART 1, WERE COMBINED IN THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR NINTH-GRADE STUDENTS. THE FIRST SECTION, THE OUTLINE ON LEXICOGRAPHY, GAVE A BRIEF HISTORY OF DICTIONARY COMPILATION AND DESCRIBED THE NEED FOR DICTIONARIES AND THEIR USES. WAYS WERE SUGGESTED FOR STUDENTS…

  14. Analysis of problems in translation from the original English to the Spanish version of two American comedy series : 'Friends' and 'The big bang theory'

    OpenAIRE

    Reynès, Janie

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on two American TV shows, Friends and The Big Bang Theory. The analysis and comparison of translation segments of both shows in the original version in English and the dubbed version in Spanish enable the translation of humor in general to be studied, and, most specifically, culture-related humor. Some translation mistakes are also described. For each translation segment considered improvable a solution has been proposed. Both shows feature cultural references although F...

  15. “Hybridity”in Two English Versions of Tian-Jing-Sha-Qiusi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雪莹

    2013-01-01

    For Chinese poetry to be effectively translated into English, one should take many factors into account, such as the translation of images, the conveyance of the general mood, and cultural transmission. Therefore, poetry translation has long been regarded as a significant part of literature translation, which arouses much discussion on translation strategies and methodologies. As a representative of post-colonial theorists, Homi K. Bhabha proposes the notion of“Hybridity”, which sheds lights on the strategies and processes of translation. From the perspective of Hybridity, this paper makes a tentative analysis of two English ver⁃sions of the Chinese Qu poem Tian-Jing-Sha-Qiusi, emphasizing the hybrid of different cultures as an important approach to poetry translation.

  16. Validity and reliability of a modified english version of the physical activity questionnaire for adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Aggio, Daniel; Fairclough, Stuart; Knowles, Zoe; Graves, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Background Adaptation of physical activity self-report questionnaires is sometimes required to reflect the activity behaviours of diverse populations. The processes used to modify self-report questionnaires though are typically underreported. This two-phased study used a formative approach to investigate the validity and reliability of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) in English youth. Phase one examined test content and response process validity and subsequently in...

  17. Female Cross-Dressing in Chinese Literature Classics and their English Versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Bo Tso Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-dressing, as a cultural practice, suggests gender ambiguity and allows freedom of self expression. Yet, it may also serve to reaffirm ideological stereotypes and the binary distinctions between male and female, masculine and feminine, homosexual and heterosexual. To explore the nature and function of cross-dressing in Chinese and Western cultures, this paper analyzes the portrayals of cross-dressing heroines in two Chinese stories: The Ballad of Mulan (500-600 A.D., and The Butterfly Lovers (850-880 A.D.. Distorted representations in the English translated texts are also explored..

  18. Exploratory Psychometric Properties of the Farsi and English Versions of the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazi Nejat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to translate and test the psychometric properties of a Farsi and an English version of the spiritual needs questionnaire (SpNQ a measure originally developed in German. The World Health Organization guideline for translating and validating questionnaires was used. Participants were recruited from hospitals in Iran and New Zealand during an outpatient follow-up appointment after cancer treatment. People diagnosed with cancer in Iran (68 and New Zealand (54 completed and returned the SpNQ (at time 1 and within the two week time period (time 2. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.79 to 0.92, except for the existentialistic domain of the SpNQ (0.53–0.54. The coefficient of variation (CV indicated minimal random variation between the assessments; the measures were generally stable, except for the item “existentialistic”. The translated versions of the SpNQ have the potential to support a comprehensive assessment of cancer patients’ spiritual needs.

  19. Study on the English Version of The Art of War%《孙子兵法》英文译著版本考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏桂亮

    2011-01-01

    《孙子兵法》英译本问世已逾百年,大致经历了奠定基础、充实完善和融合拓展三个阶段。目前,英文译著本数量在外文译著本中仅次于日文版,其影响愈来愈大,在全球《孙子兵法》研究的热潮中发挥了重要作用。%The English Version of The Art of War has been come into being for a century ,which witnessed three stages of development: laying foundation, substantial improvement and integrative expansion. Among all the existed translated version,English translations has a huge share second only to the Japanese version and a increasing impact on the prosperous world-wide study on The Art of War.

  20. English

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    "English: An Essential Grammar" is a concise and user-friendly guide to the grammar of modern English, written specifically for native speakers and based on genuine samples of contemporary spoken and written English. In four chapters, the book covers the essentials of English grammar, beginning with the basics and going on to deal with phrase, clause and sentence structure. A fifth chapter deals with English word formation and spelling, including problem spellings and British and American spelling variants. Features of this title include: discussion of points that often cause problem

  1. Theorising the State and Globalisation in Education Politics and Policy (English version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Burton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The essay aims to overturn much conventional (and generally critical thinking which emphasises neoliberal prominence in policy and policy making. Two main policy making processes are noted: (1 a rational, systematic process or (2 an incoherent, incremental version. The latter account is perceived as more realistic model and accounted for by making use of particular perspectives regarding the nature and role of the state in today’s globalised world. Using Dunleavy and O’Leary’s Theories of the State (1987 and its update, Theories of the Liberal Democratic State (2009 by Dryzek and Dunleavy, four main theories are identified: the pluralist/neopluralist, Marxist, elitist and New Right/market liberal. Three perspectives on globalisation – the neoliberal, radical and transformationalist – are analysed with the latter providing insights into the varied impact of globalisation on the policy making process and its outcome. The essay concludes with an appeal for future research to acknowledge the complex nature of policy making, thereby using more nuanced analysis.

  2. Measurement properties of the UK-English version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL™) generic core scales

    OpenAIRE

    Maddocks Alison; Jenney Meriel; Hutchings Hayley A; Cheung Ivy; Eiser Christine; Upton Penney; Russell Ian T; Williams John G

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Health related quality of life (HRQL) has been recognised as an important paediatric outcome measurement. One of the more promising measures to emerge in recent years is the Pediatric Quality Of Life Inventory (PedsQL™), developed in the US. Advantages of the PedsQL™ include brevity, availability of age appropriate versions and parallel forms for child and parent. This study developed a UK-English version of PedsQL™ generic module and assessed its performance in a group of...

  3. Healthcare Energy Metering Guidance (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This brochure is intended to help facility and energy managers plan and prioritize investments in energy metering. It offers healthcare-specific examples of metering applications, benefits, and steps that other health systems can reproduce. It reflects collaborative input from the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories and the health system members of the DOE Hospital Energy Alliance's Benchmarking and Measurement Project Team.

  4. An assessment of the measurement equivalence of English and French versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale in systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C Delisle

    Full Text Available Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale scores in English- and French-speaking Canadian systemic sclerosis (SSc patients are commonly pooled in analyses, but no studies have evaluated the metric equivalence of the English and French CES-D. The study objective was to examine the metric equivalence of the CES-D in English- and French-speaking SSc patients.The CES-D was completed by 1007 English-speaking and 248 French-speaking patients from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Registry. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to assess the factor structure in both samples. The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC model was utilized to assess differential item functioning (DIF.A two-factor model (Positive and Negative affect showed excellent fit in both samples. Statistically significant, but small-magnitude, DIF was found for 3 of 20 CES-D items, including items 3 (Blues, 10 (Fearful, and 11 (Sleep. Prior to accounting for DIF, French-speaking patients had 0.08 of a standard deviation (SD lower latent scores for the Positive factor (95% confidence interval [CI]-0.25 to 0.08 and 0.09 SD higher scores (95% CI-0.07 to 0.24 for the Negative factor than English-speaking patients. After DIF correction, there was no change on the Positive factor and a non-significant increase of 0.04 SD on the Negative factor for French-speaking patients (difference = 0.13 SD, 95% CI-0.03 to 0.28.The English and French versions of the CES-D, despite minor DIF on several items, are substantively equivalent and can be used in studies that combine data from English- and French-speaking Canadian SSc patients.

  5. Standards, the Field that Can't Be Ignored on Your Road to Chinese Market China Standardization (English Version) -to help you know China and the newest trend and policy of China's standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China Standardization (English Version), supervised by the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of P.R. China (AQSIQ), jointly compiled by the Standardization Administration of China (SAC) and China Association for Standardization (CAS), is an exclusive high-class English magazine that is distributed worldwide to entirely cover the management and development of China's standardization.

  6. English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    have been maintained and intensified since then, as African and Indian scholarship demonstrates. Language plays a key role in education, the World Bank taking over where colonial regimes left off. Anglo-American efforts to maintain global English dominance have intensified since 1945 and are central...... to the present-day world ‘order’, as the postcolonial is subsumed under global empire, assisted by English linguistic neoimperialism. Some scholars who deny the existence of linguistic imperialism are reported on, and the complexity of language policy in European integration is demonstrated. The article......The article exemplifies and presents the characteristics of linguistic imperialism, linguistic capital accumulation following the same pattern as capitalist economic dominance. The text summarizes the way English was established in the colonial period. Many of the mechanisms of linguistic hierarchy...

  7. Measurement properties of the UK-English version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL™ generic core scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddocks Alison

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health related quality of life (HRQL has been recognised as an important paediatric outcome measurement. One of the more promising measures to emerge in recent years is the Pediatric Quality Of Life Inventory (PedsQL™, developed in the US. Advantages of the PedsQL™ include brevity, availability of age appropriate versions and parallel forms for child and parent. This study developed a UK-English version of PedsQL™ generic module and assessed its performance in a group of UK children and their parents. Methods PedsQL™ was translated to UK-English. The psychometric properties of the UK version were then tested following administration to 1399 children and 970 of their parents. The sample included healthy children, children diagnosed with asthma, diabetes or inflammatory bowel disease and children in remission from cancer. Results Psychometric properties were similar to those reported for the original PedsQL™. Internal reliability exceeded 0.70 for all proxy and self-report sub-scales. Discriminant validity was established for proxy and self-report with higher HRQL being reported for healthy children than those with health problems. Sex differences were noted on the emotional functioning subscale, with females reporting lower HRQL than males. Proxy and self-report correlation was higher for children with health problems than for healthy children. Conclusion The UK-English version of PedsQL™ performed as well as the original PedsQL™ and is recommended for assessment of paediatric HRQL in the UK.

  8. The Grid : english version

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosy Mondardini Producer

    2003-01-01

    The Grid : . Sharing resources owned by many different organizations to access remote computers, software, and data efficiently and automatically . Secure access to establish the identity of a user or resource, after defining conditions under which sharing occurs . Bridging distance using high-speed connections between computers to create a global Grid . Open standards to allow applications designed for one Grid to run on all others

  9. Introduction (English version)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    From its origin, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) has included in the heart of the organization research on man and society: in 1946, the CNRS was composed of eight sections, one of which was the section dedicated to « social sciences ». This section included geography, archeology, art history, history, philology, linguistics, psychology, sociology, demography, juridical and economic sciences, anthropology and ethnology. This continued the tradition of the ancestors of ...

  10. Automatic generation of tourist brochures

    KAUST Repository

    Birsak, Michael

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel framework for the automatic generation of tourist brochures that include routing instructions and additional information presented in the form of so-called detail lenses. The first contribution of this paper is the automatic creation of layouts for the brochures. Our approach is based on the minimization of an energy function that combines multiple goals: positioning of the lenses as close as possible to the corresponding region shown in an overview map, keeping the number of lenses low, and an efficient numbering of the lenses. The second contribution is a route-aware simplification of the graph of streets used for traveling between the points of interest (POIs). This is done by reducing the graph consisting of all shortest paths through the minimization of an energy function. The output is a subset of street segments that enable traveling between all the POIs without considerable detours, while at the same time guaranteeing a clutter-free visualization. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Example of the English version of the official website of the government and the countermeasures--A case study of the English version of the official website of Shaoxing municipal government%政府官网英文版翻译问题举隅和对策研究--以绍兴市政府官网英文版为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑜

    2016-01-01

    The English version of the official website of the Chinese government has attracted the attention of the translation circle at present. The study found that the quality of translation of the English version of government websites remains to be improved. In this paper, the official website of the Shaoxing municipal government as an example, study the common translation problems of the English version of the official website, and put forward the improvement of the wording, hoping to cause more attention to the government's official website translation issues.%国内政府官网英文版翻译研究目前引起翻译界注意。研究发现,政府网站英文版翻译质量还有待提高。本文拟以绍兴市政府官网英文版为例,研究英文官网的常见翻译问题,并提出改进措辞,希望引起更多对政府官网翻译问题的关注。

  12. Advancing Efforts to Energize Native Alaska (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-04-01

    This brochure describes key programs and initiatives of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs to advance energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy infrastructure projects in Alaska Native villages.

  13. Solar Decathlon 2011, (Small Program)(Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This brochure provides a high-level overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2011. The competition's background, purpose, impact, 10 contests, 20 teams, and where to go for additional information.

  14. Innovation Impact: Breakthrough Research Results (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    The Innovation Impact brochure captures key breakthrough results across NREL's primary areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency research: solar, wind, bioenergy, transportation, buildings, analysis, and manufacturing technologies.

  15. Comparative Study on Two English Versions of Hong Lou Meng from the Perspective of Cross-culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚青; 向凤雅; 侯方丽

    2015-01-01

    Hong Lou Meng is not only one of the four most famous ancient books in China,but also a classic masterpiece in the history of world literature.It presents the background and living statues in China feudal society as well as the language and culture of China.Two most completely and widely popular versions are that,one is translated by Yang Hsien-Yi and his wife Gladys Yang who are the famous translator couple (the Yang's version) and the other is translated by Oxford University's Sinologists David Hawks and John Minford,which refers to Hawks' version.In this paper,a comparative study on different translation methods in two versions are made to explore differences between China and western cultures,and thus discuss the influences on translation of different cultures,especially study how the factors of culture,thoughts,language habits and translation methods impact on translation from the perspective of cross-culture.

  16. Comparative Study on Two English Versions of Hong Lou Meng from the Perspective of Cross-culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚青; 向凤雅; 侯方丽

    2015-01-01

    Hong Lou Meng is not only one of the four most famous ancient books in China,but also a classic masterpiece in the history of world literature.It presents the background and living statues in China feudal society as well as the language and culture of China.Two most completely and widely popular versions are that,one is translated by Yang Hsien-Yi and his wife Gladys Yang who are the famous translator couple(the Yang’s version) and the other is translated by Oxford University’s Sinologists David Hawks and John Minford,which refers to Hawks’ version.In this paper,a comparative study on different translation methods in two versions are made to explore differences between China and western cultures,and thus discuss the influences on translation of different cultures,especially study how the factors of culture,thoughts,language habits and translation methods impact on translation from the perspective of cross-culture.

  17. A Comparative Study on Three English Versions of Lin Daiyu's Elegy on Flowers%《葬花吟》三个英译本比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐层珍

    2014-01-01

    《葬花吟》是《红楼梦》中的重要诗篇,其英译本以杨宪益、霍克斯、许渊冲三位译家的比较有代表性。从意象的传达看,杨氏从中国文化视角出发,多用直译,取得了与原作相似的效果;霍氏从西方文化视角出发,对原文的某些意象做了变通处理,措辞更显生动,有助于西方读者的解读;许氏直译和意译并用,在某些意象的再现上比较成功。从音韵的再现看,杨氏采用了中国古诗的押韵模式(abcb),以与原诗保持一致;霍氏和许氏则采用了英语诗歌中较常用的联韵模式(aabb),且三位译者在传译过程中大量使用了头韵。所以,三种译文读起来都富有音乐美,难分伯仲;从形美的再现看,三位译者都以诗体形式再现原作形式,诗行和每行的音节数基本上相似,传译出了原诗的形体美。总之,三种译文虽有不足,但瑕不掩瑜,为汉诗英译提供了许多值得借鉴的经验,值得研究和欣赏。%As one of the most important poems of A Dream of Red Mansions, Lin Daiyu's Elegy on Flowers has been translated into seven English versions, three of which are rendered respectively by Yang Xianyi, David Hawkes and Xu Yuanchong. The three’s are worth studying. First, from the reproduction of images, Yang Xianyi, based on the purpose of disseminating Chinese culture, mainly uses literal translation to make his version similar to the original in effect, while Hawkes adopts flexible ways to handle some images to facilitate the understanding of western readers, and Xu Yuanchong combines literal and free translation methods to reproduce some images more successfully. Second, from the reproduction of phonetic effect, Yang prefers the rhyme modes of Chinese classical poetry (abcb) to try to keep consistent with the original works, and Hawkes and Xu Yuanchong choose the most common rhyme form of English poetry (aabb). Besides, these three

  18. PUNCTUATION AS A MEANS OF PROSODY REALIZATION DURING COMMUNICATION IN FACEBOOK SOCIAL NETWORK (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE ENGLISH-LANGUAGE VERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholodkovskaya Elena Valeryevna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies peculiar features of punctuation in the Internet comment referred to a genre of the Internet discourse. Virtual communication is defined as a written form of communication with some elements of oral speech, including spontaneity, expressiveness, linearity, correlation with the specific time interval flow. Considering the Internet comment to be a variant of oral speech that has been registered in a written form, the author describes main trends of punctuation marks usage in the English version of Facebook social network. Utterances from the network have been selected for studies regardless of age, gender and social class reference. On the basis of the textual contrastive analysis it was discovered that punctuation, reflecting prosodic phenomena in written speech, implements a distinctive feature of the Internet communication. The research helped to reveal some freedom in the usage of punctuation marks in the Facebook social network comments, which tells for changing a substandard way into ordinary. Violation from the norms of punctuation mark usage in social networks starts being evaluated as a norm. The article proves that new trends in the Internet communication reflect some development of the English language punctuation. The violation is not considered to be a communicative failure of the subjects of the Internet comments, on the contrary, it is viewed as a pragmatic statements, with a bit brighter emotional coloring.

  19. The Cultural Identity of Translator and Its Effect on Translation:The case of Two English version of Analects%The Cultural Identity of Translator and Its Effect on Translation: The case of Two English version of Analects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    恩浩

    2016-01-01

    This paper will focus on how the identity of translators affect the translation based on the analysis of the two translation versions of the Analects translated by James Legge and Ku Hungming respectively. The thesis will analyze the identity types the translators have, and then offers in-depth analyses and discussion of how the cultural identity affects translation strategy which can provide us with a special angle on the ways we see translation. Through analyzing, it can be easily found that cultural identity has a great impact on translator and translation which cannot be neglected.

  20. Gregory of Nyssa: Homilies on the Beatitudes. An English Version with Commentary and Supporting Studies. Proceedings of the Eighth International Colloquium on Gregory of Nyssa [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo-Seco, L.F. (Lucas F.)

    2001-01-01

    Reseña de Hubertus R. DROBNER-Albert VICIANO, Gregory of Nyssa: Homilies on the Beatitudes. An English Version with Commentary and Supporting Studies. Proceedings of the Eighth International Colloquium on Gregory of Nyssa (Paderborn, 14-18 September 1998), Brill, Leiden 2000, 680 pp., 16 x 25, ISBN 9004116214.

  1. The English Version of the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (MI-RSWB-E: First Results from British College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Nelson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a steadily growing interest of religious/spiritual issues in several areas of psychology; a variety of reliable and valid means of assessing the different facets of religiosity/spirituality have been developed. However, there is still some need for multidimensional approaches. With respect to the positive experience with the German version of the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being, we developed an English version of this scale (MI-RSWB-E in order to facilitate research in this budding field. The MI-RSWB-E was tested and validated on a sample of British college-students (n = 400. First, the factor structure and psychometric properties of the MI-RSWB-E were analysed. As a second step, MI-RSWB-E dimensions were related to a variety of indicators of personality and mental health. An in-depth analysis provided evidence in support of the psychometric quality of the MI-RSWB-E, and the ability of its proposed six-factor structure. The MI-RSWB-E dimensions were also found to be substantially related to personality factors as well as with indicators of subjective well-being and mental illness. In light of these findings the MI-RSWB-E could be considered as a suitable tool in the assessment of different facets of religiosity/spirituality.

  2. Analysis of consumer information brochures on osteoporosis prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Evidence-based consumer information is a prerequisite for informed decision making. So far, there are no reports on the quality of consumer information brochures on osteoporosis. In the present study we analysed brochures on osteoporosis available in Germany. Method: All printed brochures from patient and consumer advocacy groups, physician and governmental organisations, health insurances, and pharmaceutical companies were initially collected in 2001, and updated in December 2004. Brochures were analysed by two independent researchers using 37 internationally proposed criteria addressing evidence-based content, risk communication, transparency of the development process, and layout and design. Results: A total of 165 brochures were identified; 59 were included as they specifically targeted osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Most brochures were provided by pharmaceutical companies (n=25, followed by health insurances (n=11 and patient and consumer advocacy groups (n=11. Quality of brochures did not differ between providers. Only 1 brochure presented lifetime risk estimate; 4 mentioned natural course of osteoporosis. A balanced report on benefit versus lack of benefit was presented in 2 brochures and on benefit versus adverse effects in 8 brochures. Four brochures mentioned relative risk reduction, 1 reported absolute risk reduction through hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Out of 28 brochures accessed in 2004 10 still recommended HRT without discussing adverse effects. Transparency of the development process was limited: 25 brochures reported publication date, 26 cited author and only 1 references. In contrast, readability and design was generally good. Conclusion: The quality of consumer brochures on osteoporosis in Germany is utterly inadequate. They fail to give evidence-based data on diagnosis and treatment options. Therefore, the material is not useful to enhance informed consumer choice.

  3. L’Opéra en version anglaise : un enjeu esthétique ou sociologique ? Opera in English Translation: An Æsthetic or Sociological Issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Degott

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The history of English opera has always been conditioned by the ambivalent attitude of English-speaking audiences towards their own language. A close scrutiny of the London theatre seasons of the XVIIIth and XIXth centuries does indeed show a strong split, in terms of aesthetic and sociological considerations, between, on the one hand, the aristocratic Italian seasons of the King’s Theatre in Covent Garden, and the English opera seasons organised by the "lesser" theatres on the other. The aim of this paper is to assess the sociological implications of the use of the English language on the operatic stage. Far from defending the – now absurd – idea of the superiority of English over original versions, this paper shows that English versions of the main repertory were sometimes far ahead of their Italian counterparts at least in terms of artistry and musical authenticity. An example of such a phenomenon is provided by the Old Vic in the 1920s, when Edward Dent’s spirited translations of Mozart’s operas won the theatre the name of "the Home of Mozart." A comparative study of several translations of Mozart’s Le Nozze di Figaro further displays the interrelatedness of the sociological and aesthetic issues of operatic translation.

  4. The Study of Translator's Roles——Taking two English Versions of Mao Zedong Poems and Ci as Examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷春晓

    2015-01-01

    Translation process concerns five factors: the author, the source text, the source-text readers, the translator, the target text and the target-text readers. The translator lies in central position which has a affiliation with the author, the source text, the source-text readers, the target text and the target-text readers. This paper applies the translation of Mao Zedong Poems and Ci as the corpus to analyze the translator's roles as a writer and a cultural mediator in Gu's and Zhao's version. As a reader, two translators are both Chinese and have some alike understanding of certain words in the comprehending and analysis process. In regard to the translator's acting as a writer, the paper analyzes the distinctions of two versions from three aspects: their different translations in terms of the sound, form and meaning. In regard to the translator acting as a cultural mediator, the translators mediates the cultural factors on the cultural imagery, allusion and the tune.

  5. New Orleans, Louisiana: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of New Orleans, LA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  6. Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Denver, Colorado, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  7. San Jose, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Jose, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  8. Sacramento, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Sacramento, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  9. San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Antonio, TX, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  10. Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Portland, OR, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  11. Knoxville, Tennessee: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Knoxville, TN, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  12. Residential solar-heating system - design brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Design brochure for commercially-available solar-heating system is valuable to architects, engineers, and designers. It contains information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout. Drawings and specifications of all components and typical installation details are included in appendix.

  13. The Your Life@CERN Brochure

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Balancing work and home life, getting support for your family and thriving in an inclusive and respectful workplace: find out more about the support structures in place to enhance your working life@CERN! This video promotes the Your Life@CERN brochure: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2194543

  14. Austin, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Austin, Texas, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  15. Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Seattle, WA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  16. San Diego, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Diego, CA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  17. San Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Francisco, CA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  18. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Philadelphia, PA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  19. Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Orlando, FL, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  20. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Milwaukee, WI, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  1. Tucson, Arizona: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Tucson, AZ, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  2. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Pittsburgh, PA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  3. Annotated English

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Orallo, Jose

    2010-01-01

    This document presents Annotated English, a system of diacritical symbols which turns English pronunciation into a precise and unambiguous process. The annotations are defined and located in such a way that the original English text is not altered (not even a letter), thus allowing for a consistent reading and learning of the English language with and without annotations. The annotations are based on a set of general rules that make the frequency of annotations not dramatically high. This makes the reader easily associate annotations with exceptions, and makes it possible to shape, internalise and consolidate some rules for the English language which otherwise are weakened by the enormous amount of exceptions in English pronunciation. The advantages of this annotation system are manifold. Any existing text can be annotated without a significant increase in size. This means that we can get an annotated version of any document or book with the same number of pages and fontsize. Since no letter is affected, the ...

  4. 评张培基的英译《背影》%A Critique on Mr. ZHANG Pei-ji' s English Version of Bei Ying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2001-01-01

    朱自清是中国五四时期最出色的散文家之一,其代表作《背影》更是在中国散文中享有盛誉.该作品代表了朱自清的风格:语言平实清晰,感情真挚感人,这一风格的重视应该是决定译文质量的关键因素.以信、达、切为标准,本文旨在对张培基的英译《背影》进行分析评价,并着重剖析其在词汇层、语法层和语篇层的风格翻译.总的来说,本文认为该译文之于原文,不仅内容忠实、表达顺畅且风格十分接近.%ZHU Zi-qing is one of the most distinguished prose writers during the May- Fourth Period. Bei Ying, as one of his representative prose, enjoys a high reputation in modem chinese prose. This prose features his individual style: plain language coupled with sincere emotion, which should be a decisive factor in the acceptance of its translation. Under the guidance of the Trinity Principle Faithfulness, Expressiveness and Closeness, this paper aims to analyze and assess Mr. ZHANG Pei-ji' s English version- the Sight of Father' s Back, stressing on the representation of the original style at the levels of lexicon, syntax and diseourse. It is concluded that,although not perfect, ZHANG' s version has generally achieved faithfulness in content, expressiveness in wording as well as closeness in style to the original text.

