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Sample records for broccoli sprout extract

  1. Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hae Won; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2015-02-04

    Samples prepared from fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) sprouts by water distillation or freeze-drying were examined for antioxidant activity using three assays. All samples exhibited dose-dependent antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity ranged from 74.48 ± 0.46% (less volatile sample) to 93.2 ± 0.2% (dichloromethane extract sample) at the level of 500 μg/mL. Both dichloromethane extract samples from a water distillate of broccoli sprouts and freeze-dried broccoli sprouts showed potent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to that of BHT. Among the 43 compounds positively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 5-methylthiopentylnitrile (31.64 μg/g) was found in the greatest concentration, followed by 4-methylthiobutylisothiocyanate (14.55 μg/g), 4-methylthiobutylnitrile (10.63 μg/g), 3-methylthiopropylisothiocyanate (3.00 μg/g), and 4-methylpentylisothiocyanate (2.48 μg/g). These isothiocyanates are known to possess antioxidant properties. Possible phenolic antioxidants found are 4-(1-methylpropyl)phenol (0.012 μg/g), 4-methylphenol (0.159 μg/g), and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (0.009 μg/g). The present study demonstrates that broccoli sprouts are a good source of natural antioxidants.

  2. Protection against UV-light-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 high-risk mice by sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout extracts.

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    Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Jenkins, Stephanie N; Fahey, Jed W; Ye, Lingxiang; Wehage, Scott L; Liby, Karen T; Stephenson, Katherine K; Wade, Kristina L; Talalay, Paul

    2006-08-28

    Aerobic life, UV solar radiation, genetic susceptibility, and immune status contribute collectively to the development of human skin cancers. In addition to direct DNA damage, UV radiation promotes the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates that can cause oxidative damage and inflammation, and ultimately lead to tumor formation. Treatment of murine and human keratinocytes with the isothiocyanate sulforaphane elevated phase 2 enzymes and glutathione and protected against oxidant toxicity. Topical application of sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprouts extracts induced the phase 2 response in mouse skin in vivo. Sulforaphane inhibited cytokine-dependent (gamma-interferon or lipopolysaccharide) induction of iNOS in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The UV-radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in "initiated high-risk mice" was substantially inhibited by broccoli sprout extracts containing sulforaphane. After completion of the UV irradiation schedule (30 mJ/cm(2)/session twice a week for 20 weeks), groups of approximately 30 mice were treated topically on their backs (5 days a week for 11 weeks) with broccoli sprout extract containing either the equivalent to 0.3 micromol (low dose) or 1.0 micromol (high dose) sulforaphane, respectively. At this time point, the tumor incidence had reached 100% in the control mice. Tumor burden, incidence, and multiplicity were reduced by 50% in the animals that received the high dose of protector. Tumor incidence and multiplicity did not differ between the low dose-treated and the control groups, but the low dose treatment resulted in a substantial reduction of the overall tumor burden. Thus, topical application of sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout extracts is a promising strategy for protecting against skin tumor formation after exposure to UV radiation.

  3. Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica) sprouts and extracts rich in glucosinolates and isothiocyanates affect cholesterol metabolism and genes involved in lipid homeostasis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cantú, Laura N; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Arriola-Vucovich, Jennifer; Díaz-De La Garza, Rocio I; Fahey, Jed W; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2011-02-23

    This study investigated the effects of broccoli sprouts (BS) on sterol and lipid homeostasis in Syrian hamsters with dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. Treatments included freeze-dried BS containing 2 or 20 μmol of glucoraphanine (BSX, BS10X), glucoraphanine-rich BS extract (GRE), sulforaphane-rich BS extract (SFE), and simvastatin. Each experimental diet was offered to eight animals (male and female) for 7 weeks. Hepatic cholesterol was reduced by BS10X and SFE treatments in all animals. This correlated with a down-regulation of gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP-1 and -2) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) caused by GRE and SFE diets. BS10X caused changes in gene expression in a gender-specific manner; additionally, it increased coprostanol excretion in females. With the same concentration of glucoraphanin, consumption of broccoli sprouts (BS10X) had more marked effects on cholesterol homeostasis than GRE; this finding reinforces the importance of the matrix effects on the bioactivity of functional ingredients.

  4. Antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts subjected to gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Joanna; Olejnik, Anna; Olkowicz, Mariola; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Juzwa, Wojciech; Myszka, Kamila; Dembczyński, Radosław; Moyer, Mary Pat; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2015-07-01

    Broccoli is a common vegetable recognized as a rich source of antioxidants. To date, research on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, predominantly conducted on extracts, has not considered the lesions of composition and this activity after gastrointestinal digestion. Here the stability of antioxidants during gastrointestinal digestion was evaluated in conjunction with the protective effects of broccoli sprouts (BS) against oxidative stress in human colon cells. The obtained data suggest that, among the biocompounds identified in BS, glucosinolates were mainly degraded under gastrointestinal digestion, while phenolics, particularly hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, were the most resistant constituents. The antioxidant capacity of BS extract subjected to gastrointestinal digestion was similar to or higher than that determined for non-digested BS. Gastrointestinal digested BS extract exhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inhibitory capacity in NCM460 human colon cells, with 1 mg mL(-1) showing an ROS clearance of 76.59%. A 57.33% reduction in oxidative DNA damage in NCM460 cells due to treatment with digested BS extract was observed. The results lend support to the possible application of BS as a rich source of antioxidants to improve the defensive system against oxidative stress in the human colon mucosa. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

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    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Sęczyk, Łukasz; Złotek, Urszula; Różyło, Renata; Kaszuba, Kinga; Ryszawy, Damian; Czyż, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS) in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities); however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS) was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25050366

  6. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

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    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities; however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention.

  7. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts

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    Fahey Jed W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increased interest in consuming green vegetable sprouts has been tempered by the fact that fresh sprouts can in some cases be vehicles for food-borne illnesses. They must be grown according to proper conditions of sanitation and handled as a food product rather than as an agricultural commodity. When sprouts are grown in accordance with the criteria proposed from within the sprout industry, developed by regulatory agencies, and adhered to by many sprouters, green sprouts can be produced with very low risk. Contamination may occur when these guidelines are not followed. Methods A one year program of microbial hold-and-release testing, conducted in concert with strict seed and facility cleaning procedures by 13 U.S. broccoli sprout growers was evaluated. Microbial contamination tests were performed on 6839 drums of sprouts, equivalent to about 5 million consumer packages of fresh green sprouts. Results Only 24 (0.75% of the 3191 sprout samples gave an initial positive test for Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp., and when re-tested, 3 drums again tested positive. Composite testing (e.g., pooling up to 7 drums for pathogen testing was equally sensitive to single drum testing. Conclusion By using a "test-and-re-test" protocol, growers were able to minimize crop destruction. By pooling drums for testing, they were also able to reduce testing costs which now represent a substantial portion of the costs associated with sprout growing. The test-and-hold scheme described herein allowed those few batches of contaminated sprouts to be found prior to packaging and shipping. These events were isolated, and only safe sprouts entered the food supply.

  8. Randomized, split-body, single-blinded clinical trial of topical broccoli sprout extract: Assessing the feasibility of its use in keratin-based disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Michelle L.; Guss, Lark; Fahey, Jed; Cohen, Bernard; Hakim, Jill M. C.; Sung, Sarah; Lu, Rosemary G.; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Epidermolysis bullosa simplex is a skin-blistering disorder caused by mutations in keratin (K)14 or K5. Treatment with nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 inducer sulforaphane ameliorated skin blistering in Krt14-null mice, correlating with induction of K17. To be therapeutically useful for epidermolysis bullosa simplex, topical broccoli sprout extract (BSE), enriched for sulforaphane, would ideally induce the expression of homologous keratins (eg, K6, K17, K16) in the basal layer of human epidermis without impacting expression of defective keratins (K5/K14). Objective The purpose of this 1-week, randomized, split-body, single-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to assess the impact of BSE on keratin expression. Methods Five subjects (34–71 years old) applied BSE (500 nmol of sulforaphane/mL) or vehicle alone to the inner aspect of the arm daily. Expression of keratin, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, and other markers was assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and indirect immunofluorescence. Results One subject (age 71 years) was excluded a posteriori because of poor tissue quality. Topical BSE activated nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 and up-regulated K17 in the epidermis of all subjects, had variable effects on K16 and K6 expression, and did not alter expression of K14 or K5. Limitations Small sample size is a limitation. Conclusion BSE represents an attractive therapeutic candidate for K14-associated epidermolysis bullosa simplex. PMID:27889290

  9. Broccoli sprouts: An exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens

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    Fahey, Jed W.; Zhang, Yuesheng; Talalay, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Induction of phase 2 detoxication enzymes [e.g., glutathione transferases, epoxide hydrolase, NAD(P)H: quinone reductase, and glucuronosyltransferases] is a powerful strategy for achieving protection against carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and other forms of toxicity of electrophiles and reactive forms of oxygen. Since consumption of large quantities of fruit and vegetables is associated with a striking reduction in the risk of developing a variety of malignancies, it is of interest that a number of edible plants contain substantial quantities of compounds that regulate mammalian enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism. Thus, edible plants belonging to the family Cruciferae and genus Brassica (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) contain substantial quantities of isothiocyanates (mostly in the form of their glucosinolate precursors) some of which (e.g., sulforaphane or 4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate) are very potent inducers of phase 2 enzymes. Unexpectedly, 3-day-old sprouts of cultivars of certain crucifers including broccoli and cauliflower contain 10–100 times higher levels of glucoraphanin (the glucosinolate of sulforaphane) than do the corresponding mature plants. Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates can be efficiently extracted from plants, without hydrolysis of glucosinolates by myrosinase, by homogenization in a mixture of equal volumes of dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and acetonitrile at −50°C. Extracts of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts (containing either glucoraphanin or sulforaphane as the principal enzyme inducer) were highly effective in reducing the incidence, multiplicity, and rate of development of mammary tumors in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated rats. Notably, sprouts of many broccoli cultivars contain negligible quantities of indole glucosinolates, which predominate in the mature vegetable and may give rise to degradation products (e.g., indole-3-carbinol) that can enhance tumorigenesis. Hence, small quantities of crucifer sprouts may protect

  10. A phase II study of sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extracts in men with recurrent prostate cancer.

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    Alumkal, Joshi J; Slottke, Rachel; Schwartzman, Jacob; Cherala, Ganesh; Munar, Myrna; Graff, Julie N; Beer, Tomasz M; Ryan, Christopher W; Koop, Dennis R; Gibbs, Angela; Gao, Lina; Flamiatos, Jason F; Tucker, Erin; Kleinschmidt, Richard; Mori, Motomi

    2015-04-01

    Diets high in cruciferous vegetables are associated with lower risk of incidence of prostate cancer, including aggressive forms of this disease. Human intervention studies with cruciferous vegetable-rich diets also demonstrate modulation of gene expression in important pathways in prostate cells. Sulforaphane is a constituent of these foods postulated to harbor the anti-neoplastic activity based on multiple tumor models. Our own work demonstrates that sulforaphane inhibits AR signaling in prostate cancer cells. Here, we report results from the first clinical trial of sulforaphane-rich extracts in men with prostate cancer. We treated 20 patients who had recurrent prostate cancer with 200 μmoles/day of sulforaphane-rich extracts for a maximum period of 20 weeks and determined the proportion of patients with ≥50% PSA declines, the primary endpoint. Only one subject experienced a ≥50% PSA decline. Thus, the primary endpoint was not achieved. Seven patients experienced smaller PSA declines (sulforaphane-rich extracts was safe with no Grade 3 adverse events. Treatment with 200 μmoles/day of sulforaphane-rich extracts did not lead to ≥50% PSA declines in the majority of patients. However, because of the safety of treatment and the effects on PSADT modulation, further studies, including those with higher doses, may be warranted to clarify the role of sulforaphane as a prevention agent or treatment agent.

  11. Kinetics of Sulforaphane in Mice after Consumption of Sulforaphane-Enriched Broccoli Sprout Preparation

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    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaoqin; Zou, Peng; Schwartz, Steven J.; Sun, Duxin

    2013-01-01

    Scope Sulforaphane is a natural isothiocyanate in broccoli sprouts with cancer chemopreventive activity. This study is aimed to to use different methods to develop broccoli sprout preparations to compare their ability to deliver sulforaphane to the mice and to evaluate the kinetics and biodistribution of sulforaphane. Methods and Results The sulforaphane-enriched sprout preparation generated by two-step procedure (quick-steaming followed by myrosinase treatment) contained the highest level of sulforaphane, which was 11 and 5 times higher than the freeze-dried fresh broccoli sprouts and the quick-steamed, freeze-dried broccoli sprouts, respectively. After oral administration of 2.5 mg/g body weight of the broccoli sprout preparations, sulforaphane was quickly absorbed and distributed throughout the tissues. The sulforaphane-rich preparation resulted in the highest exposure, with peak plasma sulforaphane concentration of 337 ng/ml, which is 6.0 times and 2.6 times higher compared to the other two preparations. A whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model (developed with ADAPT 5 software) suggests that distribution of sulforaphane is perfusion-limited in all organs. Conclusion This study provides a broccoli sprout preparation that can serve as a good source of sulforaphane, and the model can be utilized to guide the dose design for the use of broccoli sprout preparation in chemoprevention. PMID:23929742

  12. Kinetics of sulforaphane in mice after consumption of sulforaphane-enriched broccoli sprout preparation.

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    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaoqin; Zou, Peng; Schwartz, Steven J; Sun, Duxin

    2013-12-01

    Sulforaphane (SF) is a natural isothiocyanate in broccoli sprouts with cancer chemopreventive activity. This study is aimed to use different methods to develop broccoli sprout preparations to compare their ability to deliver SF to the mice and to evaluate the kinetics and biodistribution of SF. The SF-enriched sprout preparation generated by two-step procedure (quick-steaming followed by myrosinase treatment) contained the highest level of SF, which was 11 and 5 times higher than the freeze-dried fresh broccoli sprouts and the quick-steamed, freeze-dried broccoli sprouts, respectively. After oral administration of 2.5 mg/g body weight of the broccoli sprout preparations, SF was quickly absorbed and distributed throughout the tissues. The SF-rich preparation resulted in the highest exposure, with peak plasma SF concentration of 337 ng/mL, which is 6.0 times and 2.6 times higher compared to the other two preparations. A whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (developed with ADAPT 5 software) suggests that distribution of SF is perfusion-limited in all organs. This study provides a broccoli sprout preparation that can serve as a good source of SF, and the model can be utilized to guide the dose designed for the use of broccoli sprout preparation in chemoprevention. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Dietary Intake of Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli Sprout Extracts during Juvenile and Adolescence Can Prevent Phencyclidine-Induced Cognitive Deficits at Adulthood.

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    Yumi Shirai

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in cognitive impairment, which is a core symptom of schizophrenia. Furthermore, a hallmark of the pathophysiology of this disease is the dysfunction of cortical inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV, which is also involved in cognitive impairment. Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent activator of the transcription factor Nrf2, which plays a central role in the inducible expressions of many cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. Keap1 is a cytoplasmic protein that is essential for the regulation of Nrf2 activity. Here, we found that pretreatment with SFN attenuated cognitive deficits, the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells, and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after repeated administration of phencyclidine (PCP. Furthermore, PCP-induced cognitive deficits were improved by the subsequent subchronic administration of SFN. Interestingly, the dietary intake of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate precursor of SFN during the juvenile and adolescence prevented the onset of PCP-induced cognitive deficits as well as the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the brain at adulthood. Moreover, the NRF2 gene and the KEAP1 gene had an epistatic effect on cognitive impairment (e.g., working memory and processing speed in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that SFN may have prophylactic and therapeutic effects on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Therefore, the dietary intake of SFN-rich broccoli sprouts during the juvenile and adolescence may prevent the onset of psychosis at adulthood.

  14. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts*

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    Guo, Rong-fang; Yuan, Gao-feng; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2013-01-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts, the germination rate, fresh weight, contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment. The results showed that glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl. However, the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mmol/L). NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity. A relatively high level of NaCl treatment (100 mmol/L) significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control. These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition. PMID:23365011

  15. The effect of the germination temperature on the phytochemical content of broccoli and rocket sprouts.

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    Ragusa, Lucia; Picchi, Valentina; Tribulato, Alessandro; Cavallaro, Chiara; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Branca, Ferdinando

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the effect of different germination temperatures (10, 20 and 30 °C) on the phytochemical content as well as reducing and antioxidant capacity of broccoli and rocket sprouts. In both seeds and sprouts, the total glucosinolates and ascorbic acid contents did not differ between vegetables, while broccoli exhibited exceptionally higher polyphenols and greater reducing and antioxidant capacity compared to rocket. In both species, an increase in germination temperature positively affected the glucosinolate content. Ascorbic acid increased during germination without a difference among the three tested temperatures. The phenol content in broccoli sprouts increased when they were grown at 30 °C, but the amount decreased at the highest temperatures in rocket. The reducing and antioxidant capacities increased with germination, and higher indexes were detected at 10 °C, particularly in rocket. Different germination temperatures differentiate the health-promoting phytochemical content and antioxidant properties in broccoli and rocket sprouts.