  5. Colorectal cancer screening brochure for Latinos: focus group evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Julia L; Efuni, Elizaveta; Villagra, Cristina; DuHamel, Katherine; Jandorf, Lina

    2013-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be effectively prevented via screening colonoscopy, yet adherence rates remain low among Latinos. Interventions targeting individual and cultural barriers to screening are needed. We developed an educational brochure to target these barriers faced by a diverse Latino population. The objective was to evaluate the responses of the target population to the culturally and theoretically informed brochure through community member focus groups. Facilitators conducted six focus groups, stratified by gender, language, and prior colonoscopy experience. Topics included: brochure content and layout, cancer knowledge, and CRC screening determinants. Focus groups documented community members' responses to the brochure's overall message and its informational and visual components. Changes to wording, visual aids, and content were suggested to make the brochure culturally more acceptable. Results indicated relevance of the theoretically and culturally guided approach to the development of the brochure leading to refinement of its content and design.

  6. The reliability of British Sign Language and English versions of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation--Outcome Measure with d/Deaf populations in the UK: an initial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine; Evans, Chris; Campbell, Malcolm; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has argued that the mental well-being of d/Deaf people is poorer than that of hearing populations. However, there is a paucity of valid and reliable mental health instruments in sign language that have been normalised with d/Deaf populations. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) with d/Deaf populations. A British Sign Language (BSL) version was produced using a team approach to forward translation, and a back-translation check. The CORE-OM was incorporated into an online survey, to be completed in either BSL or English, as preferred by the participant. From December 2010 to March 2011, data were collected from 136 d/Deaf people. Cronbach's α was used to measure the internal consistency of items in the CORE-OM. Comparisons were made between versions, including comparisons with the non-clinical hearing population (not in receipt of mental health services) in a previous study. The reliability of the overall score, as well as the non-risk items in both the BSL and English versions, was satisfactory. The internal reliability of each domain in the BSL version was good (Cronbach's α > 0.70) and comparable to the English version in the hearing population. This was true for most domains of the CORE-OM in the English version completed by d/Deaf people, although the Functioning domain had a relatively low α of 0.79 and the Risk domain had an α of only 0.66 This raised the question whether it is advisable to use a mental health assessment with d/Deaf populations that has been standardised with hearing populations. Nevertheless, this study has shown that it is possible to collect data from d/Deaf populations in the UK via the web (both in BSL and English), and an online BSL version of the CORE-OM is recommended for use with Deaf populations in the community.

  7. Assessing the Multi-faceted Nature of Test Anxiety Among Secondary School Students: An English Version of the German Test Anxiety Questionnaire: PAF-E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Ringeisen, Tobias; Rohrmann, Sonja; Bukowski, William M

    2016-01-01

    The current study concerns the validation of an English version of the German Test Anxiety Inventory, namely the PAF-E. This questionnaire is a multi-faceted measure of test anxiety designed to detect normative test anxiety levels and in consequence meet the need of consultancy. Construct and criterion validity of (PAF-E) were examined with a sample of 96 secondary students (Mage = 12.8, SD = 0.67; 55% girls) from an international school in Berlin (Germany) and 399 secondary students (Mage = 13.4, SD = 0.80; 56% girls) from Montréal (Canada). Both samples completed the PAF-E and related constructs, such as school-related self-efficacy, inhibitory test anxiety, achievement motivation, and the Big Five. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the four-factor-structure (worry, emotionality, interfering thoughts, lack of confidence) of the original German Test Anxiety Inventory (PAF). Each subscale consists of five items with a total of 20 questions. Cronbach's alpha, ranging from.71 to.82 among Germans and.77 to.87 among Canadians as well as the re-test reliability (from.80 to.85 among Canadians) were sufficient. The differential patterns of correlations between other constructs and the indices of test anxiety indicate good construct validity.

  8. 译本中的语码转换:一种语境化信号--以《论语》英译为例%Code Switching in English Versions of the Confucian Lun Yu:A Contextualization Cue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪芹

    2013-01-01

    Translating, as a communicative activity, is a form of language use. Therefore, translating can be talked about in terms of contextualization. Just like ordinary communicators, translators may also use certain contextualization cues (e.g. code switching) with an attempt to construct a context which can facilitate the communication. Doubtlessly, the English versions should be in English;however, there are Chinese, Latin, French, German and other codes in the English versions of the Confucian Lun Yu. An analysis of code switching in Ku Hung-ming’s, James Legge’s, and William Soothill’s English versions can reveal their respective translation motives and purposes. Understanding the underlying causes of code switching in these versions, a critic can make more objective and reasonable translation criticism.%翻译是一种交际活动,与语言使用没有本质上的区别,因此翻译也是一个语境化过程。跟普通交际者一样,译者也可以使用一些语境化信号(如语码转换)来营造一个有利于实现其交际目的的语境。英译本的常态应是英语,而在《论语》英译本中还出现了汉语、拉丁语、法语、德语等非英语语符。通过分析辜鸿铭、理雅各、苏慧廉等译本的语码转换,可以洞悉各自的翻译动机和目的。同时,了解这些语码转换所揭示的深层内涵,有利于更好地进行翻译批评。

  9. A Contrastive Study of Substitution in The Scholars and Its English Version%《儒林外史》及其英译本替代衔接手段对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰

    2010-01-01

    作为语法衔接手段的替代存在于英汉两种语言中.基于韩礼德的衔接理论,以及其英译本为例,对比英汉语中替代的异同,可以促进两种语言本体的研究,对于探讨语法衔接机制的特点和规律有深刻意义.%Substitution exists in English and Chinese as grammatical cohesive device. Based on Halliday's cohesion theory,the paper makes contrast of substitution in The Scholars and its English version. It can promote the research of English and Chinese. It is of great importance to explore the feature and regular pattern of grammatical cohesive devices.

  10. Readability and comprehensibility of the "exercise lite" brochure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, B J; Seidler, T L

    1995-04-01

    Studies suggest that exercise literature tends to be very difficult to read and the writing not matched to the reading ability of the audience for which it was intended. Two studies aimed at describing the readability and comprehensibility of the recently developed U.S. Centers for Disease Control and American College of Sports Medicine "Exercise Lite" brochure were conducted. In Study 1, the brochure's readability was assessed using four different formulas. This study showed that the brochure was written at a level equivalent to that of a scientific journal article. In Study 2, 56 participants (two-thirds of whom were college graduates) were tested to assess whether they could comprehend the brochure's message. Results showed that, without supplemental instruction, the Exercise Lite brochure was incomprehensible for 69.6% (n = 39) of the subjects.

  11. Translating Chinese Poetry into English Poetry and Adaptive Employment of English Poetic Forms--Taking ZHUO Zhen-yin’s English Version of The Verse of Chu as the Example%以诗译诗与借形传神--以卓振英《大中华文库·楚辞》英译为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严晓江

    2014-01-01

    以诗译诗与借形传神是卓振英《楚辞》英译文的特色。译者进行总体审度和合理调适,借用传统英语诗歌的四行诗体、双行偶韵诗体、三行诗体、五行诗体、十行诗体以及半格律半自由诗体等形式,努力再现《楚辞》的意境美,在很大程度上体现了以译入语文化为导向的翻译理念,这在深层次上是因为这种形式借鉴对英语世界读者更具亲和力,它是沟通译入语文化与源语文化的纽带。%The obvious features of ZHUO Zhen-yin’s English Version of The Verse of Chu lies the following aspects: “translating Chinese poetry into English poetry” and “adaptive employment of English poetic forms”. Through overall consideration and reasonable adjustment, the translator tries his best to reflect the beauty of artistic conception of the original text by using different forms of traditional English poetry, including quatrain, couplet, triplet, quintet, ten-line-stanza, and so on, which shows target language culture oriented conception. Such affinity form is a link between target language culture and source language culture.

  12. The Analysis of Mistranslation of Red Sorghum English Version on the View of Discourse Scenario---Illustrated with Howard Goldblatt’ s English Version%《红高粱家族》英译的误译及对语篇理解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迪

    2015-01-01

    著名汉学家葛浩文的《红高粱家族》英译本深受外国读者喜爱,影响较大,但是在他的译本中尚有很多误译之处。这些误译造成了译本语篇情节的缺失,从而影响读者对小说的理解。依据帕尔默的语篇情节概念,分别找出译本在语篇情节方面的五种图式上出现的误译,并对其进行分析研究,结果认为:参与图式中人称称谓上的误译使读者混淆人物关系,同时无法领会高密东北乡独特的说话方式;言语行为图式中陈述情节和表达情节的误译不仅使读者误读人物行为,还会使读者无法了解说话人潜在的情感;次第顺序图式的误译改变了部分语篇的行为结构,造成读者理解偏差;视角图式的误译使个别句子的意义与整个语篇想表达的内容不符,对读者理解语篇造成困惑;由文化差异造成的概念图式上的误译削弱读者对语篇的期待。所以,译者应对原文语篇情节进行妥善处理以减少误译,这才是读者识解语篇的关键。%Goldblatt’ s English Version of Red Sorghum has great popularity and deep influence.It studies the mistranslation existed in English version and analyzes how mistranslation leads to the loss of discourse scenario in English version and affects readers’ understanding of the novel.Based on Palmer’s concept of discourse scenario, it respectively finds out the mistranslation existed in discourse scenario ’ s five schemas---participation schemas, speech act schemas, sequencing schemas, perspective schemas and ideational schemas.In participation schemas, mistranslation of persons’ appellation makes readers confuse character relation and fail to experience such a unique speech in gaomi northeast village.In speech act schemas, mistranslation of assertives and expressives makes read-ers not only misunderstand characters’ actions but also fail to figure out speakers’ hidden emotion.In sequencing

  13. A Comparative Study of Two English Versions Of Su Shi's "Prelude to Water Melody"%关于苏轼《水调歌头》英译译文的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖玲

    2002-01-01

    本文通过比较的方法,讨论了中国古诗原诗与英文译诗之间语音形式统一的问题.本文分析与比较了苏轼的两篇译文:一篇为John A.Turner的自由体译文.另一篇为许渊冲的韵诗体译文.通过比较分析,许译能从语音形式上再现原作艺术风格.%This research paper attempts to find the answer to the question of how an English version of Chinese Classical poem embodiesthe style of the orginal poetic work by using proper phonetic forms. The paper gives the answer by comparing two English versions of Su Shi's "Prelude to Water Melody"from phonetic aspect,one by John. A. Tumer,which is the representation of the free verse,the other by Xu Yuanzhong,which is the representation of rhyme verse. From the comparative study,Xu's version could reappear the style and artistic concepton in phonetic form.

  14. 基于语料库的《唐诗三百首》英译本研究%A Corpus-based Study on English Versions of Tangshi Sanbaishou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡筱颖

    2014-01-01

    With descriptive translation theory as the theoretical base, a parallel corpus of the Chinese version of Tangshi Sanbaishou and its two English versions is founded. With the corpus analysis and the use of SPSS, the result shows that there is no adequate cause to prove the evident differences in word types and total words between two English versions. However, there is adequate cause to prove the evi-dent differences in word difficulty between two English versions. The two English versions are quite simi-lar in vocabulary and length, but the version by XU Yuan-chong is more difficult in words and has a more concentrated target reader group, while the version by Witter Bynner and JIANG Kang-hu is easier to read and has a more extensive target reader group. With the target readers in mind, it uses free verse in form, domestication as the main translation strategy and keeps or transfers the images of the original po-ems. Version by XU follows his translation methods of three aspects of beauty and uses rhymed verse in form. It is also characterized by its conciseness and neat pattern.%基于描述翻译研究理论,自建《唐诗三百首》原文及对应两个英译文的小型平行语料库,通过相关语料库软件的分析处理以及SPSS统计软件,结果显示:没有充分的理由证明两个英译本在词汇量和用词总数上有明显差别,但是有充分的理由证明两个英译本在词汇难易程度方面有非常显著的差别。《唐诗三百首》两个英译本在词汇量和译文长度方面非常相似,但是相比之下,许渊冲编译的《唐诗三百首新译》难度更大,目标群体更集中;宾纳、江亢虎的合译本《群玉山头》可读性更强,适应的目标群体更广泛。《群玉山头》从目标文本读者的接受出发,采用自由诗形式,多归化译法,译文详尽,句长参差,富于变化,对于原文中的意象,尽量保留或移植;《唐诗三百首新译》恪

  15. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-08-01

    This brochure provides an overview of Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Project, including a description of the project, the participants, funding sources, the basic configurations, and how interested parties can become involved.

  16. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project (Alaska) (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-02-01

    This brochure provides an overview of Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Project, including a description of the project, the participants, funding sources, the basic configurations, and how interested parties can become involved.

  17. A Comparative Study of the Two English Versions of Slave Mother%《为奴隶的母亲》两个英译本对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金玲

    2012-01-01

      Slave Mother by Rou Shi is an important work in modern Chinese literature. This paper aims to make a comparative study on the two English versions of this work, respectively translated by Snow and Zhang Peiji. In exploring translation strategies of the two versions, the author of this paper finds Snow’s version inclines to literal translation and emphasizes on keeping words of the original work while Zhang’s version inclines to liberal translation and thick translation.%  柔石的《为奴隶的母亲》是中国现代文学的一篇佳作。该文拟通过对该小说斯诺和张培基所翻译的两个英译本进行对比研究,从译者对人名、比喻、文化负载词的翻译,分析所采取的翻译策略。研究发现,斯诺译本偏向直译,重保留原作词藻,而张培基译本偏向意译和厚翻译,重增补和诠释。

  18. Vecinos y Rehabilitation: Assessing the Needs of Indigenous People with Disabilities in Mexico. Final Report [English Version] = Vecinos y Rehabilitation: Evaluacion de las Necesidades de los Indigenas con Discapacidades en Mexico. Reporte Final [Version en Espanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine A.; And Others

    Available in English and Spanish, this document reports on a survey of the circumstances and needs of disabled indigenous people in Oaxaca state, Mexico. Assisted by a Oaxaca disabilities consumer organization and an advisory committee of government officials, health care educators, community service providers, and indigenous people with…

  19. Combination Welding Technical Terms. English-Thai Lexicon. Introduction to Combination Welding. Thai Version. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for combination welding is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…

  20. Power Pack Your Center Brochure--Keys To Developing an Effective Marketing Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassom, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that a center's informational brochure can be either a valuable marketing tool or an expensive elimination incentive. Provides a list of five questions center directors should address before beginning the design and development of the center brochure. Lists seven guidelines for brochure development. (SD)

  1. Discourse Power and Translator's Style——on a reason behind different styles of two English versions of Hong Lou Meng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊

    2009-01-01

    Style is the core of literary translation whose ultimate destination is the successful conveying of the style of must be their pursue. However, anyone whoever studies the two versions of Hong Lou Meng, must find the striking dif-ference between the Yang's style and that of Hawks'. What caused such differences between versions of the same nov-el? From the perspective of the power of discourse over translator, this study aims to explore one reason molding trans-lator's style and finally finds that, the obvious differences are partly due to the translators' different power of discourse in manipulating the souree text.

  2. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  3. A contrastive analysis of English versions of Song You Ren from the perspective of textual-function theory%语篇功能视角下《送友人》英译本的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范燕

    2014-01-01

    应用韩礼德三大元语言功能之一的语篇功能来对比分析《送友人》的两个不同译本。重点分析主位结构、信息结构和衔接这三个方面的差异对于译文的影响,最后得出语篇功能对于古诗英译翻译批评研究有很好的可操作性和可行性,语篇功能在古诗英译评价体系中有重要作用。用语篇功能理论对《送友人》进行英汉对比分析可以帮助拓宽译者翻译诗歌的思路,相关理论对诗歌译文评价标准也有很好的参考价值。%This paper makes a contrastive analysis of two different English versions of the poem “farewell to a friend” by using the textual-function theory ,one of the three Meta functions of language proposed by Halliday .It an-alyzes the influence of the theme-rheme construction , informative construction and coherence upon the translated versions before concluding that the textual function theory is practicable in the critical research and the evaluation system of the translation of Chinese poems .A Contrastive analysis of two different versions of the poem from the per-spective of the textual function theory riches the ideas of the translator ,and the textual function theory will shed a new light upon the evaluation system of the poem's translated versions .

  4. Domestication and Foreignization in the Translation of the Stylistic Devic-es-A Comparative Study of Two English Versions of Mencius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Huan

    2014-01-01

    The debate between domestication and foreignization translation strategies has aroused scholars ’research interest for a long time. This thesis makes a comparative study on the application of domestication and foreignization of the Stylistic Devices in Legge’s and Zhao Zhentao’s translated versions of Mencius.

  5. Appropriate Methodology for English Language Education in Japan : An Argument for the 'Strong' over the 'Weak' Version of the Communicative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    DA SILVA,, Dexter; ダ・シルバ,, デクスター; Dexter, DA SILVA,

    1996-01-01

    Summarizing the present situation of English language education in Japan, Koike and Tanaka (1995) claim that "It may be said that we are in the middle of some drastic changes and that some confusion about the final choices is inescapable." (p24). These changes refer to government proposals and guidelines which regulate foreign language education in schools in Japan, and specifically pertain to concrete changes in areas such as teaching methods and materials, courses of study, objectives, exam...

  6. See the Translation of English Pop Songs from the Two Versions of the Song"LDN"%从歌曲“LDN”的两个译本看英语流行歌曲的翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢舒婕

    2013-01-01

    Pop songs, which attract more and more audiences, enrich the lives of modern people. Translating the lyrics of Pop English songs into Chinese will make easier understanding of songs for Chinese people. The article focuses on the pop song"LDN"from Lily Allen, comparing two versions of translation and then putting forward some suggestions on lyrics translation.%流行歌曲丰富了大众文化生活,为现代人所喜爱。将英文歌曲歌词翻译成汉语,有助于译语听众充分了解歌曲内涵,从而更好地欣赏歌曲。本文选取Lily Allen 的歌曲“LDN”为例,对比歌词的不同译本,从而对英语流行歌曲歌词的翻译进行思考。

  7. The Canonization of Lu Xun’ s Image by Chinese Literature (English Version)%《中国文学》(英文版)对鲁迅形象的经典化重构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹培会; 滕梅

    2016-01-01

    Translations occur in concrete political, historical and cultural contexts. Influenced by the context in which the translation is produced, the translated image tends to deviate from that of source text to some degree. Chinese Literature ( English version) re-writes the source texts so as to be in line with the main ideology, thus building a multi-facet image of Lu Xun. Targeted at the image-rebuilding of Lu Xun by Chinese Literature ( English version) , the present paper analyzes the five main images of Lu Xun portrayed by this magazine:a communist, an anti-revisionist hero, a Confucius-criticizing pioneer, a critic of“the Gang of Four” and a man of letters.%翻译是在具体的政治、历史和文化环境下进行。受译文产生环境的影响,译文形象也会在一定程度上与原作产生偏离。《中国文学》(英文版)从源语文化出发,按照主流意识形态的需求对译作进行改写,从而塑造出了多重的鲁迅形象。以《中国文学》(英文版)对鲁迅形象的重构为着眼点,详细分析后可知其塑造的五个重点的鲁迅形象:共产主义者、反修战士、批孔先锋、“四人帮”批判者、作家。

  8. An Interpersonal-function Approach to Projection Clause Nexus in Analects and its English Versions%《论语》及其英译本中投射语言的人际功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红辉; 曾蕾

    2012-01-01

    《论语》英译的各种翻译策略已受到越来越多研究者的关注,但《论语》中投射语言翻译研究还未能引起足够的重视。因此,本文运用系统功能语言学的人际功能分析方法,从语气、语气成分、人称等角度探讨与比较了《论语》原文及其四个英译本中投射语言人际意义的实现方式。我们发现,不同译者对投射语言的相关翻译策略不尽相同,这在不同程度上反映了译者由于翻译目的的不同及对原文投射语言人际意义的理解差异.产生了对原文相关投射语言人际意义的认知程度的差异,从而采用了不同的翻译策略。%The paper, based on the theory of interpersonal function in Systemic Functional Grammar, explores the projection clause nexus in A nalects and its English versions. By applying the theory of interpersonal function in the analysis of projection clause nexus, we find that the different realization of Mood, mood elements and personal system in different English versions can present different interpersonal meaning. The research concludes that analyzing interpersonal meaning of the projection nexus plays important roles in the translation research of projection clause nexus.

  9. Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Minneapolis, MN, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  10. Lead By Example with Smart Energy Management (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Brochure outlining the mission and activities of the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program, which facilitates the Federal Government's implementation of sound, cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship.

  11. New York City, New York: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of New York City, NY, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  12. Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  13. Community Shared Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This brochure explores the ways in which the shared solar business model interacts with existing policy and regulations, including net metering, tax credits, and securities regulation. It presents some of the barriers that shared solar projects may face, and provides options for creating a supportive policy environment.

  14. Boston, Massachusetts: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Boston, MA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given. The City of Boston and its Solar America Cities program, Solar Boston, are helping to debunk the myth that solar energy is only feasible in the southern latitudes. Boston has some of the highest energy prices in the country and will likely be one of the first locations where solar power achieves grid parity with conventional energy technologies. Solar Boston is facilitating the rapid development of solar energy projects and infrastructure in the short-term, and is preparing for the rapid market growth that is expected with the imminent arrival of grid parity over the long-term. Solar Boston developed the strategy for achieving Mayor Menino's goal of installing 25 MW of solar energy throughout Boston by 2015. Through Solar Boston, the city has developed a strategy for the installation of solar technology throughout Boston, including mapping feasible locations, preparing a permitting guide, and planning the citywide bulk purchase, financing, and installation of solar technology. The city has also worked with local organizations to maximize Boston's participation in state incentive programs and innovative financing initiatives. The resulting accomplishments include the following: (1) Created an online map of current local renewable energy projects with a tool to allow building owners to calculate their rooftop solar potential. The map is currently live at http://gis.cityofboston.gov/solarboston/. (2) Supported the city's Green Affordable Housing Program (GAHP), in partnership with the Department of Neighborhood Development (DND). Under GAHP, the city is installing more than 150 kW of PV on 200 units of affordable housing. DND requires that all new city-funded affordable housing be LEED silver

  15. 汉诗英译的经验功能视角——以《送元二使安西》及其五种译文为例%Comments on English Translation of Chinese Poetry from the Experiential Perspective——Comparative Analysis of a Poem by Wang Wei and Its Five English Versions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占慧芳

    2011-01-01

    从系统功能语法的观点出发,对唐朝诗人王维《送元二使安西》及其五种译文进行及物性分析,以探求一种较为客观的诗歌翻译评价标准,同时证实该理论在诗歌翻译研究中的可操作性和实用性。%From the perspective of Systemic-Functional Grammar,transitivity is introduced to the analysis of a poem by Wang Wei and its five English versions,with the aims at seeking for a relatively objective criterion for poetry translation and confirming the applicability of the theory in poetry translation research.

  16. A Narrative Account of Goldblatt's English Version of The Garlic Ballads%叙事学视域内的《天堂蒜薹之歌》葛浩文译本阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩辉

    2014-01-01

    In terms of the research of literary translation, narratology possesses strong explanatory power. In which way the translator deals with the narrative features of the source text in translation is one of the major concerns of literary translation studies. The narrative structure and narrative discourse of Tian1 Tang2 Suan4 Tai2 Zhi1 Ge1 present distinct narrative features. Goldblatt follows the non-linear structure of focalizers in the source text;partially chooses the multiple narrative patterns, applies explicitation to convey the style of narrative perspective and narrative levels. These strategies employed by the translator represent the narrative art of the original version while bridging the narrative styles of different cultures, which promotes the circulation of the English version.%对于文学翻译研究而言,叙事学有很强的释解力。译者在翻译过程中如何处理原作的叙事特色是文学翻译研究的一个重要关注点。《天堂蒜薹之歌》的叙事结构和叙述话语都呈现出鲜明的叙事特色。葛浩文在翻译过程中承袭了原作聚焦主体的非线性出场,部分选择了作品的多重话语叙述模式,“显化”处理了视角切换和叙述层次多样性问题。译者对原文叙事艺术的策略性处理在跨越不同文化叙事隔阂的同时再现了原作的叙事艺术,促进了小说在英语语境的传播。

  17. A Comparative Study of the Role of Brochures in Tourism Marketing and Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Bodke, Gauri Jayant

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to extend the academic knowledge and impart managerial implications for determining different contributions of brochures in tourism marketing and communications. The research investigates the role of brochures in the rapid age of advance technological backgrounds where communication with the consumers is becoming highly personalized and engaging. The study examines the role of brochure from the perspective of different companies related to travel i.e. fro...

  18. On Application of House's Translation Quality Assessment Model in Chinese-English Translation—A Case Study of Zhang Peiji' English Version of Dreamlike Childhood%从豪斯的翻译质量评估模式看汉英翻译——以《梦》的英译本为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲茹茹

    2015-01-01

    该文以张培基的英译本《梦》(原作者:冰心)为例,旨在从语场、语旨、语式和体裁四个方面验证豪斯的翻译质量评估模式在汉英翻译中的效度和信度.首先,该文对豪斯的模式进行了阐释,然后在此基础上,对原文和译文做了对比分析,最后在分析结果的基础上肯定了该模式的成就但同时也指出了一些不足.%The paper aims to testify the feasibility and validity of Juliane House's translation quality assessment model in Chi-nese-English translation from the aspects of field,tenor,mode,and genre,taking Zhang Peiji's English version of Dreamlike Childhood as an example.It firstly elucidates House's TQA model and then evaluates the translation quality.At last,it points out some defects of this model without denying its achievements.

  19. Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale and its short version

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo Maki; Uehara Ritei; Nishi Daisuke; Matsuoka Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) and short version of the RS (RS-14). Findings The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologi...

  20. Subject matter expert and public evaluations of a veterinary toxicology course brochure-writing assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, David C; Alpi, Kristine M; Chappell, Kimberly H

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary schools are increasingly developing students' communication skills, with an emphasis placed on practice conveying medical and scientific knowledge to different audiences. We describe how patient-centered written communication has been integrated into the training of veterinary students using toxicology-related preventive materials. Third-year veterinary students were given an assignment to prepare a client-focused brochure related to veterinary toxicology. Since 2010, 148 students have completed this assignment, with an average score of 93.4%. Use of a grading rubric was instituted in 2011 and resulted in a more rigorous assessment of the brochures by the course instructors. In this study, we evaluated a sample (n=6) selected from 10 brochures volunteered for further public and expert assessment. Each brochure was measured for readability and assessed with a rubric for perceived usefulness and acceptability by 12 veterinary toxicologists and 10 or 11 adult members of the public attending a college of veterinary medicine open house. Veterinary toxicologist review anticipated that the brochures would be useful for most clients, and the public reviewers confirmed this assessment. Evaluation of the brochures using set marking criteria and readability indexes showed that students had successfully targeted the chosen audiences. Feedback showed that the general public rated the sample brochures highly in terms of quality, usefulness, and interest. Completion of this study has resulted in revision of the grading rubric, an increased use of brochure examples, and additional instruction in readability assessment and brochure development, thereby improving the assignment as a learning exercise.

  1. 从语言顺应论看伊文・金《骆驼祥子》的英译%On Evan King's English Version of Luotuo Xiangzi from the Perspective of Language Adaptation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘雪莱

    2012-01-01

      Verschueren's Language Adaptation Theory assumes that language used to be a continuous making of linguistic choices with different degrees of salience for the purpose of adaptation .This paper analyzes Evan King's English Version of Luotuo Xiangzi and points out that the choice of text adapts the need of American society of the time and the translation tactics depends on the translation purpose and the reading expectation .%  维索尔伦的语言顺应论指出语言的使用是在不同意识程度下为了顺应交际的需要而不断做出选择的过程。对伊文・金《骆驼祥子》的英译作出分析,指出其在文本的选择上顺应了当时美国社会的需要,而其翻译策略取决于翻译目的并且顺应了读者的阅读期待。

  2. 浅谈李白诗歌英译的比较赏析及译者素养%A Comparative Study on English Versions of Li Bai's Poems and the Translators' Qualities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼媛玲

    2014-01-01

    Classical Chinese Poetry is the crystal ization of Chinese traditional culture and epitome of the Chinese ancient civilization. Li Bai's poems, on be-half of the Chinese ancient poems in Tang Dynasty, presented the style of simple forms, musical rhythm and variable themes. This thesis begins with the status and characteristics of Li Bai's poems, then it makes a comparative study on three English versions of his Night thoughts and The River Journey from White King City respectively. Final y, the thesis raised the relating qualities for translators.%中国古典诗歌是中国传统文化的结晶。以李白为代表的中国唐代古典诗歌形式简约、声律悦耳、题材丰富,在中国文学宝库中发挥着重要的作用。本文以李白诗歌的地位及特点为切入点,对《静夜思》和《早发白帝城》的三种译文进行比较赏析,对译者素养提出了相应的要求。

  3. An Analysis on English Version of Tour Commentary for Ancient Weir Painting Hometown in Lishui%对丽水古堰画乡景点导游词英译的评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文丽

    2016-01-01

    Based on the modern translation principles of cooperation and the criterion of similarity in function and correspondence in meaning,this paper analyzes some problems in information quantity,authenticity, interrelation and expressiveness of the English version of the tour commentary for Ancient Weir Painting Hometown,a famous scenic spot in Lishui city. It argues that such translation deals with the cross-cultural communication,and that the translation should be faithful to the features and culture of scenic spots as well as acceptable to western tourists.%基于翻译学合作原则的理论框架,以“功能相似,语意相符”为翻译标准,对丽水“古堰画乡”景点导游词的英译文作评析,主要针对信息量、真实性、关联性以及表达方式方面的问题进行改译和点评,指出翻译时应注意旅游景点导游词的英译行为是一种跨文化交际活动,翻译时一方面要忠实于景点特征和文化内涵,另一方面又要关照西方游客的接受性。

  4. Greensburg, Kansas: A Better, Greener Place to Live (Revised) (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-01

    This Brochure is for Greensburg city leadership (Chamber of Commerce, Mayor's Office, and others) to use to attract visitors and businesses to Greensburg, and to ensure the city?s commitment to sustainability. Content includes EERE subject matter and mentions DOE's role in rebuilding. The layout is designed to be used as a template for other cities in similar situations.

  5. Translation Aestheticsand Communication Theory of Journalism English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曜

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the present translation theories and standards especially in journalism English translation and imply these theories in my issue. Moreover, I will explain how to apply the translation aesthetics and communication theory of translation in the course of journalism English translation activities. So that translation will achieve elegance in English news text and its Chinese version as well.

  6. Communicating with Two Million Tourists: A Formative Evaluation of an Interpretive Brochure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardo, Gianna

    1999-01-01

    A brochure was designed to communicate information to tourists about the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and its need for protection. A survey of 673 visitors evaluated the effectiveness of distribution methods, effectiveness of the brochure in communicating its intended messages, map effectiveness, visitor opinions of various brochure…

  7. Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization, Regional English Language Centre, Singapore: Program of Activities, 1972-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional English Center (Singapore).

    This brochure describes the work of the Regional English Language Centre (RELC), located in Singapore and established by the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO); Indonesia, Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam are the member countries. The fundamental purpose of the Centre is…

  8. Neutrosophy in Arabic Philosophy [English version; and Arabic version

    OpenAIRE

    Smarandache, Florentin; Osman, Salah

    2007-01-01

    Neutrosophy is a theory developed in 1995 by Florentin Smarandache as a generalization of dialectic. This theory considers every notion or idea together with its opposite or negation and the spectrum of "neutralities" (i.e. notions or ideas located between the two extremes, supporting neither nor ). The and ideas together are referred to as . In this theory every idea tends to be neutralized and balanced by and ideas - as a state of equilibrium. Hence, neutrosophy is based ...

  9. A Critical Analysis of Two English Versions of The Taoist Priest from Cognitive Environment Perspective%从认知环境角度评析《崂山道士》两个英译本

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成兆英

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive environment is the prerequisite of mutual manifestness, which is the key to successful communication. Translation is a complicated bilingual and cross-cultural cognitive communication. People tend to achieve optimal cognitive effects with little efforts in the process of cognition. Hence, the translator should endeavor to construct optimal cognitive environment so as to obtain mutual manifestness between the source language author and the target language readers. Only in this way can optimal effects be achieved. Based on the theory of cognitive environment, this thesis conducts a critical analysis of two English versions of The Taoist Priest of Laoshan and elaborates the principle role translator's cognitive environment plays in translation of ancient Chinese classics and the corresponding strategies to be taken in different situations.%认知环境是互明的前提,互明是成功交际的关键。翻译是一种跨语言、跨文化的复杂认知交际活动。人们在认知过程中总是力图以最小的投入获得最大的认知效果。因此,译者必须努力构建最佳认知环境,使原文作者和译文读者达到互明,译文才能取得最佳效果。本文以认知环境理论为基础,对《崂山道士》两个英译本进行评析,阐述了译者认知环境在古汉语典籍翻译中的重要性以及如何根据认知环境的不同采取相应的翻译策略。

  10. Realizing a Clean Energy Future: Highlights of NREL Analysis (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-12-01

    Profound energy system transformation is underway. In Hawaiian mythology, Maui set out to lasso the sun in order to capture its energy. He succeeded. That may have been the most dramatic leap forward in clean energy systems that the world has known. Until now. Today, another profound transformation is underway. A combination of forces is taking us from a carbon-centric, inefficient energy system to one that draws from diverse energy sources - including the sun. NREL analysis is helping guide energy systems policy and investment decisions through this transformation. This brochure highlights NREL analysis accomplishments in the context of four thematic storylines.

  11. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 2 concerns the Bretagne (Brittany), Pays de la Loire, Haute-Normandie, Basse-Normandie and Centre regions. (J.S.)

  12. Technology Transfer at CERN (english version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, F

    2006-01-01

    A brief overview of how CERN's pioneering technologies for scientific research have branched out into various fields. Medicine, industrial processes, information and communication technology, as well as environment and energy fields make use of these innovative developments.

  13. CERN Quick Facts 2016 (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070305

    2016-01-01

    Facts about CERN, the contributions of its Member States, its machines and experiments, the number of its employees and users, management structure, etc. Previously called "CERN General Information Sheet"

  14. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 1; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 1 concerns the Ile-de-France region (Paris region). (J.S.)

  15. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 4; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 4 concerns the Auvergne and Rhone-Alpes regions. (J.S.)

  16. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 2; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 2 concerns the Bretagne (Brittany), Pays de la Loire, Haute-Normandie, Basse-Normandie and Centre regions. (J.S.)

  17. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 6; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 6 concerns the Aquitaine, Limousin, Midi-Pyrenees and Poitou-Charentes regions. (J.S.)

  18. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 5; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 5 concerns the Languedoc-Roussillon and Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur regions, Corsica, and the overseas departements and territories. (J.S.)

  19. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 3; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 3 concerns the Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, Champagne-Ardenne, Bourgogne, Alsace, Lorraine, Franche-Comte regions. (J.S.)

  20. Google Books Bibliography, Version 6

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Jr., Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    This bibliography presents selected English-language articles and other works that are useful in understanding Google Books. It primarily focuses on the evolution of Google Books and the legal, library, and social issues associated with it. Where possible, links are provided to works that are freely available on the Internet, including e-prints in disciplinary archives and institutional repositories. Note that e-prints and published articles may not be identical. Bibliography versions are cum...

  1. A Contrastive Genre Analysis of Chinese and American University Ad-mission Brochures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占小海; 许云柯

    2015-01-01

    This study mainly uses the move and step analysis to conduct a contrastive genre analysis on the selected 20 Chinese ad⁃mission brochures (CABs) and 20 American admission brochures (AABs). Differences in moves, move sequences and step arrange⁃ments have revealed themselves in this comparison. Firstly, Chinese university admission brochures cast more focus on basic infor⁃mation about the university, the application procedure and admission criteria, while American universities, besides offering such in⁃formation, also emphasize the promotional function of the admission brochures. They use appealing and creative moves to commer⁃cially‘sell’advantages of the university to the potential applicants. Secondly, based on Kress&van Leeuwen’s visual grammar symbolic meaning, images and colors in admission brochures are also explored and analyzed as language. For one thing, after count⁃ing the frequency of the four categories of images, namely portrait, campus scenery, campus life pictures and graphs, it is found that, compared with CABs, AABs have a highly more obvious tendency in using images. The images are used as an effective tool to increase the sense of credibility, identity-recognition, attract reader’s attention, and help understanding, making the facts and in⁃formation more intuitive. For another thing, the main colors used in the brochures are yet another noticeable feature. Especially in American brochures, universities tend to use their‘traditional colors’in the brochure to achieve a sense of consistency. Some Chi⁃nese brochures also follow this promotional strategy, yet a large percentage of them do not use any recognizable colors other than the printed black and white. Based on these differences, suggestions are put forward from perspectives including choice of moves and steps to improve the quality of CABs, hopefully raising their acceptance in the international level.

  2. 从《雷雨》英译本看补偿手段在戏剧翻译中的应用%Application of Compensation Techniques in Drama Translation: A Case Study of the English Version of Thunderstorm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康宁

    2011-01-01

    戏剧是一种特殊的语言艺术形式,它不仅是文学体裁,也是舞台表演艺术,融文学性和戏剧性于一体。戏剧翻译要求译本必须具备双重属性,即可阅读性和可表演性。戏剧演出要受到时空因素的制约,因此要表现丰富的思想内涵和生动的人物形象,戏剧语言就必须通俗、精炼。译者在处理戏剧翻译中的语言和文化差异现象的时候,应灵活运用补偿手段实现源语与目的语的等值效果,从而生成完整的语用意义。本文通过分析《雷雨》英译本,从文化、句法、修辞以及词汇理解四方面入手归纳总结补偿手段在戏剧翻译中的应用。%Drama is a unique art of language. As a literary art as well as a theatrical art, drama is a literary text with highly culture-bound peculiarity to be performed on stage. So drama translation should embrace dual nature: performability and readability. Since drama performance has to be restricted within the specific time and space, so in order to express the rich connotation and create the vivid characters, drama language should be refined and accessible. In drama translation, when dealing with difference in both language and cultural phenomena, the translator should use compensation flexibly to make the equivalence between the source language and the target language so as to produce the entire pragmatic meaning. Based on an analysis of some typical examples in the English version of Thunderstorm, the paper makes research on culture, syntax, rhetoric and vocabulary usage in order to testify to the application of the compensation techniques in drama translation.

  3. Proveer igualdad de oportunidades educativas para los estudiantes con conocimientos limitados del idioma ingles (Providing Equality of Educational Opportunity for Students with Limited Knowledge of the English Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    This brochure, entirely in Spanish, provides information on federal policy concerning equal educational opportunity for limited-English-proficient (LEP) individuals. It first summarizes the provisions of Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and the subsequent major Civil Rights Office directives concerning that legislation. It then outlines…

  4. English Corner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶然; 刘之定

    2000-01-01

    There is an English corner in the August 1st Park in Nanchang. You will find it near the bridge. Some young people go there to practise English. There are primary school students, junior middle school students, senior high school students, college students and others have jobs. In the English corner everyone must speak English loudly. They talk about study,

  5. Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧华倩; 林璀瑜

    2002-01-01

    Some of my classmates are afrald ot English. They think English is difficult to learn. But I don't think so. I like English very much. To me, it's not only a subject, but also a useful language. I try my best to use English at any time if possible.

  6. World Englishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心; 周丽

    2014-01-01

    In the current days, the search for information and the need for global communication have already promoted English from being the language of people in different countries as the international language. This essay will give some arguments about the inevitability of variety of world Englishes and its characteristics, and then explain that what Standard English is and examples about the standards in English.

  7. Translation Stategies for Chinese Allusions --Illustrated by Examples from the Two English Versions of Six Chapters of a Floating Life%典故译介策略——以《浮生六记》两译本为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧敏

    2011-01-01

    典故是语言的精华与核心,具有鲜明的民族文化特色。由于中西语言和文化的差异,典故翻译是译者所遇到的最棘手的问题之一。《浮生六记》原著中有很多文化含义丰富的典故。拟以其两译本为例,探讨典故的不同翻译策略,旨在通过对具体译例的对比,分析译者处理典故时的做法与得失,并指出译者应恰当地处理典故的翻译问题。%Embodying cultural peculiarity,allusions are the core and essnce of language. Due to the linguis- tic and cultural differences between Chinese and English, translating allusions is the one of the hardest nuts to crack for translators. In Six Chapters of a Floating Life, there are many allusions with rich cultural connotation. Illustrated by examples from its two English versions, this paper attempts to probe into different strategies for translating Chinese allusions into English. Through the comparison of the two English versions of allusion examples, it analyzes the gains and losses of different translation strategies and points out that translators should deal with problems arising in allusion translation properly.

  8. Unique Perspectives on a Transforming Energy Economy: 2014 Annual Report (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossett, S.

    2014-03-01

    What makes JISEA unique? Unique perspectives. This brochure highlights the unique perspectives provided by the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis through JISEA's recent accomplishments and the people behind them.

  9. On the Main Reasons for the Population of the English Version of Hong Gao Liang Jia Zu in America—From the Per-spective of Bourdieusian Sociology%英译本《红高粱家族》在美国赢得读者青睐的原因探究——布迪厄社会学视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾增

    2015-01-01

    In 1993, Red Sorghum, the English version of Mo Yan's Hong Gao Liang Jia Zu translated by Howard Goldblatt, got published in America and has gained favorable acception ever since. This paper, applying the Bourdieusian Sociology, tries to ex-plore the deep reasons for the population of this translated version, from the aspects of field, capital and habitus.%1993年,莫言的《红高粱家族》被葛浩文翻译成英文在美国出版,获得了广泛好评.该文以布迪厄社会学的视角,从场域、资本和惯习三个方面进行分析,试探究该译作在美国贏得众多读者青睐的深层原因.

  10. Analysis on the Differences Between Chinese and English Version of Hong Kong Energy Efficiency Labeling Scheme for Induction Cooker%香港电磁灶标签能效计划中英文版本对照差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩

    2013-01-01

    This paper certifies that there is ambiguity in choosing standard pot by making comparisons between Chinese version and English version of Hong Kong energy efficiency labeling scheme for induction cooker, and proves that it’s likely that engineers may make wrong choices when carrying out the test, which has effects on the test results of thermal efficiency for induction cooker.%本文通过比较香港机电工程署电磁灶能效标签计划的中英文版本,发现标准锅的选择存在歧义,并通过实际的测试数据,证明可能导致测试者在选择标准锅进行试验时产生误判,最终影响电磁灶热效率的测试结果。

  11. Research Support Facility (RSF): Leadership in Building Performance (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    This brochure/poster provides information on the features of the Research Support Facility including a detailed illustration of the facility with call outs of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Imagine an office building so energy efficient that its occupants consume only the amount of energy generated by renewable power on the building site. The building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) occupied by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) employees, uses 50% less energy than if it were built to current commercial code and achieves the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED{reg_sign}) Platinum rating. With 19% of the primary energy in the U.S. consumed by commercial buildings, the RSF is changing the way commercial office buildings are designed and built.

  12. 从接受理论视角看中文菜谱的翻译策略——基于《中文菜单英文译法》的分析%On Translation Strategies of Chinese Menu from the Perspective of Reception Theory——Based on the Analysis of Chinese Menu in English Version

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张周瑞

    2011-01-01

    本文以数据分析为依据,以接受理论为理论根据,通过对《中文菜单英文译法》的分析,探究了接受理论与菜单翻译实践的关联关系。为了得到较为客观、准确的研究数据,本研究设计了针对中文菜单英译文本的实例分析,通过对实例的有效数据的统计,结合接受理论的基本原则,分析了《中文菜单英文译法》中所选用的翻译策略和翻译方法。%The thesis,based on the data analysis,analyzes translated text of Chinese Menu in English Version,and further probes into the relations between the Reception Theory and menu translation.In order to obtain more objective and accurate research data,this study,which is combined with the basic principles of Reception Theory,designs several samples concerning the acceptance of the C-E translation of Chinese menu and analyzes the translation strategies and methods in Chinese Menu in English Version through the analysis of valid data statistics from the samples.

  13. Analyzing the Feasibility of Teaching Critical Reading Strategies with the Abbreviated Version of English Literary Work%批判性阅读策略教学的可行性分析--以英文名著简写本为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董美珍

    2015-01-01

    批判性阅读作为英语教学中培养学生批判性思维的重要途径,得到了国内外学者的关注。本文以英文名著简写本为阅读材料,以高中生为教学对象,探讨适用于小说体裁的批判性阅读策略,以期帮助学生开展批判性阅读,改善批判性思维。%Critical Reading, the important approach of developing students’ critical thinking in English teaching, has gained wide atten-tion from the scholars at home and abroad. This article aims at selecting the appropriate Critical Reading strategies which can be applied in the fictions chosen from the abbreviated version of English literary work and are suitable for High school students in English lesson. The strategies can help the students read critically and improve the students’ critical thinking.

  14. Senales de Trafico. Ingles-Espanol = Traffic Signs. English-Spanish [and] English-Spanish Road Signs for American Tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Philip

    Two English/Spanish bilingual glossaries define words and phrases found on traffic signs. The first is an extensive alphabetical checklist of sign messages, listed in English with translations in Spanish. Some basic traffic and speed limit rules are included. The second volume, in Spanish-to-English form, is a pocket version designed for American…

  15. Ecological Economy (English Version)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Improved on the basis of the Chinese version Ecological Economy, the English version Ecological Economy (CN53-1197/F, ISSN1673-0178)is sponsored by Yunnan Education Publishing House and Sichuan University of Science & Engineering, The first issue of it has been published in January, 2005.

  16. New Modified English and Hindi Oswestry Disability Index in Low Back Pain Patients Treated Conservatively in Indian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Nishant,; Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Kapoor, Kulwant Singh

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study along with questionnaire. Purpose To measure the correlation of the visual analogue score (VAS), with (Oswestry disability Index [ODI], version 2.1a) in English, and modified ODI (English and Hindi version). To validate translated version of the modified ODI in English version to Hindi. Overview of Literature Conflicting evidence in literature regarding the ability for existing ODI score to accurately measure the pain associated disability. Methods One hu...

  17. The Analysis of Voice System in English Political Speech and Its Chinese Version%英文政治演讲及其汉译的语态系统分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳艳

    2016-01-01

    English political speech is a special language form in English-speaking countries and its translation has a close re-lationship with its whole expression.The author selects the inaugural speech of U.S.President Barack Obama as a corpus and ana-lyzes it from the perspective of voice system, which will have a certain effect on translating English political speech.%英文政治演讲是英语国家里特有的一种语言形式,英语政治演讲的翻译关系着整篇文章的表达效果。选取美国国家领导人奥巴马的就职演讲作为语料,分析英文政治演讲,探究其在语态系统方面的翻译处理,这对于政治演讲的翻译有一定的作用。

  18. A cross-sectional evidence-based review of pharmaceutical promotional marketing brochures and their underlying studies: Is what they tell us important and true?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Lockwood G

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major marketing technique used by pharmaceutical companies is direct-to-physician marketing. This form of marketing frequently employs promotional marketing brochures, based on clinical research, which may influence how a physician prescribes medicines. This study's objective was to investigate whether or not the information in promotional brochures presented to physicians by pharmaceutical representatives is accurate, consistent, and valid with respect to the actual studies upon which the promotional brochures are based. Methods Physicians in five clinics were asked to consecutively collect pharmaceutical promotional brochures and to send them all to a centralized location. The brochures for any class of medication were collected on a continuous basis until 20 distinct promotional brochures were received by a central location. Once the brochure was received, the corresponding original study was obtained. Two blinded reviewers performed an evidence-based review of the article, comparing data that was printed on the brochure to what was found in the original study. Results Among the 20 studies, 75% of the studies were found to be valid, 80% were funded by the pharmaceutical company, 60% of the studies and the corresponding brochures presented patient-oriented outcomes, and 40% were compared to another treatment regimen. Of the 19 brochures that presented the data as graphs, 4 brochures presented a relative risk reduction while only 1 brochure presented an absolute risk reduction. 15% of the promotional marketing brochures presented data that was different from what was in the original published study. Conclusion Given the present findings, physicians should be cautious about drawing conclusions regarding a medication based on the marketing brochures provided by pharmaceutical companies.

  19. CALL English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlach, Else

    This multimedia program of English grammar caters specifically for Danish students at Bachelor level. The handbook introduces students to well-established grammatical terminology within the traditional areas of English grammar, and the CD-ROM, which contains about 120 exercises, offers students...

  20. SPECIAL ENGLISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English Language Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    THIS 14-VOLUME SERIES OF TECHNICAL ENGLISH TEXTS IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE PRACTICE IN TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY FOR NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH. LANGUAGE FLUENCY LEVEL IS UPPER-INTERMEDIATE/ADVANCED. THE VARIOUS FIELDS OF INDUSTRY WHICH THE TEXTS DEAL WITH ARE AS FOLLOWS--(1) AGRICULTURE--BOOK 1, SOILS (2) AGRICULTURE--BOOK 2, FIELD CROPS (3)…

  1. Maori English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclagan, Margaret; King, Jeanette; Gillon, Gail

    2008-01-01

    The Maori language is the language of the indigenous people of New Zealand. Today, not all Maori speak the Maori language, and many Maori as well as non-Maori speak Maori English, the fastest growing of the main varieties of New Zealand English. This paper provides a background to the linguistic situation of the Maori populace in New Zealand,…

  2. World Englishes and English Learning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Ting

    2015-01-01

    The global spread of English is remarkable, for it has developed many different non-native varieties of English (“world Englishes”). On account of the varieties of English, the essay reviews briefly historical causes and relevant literature for English globalization. The issues of English localization, who is qualified as English instructor, what kind of English to learn and how is English changing in China are included. The essay discusses also the implications of World Englishes for English language learning and proposes three points in the context of learning English in China:(1) English language learning should take into account the changes of English;(2)attitude towards global and local English variants should be properly treated;(3)compared with English test results, more attention must be paid to practical communication competences.

  3. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  4. Tribal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Development on Tribal Lands (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  5. USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the integrated clean energy deployment process and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project road map, including over-arching goals, organization, strategy, technology-specific goals and accomplishments, challenges, solutions, and upcoming milestones.

  6. Choosing variants of pragmatic argumentation in anticipation of countermoves in health brochures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Poppel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I will determine the strategic function of the use of four variants of pragmatic argumentation in the context of advisory health brochures. I argue that each variant functions as a strategic manoeuvre that deals with potential countermoves: with variant I and II writers can address an

  7. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Save Money, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Clean Cities Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) features a wide range of Web-based tools to help vehicle fleets and individual consumers reduce their petroleum use. This brochure lists and describes Clean Cities online tools related to vehicles, alternative fueling stations, electric vehicle charging stations, fuel conservation, emissions reduction, fuel economy, and more.

  8. 从文本特征定量分析看《桃花源记》英译本的词语操作常规%An Analysis of Textual Features on Lexical Operation Norms in English Versions of Tao Hua Yuan Ji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲璞; 胡显耀

    2012-01-01

    The English versions of Tao Hua Yuan Ji by LIN Yutang and A. R. Davis are fucosed on as the research objects. Starting from Toury's descriptive translation studies and taking Halliday's systemic functional linguistics as the text-analyzing methods, from the three aspects of transitivity, namely, process, participant and circumstantial element, the lexical characteristics of the two versions are analyzed, which finds that the lexical operation norms of LIN's version possess the characteristics of explicitation and simplification, while Davis' more obviously show implicitation and complication. It is concluded that the general lexical operation norms of Lin's is inclined to the convention expectation norms, whereas Davis' to the foreignness expectation norms.%以《桃花源记》中林语堂和A.R.Davis的译本为研究对象,从Toury的描写翻译学出发,采取Halliday系统功能语言学的文本分析方法,从及物性的三个方面,即过程、参与者和环境成分对两个英译本的词语特征进行分析,发现林译本词语操作具有明确和简化特征,戴译本暗含和显化特征更为明显。林译本总体趋向传统化期待常规,而戴译本趋向陌生化期待常规。

  9. Rethinking of Two English Versions of Luotuo Xiangzi in Light of World Literature%从世界文学角度重读《骆驼祥子》的两个译本

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    《骆驼祥子》的英语重译现象是中国文学外译史上的重要历史个案,也是中国文学成为世界文学的成功典范。文章从达姆罗什的世界文学定义出发,通过比较金译本和葛译本的文本差异,发掘了两个译本的文化折射性、翻译接受性以及阅读的超然性,以论证翻译在中国文学成为世界文学这一过程中的核心作用。对其两个译本的差异和接受过程进行考察,有利于我们认识中国文学“走出去”应采取接受语境为导向的文化推介战术。%The English retranslations of Luotuo Xiangzi is a significant case in the translation history of Chinese literature as well as one of the successful exemplars of Chinese literature circulating in the English world.Employing the definition of world literature by David Damrosch,this paper compares the text differences between Evan King’s translation and that of Howard Glodblatt,and examines the cultural refractivity and acceptability of the texts as world literature,as well as the “detached involvement”in reading,in order to demonstrate the key role of translation in integrating Chinese literature into world literature.The study of the text differences and the acceptance process of the two translations reveals that the target-oriented culture promotion tactics should be employed to introduce Chinese literature to the world.