  16. Sulforaphane, a Dietary Component of Broccoli/Broccoli Sprouts, Inhibits Breast Cancer Stem Cells

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    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao; Korkaya, Hasan; Liu, Suling; Lee, Hsiu-Fang; Newman, Bryan; Yu, Yanke; Clouthier, Shawn G.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Wicha, Max S.; Sun, Duxin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in breast cancer has profound implications for cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated sulforaphane, a natural compound derived from broccoli/broccoli sprouts, for its efficacy to inhibit breast CSCs and its potential mechanism. Experimental Design Aldefluor assay and mammosphere formation assay were used to evaluate the effect of sulforaphane on breast CSCs in vitro. A NOD/SCID xenograft model was employed to determine whether sulforaphane could target breast CSCs in vivo, as assessed by Aldefluor assay and tumor growth upon cell re-implantation in secondary mice. The potential mechanism was investigated utilizing Western blotting analysis and β-catenin reporter assay. Results Sulforaphane (1~5 μM) decreased aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive cell population by 65%~80% in human breast cancer cells (P sulforaphane for two weeks reduced ALDH-positive cells by more than 50% in NOD/SCID xenograft tumors (P = 0.003). Sulforaphane eliminated breast CSCs in vivo, thereby abrogating tumor growth after re-implantation of primary tumor cells into the secondary mice (P sulforaphane down-regulated Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway. Conclusions Sulforaphane inhibits breast CSCs and down-regulates Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway. These findings support the use of sulforaphane for chemoprevention of breast cancer stem cells and warrant further clinical evaluation. PMID:20388854

  17. Mutations in cauliflower and sprout broccoli grown from seeds flown in space

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    Wu, Hong; Huang, Congli; Zhang, Keping; Sun, Yeqing

    2010-11-01

    Cauliflower and sprout broccoli are widely planted vegetables particularly in Fujian Province, China. To study the mutation in these two types of vegetables induced from spaceflight, we flew the seeds on the 20th Chinese recoverable satellite which orbited the Earth for 18 days. After returning to the Earth, the cauliflower seeds were planted for two generations and the sprout broccoli seeds for one generation at the Xiamen Agriculture Research Institute. Of the 12 cauliflowers planted for the first generation, two showed significant phenotypical changes in both the size of the plant and the weight of the flower head. In addition, most of the space flown plants were found to be resistant to the black rot attack in the field. Cauliflowers planted for the second generation from the seeds in one of the two plants that displayed phenotypical changes in the first generation showed similar mutations. For the first generation of sprout broccoli, the rate of emergence from the flown seeds was lower than that of the control by 30%. No significant changes in the phenotype between the sprout broccolis planted from the flown seeds and the control were observed except one of the mutated sprout broccolis showed a change in the appearance in the lesser bud of the chief flower head. Results of the study demonstrated that DNA damages in some of the genes may have occurred in the seeds flown in space, and some of the changes in the genes may have inherited from the first to the second generation. The improved resistance to the black rot attack and increased size of the flower head are apparently beneficial.

  18. Proteomic analysis of broccoli sprouts by iTRAQ in response to jasmonic acid.

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    Guo, Liping; Wang, Pei; Gu, Zhenxin; Jin, Xiaolin; Yang, Runqiang

    2017-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is well known as a linolenic acid-derived signal molecule related to the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. JA can regulate various plant metabolisms, such as glucosinolate metabolism. In this study, the proteome profiles of broccoli sprouts under JA treatment were analyzed using the iTRAQ-based quantitative proteome approach. A total of 122 differentially expressed proteins participating in a wide range of physiological processes were confidently identified in broccoli sprouts treated with JA. Functional classification analysis showed that photosynthesis and protein synthesis were inhibited by JA treatment, thereby inhibiting sprout growth, while proteins related to carbohydrate catabolism and amino acid metabolism showed an increased expression. Additionally, proteins involved in defense and secondary metabolism were also up-regulated. Proteins related to glucosinolate biosynthesis and degradation were mediated by JA, leading to the accumulation of glucosinolates and sulforaphane. These results indicate that JA stimulated a defense response at the proteome level by redirecting metabolism of growth and physiology in broccoli sprouts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. italica) as conditioned by sulphate supply during germination.

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    Pérez-Balibrea, Santiago; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Sulphur (S) fertilization is essential for primary and secondary metabolism in cruciferous foods. Deficient, suboptimal, or excessive S affects the growth and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in adult plants. Nevertheless, there is little information regarding the influence of S fertilization on sprouts and seedlings. An experiment was set up to evaluate the effect of S fertilization, supplied as K(2)SO(4) at 0, 15, 30, and 60 mg/L, on the glucosinolate content of broccoli sprouts during the germination course of 3, 6, 9, and 12 d after sowing. Glucosinolate concentration was strongly influenced by germination, causing a rapid increase during the first 3 d after sowing, and decreasing afterwards. The S supply increased aliphatic and total glucosinolate content at the end of the monitored sprouting period. S-treated sprouts, with S(15), S(30), and S(60) at 9 and 12 d after sowing presented enhanced glucosinolate content. Overall, both germination time and S fertilization were key factors in maximizing the bioactive health-promoting phytochemicals of broccoli. Practical Application: Germination with sulphate is a simple and inexpensive way to obtain sprouts that contain much higher levels of glucosinolates (health promoting compounds), than the corresponding florets from the same seeds.

  20. Increasing Antioxidant Content of Broccoli Sprouts Using Essential Oils During Cold Storage

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    El-Awady Aml A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli sprouts are natural functional foods for cancer prevention because of their high content of glucosinolate and antioxidant. Sprouts and mature broccoli are of potential importance in devising chemoprotective strategies in humans. The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of essential oils on broccoli seed germination, increase their antioxidant content and determine the glucosinolate concentration and other phytochemical parameters in 3-day-old sprouts during cold storage at 4°C and 95% RH for 15 days. The results showed that all treatments of essential oils increased germination index, seed germination percentage, seedling length, seedling vigour index, yield and the antioxidant content of broccoli sprout and reduced the microbial load compared to the control. Fortunately, the coliform bacteria was not detected in all treatments. Different essential oils of fennel, caraway, basil, thyme and sage were tested. The thyme oil was the best treatment, which increased the accumulation of the phenolic compounds and glucosinolate compared to the control at different storage periods. In the sprouts treated with thyme oil treatment and the control, at the end of cold storage, 1.98% and 28.06% of total phenolic content, 1.90% and 20.28% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 1.39% and 58.33% of flavonoids, 1.93% and 36.25% of vitamin C, 2.95% and 22.02% of anthocyanin and 2.18% and 49.12% of glucosinolate were lost, respectively. A slight reduction differences in all detected compound concentrations occurred between the initial content and the end of storage period because of the application of thyme oil compared to the control. Therefore, the total glucosinolate level in the sprout (27.02 μg/g F.W. was higher than that in the florets (7.37 μg/g F.W.. Glucoraphanin was the most abundant aliphatic glucosinolate present in the sprout and reached the highest value (16.24 μg/g F.W. followed by glucoerucin (5

  1. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts

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    Mariateresa Maldini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird’s-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle. We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant’s developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the

  2. RNA-seq analysis of transcriptome and glucosinolate metabolism in seeds and sprouts of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinjun; Yu, Xinxin; Ma, Fengming; Li, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), a member of Cruciferae, is an important vegetable containing high concentration of various nutritive and functional molecules especially the anticarcinogenic glucosinolates. The sprouts of broccoli contain 10-100 times higher level of glucoraphanin, the main contributor of the anticarcinogenesis, than the edible florets. Despite the broccoli sprouts' functional importance, currently available genetic and genomic tools for their studies are very limited, which greatly restricts the development of this functionally important vegetable. A total of ∼85 million 251 bp reads were obtained. After de novo assembly and searching the assembled transcripts against the Arabidopsis thaliana and NCBI nr databases, 19,441 top-hit transcripts were clustered as unigenes with an average length of 2,133 bp. These unigenes were classified according to their putative functional categories. Cluster analysis of total unigenes with similar expression patterns and differentially expressed unigenes among different tissues, as well as transcription factor analysis were performed. We identified 25 putative glucosinolate metabolism genes sharing 62.04-89.72% nucleotide sequence identity with the Arabidopsis orthologs. This established a broccoli glucosinolate metabolic pathway with high colinearity to Arabidopsis. Many of the biosynthetic and degradation genes showed higher expression after germination than in seeds; especially the expression of the myrosinase TGG2 was 20-130 times higher. These results along with the previous reports about these genes' studies in Arabidopsis and the glucosinolate concentration in broccoli sprouts indicate the breakdown products of glucosinolates may play important roles in the stage of broccoli seed germination and sprout development. Our study provides the largest genetic resource of broccoli to date. These data will pave the way for further studies and genetic engineering of broccoli sprouts and will also provide

  3. Effect of Se treatment on glucosinolate metabolism and health-promoting compounds in the broccoli sprouts of three cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ming; Xu, Xiaoyun; Liu, Yanlong; Xie, Lin; Pan, Siyi

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli sprouts are natural functional foods for cancer prevention because of their high glucosinolate (GSL) content and high selenium (Se) accumulation capacity. The regulation mechanism of Se on GSL metabolism in broccoli sprouts was explored. In particular, the effects of Se treatment (100 μmol/L selenite and selenate) on the Se, sulfur (S), glucosinolate and sulforaphane contents; myrosinase activity and health-promoting compounds (ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, total phenolics and flavonoids) of three, 5 day old, cultivars were investigated. The treatment did not influence the total GSL and ascorbic acid contents; significantly increased the myrosinase activity and sulforaphane, anthocyanin and flavonoids contents; and decreased the total phenolics content. The increase in sulforaphane during early growth can be primarily attributed to the increased myrosinase activity caused by Se treatment. Broccoli sprouts with suitable selenite and selenate concentrations, in the early growth days, could be desirable for improved human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. HPLC Separation of Sulforaphane Enantiomers in Broccoli and Its Sprouts by Transformation into Diastereoisomers Using Derivatization with (S)-Leucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Makiko; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Aizawa, Sen-Ichi; Taga, Atsushi; Terashima, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Shuji

    2017-01-11

    Racemic sulforaphane, which was derivatized with (S)-leucine (l-leucine), was resolved by reversed phase HPLC with UV detection. The optimum mobile phase conditions were found to be 10 mM citric acid (pH 2.8) containing 22% methanol at 35 °C using detection at 254 nm. Sulforaphane enantiomers in florets and stems of five brands of broccoli and leaves and stems of three brands of broccoli sprouts were analyzed by the proposed HPLC method. Both sulforaphane enantiomers were detected in all of the samples. The S/R ratios of sulforaphane in broccoli samples were 1.5-2.6/97.4-98.5% for florets and 5.0-12.1/87.9-95.0% for stems. The S/R ratios in broccoli sprout samples were higher than those in broccoli samples and were found to be 8.3-19.7/80.3-91.7% for leaves and 37.0-41.8/58.2-63.0% for stems. (S)-Sulforaphane detected in the broccoli and its sprout samples was positively identified by separately using an HPLC with a chiral column (Chiralpak AD-RH) and mass spectrometry.

  5. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1–42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE. PMID:27429807

  6. Assessing the anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates in Se-biofortified broccoli (brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts and florets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se ...

  7. Assessment of the anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates in Se-biofortified broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts and florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Fabricio William; Faquin, Valdemar; Yang, Yong; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2013-07-03

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts increased concomitantly with increasing Se doses. Selenate was superior to selenite in inducing total Se accumulation, but selenite is equally effective as selenate in promoting SeMSCys synthesis in sprouts. Increasing sulfur doses reduced total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts treated with selenate, but not in those with selenite. Examination of five broccoli cultivars reveals that sprouts generally have better fractional ability than florets to convert inorganic Se into SeMSCys. Distinctive glucosinolate profiles between sprouts and florets were observed, and sprouts contained approximately 6-fold more glucoraphanin than florets. In contrast to florets, glucosinolate content was not affected by Se treatment in sprouts. Thus, Se-enriched broccoli sprouts are excellent for simultaneous accumulation of chemopreventive compounds SeMSCys and glucoraphanin.

  8. Rapid and sustainable detoxication of airborne pollutants by broccoli sprout beverage: results of a randomized clinical trial in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Patricia A; Chen, Jian-Guo; Zarth, Adam T; Ng, Derek K; Wang, Jin-Bing; Kensler, Kevin H; Jacobson, Lisa P; Muñoz, Alvaro; Johnson, Jamie L; Groopman, John D; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tao-Yang; Qian, Geng-Sun; Carmella, Steven G; Hecht, Stephen S; Kensler, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    Broccoli sprouts are a convenient and rich source of the glucosinolate, glucoraphanin, which can generate the chemopreventive agent, sulforaphane, an inducer of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and other cytoprotective enzymes. A broccoli sprout-derived beverage providing daily doses of 600 μmol glucoraphanin and 40 μmol sulforaphane was evaluated for magnitude and duration of pharmacodynamic action in a 12-week randomized clinical trial. Two hundred and ninety-one study participants were recruited from the rural He-He Township, Qidong, in the Yangtze River delta region of China, an area characterized by exposures to substantial levels of airborne pollutants. Exposure to air pollution has been associated with lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases. Urinary excretion of the mercapturic acids of the pollutants, benzene, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde, were measured before and during the intervention using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid and sustained, statistically significant (P ≤ 0.01) increases in the levels of excretion of the glutathione-derived conjugates of benzene (61%), acrolein (23%), but not crotonaldehyde, were found in those receiving broccoli sprout beverage compared with placebo. Excretion of the benzene-derived mercapturic acid was higher in participants who were GSTT1-positive than in the null genotype, irrespective of study arm assignment. Measures of sulforaphane metabolites in urine indicated that bioavailability did not decline over the 12-week daily dosing period. Thus, intervention with broccoli sprouts enhances the detoxication of some airborne pollutants and may provide a frugal means to attenuate their associated long-term health risks. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Thermally induced degradation of sulfur-containing aliphatic glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschen, Franziska S; Platz, Stefanie; Mewis, Inga; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Kroh, Lothar W

    2012-03-07

    Processing reduces the glucosinolate (GSL) content of plant food, among other aspects due to thermally induced degradation. Since there is little information about the thermal stability of GSL and formation of corresponding breakdown products, the thermally induced degradation of sulfur-containing aliphatic GSL was studied in broccoli sprouts and with isolated GSL in dry medium at different temperatures as well as in aqueous medium at different pH values. Desulfo-GSL have been analyzed with HPLC-DAD, while breakdown products were estimated using GC-FID. Whereas in the broccoli sprouts structural differences of the GSL with regard to thermal stability exist, the various isolated sulfur-containing aliphatic GSL degraded nearly equally and were in general more stable. In broccoli sprouts, methylsulfanylalkyl GSL were more susceptible to degradation at high temperatures, whereas methylsulfinylalkyl GSL were revealed to be more affected in aqueous medium under alkaline conditions. Besides small amounts of isothiocyanates, the main thermally induced breakdown products of sulfur-containing aliphatic GSL were nitriles. Although they were most rapidly formed at comparatively high temperatures under dry heat conditions, their highest concentrations were found after cooking in acidic medium, conditions being typical for domestic processing.