  10. English Movies and English Learning in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爽

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, English movies have been considered as one of the most effective ways to assist students to keep interest in improving their English abilities and enlarge their English vocabularies, as well as their cross cultural communicative ability. Based on the functions of English movies, which make them meet the needs of college students’English acquisition, this paper ana⁃lyzes the advantages of English movies in English learning.

  11. The English Movies and the English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔琳琳

    2014-01-01

    English learning has always been a big problem to Chinese learners. The learners pay much more attention to the vocabulary and the grammar. Acctually, they can hardly speak English as native speakers and never really understand the English because the real English environment doesn’t exist in our country in which English is only used as a foreign language. Then English movies provide the learners with what they need in English learning.

  12. Contrast between China English and Chinese English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨公建

    2014-01-01

    With the globalization of English,the discussion about China English and Chinese English attracts many scholars’ interest and attention.The concept of China English and Chinese English usual y makes people confused, so the article wil make some tentative contrasts in terms of definition、attributes and causes of the two terms and make people have a clear comprehension of China English and Chinese English.

  13. Contrast between China English and Chinese English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨公建

    2014-01-01

    With the globalization of English, the discussion about China English and Chinese English attracts many scholars ’interest and attention. The con-cept of China English and Chinese English usual y makes people confused, so the article wil make some tentative contrasts in terms of definition、attri-butes and causes of the two terms and make people have a clear comprehension of China English and Chinese English.

  14. Some Specimen Entries for the Dictionary of Old English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, C. J. E.; Cameron, A. F.

    1973-01-01

    Revised version of a working paper presented at the Dictionary of Old English Conference, Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto, September 26, 1970. Article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)

  15. English Phonetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    potential applications helping to provide solutions to problems encountered in the real world. An area of prime importance was the teaching of pronunciation to language learners, and in particular the acquisition of English pronunciation by non-natives. Apart from works devoted to second-language...... acquisition, and in particular to the teaching of English as an acquired language, this emphasis also led to the production of important English pronunciation dictionaries, including the Afzelius dictionary reproduced as Volume I of this collection. Other areas covered in the following volumes include key...... Melville Bell, Isaac Pitman, Alexander J. Ellis, and Henry Sweet—the emphasis was on what is now known as articulatory phonetics. (See further Phonetics of English in the Nineteenth Century (Routledge, 2006), compiled by the editors of the current collection.) These pioneers regarded their task...

  16. Comparing Danish and Swedish versions of PISA scientific literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serder, Malmø University, Margareta; Sørensen, Helene

    to the English and French original versions. Differences that occur as a result of the translation process concerning words’ meaning are demonstrated. The possible consequences of such differences are exemplified by an excerpt from a situation in which Swedish 15-year-old students collaboratively worked......This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared...

  17. RELIABILITY OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE VERSION OF THE PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN BEHAVIOR SCALES SECOND EDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Al Awmleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the English and German language versions of the behavior rating scale, Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales, Second Edition (PKBS-2 and make a comparison between them. Data were collected from (37 preschool-age children using both the English and German versions. Internal consistency, testing and retesting, alternate [language] versions and standard error of measurement were used to evaluate the reliability of the German-English (PKBS-2 versions. The alpha and split-half coefficients for the German (PKBS-2 total scores range from 0.94 to 0.96. After three weeks, bivariate Pearson correlations indicate that the resulting coefficients of stability are significant at the (0.001 level and the test-retest reliabilities for problem behavior scores are higher than social skills scores in both the German and English versions. The reliability coefficients for social skills were 0.63 for the 3-week retest in the English version and 0.61 for the retest in German; the coefficients for problem behavior were 0.83 using the English version and 0.81 in German.

  18. 政府网站外宣翻译规范性探讨——以舟山市政府网站的英文版为例%Translational Norms and Translating Governmental Website Material for International Publicity -- A Case Study of the English Version of Zhoushan Governmental Website

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚艳波

    2012-01-01

    This paper inquires into translational norms and the translation of governmental website material for international publicity. Based on Chesterman's theory, the paper has conducted a close examination on the English version of Zhoushan governmental website from the linguistics, pragmatic and cultural perspectives, and according to Chesterman's theory of translation assessment, it is found that the deficiency in the English version is caused by translators' failure to comply with accountability norms, expectancy norms, relation norms and communication norms. The paper proposes that in addition to the efforts to be made by governmental organizations, when translating material for international publicity translators should have a clear awareness and adopt proper and flexible translational strategies and methods governed by professional norms so as to achieve the target language community's expectancy norms and fulfill "clarity", "truth", "trust" and "understanding", the translation ethics underlying translational norms.%政府网站的英文版属于外宣翻译的范畴。本文作为个案研究,以切斯特曼的翻译规范论为理论依据,分析了舟山市政府网站英文版在语言、语用和文化这三方面存在的问题及缘由,提出政府相关部门和译者应共同努力,提高政府网站英文版的质量,尤其是译者应具有较强的外宣翻译意识,采用合适的翻译策略和方法使政府网站的英文版符合目标语读者对译文的规范期待,从而实现切斯特曼的翻译规范论中的“明晰”、“真实”、“信任”、“理解”四种价值观。

  19. The Development of the English Developmental Contrastive Spelling Test: A Tool for Investigating Spanish Influence on English Spelling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Arteagoitia, Igone; Louguit, Mohammed; Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of an English spelling measure designed to assess the progress made by Spanish-English bilingual children from Grade 2 to Grade 5. Different stages of developing the measure are described, such as selecting the focus features, the prepilot and pilot phases, and the operational version. Two underlying…

  20. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  1. Better Building Alliance, Plug and Process Loads in Commercial Buildings: Capacity and Power Requirement Analysis (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This brochure addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that can help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. This brochure should be used to make these decisions so systems can operate more energy efficiently; upfront capital costs will also decrease. This information can also be used to drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands. It should enable brokers and tenants to agree about lower PPL capacities. Owner-occupied buildings will also benefit. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems.

  2. ENGLISH TRAINING

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch PLACES AVAILABLE Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English who need to improve their professional writing (administrative, scientific, technical). Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their sp...

  3. Making out in English (English phrasebook)

    CERN Document Server

    Crownover, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Making Out in English is a fun, accessible and thorough English phrase book and guide to the English language as it's really spoken. If you are a student, businessman or tourist traveling to the English speaking world and would like to have an authentic and meaningful experience, the key is being able to speak like a local. This friendly and easy-to-use English phrasebook makes this possible. Making Out in English has been revised and redesigned to act as a guide to modern colloquial English for use in everyday informal interactions—giving access to the sort of catchy English expressions that

  4. Pharmaceuticals companies' promotional brochures: do they display reliable and useful medications' information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Addin Mohammad Ahmad Idris

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: Screened brochures were found to display poorly reliable and unbalanced medication information. Healthcare providers shall, accordingly, seek independent medication information sources, and not solely depend on commercial sources of medication information. Official regulators shall strictly define and mandate medication information contents in printed pharmaceutical promotional materials. Healthcare providers should, also, master the skills of appraising such promotional printed materials if rational medication use is to be achieved. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(4.000: 671-675

  5. Silent English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Lwid

    2002-01-01

    In 1968 an American linguist,answering the question “How do you pronounceTESOL?”[the acronym(只取首字母的缩写词)of the Association of Teachers ofEnglish to Speaders of Other Languages] answered:“T as in castle,E as in give,Sas in island,O as in people,and L as in calm.” In fact you can,with some use ofproper names and loan words,create a complete silent alphabet for English,asfollows:

  6. ANALYSIS ON THE STRATEGIES OF TRANSLATION COMPENSATION IN MR. YANG'S ENGLISH VERSION OF A DREAM OF RED MANSION%浅析翻译中的文化补偿策略——以《红楼梦》杨译本为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包相玲

    2012-01-01

    翻译在跨文化信息交流中是一种重要的信息转化手段。由于文化的民族性和多样性特征,译者在翻译活动中难免会遭遇到文化缺省的现象,因此翻译时必须采取适当的补偿策略,才能使译文读者欣赏到原作所体现的异域文化。本文以《红楼梦》的杨译本为例来探讨翻译中的文化缺省现象及文化补偿策略。%Translation is a kind of cross-cultural information communication activity. Because of the cultural diversity and its historical characteristics, it is unavoidable to experience cultural default in translation. Thus some translation compensation strategies should be adopted in order to make readers appreciate the essence of foreign culture. This paper intends to discuss the strategies of translation compensation for cultural default with examples from A Dream of Red Mansion of Mr. Yang 's English version.

  7. Foreignizing Tendency of Culture --Transfer of the Cultural Images in the English Version of To L/re from Media -Translatology%文化的迁移——从译介学角度看《活着》英译本中文化意象的传递

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高辉

    2012-01-01

    文化意象的传递是不同民族文化在翻译中碰撞、交流、接受的过程。在传递过程中很多文化意象会发生淡化、扭曲、变形。从译介学角度出发分析《活着》英译本,可以窥斑见豹,了解中国思维习惯、历史习俗、宗教文化在翻译传递过程中的变化情况,以及译介过程中文化的迁移及译者所承担的责任。%The transfer of cultural images is the process of cultural clash and communication in different nations. During the process of it, a large number of cultural images are broken and even distorted. From the perspective of media - translatology, this essay, taking the example of the English version of YU Hua' s novel To Live, is to analyze the changed dements in Chinese thinking habit, historical conventions as well as the religious culture. And it aims at arguing the cultural foreignizing tendency and the major responsibility of translators.

  8. 诗歌翻译别是一家——《江雪》英译本中“诗歌格式塔意象”再现分析%An Image-Gestalt Analysis of English Version "Fishing in Snow"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘方方

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,five English versions of Chinese ancient poem "Fishing in Snow" have been selected and analyzed in terms of reconstruction of image-gestalt. On the basis of the characteristics of poetry,a conclusion can be drawn that poetry has its own unique image-gestah in terms of Gestalt psychology : they are rhythm image-gestalt, sentence image :gestalt and "emotion" and "sight" image-gestalt.%文章以《江雪》的五个英译本为例,探讨分析了译本中"诗歌格式塔意象"的再现情况,根据诗歌的特点,结合格式塔心理学理论,认为诗歌有着自己独特的格式塔意象:韵律格式塔意象、句式格式塔意象和情景格式塔意象。这些诗歌格式塔意象也就是译者所追求的"全豹"。

  9. The Reproduction of Poetic Beauty in Theatrical Translation:A Tentative Analysis Based on Two English Versions of Some Special Expressions in Teahouse%试析诗性美在戏剧翻译中的再现--以《茶馆》几个特殊表达方式的两个英译本为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟清; 唐伟玲

    2014-01-01

    Poetic beauty is one of the essential features of theatrical language, and the employment of special expressions is an important means to create the poetic beauty of theatrical language. Consequently, the handling of special expressions often affects the reproduction of poetic beauty in theatrical translation. Based on two English versions of a few special expressions in Teahouse, this article explores some specific approaches to the reproduc-tion of poetic beauty in theatrical translation.%诗性美是戏剧语言的基本特点之一,而特殊表达方式的应用往往是创造戏剧语言诗性美的重要手段。因此,戏剧翻译中特殊表达方式的处理往往会影响到诗性美的再现效果。在此以《茶馆》中几个特殊表达方式的两个英译本为基本语料探讨了戏剧翻译中再现诗性美的一些具体途径。

  10. Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale and its short version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Maki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS and short version of the RS (RS-14. Findings The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS were administered. Internal consistency, convergent validity and factor loadings were assessed at initial assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data collected from 107 students at 3 months after baseline. Mean score on the RS was 111.19. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Both the RS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with the CES-D and SDS, and positively correlated with the RSES, SSQ and PSS (all p Conclusions This study demonstrates that the Japanese version of RS has psychometric properties with high degrees of internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, and relatively low concurrent validity. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Low scores on the RS, a positive correlation between the RS and perceived stress, and a relatively low correlation between the RS and depressive symptoms in this study suggest that validity of the Japanese version of the RS might be relatively low compared with the original English version.

  11. TESOL Expertise in the Empire of English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A version of a keynote address at the Australian Council of TESOL Associations (ACTA) International Conference 2012 held in Cairns. Responding to the issue of TESOL as global trade, Phillipson explores the historical purposes of using English as an imperial language and as a dominant language...... of the neoliberal economic order and globalization....

  12. English Downfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theamishaugur

    2009-01-01

    In a remix of the infamous Hitler meme--taking a scene from the movie, "Downfall" (2005), and adding subtitles appropriate (in this case) for "Kairos" readers--theamishaugur makes a pointed, humorous (to some) commentary on the status of multimodal composition scholars in English departments during job market season.

  13. English courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    New courses University of Cambridge ESOL examination course We will be starting two new courses in October leading to the Cambridge First Certificate in English (level B2 of the European Framework) and the Cambridge Advanced English (level C1) examinations. These courses will consist of two semesters of 15 weeks with two two-hourly classes per week. There will be an average of eight students per class. Normally the examination will be taken in June 2011 but strong participants could take it earlier. People wishing to take these courses should enrol: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9:1927376177842004::NO::X_COURSE_ID,X_STATUS:4133%2CD and they will then be required to take a placement test to check that their level of English is of an appropriate level. Please note that we need a minimum of seven students enrolled to open a session. For further information please contact Tessa Osborne 72957. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: From 4th October 2010 to 5th Feb...

  14. English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 03 March to 28 June 2003 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel.73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel.72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, rol...

  15. English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 03 March to 28 June 2003 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel.73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel.72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-p...

  16. Malaysia Promotes Excellence in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Vinodini

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the role of English in Malaysia, English in the education system, students learning English, English teachers, instruction and the syllabus, inservice support, private English education, English in tertiary education, and opportunities for teachers in Malaysia. (VWL)

  17. Spanish Language Versions of the Depression Adjective Check Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Bernard; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study aimed to develop an instrument that could be used for mental health research with Spanish-speaking populations. The Depression Adjective Check Lists (DACL) used to measure depressive mood was translated into Spanish and administered to 70 Hispanic subjects. Reliability determinations were high and close to those for the English version.…

  18. English Instruction in English-Language Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conseil des Colleges, Quebec (Quebec).

    Developed to promote the consistency and quality of English instruction and to support the English-language colleges of Quebec in this direction, the report presents an overview of English instruction at the college level and presents recommendations to the Minister of Higher Education and Science (MHES) and the English-language colleges. Part I…

  19. ENGLISH BOOK CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    English Book Club

    2009-01-01

    http://club-englishbookclub.web.cern.ch A note to our members Dear Members, Many thanks to all of you who have paid up now. However, there are still some late payers and Morna would appreciate knowing if they will pay for 2009/2010 or if they have left the club. At the AGM on 17 November it was decided that a 3 month delay for key reimbursement will be given to all present and past members, BUT after 31.3.2010 no reimbursement will be given out. We are in the process of making changes to the access to the club for paid-up, active members only. Some of you have told Morna you will pay on your next visit to CERN, that is ok but please try to do this by 15 December if possible. A new version of the club’s book data-base is available on the web: http://club-englishbookclub.web.cern.ch/club-englishbookclub/Export/index.html The English Book Club has a growing collection of over 4500 English language books, mostly general fiction with a sprinkling of nonfiction and children’s books. New books...

  20. English Book Club

    CERN Multimedia

    English Book Club

    The minutes of the AGM held on Tuesday November 17th can now be found on the club web-site: http://club-englishbookclub.web.cern.ch. A new version of the club’s book data-base is also available on the web: http://club-englishbookclub.web.cern.ch/club-englishbookclub/Export/index.html The last book selection for 2009 is done and the order for the new books has been placed, with luck they will be on the shelves before the end of year break. The English Book Club has a growing collection of over 4500 English language books, mostly general fiction with a sprinkling of nonfiction and children’s books. New books are purchased regularly and the books are shelved in our club room which is accessible to members at all times. Membership is open to all (staff and external) and there is a special tariff for short term students. See the club’s website at http://cern.ch/englishbookclub for more details.

  1. Versioning Complex Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macduff, Matt C.; Lee, Benno; Beus, Sherman J.

    2014-06-29

    Using the history of ARM data files, we designed and demonstrated a data versioning paradigm that is feasible. Assigning versions to sets of files that are modified with some special assumptions and domain specific rules was effective in the case of ARM data, which has more than 5000 datastreams and 500TB of data.

  2. Report 1986 - abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a non-technical progress report (in English) of the activities of the Research Centre Seibersdorf in the fields of Energy and Safety, Materials Research, Isotope and Radiation Techniques, Environment Protection, Health and Food and Industrial Consulting. (qui)

  3. Kaupuni Village: A Closer Look at the First Net-Zero Energy Affordable Housing Community in Hawai'i (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-01

    This is the first of four Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative community brochures focused on HCEI success stories. This brochure focuses on the first LEED Platinum net-zero energy affordable housing community in Hawaii. Our lead NREL contact for HCEI is Ken Kelly.

  4. Getting the vaccine now will protect you in the future! A pragma-dialectical analysis of strategic maneuvering with pragmatic argumentation in health brochures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Poppel

    2013-01-01

    ‘Getting the vaccine now will protect you in the future’ is an example of pragmatic argumentation in a health brochure aimed at convincing the reader of a piece of health advice. A brochure writer can be expected to attempt to choose the most convincing arguments and formulate them in the most appea

  5. English training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    You have a good level of English BUT... You still need to improve your speaking or You have problems writing professional documents Would you like to work in a small group on either of these areas? Then, the following courses are for you! Writing Professional Documents in English The aim of the course is for students to improve their professional writing. Participants will work on technical, scientific or administrative documents depending on the needs of the group. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Oral Expression The emphasis will be on oral expression with necessary feed-back. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 / Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern.ch.

  6. English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    You have a good level of English BUT... You still need to improve your speaking or You have problems writing professional documents Would you like to work in a small group on either of these areas? Then, the following courses are for you! Writing Professional Documents in English The aim of the course is for students to improve their professional writing. Participants will work on technical, scientific or administrative documents depending on the needs of the group. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Oral Expression The emphasis will be on oral expression with necessary feed-back. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 / Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern.ch.

  7. English courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Cours d'anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 4 mars jusqu’au 21 juin 2013. Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 4 March to 21 June 2013. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. More information here. Writing Professional Documents in English - Administrative Writing Professional Documents in English - Technical The next sessions will take place from 4 March to 21 June 2013. These courses are designed for people with a goo...

  8. English course

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next sessions will take place: From 3rd October 2011 to beginning of February 2012 (break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. 70896. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 3rd October 2011 to beginning of February 2012 (break at Christmas). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. 70896. Writing Professional Documents in English - Administrative Wr...

  9. Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to create and evaluate the effectiveness of brochures to reduce the risk for noise-induced hearing loss in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Kotowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brochures containing messages developed according to the Extended Parallel Process Model were deployed to increase intentions to use hearing protection for college students. These brochures were presented to one-half of a college student sample, after which a questionnaire was administered to assess perceptions of threat, efficacy, and behavioral intentions. The other half of the sample completed the questionnaire and then received brochures. Results indicated that people receiving the brochure before the questionnaire reported greater perceptions of hearing loss threat and efficacy to use ear plugs when in loud environments, however, intentions to use ear plugs were unchanged. Distribution of the brochure also resulted in greater perceptions of hearing loss threat and efficacy to use over-the-ear headphones when using devices such as MP3 players. In this case, however, intentions to use over-the-ear headphones increased. Results are discussed in terms of future research and practical applications.

  10. Study on Translation of Vulgarisms from the Perspective of Hybridity -- Comparative Study of Two English Versions of Shui Hu Zhuon%从杂合理论看粗俗语的翻译——《水浒传》赛珍珠译本与沙博理译本之比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣梅

    2011-01-01

    汉、英文化之间存在空缺是很多译者苦苦思索的问题。后殖民杂合理论主张颠覆和反抗西方文化霸权,在译文中多保留原语的异质文化成分,这对粗俗语的翻译有切实的指导作用。粗俗语的翻译无论在语言文化上还是在翻译策略上,其杂合都是必然而必要的。《水浒传》赛译本和沙译本中粗俗语的翻译都表现出不同程度的杂合。在全球化的今天,粗俗语的翻译应当根据其文化空缺程度的不同,在借助归化策略清除阅读障碍的基础上对原文进行更多的异化处理,只有这样,才能实现两种语言和文化的平等交流,保持文化差异性和混杂性的对立统一。%The translation of Chinese and English vulgarisms with cultural vacancy has long been a headache for translation researchers. "Hybridity" is an important concept in post-colonial studies. In translation studies, the theory of hybridity asserts to resist western cultural hegemony by retaining more heterogeneous elements of the source language. Both English versions of Shui Hu Zhuan by Pearl S. Buck and Sidney Shapiro respectively show different degrees of hybridity. Hybridity in language and culture and the hybridization of domestication and foreignization are unavoidable and necessary in the translation of vulgarisms. The translation of vulgarisms should flexibly promote foreignization on the base of domestication, considering the degree of cultural vacancy. This can not only effectively handle the problem of vulgarism translation but also exert a positive influence on the equal communication of different languages and cultures.

  11. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  12. USING ENGLISH FILMS IN COLLEGE ENGLISH CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuHanchang; ShiHongshi

    2004-01-01

    English films are valuable and rich resources for English learning and teaching in that they present colloquial English in more "realistic" contexts, an opportunity of being exposed to different native speaker voices,slang, reduced speeches, stress, accents, ana dialects, This article introauces the criteria of choosing appropriate films to promote active viewing and effective involvement of non-English majors to make the most of films as well as some practical skills of integrating English course book learning with English films in English classes. Besides, some effective means are provided for data building and video clip making in the hope of stimulating more teachers to use English movies effectively in College English classes.

  13. HINDI TRANSLATION AND PSYCHOMETRIC EVALUATION OF THE OSWESTRY DISABILITY INDEX (ODI) VERSION 2.1a

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Sinha; Megha Arora Nijhawan; Minni Grover

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Methodological Study, translation Objective: To translate the original English version of Oswestry Disability Index Version-2.1a into Hindi language and to assess its content validity, Internal Consistency and Test-Retest reliability. Summary of Background Data: ODI has been validated, and used as an outcome measure for various Low Back Pain conditions and its Hindi version is not available. Methods: The translation was carried out in accordance with the Linguistic vali...

  14. Translation and validation of Hindi version of Oral Health Impact Profile-14

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Chandrahas Deshpande; Abhay Avinash Nawathe

    2015-01-01

    Title of the Study: Validation of Hindi Version of Oral health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Aim: To validate the Hindi version of OHIP-14. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in K.M. Shah Dental College & Hospital, Vadodara. Materials and Methods: OHIP-14 was translated into Hindi language.102 participants were given English as well as Hindi versions of OHIP-14. Statistical Analysis Used: Individual question were analyzed using Pearson Chi-Square test, Likelihood Ratio test and Linear...

  15. The Portuguese version of the RhinoQOL Questionnaire: validation and clinical application,

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Cerejeira; Rafaela Veloso-Teles; Nuno Lousan; Carla Pinto Moura

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Rhinosinusitis constitutes an important health problem, with significant interference in personal, professional, and social functioning. This study presents the validation process of the Portuguese version of the RhinoQOL, to be used as a routine procedure in the assessment of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that the Portuguese version of the RhinoQOL is as valid as the English version to measure symptoms and health-related quality of...

  16. China English, a Variety of English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卞

    2009-01-01

    With the economic globalization and the increasing interactiom between countries, English is more and more widely used as a means of international communication. It is not singly owned by one country or one nation, but has become an intermediate means of information. Inevitably, various varieties of English appeared as the result of the wide application of English. Theses varieties represent their own national and cultural characteristics. China English is one of these varieties. The paper makes an introduction to China English, analyses its characteristics through examples and points out the future development of China English.

  17. Legislation and informed consent brochures for dental patients receiving amalgam restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Cochran, Amy A; Cross, Catherine L; Wack, Courtney A; Long, William B; Newkirk, Anthony T

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, Norway banned the use of mercury for amalgam restorations. Four states in the United States have developed Informed Consent Brochures for amalgam restorations that must be given to their dental patients. The authors describe a patient who had a large cavity in his left lower molar tooth no.18 that had to be removed by an oral surgeon. When the patient went to the oral surgeon, the surgeon told the patient that he would replace the carious tooth with a gold implant. He was not given an Informed Consent Brochure regarding dental restorative materials. The oral surgeon extracted the carious tooth, replacing the tooth with a supposed gold crown implant. On his yearly dental examination, his dentist took an x-ray of his dental implant and explained that the x-ray could not distinguish whether the implant contained either gold or mercury. Consequently, the dentist referred him to a dental clinic in which the dental implant could be removed without mercury contamination of the patient's neurologic system during the extraction of the implant from the root canal. During the removal of the dental restoration, the dentist found build up expanding into the root canal that had a black color. The crown and underlying tooth were sent to ALT BioScience for analysis. Elemental analysis of the crown and underlying tooth confirmed the presence of mercury in the restoration. The patient should have been given an Informed Consent Brochure by the dentist that described the dental restoration that was used in the dental implant.

  18. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  19. Hotel characteristics and seasonality in prices: An analysis using Spanish tour operators' brochures

    OpenAIRE

    Espinet i Rius, Josep Maria; Fluvià, Modest; Rigall i Torrent, Ricard; Saló Mayolas, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Seasonality in the tourism sector has been a major concern for policy makers, managers and other stakeholders. Many studies have analysed seasonality from the point of view of the number of visitors. However, there appear to be no studies focusing on seasonality in prices and on how to smooth out seasonal patterns. This paper analyses how hotel characteristics affect seasonality in prices using brochure data on 1,776 hotels in 32 sun-and-beach destinations in 11 countries. The authors find th...

  20. Hawai'i's EVolution: Hawai'i Powered. Technology Driven. (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    This Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) brochure outlines Hawaii's energy and transportation goals and the implementation of electric vehicles (EV) and electric vehicle infrastructure since HCEI began in 2008. It includes information about Hawaii's role in leading the nation in available EV charging infrastructure per capita; challenges for continuing to implement EV technology; features on various successful EV users, including the Hawaiian Electric Company, Enterprise Rent-A-Car, and Senator Mike Gabbard; how EVs can integrate into and help propel Hawaii's evolving smart grid; and much more.

  1. Research Support Facility Data Center: An Example of Best Practices Implementation (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure details the design and operations of the Research Support Facility (RSF) data center. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is world-renowned for its commitment to green building construction. To further this commitment to green building and leading by example, NREL included an ultra-energy-efficient data center in the laboratory's new Research Support Facility (RSF), which recently received a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design{reg_sign} (LEED) Platinum designation from the U.S. Green Building Council.

  2. Anguished English

    CERN Document Server

    Lederer, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Anguished English is the impossibly funny anthology of accidental assaults upon our common language. From bloopers and blunders to Signs of the Times to Mixed-Up Metaphors . . . from Two-Headed Headlines to Mangling Modifiers . . . it's a collection that will leave you roaring with delight and laughter.Help wanteds:Wanted: Unmarried girls to pick fresh fruit and produce at night.Two-Headed Headlines:Grandmother of eight makes hole in one!Doctor testifies in horse suit.Modern-Day Malapropisms:I suffer from a deviant septum.

  3. English as an International Language and English Teaching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yuan

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses English as an international language and English teaching in China. Concerning this subject, the paper elaborates the following seven aspects:the concept and features of English as an international language, emergence of new varieties of Englishes, emergence of new varieties of Englishes, the impact of economic globalization on the scope of the English language, the controversy of English standardization and localization, English localization in China and the revelation of English globalization to English teaching.

  4. Translation and validation of Hindi version of Oral Health Impact Profile-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Chandrahas Deshpande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Title of the Study: Validation of Hindi Version of Oral health Impact Profile (OHIP-14 Aim: To validate the Hindi version of OHIP-14. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in K.M. Shah Dental College & Hospital, Vadodara. Materials and Methods: OHIP-14 was translated into Hindi language.102 participants were given English as well as Hindi versions of OHIP-14. Statistical Analysis Used: Individual question were analyzed using Pearson Chi-Square test, Likelihood Ratio test and Linear-by-Linear Association test. The entire questionnaire in English and Hindi language were comparatively analyzed using Unpaired T test & Pearson correlation coefficient test. Results: All the 14 questions showed no statistically significant difference between the English OHIP-14 and the translated Hindi version of OHIP-14. Results of Unpaired T test (P = 0.61 were statistically insignificant. Pearson Correlation coefficient test was 0.963 suggesting that the translated Hindi version was highly correlated to the original English version. Conclusion: The translated Hindi version of OHIP-14 is hence established as a valid tool for conduction of oral health related & quality of life surveys in Hindi language which is the most commonly used language in the Indian subcontinent.

  5. The Effect of English Verbal Songs on Connected Speech Aspects of Adult English Learners’ Speech Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Tayari Ashtiani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the impact of English verbal songs on connected speech aspects of adult English learners’ speech production. 40 participants were selected based on the results of their performance in a piloted and validated version of NELSON test given to 60 intermediate English learners in a language institute in Tehran. Then they were equally distributed in two control and experimental groups and received a validated pretest of reading aloud and speaking in English. Afterward, the treatment was performed in 18 sessions by singing preselected songs culled based on some criteria such as popularity, familiarity, amount, and speed of speech delivery, etc. In the end, the posttests of reading aloud and speaking in English were administered. The results revealed that the treatment had statistically positive effects on the connected speech aspects of English learners’ speech production at statistical .05 level of significance. Meanwhile, the results represented that there was not any significant difference between the experimental group’s mean scores on the posttests of reading aloud and speaking. It was thus concluded that providing the EFL learners with English verbal songs could positively affect connected speech aspects of both modes of speech production, reading aloud and speaking. The Findings of this study have pedagogical implications for language teachers to be more aware and knowledgeable of the benefits of verbal songs to promote speech production of language learners in terms of naturalness and fluency.Keywords: English Verbal Songs, Connected Speech, Speech Production, Reading Aloud, Speaking 

  6. English Vowels: A World English Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, S.M.Arifull

    2005-01-01

    In spite of having a fixed standard of pronunciation, English is being used in various ways in parts of the world, particularly in its way of utterance. English vowel is playing one of the significant roles in making different varieties of English language. This essay tries to see into detail how some phonetic features (formant movement, frequency, pitch) of English vowels vary in relation to Bengali, Catalan, Italian, Spanish and Swedish speakers. It has been found that all these speakers va...

  7. Integrating China English into College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永仙

    2016-01-01

    China English does exist, which is reconfirmed by salient linguistic features illustrated and documented by many research scholars. This paper explores some pedagogical implications addressing the issue of integrating China English into college English teaching to enhance learners' confidence and competence in cross-cultural communication.

  8. World Englishes and English-Using Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachru, Braj B.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature since 1990 on world English focuses on theoretical, conceptual, descriptive, ideological, and power-related issues, including: types of diaspora; English-using communities; dynamics of those communities; monolingual paradigms and heteroglossic English forms; transcultural literary creativity; codification and authentication…

  9. RELATIVE CLAUSES FROM ENGLISH TO ALBANIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suela Koça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the use of relative clauses in English and Albanian by comparing different clause types. Some theoretical issues addressed in this article include the definition of relative clauses, the relativized elements, and the use of relative pronouns and adverbs in both languages. Distinctions and similarities are identified by analyzing the way in which these clauses are translated from English into Albanian. The theoretical part is illustrated by examples extracted from “Animal Farm” by George Orwell and “Pride and Prejudice” by Jane Austin, and their translated versions in Albanian, “Ferma e Kafshëve” and “Krenari dhe Paragjykime”.

  10. TESE--Thesaurus for Education Systems in Europe. English Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurydice, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Thesaurus for Education Systems in Europe (TESE-2009 edition) is a multilingual thesaurus and a robust information retrieval tool focusing on European education systems and policies. It is specifically designed to cover the indexation needs of the Eurydice network and to facilitate information retrieval on Eurydice's central website. It can…

  11. English version: Research education for diversity in educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brown

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Concern expressed by government and other funding agencies and consumers of research, about the quality and relevance of research in the field of education affects not only the kind of research is conducted but also the way in which we educate researchers. The economic imperative for ‘value for money’ from research and researchers has, for instance, led to the education of research students to be seen increasingly in terms of training in a range of generic skills that can be applied to the investigation of a range of forms of research problem in a variety of contexts. Whilst breadth in the education of researchers has clear advantages, both for the careers of individual researchers and the wider research community, there is some tension between this approach and the more established view of a research degree as an induction into a narrow domain of knowledge and the production of a highly specialised academic identity. There are further developments that erode this notion of specialisation, for instance the growth of mixed method research, which has the potential to challenge the polarisation of qualitative and quantitative research, and shifts in the sites and agents of educational research signified by the growth of professional doctorates, which could further challenge the university as a dominant institution in the production of educational knowledge. In this paper I will explore what these developments mean for the teaching of research and consider how we can work collaboratively to develop both professional researchers and researching professionals, and reconcile the acquisition of skills with induction into specialised knowledge domains. This will involve exploration of both an overarching framework for thinking about the processes of doing research and specific examples of practice. Underlying the approach taken is a general commitment to research education, rather than to training and the teaching of methods, and the desire to ensure dynamism and diversity in educational research, in terms of approach, substantive focus and theoretical orientation, and of sites, practices and agents of knowledge production.

  12. English Mini-Course World Literature (Preliminary, Unedited Version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittsburgh Board of Public Education, PA.

    This curriculum guide to a mini-course in world literature for high school students is restricted to the study of five short novels written in the twentieth century: "Demian" and "Siddhartha" by Hesse, "Platero and I" by Jimenez, "We Never Make Mistakes" by Solzhenitsyn, and "Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man" by Joyce. The objectives of the…

  13. FBR Metallic Materials Test Manual(English Version) (Manual)

    OpenAIRE

    小高 進; 加藤 章一; 吉田 英一

    2003-01-01

    For the development of the fast breeder reactor, this manual describes the method of in-air and in-sodium material tests and the method of organization the data. This Previous manual has revised in accordance with the revision of Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS)and the conversion to the international unit. The test methods of domestic committees such as the VAMAS (Versailles Prject on Advanced Materials and Standards) workshop were also referred. The material test technologies accumula...

  14. Interview Roberto Battiston, AMS Deputy Spokesperson, English version

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2011-01-01

    "The Universe is providing cosmic rays all the time". Roberto Battiston, deputy spokesperson of the AMS experiment (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) comments on the uninterrupted flow of high energy cosmic rays (several billion events per week) AMS is detecting since launch and deployment on the International Space Station (ISS). Rushes of the AMS POCC (Payload and Operations Control Centre) in CERN- Prevessin follow.

  15. English Mini-Course Journalism (Preliminary, Unedited Version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittsburgh Board of Public Education, PA.

    Offering the student a way to develop a clear, concise style of writing, this nine-week journalism unit acquaints the student with various aspects of newspaper writing and publishing and with the correct methods for gathering and writing school news. The first part of the course introduces the students to the history and ethics of journalism and…

  16. The Development of a Food Safety Brochure for Families: The Use of Formative Evaluation and Plain Language Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie; Litchfield, Ruth; Meysenburg, Rebecca L.; Er, Ida NgYin; Lum, Adeline; Beattie, Sam; Larvick, Carol; Schwarz, Carol; Temple, Jan; Meimann, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Printed materials have been used extensively as an educational tool to increase food safety awareness. Few educational materials have been designed to target families with young children for food safety education. This article reports the use of the formative evaluation process to develop a brochure designed to enhance awareness about food safety…

  17. The Differences between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章继宁

    2013-01-01

    British English and American English are two varieties of English. American English derived from British English and they have many similarities and differences. British English and American English are different in pronunciation, spelling, vocabu⁃lary and customary usage/syntax, etc.

  18. MAFIA Version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, T.; Bartsch, M.; Becker, U.; Bihn, M.; Blell, U.; Clemens, M.; Dehler, M.; Dohlus, M.; Drevlak, M.; Du, X.; Ehmann, R.; Eufinger, A.; Gutschling, S.; Hahne, P.; Klatt, R.; Krietenstein, B.; Langstrof, A.; Pinder, P.; Podebrad, O.; Pröpper, T.; van Rienen, U.; Schmidt, D.; Schuhmann, R.; Schulz, A.; Schupp, S.; Schütt, P.; Thoma, P.; Timm, M.; Wagner, B.; Weber, R.; Wipf, S.; Wolter, H.; Min, Z.

    1997-02-01

    MAFIA Version 4.0 is an almost completely new version of the general purpose electromagnetic simulator known since 13 years. The major improvements concern the new graphical user interface based on state of the art technology as well as a series of new solvers for new physics problems. MAFIA now covers heat distribution, electro-quasistatics, S-parameters in frequency domain, particle beam tracking in linear accelerators, acoustics and even elastodynamics. The solvers that were available in earlier versions have also been improved and/or extended, as for example the complex eigenmode solver, the 2D-3D coupled PIC solvers. Time domain solvers have new waveguide boundary conditions with an extremely low reflection even near cutoff frequency, concentrated elements are available as well as a variety of signal processing options. Probably the most valuable addition are recursive sub-grid capabilities that enable modeling of very small details in large structures.

  19. MAFIA Version 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, T. [TH-Darmstadt, Fachbereich 18, Schlossgartenstr.8, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Bartsch, M. [CST Computer Simulations Technology GmbH, Lauteschlaegerstr. 38, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Becker, U.; Bihn, M. [TH-Darmstadt, Fachbereich 18, Schlossgartenstr.8, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Blell, U. [GS1 mbH, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Clemens, M.; Dehler, M. [TH-Darmstadt, Fachbereich 18, Schlossgartenstr.8, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Dohlus, M. [TH-Darmstadt, Fachbereich 18, Schlossgartenstr.8, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, D22607 (Germany); Drevlak, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, D22607 (Germany); Du, X. [TH-Darmstadt, Fachbereich 18, Schlossgartenstr.8, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ehmann, R.; Eufinger, A. [CST Computer Simulations Technology GmbH, Lauteschlaegerstr. 38, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Gutschling, S. [TH-Darmstadt, Fachbereich 18, Schlossgartenstr.8, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Hahne, P. [CST Computer Simulations Technology GmbH, Lauteschlaegerstr. 38, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Klatt, R.; Krietenstein, B.; Langstrof, A.; Pinder, P.; Podebrad, O.; Proepper, T.; van Rienen, U.; Schmidt, D.; Schuhmann, R. [TH-Darmstadt, Fachbereich 18, Schlossgartenstr.8, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Schulz, A. [CST Computer Simulations Technology GmbH, Lauteschlaegerstr. 38, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Schupp, S.; Schuett, P.; Thoma, P.; Timm, M. [TH-Darmstadt, Fachbereich 18, Schlossgartenstr.8, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Wagner, B. [CSS Computer Simulation Services GbRmbH, Lauteschlaegerstr. 38, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Weber, R. [AET Inc., 1-1-7 Mukaibara, Asaoku, Kawasaki City (Japan); Wipf, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, D22607 (Germany); Wolter, H. [TH-Darmstadt, Fachbereich 18, Schlossgartenstr.8, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Min, Z. [TH-Darmstadt, Fachbereich 18, Schlossgartenstr.8, D64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    MAFIA Version 4.0 is an almost completely new version of the general purpose electromagnetic simulator known since 13 years. The major improvements concern the new graphical user interface based on state of the art technology as well as a series of new solvers for new physics problems. MAFIA now covers heat distribution, electro-quasistatics, S-parameters in frequency domain, particle beam tracking in linear accelerators, acoustics and even elastodynamics. The solvers that were available in earlier versions have also been improved and/or extended, as for example the complex eigenmode solver, the 2D--3D coupled PIC solvers. Time domain solvers have new waveguide boundary conditions with an extremely low reflection even near cutoff frequency, concentrated elements are available as well as a variety of signal processing options. Probably the most valuable addition are recursive sub-grid capabilities that enable modeling of very small details in large structures. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Introducing Business English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickerson, C.; Planken, B.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing Business English provides a comprehensive overview of this topic, situating the concepts of Business English and English for Specific Business Purposes within the wider field of English for Special Purposes. This book draws on contemporary teaching and research contexts to demonstrate th

  1. Learning English at University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慕颖

    2006-01-01

    @@ Before entering university, I had learned English in an unconscious and mechanic way, and those English words and phrases came to me simply as pronouncing subsidiary(附属的)expressions of Chinese characters. But after that, my interest in English was really awakened and my English-learning entered a new phase.

  2. English and I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕云; 魏超群

    2005-01-01

    English is the international language.lf you know it,you can talk with foreigners and read English newspapers.At the same time,you can get much knowledge from it.l used to think that I could never speak English,but English isn't as hard as I first thought it was.

  3. English and I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雪兰; 郭文婷

    2005-01-01

    English is the most widely used language in the world.Many people use it as the second language.Now,more and more Chinese people have been interested in learning English,even some old people.I'm one of the people who is learning English.But at the beginning,l didn't like English.

  4. Japanese Media in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  5. Application of English Euphemisms in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Si-si

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the society, people are expected to improve their language quality as well. So when people have to express something unpleasant, they prefer to employ some mild, implicit and euphemistic expressions. Meanwhile, an increasing number of scientists indulge themselves in studying English euphemisms from different perspectives, such as linguis⁃tics, pragmatics, and psychology and so on. English Euphemisms applied in class can not only help create a relaxing and lively at⁃mosphere but also protect the students’self-esteem and stimulate their interests in English. However, the researches on the ef⁃fects of applying English euphemisms in English class are few. Therefore, Based on Face-saving Theory, this paper intends to highlight the importance of applying English euphemisms in English teaching.

  6. Improve Student’s English Intonation by Dubbing English Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文燕

    2014-01-01

    In English learning, pronunciation is the most basic and important English ability, and intonation is the most important part in pronunciation. However, current English education does not pay enough attention to it. English movies, integrating script, picture and audio, vividly and intuitively embody the social culture and life at a certain time of English-speaking countries. English movies provide a vivid environment of English. Therefore, learning English through dubbing English movies is a good way to improve student's intonation.

  7. Versioning of printed products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2005-01-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  8. The Inspiration of China English on English Writing to Sophomore English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳

    2014-01-01

    China English is the inevitable product of English globalization. When issues of Chinese characteristics are introduced in the inter-communication, English features in Chinese-colored English. However, China English is still English instead of the brand new language. It is an English variety. The paper aims at examining the necessity and rationality, and the contrast of China English and Chinglish. In addition, the paper explores the inspiration of China English on English writing teaching to sophomore English majors in terms of teacher, students, English writing course textbook and English writing teaching.

  9. Lexical Differences Between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia; Zhong-qi

    2014-01-01

    With the development of society, American English and British English have significant difference.By retrospective analysis of British English and American English and the historical evolution of the development process, discusses American English and British English exist in the vocabulary of the main differences through understanding both English vocabulary differences exist, so that English learners to more easily have a certain kind of English, as well as the right to express English contains a wealth of knowledge.This paper also pointed out that the United States has its unique features English and language arts charm has been a topic of concern to the development trend of English.

  10. Axodraw Version 2

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, John C

    2016-01-01

    We present version two of the Latex graphical style file Axodraw. It has a number of new drawing primitives and many extra options, and it can now work with \\program{pdflatex} to directly produce output in PDF file format (but with the aid of an auxiliary program).

  11. English Course

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    Cours d'anglais général et professionnel : La prochaine session se déroulera : du 27 février au 22 juin 2012. Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages Web: http://cern.ch/Training Vous pouvez aussi contacter Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tél. 70896. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 27 February to 22 June, 2012.  This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web page: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. ...

  12. Differences Between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金苹

    2015-01-01

    American English(AmE)is the form of English used in the United States.It includes all English dialects used within the United States. British English(BrE)is.the form of English used in the United Kingdom. It includes all English dialects used within the United Kingdom. Language is a part of culture, and it plays an important role in culture. Language reflects the characteristic of a nation. It not only includes the history and cultural background of a nation, but also fosters the nation ’s attitudes towards life, and ways of living and thinking of the nation. Therefore, to my point of view, the cause of language differences is basically the differences between cultures.

  13. China English and its Implications for English Teaching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉凤

    2007-01-01

    China English is an English variety used by native-Chinese people for communication under specific language environment. This study attempts to outline the objective existence of China English and the implications of its linguistic features for English teaching.

  14. From Contracts in Structured English to CL Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M. Montazeri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a framework to analyze conflicts of contracts written in structured English. A contract that has manually been rewritten in a structured English is automatically translated into a formal language using the Grammatical Framework (GF. In particular we use the contract language CL as a target formal language for this translation. In our framework CL specifications could then be input into the tool CLAN to detect the presence of conflicts (whether there are contradictory obligations, permissions, and prohibitions. We also use GF to get a version in (restricted English of CL formulae. We discuss the implementation of such a framework.

  15. The Psychometric Analysis of the Persian Version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning of Rebecca L. Oxford

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The current study aims to analyze the psychometric qualities of the Persian adapted version of Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) developed by Rebecca L. Oxford (1990). Three instruments were used: Persian adapted version of SILL, a Background Questionnaire, and Test of English as a Foreign Language. Two hundred and thirteen Iranian…

  16. The Dutch version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL): translation, reliability and construct validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Meulen; M.T. John; M. Naeije; F. Lobbezoo

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to make a cross-culturally adapted, Dutch version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP), a 49-item questionnaire measuring oral health-related quality of life, and to examine its psychometric properties. Methods The original English version of the OHIP was

  17. Understanding the Online Informal Learning of English as a Complex Dynamic System: An Emic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockett, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Research into the online informal learning of English has already shown it to be a widespread phenomenon involving a range of comprehension and production activities such as viewing original version television series, listening to music on demand and social networking with other English users. Dynamic systems theory provides a suitable framework…

  18. AERONET Version 3 processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Slutsker, I.; Giles, D. M.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) database has evolved in measurement accuracy, data quality products, availability to the scientific community over the course of 21 years with the support of NASA, PHOTONS and all federated partners. This evolution is periodically manifested as a new data version release by carefully reprocessing the entire database with the most current algorithms that fundamentally change the database and ultimately the data products used by the community. The newest processing, Version 3, will be released in 2015 after the entire database is reprocessed and real-time data processing becomes operational. All V 3 algorithms have been developed, individually vetted and represent four main categories: aerosol optical depth (AOD) processing, inversion processing, database management and new products. The primary trigger for release of V 3 lies with cloud screening of the direct sun observations and computation of AOD that will fundamentally change all data available for analysis and all subsequent retrieval products. This presentation will illustrate the innovative approach used for cloud screening and assesses the elements of V3 AOD relative to the current version. We will also present the advances in the inversion product processing with emphasis on the random and systematic uncertainty estimates. This processing will be applied to the new hybrid measurement scenario intended to provide inversion retrievals for all solar zenith angles. We will introduce automatic quality assurance criteria that will allow near real time quality assured aerosol products necessary for real time satellite and model validation and assimilation. Last we will introduce the new management structure that will improve access to the data database. The current version 2 will be supported for at least two years after the initial release of V3 to maintain continuity for on going investigations.

  19. How to Train English Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟佩珏

    2012-01-01

    We try to make our English classrooms that surround the students with English culture.This gives the students a context for English words and phrases and adds a sense of adventure to learning English.

  20. English Movie:A Smart Method to Teach English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wen-yan; HU Jun-jie

    2015-01-01

    English movies are the cultural carriers of English-speaking countries with veritable colloquial expressions, authentic environment and abundant cultural connotation. Teaching English through English movies can not only help students learn Eng⁃lish language, but also acquire English culture. It’s also an effective way to improve students’oral English and their accultural communication ability.

  1. CLIC Brochure

    CERN Multimedia

    De Melis, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    After the discovery of the Higgs boson and with upgrades to higher energy and luminosity, the LHC is mapping the route of particle physics into the future. The next step in this journey of discovery could be a linear electron-positron collider, which would complement the LHC and allow high precision measurements of the Higgs boson, the top quark and electroweak processes in addition to possible new physics beyond the Standard Model. The Compact Linear Collider is under development by two worldwide collaborations, pushing the limits of particle acceleration and detection. Technological R&D, physics simulations and engineering studies must all come together to make CLIC a reality.

  2. Pedagogical brochure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intended for teachers and pupils, to give them a summary of IPSN's pedagogical exhibition 'the nuclear industry under high surveillance', directing towards strategic points within the exhibition. A short questionnaire enables a quick assessment of knowledge acquired during the visit. (author)

  3. ENGLISHES: INDONESIAN EFL TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zusana E. Pudyastuti; Nurul Atma

    2014-01-01

    Since English is used as a lingua franca, the growth of English users is getting bigger. The tremendous growth of English users has generated variety of English, i.e. Englishes. Such variety could affect EFL pedagogy. This paper, then, explores EFL teachers’ perception on Englishes. By employing a survey study, it is found that EFL teachers agree that it is useful for both English teachers and students to know the variety of English. However, in the teaching practice, they prefer to integrate...

  4. History of Special English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾庆文

    2004-01-01

    On October 19, 1959, the first Special English program was broadcast on the Voice of America. It was an experiment. The goal was to communicate by radio in clear and simple English with people whose native lan-

  5. The Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈建红

    2007-01-01

    The English language has evolved to have many different kinds of functionality,each of which corresponds to different situations and styles of use. The advertising English differs when they in various fields.

  6. Competition, Incomplete Discrimination and Versioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaw, K.; Pouyet, J.

    2004-01-01

    Producers of software viewers commonly other basic versions of their products for free while more sophisticated versions are highly priced, thereby providing less attractive or lower valuations consumers with larger utility levels.We give some foundations to this outcome called versioning.We conside

  7. Issues of English Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫焕然

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, the complexity of the present situation of world Englishes, comments on the spread of the language, de-bate over standardized variants in English and the pedagogical implication relating to what types of English should be taught will be discussed. The expansion of English in China is then analyzed concerning issues such as attitudes towards local variety, desirable teaching models, and future adjustment.

  8. English Clubs: Introducing English to Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afia, Jawida Ben

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces an approach taken in Tunisia to introduce English as a foreign language to children in primary school classrooms. The author states that in Tunisia, children in primary schools are first taught Arabic and then French. The government does not want to overburden the students with English learning. Then, the author describes…

  9. OUR ENGLISH TEACHER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Our English teacher is a middle-aged woman.She has taught English for more than twenty years.She works very hard and has been a model teacher for many years. She is kind to us.but she is rather strict with us.She always encourages us to speak and read more English.She often tells us that

  10. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  11. Moodling English Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah; Arslan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to emphasize the importance of using Moodle in foreign language learning and teaching by reviewing relevant literature and introducing a Moodle-based environment aiming to help English learners to practice their English by themselves. Firstly, the use of Moodle in education and more specifically in English Language Teaching is…

  12. Neutralization of English Consonants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞彬彬

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief account of English consonant cluster's structure and phonetic features from the perspective of the definition and cause of neutralization of English consonants as well as their distinctive features and oppositions.It comes up with the final conclusion that neutralization exists in only thirteen English consonant clusters,among a large number of consonant clusters.

  13. English in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Terry

    1989-01-01

    Although English shares official language status with French in Vanuatu, enrollments in English-language schools have increased dramatically at the expense of French-medium schools. Bislama, an English-derived pidgin, has become a compromise language between the two colonial languages that have divided the country. (Author/CB)

  14. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  15. Culture and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2008-01-01

    There is a natural relationship between culture and language. Language reflects how the people of a nation form the unique way of life and the way of thinking. Therefore, English teaching necessarily involves cultural education as well. This paper analyzes the influence of social culture in English teaching and tries to set up a principle of teaching English culture.