  10. Potential of cultivar and crop management to affect phytochemical content in winter-grown sprouting broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kim; Valverde, Juan; Finn, Leo; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel; Sorensen, Jens C; Sorensen, Hilmer; Gaffney, Michael

    2014-01-30

    Variety and crop management strategies affect the content of bioactive compounds (phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates) in green broccoli (calabrese) types, which are cultivated during summer and autumn in temperate European climates. Sprouting broccoli types are morphologically distinct and are grown over the winter season and harvested until early spring. Thus they show considerable potential for development as an import substitution crop for growers and consumers during the 'hungry gap' of early spring. The present study investigated the effect of variety and management practices on phytochemical content in a range of sprouting broccoli varieties. Yields were significantly higher in white sprouting broccoli varieties. Levels of phenolics and flavonoids were in the range 81.64-297.65 and 16.95-104.80 mg 100 g⁻¹ fresh weight, respectively, depending on year and cultivar, and were highest in variety 'TZ 5052' in both years. In-row spacing did not affect flavonoid content. Phenolic and flavonoid content generally increased with increasing floret maturity and levels were high in edible portions of the crop. Crop wastes (leaf and flower) contained 145.9-239.3 and 21.5-116.6 mg 100 g⁻¹ fresh weight total phenolics and flavonoids, respectively, depending on cultivar, tissue and year. Climatic factors had a significant effect on phenolic and flavonoid content. Levels of total and some individual glucosinolates were higher in sprouting broccoli than in the green broccoli variety 'Ironman'. Levels of total phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates are higher in sprouting than green broccoli types. Sprouting broccoli represents an excellent source of dietary bioactive compounds. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  12. Antioxidant effects of broccoli powder extract in goat meat nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rituparna; Verma, Arun K; Das, Arun K; Rajkumar, V; Shewalkar, A A; Narkhede, H P

    2012-06-01

    The antioxidant potential of broccoli powder extract (BPE) was determined and evaluated in goat meat nuggets at three different levels 1, 1.5 and 2%, compared with control and butylated hydroxyl toluene (100ppm BHT). Total phenolics in 5mg broccoli powder was higher (Ppower of 10mg broccoli powder was comparable to the 100ppm BHT. Incorporation of 1.5 and 2% BPE decreased (Pgoat meat nuggets without affecting product acceptability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phase 1 Study of a Sulforaphane-Containing Broccoli Sprout Homogenate for Sickle Cell Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer F Doss

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is the most common inherited hemoglobinopathy worldwide. Our previous results indicate that the reduced oxidative stress capacity of sickle erythrocytes may be caused by decreased expression of NRF2 (Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2, an oxidative stress regulator. We found that activation of NRF2 with sulforaphane (SFN in erythroid progenitors significantly increased the expression of NRF2 targets HMOX1, NQO1, and HBG1 (subunit of fetal hemoglobin in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that NRF2 activation with SFN may offer therapeutic benefits for SCD patients by restoring oxidative capacity and increasing fetal hemoglobin concentration. To test this hypothesis, we performed a Phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation study of SFN, contained in a broccoli sprout homogenate (BSH that naturally contains SFN, in adults with SCD. The primary and secondary study endpoints were safety and physiological response to NRF2 activation, respectively. We found that BSH was well tolerated, and the few adverse events that occurred during the trial were not likely related to BSH consumption. We observed an increase in the mean relative whole blood mRNA levels for the NRF2 target HMOX1 (p = 0.02 on the last day of BSH treatment, compared to pre-treatment. We also observed a trend toward increased mean relative mRNA levels of the NRF2 target HBG1 (p = 0.10 from baseline to end of treatment, but without significant changes in HbF protein. We conclude that BSH, in the provided doses, is safe in stable SCD patients and may induce changes in gene expression levels. We therefore propose investigation of more potent NRF2 inducers, which may elicit more robust physiological changes and offer clinical benefits to SCD patients. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01715480.

  14. UVA, UVB Light, and Methyl Jasmonate, Alone or Combined, Redirect the Biosynthesis of Glucosinolates, Phenolics, Carotenoids, and Chlorophylls in Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Moreira-Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting phytochemicals that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV or phytohormones. The separate and combined effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ, UVA, or UVB lights on glucosinolate, phenolic, carotenoid, and chlorophyll profiles were assessed in broccoli sprouts. Seven-day-old broccoli sprouts were exposed to UVA (9.47 W/m2 or UVB (7.16 W/m2 radiation for 120 min alone or in combination with a 25 µM MJ solution, also applied to sprouts without UV supplementation. UVA + MJ and UVB + MJ treatments increased the total glucosinolate content by ~154% and ~148%, respectively. MJ induced the biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates, especially neoglucobrassicin (~538%, showing a synergistic effect with UVA stress. UVB increased the content of aliphatic and indole glucosinolates, such as glucoraphanin (~78% and 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin (~177%. UVA increased several phenolics such as gallic acid (~57% and a kaempferol glucoside (~25.4%. MJ treatment decreased most phenolic levels but greatly induced accumulation of 5-sinapoylquinic acid (~239%. MJ treatments also reduced carotenoid and chlorophyll content, while UVA increased lutein (~23%, chlorophyll b (~31%, neoxanthin (~34%, and chlorophyll a (~67%. Results indicated that UV- and/or MJ-treated broccoli sprouts redirect the carbon flux to the biosynthesis of specific glucosinolates, phenolics, carotenoids, and chlorophylls depending on the type of stress applied.

  15. Quantitative determination of dithiocarbamates in human plasma, serum, erythrocytes and urine: pharmacokinetics of broccoli sprout isothiocyanates in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingxiang; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Wade, Kristina L; Zhang, Yuesheng; Shapiro, Theresa A; Talalay, Paul

    2002-02-01

    Humans are exposed to substantial quantities of isothiocyanates and glucosinolates from vegetables. Since dietary isothiocyanates are widely regarded as potentially important chemoprotectors against cancer, reliable methods for measuring the plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of isothiocyanates and their dithiocarbamate metabolites are essential for defining dosing regimens. Isothiocyanates (ITC) and dithiocarbamates (DTC) react quantitatively with 1,2-benzenedithiol to produce 1,3-benzodithiole-2-thione that can be quantified spectroscopically. Although this cyclocondensation reaction has been highly useful for analyzing plant material and urine samples, the determination of DTC/ITC (the total quantity of DTC and ITC components in a sample that react in the cyclocondensation reaction) in blood and tissues has been hampered by their low levels and the high concentrations of proteins that interfere with the cyclocondensation reaction. The protein content of blood and tissues was reduced by the precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or ultrafiltration, and the sensitivity of the method was increased substantially by the solid phase extraction of the cyclocondensation product. Pharmacokinetic measurements were made in four human volunteers who received single doses of about 200 micromol of broccoli sprout isothiocyanates (largely sulforaphane, with lesser amounts of iberin and erucin). Isothiocyanates were absorbed rapidly, reached peak concentrations of 0.943-2.27 micromol/l in plasma, serum and erythrocytes at 1 h after feeding and declined with first-order kinetics (half-life of 1.77+/-0.13 h). The cumulative excretion at 8 h was 58.3+/-2.8% of the dose. Clearance was 369+/-53 ml/min, indicating active renal tubular secretion. A sensitive and specific method for quantifying DTC levels in human plasma, serum, and erythrocytes has been devised. Determinations of ITC/DTC levels are important because: (i) dietary isothiocyanates are of potential value in reducing

  16. Isothiocyanate metabolism, distribution, and interconversion in mice following consumption of thermally processed broccoli sprouts or purified sulforaphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Gregory V; Riedl, Kenneth M; Ralston, Robin A; Tober, Kathleen L; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2014-10-01

    Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of glucosinolates, a group of phytochemicals that when hydrolyzed, are associated with cancer prevention. Our objectives were to investigate the metabolism, distribution, and interconversion of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in mice fed thermally processed broccoli sprout powders (BSPs) or the purified ITC sulforaphane. For 1 wk, mice were fed a control diet (n = 20) or one of four treatment diets (n = 10 each) containing nonheated BSP, 60°C mildly heated BSP, 5-min steamed BSP, or 3 mmol purified sulforaphane. Sulforaphane and erucin metabolite concentrations in skin, liver, kidney, bladder, lung, and plasma were quantified using HPLC-MS/MS. Thermal intensity of BSP processing had disparate effects on ITC metabolite concentrations upon consumption. Mild heating generally resulted in the greatest ITC metabolite concentrations in vivo, followed by the nonheated and steamed BSP diets. We observed interconversion between sulforaphane and erucin species or metabolites, and report that erucin is the favored form in liver, kidney, and bladder, even when only sulforaphane is consumed. ITC metabolites were distributed to all tissues analyzed, suggesting the potential for systemic benefits. We report for the first time tissue-dependent ratio of sulforaphane and erucin, though further investigation is warranted to assess biological activity of individual forms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Cloning of genes related to aliphatic glucosinolate metabolism and the mechanism of sulforaphane accumulation in broccoli sprouts under jasmonic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liping; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 79F1 (CYP79F1), cytochrome P450 83A1 (CYP83A1), UDP-glucosyltransferase 74B1 (UGT74B1), sulfotransferase 18 (ST5b) and flavin-containing monooxygenase GS-OX1 (FMOGS - OX1 ) are important enzymes in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, their full-length cDNA in broccoli was firstly cloned, then the mechanism of sulforaphane accumulation under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment was investigated. The full-length cDNA of CYP79F1, CYP83A1, UGT74B1, ST5b and FMOGS - OX1 comprised 1980, 1652, 1592, 1378 and 1623 bp respectively. The increase in aliphatic glucosinolate accumulation in broccoli sprouts treated with JA was associated with elevated expression of genes in the aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. Application of 100 µmol L(-1) JA increased myrosinase (MYR) activity but did not affect epithiospecifier protein (ESP) activity in broccoli sprouts, which was supported by the expression of MYR and ESP. Sulforaphane formation in 7-day-old sprouts treated with 100 µmol L(-1) JA was 3.36 and 1.30 times that in the control and 300 µmol L(-1) JA treatment respectively. JA enhanced the accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts via up-regulation of related gene expression. Broccoli sprouts treated with 100 µmol L(-1) JA showed higher sulforphane formation than those treated with 300 µmol L(-1) JA owing to the higher glucoraphanin content and myrosinase activity under 100 µmol L(-1) JA treatment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  19. Modulation of the metabolism of airborne pollutants by glucoraphanin-rich and sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout beverages in Qidong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensler, Thomas W; Ng, Derek; Carmella, Steven G; Chen, Menglan; Jacobson, Lisa P; Muñoz, Alvaro; Egner, Patricia A; Chen, Jian Guo; Qian, Geng Sun; Chen, Tao Yang; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Groopman, John D; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hecht, Stephen S

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has suggested that consumption of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables reduces the risk of several types of cancers and chronic degenerative diseases. In particular, broccoli sprouts are a convenient and rich source of the glucosinolate, glucoraphanin, which can release the chemopreventive agent, sulforaphane, an inducer of glutathione S-transferases. Two broccoli sprout-derived beverages, one sulforaphane-rich (SFR) and the other glucoraphanin-rich (GRR), were evaluated for pharmacodynamic action in a crossover clinical trial design. Study participants were recruited from the farming community of He Zuo Township, Qidong, China, previously documented to have a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma with concomitant exposures to aflatoxin and more recently characterized with exposures to substantive levels of airborne pollutants. Fifty healthy participants were randomized into two treatment arms. The study protocol was as follows: a 5 days run-in period, a 7 days administration of beverage, a 5 days washout period and a 7 days administration of the opposite beverage. Urinary excretion of the mercapturic acids of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, ethylene oxide and benzene were measured both pre- and postinterventions using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Statistically significant increases of 20-50% in the levels of excretion of glutathione-derived conjugates of acrolein, crotonaldehyde and benzene were seen in individuals receiving SFR, GRR or both compared with their preintervention baseline values. No significant differences were seen between the effects of SFR versus GRR. Intervention with broccoli sprouts may enhance detoxication of airborne pollutants and attenuate their associated health risks.

  20. Effects of the 3D-clinorotation on endogenous substances of broccoli sprout (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, K.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Miyagawa, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges in this century We are studying on space agriculture to provide foods for space living people However careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances and food safety of plants cultivated in space Broccoli sprout Brassica oleracea var italica is known to produce sulforaphane 4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate which is effective to function as an antioxidant and enhance immunity Because of such substance it is recognized to be good food materials Broccoli sprouts were then cultivated for 3 days under the 3D-clinorotation The amount of sulforaphane produced by this treatment showed no significant difference compared to the ground control Secondly we examined population of microorganisms adhered on the surface of sprout cultivated under the 3D-clinorotation Number of the microorganisms colony formed was statistically higher than the control Mold species was identified to penicillium sp based on the microscopic observation Poor construction of plant cell wall elements cellulose lignin etc is well known effects of microgravity Defense function of the broccoli plant cells might be weakened against microorganism We also speculate other possible causes for the high rate of contamination such as photosynthetic activity of the plant or microclimate air flow heat transport and humidity around the seedling affected by pseudo-microgravity or the 3D-clinorotation Those factors may relate to the difference in proliferation

  1. Preferentially enhancing anti-cancer isothiocyanates over glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts: How NaCl and salicylic acid affect their formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, Azadeh; Saei, Ali; McKenzie, Marian J; Matich, Adam J; Babalar, Mesbah; Hunter, Donald A

    2017-06-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts contain glucosinolates (GLs) that when hydrolysed yield health promoting isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (SF). SF content can be increased by salt (NaCl) stress, although high salt concentrations negatively impact plant growth. Salicylic acid (SA) treatments can attenuate the negative effects of salt on growth. To test whether sprout isothiocyanate content could be elevated without sprout growth being compromised, broccoli seed were germinated and grown for seven days in salt (0, 80 and 160 mM) alone and in combination with 100 μM SA. Increasing concentrations of salt lowered transcript accumulation of GL biosynthetic genes which was reflected in lowered content of Gluconapin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin glucosinolates. Other glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin did not alter significantly. Salt (160 mM) increased transcript abundance of the GL hydrolytic gene MYROSINASE (BoMYO) and its cofactor EPITHIOSPECIFIER MODIFIER1 (BoESM1) whose encoded product directs MYROSINASE to produce isothiocyanate rather than nitrile forms. SF content was increased 6-fold by the 160 mM salt treatment, but the salt treatment reduced percentage seed germination, slowed seed germination, and reduced sprout hypocotyl elongation. This growth inhibition was prevented if 100 μM SA was included with the salt treatment. These findings suggest that the increase in SF production by salt occurs in part because of increased transcript abundance of genes in the hydrolytic pathway, which occurs independently of the negative impact of salt on sprout growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of Bladder Cancer by Broccoli Isothiocyanates Sulforaphane and Erucin: Characterization, Metabolism and Interconversion

    OpenAIRE

    Abbaoui, Besma; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Ralston, Robin A.; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Mortazavi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests diets rich in cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli, are associated with lower bladder cancer risk. Our objectives are to investigate these observations and determine the role of isothiocyanates in primary or secondary bladder cancer prevention. We initially investigate the mechanisms whereby broccoli and broccoli sprout extracts and pure isothiocyanates inhibit normal, non-invasive (RT4) and invasive (J82, UMUC3) human urothelial cell viability. Sulfor...

  3. UV-B Irradiation Changes Specifically the Secondary Metabolite Profile in Broccoli Sprouts: Induced Signaling Overlaps with Defense Response to Biotic Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewis, Inga; Schreiner, Monika; Nguyen, Chau Nhi; Krumbein, Angelika; Ulrichs, Christian; Lohse, Marc; Zrenner, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Only a few environmental factors have such a pronounced effect on plant growth and development as ultraviolet light (UV). Concerns have arisen due to increased UV-B radiation reaching the Earth’s surface as a result of stratospheric ozone depletion. Ecologically relevant low to moderate UV-B doses (0.3–1 kJ m–2 d–1) were applied to sprouts of the important vegetable crop Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli), and eco-physiological responses such as accumulation of non-volatile secondary metabolites were related to transcriptional responses with Agilent One-Color Gene Expression Microarray analysis using the 2×204 k format Brassica microarray. UV-B radiation effects have usually been linked to increases in phenolic compounds. As expected, the flavonoids kaempferol and quercetin accumulated in broccoli sprouts (the aerial part of the seedlings) 24 h after UV-B treatment. A new finding is the specific UV-B-mediated induction of glucosinolates (GS), especially of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl GS and 4-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS, while carotenoids and Chl levels remained unaffected. Accumulation of defensive GS metabolites was accompanied by increased expression of genes associated with salicylate and jasmonic acid signaling defense pathways and up-regulation of genes responsive to fungal and bacterial pathogens. Concomitantly, plant pre-exposure to moderate UV-B doses had negative effects on the performance of the caterpillar Pieris brassicae (L.) and on the population growth of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Moreover, insect-specific induction of GS in broccoli sprouts was affected by UV-B pre-treatment. PMID:22773681

  4. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizue Okada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts’ aqueous extracts (PSAE. In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts’ extracts on Aβ (1–42 structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r=0.882 which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE.

  5. Separation and Purification of Sulforaphane from Broccoli by Solid Phase Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dandan; Row, Kyung Ho

    2011-01-01

    A simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the determination of sulforaphane in broccoli has been developed. The optimal conditions were found to be use of a silica SPE cartridge, and ethyl acetate and dichloromethane as washing and eluting solvents, respectively, which could eliminate interferences originating from the broccoli matrix. The extracts were sufficiently clean to be directly injected into high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.05 to 200 μg/mL (r = 0.998) for sulforaphane with the relative standard deviations less than 3.6%. The mean recoveries of sulforaphane from broccoli were more than 90.8% and the detection limit (S/N = 3:1) was 0.02 μg/mL. The SPE method provides a higher yield of sulforaphane from crude extracts compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction. PMID:21673926

  6. Separation and Purification of Sulforaphane from Broccoli by Solid Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Row

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple solid-phase extraction (SPE method for the determination of sulforaphane in broccoli has been developed. The optimal conditions were found to be use of a silica SPE cartridge, and ethyl acetate and dichloromethane as washing and eluting solvents, respectively, which could eliminate interferences originating from the broccoli matrix. The extracts were sufficiently clean to be directly injected into high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.05 to 200 μg/mL (r = 0.998 for sulforaphane with the relative standard deviations less than 3.6%. The mean recoveries of sulforaphane from broccoli were more than 90.8% and the detection limit (S/N = 3:1 was 0.02 μg/mL. The SPE method provides a higher yield of sulforaphane from crude extracts compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction.

  7. Microwave assisted dehydration of broccoli by-products and simultaneous extraction of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sónia S; Passos, Cláudia P; Cardoso, Susana M; Wessel, Dulcineia F; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2018-04-25

    Broccoli by-products from frozen-food industry account for 45% of the initial broccoli heads. They consist on stalks, inflorescences, and leaves, blanched and non-blanched, sharing the nutritional value and bioactive compounds of commercial broccoli heads. However, their high perishability prevents further valorisation. Therefore, in this study microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) technology was used to dehydrate broccoli by-products and simultaneously recover the water-soluble diffused compounds for food ingredients use. The hydrodiffusion allowed to obtain a dried material with 12% moisture in 43 min when 550 g of broccoli by-products were used, preserving polysaccharides and proteins. Diffused water contained up to 317 µg/mL gallic acid equivalents of phenolic compounds, 11 mg/mL free sugars, 9 mg/mL amino acids, and 356 µg/mL glucosinolates, depending on the type of by-product used. These results show the potential of MHG technology for valorisation of broccoli by-products by its simultaneous stabilization by dehydration and extraction of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multi-phase extraction of glycoraphanin from broccoli using aminium ionic liquid-based silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Minglei; Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Glucosinolates, a class of phytochemicals found in broccoli, have attracted recent interest due to the potential health benefits associated with their dietary intake. Glucoraphanin, the most common glucosinolate in broccoli can be converted to a known cancer chemopreventive agent. Multi-phase extraction in solid-phase extraction cartridges was developed to simultaneously extract and separate this compound. Multi-phase extraction with functionalised ionic liquid-based silica as a sorbent was used to simultaneously extract and separate glucoraphanin from broccoli. The sorbent and broccoli sample were packed into a single cartridge, and a fixed volume of water was then used to extract and remove the target compound from the sample to the sorbent over 15 repetitions. The sorbent was then washed with n-hexane to remove any interference and the target compound was eluted with water-1% acetic acid (vol.). Under the optimised condition, 0.038 mg/g of glucoraphanin was obtained by multi-phase extraction with 0.2 g of sorbent. The adsorption isotherm allowed investigation of the interactions between the sorbent and target compound and provided evidence for the accuracy of this method. The low deviation error, small amount of solvents required, highly selective separation and stability of the method justify further research. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts and Live Attenuated Influenza Virus on Peripheral Blood Natural Killer Cells: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Müller

    Full Text Available Enhancing antiviral host defense responses through nutritional supplementation would be an attractive strategy in the fight against influenza. Using inoculation with live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV as an infection model, we have recently shown that ingestion of sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH reduces markers of viral load in the nose. To investigate the systemic effects of short-term BSH supplementation in the context of LAIV-inoculation, we examined peripheral blood immune cell populations in non-smoking subjects from this study, with a particular focus on NK cells. We carried out a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study measuring the effects of BSH (N = 13 or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate, ASH; N = 16 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to a standard nasal vaccine dose of LAIV in healthy volunteers. Blood was drawn prior to (day-1 and post (day2, day21 LAIV inoculation and analyzed for neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, T cells, NKT cells, and NK cells. In addition, NK cells were enriched, stimulated, and assessed for surface markers, intracellular markers, and cytotoxic potential by flow cytometry. Overall, LAIV significantly reduced NKT (day2 and day21 and T cell (day2 populations. LAIV decreased NK cell CD56 and CD158b expression, while significantly increasing CD16 expression and cytotoxic potential (on day2. BSH supplementation further increased LAIV-induced granzyme B production (day2 in NK cells compared to ASH and in the BSH group granzyme B levels appeared to be negatively associated with influenza RNA levels in nasal lavage fluid cells. We conclude that nasal influenza infection may induce complex changes in peripheral blood NK cell activation, and that BSH increases virus-induced peripheral blood NK cell granzyme B production, an effect that may be important for enhanced antiviral defense responses.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723.

  10. Bioavailability of sulforaphane from two broccoli sprout beverages: Results of a short term, cross-over clinical trial in Qidong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Patricia A.; Chen, Jian Guo; Wang, Jin Bing; Wu, Yan; Sun, Yan; Lu, Jian Hua; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yong Hui; Chen, Yong Sheng; Friesen, Marlin D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Muñoz, Alvaro; Ng, Derek; Qian, Geng Sun; Zhu, Yuan Rong; Chen, Tao Yang; Botting, Nigel P.; Zhang, Qingzhi; Fahey, Jed W.; Talalay, Paul; Groopman, John D; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    One of several challenges in design of clinical chemoprevention trials is the selection of the dose, formulation and dose schedule of the intervention agent. Therefore, a cross-over clinical trial was undertaken to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of sulforaphane from two of broccoli sprout-derived beverages: one glucoraphanin-rich (GRR) and the other sulforaphane-rich (SFR). Sulforaphane was generated from glucoraphanin contained in GRR by gut microflora or formed by treatment of GRR with myrosinase from daikon (Raphanus sativus) sprouts to provide SFR. Fifty healthy, eligible participants were requested to refrain from crucifer consumption and randomized into two treatment arms. The study design was as follows: 5-day run-in period, 7-day administration of beverages, 5-day washout period, and 7-day administration of the opposite intervention. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used to measure levels of glucoraphanin, sulforaphane and sulforaphane thiol conjugates in urine samples collected daily throughout the study. Bioavailability, as measured by urinary excretion of sulforaphane and its metabolites (in approximately 12 hour collections after dosing), was substantially greater with the SFR (mean = 70%) than with GRR (mean = 5%) beverages. Interindividual variability in excretion was considerably lower with SFR than GRR beverage. Elimination rates were considerably slower with GRR allowing for achievement of steady state dosing as opposed to bolus dosing with SFR. Optimal dosing formulations in future studies should consider blends of sulforaphane and glucoraphanin as SFR and GRR mixtures to achieve peak concentrations for activation of some targets and prolonged inhibition of others implicated in the protective actions of sulforaphane. PMID:21372038

  11. Bioavailability of Sulforaphane from two broccoli sprout beverages: results of a short-term, cross-over clinical trial in Qidong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Patricia A; Chen, Jian Guo; Wang, Jin Bing; Wu, Yan; Sun, Yan; Lu, Jian Hua; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yong Hui; Chen, Yong Sheng; Friesen, Marlin D; Jacobson, Lisa P; Muñoz, Alvaro; Ng, Derek; Qian, Geng Sun; Zhu, Yuan Rong; Chen, Tao Yang; Botting, Nigel P; Zhang, Qingzhi; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Groopman, John D; Kensler, Thomas W

    2011-03-01

    One of several challenges in design of clinical chemoprevention trials is the selection of the dose, formulation, and dose schedule of the intervention agent. Therefore, a cross-over clinical trial was undertaken to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of sulforaphane from two of broccoli sprout-derived beverages: one glucoraphanin-rich (GRR) and the other sulforaphane-rich (SFR). Sulforaphane was generated from glucoraphanin contained in GRR by gut microflora or formed by treatment of GRR with myrosinase from daikon (Raphanus sativus) sprouts to provide SFR. Fifty healthy, eligible participants were requested to refrain from crucifer consumption and randomized into two treatment arms. The study design was as follows: 5-day run-in period, 7-day administration of beverages, 5-day washout period, and 7-day administration of the opposite intervention. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used to measure levels of glucoraphanin, sulforaphane, and sulforaphane thiol conjugates in urine samples collected daily throughout the study. Bioavailability, as measured by urinary excretion of sulforaphane and its metabolites (in approximately 12-hour collections after dosing), was substantially greater with the SFR (mean = 70%) than with GRR (mean = 5%) beverages. Interindividual variability in excretion was considerably lower with SFR than with GRR beverage. Elimination rates were considerably slower with GRR, allowing for achievement of steady-state dosing as opposed to bolus dosing with SFR. Optimal dosing formulations in future studies should consider blends of sulforaphane and glucoraphanin as SFR and GRR mixtures to achieve peak concentrations for activation of some targets and prolonged inhibition of others implicated in the protective actions of sulforaphane. Cancer Prev Res; 4(3); 384-95. ©2011 AACR.

  12. Extraction, chemical characterization and biological activity determination of broccoli health promoting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Ana M; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José

    2013-10-25

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) contains substantial amount of health-promoting compounds such as vitamins, glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, and dietary essential minerals; thus, it benefits health beyond providing just basic nutrition, and consumption of broccoli has been increasing over the years. This review gives an overview on the extraction and separation techniques, as well as the biological activity of some of the above mentioned compounds which have been published in the period January 2008 to January 2013. The work has been distributed according to the different families of health promoting compounds discussing the extraction procedures and the analytical techniques employed for their characterization. Finally, information about the different biological activities of these compounds has been also provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hee Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol.

  14. Inhibition of Bladder Cancer by Broccoli Isothiocyanates Sulforaphane and Erucin: Characterization, Metabolism and Interconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaoui, Besma; Riedl, Kenneth M; Ralston, Robin A; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K; Mortazavi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests diets rich in cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli, are associated with lower bladder cancer risk. Our objectives are to investigate these observations and determine the role of isothiocyanates in primary or secondary bladder cancer prevention. We initially investigate the mechanisms whereby broccoli and broccoli sprout extracts and pure isothiocyanates inhibit normal, non-invasive (RT4) and invasive (J82, UMUC3) human urothelial cell viability. Sulforaphane (IC50= 5.66±1.2μM) and erucin (IC50= 8.79±1.3μM) are found to be the most potent inhibitors and normal cells are least sensitive. This observation is associated with downregulation of survivin, EGFR and HER2/neu, G2/M cell cycle accumulation and apoptosis. In a murine UMUC3 xenograft model, we fed semipurified diets containing 4% broccoli sprouts, or 2% broccoli sprout isothiocyanate extract; or gavaged pure sulforaphane or erucin (each at 295 μmol/kg, similar to dietary exposure); and report tumor weight reduction of 42% (p=0.02), 42% (p=0.04), 33% (p=0.04) and 58% (pSulforaphane and erucin metabolites are present in mouse plasma (micromolar range) and tumor tissue, with N-acetyl cysteine conjugates as the most abundant. Interconversion of sulforaphane and erucin metabolites was observed. This work supports development of fully characterized, novel food products for phase I/II human studies targeting bladder cancer prevention. PMID:23038615

  15. Optimized extraction, separation and quantification of twelve intact glucosinolates in broccoli leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Ana M; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José L; Bernal, José

    2014-01-01

    A new method has been developed and validated to determine twelve intact glucosinolates (glucoiberin, GIB; glucoraphanin, GRA; glucoerucin GER; gluconapin, GNA; glucotropaeolin, GTL; glucobrassicin, GBC; gluconasturtiin, GST; glucoalyssin, ALY; 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, 4-OH; 4-metoxyglucobrassicin, 4ME; neoglucobrassicin, NEO; sinigrin, SIN) in broccoli leaves using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to diode array (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection. An extraction procedure has also been proposed and optimized by means of statistical analysis (the Box-Behnken design and analysis of variance); this is based on the deactivation of myrosinase using a microwave and heated water. Low limits of detection and quantification were obtained, ranging from 10 to 72 μg/g with DAD and 0.01 to 0.23 μg/g with ESI-MS, and the resulting recovery values ranged from 87% to 106% in all cases. Finally, glucosinolates were analyzed in broccoli leaf samples from six different cultivars (Ramoso calabrese Parthenon, Marathon, Nubia, Naxos and Viola). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of bladder cancer by broccoli isothiocyanates sulforaphane and erucin: characterization, metabolism, and interconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaoui, Besma; Riedl, Kenneth M; Ralston, Robin A; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K; Mortazavi, Amir

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests diets rich in cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli, are associated with lower bladder cancer risk. Our objectives are to investigate these observations and determine the role of isothiocyanates in primary or secondary bladder cancer prevention. We initially investigate the mechanisms whereby broccoli and broccoli sprout extracts and pure isothiocyanates inhibit normal, noninvasive (RT4), and invasive (J82, UMUC3) human urothelial cell viability. Sulforaphane (IC(50) = 5.66 ± 1.2 μM) and erucin (IC(50) = 8.79 ± 1.3 μM) are found to be the most potent inhibitors and normal cells are least sensitive. This observation is associated with downregulation of survivin, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), G(2) /M cell cycle accumulation, and apoptosis. In a murine UMUC3 xenograft model, we fed semipurified diets containing 4% broccoli sprouts, or 2% broccoli sprout isothiocyanate extract; or gavaged pure sulforaphane or erucin (each at 295 μmol/kg, similar to dietary exposure); and report tumor weight reduction of 42% (p = 0.02), 42% (p = 0.04), 33% (p = 0.04), and 58% (p < 0.0001), respectively. Sulforaphane and erucin metabolites are present in mouse plasma (micromolar range) and tumor tissue, with N-acetylcysteine conjugates as the most abundant. Interconversion of sulforaphane and erucin metabolites was observed. This work supports development of fully characterized, novel food products containing broccoli components for phase I/II human studies targeting bladder cancer prevention. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of a Brussels sprouts extract on oxidative DNA damage and metabolising enzymes in rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M; Jensen, B R; Poulsen, H E

    2001-01-01

    of administration of a Brussels sprouts extract on the expression at the mRNA level and/or catalytic activity in rat liver of three phase I enzymes [cytochrome P450-1A2 (CYP1A2),-2B1/2 (CYP2B1/2) and-2E1 (CYP2E1)] and two phase II enzyme [NADPH:quinone reductase (QR) and glutathione S-transferase pi 7 (GSTpi)], all...... previously suggested to be induced by vegetables. We also examined the activity and/or expression of several important antioxidant enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (GCS) and the activity of the repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1). QR, GPx...... in the liver. Oral administration of an aqueous Brussels sprouts extract for 4 days was found to induce the expression of GST 1.3-fold (P QR 2.6-fold in rat liver (P

  18. Effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution and labeling blood components with {sup 99m}Tc-GH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekic, Betul; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut Biber; Kilcar, Ayfer Yurt; Ichedef, Cigdem; Unak, Perihan [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences. Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: people consume vegetables without the knowledge of the side effects of the biological and chemical contents and interactions between radiopharmaceuticals and herbal extract. To this end, current study is focused on the effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucoheptonate ({sup 99m}Tc-GH) and radiolabeling of blood components. Methods: GH was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc. Quality control studies were done utilizing TLC method. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with either broccoli extract or SF as control group for 15 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from rats' heart. Radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with GH, SnCl{sub 2} and {sup 99m} Tc. Results: radiochemical yield of {sup 99m}Tc-GH is 98.46{+-}1.48 % (n=8). Biodistribution studies have shown that according to the control, the treated group with broccoli has approximately 10 times less uptake in kidney. The percentage of the radioactivity ratios of the blood components is found to be same in both groups. Conclusions: although there is no considerable effect on the radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially on kidneys. The knowledge of this change on kidney uptake may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  19. Resistin mediates tomato and broccoli extract effects on glucose homeostasis in high fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aborehab, Nora M; El Bishbishy, Mahitab H; Waly, Nermien E

    2016-07-18

    Resistin is an adipocyte hormone that regulates glucose metabolism. Elevated levels of resistin may cause insulin resistance. This may link obesity, and increased fat mass to type II diabetes and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that treatment with tomato and broccoli extracts regulates glucose homeostasis via modulation of resistin levels in high fat diet-induced obesity rats (HFD). Forty-eight male albino rats were divided into 8 groups as follows: control, HFD, stop fat diet (SD), Tomato 200 mg/kg (T200), Tomato 400 mg/kg (T400), Broccoli 200 mg/kg (B200), Broccoli 400 mg/kg (B400), and Chromax (CX). Treatment continued for 1 month. Serum levels of resistin, leptin, adiponectin, glucose and insulin were measured using ELISA and spectrophotometry. Serum levels of resistin were significantly reduced in the T 200, T 400, B 200, B 400 and CX groups to: 4.13 ± 0.22 ng/ml, 1.51 ± 0.04 ng/ml, 4.13 ± 0.22 ng/ml, 2.32 ± 0.15 ng/ml and 1.37 ± 0.03 ng/ml, respectively, compared to HFD group and SD group (P value broccoli extract treatment regulates glucose homeostasis via reduction of serum resistin and may be a useful non-pharmacological therapy for obesity.

  20. Sulforaphane Bioavailability from Glucoraphanin-Rich Broccoli: Control by Active Endogenous Myrosinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jed W Fahey

    Full Text Available Glucoraphanin from broccoli and its sprouts and seeds is a water soluble and relatively inert precursor of sulforaphane, the reactive isothiocyanate that potently inhibits neoplastic cellular processes and prevents a number of disease states. Sulforaphane is difficult to deliver in an enriched and stable form for purposes of direct human consumption. We have focused upon evaluating the bioavailability of sulforaphane, either by direct administration of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate, or β-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfate, or by co-administering glucoraphanin and the enzyme myrosinase to catalyze its conversion to sulforaphane at economic, reproducible and sustainable yields. We show that following administration of glucoraphanin in a commercially prepared dietary supplement to a small number of human volunteers, the volunteers had equivalent output of sulforaphane metabolites in their urine to that which they produced when given an equimolar dose of glucoraphanin in a simple boiled and lyophilized extract of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, when either broccoli sprouts or seeds are administered directly to subjects without prior extraction and consequent inactivation of endogenous myrosinase, regardless of the delivery matrix or dose, the sulforaphane in those preparations is 3- to 4-fold more bioavailable than sulforaphane from glucoraphanin delivered without active plant myrosinase. These data expand upon earlier reports of inter- and intra-individual variability, when glucoraphanin was delivered in either teas, juices, or gelatin capsules, and they confirm that a variety of delivery matrices may be equally suitable for glucoraphanin supplementation (e.g. fruit juices, water, or various types of capsules and tablets.