  16. Competencies in Teaching English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    This paper discusses suggested requirements for a competency-based English teacher training program on the high school or college level. The author argues that an English teacher needs to demonstrate a basic knowledge of the subject matter in three areas: the structure and history of the English language, rhetorical theory and practice, and…

  17. A Comparative Study of two Chinese Versions of Wuthering Heights——Comparison between YangYi's Version and LuYang's Versi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晓莉

    2011-01-01

    only lies in its deep theme and striking arrangement of events,but also in her accurate and vivid language.In order to study the differences between English and Chinese,This thesis is focused on two Chinese versions of Whuthering Heights in the light of c

  18. From Foundational English to Subject-based English and Advanced English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuXianlan

    2004-01-01

    According to the College English Teaching Syllabus,students should learn English for four years during the College time. The first two year, for College English (General English) and the second two years for Specific Purpose English (Professional English). But in our teaching practice, we have found that these two kinds of teaching are auite different in

  19. Nuflood, Version 1.x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-29

    NUFLOOD Version 1.x is a surface-water hydrodynamic package designed for the simulation of overland flow of fluids. It consists of various routines to address a wide range of applications (e.g., rainfall-runoff, tsunami, storm surge) and real time, interactive visualization tools. NUFLOOD has been designed for general-purpose computers and workstations containing multi-core processors and/or graphics processing units. The software is easy to use and extensible, constructed in mind for instructors, students, and practicing engineers. NUFLOOD is intended to assist the water resource community in planning against water-related natural disasters.

  20. TOGAF version 9

    CERN Document Server

    Group, The Open

    2010-01-01

    This is the official Open Group Pocket Guide for TOGAF Version 9 Enterprise Edition. This pocket guide is published by Van Haren Publishing on behalf of The Open Group.TOGAF, The Open Group Architectural Framework is a fast growing, worldwide accepted standard that can help organisations build their own Enterprise Architecture in a standardised way. This book explains why the in?s and out?s of TOGAF in a concise manner.This book explains how TOGAF can help to make an Enterprise Architecture. Enterprise Architecture is an approach that can help management to understand this growing complexity.

  1. PVWatts Version 5 Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, A. P.

    2014-09-01

    The NREL PVWatts calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes includes several built-in parameters that are hidden from the user. This technical reference describes the sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimate. This reference is applicable to the significantly revised version of PVWatts released by NREL in 2014.

  2. Translation and Linguistic Validation of the Korean Version of the Dysfunctional Voiding Symptom Score

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hahn-Ey; Farhat, Walid; Park, Kwanjin

    2014-01-01

    Although studies on pediatric dysfunctional voiding are increasing, there have not been enough efforts to validate the Dysfunctional Voiding Symptom Score (DVSS) questionnaire. Therefore, we aimed to translate and validate the DVSS into Korean. The DVSS questionnaire was validated between January and October, 2013. Two bilinguals independently translated the English version of the DVSS questionnaire into Korean, and then reconciled the forward translation of the Korean version. The original D...

  3. Teacher of primary English

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Part-time teacher of primary English needed for September 2003 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply see http://enpferney.org/staff_vacancies.htm English National Programme, Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire (http://enpferney.org/)

  4. TEACHER OF ENGLISH NEEDED

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Part-time teacher of primary English needed for September 2002 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply: engnat@hotmail.com or 04 50 40 82 66. Apply as soon as possible, and in any case before 8 July. English National Programme, Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire.

  5. URGENCES NOUVELLE VERSION

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The table of emergency numbers that appeared in Bulletin 10/2002 is out of date. The updated version provided by the Medical Service appears on the following page. Please disregard the previous version. URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVAPATIENT NOT FIT TO BE MOVED: Call your family doctor Or SOS MEDECINS (24H/24H) 748 49 50 Or ASSOC. OF GENEVA DOCTORS (7H-23H) 322 20 20 PATIENT CAN BE MOVED: HOPITAL CANTONAL 24 Micheli du Crest 372 33 11 382 33 11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy Donzé 382 68 18 382 45 55 MATERNITY 24 Micheli du Crest 382 68 16 382 33 11 OPHTALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382 84 00 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin 719 61 11 CENTRE MEDICAL DE MEYRIN Champs Fréchets 719 74 00 URGENCES : FIRE BRIGADE 118 FIRE BRIGADE CERN 767 44 44 BESOIN URGENT D'AMBULANCE (GENEVE ET VAUD) : 144 POLICE 117 ANTI-POISON CENTRE 24H/24H 01 251 51 510 EUROPEAN EMERGENCY CALL: 112 FRANCE PATIENT NOT FIT TO BE MOVED: call your family doctor PATIENT CAN BE MOVED: ST. JULIE...

  6. Understanding, comprehensibility and acceptance of an evidence-based consumer information brochure on fall prevention in old age: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Gabriele

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based patient and consumer information (EBPI is an indispensable component of the patients' decision making process in health care. Prevention of accidental falls in the elderly has gained a lot of public interest during preceding years. Several consumer information brochures on fall prevention have been published; however, none fulfilled the criteria of an EBPI. Little is known about the reception of EBPI by seniors. Therefore we aimed to evaluate a recently developed EBPI brochure on fall prevention with regard to seniors' acceptance and comprehensibility in focus groups and to explore whether the participants' judgements differed depending on the educational background of the study participants. Methods Seven focus groups were conducted with 40 seniors, aged 60 years or older living independently in a community. Participants were recruited by two gatekeepers. A discussion guide was used and seniors were asked to judge the EBPI brochure on fall prevention using a Likert scale 1-6. The focus group discussions were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using content analysis. Results The participants generally accepted the EBPI brochure on fall prevention. Several participants expressed a need for more practical advice. The comprehensibility of the brochure was influenced positively by brief chapter summaries. Participants dismissed the statistical illustrations such as confidence intervals or a Fagan nomogram and only half of them agreed with the meta-information presented in the first chapter. The detailed information about fall prevalence was criticised by some seniors. The use of a case story was well tolerated by the majority of participants. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the recently developed EBPI brochure on fall prevention in old age was generally well accepted by seniors, but some statistical descriptions were difficult for them to understand. The brochure has to be updated. However, not

  7. What is English?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrikke Rindal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the developing status of English in Norway, both as a language and as a school subject, making predictions about which ontological and epistemological perspectives will influence English language teaching (ELT in Norway towards 2030. Status quo and predictions for English in Norway is approached from two angles; the development of presiding language beliefs in linguistic science and in ELT practices from the 16th century to the present, and the more recent and rapid development of English as the foremost global language of communication. The article shows how English language beliefs and the status of English are made visible in the national subject curriculum and in the English language practices among Norwegian adolescent learners. The discussion suggests that English is increasingly characterised by those who use it as a second or later language, including Norwegians who negotiate the meanings of English in the ELT classroom. The article predicts that a logical development for Norwegian ELT is increased influence from social constructionist perspectives, in combination with the existing focus on communicative competence. The study shows that global circumstances related to the status of English are reciprocally related to local language beliefs among educational authorities, teachers and students, and that these have major implications for English as a discipline in lower and higher education.

  8. A Brief Contrastive Analysis between English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼芳

    2015-01-01

    Through a contrastive analyses of the English novel A Tale of Two Cities and its two Chinese versions, this paper observes some differences between English and Chinese and generalizes some of their characteristics, in the hope to help language learners aware the importance of the differences and to provide a good way to learn a second language, that is, to learn on the basis of comparison.Two types of differences are discussed in this paper.One is impersonal vs.personal and the other is stative vs.dynamic.The differences between English and Chinese languages become vivid by drawing examples from the novel and its two different Chinese versions.Each type of difference is analyzed in detail and in a systematic manner.

  9. A Brief Contrastive Analysis between English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼芳

    2015-01-01

    Through a contrastive analyses of the English novel A Tale of Two Cities and its two Chinese versions,this paper observes some differences between English and Chinese and generalizes some of their characteristics,in the hope to help language learners aware the importance of the differences and to provide a good way to learn a second language,that is,to learn on the basis of comparison.Two types of differences are discussed in this paper.One is impersonal vs.personal and the other is stative vs.dynamic.The differences between English and Chinese languages become vivid by drawing examples from the novel and its two different Chinese versions.Each type of difference is analyzed in detail and in a systematic manner.

  10. Irish English: Vocabulary and Pronunciation

    OpenAIRE

    Potočnik, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    English is a world language. In UK, USA, Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand it is spoken as a first language. There are numerous countries where English is spoken as a second language and in even more countries where English is spoken as a foreign language. Nowadays English is considered to be lingua franca of the world communication. There exist different varieties of English, and Irish English is one of them. English was brought to Ireland by the British in the seventeenth century....

  11. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  12. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Miyamoto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  13. English as Lingua Franca and English in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Margie

    2009-01-01

    One of the objectives of English as Lingua Franca (ELF) researchers is an account of the unique features of English that they have found in the speech of European users of English. These features, it is argued, describe a variety of English which they label "English as Lingua Franca". The choice of this particular term is problematic because, as a…

  14. Phénomènes énonciatifs et argumentation dans les brochures du Conseil fédéral suisse sur les votations populaires Enunciation and Argumentation in the Brochures of the Swiss Federal Authorities about the Popular Votes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Rossari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Notre analyse porte sur les brochures envoyées aux citoyen-ne-s suisses à l’occasion de votations populaires. Ces brochures se présentent comme ayant une visée essentiellement pédagogique, vouée à faciliter le choix électoral du citoyen. Mon propos est de mettre en évidence les mécanismes structurels et énonciatifs qui président à l’agencement des informations et à leur mise en discours. On verra comment ces brochures parviennent à concilier la visée pédagogique avec une visée persuasive manifestée par la recommandation systématique de vote dont elles sont assorties.Our analysis focuses on Swiss Federal brochures addressing Swiss-born citizens during popular votes. The purpose of these brochures is to guide the elector’s choice by giving him as much information about the objects submitted to the vote as possible. Our description of this corpus highlights the structural organization of information and the way information is presented in discourse. Thus, we see how the brochures manage to conciliate a pedagogic goal with an argumentative one conveyed by the expression of a specific recommendation of vote.

  15. Testing Speech Recognition in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with the Computer-Assisted Speech Perception Assessment (CASPA): Initial Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Paula B; Rosado Rogers, Lydia; Nishi, Kanae

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the English version of Computer-Assisted Speech Perception Assessment (E-CASPA) with Spanish-English bilingual children. E-CASPA has been evaluated with monolingual English speakers ages 5 years and older, but it is unknown whether a separate norm is necessary for bilingual children. Eleven Spanish-English bilingual and 12 English monolingual children (6 to 12 years old) with normal hearing participated. Responses were scored by word, phoneme, consonant, and vowel. Regardless of scores, performance across three signal-to-noise ratio conditions was similar between groups, suggesting that the same norm can be used for both bilingual and monolingual children.

  16. Psychometric properties of the faces version of the Malay-modified child dental anxiety scale

    OpenAIRE

    Esa, Rashidah; Hashim, Noratikah Awang; Ayob, Yuliana; Yusof, Zamros Yuzadi Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the psychometric properties of the faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDASf) Malay version in 5–6 and 9–12 year-old children. Methods The MCDASf was cross culturally adapted from English into Malay. The Malay version was tested for reliability and validity in 3 studies. In the Study 1, to determine test-retest reliability of MCDASf scale, 166 preschool children aged 5–6 years were asked to rank orders five cartoons faces depicting emotions from ‘...

  17. Teaching English for Specific Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Nijolė Netikšienė

    2011-01-01

    Teaching English for Specific Purposes and General English is analysed in the article. The scientific approach of a scientist M. Rosenberg is presented. The experience of teaching English for Specific Purposesat VGTU is alsopresented. The ideas and teaching methods from the classes of general English can be transferred to the classes of English for Specific Purposes.

  18. The Configuration of Liberia's Englishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singler, John Victor

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the varieties of Liberian English spoken in Liberia: Kru Pidgin English, spoken by Kru mariners and migrant workers; Settler English, spoken by descendants of 19th-century African American immigrants to Liberia; and Vernacular Liberian English (VLE), spoken by the rest of Liberia's English-speaking population. Focuses on tense aspect in…

  19. Teaching English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Netikšienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English for Specific Purposes and General English is analysed in the article. The scientific approach of a scientist M. Rosenberg is presented. The experience of teaching English for Specific Purposesat VGTU is alsopresented. The ideas and teaching methods from the classes of general English can be transferred to the classes of English for Specific Purposes.

  20. Thanking Responders in Cameroon English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouafeu, Yves Talla Sando

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of authentic or genuine interactions among Cameroon English speakers reveals that conversational routines in this variety of English differ a good deal from those obtained in other varieties of English, non-native varieties of English inclusive, and more specifically in native varieties of English. This paper looks at "thanking…

  1. FACILITATORS OF INTERNET PROMOTION (E-BROCHURE ADOPTION BY NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Oly Ndubisi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet promotion, otherwise e-brochure (EB or partial e-commerce adoption by non-profit organisations denotes the use of the Internet to provide business and service related information by academic institutions (as in the present study, non-profit organisations, religious organisations, and government agencies to reduce their expenses or to improve their operations and customer service. A field survey of Malaysian universities was conducted to determine the key factors that facilitate the adoption of non-business EB. Since EB adoption decision is a strategic one, a comprehensive list of potential facilitators for the strategic use of information technology (IT was derived from extant literature and used in collecting data from 65 schools and centres in five public universities in Kota Kinabalu and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The data were factor-analysed to determine the key underlying dimensions of facilitators. On the basis of the resulting five dimensions namely, relative advantage orientation, network orientation, information efficiency orientation, innovativeness orientation, and competitiveness orientation, regression analysis was done to determine the impact of the five dimensions on non-business EB adoption.

  2. Collocations in Business English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Martič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article starts with a brief theoretical overview that defines the term ‚collocation.‛ It then presents a corpus study designed to determine the most frequent lexical collocations in Business English using the concordance program WordSmith Tools. This study is based on the assumption that English mainly consists of various (changeable phraseological units and that both free combinations as well as completely ‚frozen‛ word combinations account for only a small share of the language. English is therefore a language of collocations and one can assume that this is valid not only for general English, but also for ESP and thus for Business English as well. In addition, the study investigated whether the most frequent collocations in this corpus could be found in major dictionaries of collocations, which would then establish their suitability for Business English purposes.

  3. Cryptanalysis of Achterbahn-Version 1 and -Version 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Li Huang; Chuan-Kun Wu

    2007-01-01

    Achterbahn is one of the candidate stream ciphers submitted to the eSTREAM, which is the ECRYPT StreamCipher Project. The cipher Achterbahn uses a new structure which is based on several nonlinear feedback shift registers(NLFSR) and a nonlinear combining output Boolean function. This paper proposes distinguishing attacks on Achterbahn-Version 1 and -Version 2 on the reduced mode and the full mode. These distinguishing attacks are based on linear approxi-mations of the output functions. On the basis of these linear approximations and the periods of the registers, parity checkswith noticeable biases are found. Then distinguishing attacks can be achieved through these biased parity checks. As toAchterbahn-Version 1, three cases that the output function has three possibilities are analyzed. Achterbahn-Version 2, themodification version of Achterbahn-Version 1, is designed to avert attacks based on approximations of the output Booleanfunction. Our attack with even much lower complexities on Achterbahn-Version 2 shows that Achterbahn-Version 2 cannotprevent attacks based on linear approximations.

  4. A Tentative Analysis on Two Versions of EMMA at the Semantic Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鸣

    2015-01-01

    Jane Austin has been considered as one of the most distinguished English woman novelists.Among her six completed novels,Emma represents her full achievements.This paper tries to make a tentative analysis at the semantic level on the two versions of Emma,from Zhang Jinghao and Zhu Qingying.

  5. Obstacles to English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵利利

    2012-01-01

    With the fast development of modern society and economy,English as an international language has become an important instrument in social communication.As to English teaching in the classroom,we have so many difficulties at present.This paper analysis some objective and subjective factors.At last,if we can solve these questions,our English teaching will be better.

  6. My English Teacher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Of all the teachers, I love my English teacher best. He is a very good teacher and about thirty years old. We all call him Mr Chu. He is not tall but a little fat. He is a man with a good sense of humour and always friendly to us. We all like him and his lesson. In his class, we feel very happy. He always makes his English lesson interesting. We know English is rather difficult to learn but in his class,

  7. Lexical Density in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Even though English family of Indo-European belongs to the Germanic languages, it can be argued that, if evaluated on the English basis of its vocabulary, is essentially a Romance language. Indeed the overwhelming number of borrowings from French and Latin by far outweighs the words of Germanic origin. This is due to the significant influence French and Latin English after (mostly through French) exerted on the Norman invasion in 1066, which shaped the language we know today.

  8. A Thesis on the English Problematic Sounds of English Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁

    2015-01-01

    Dialect pronunciation influences English pronunciation of the learners in many aspects. The thesis study English Problematic Sounds of English Learners. Analyzing and studying the influence of the dialect to the English pronunciation learning can help the teachers and the learners to correct the bad habits in the pronunciation of the first language and the barrier of the dialect to the learning of the English pronunciation; It can be good for the learners to grasp the correct English pronunciation.

  9. ENGLISH OR CHINGLISH?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NiuQiang; MartinWolff

    2004-01-01

    A great deal has been written and said about various approaches to the successful methodology for teaching English as a foreign/second language in China. Entire professional journals are devoted to the subject, such as Teaching English In China (now called CELEA Journal ), and Foreign Language Teaching and Research, to name a couple. But no matter how much is written, and no matter what teaching method is employed ; the bottom line is that the average Chinese student learns to orally communicate in Chinglish i. e. Mandarin sprinkled with English or English with Mandarin induced syntax.

  10. Gender Discrimination in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖敏慧

    2014-01-01

    Gender discrimination in language is usually defined as discrimination based on sex, especially discrimination against women. With the rise of women’s liberation movement in the 1960s and 1970s, and the improvement of women’s social status in recent years, gender discrimination in English attracts more and more attention. Based on previous studies, this thesis first dis⁃cusses the manifestations of gender discrimination in English vocabulary and address terms, then analyzes the factors of gender dis⁃crimination in English from social and cultural perspectives, finally puts forward some methods that are good for avoiding or elim⁃inating gender discrimination in English.

  11. Validation and Application of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey in English Language Teacher Education Classrooms in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Nabi. A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the validation and application of an English language teacher education (LTE) version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES). The instrument, called the CLES-LTE, was field tested with a sample of 622 Iranian English language student teachers in 28 classes. When principal components analysis led to the…

  12. On Assimilation of English Sounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恩华

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes a careful study of assimilation in English speaking, meanwhile a systematic knowledge of assimilation wil be helpful for the pronunciations of English learners, facilitate English fluency and improve listening comprehension.

  13. Efficient English Listening Teaching Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢小杰

    2014-01-01

    In non-native English speaking countries, the big problem to English learners is that it is difficult for them to under-stand what the English speaker is talking about because many English learners have trouble in listening. Though they are English learners, they still have difficulty in listening to the foreigners from English speaking countries and other nonnative English speak-ers. Therefore, listening teaching becomes the vital task of both English teachers and English learners. English educators are ex-pected to search an efficient way to help English learners improve their listening. Modern teaching equipments, such as film and video and other teaching facilities play an indispensable role in English listening teaching.

  14. Cultural Differences and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅

    2009-01-01

    ach culture in English education.This paper expounds the connotation of culture and language, points out the reasons of culture teaching in English education, and raises some suggestions and methods on English culture teaching.

  15. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember. But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  16. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember.But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  17. Testing the Psychometric Properties of a Chinese Version of the Level of Expressed Emotion Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Tong Chien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the level of expressed emotion scale in Hong Kong Chinese patients with severe mental illness and their family caregivers. First, the semantic equivalence with the original English version and test-retest reliability at 2-week interval of the Chinese version was examined. After that, the reproducibility, construct validity, and internal consistency of the Chinese version were tested. The Chinese version indicated good semantic equivalence with the English version (kappa values = 0.76–0.95 and ICC = 0.81–0.92, test-retest reliability (r = 0.89–0.95, P<0.01, and internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.86–0.92. Among 262 patients with severe mental illness and their caregivers, the 50-item Chinese version had substantial loadings on one of the four factors identified (intrusiveness/hostility, attitude towards patient, tolerance, and emotional involvement, accounting for 71.8% of the total variance of expressed emotion. In confirmatory factor analysis, the identified four-factor model showed the best fit based on all fit indices (χ2/df = 1.93, P=0.75; AGFI = 0.96; TLI = 1.02; RMSEA = 0.031; WRMR = 0.78 to the collected data. The four-factor Chinese version also indicated a good concurrent validity with significant correlations with family functioning (r = −0.54 and family burden (r = 0.49 and a satisfactory reproducibility over six months (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90. The mean scores of the overall and subscale of the Chinese version in patients with unipolar disorder were higher than in other illness groups (schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, and bipolar disorder; P<0.01. The Chinese version demonstrates sound psychometric properties to measure families’ expressed emotion in Chinese patients with severe mental illness, which are found varied across countries.

  18. Preliminary Validation of a Brazilian Version of the Sport Motivation Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Bara Filho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sport Motivation Scale was firstly developed in French and later translated into English and validated by Pelletier et al. (1995. It is based on the principles of self-determination theory. The present study translated the English version into Portuguese to access and validate it with Brazilian athletes using a sample of 419 athletes (127 women and 292 men from ten sports. The Brazilian version of the scale showed satisfactory levels of internal consistency and temporal stability over a four-week period. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis partially supported the seven-factor structure. Finally, gender differences were found in all subscales. Taken together, these findings support the use of the Brazilian version of the scale for the assessment of motivation in sport.

  19. Business English in Practical Terms

    OpenAIRE

    Slavica Čepon

    2015-01-01

    The article is an attempt to look at the reality of teaching English for Business Purposes (EBP)/ Business English (BE) from a practical point of view. It approaches the term BE as if through a funnel with English as an International Language (EIL) at the top, English Language Teaching/General English (ELT/GE) as its sloping sides, English as a Foreign Language (EFL)/English as a Second Language (ESL) at the top of the funnel's narrow tube, and English for Specific Purposes (ESP) at the very ...

  20. REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADIAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Modern English is an international language inthe world.Besides Great Britain,English is spokenas first language in 39 countries.These countries arelocated in different regions with different naturalfeatures,history development and cultural character-istics.Thus,English used in these different regionscarries its own regional character—forming Englishregional varieties.The main English regional varieties are:BritishEnglish,American English,Canadian English andSouth African English.Canada is a rich country inNorth America with its own characteristics,which of

  1. 数控专业科技英语的特点及翻译方法%CNC professional and technical characteristics and English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐静

    2013-01-01

    To read and access to CNC machine tools, CNC product brochures and user manuals in English, requires CNC professional technicians or experts with good scientific English translation capabilities. By translating Siemens 802C CNC System Operation and Programming English manual some English, describes the numerical characteristics and profes-sional scientific English translation of some of the methods proposed by the professional scientific English translation need to have the capability.%要阅读和查阅数控机床、数控系统的产品说明书及户使用手册等英文资料,就要求数控专业的技术人员或者专家具有良好的科技英语翻译能力。通过翻译西门子802C数控系统操作与编程英文手册中的一些英文实例,阐述了数控专业科技英语的特点及翻译中的一些方法,提出了专业科技英语翻译时所需要具备的能力。

  2. Cambodian-English Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This volume contains a Cambodian-English and an English-Cambodian glossary, with approximately 8,000 and 7,500 entries respectively. The entries are the vocabulary contained in the introductory lessons and subject matter modules (entitled "The Land and the Economy,""The Political Institutions,""The Social Institutions" and "The Individual in…

  3. California's English Learner Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    English Learner (EL) students in California's schools are numerous and diverse, and they lag behind their native-English-speaking peers. Closing the achievement gap for EL students has been a long-standing goal for California educators, and there are some signs of success. Now that EL funding and curriculum issues are receiving a fresh level of…

  4. English for Global Peacekeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossey, Mark

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the work of the British Council's Peacekeeping English Project: why the British Council is undertaking this work, why is it being sponsored, what exactly is being done and what are the key issues in English for peacekeeping and other security forces.

  5. English Loanwords in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Gillian

    1995-01-01

    Examines the historical and cultural contexts of word borrowing from English into Japanese, processes of nativization, and functions served by English loanwords. Notes that linguistic and cultural borrowing is to some extent kept separate from native language and culture, resulting in a Japanese/Western dichotomy in Japanese life and language. (20…

  6. English for Business Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…

  7. Nineteenth-Century English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...

  8. English Loanwords in Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Morton

    1959-01-01

    This introductory survey describes the English contribution to the vocabulary of modern Russian. The author presents an analysis of English loanwords based on the etymologies of Vasmer and Lexin, by subject classification (amusements, clothing, economics, food, nautical terminology, and technology). Separate commentary on sporting terms, where…

  9. MY ENGLISH STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙岩; Roxanne; Lees

    2003-01-01

    I am a student of Yanshan University, majoring in English. I have studied English for a long time, which is full of (and have encountered some) special experiences (in my studies). After graduation from (a) junior (middle) school, I did not go to senior (middle) school for

  10. Microteaching in Sports English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晖

    2015-01-01

    The benefit of microteaching has been recognized in many fields.But it remains a research gap in sports English teaching.The ex-periment proved it an effective way in helping students to acquire knowledge and skills in classroom observation and practice of sports English.

  11. English Idioms and Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小乔

    2015-01-01

    Customs is a kind of social phenomenon. They are not the product of individuals but that of the collective in the society,which are affected by politics, economy, religion, literary art and so on and then affect those things in reverse. English idioms aregreatly influenced by English customs.

  12. Multimedia Fluid Mechanics - Multilingual Version CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsy, G. M.; Aref, H.; Breuer, K. S.; Hochgreb, S.; Koseff, J. R.; Munson, B. R.; Powell, K. G.; Robertson, C. R.; Thoroddsen, S. T.

    2004-07-01

    This CD-ROM offers an interactive tool for teaching undergraduate fluid mechanics. It features experiments that demonstrate fluid mechanical phenomena, animations of important principles and concepts, virtual laboratories in which students acquire data from the images, interactive computational exercises in which parameters can be varied, and other descriptive and illuminating material on applications. The material may be accessed randomly through a hyperlinked text, a search engine, a video library, and a glossary of terms. The new edition has been thoroughly updated and includes versions in English, Spanish and French.