  1. Sulforaphane Bioavailability from Glucoraphanin-Rich Broccoli: Control by Active Endogenous Myrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W; Holtzclaw, W David; Wehage, Scott L; Wade, Kristina L; Stephenson, Katherine K; Talalay, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Glucoraphanin from broccoli and its sprouts and seeds is a water soluble and relatively inert precursor of sulforaphane, the reactive isothiocyanate that potently inhibits neoplastic cellular processes and prevents a number of disease states. Sulforaphane is difficult to deliver in an enriched and stable form for purposes of direct human consumption. We have focused upon evaluating the bioavailability of sulforaphane, either by direct administration of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate, or β-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfate), or by co-administering glucoraphanin and the enzyme myrosinase to catalyze its conversion to sulforaphane at economic, reproducible and sustainable yields. We show that following administration of glucoraphanin in a commercially prepared dietary supplement to a small number of human volunteers, the volunteers had equivalent output of sulforaphane metabolites in their urine to that which they produced when given an equimolar dose of glucoraphanin in a simple boiled and lyophilized extract of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, when either broccoli sprouts or seeds are administered directly to subjects without prior extraction and consequent inactivation of endogenous myrosinase, regardless of the delivery matrix or dose, the sulforaphane in those preparations is 3- to 4-fold more bioavailable than sulforaphane from glucoraphanin delivered without active plant myrosinase. These data expand upon earlier reports of inter- and intra-individual variability, when glucoraphanin was delivered in either teas, juices, or gelatin capsules, and they confirm that a variety of delivery matrices may be equally suitable for glucoraphanin supplementation (e.g. fruit juices, water, or various types of capsules and tablets).

  2. Sulforaphane Bioavailability from Glucoraphanin-Rich Broccoli: Control by Active Endogenous Myrosinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Holtzclaw, W. David; Wehage, Scott L.; Wade, Kristina L.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Talalay, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Glucoraphanin from broccoli and its sprouts and seeds is a water soluble and relatively inert precursor of sulforaphane, the reactive isothiocyanate that potently inhibits neoplastic cellular processes and prevents a number of disease states. Sulforaphane is difficult to deliver in an enriched and stable form for purposes of direct human consumption. We have focused upon evaluating the bioavailability of sulforaphane, either by direct administration of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate, or β-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfate), or by co-administering glucoraphanin and the enzyme myrosinase to catalyze its conversion to sulforaphane at economic, reproducible and sustainable yields. We show that following administration of glucoraphanin in a commercially prepared dietary supplement to a small number of human volunteers, the volunteers had equivalent output of sulforaphane metabolites in their urine to that which they produced when given an equimolar dose of glucoraphanin in a simple boiled and lyophilized extract of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, when either broccoli sprouts or seeds are administered directly to subjects without prior extraction and consequent inactivation of endogenous myrosinase, regardless of the delivery matrix or dose, the sulforaphane in those preparations is 3- to 4-fold more bioavailable than sulforaphane from glucoraphanin delivered without active plant myrosinase. These data expand upon earlier reports of inter- and intra-individual variability, when glucoraphanin was delivered in either teas, juices, or gelatin capsules, and they confirm that a variety of delivery matrices may be equally suitable for glucoraphanin supplementation (e.g. fruit juices, water, or various types of capsules and tablets). PMID:26524341

  3. Comparative study of the cell wall composition of broccoli, carrot, and tomato: structural characterization of the extractable pectins and hemicelluloses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Ken; Jolie, Ruben P; Fraeye, Ilse; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2011-07-01

    This study delivers a comparison of the pectic and hemicellulosic cell wall polysaccharides between the commonly used vegetables broccoli (stem and florets separately), carrot, and tomato. Alcohol-insoluble residues were prepared from the plant sources and sequentially extracted with water, cyclohexane-trans-1,2-diamine tetra-acetic acid, sodium carbonate, and potassium hydroxide solutions, to obtain individual fractions, each containing polysaccharides bound to the cell wall in a specific manner. Structural characterization of the polysaccharide fractions was conducted using colorimetric and chromatographic approaches. Sugar ratios were defined to ameliorate data interpretation. These ratios allowed gaining information concerning polysaccharide structure from sugar composition data. Structural analysis of broccoli revealed organ-specific characteristics: the pectin degree of methoxylation (DM) of stem and florets differed, the sugar composition data inferred differences in polymeric composition. On the other hand, the molar mass (MM) distribution profiles of the polysaccharide fractions were virtually identical for both organs. Carrot root displayed a different MM distribution for the polysaccharides solubilized by potassium hydroxide compared to broccoli and tomato, possibly due to the high contribution of branched pectins to this otherwise hemicellulose-enriched fraction. Tomato fruit showed the pectins with the broadest range in DM, the highest MM, the greatest overall linearity and the lowest extent of branching of rhamnogalacturonan I, pointing to particularly long, linear pectins in tomato compared with the other vegetable organs studied, suggesting possible implications toward functional behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Feeding tomato and broccoli powders enriched with bioactives improves bioactivity markers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ann G; Volker, Sonja E; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Erdman, John W

    2009-08-26

    Many studies have evaluated the cancer -preventive potential of individual bioactives from tomatoes and broccoli, but few have examined them within the context of a whole food. Male Copenhagen rats were fed diets containing 10% standard tomato powder, tomato enriched with lycopene or total carotenoids, standard broccoli floret, broccoli sprouts, or broccoli enriched with indole glucosinolates or selenium for 7 days. All broccoli diets increased the activity of colon quinone reductase (NQO1). Indole glucosinolate-enriched broccoli and selenium-enriched broccoli increased hepatic NQO1 and cytochrome P450 1A activity (P tomato diets down-regulated prostatic glutathione S-transferase P1 mRNA expression. Different tomato diets resulted in altered hepatic accumulation of lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene. These results demonstrate that the bioactive content of vegetables affects both tissue content of bioactives and activity of detoxification enzymes. Enhancing bioactive content of tomatoes and broccoli may enhance efficacy in the prevention of prostate cancer.

  6. Fast determination of intact glucosinolates in broccoli leaf by pressurized liquid extraction and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Ana M; Bernal, José; Nozal, María J; Turner, Charlotta; Plaza, Merichel

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigate for the first time the efficiency of an environmentally sustainable extraction technique (pressurized liquid extraction, PLE) in conjunction with a fast separation technique (ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, UHPLC) coupled to a selective mass spectrometry (MS) detector (quadrupole time-of-flight, qTOF) to extract, separate and quantify fifteen intact-glucosinolates (GLSs) in broccoli leaves. Firstly, we have developed and optimized by means of an experimental design an efficient extraction procedure based on PLE (using ethanol/water as a solvent), giving complete extraction within 15min; meanwhile, the average analyte recoveries were between 85% and 96% in all cases. Chromatography was performed on a UHPLC BEH Shield RP18 1.7μm 110Å (2.1×100mm) analytical column with a mobile phase composed by formic acid in water (0.5%, v/v) and formic acid in acetonitrile (0.5%, v/v) in gradient elution mode at 0.3mL/min, resulted in baseline-separated peaks and a run time of 13min. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), linearity, precision, and trueness; meanwhile a study of the matrix effect was also performed. A good selectivity, low LODs and LOQs, ranging from 2 to 26μg/g, wide linear ranges from LOQ to 2500μg/g, and satisfactory precision and trueness with relative standard deviation and relative error values lower than or equal to 9%, were obtained for the studied GLSs. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of intact-GLSs in fifteen broccoli leaf samples from three different cultivars (Parthenon, Nubia, and Naxos). Nine intact-GLSs were detected in all the varieties, although in different concentrations, which ranged between 14 and 1136μg/g, depending on the broccoli cultivar. In addition, the highest total content of GLSs was found in broccoli leaf samples from Parthenon cultivar, being the Naxos cultivar the poorest in GLS

  7. Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of tomato juices and bean sprout extracts on vitro shoot regeneration of Physalis angulata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastuti, Retno; Munawarti, Aminatun; Rosyidah, Mufidatur

    2017-11-01

    Physalis angulata L. (Ciplukan) which belongs to Solanaceae is an important medicinal plant. In vitro culture medium contains carbon source, inorganic substance, vitamins, and plant growth regulators. However, organic growth supplements have frequently been added to improve regeneration capability of explants. This study was conducted to observe the effect of tomato juices and extract bean sprout on shoot regeneration and multiplication of in vitro nodal explants. The explants were cultured on MS basal medium + 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) 2 mg/L + indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) 0.05 mg/L with and without organic supplements. Tomato juices (T) 5, 7.5 and 10% or bean sprout extract (B) 1.25, 2.5, and 3.75% were added as natural organic supplements. Almost all explants have produced shoots one week after culture. After six weeks of culture maximum shoot number (12.5±3.9) was produced in medium MS + T5 while maximum shoot length (10.7 ± 0.7 cm) was obtained in medium MS + T 7.5. Medium T tends to produce more shoots than the medium B and medium control. This result indicates the potential of natural organic supplements for supporting Ciplukan propagation through in vitro culture.

  9. Ultrasound assisted extraction of phenolic acids from broccoli vegetable and using sonochemistry for preparation of MOF-5 nanocubes: Comparative study based on micro-dilution broth and plate count method for synergism antibacterial effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshkpour, Vahid; Khosravani, Seyed Abdolmajid; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar; Zare, Fahimeh; Sharifi, Asghar; Jannesar, Ramin; Zoladl, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was comparison study of dilution and plating method for evaluation of the synergism effect of metal-organic framework nanocubes (MOF-5-NCs) and broccoli extract (Brassica oleracea) on antibacterial activity of standard and clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. For this purpose, sonochemical synthesis of MOF-5-NCs was performed and it was characterized using XRD, FT-IR, FESEM and EDS techniques. Maceration extraction (ME) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) methods in three different solvents were prepared and applicability of their extracts were compared in some cases such as radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. The HPLC/UV analysis was applied for separation, identification and evaluation of phenolic acids in prepared broccoli extracts. Then, antimicrobial activity of MOF-5NCs and broccoli extract against gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated by detection of minimal inhibition concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and zone of inhibition (ZOI). The results of in vitro assays showed that dilution method due to flase estimation of 4% viability percentage which is not logic by consideration of MBC well could not be able to estimate MBC. Therefore, plate count method was performed for precise calculation of MBC. MIC of broccoli extract and MOF-5-NCs on Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were 7.81mgmL -1 and 3.13mgmL -1 , respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The isolation and purification of glucoraphanin from broccoli seeds by solid phase extraction and preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochfort, Simone; Caridi, Domenico; Stinton, Melanie; Trenerry, V Craige; Jones, Rod

    2006-07-07

    Plant foods contain not only essential nutrients, e.g. protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals, but also phytochemicals that have added health benefits. One such class of phytochemicals are the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates, particularly glucoraphanin, are predominant in plants of the Brassica genus, most notably in vegetables such as broccoli. There is a growing interest in the role glucoraphanin plays in chemoprotection and as a result there is a requirement to accurately determine the levels of glucoraphanin in vegetable products. Reverse phase ion pair high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the method of choice; however, this work has been hindered by the lack of available standard reference materials. Broccoli seeds, which are particularly rich in glucoraphanin (20-50 mg/g), have proved to be ideal for the isolation of glucoraphanin on the preparative scale. A novel preparative scale HPLC method with simple compound recovery has been developed to meet the need for a glucoraphanin standard.

  11. Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD, a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in atherogenesis even in non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, dietary supplements mitigating PPHG spikes along with potent antioxidant activities may help decrease development of PPHG and oxidative stress induced pathogenesis. Objectives: The study evaluated free radicals scavenging, antioxidant properties and intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in methanol extract of two varieties of Cicer arietinum Linn viz. Bengal gram and Kabuli chana and green gram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczek raw grains and their sprouts and studied their influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy grains were procured from local markets. Free radicals scavenging antioxidant and glucose-induced hemoglobin (Hb-glycation inhibition activities were analyzed using standard in vitro procedures. In vitro antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by assessing rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats was studied by pre-treatment of rats with extracts. Results: Compared with raw seeds increase in total polyphenol and flavonoids concentration in green gram sprouts and Kabuli chana sprouts (KCs were observed. Total protein concentrations in sprouts did not differ from non-sprouted grains. 2,2′- Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid cation scavenging activity was more than twice in Bengal gram sprouts of (BGs and KCs than their raw seeds. 2,2-diphenyl-1

  12. Peanut sprout extract attenuates cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by induction of the Akt/Nrf2-mediated redox pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Cha Kyung; Jo, Eu-Ri; Sim, Ju-Hwan; Cho, Sung Il

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is commonly used to treat solid tumors. However, permanent hearing loss is a major side effect of cisplatin chemotherapy and often results in dose reduction of the cisplatin chemotherapy. Peanut sprouts show cytoprotective properties owing to their antioxidant activities. This study was designed to investigate the effect of peanut sprout extract (PSE) on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in an auditory cell line, HEI-OC1 cells. Cells were exposed to cisplatin for 24 h, with or without pre-treatment with PSE, cell viability was examined using the MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were identified by double staining with Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide. Western blot analysis was performed to examine apoptotic proteins including C-PARP and C-caspase, anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and Nrf2 redox system activation. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated to examine whether PSE could scavenge cisplatin-induced ROS. Real-time PCR analyses were performed to investigate the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes including NQO1, HO-1, GPx2, Gclc, and catalase. The cisplatin-treated group showed reduced cell viability, increased apoptotic properties and markers, and increased ROS levels. PSE pre-treatment before cisplatin exposure significantly increased cell viability and reduced apoptotic properties and ROS production. These effects resulted from the up-regulation of antioxidant genes, including NQO1, HO-1, GPx2, Gclc, and catalase through Akt phosphorylation and Nrf2 activation. Our results demonstrate that PSE protects from cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity by activating the antioxidant effects via the Akt/Nrf-2 pathway in this auditory cell line, and indicate that PSE may provide novel treatment to prevent cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction of phenolics from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) inflorescences and evaluation of antioxidant activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhu, Junxiang; Yang, Long; Wang, Ran; Wang, Chengrong

    2015-06-01

    An efficient ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction technique was applied to extracting phenolics from broccoli inflorescences without organic solvents. The synergistic model of enzymolysis and ultrasonication simultaneously was selected, and the enzyme combination was optimized by orthogonal test: cellulase 7.5 mg/g FW (fresh weight), pectinase 10 mg/g FW, and papain 1.0 mg/g FW. The operating parameters in ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction were optimized with response surface methodology using Box-Behnken design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic power, 440 W; liquid to material ratio, 7.0:1 mL/g; pH value of 6.0 at 54.5 ℃ for 10 min. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of phenolics achieved 1.816 ± 0.0187 mg gallic acid equivalents/gram FW. The free radical scavenging activity of ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction extracts was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl·assay with EC50 values of 0.25, and total antioxidant activity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay with ferric reducing antioxidant power value of 0.998 mmol FeSO4/g compared with the referential ascorbic acid of 1.184 mmol FeSO4/g. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Ionic Liquid-Hybrid Molecularly Imprinted Material-Filter Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled with HPLC for Determination of 6-Benzyladenine and 4-Chlorophenoxyacetic Acid in Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yehong; Yang, Chunliu; Zhou, Yang; Han, Dandan; Yan, Hongyuan

    2017-03-01

    A new method involving ionic liquid-hybrid molecularly imprinted material-filter solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography (IL-HIM-FSPE-HPLC) was developed for the simultaneous isolation and determination of 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) in bean sprouts. Sample preconcentration was performed using a modified filter, with the new IL-HIM as the adsorbent, which shows double adsorption. The first adsorption involves special recognition of molecular imprinting, and the second involves ion exchange and electrostatic attraction caused by the ionic liquid. This method combines the advantages of ionic liquids, hybrid materials, and molecularly imprinted polymers and was successfully applied to determine 6-BA and 4-CPA in bean sprouts. The adsorption of 6-BA to IL-HIM is based on selective imprinted recognition, whereas the adsorption of 4-CPA is mainly dependent on ion-exchange interactions.

  15. Extração e isolamento de alfa-solanina de brotos de batata Extraction and isolation of alpha-solanine from potato sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Soave Spoladore

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh potato sprouts were extracted with 2% aqueous acetic acid for 48 hours. The crude alkaloidal extract was purified by repeating the operation. Precipitation by concentrated ammonium hydroxide, centrifugation, dissolution of the resulting precipitate in 2% acetic acid, till a clear alkaline supernatant was obtained. The alpha-solanine, obtained by this procedure was purified by successive recristalizations with ethyl alcohol. The total yield was about 0.02% of the fresh material, with purity greater than 99%. IR, ¹H and 13C NMR spectra are shown.

  16. Simple multiresidue extraction method for the determination of fungicides and plant growth regulator in bean sprouts using low temperature partitioning and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soon-Kil; Abd El-Aty, A M; Park, Ki Hun; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Assayed, M E; Jeong, Yang-Mo; Park, Young-Seok; Shim, Jae-Han

    2013-02-15

    A simple multiresidue analytical method is developed for the simultaneous determination of carbendazim (CB), thiabendazole (TB), and 6-benzyl aminopurine (6-BA) in bean sprouts. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile followed by partitioning at -80°C for 5-10 min. A YMC C(8) column was used to separate the analytes before being qualitatively and quantitatively determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) in positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity in the range 0.01-1.0 mg/kg with correlation coefficients in excess of 0.998. The mean recoveries were in the range of 80.4-96.3% at 0.1 and 0.5 spiked levels, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 0.5-7.6%. The limits of quantifications (LOQ) were in the range of 0.005-0.01 mg/kg. The method was successfully applied to 90 samples (among which 45 were organic) collected from a commercial bean sprout production house throughout the city. Except for 6-BA, the rest of the analytes had values lower than their LOQs. In sum, carbendazim, thiabendazole, and 6-BA were extracted in a single step, and no steps for clean-up or concentration of the extracts were needed. The current method can be used for sensitive and accurate determination and confirmation of residues in bean sprout samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of industrial freezing on the stability of chemopreventive compounds in broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanís-Garza, Pedro A; Becerra-Moreno, Alejandro; Mora-Nieves, José Luis; Mora-Mora, Juan Pablo; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2015-05-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) is largely consumed all over the world and has a high economic importance. Likewise, broccoli contains high levels of glucosinolates, carotenoids and total phenols, which are related with the prevention of chronic diseases. The present project's objective was to evaluate the effect of industrial freezing on the stability of bioactive molecules in seven commercial broccoli cultivars (Tlaloc®, Endurance®, Florapack®, Domador®, Steel®, Iron Man® and Avenger®). In general, industrial freezing increased the extractability of total glucosinolates, whereas total phenols remained constant in most broccoli cultivars. Likewise, broccoli subjected to industrial freezing showed higher levels of total carotenoids (∼60-300% higher) as compared with fresh broccoli. Results suggest that bioactive compounds in frozen broccoli would be more bioavailable than in raw.

  18. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  19. Free radical scavenging, antiproliferative activities and profiling of variations in the level of phytochemicals in different parts of broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ashun; Sharma, Upendra; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Singh, Bikram; Arora, Saroj

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the seeds of Broccoli (cultivar Palam samridhi) at different stages of development were being analysed for their antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. Among the antioxidant assays performed, a remarkable inhibition of superoxide radicals i.e. 94.25% observed with extracts of five days old sprout (PS5) at 2 mg/ml concentration. Although, all the extracts showed high cytotoxicity but the floret extract (PSF) found to be most effective with IC₅₀ value of 25.94 μg/ml while leaves extract (PSL) was least effective. The cell cycle analysis showed increased G₀/G₁ phase population as compare to positive control camptothecin. Profiling of various phytochemicals executed by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in order to correlate the bioactivities of the extracts. A wide variation observed in the profile of GLS hydrolytic products of different extracts obtained from the seeds, sprouts (three, five and seven days), leaves and florets. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of selenium supply on Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolate accumulation in selenium-biofortified Brassica sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Fabricio William; Yang, Yong; Faquin, Valdemar; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2014-12-15

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, green cabbage, Chinese cabbage, kale, and Brussels sprouts) were used. We found that Se-biofortified Brassica sprouts all were able to synthesize significant amounts of SeMSCys. Analysis of glucosinolate profiles revealed that each Brassica crop accumulated different types and amounts of glucosinolates. Cauliflower sprouts had high total glucosinolate content. Broccoli sprouts contained high levels of glucoraphanin, a precursor for potent anticancer compound. Although studies have reported an inverse relationship between accumulation of Se and glucosinolates in mature Brassica plants, Se supply generally did not affect glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica sprouts. Thus, Brassica vegetable sprouts can be biofortified with Se for the accumulation of SeMSCys without negative effects on chemopreventive glucosinolate contents. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Characteristics Defining Broccoli Cultivars from Different Seed Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ordiales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica is currently considered a main vegetable food in the markets due to its high nutritional value, containing elevated levels of phytochemicals widely described to have beneficial effects against cancer and other illnesses. Broccoli is an interesting crop with a high commercial value because it complements the tomato industry, the main agricultural income in Badajoz, Spain. Nine varieties of broccoli from four nurseries were evaluated by analyzing both agronomic and quality parameters. Total yield and number of harvests were monitored. Parameters defining quality like diameter, weight, and height of the heads were determined. Granulometry, compactness, and the presence of internal leaves in the heads were also analyzed. Diameter and height of sprouts were complementarily estimated. Principal component analysis was further employed to investigate the relationship between the agronomic variables and the cultivars and nurseries. Results revealed that both first and second principal components explained more than 75% of the variance and grouped data according their cultivar and commercial origin. Additionally, correlations between the scores of those components and the values of the phenotypic parameters suggested that head weights are main determinants of the phenotypic differences observed among the cultivars whereas the presence of internal leaves and granulometry and head weight appear to be key traits defining nurseries.

  2. A high-throughput RNA extraction for sprouted single-seed malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) rich in polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinated seed from cereal crops including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important tissue to extract RNA and analyze expression levels of genes that control aspects of germination. These tissues are rich in polysaccharides and most methods for RNA extraction are not suitable to handle the exces...

  3. Involvement of bacterial quorum-sensing signals in spoilage of bean sprouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Andersen, Jens Bo; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2005-01-01

    sprouts. Thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed the presence of N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone in spoiled bean sprouts and in extracts from pure cultures of bacteria. During normal spoilage, the pH of the sprouts increased due to proteolytic...

  4. Automatic Sprout Grower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Self-contained seed-sprouting system provides environment for sprouting seeds quickly and easily. Sprouting container standard 6-oz package for dehydrated food and drink mixes in Space Shuttle. About 4 g of dry alfalfa or radish seeds vacuum-sealed in each cup, like freeze-dried foods. Sixteen cups suspended in tray. Air-and-water inlet tube links each cup to system of tubes and solenoid valves alternately furnish air and water and remove stale air. Peristaltic pump supplies water from vinyl medical-fluid bag. Small diaphragm pump supplies and exhausts air. Small circuit board times movements of air and water. Kit offers advantages to home gardeners. Apartment dwellers use it for steady production of homegrown sprouts even though they have no garden space.

  5. Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen Stapf sprout extract has anti-metastatic activity in colon cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Eun Suk; Kim, Young Ock; Park, Chun Geon; Park, Kyung Hun; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Park, Jeong-Woong; Kim, Se-Hee

    2017-11-06

    Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen (Rom.Caill.) Stapf has been used in China as an herbal medicine. Many studies of this plant have reported anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities on human cancer cell lines. Therefore, this study of the anti-metastatic effect of Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen Stapf sprout extract (CLSE) in colorectal cancer cells may provide a scientific basis for exploring anti-cancer effects of edible crops. To evaluate the effect of CLSE on cell proliferation and signaling, we performed a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay in HCT116 cells and used western blot analysis. Furthermore, scratch-wound healing, transwell migration, matrigel invasion, and adhesion assays were conducted to elucidate the anti-metastatic effects of CLSE under hypoxic conditions in colon cancer cells. First, CLSE decreased deferoxamine (DFO)-induced migration of colon cancer cells by 87%, and blocked colon cancer cell migration by 80% compared with hypoxia control cells. Second, CLSE treatment resulted in a 54% reduction in hypoxia-induced invasiveness of colon cancer cells, and 50% inhibition of adhesive potency through inactivation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and protein kinase b (AKT) pathways. Third, conditioned medium collected from CLSE-treated HCT116 cells suppressed tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by 91%. CLSE inhibited migration, invasion, and adhesion of colon cancer cells and tube formation by HUVECs via repression of the ERK1/2 and AKT pathways under hypoxic conditions. Therefore, CLSE may be used to treat patients with colon cancer.

  6. Characterization of bioactive agents in five types of marketed sprouts and comparison of their antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic effects in fructose-loaded SHRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kozo; Koyama, Masahiro; Ishida, Ryuya; Kitahara, Takashi; Nakajima, Takero; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are important precursors of cardiovascular disease. Here, we evaluated the antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic potential of five types of sprouts in fructose-loaded spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Powdered sprouts (PSs) were produced from mung bean, broccoli, radish, and buckwheat sprouts and germinated soybeans by lyophilization. The PSs were analyzed for nutritional composition and bioactive agents (γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA], coenzyme Q10 [CoQ10], rutin, and myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate [IP6]) and functionally tested in SHRs given water containing 25 % fructose and diets containing 30 % PS for 46 days. All PSs were nutritionally rich in protein and dietary fiber. CoQ10, GABA/rutin, and GABA/IP6 were abundant in broccoli, buckwheat, and germinated soybean PSs, respectively. Mung bean, broccoli, and buckwheat PSs caused significant reductions in heart rates and/or serum triglycerides. Mung bean PS also significantly reduced serum total cholesterol. These data supported the antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic potential of mung bean, broccoli, and buckwheat sprouts.

  7. Colorless Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Florets of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    OpenAIRE

    Roiser, Matthias H.; M?ller, Thomas; Kr?utler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two ?nonfluorescent? Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,...

  8. Some Results on Sprout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep

    2015-01-01

    Sprout is a lightweight stream cipher proposed by Armknecht and Mikhalev at FSE 2015. It has a Grain-like structure with two state Registers of size 40 bits each, which is exactly half the state size of Grain v1. In spite of this, the cipher does not appear to lose in security against generic Time-Memory...... in a reasonable time using a SAT solver. Thereafter, we show that it is possible to perform a distinguishing attack on the full Sprout stream cipher in the multiple IV setting using around 240 randomly chosen IVs on an average. The attack requires around 248 bits of memory. Thereafter, we will show that for every...... a simple key recovery attack that takes time equivalent to 266.7 encryptions with negligible memory requirement. This although is not the best attack reported against this cipher in termncryptions with negligible memory requirement. This although is not the best attack reported against this cipher in terms...

  9. Chemopreventive glucosinolate accumulation in various broccoli and collard tissues: Microfluidic-based targeted transcriptomics for by-product valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sang; Ku, Kang-Mo; Becker, Talon M; Juvik, John A

    2017-01-01

    Floret, leaf, and root tissues were harvested from broccoli and collard cultivars and extracted to determine their glucosinolate and hydrolysis product profiles using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromotography. Quinone reductase inducing bioactivity, an estimate of anti-cancer chemopreventive potential, of the extracts was measured using a hepa1c1c7 murine cell line. Extracts from root tissues were significantly different from other tissues and contained high levels of gluconasturtiin and glucoerucin. Targeted gene expression analysis on glucosinolate biosynthesis revealed that broccoli root tissue has elevated gene expression of AOP2 and low expression of FMOGS-OX homologs, essentially the opposite of what was observed in broccoli florets, which accumulated high levels of glucoraphanin. Broccoli floret tissue has significantly higher nitrile formation (%) and epithionitrile specifier protein gene expression than other tissues. This study provides basic information of the glucosinolate metabolome and transcriptome for various tissues of Brassica oleracea that maybe utilized as potential byproducts for the nutraceutical market.

  10. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate analysis for the characterization and discrimination of extractable and nonextractable polyphenols and glucosinolates from red cabbage and Brussels sprout waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Raes, Katleen; Vanhoutte, Hanne; Coelus, Sofie; Smagghe, Guy; Van Camp, John

    2015-07-10

    Nonextractable polyphenol (NEP) fractions are usually ignored because conventional extraction methods do not release them from the plant matrix. In this study, we optimized the conditions for sonicated alkaline hydrolysis to the residues left after conventional polyphenol extraction of Brussels sprouts top (80°C, 4M NaOH, 30min) and stalks (60°C, 4M NaOH, 30min), and red cabbage waste streams (80°C, 4M NaOH, 45min) to release and characterize the NEP fraction. The NEP fractions of Brussels sprouts top (4.8±1.2mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/g dry waste) and stalks (3.3±0.2mg GAE/g dry waste), and red cabbage (11.5mg GAE/g dry waste) waste have significantly higher total polyphenol contents compared to their respective extractable polyphenol (EP) fractions (1.5±0.0, 2.0±0.0 and 3.7±0.0mg GAE/g dry waste, respectively). An LC-MS method combined with principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to tentatively identify and discriminate the polyphenol and glucosinolate composition of the EP and NEP fractions. Results revealed that phenolic profiles of the EP and NEP fractions are different and some compounds are only found in either fraction in all of the plant matrices. This suggests the need to account both fractions when analyzing the polyphenol and glucosinolate profiles of plant matrices to attain a global view of their composition. This is the first report on the discrimination of the phenolic and glucosinolate profiles of the EP and NEP fractions using metabolomics techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of a spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated broccoli and radish seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kyle S; Micheli, Sean; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of fresh produce has continued to increase over the past decade. Sprouts, such as mung bean, alfalfa, radish, and broccoli, are minimally processed and have been sources for foodborne illness. Currently, a 20,000 ppm calcium hypochlorite soak is recommended for the treatment of sprouting seeds. In this study, the efficacy of an antimicrobial carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated sprouting seeds. Antimicrobial treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in nanoemulsions (4000 or 8000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. Following treatment, surviving cells were determined by performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens. Treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3 log CFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on radish seeds when soaked for 60 min at concentrations ≥4000 (0.4%) ppm carvacrol. This treatment method was not affective on contaminated broccoli seeds. Total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative treatment method for contaminated radish seeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in different maturation stages of broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica) biofortified with selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiega, Patricia; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Schwarz, Kélin; Tezotto, Tiago; Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    In this work, three different broccoli maturity stages subjected to biofortification with selenium were evaluated for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Antioxidant trials have shown that the maturation stages biofortified with selenium had significantly higher amounts of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, especially seedlings. Although non-polar extracts of all samples show antiproliferative activity, the extract of broccoli seedlings biofortified with selenium stood out, presenting cytocidal activity for a glioma line (U251, GI50 28.5 mg L(-1)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PROFIL ASAM AMINO PENSTIMULASI SEKRESI INSULIN DALAM EKSTRAK SESUDAH PEMISAHAN PROTEIN KECAMBAH KACANG-KACANGAN LOKAL (Profile of Amino Acid for Stimulation of Insulin Secretion in the Extract after Protein Removal of Local Legumes Sprout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Kanetro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many local legumes in Indonesia that are potential to substitute soybean as functional food. Seed germination of legumes increased protease activity that could hydrolize protein, hence the extract of legumes sprout after removal of macromolecule protein contained small peptides dan free amino acids. The aims of this research were to determine the best local legume (winged bean, velvet bean, or cowpea sprout based on its profile of amino acid for stimulation of insulin secretion such as Leucine (Leu, Arginine (Arg, Alanine (Ala, Phenylalanine (Phe, Isoleucine (Ile, and Lycine (Lys in the extract after removal of macromolecule protein. Legume seeds were germinated, dried, and milled become the flour. The extracts of legume sprouts were prepared by mixing the flour and aquadest, centrifugated, and removed of the protein by precipitation at pH isoelectris. The extracts after removal of the macromolecule protein were analyzed for the total solid, soluble protein, and the profile of amino acid for stimulation of insulin secretion by HPLC. The result of this research showed that the extract of legumes sprout contained soluble protein and amino acid for stimulation of insulin secretion. The content of amino acids in the extract after removal of the protein of winged bean, velvet bean, cowpea sprouts and soybean seed as a control were 142,00;  206,40; 183,00; and 129,00 µg/ml for the Ala;  627,00; 1604,80; 524,00; and 422,40 µg/ml for the Arg; 136,00; 340,00; 124,20; and 119,40 µg/ml for the Phe; 122,80; 322,80; 104,60; and 100,40 µg/ml for the Ile; 190,80; 440,80; 136,40; and 168,00 µg/ml for the Leu;  340,40;  748,40; 177,00; and 256,40 µg/ml for the Lys respectively. Based on the data,  the velvet bean was chosen as the best legume due to the contain of amino acids for stimulation of insulin secretion was higher than the other legumes. Keywords: local legumes, sprout, amino acid, stimulation, insulin   ABSTRAK Indonesia memiliki

  14. Effects of ca treatments and temperature on broccoli colour development

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, R.E.; Zhang, X.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Broccoli combines high contents of vitamins, fibres and glucosinolates with a low calorie count and is sometimes referred to as the ‘crown jewel of nutrition’. Colour is one of the most important quality attributes of broccoli, and yellowing due to senescence of broccoli florets is the main external quality problem in the broccoli supply chain. Controlled Atmosphere (CA) is a very effective method to maintain broccoli quality but the effects of CA on colour retention have not been studied ext...