  13. Learning English Pronunciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷兵

    1997-01-01

    When one begins to learn a foreign language, he will find the habits of his native tongue often interfere with his learning the sounds of the new language. Chinese students,especially adults,often find it hard to pronounce some English sounds properly;teachers sometimes also find English sounds can not be casily taught by simply telling a learner what to do with his lips,teeth or tongue etc. Even some English major students find they arc misunderstood because of their incorrect use of a phoneme or an incorrect stress.In a listening test, some students fail to catch the meaning of a certain phrase or a word because they are not familiar with a word juncture or intonation. When a Chinese student learns English pronunciation, he might meet several difficulties.The following are the main factors which may affect his learning, of English.

  14. LEXICAL CONSTRAINTS IN TRANSLATION AND LEARNING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono Priyono

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in the process of translating and learning English as a foreign language may be attributed to lexical constraints. Problems exist in both processes (translating and learning because the two languages involved represent two different systems of expression. The differences in lexical structure between English and Indonesian are predicted to be the main cause of difficulties for EFL learners and translators. Using lexical conceptual structure (LCS, this study has collected data from authentic sources including English novels, brochures, textbooks, bulletins and newspapers. From this data we have identified five types of problems: These problems will be referred to as denominalized verbs or nouns surface as verbs, deadjectival verbs or adjectives surface as verbs, verb semantic structure, collocational combination, and transitive-intransitive alternation. The analysis of these cases has demonstrated that potential problems associated with each case are all lexically related. Therefore it will be argued in this paper that these five cases are part of the main causes for the problems faced by translators and EFL learners.

  15. Temporal Reference of Events in English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a contrastive study of temporal reference of events in small clause between English and Chinese. Two versions of Chinese translation of Little Women and the original novel have been employed as the data. After analyzing the data from the aspects of temporal adverbials, default viewpoint aspect of predicates, aspectual markers and model verbs, we come to the conclusion that compared with in English. the category of tense in Chinese is less orominent while the category of aspect is more highlighted, and the future time is more marked with the use of model verbs as categorical markers than the past time and the present time.

  16. Constructing English as a Ugandan Language through an English Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranger-Johannessen, Espen

    2015-01-01

    English is a national language in Uganda and is widely used in elite areas such as politics and business, but most Ugandans master English to only a limited degree. In this situation, English can be seen as either a foreign language or a second language--influencing how English is taught. One goal of language teaching espoused in this article is…

  17. HOW TO MOTIVATE NON-ENGLISH MAJORS TO MASTER ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the factors causing the lack of learning motivation of non-English majors,re-garded as one of the crucial reasons leading to the inefficiency of college English teaching in Chi-na.It also puts forward corresponding ways to motivate non-English majors to study English.

  18. Application of Oral English in Secondary English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴超; 詹晋红

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the lack of oral English teaching in secondary English teaching and is focusing on the measures toimprove oral English teaching from the perspectives of cultivating students’interest, getting over their psychological hindrance, promoting their English listening, improving their pronouncing and creating proper environment.

  19. Application of Oral English in Secondary English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴超; 詹晋红

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the lack of oral English teaching in secondary English teaching and is focusing on the measures to improve oral English teaching from the perspectives of cultivating students' interest, getting over their psychological hindrance, promoting their English listening, improving their pronouncing and creating proper environment.

  20. On Bringing Industry English Teaching into College English Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏圆圆

    2016-01-01

    With the development of global economy, it’s becoming increasingly important to bring industry English into College English Course. But there are still many problems about industry English teaching in most colleges. This paper will analyze these problems and put forward effective measures to promote industry English teaching.

  1. Learner Views on English and English Language Teaching in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Lin, Chih-Kai; Wiley, Terrence G.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, China has represented one of the major growth areas in the world for English language education, and studying English has been a priority among its foreign language educational policies. As English has gained more popularity in China, some have noted the potential value of English as a means to greater educational access and…

  2. Enigma Version 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shores, David; Goza, Sharon P.; McKeegan, Cheyenne; Easley, Rick; Way, Janet; Everett, Shonn; Guerra, Mark; Kraesig, Ray; Leu, William

    2013-01-01

    Enigma Version 12 software combines model building, animation, and engineering visualization into one concise software package. Enigma employs a versatile user interface to allow average users access to even the most complex pieces of the application. Using Enigma eliminates the need to buy and learn several software packages to create an engineering visualization. Models can be created and/or modified within Enigma down to the polygon level. Textures and materials can be applied for additional realism. Within Enigma, these models can be combined to create systems of models that have a hierarchical relationship to one another, such as a robotic arm. Then these systems can be animated within the program or controlled by an external application programming interface (API). In addition, Enigma provides the ability to use plug-ins. Plugins allow the user to create custom code for a specific application and access the Enigma model and system data, but still use the Enigma drawing functionality. CAD files can be imported into Enigma and combined to create systems of computer graphics models that can be manipulated with constraints. An API is available so that an engineer can write a simulation and drive the computer graphics models with no knowledge of computer graphics. An animation editor allows an engineer to set up sequences of animations generated by simulations or by conceptual trajectories in order to record these to highquality media for presentation. Enigma Version 12 Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 28 NASA Tech Briefs, September 2013 Planetary Protection Bioburden Analysis Program NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California This program is a Microsoft Access program that performed statistical analysis of the colony counts from assays performed on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft to determine the bioburden density, 3-sigma biodensity, and the total bioburdens required for the MSL prelaunch reports. It also contains numerous

  3. Idiomatic English writing with English thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚竹

    2012-01-01

    Chinese and English, belonging to eastern and western Cultural systems respectively, reveal several differences between each other. This paper, based upon their difference in syntax and thinking mode; attempts tO make a tentative research into how professional writing is produced.

  4. English Intonation Study on Male English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹维康

    2015-01-01

    <正>1.Overview of English Intonation Research Intonation is the melody of speech.Pitch changes on stressed syllables determine the intonation patterns of an utterance.Intonation is the combination of pitch variations and stress.Intonation is also interpreted by Halliday as a complex of three systemic variables,tonality,tonicity and tone.According

  5. Checkpointing in speculative versioning caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael K; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-08-27

    Mechanisms for generating checkpoints in a speculative versioning cache of a data processing system are provided. The mechanisms execute code within the data processing system, wherein the code accesses cache lines in the speculative versioning cache. The mechanisms further determine whether a first condition occurs indicating a need to generate a checkpoint in the speculative versioning cache. The checkpoint is a speculative cache line which is made non-speculative in response to a second condition occurring that requires a roll-back of changes to a cache line corresponding to the speculative cache line. The mechanisms also generate the checkpoint in the speculative versioning cache in response to a determination that the first condition has occurred.

  6. China English and its Enlightenment and Influence on English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐倩茹

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of English in China these years leads to the formation of two kinds of controversial languages: a new kind of world English cal ed China English and the other is Chinese English (Chinglish). The use of Chinglish needs to be reduced or eradicated, on the contrary, the use of China English should be proposed and it can provide enlightenment on language teaching.

  7. World Englishes and Its Implications for English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋德龙

    2012-01-01

    <正>The article mainly explores the current concept of World Englishes and its implication for language teaching.After the history and present definition of World Englishes have been discussed in a broad perspective,the author continues to talk about the influence of World Englishes on World Language Education.Chinese English education is then specifically addressed with implications given for both policy-makers and classroom teachers of English.

  8. My Way of Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛方艳

    2002-01-01

    With the globalization of the world, English is becoming more and more important in our daily life. A lot of people are learning English in our country now.The questions they usually have are-Why should I learn English? How canI learn English well?

  9. The Objectivity of China English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Fang

    2013-01-01

    China English, as one of the English varieties, is an objective reality. It is different from Chinglish which is an interlan-guage for Chinese English learners. This paper expresses the definition of China English, its objectivity and manifestations in terms of pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax and text.

  10. The characteristic of business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宇妮

    2010-01-01

    Business English is a kind of English for special purposes. Besides the commoncharacteristic it has with the common English,it still has its own characteristic. In thispaper,some of its characteristics are introduced to help people understand well the businessEnglish.

  11. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Lu; He Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization, business English plays an increasingly vital role. In order to better translate business English, the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques. Thus, emphasis is placed on business English translation skills, such as omission, supplement and word conversion, etc, which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  12. My Hesitation to Speak English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Naruha

    2015-01-01

    Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…

  13. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Lu; He; Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization,business English plays an increasingly vital role.In order to better translate business English,the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques.Thus,emphasis is placed on business English translation skills,such as omission,supplement and word conversion,etc,which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  14. Corpus Linguistics Facilitates English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱思亲

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been widely applied in English teaching. Corpus linguistics has changed the way to teach English. The essay discusses two approaches in English teaching based on corpus, corpus-driven approach and corpus-based approach. It finds out that both corpus-driven approach and corpus-based approach facilitate English teaching in their own ways.

  15. Phonetics drills in oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮继伟

    2014-01-01

    Phonetics teaching is one of the important parts of English teaching.To improve the students’pronunciation in oral English,the paper indicates the relation between English phonetics and oral English,the problems of speech sounds,and the methods of phonetic drills.

  16. Phonetics drills in oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮继伟

    2014-01-01

    Phonetics teaching is one of the important parts of English teaching .To improve the students’ pronunciation in oral English ,the paper indicates the relation between English phonetics and oral English, the problems of speech sounds, and the methods of phonetic drills.

  17. The Exploration of Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春辉

    2015-01-01

    As English is becoming internationalized,English is becoming more and more important; therefore,many people want to study English and want to learn it very well.And here I want to share some of my own learning experience and some suggestions for the students who are working hard to learn English.

  18. Strategic Defamation of Fethullah Gulen: English vs. Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Koc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fethullah Gulen is a moderate Turkish Muslim scholar known for his educational and interfaith dialogue activities. While Gulen's efforts are applauded by many in every corners of the world, a small group of authors try to defame Gulen and the Movement named after him. This paper shows Gulen's defamers act strategically. While Gulen is portrayed as Gulen1: American/Zionist/Vatican agent in Turkish versions of defaming articles, he is presented as Gulen2: Islamist/Khomeini/New Ottoman/Caliphate in the English versions. Statistical analysis and literature review show that Gulen's defamers act according to audiences.

  19. English for journalists

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, Wynford

    2012-01-01

    English for Journalists is an invaluable guide not only to the basics of English, but to those aspects of writing, such as reporting speech, house style and jargon, which are specific to the language of journalism. Written in an accessible style, beginning with the fundamentals of grammar and the use of spelling, punctuation and journalistic writing and each point is illustrated with concise examples.This revised and updated edition includes:* a discussion of the recent debates surrounding the use of standard and idiomatic English* the correct use and spelling of foreign words* a chapter on br

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟; 黄舜

    2007-01-01

    The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.

  1. English Grammar For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Lesley J

    2009-01-01

    If you're confused by commas, perplexed by pronouns, and plain terrified by tenses, English Grammar For Dummies will put your fears to rest. Packed with expert guidance, it covers everything from sentence basics to rules even your English teacher didn't know - if you want to brush up on your grammar, this is the only guide you'll ever need. Discover how to: avoid common grammatical errors; get to grips with apostrophes; structure sentences correctly; use verbs and find the right tense; and decide when to use slang or formal English.  

  2. Component versioning for protocol configuration management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tian-zhou; HE Zhen-jie; HUANG Jiang-wei; DAI Hong-jun

    2005-01-01

    Classical software configuration management which deals with source code versioning becomes insufficient when most components are distributed in binary form. As an important aspect of software configuration, protocol configuration also encounters those problems. This paper focuses on solving protocol component versioning issues for protocol configuration management on embedded system, incorporating the following versioning issues: version identification, version description and protocol component archiving and retrieving based on the version library.

  3. Assessing doctors' competencies using multisource feedback: validating a Japanese version of the Sheffield Peer Review Assessment Tool (SPRAT).

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Hatoko; Archer, Julian; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Mori, Rintaro; Nishida, Toshihiko; Kusuda, Satoshi; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] To assess the validity and reliability of the Sheffield Peer Review Assessment Tool (SPRAT) Japanese version for evaluating doctors’ competencies using multisource feedback. [Methods] SPRAT, originally developed in the UK, was translated and validated in three phases: (1) an existing Japanese version of SPRAT was back-translated into English; (2) two expert panel meetings were held to develop and assure content validity in a Japanese setting; (3) the newly devised Japanese SPRAT i...

  4. Assessing doctors’ competencies using multisource feedback: validating a Japanese version of the Sheffield Peer Review Assessment Tool (SPRAT)

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Hatoko; Archer, Julian; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Mori, Rintaro; Nishida, Toshihiko; Kusuda, Satoshi; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the validity and reliability of the Sheffield Peer Review Assessment Tool (SPRAT) Japanese version for evaluating doctors’ competencies using multisource feedback. Methods SPRAT, originally developed in the UK, was translated and validated in three phases: (1) an existing Japanese version of SPRAT was back-translated into English; (2) two expert panel meetings were held to develop and assure content validity in a Japanese setting; (3) the newly devised Japanese SPRAT instr...

  5. Features of English News Headlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚菲菲

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays Chinese people are attaching great importance to English news that not only offers worldwide information but gives a hand to English learners with their improvement in English. As is called the eyes of English news, headlines are partic-ularly important. Generally speaking, English news headlines are precise, brief and as attractive as possible. They have their own grammar features and vocabulary features while different devices are employed to make them expressive and striking.

  6. Contrastive Study of English and Chinese Subjects in Perspective of Cog-nitive Prominence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIU Li-li

    2016-01-01

    This present paper, in perspective of cognitive prominence, the cognitive motive on the differences between English and Chinese subjects, and then explores the interpretability of the Adaptation Theory in translating the subjects. It is discovered that the blending of the cognitive prominence and the theory of adaptation is very effective in elaborating the subtle differences of English and Chinese subjects in translation, and reasonable in expounding the infeasibility of some plausible versions.

  7. English for Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Andre

    1974-01-01

    Examines four publications meant for intermediate or even advanced learners of English: first, two handbooks of commercial correspondence, then, two methods designed to develop the four basic language skills. (Author/PMP)

  8. Event-related potentials associated with Chinese and English color-word Stroop tasks in Chinese bilinguals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the neural electrophysiological activity underlying Chinese and English Stroop tasks for Chinese-English bilinguals. Methods: Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 14 Chinese bilinguals with a moderate command of English when they performed the Stroop task presented in English words and Chinese characters, respectively. Results: In Chinese task version, it was found an increased positivity over bilateral front-polar regions on incongruent trials compared with congruent trials, followed by an increased negativity over fronto-central region and an increased positivity over occipital region. While in English task version, only the increased negativity was observed over fronto-central region, but with reduced amplitude and anterior distribution. Conclusion: This increased negativity was proposed as an index of the resolution processes of conflicting information in the incongruent situation. The increased positivity over occipital region on Chinese incongruent trials may indicate visually rechecking effect for Chinese character.

  9. ENGLISHES: INDONESIAN EFL TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zusana E. Pudyastuti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since English is used as a lingua franca, the growth of English users is getting bigger. The tremendous growth of English users has generated variety of English, i.e. Englishes. Such variety could affect EFL pedagogy. This paper, then, explores EFL teachers’ perception on Englishes. By employing a survey study, it is found that EFL teachers agree that it is useful for both English teachers and students to know the variety of English. However, in the teaching practice, they prefer to integrate it to other language skills and language components rather than teaching it in isolation. Besides, adopting exonormative norm, i.e. American English or British English is still used in the common teaching practice. (113   Sejak Bahasa Inggris digunakan sebagai lingua franca, pengguna bahasa Inggris semakin berkembang pesat. Perkembangan pengguna bahasa inggris  tersebut telah menyebabkan variasi dalam bahasa Inggris, yaitu Englishes. Artikel ini menjelaskan tentang persepsi guru bahasa Inggris terhadap variasi tersebut. Dengan menggunakan metode survei, disimpulkan bahwa guru-guru EFL setuju bahwa pengetahuan akan Englishes sangatlah penting dimiliki baik oleh guru maupun siswa. Namun, mereka lebih menyukai jika pengajaran Englishes diintegrasikan dengan keterampilan bahasa dan komponen bahasa daripada harus mengajarkannya secara terpisah. Selain itu, menggunakan aturan exonormative, yaitu American English and British English masih tetap digunakan dalam praktik mengajar. (92

  10. English For Engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Sundar

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, engineering students need to enhance their English communication skills and other soft skills to cope with tough competition in the job market. Mere subject knowledge in the chosen field of engineering is not going to assure any engineering graduate to be placed in any organization or to perform well. English language skills are considered as life skills or survival skills in the twenty-first century. Engineering students need to be able to think critically, solve pr...

  11. Integrated PEV Charging Solutions and Reduced Energy for Occupant Comfort (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Brochure on Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility, featuring the Vehicle Modification Facility, Vehicle Test Pad and ReCharge Integrated Demonstration System. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) offer the opportunity to shift transportation energy demands from petroleum to electricity, but broad adoption will require integration with other systems. While automotive experts work to reduce the cost of PEVs, fossil fueled cars and trucks continue to burn hundreds of billions of gallons of petroleum each year - not only to get from point A to point B, but also to keep passengers comfortable with air conditioning and heat. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), three installations form a research laboratory known as the Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF). At the VTIF, engineers are developing strategies to address two separate but equally crucial areas of research: meeting the demands of electric vehicle-grid integration and minimizing fuel consumption related to vehicle climate control. Part of NREL's Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems (CTTS), the VTIF is dedicated to renewable and energy efficient solutions. This facility showcases technology and systems designed to increase the viability of sustainably powered vehicles. NREL researchers instrument every class of on-road vehicle, conduct hardware and software validation for electric vehicle (EV) components and accessories, and develop analysis tools and technology for the Department of Energy, other government agencies and industry partners. Research conducted at the VTIF examines the interaction of building energy systems, utility grids, renewable energy sources and PEVs, integrating energy management solutions, and maximizing potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction, while smoothing the transition and reducing costs for EV owners. NREL's collaboration with automakers, charging station manufacturers, utilities and fleet operators to assess technologies using VTIF

  12. English made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This is a fun and user–friendly way to learn EnglishEnglish Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learning—imaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Self–guided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text to discover for themselves how English works. The pictorial method used in this book is based on a thorough understanding of language structure and how language is successfully learned.English Made Easy, Volume 2 consists of a total of 20 units arranged in groups of five. The first four units presents language and provide learners the opportunities to practice as they learn. The first page of each unit has a list of all the words...

  13. English made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This is a fun and user–friendly way to learn English English Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learning—imaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Self–guided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text to discover for themselves how English works. The pictorial method used in this book is based on a thorough understanding of language structure and how language is successfully learned.English Made Easy, Volume 1 consists of a total of 20 units arranged in groups of five. The first four units presents language and provide learners the opportunities to practice as they learn. The first page of each unit has a list of all the word...

  14. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Danish Version: Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Hansen, Sabrina S.; Hansen, Line S.;

    2015-01-01

    Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Danish Version: Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI). Larsen CM1,2; Hansen SS2; Hansen LH2; Bruun P1; Juul-Kristensen B1,3. 1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark. 2Health Sciences Research...... Centre, University College Lillebaelt, Denmark. 3Institute of Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy and Radiography, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway Introduction The Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess shoulder pain in wheelchair users...... in detecting shoulder pain and function in wheelchair users. Aims To translate and cross-culturally adapt WUSPI from the original English version into a Danish version, and to test face validity of the Danish version. Materials and methods An internationally recognized procedure was applied; Forward...

  15. GENII Version 2 Users’ Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2004-03-08

    The GENII Version 2 computer code was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the radiological risk estimating procedures of Federal Guidance Report 13 into updated versions of existing environmental pathway analysis models. The resulting environmental dosimetry computer codes are compiled in the GENII Environmental Dosimetry System. The GENII system was developed to provide a state-of-the-art, technically peer-reviewed, documented set of programs for calculating radiation dose and risk from radionuclides released to the environment. The codes were designed with the flexibility to accommodate input parameters for a wide variety of generic sites. Operation of a new version of the codes, GENII Version 2, is described in this report. Two versions of the GENII Version 2 code system are available, a full-featured version and a version specifically designed for demonstrating compliance with the dose limits specified in 40 CFR 61.93(a), the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) for radionuclides. The only differences lie in the limitation of the capabilities of the user to change specific parameters in the NESHAPS version. This report describes the data entry, accomplished via interactive, menu-driven user interfaces. Default exposure and consumption parameters are provided for both the average (population) and maximum individual; however, these may be modified by the user. Source term information may be entered as radionuclide release quantities for transport scenarios, or as basic radionuclide concentrations in environmental media (air, water, soil). For input of basic or derived concentrations, decay of parent radionuclides and ingrowth of radioactive decay products prior to the start of the exposure scenario may be considered. A single code run can

  16. Translation and equivalence assessment for a Japanese version of the modified Parental Nurturance Scale: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on the modification of the Parental Nurturance Scale (PNS, translation of the modified version (PNSM from English to Japanese, and equivalence assessment between the PNSM and the translated version (PNSM-J. The PNS was modified so as to enable its use in nurturance studies where the prime source of nurturance might vary between respondents. Method It was translated into Japanese through the forward-backward translation procedure. With attempting to enhance representativeness of language in the target populations, translators used were married couples that consisted of a native English speaker and a native Japanese speaker. Multiple translations were produced and used to make a single Japanese version. A panel of reviewers identified problems in conceptual and semantic equivalence between the original and the translated versions. The Japanese version was altered accordingly with reference to alternate Japanese forms from the original English to Japanese translations. The altered translation was again re-translated into English and problematic differences were checked. This forward-backward process was repeated until satisfactory agreement was attained. The PNSM was administered to 222 native English speakers and the PNSM-J to 1320 native Japanese speakers. Results Factor analysis and target rotation revealed a nearly identical factor structure and factor loadings of the items of the PNSM and PNSM-J between the different cultural groups. High Cronbach's alpha coefficient supported the reliability of the test scores on both versions. Conclusion The equivalence between the two scales was supported. It is suggested that the PNSM and PNSM-J are suitable tools for comparative cross-cultural studies.

  17. ELIPGRID-PC: Upgraded version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating the need for and the effectiveness of remedial cleanup at waste sites often includes finding average contaminant concentrations and identifying pockets of contamination called hot spots. The standard tool for calculating the probability of detecting pockets of contamination called hot spots has been the ELIPGRID code of singer and Wickman. The ELIPGRID-PC program has recently made this algorithm available for an IBM reg-sign personal computer (PC) or compatible. A new version of ELIPGRID-PC, incorporating Monte Carlo test results and simple graphics, is herein described. Various examples of how to use the program for both single and multiple hot spot cases are given. The code for an American National Standards Institute C version of the ELIPGRID algorithm is provided, and limitations and further work are noted. This version of ELIPGRID-PC reliably meets the goal of moving Singer's ELIPGRID algorithm to the PC

  18. PUMA: version 4 for Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to now, the three dimensional diffusion code PUMA was implemented in DOS for a Pc-386 and Pc-486. Because of the continuous progress in hardware resources, a new version for Windows was implemented. This new version takes advantage of many Windows facilities, and is provided with a special editor and that facilitates considerably the use of the program, enhancing by means of colors the significant words and title of the process control. An in line help system was also provided, which can be used by means of 'hot words' for access to each help Window. (author)

  19. SPARK Version One: reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPARK is a library of FORTRAN computer codes which is used to analyze electrical eddy-current distributions. Version One of SPARK is designed to calculate eddy currents flowing on conducting surfaces where current flow is assumed zero in the direction normal to the surface. Surfaces may vary in resistivity and/or thickness and may include holes. Version One can find a transient solution series in time, a purely resistive solution, or a purely inductive solution. A principal feature of SPARK is the calculation of forces, which result from the interaction of the eddy currents with the primary magnetic field, in a form which is compatible with existing structural analysis codes

  20. The Portuguese version of the RhinoQOL Questionnaire: validation and clinical application,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Cerejeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Rhinosinusitis constitutes an important health problem, with significant interference in personal, professional, and social functioning. This study presents the validation process of the Portuguese version of the RhinoQOL, to be used as a routine procedure in the assessment of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that the Portuguese version of the RhinoQOL is as valid as the English version to measure symptoms and health-related quality of life in chronic rhinosinusitis. METHODS: The Portuguese version of the RhinoQOL was administered consecutively to 58 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps, assessed for endoscopic sinus surgery. A follow-up survey was completed three months after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed to determine its psychometric properties. RESULTS: Face and content validity were confirmed by similar internal consistency as the original questionnaire for each sub-scale, and strong correlation between individual items and total score. The questionnaire was easy and quick to administer (5.5 min. At three months, there was a significant decrease from baseline for all sub-scale scores, indicating clinical improvement, with an effect size considered as large. CONCLUSION: This study provides a questionnaire that is equivalent to the original English version, with good responsiveness to change, which can be especially valuable to measure the outcome of surgery.

  1. [Creation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Ukrainian versions of SKINDEX-29, SKINDEX-16 questionnaires, Psoriasis Disability Index and further validation of the Ukrainian version of the Dermatology Life Quality Index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshov, P V

    2009-01-01

    Original versions of SKINDEX-29, SKINDEX-16 and Psoriasis Disability Index questionnaires were translated into Ukrainian by two independent forward translators and then back-translated into English by two other independent translators. The probe technique for pre-testing was used. Retest of reliability, discriminant validity, over time sensitivity and sensitivity to successful therapeutic intervention were checked. PMID:19953996

  2. A Further Examination of the Effects of Administering the Metropolitan Reading Tests in Spanish and English to Spanish-Speaking School Entrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sylvia; And Others

    In a study designed to assess effects of administering the Metropolitan Reading Test (MRT) in Spanish versus English, 100 Puerto Rican kindergarten pupils were randomly split into two groups. The MRT was administered in English to one group and in a Spanish translation to the other group. The group who took the Spanish version significantly…

  3. A National Study of Spanish/English Bilingualism in Young Hispanic Children of the United States. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 4, No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene E.; And Others

    Six hundred, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old bilingual, rural, and urban children from southwestern, midwestern, eastern, and southern United States participated in a national study of Spanish/English bilingual development. Half of these children completed the English version of CIRCO (1980) sub-test 10-C, a productive language measure that requires…

  4. Validation of the Official Slovak Version of the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Matej Skorvanek; Michal Minar; Milan Grofik; Katarina Kracunova; Vladimir Han; Frantisek Cibulcik; Jan Necpal; Ladislav Gurcik; Peter Valkovic

    2015-01-01

    After successful clinimetric testing of the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS), a program for translation and validation of non-English versions of the UDysRS was initiated. The aim of this study was to validate and confirm the factor structure of the Slovak translation of the UDysRS. We examined 251 patients with Parkinson’s disease and dyskinesia using the Slovak version of the UDysRS. The average age of our sample was 65.2 ± 9.2 years and average disease duration was 10.9 ± 5.0 years...

  5. The Problems of College English Listening Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜亚丽

    2013-01-01

    English listening and speaking has always been a weak link in Chinese students' English learning,which form the "dumb English". This article will analyze the problems in college English listening teaching.Hoping it will draw teachers’ attention.

  6. Discussing College English Learners' Attitude and Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜自凤

    2009-01-01

    Many English learners claim that they have trouble in communicating with foreigners.Therefore,this paper isto discuss college English learners' attitude and motivation toward English learning by analyzing the obstacles of English learning.

  7. Importance of English and Different Methods of Teaching English

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Dr. P. Sreenivasulu

    2013-01-01

    Todays world considers English as a global language. The present article explains how the teaching of English started with Grammar-Translation Method and secured a strong hold in the field of teaching English, though its basic assumptions were questionable. It also examines the principles of Direct Method and its insistence on establishing a bond between the experience and expression. In an effort to meet the needs of the Indian students of English, we learn that Michael West proposed the Rea...

  8. DNAStat, version 2.1--a computer program for processing genetic profile databases and biostatistical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Jarosław

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the new DNAStat version 2.1 for processing genetic profile databases and biostatistical calculations. The popularization of DNA studies employed in the judicial system has led to the necessity of developing appropriate computer programs. Such programs must, above all, address two critical problems, i.e. the broadly understood data processing and data storage, and biostatistical calculations. Moreover, in case of terrorist attacks and mass natural disasters, the ability to identify victims by searching related individuals is very important. DNAStat version 2.1 is an adequate program for such purposes. The DNAStat version 1.0 was launched in 2005. In 2006, the program was updated to 1.1 and 1.2 versions. There were, however, slight differences between those versions and the original one. The DNAStat version 2.0 was launched in 2007 and the major program improvement was an introduction of the group calculation options with the potential application to personal identification of mass disasters and terrorism victims. The last 2.1 version has the option of language selection--Polish or English, which will enhance the usage and application of the program also in other countries.

  9. Institutional Repository Bibliography, Version 1

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Jr., Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    The Institutional Repository Bibliography (IRB) presents selected English-language articles, books, and other scholarly textual sources that are useful in understanding institutional repositories. Although institutional repositories intersect with a number of open access and scholarly communication topics, this bibliography only includes works that are primarily about institutional repositories. For example, an article dealing with the NIH open access policy would not be included, but one dea...

  10. How Do I Learn English Well?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    English is very importam. It's widely used in the world. Do you know how I learn E well? Let me tell you. I study English language movies. I also study English friends in English. I study English by by making flashcards. I study English by listening to tapes. I study English by watching E nglish nglish by working in groups. I often make conversations with my reading English magazines and newspapers.

  11. Practices That Promote English Reading for English Learners (Els)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rebecca S.; Harris, Bryn; McClain, Maryellen Brunson

    2014-01-01

    Schools are becoming increasingly diversified; however, training and professional development related to working with English language learners (ELs), especially in the area of English reading, is limited. In this article, we identify three "Big Ideas" of effective and collaborative practices that promote English reading achievement for…

  12. How to Employ English Songs to Better College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zi-lun

    2003-01-01

    we find problems in our college English teaching. In order to solve them, by means of English songs, we can make English class lively for song can create active atmosphere no other simple things produce. In this may we can get our classes to become as close as possible to real-life communicative situation.

  13. On Differences between General English Teaching and Business English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Liao, Fang

    2008-01-01

    With the accelerating rate of globalization, business exchanges are carried out cross the border, as a result there is a growing demand for talents professional both in English and Business. We can see that at present Business English courses are offered by many language schools in the aim of meeting the need for Business English talent. Many…

  14. An Investigation of English Writing Anxiety Among English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马星星

    2013-01-01

    With Daly, Horwitz and Y-S-Cheng’s theoretical model of second language writing anxiety as research framework, this thesis surveyed English majors’English writing anxiety. Findings of the present study show that all of the English major stu⁃dents experience English writing anxiety. There is no significant difference in English anxiety among students from three different grades. There is significant difference in English writing anxiety between the students who hold positive attitudes towards English writing and those who hold negative attitudes towards English writing and there is significant difference in English writing anxi⁃ety among students who rated their English writing good, average and bad. Results from the qualitative study show the reasons why there is little difference in English writing anxiety among students from three different grades. What’s more, it is shown that the poor writing skills, cognitive anxiety, test anxiety and erroneous beliefs toward English writing are the main sources of Eng⁃lish writing anxiety.

  15. World Englishes, English as an International Language and Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses World Englishes (WEs) in relation to English as an International Language (EIL) and Applied Linguistics. Taking into account Kachru's interesting but at the same time controversial debate about the status of English in its varieties, which are commonly called WEs and the opposing ideas presented by Quirk, it is aimed to present…

  16. English in the Digital Age: Making English Digital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Despite the emphasis in the press and elsewhere on the print-based nature of English curriculum, opportunities to develop digital English, with attention to web-based and multimodal forms of text, literacy, location, and activity, are present in the draft national (Australian) curriculum for English, alongside more traditional forms. This paper…

  17. Development of environmental dose assessment system (EDAS) code of PC version

    CERN Document Server

    Taki, M; Kobayashi, H; Yamaguchi, T

    2003-01-01

    A computer code (EDAS) was developed to assess the public dose for the safety assessment to get the license of nuclear reactor operation. This code system is used for the safety analysis of public around the nuclear reactor in normal operation and severe accident. This code was revised and composed for personal computer user according to the Nuclear Safety Guidelines reflected the ICRP1990 recommendation. These guidelines are revised by Nuclear Safety Commission on March, 2001, which are 'Weather analysis guideline for the safety assessment of nuclear power reactor', 'Public dose around the facility assessment guideline corresponding to the objective value for nuclear power light water reactor' and 'Public dose assessment guideline for safety review of nuclear power light water reactor'. This code has been already opened for public user by JAERI, and English version code and user manual are also prepared. This English version code is helpful for international cooperation concerning the nuclear safety assessme...

  18. English Book Club

    CERN Multimedia

    English Book Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN English Book Club will hold its 2012 AGM at 17h30 on Monday 5th March in the club rooms (club barrack 564). Club members are invited to attend. Any members wishing to add points on to the agenda should contact one of the committee before February 27th. The English Book Club has a collection of over 4500 English language books, mostly general fiction with a sprinkling of nonfiction and children’s books. New books are purchased regularly and the books are shelved in our club room which is accessible to members at all times. Membership is open to all (staff and external) and there is a special tariff for short term students. See the club’s website at http://cern.ch/englishbookclub for more details.

  19. Sexism and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊花

    2014-01-01

    As a widespread social phenomenon, sexism has been gone through a long history in human society. Since language is regarded as a communicative tool, a mirror of the society and reflection of people ’s thinking and values, the sexual discrimination is inevitably reflected in language. As we all know that the sexism has brought about many negative influences, so everyone is committed to eliminating this phenomenon. On the basis of domestic and overseas studies about sexism, this thesis enumerates its definitions in different dictionaries and analyzes it from the formation, meaning and order of English words. What is more, as an important part in education, English teachers play a significant role in the development of students and help them to set up the equal awareness as well as use English appropriately, which is a great contribution to eliminate the sexual phenomenon.

  20. On English Reading Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱芬

    2008-01-01

    Reading is one of the four important skills in English learning.It is also a skill that the students need to possess to support independent and self-directed learning.With the development of society,science and technology develop at hish speed and the competition in the society become sharp.Reading is a way for students to be more knowledgeable and successful.So,it becomes more and more important to speed up their reading in order to acquire as much information as possible.Thus,fostering a good English reading habit is essential,and being able to adopt different reading skills for different reading materials and purposes will also help to read more effectively.The paper mainly concenls some basic English reading skills.

  1. English Book Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN English Book Club

    2010-01-01

    AGM  --  AGM  -- 2010 --  AGM  --  AGM The CERN ENGLISH BOOK CLUB will hold its 2010 AGM at 18h00 on Monday November 22nd in the club rooms (club barrack 564). Club members are invited to attend. Any members wishing to add points on to the agenda should contact one of the committee before November 12th. AGM  --  AGM  -- 2010 --  AGM  --  AGM The English Book Club has a collection of over 4500 English language books, mostly general fiction with a sprinkling of nonfiction and children’s books. New books are purchased regularly and the books are shelved in our club room which is accessible to members at all times. Membership is open to all (staff and external) and there is a special tariff for short term students. See the club’s website at http://cern.ch/englishbookclub for more details.  

  2. General ideas on English reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝文瑛

    2015-01-01

    This paper is talking about some general ideas on English reading in order to help teachers and learners foster some reading skills by seeing through its natures aiming at effective and productive English teaching and learning.

  3. Translation Strategies of English Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令会

    2010-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the important and forceful figures of speech in English. In practice of translating English metaphors into Chinese, some approaches are available: literal translation, changing metaphor into sim/h, conversion, liberal translation and complement.

  4. Intercultural Communication and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁杨

    2010-01-01

    This article talks about the relation between intercultural communication and English teaching,the importance of cultivating the knowledge of intercultural communication while teaching English,and some methods to let students develop the consciousness of intercultural communication.

  5. Language Anxiety in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雪

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the language anxiety in English learning from the following two aspects: the definition of anxiety and the effects of language anxiety. Meanwhile, it provides some pedagogical implications to college English teachers and learners.

  6. Language Anxiety in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雪

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the language anxiety in English learning from the following two aspects: the definitionof anxiety and the effects of language anxiety. Meanwhile, it provides some pedagogical implications to college English teachers andlearners.

  7. Different Ways of Thinking in Chinese and English and the English Translation of Zhaotong Travel Guide%汉英思维差异与《昭通旅游导游词》的英译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑; 曾济民; 张力

    2013-01-01

    A contrast analysis of tourist parallel texts in Chinese and English reveals that,they share similar writing motivation and text function,but differ greatly at language feature,information function,aesthetic habit,cognitive schema,and artistic style.All the differences are closely related to different ways of thinking in Chinese and English,which partly determine the strategies and ap-proaches employed in the English translation of tourist brochures such as Zhaotong Travel Guide.%通过对汉英旅游平行文本的对比分析,发现他们具有相似的写作动机和文本功能,但由于汉英民族的思维差异,二者在语言特点、信息功能、审美习惯、认知图示、文体风格上表现出较大的不同,这些不同又影响到《昭通旅游导游词》这类旅游景点介绍文本的翻译策略和方法。

  8. Telephoning in English

    CERN Document Server

    Naterop, B Jean

    1994-01-01

    Many people have to use English on the telephone in the course of their work, either at the level of taking a simple message or involving more complex tasks such as requesting information. Telephoning in English provides an up-to-date and relevant context in which students from lower-intermediate level upwards can develop practical telephone skills. The course principally develops spoken interactive skills, but also includes reading material on telephone systems and techniques. As the material is not restricted to particular job functions, it is suitable for students in a wide range of business and administration fields.

  9. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  10. Resources for teaching English

    CERN Document Server

    Ceranic, Helena

    2011-01-01

    English teachers constantly have to think up new ways to engage their class. It's hard enough for teachers to fit all their marking, extra-curricular duties and training into their lives, let alone finding time to think up exciting new ways of introducing Dickens, or designing activities to bring Caribbean poetry to life. Resources for Teaching English 11-14 provides complete, curriculum-friendly lesson plans and student worksheets for busy secondary school teachers. This resource comprises an assortment of more than 70 lesson plans, each designed to motivate and inspire students and

  11. Teachers of Englishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roby Marlina

    2010-01-01

    @@ Whilst running sessions in teacher training programmes on teaching methodologies for speaking and pronunciation,I often hear heartbreaking comments from my trainees.My non-native-English-speaking trainees,on the one hand,complain that they feel that they speak English with a strong accent and ask if it is possible to teach them some ways to eliminate their accents so that they sound more like the Americans or the British-and so that they can then use the same methodology with their own future students.

  12. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive working guide to the the Critical Reading section of Higher English for CfE - worth 40% of available marks in the exam!. Critical Reading (Scottish text questions and critical essay) is a very significant element of the new Higher English qualification. This book provides you with the support and advice you will need to succeed in this vital area, with a top expert guiding you through the course and suggesting approaches to the exam, so that you achieve the best grades you can. By focusing on specific examples of Scottish texts, this book enables you to increase your knowledge

  13. Gimson's pronunciation of English

    CERN Document Server

    Cruttenden, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Since its first publication in 1962, Gimson's Pronunciation of English has been the essential reference book for anyone studying or teaching the pronunciation of English.This eighth edition has been updated to describe General British (GB) as the principal accent, rather than RP, and the accompanying transcriptions have been brought into line with recent changes in pronunciation. This latest edition also includes completely rewritten chapters on the history of the language and the emergence of a standard, alongside a justification for the change from RP to GB.

  14. On Tourism English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洋

    2003-01-01

    本文作者从说、读、写等几方面探讨了怎样有效地进行旅游英语教学.同时,作者指出旅游英语教学要适应旅游业的发展.%The article major discusses how to improve tourism English teaehing from the following aspects:speaking, reading, writing, and combining with reality. Besides, the writer also emphasizes that tourism English teaching should keep the pace with its development.

  15. Linguistic Characteristics of Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易高燕

    2010-01-01

    Advertising language takes form under the influence of linguistics,psychology and sociology,etc,and its way of choosing words and building sentences are quite different from normal English.And as a practical language,advertising English has its specific functions,and it has been distinguished from normal English as an independent language,and it has plentiful values.This paper aims to discuss some linguistic characteristics of advertising English.

  16. The Effects of English Spread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恬

    2009-01-01

    Due to the historical and economical reasons, the circle of the use of English is expanding all the time. On the one hand, linguistic imperialism occurred and some minority languages in the world died out gradually; on the other hand, English became an international language and provided more chances for people in different countries. Therefore it seems unfair to relate all the problems linguistically or culturally to English. In fact some problems have already been there, rather than have been caused by English.

  17. The Rhetoric in English Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鑫

    2014-01-01

    English speech has a very long history and always attached importance of people highly. People usually give a speech in economic activities, political forums and academic reports to express their opinions to investigate or persuade others. English speech plays a rather important role in English literature. The distinct theme of speech should attribute to the rhetoric. It discusses parallelism, repetition and rhetorical question in English speech, aiming to help people appreciate better the charm of them.

  18. Chinese Loan Words in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜战莹

    2015-01-01

    English language is the most common working language.In the history of its development,English has widened its vocabulary by borrowing.Borrowing plays an important role in the formation of modern English.Chinese loan words are a part in the family of all the loan words.Therefore,the number of loan words which originate from Chinese is not that great,but they hold an important role in contemporary English.

  19. Research on Teaching College English Writing%大学英语写作教学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈尹晴; 林芋辰

    2015-01-01

    大学英语写作是大学英语教学中的一个重要的组成部分,大学生英语写作教学是为了解决学生的写作困难,培养学生写作能力,总结写作教学最突出的问题是在于解决大学生写作思维的变换以及选择写作的测评模式。%Teaching College English Writing is one of the most important parts of College English Teaching. The purpose for teach⁃ing English Writing is to help the students’solving English writing difficulties, cultivating their English writing capabilities. Through the researching process, we found that converting the Chinese way of thinking to English version and choosing the right testing mode are the two most important aspects.

  20. The reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Dutch version of the Oxford elbow score

    OpenAIRE

    Patka Peter; Tuinebreijer Wim E; Schep Niels WL; Goei Harold; de Haan Jeroen; den Hartog Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Oxford elbow score (OES) is an English questionnaire that measures the patients' subjective experience of elbow surgery. The OES comprises three domains: elbow function, pain, and social-psychological effects. This questionnaire can be completed by the patient and used as an outcome measure after elbow surgery. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the Dutch version of the translated OES for reliability, validity and responsiveness with respect to patients ...

  1. The Chinese version of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS): Mokken scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Watson Roger; Wang Wenru; Ski Chantal F; Thompson David R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hierarchical scales are very useful in clinical practice due to their ability to discriminate precisely between individuals, and the original English version of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale has been shown to contain a hierarchy of items. The purpose of this study was to analyse a Mandarin Chinese translation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale for a hierarchy of items according to the criteria of Mokken scaling. Data from 180...

  2. The Great Gatsby: A Contrastive Study of Its Two Chinese Versions

    OpenAIRE

    Jinxing Ma; Ning Wei

    2009-01-01

    This paper, based on theories of Contrastive Linguistics deals with the contrastive study concerning two Chinese versions of the Great Gatsby rendered respectively by Wu Ran, and Wu Ningkun et al from the following two perspectives: differences on lexicon and syntax. Through a systematic comparison and contrast, the writer suggests that we should apply contrastive studies of English and Chinese in our TEFL practice to enhance teaching efficiency.

  3. [Translation and cultural adaptation of a french version of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire: PIDAQ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngom, Papa Ibrahima; Attebi, Pascaline; Diouf, Joseph Samba; Diop Ba, Khady; Badiane, Alpha; Diagne, Falou

    2013-12-01

    The Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) is a tool developed and validated to specifically assess subject's quality of life related to orthodontic anomalies. The aims of the present study were to translate and culturally adapt the PIDAQ's native English version into French, and to test the psychometric characteristics of the version thereby obtained. Toward these ends, the PIDAQ's original English version was translated into French and back-translated into English following the prescribed guidelines. Each of the versions obtained from the translation process was further subjected to a committee review. The final French version which is named QIPEO underwent an analysis of psychometric properties on a sample of 42 subjects (33 females and 9 males, aged 24.60 ± 8.66 years). Internal consistency was good with Cronbach ff coefficients ranging from 0.67 for "aesthetic concerns" to 0.87 for "social impact". The reproducibility of the responses given by 14 subjects after 15 days interval was correct with intraclass coefficients ranging from 0.72 for "social impact" to 0.90 for "aesthetic concerns". Furthermore, the different subscales of the French version of the PIDAQ showed excellent correlation with the perception of aesthetics and fairly good correlation with self-perception of orthodontic treatment need. Definite need for orthodontic treatment, as assessed normatively by the IOTN, was significantly associated with lower scores of "self-confidence" and higher scores of "social impact", "psychological impact" and "aesthetic concerns". Overall, the French version of the PIDAQ was shown to be reliable and has some validity for use in this population. Further studies including a larger sample size is recommended to reassess the validation and the responsiveness of this French version. PMID:24280547

  4. Assessing a Self-Report Health Measure for Non-English-Speaking Elders: Issues in Using the SF-36 Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Cody, Michael; Silverstein, Merril; Chin, Soo-Young; Garcia, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Approved versions of the SF-36 Version 1.0 are used for limited-English-speaking individuals whose primary languages are Korean, Chinese, and Spanish to test the respective translations for use among immigrants to the United States. Method: Surveys are completed by an older adult and a nominated adult family caregiver (N = 132).…

  5. Magazines for English Language Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bill; Hofmann

    1999-01-01

    Dear American Professor, As an English learner, I always try to read as extensively as possible inEnglish. Among a sea of English books, newspapers and periodicals I havedeveloped a special liking for Reader’s Digest. It used to have its namesake in

  6. Symposium: What Is College English?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Lynn Z.; White, Edward M.; Enoch, Jessica; Hawk, Byron

    2013-01-01

    This symposium explores the role(s) College English has (or has not) had in the scholarly work of four scholars. Lynn Bloom explores the many ways College English influenced her work and the work of others throughout their scholarly lives. Edward M. White examines four articles he has published in College English and draws connections between…

  7. AMERICAN ENGLISH FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESSMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    COSTINETT, SANDRA; ROSS, GORDON

    DESIGNED FOR NON-ENGLISH SPEAKERS ON AN INTERMEDIATE-ADVANCED LEVEL OF ENGLISH, THIS TEXT PROVIDES FOR PRACTICE IN CONVERSATIONAL BUSINESS ENGLISH. EACH OF THE TWELVE UNITS IS BASED ON A SPECIFIC TOPIC--PHONE CALLS, TRAVEL ARRANGEMENTS, QUARTERLY REPORTS AND SALES, ORGANIZATION CHARTS, ORDERING, PLANT LAYOUT, INVESTMENTS, EMPLOYEE BENEFITS,…

  8. ASL? English? Which? Comparing Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagney, Peggy

    1987-01-01

    Comparisons of 91 deaf children's (ages 5-15) understanding of 25 sentences presented in American Sign Language (ASL), simplified English, and standard English showed no significant differences in the children's ability to comprehend the three different forms. Findings do not support proposals to substitute ASL or simplified English for standard…

  9. English Examination Questions in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the analysis of subject English in a report written for the Commonwealth government entitled "Year 12 Curriculum Content and Achievement Standards" (CCAS). This report could not find "a core of common content (either topics or skills) in senior English (including Literature)". In the light of the diversity of English courses…

  10. The Origin of English Allusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琴琴; 郭艳梅

    2011-01-01

    English allusion is regarded as the most active and important elements of English words.It is widely accepted by the people of English speaking countries and is widely used in people's daily life such as: newspaper,magazines,TV and radios and so on,becaus

  11. The Way I Learn English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玲

    2007-01-01

    <正>It is known to us that English is very important.However,how to learn it well is a problem for many English learners,including me.I have met many difficulties in learning English,but I always do my best to

  12. Techniques of English Textbooks Adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婧雯; 杨竞欧

    2014-01-01

    This essay attempts to aim English teachers to evaluate and adapt the current English textbooks.According to different levels and majors of the students,English teachers can enhance the teaching materials and their teaching skills.This paper would provide several useful techniques for teachers to make evaluations and adaptations of using teaching materials.

  13. English Language Teaching Profile: Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Uruguay discusses the role of English within Uruguayan society and within the educational system. Though English is quite widely used for reading scientific, technical and medical publications, and while it is considered important culturally in higher professions, it is not…

  14. Methods of Enlarging English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小航

    2012-01-01

      In order to enlarge English vocabulary , we need to have some methods. I’d like to share my experience with begin⁃ners how I enlarge English vocabulary when when I am learning English. It is a long process and needs hard work and patience.

  15. East Asian Culture via English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zoya; Proshina

    2000-01-01

    Today s English is evidently turningiuto the International English language,which implies that it has incorporated lan-guage and culture elements of various eth-nic groups and has become a language forintercultural communication.ThroughEnglish,people of various cultures come toknow other natious hotter.It is a notablefact that there arc million times as many

  16. Reliability and construct validity of the Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edimansyah, B A; Rusli, B N; Naing, L; Mazalisah, M

    2006-03-01

    The JCQ has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess job stress in many occupational settings worldwide. In Malaysia, both the English and validated Malay versions have been employed in studies of medical professionals and laboratory technicians, respectively. The present study assessed the reliability and construct validity of the Malay version of the JCQ among automotive workers in Malaysia. Fifty workers of a major automotive manufacturer in Kota Bharu, Kelantan consented to participate in the study and were administered the Malay version of the JCQ. Translation (English-Malay) and back translation (Malay-English) of the JCQ was made to ensure the face validity of the questionnaire. Reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, whilst construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis (principal component with varimax rotation). The results indicate that the Cronbach's alpha coefficients were acceptable for decision latitude (job control or decision authority) (0.74) and social support (0.79); however, it was slightly lower for psychological job demand (0.61). Exploratory factor analysis showed 3 meaningful common factors that could explain the 3 theoretical dimensions or constructs of Karasek's demand-control-social support model. In conclusion, the results of the validation study suggested that the JCQ scales are reliable and valid for assessing job stress in a population working in the automotive industry. Further analyses are necessary to evaluate the stability and concurrent validity of the JCQ.

  17. Translation Norms in Gabriel García Márquez's Cien años de soledad Translations into English, German, French, Portuguese, and Russian Normas de traducción en las versiones inglesa, alemana, francesa, portuguesa y rusa de Cien años de soledad de Gabriel García Márquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bolaños Cuéllar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I have attempted to review the general translation norms that were applied in the translations of Cien años de soledad into English, German, French, Portuguese, and Russian. First I have discussed the concept of norms from a socio-cultural perspective in order to propose a definition of translation norms that could be used as a guiding concept in the analysis of the different translated texts. The discussion takes place within the framework of modern empirical Translation Studies that is based on the actual textual comparison of original and translations. Finally, some conclusions are drawn accordinglyEn este artículo propongo revisar las normas generales de traducción que se emplearon en las traducciones inglesa, alemana, francesa, portuguesa y rusa de Cien años de soledad. En primer lugar, discuto la noción de normas desde un enfoque socio-cultural con el fin de proponer una definición de normas de traducción que pueda servir de concepto central en el análisis de las diversas traducciones. La discusión se lleva a cabo en el marco de los Estudios de la Traducción Modernos, con carácter empírico, que se basan en la comparación textual del original y las traducciones. Por último, se presentan las conclusiones respectivas

  18. On Anaphors : A Note on Representational Differences between Reflexives and Reciprocals in English

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Shin

    1989-01-01

    0. Insroduction In this paper, we are mainly concerned with distributional differences between reflexives and reciprocals in English. The binding theory proposed in Chomsky (1981) and other various versions of the theory predict that these two types of anaphors have the identical distributions. ...

  19. Review of Developments in Research into English as a Lingua Franca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Cogo, Alessia; Dewey, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We begin by considering how the recent phenomenon of English as a Lingua Franca (henceforth ELF) fits in with the older notion of lingua francas in general as well as with older versions of ELF. We then explore the beginnings of ELF in its modern manifestation, including the earliest ELF research, and tackle the thorny issue of defining ELF. After…

  20. Measuring foreign accent strength in English: Validating Levenshtein Distance as a Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wieling; J. Bloem; K. Mignella; M. Timmermeister; J. Nerbonne

    2014-01-01

    With an eye toward measuring the strength of foreign accents in American English, we evaluate the suitability of a modified version of the Levenshtein distance for comparing (the phonetic transcriptions of) accented pronunciations. Although this measure has been used successfully inter alia to study