  15. Fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante do extrato aquoso de broto de feijão-mungo (Vigna radiata L. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão de Lima

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Considerando a importância dos compostos fenólicos em alimentos e que o broto de feijão-mungo vem sendo incluído na culinária brasileira, este estudo teve como objetivo quantificar o teor de fenólicos totais deste vegetal e avaliar a ação antioxidante do seu extrato aquoso. MÉTODOS: Os compostos fenólicos foram extraídos por quatro sistemas de solventes e dois métodos de extração, os quais foram diferenciados no tempo (2 e 1h e número de extrações (2 e 3 extrações. Os fenólicos totais dos extratos foram quantificados por método espectrofotométrico. RESULTADOS: Os extratos obtidos com água à temperatura ambiente (28ºC, nos dois métodos de extração, foram os que apresentaram maior quantidade de fenólicos totais, sem contudo apresentar diferença significativa entre eles. O método II, que consistiu de três extrações em 1h, pode ser considerado o melhor por ter utilizado menor tempo de extração. O extrato aquoso em sistema modelo b-caroteno/ácido linoléico exibiu ação antioxidante (48,07% de inibição da oxidação, entretanto foi inferior ao padrão BHT. CONCLUSÃO: O broto de feijão-mungo possui considerável quantidade de fenólicos totais, compostos responsáveis por sua ação antioxidante, cujo consumo pode proporcionar efeitos benéficos à saúde.OBJECTIVE: Considering the importance of phenolic compounds in foods and the increasing consumption of mung bean sprouts in Brazil, this study had the objective of quantifying the total phenolic content in this vegetable and to assess the antioxidant activity of its aqueous extract. METHODS: The phenolic compounds were extracted by four solvent systems and two extraction methods, which were different in time (2 and 1h and in number of extractions (2 and 3 extractions. The total phenolic content of the extracts were quantified by the spectrophotometric method. RESULTS: The extracts obtained with water at room temperature (28ºC in both extraction

  16. Optimization of methyl jasmonate application to broccoli florets to enhance health-promoting phytochemical content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2014-08-01

    Spray treatment of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) has been shown to increase glucosinolate (GS) concentrations and health-promoting activity in Brassica vegetables. Since there is no reported standardized protocol, several MeJA treatment studies have been conducted to maximize human health bioactivity using the F1 broccoli cultivar 'Green Magic'. Foliar MeJA application 4 days prior to harvest of broccoli at commercial maturity resulted in enhanced total GS concentrations. Although a single application of 250 µmol L(-1) MeJA maximized GS concentrations in broccoli florets, two days of consecutive treatments (4 and 3 days prior to harvest) of 250 µmol L(-1) MeJA further enhanced neoglucobrassicin concentrations and floret extract quinone reductase (QR)-inducing activity. With increasing concentrations of MeJA in spray applications to broccoli florets, concentrations of the glucosinolates glucoraphanin, gluconasturtiin and neoglucobrassicin and the isothiocyanate sulforaphane as well as anticancer and anti-inflammatory bioactivities as measured by QR induction and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production respectively were significantly increased. Concentrations of these phytochemicals showed strong positive correlations with QR-inducing and NO-inhibitory activities. These application protocols were found to maximize GS and GS hydrolysis product concentrations and putatively enhance the health-promoting properties of broccoli heads for consumers. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Structural analysis of an innate immunostimulant from broccoli, Brassica oleracea var. italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urai, Makoto; Kataoka, Keiko; Nishida, Satoshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2017-11-22

    Vegetables are eaten as part of a healthy diet throughout the world, and some are also applied topically as a traditional medicine. We evaluated the innate immunostimulating activities of hot water extracts of various vegetables using the silkworm muscle contraction assay system, and found that broccoli, Brassica oleracea var. italica, contains a strong innate immunostimulant. We purified the innate immunostimulant from broccoli, and characterized the chemical structure by chemical analyses and NMR spectroscopy. The innate immunostimulant comprised galacturonic acid, galactose, glucose, arabinose, and rhamnose, and had a pectic-like polysaccharide structure. To determine the structural motif involved in the innate immunostimulating activity, we modified the structure by chemical and enzymatic treatment, and found that the activity was attenuated by pectinase digestion. These findings suggest that a pectic-like polysaccharide purified from broccoli has innate immune-stimulating activity, for which the polygalacturonic acid structure is necessary.

  18. Protective effect of broccoli and ferulic acid on imidacloprid-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Imidacloprid may induce oxidative stress leading to generate free radicals and alternate oxygen free radical scavenging enzyme system. This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of broccoli water extract and ferulic acid on imidacloprid induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in male albino rats. Rats were ...

  19. Antioxidative and antitumor properties of in vitro-cultivated broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, Jasmina; Parić, Adisa; Maksimović, Milka; Bajrović, Kasim

    2012-02-01

    Broccoli [Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. (Brassicaceae)] contains substantial quantities of bioactive compounds, which are good free radical scavengers and thus might have strong antitumor properties. Enhancing production of plant secondary metabolites could be obtained with phytohormones that have significant effects on the metabolism of secondary metabolites. In that manner, in vitro culture presents good model for manipulation with plant tissues in order to affect secondary metabolite production and thus enhance bioactive properties of plants. Estimation of the antioxidative and antitumor properties of broccoli cultivated in different in vitro conditions. In vitro germinated and cultivated broccoli seedlings, as well as spontaneously developed calli, were subjected to Soxhlet extraction. Antioxidative activity of the herbal extracts was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical method. Antitumor properties of the extracts were determined using crown-gall tumor inhibition (potato disc) assay. Three, 10, 20, and 30 days old broccoli seedlings, cultivated in vitro on three different Murashige-Skoog media, two types of callus, and seedlings from sterile filter paper were used for extraction. In total, 15 aqueous extracts were tested for antioxidative and antitumor potential. Three day-old seedlings showed the highest antioxidative activity. Eleven out of 15 aqueous extracts demonstrated above 50% of crown-gall tumor inhibition in comparison with the control. Tumor inhibition was in association with types and concentrations of phytohormones presented in growing media. It is demonstrated that phytohormones in plant-growing media could affect the bioactive properties of broccoli either through increasing or decreasing their antioxidative and antitumor potential.

  20. Energy efficient drying strategies to retain nutritional components in broccoli broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Straten, van G.; Boom, R.M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns the combined optimization of the retention of bioactive components and energy efficiency during drying of broccoli. Kinetics for the degradation of glucosinolates, vitamin C and drying of broccoli are used to calculate optimal drying trajectories for the control variables air flow

  1. Analysis and enhancement of nutritional and antioxidant properties of Vigna aconitifolia sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestwal, Rakesh M; Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2012-06-01

    Vigna aconitifolia sprouts (Moth bean sprouts, MBS) were analyzed for their nutritional and antioxidant properties during sprouting. Sprouting for six days led to a 7.0 fold increase in fresh weight, 2.4 fold increase in soluble proteins, 3.0 fold increase in carbohydrates, and a 5.5 fold increase in mineral content. Phenolic content also increased by 28% during germination. Caffeic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and kaempferol were the predominant phenolic compounds detected in the ethanolic extracts of MBS by HPLC. Following supplementation with metal ions (200 μg ml⁻¹), the sprouts demonstrated a considerable increase in metal ion uptake, with improved phenolic content. MBS ethanolic extracts also reduced intracellular oxidative stress in HepG2 cells.

  2. Nonadverse effects on allergenicity of isopentenyltransferase-transformed broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, E C; Chen, J T; Chao, M L; Yu, S C; Chang, C Y; Chu, W S; Tsai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) provide modern agriculture with improvements in efficiency and the benefits of enhanced food production; however, the potential impact of GMOs on human health has not yet been clarified. To investigate the allergenicity of isopentenyltransferase (ipt)-transformed broccoli compared with non-GM broccoli. Sera from allergic individuals were used to identify the allergenicity of GM and non-GM broccoli. Immunoglobulin (Ig) binding of different lines of GM and non-GM broccoli was identified using immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the histamin release assay. Positive reactions to broccoli (Brassica Oleracea) were observed in 7.02% of individuals. Specific IgE to broccoli and total IgE fro allergic individuals were well correlated. The different tests performed showed no significant differences in the allergenicity of conventionally raised and GM broccoli, indicating the absence of unexpected effects on allergenicity in ipt-transformed plants. Using Western blot analysis we detected heterogeneous IgE-reactive allergenic components in broccoli-allergic sera, but no significant differences between GM an non-GM broccoli were observed in serum from the same patients. Our study demonstrates that there are no differences between GM (ipt-transformed) broccoli and non-GM broccoli, as determined by specific IgE in sera from broccoli-allergic patients. This indicates that there were no unexpected effects on allergenicity in this GM broccoli.

  3. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The potential role of nutritional genomics tools in validating high health foods for cancer control: broccoli as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Schlothauer, Ralf C

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional genomics reflects gene/nutrient interactions, utilising high-throughput genomic tools in nutrition research. The field also considers the contribution of individual genotypes to wellness and the risk of chronic disease (nutrigenetics), and how such genetic predisposition may be modified by appropriate diets. For example, high consumption of brassicaceous vegetables, including broccoli, has regularly associated with low cancer risk. Bioactive chemicals in broccoli include glucosinolates, plant pigments including kaempferol, quercetin, lutein and carotenoids, various vitamins, minerals and amino acids. Cancer prevention is hypothesised to act through various mechanisms including modulation of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes, NF-E2 p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2)-mediated stress-response mechanisms, and protection against genomic instability. Broccoli and broccoli extracts also regulate the progression of cancer through anti-inflammatory effects, effects on signal transduction, epigenetic effects and modulation of the colonic microflora. Human intervention studies with broccoli and related foods, using standard biomarker methodologies, reveal part of a complex picture. Nutrigenomic approaches, especially transcriptomics, enable simultaneous study of various signalling pathways and networks. Phenotypic, genetic and/or metabolic stratification may identify individuals most likely to respond positively to foods or diets. Jointly, these technologies can provide proof of human efficacy, and may be essential to ensure effective market transfer and uptake of broccoli and related foods. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) cultivar Avenger against pathogenic bacteria, phytopathogenic filamentous fungi and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Cano, R D; Salcedo-Hernández, R; López-Meza, J E; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to show whether the edible part of broccoli has antibacterial and antifungal activity against micro-organism of importance in human health and vegetable spoilage, and to test if this effect was partially due to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Crude extracts were obtained from florets and stems of broccoli cultivar Avenger and the inhibitory effect was demonstrated against pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Proteus vulgaris), phytopathogenic fungi (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Asperigillus niger) and yeasts (Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp.). It was shown that samples treated with proteolytic enzymes had a reduction of approximately 60% in antibacterial activity against Staph. xylosus, suggesting that proteinaceous compounds might play a role in the inhibitory effect. Antimicrobial components in crude extracts were thermoresistant and the highest activity was observed under acidic conditions. It was shown that antifungal activity of broccoli's crude extracts might not be attributed to chitinases. Organic broccoli cultivar Avenger has antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria, yeast and phytophatogenic fungi. Data suggest that this effect is partially due to AMPs. Broccoli's crude extracts have activity not only against pathogenic bacteria but also against phytophatogenic fungi of importance in agriculture. We suggest for first time that the inhibitory effect is probably due to AMPs. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Maximizing plant density affects broccoli yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market bunch broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the United States east coast. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding southeastern commercial markets. This broccoli plant density study was carr...

  7. Effects of ca treatments and temperature on broccoli colour development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Zhang, X.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2010-01-01

    Broccoli combines high contents of vitamins, fibres and glucosinolates with a low calorie count and is sometimes referred to as the ‘crown jewel of nutrition’. Colour is one of the most important quality attributes of broccoli, and yellowing due to senescence of broccoli florets is the main external

  8. Characteristic of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) beverage by lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, Yati; Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) has a relatively high nutrient content, especially as a source of vitamins, minerals and fiber and contain bioactive compounds that act as antioxidants. In order to increase the nutritional value and innovate new products, fermentation process involving rich-antioxidants lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was done. The aim of this study is to determine the content of bioactive components, such as total polyphenols, total acid and antioxidant activity of the mixed culture of LAB (L. bulgaricus, S. thermophulus, L. acidophilus, Bd. bifidum)-fermented broccoli extracts. Ratio of fermented broccoli extract and concentration of starter cultureLAB was varied in the range of 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v/v), and the alterations of characteristics of the fermented broccoli extract, before and after fermentation (0 and 24 hours), were evaluated. The results showed that fermentation functional beverage broccoli with different concentrations of LAB cultures affect the antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, total acid and total cell of LAB generated. The optimum conditions obtained for the highest antioxidant activity of 6.74%, at aculture concentration of 20% during fermentation time of 24 h with a pH value of 4.29, total sugar of 10.89%, total acids of 0.97%, total polyphenols of 0.076%, and total LAB of 13.02 + 0.05 log cfu /ml.

  9. Effects of Polysaccharide Elicitors from Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the Growth, Flavonoid Accumulation and Antioxidant Property of Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lingyun; Niu, Bei; Tang, Lin; Chen, Fang; Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Jianglin

    2016-11-25

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different fungal polysaccharides, named water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS), sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS), hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS), and exo-polysaccharide (EPS) obtained from the endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the sprout growth, flavonoid accumulation, and antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat. Without visible changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors strongly stimulated sprout growth and flavonoid production, and the stimulation effect was closely related with the polysaccharide (PS) species and its treatment dosage. With application of 200 mg/L of EPS, 200 mg/L of APS, 150 mg/L of WPS, or 100 mg/L of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yields of buckwheat sprouts were significantly increased to 41.70 mg/(100 sprouts), 41.52 mg/(100 sprouts), 35.88 mg/(100 sprouts), and 32.95 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. This was about 1.11 to 1.40-fold compared to the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts). Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat sprouts was also enhanced after treatment with the four PS elicitors. Furthermore, the present study revealed the polysaccharide elicitation that caused the accumulation of functional flavonoid by stimulating the phenylpropanoid pathway. The application of beneficial fungal polysaccharide elicitors may be an effective approach to improve the nutritional and functional characteristics of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  10. Effects of Polysaccharide Elicitors from Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the Growth, Flavonoid Accumulation and Antioxidant Property of Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different fungal polysaccharides, named water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS, sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS, hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS, and exo-polysaccharide (EPS obtained from the endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the sprout growth, flavonoid accumulation, and antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat. Without visible changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors strongly stimulated sprout growth and flavonoid production, and the stimulation effect was closely related with the polysaccharide (PS species and its treatment dosage. With application of 200 mg/L of EPS, 200 mg/L of APS, 150 mg/L of WPS, or 100 mg/L of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yields of buckwheat sprouts were significantly increased to 41.70 mg/(100 sprouts, 41.52 mg/(100 sprouts, 35.88 mg/(100 sprouts, and 32.95 mg/(100 sprouts, respectively. This was about 1.11 to 1.40-fold compared to the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat sprouts was also enhanced after treatment with the four PS elicitors. Furthermore, the present study revealed the polysaccharide elicitation that caused the accumulation of functional flavonoid by stimulating the phenylpropanoid pathway. The application of beneficial fungal polysaccharide elicitors may be an effective approach to improve the nutritional and functional characteristics of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  11. Ingestion of broccoli sprouts does not improve endothelial function in humans with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Buris; Bellostas Muguerza, Natalia; Petersen, Atheline Major

    2010-01-01

    antioxidative potential, for a 4 week period or to continue their ordinary diet and act as controls. Blood pressure, endothelial function measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD) and blood samples were obtained from the participants every other week and the content of glucosinolates was measured before...... and after the study. Measurements were blinded to treatment allocation. RESULTS: In the interventional group overall FMD increased from 4% to 5.8% in the interventional group whereas in the control group FMD was stable (4% at baseline and 3.9% at the end of the study). The change in FMD...... in the interventional group was mainly due to a marked change in FMD in two participants while the other participants did not have marked changes in FMD. The observed differences were not statistically significant. Likewise significant changes in blood pressure or blood samples were not detected between or within...

  12. Agronomy of strip intercropping broccoli with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic broccoli growers in California typically control aphids by intercropping broccoli with strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.) which attracts hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) that are important predators of aphids. A three year study with transplanted organic broccoli in Salinas, ...

  13. VEGF and endothelial guidance in angiogenic sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Holger

    2008-10-01

    The cellular actions of VEGF need to be coordinated to guide vascular patterning during sprouting angiogenesis. Individual endothelial tip cells lead and guide the blood vessel sprout, while neighbouring stalk cells proliferate and form the vascular lumen. Recent studies illustrate how endothelial DLL4/NOTCH signalling, stimulated by VEGF, regulates the sprouting response by limiting tip cell formation in the stalk. The spatial distribution of VEGF, in turn, regulates the shape of the ensuing sprout by directing tip cell migration and determining stalk cell proliferation.

  14. Environmental life cycle analysis of potato sprout inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, R.P.V.; Ree, C.M.; Moll, H.C.

    Potato sprout inhibitors are generally applied to suppress sprouting during winter storage. This study presents the compared environmental profiles of the two sprout inhibitors available on the Dutch market: A traditional chemical product with isopropyl-3-chlorophenylcarbamate (CIPC) and

  15. Chemopreventive glucosinolate accumulation in various broccoli and collard tissues: Microfluidic-based targeted transcriptomics for by-product valorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Talon M.; Juvik, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Floret, leaf, and root tissues were harvested from broccoli and collard cultivars and extracted to determine their glucosinolate and hydrolysis product profiles using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromotography. Quinone reductase inducing bioactivity, an estimate of anti-cancer chemopreventive potential, of the extracts was measured using a hepa1c1c7 murine cell line. Extracts from root tissues were significantly different from other tissues and contained high levels of gluconasturtiin and glucoerucin. Targeted gene expression analysis on glucosinolate biosynthesis revealed that broccoli root tissue has elevated gene expression of AOP2 and low expression of FMOGS-OX homologs, essentially the opposite of what was observed in broccoli florets, which accumulated high levels of glucoraphanin. Broccoli floret tissue has significantly higher nitrile formation (%) and epithionitrile specifier protein gene expression than other tissues. This study provides basic information of the glucosinolate metabolome and transcriptome for various tissues of Brassica oleracea that maybe utilized as potential byproducts for the nutraceutical market. PMID:28945821

  16. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  17. Machine vision for a selective broccoli harvesting robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Pieter M.; Barth, Ruud; Berg, Van Den Wim

    2016-01-01

    The selective hand-harvest of fresh market broccoli is labor-intensive and comprises about 35% of the total production costs. This research was conducted to determine whether machine vision can be used to detect broccoli heads, as a first step in the development of a fully autonomous selective

  18. Glucoraphanin and other glucosinolates in heads of broccoli cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) emerged as an increasingly popular vegetable of North American consumers during the second half of the 20th Century, with per captita consumption increasing nearly eight fold during this period. Likewise, production and consumption of broccoli has also i...

  19. Accumulation of solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble antioxidant phenolics in edible bean sprouts: implication of germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-You Gan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edible bean sprouts are popular fresh vegetables widely recognized for their nutritional quality. However, while their antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble extracts has not been systematically evaluated. Methods: The antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble fractions of 12 cultivars of edible bean sprouts were evaluated, and relationships of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were also analyzed. Results: Sprouts demonstrated a wide range of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content, with lower but substantial antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in the solvent-insoluble fractions. Highest levels were found in the green mung bean sprout. Phenolic compounds, such as catechin, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were widely detected in these sprouts. Additionally, a positive correlation was discovered between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in these edible bean sprouts. Conclusions: Germination generally resulted in the accumulation of antioxidant phenolics in the most edible bean sprouts. Edible bean sprouts with high antioxidant phenolics can be valuable natural sources of dietary antioxidants for the prevention of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases.

  20. Fluid shear stress threshold regulates angiogenic sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galie, Peter A; Nguyen, Duc-Huy T; Choi, Colin K; Cohen, Daniel M; Janmey, Paul A; Chen, Christopher S

    2014-06-03

    The density and architecture of capillary beds that form within a tissue depend on many factors, including local metabolic demand and blood flow. Here, using microfluidic control of local fluid mechanics, we show the existence of a previously unappreciated flow-induced shear stress threshold that triggers angiogenic sprouting. Both intraluminal shear stress over the endothelium and transmural flow through the endothelium above 10 dyn/cm(2) triggered endothelial cells to sprout and invade into the underlying matrix, and this threshold is not impacted by the maturation of cell-cell junctions or pressure gradient across the monolayer. Antagonizing VE-cadherin widened cell-cell junctions and reduced the applied shear stress for a given transmural flow rate, but did not affect the shear threshold for sprouting. Furthermore, both transmural and luminal flow induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1, and this up-regulation was required for the flow-induced sprouting. Once sprouting was initiated, continuous flow was needed to both sustain sprouting and prevent retraction. To explore the potential ramifications of a shear threshold on the spatial patterning of new sprouts, we used finite-element modeling to predict fluid shear in a variety of geometric settings and then experimentally demonstrated that transmural flow guided preferential sprouting toward paths of draining interstitial fluid flow as might occur to connect capillary beds to venules or lymphatics. In addition, we show that luminal shear increases in local narrowings of vessels to trigger sprouting, perhaps ultimately to normalize shear stress across the vasculature. Together, these studies highlight the role of shear stress in controlling angiogenic sprouting and offer a potential homeostatic mechanism for regulating vascular density.

  1. Study of Active Ingredients in Black Soybean Sprouts and Their Safety in Cosmetic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinmao Dong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Active ingredients in different lengths of black soybean sprouts were extracted with water. Concentrations of the main proteins and polysaccharides were determined by the Forint phenol assay and phenol-sulfuric acid assay, respectively. Anti-oxidizing capacities of the extracts were measured in vitro using the DPPH scavenging test and whitening capacity was measured in vitro using the tyrosinase inhibition test. The effects of the bean sprout extracts on human skin fibroblasts damnified by H2O2 were studied using an MTT colorimetric assay. The safety of the extracts was determined using the red blood cell (RBC test, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay and human patch test. Results show that DPPH radical scavenging rates at different shoot lengths were all greater than 95%, while the tyrosinase inhibition capacity of the extracts reached 98%. Hemolysis rate in all extracts were lower than 10%, below the 20% regulatory limit for the RBC test. No signs of allergic reactions were observed in the human patch tests. The optimum extract was obtained from bean sprouts grown to 0.5 cm. Extracts of black bean sprouts are safe and can be used as additives in anti-aging and whitening cosmetic products.

  2. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  3. The influence of selenium addition during germination of Brassica seeds on health-promoting potential of sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska, Anna; Kołodziejski, Dominik; Pilipczuk, Tadeusz; Bodnar, Małgorzata; Konieczka, Piotr; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika; Cyprys, Joanna; Groszewska, Milena; Namieśnik, Jacek; Bartoszek, Agnieszka

    2014-09-01

    The correlation among selenium uptake, the content of bioactive compounds in sprouts, and biological activities triggered in cultured human cells by sprout extracts was investigated. Seeds of Brassica crops and rye were treated with SeO2 water solution. The selenium levels in sprouts increased from 1.0-4.1 to 53.3-382 μg/g dw with no influence on plant physiology according to the indices used. Neither the composition of glucosinolates (GL) in Brassica sprouts nor the myrosinase activity nor the composition of GL breakdown lipophilic products were significantly affected. In all Brassica sprouts, conversion to health-promoting isothiocyanates (ITC) and indoles corresponded to only 1% of total GLs. Low ITC concentration may explain observed lack of induction of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) detoxifying enzymes in HT29 cells exposed to sprout extracts. The insignificant impact on cell growth and genome function suggests that Brassica sprouts may be safe vehicle of selenium to combat its dietary deficiency.

  4. Glucosinolates from pak choi and broccoli induce enzymes and inhibit inflammation and colon cancer differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Doris; Lehmann, Carsten; Florian, Simone; Barknowitz, Gitte; Haack, Michael; Mewis, Inga; Wiesner, Melanie; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Brigelius-Flohé, Regina; Kipp, Anna P

    2014-06-01

    High consumption of Brassica vegetables is considered to prevent especially colon carcinogenesis. The content and pattern of glucosinolates (GSLs) can highly vary among different Brassica vegetables and may, thus, affect the outcome of Brassica intervention studies. Therefore, we aimed to feed mice with diets containing plant materials of the Brassica vegetables broccoli and pak choi. Further enrichment of the diets by adding GSL extracts allowed us to analyze the impact of different amounts (GSL-poor versus GSL-rich) and different patterns (broccoli versus pak choi) of GSLs on inflammation and tumor development in a model of inflammation-triggered colon carcinogenesis (AOM/DSS model). Serum albumin adducts were analyzed to confirm the up-take and bioactivation of GSLs after feeding the Brassica diets for four weeks. In agreement with their high glucoraphanin content, broccoli diets induced the formation of sulforaphane-lysine adducts. Levels of 1-methoxyindolyl-3-methyl-histidine adducts derived from neoglucobrassicin were the highest in the GSL-rich pak choi group. In the colon, the GSL-rich broccoli and the GSL-rich pak choi diet up-regulated the expression of different sets of typical Nrf2 target genes like Nqo1, Gstm1, Srxn1, and GPx2. GSL-rich pak choi induced the AhR target gene Cyp1a1 but did not affect Ugt1a1 expression. Both colitis and tumor number were drastically reduced after feeding the GSL-rich pak choi diet while the other three diets had no effect. GSLs can act anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic but both effects depend on the specific amount and pattern of GSLs within a vegetable. Thus, a high Brassica consumption cannot be generally considered to be cancer-preventive.

  5. Genetic regulation of glucoraphanin accumulation in Beneforté broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traka, Maria H; Saha, Shikha; Huseby, Stine; Kopriva, Stanislav; Walley, Peter G; Barker, Guy C; Moore, Jonathan; Mero, Gene; van den Bosch, Frans; Constant, Howard; Kelly, Leo; Schepers, Hans; Boddupalli, Sekhar; Mithen, Richard F

    2013-06-01

    · Diets rich in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var italica) have been associated with maintenance of cardiovascular health and reduction in risk of cancer. These health benefits have been attributed to glucoraphanin that specifically accumulates in broccoli. The development of broccoli with enhanced concentrations of glucoraphanin may deliver greater health benefits. · Three high-glucoraphanin F1 broccoli hybrids were developed in independent programmes through genome introgression from the wild species Brassica villosa. Glucoraphanin and other metabolites were quantified in experimental field trials. Global SNP analyses quantified the differential extent of B. villosa introgression · The high-glucoraphanin broccoli hybrids contained 2.5-3 times the glucoraphanin content of standard hybrids due to enhanced sulphate assimilation and modifications in sulphur partitioning between sulphur-containing metabolites. All of the high-glucoraphanin hybrids possessed an introgressed B. villosa segment which contained a B. villosa Myb28 allele. Myb28 expression was increased in all of the high-glucoraphanin hybrids. Two high-glucoraphanin hybrids have been commercialised as Beneforté broccoli. · The study illustrates the translation of research on glucosinolate genetics from Arabidopsis to broccoli, the use of wild Brassica species to develop cultivars with potential consumer benefits, and the development of cultivars with contrasting concentrations of glucoraphanin for use in blinded human intervention studies. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. An overview of health-promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and the effect of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Andrea; Reyes, Alejandro

    2012-12-01

    Broccoli offers many heath-promoting properties owing to its content of antioxidant and anticarcinogenic compounds. The concentration and bioavailability of polyphenols, glucosinolates, sulforaphane and selenium depend on plant biochemistry, cultivation strategy and type of processing. In this article, the main biochemical properties of broccoli are reviewed regarding their health-promoting effects. Additionally, the way these properties are affected by processing is discussed. Steaming and drying result in an apparent increment of sulforaphane content as well as antioxidant activity, most likely due to an increase of the extractability of antioxidants and sulforaphane. Freezing and boiling diminish polyphenols concentration, mainly due to volatilization and leaching into the cooking water. In view of these results, the optimization of broccoli processing in order to maximize the content of bioactive compounds should be possible. The effect of processing on selenium compounds has been poorly studied so far, and therefore this topic should be investigated in the future. Finally, the effect of operating conditions in different drying processes on the content of bioactive compounds in broccoli should be investigated in a greater depth.

  7. Accumulation of solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble antioxidant phenolics in edible bean sprouts: implication of germination

    OpenAIRE

    Ren-You Gan; Wing-Yee Lui; Ming-Fu Wang; Zhong-Quan Sui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Edible bean sprouts are popular fresh vegetables widely recognized for their nutritional quality. However, while their antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble extracts has not been systematically evaluated. Methods: The antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble fractions of 12 cultivars of edible bean sprouts were evaluated, and relationships of antioxidant cap...

  8. Modelling Tumor-induced Angiogenesis: Combination of Stochastic Sprout Spacing and Sprout Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Angiogenesis initiated by cancerous cells is the process by which new blood vessels are formed to enhance oxygenation and growth of tumor. Objective: In this paper, we present a new multiscale mathematical model for the formation of a vascular network in tumor angiogenesis process. Methods: Our model couples an improved sprout spacing model as a stochastic mathematical model of sprouting along an existing parent blood vessel, with a mathematical model of sprout progression in the extracellular matrix (ECM in response to some tumor angiogenic factors (TAFs. We perform simulations of the siting of capillary sprouts on an existing blood vessel using finite difference approximation of the dynamic equations of some angiogenesis activators and inhibitors. Angiogenesis activators are chemicals secreted by hypoxic tumor cells for initiating angiogenesis, and inhibitors of the angiogenesis are chemicals that are produced around every new sprout during tumor angiogenesis to inhibit the formation of further sprouts as a feedback of sprouting in angiogenesis. Moreover, for modelling sprout progression in ECM, we use three equations for the motility of endothelial cells at the tip of the activated sprouts, the consumption of TAF and the production and uptake of Fibronectin by endothelial cells. Results: Coupling these two basic models not only does provide a better time estimation of angiogenesis process, but also it is more compatible with reality. Conclusion: This model can be used to provide basic information for angiogenesis in the related studies. Related simulations can estimate the position and number of sprouts along parent blood vessel during the initial steps of angiogenesis and models the process of sprout progression in ECM until they vascularize a tumor.

  9. Sweet potato cysteine proteases SPAE and SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Liang, Shu-Hao; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2015-08-15

    Sweet potato sporamins are trypsin inhibitors and exhibit strong resistance to digestion by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. In addition, they constitute the major storage proteins in the sweet potato and, after degradation, provide nitrogen as a nutrient for seedling regrowth in sprouting storage roots. In this report, four cysteine proteases-one asparaginyl endopeptidase (SPAE), two papain-like cysteine proteases (SPCP1 and SPCP2), and one granulin-containing cysteine protease (SPCP3)-were studied to determine their association with sporamin degradation in sprouting storage roots. Sporamin degradation became significant in the flesh of storage roots starting from week 4 after sprouting and this correlated with expression levels of SPAE and SPCP2, but not of SPCP1 and SPCP3. In the outer flesh near the skin, sporamin degradation was more evident and occurred earlier than in the inner flesh of storage roots. Degradation of sporamins in the outer flesh was inversely correlated with the distance of the storage root from the sprout. Exogenous application of SPAE and SPCP2, but not SPCP3, fusion proteins to crude extracts of the outer flesh (i.e., extracted from a depth of 0.3cm and within 2cm of one-week-old sprouts) promoted in vitro sporamin degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of SPAE and SPCP2 fusion proteins at 95°C for 5min prior to their application to the crude extracts reduced sporamin degradation. These data show that sweet potato asparaginyl endopeptidase SPAE and papain-like cysteine protease SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidant activity of fermented broccoli and spinach by Kombucha culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, Nina; Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Lotulung, Puspa Dewi Narrij; Maryati, Yati

    2017-11-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Amaranthus spp.) are vegetables that known to have many benefit for health. Previous studies on the fermentation of those vegetables using kombucha cultured showed increase in bioactive components such as total polyphenol content. The current studies was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of fermented spinach and broccoli before (feed) and after treatment with filtration (retentate and permeate). Filtration was conducted using Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC) with UF membrane 100,000 MWCO mode at fixed condition (stirred rotation 300 rpm, room temperature, pressure 40 psia). Antioxidant evaluation was conducted using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picril hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay. The results showed that all samples from fermented broccoli showed antioxidant activity (feed 15.82% inhibition and retentate 15.29% inhibition), with the best antioxidant activity was obtained from permeate (75.98% inhibition). Whereas from fermented spinach only permeate showed antioxidant activity (21.84% inhibition) and it significantly lower than broccoli permeate. The mass spectrum of LCMS analysis on broccoli samples showed the present of several mass spectrum with (M+H) range from 148.1 to 442.5 in feed, retentate and permeate. In those samples (M+H) 360.4 always has the highest relative intensity. These results suggest that fermented broccoli has potential for development as functional drink for the source of antioxidant and the permeate obtained from filtration treatment significantly increased the antioxidant activity.

  11. Small bowel obstruction from potato and broccoli phytobezoar mimicking mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Karen D; Tupesis, Janis P

    2013-01-01

    Bezoars are concretions of undigested foreign material that form in the gastrointestinal tract. Rare in humans, they are nonetheless a well-documented cause of intraluminal bowel obstruction. The objectives of this case report include describing an unusual presentation of small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoar, which mimicked mesenteric ischemia, and highlighting the risk factors, presentation, and management of bezoars, in addition to covering historical beliefs regarding bezoars. Here we report a 64-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Department with chest pain, vomiting, and hypotension. Initial work-up was directed at ruling out cardiac causes and aortic catastrophe such as aortic dissection or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Computed tomography angiography of the chest and abdomen showed findings suggestive of mesenteric ischemia and small bowel obstruction. However, exploratory laparotomy revealed intraluminal small bowel obstruction from a phytobezoar consisting of undigested chunks of potato, brussels sprouts, and broccoli. Although rare in humans, bezoars are a documented cause of small bowel obstruction, and should be considered when intraluminal bowel obstruction occurs. Bezoars causing small bowel obstruction require surgical treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo formation and bioavailability of isothiocyanates from glucosinolates in broccoli as affected by processing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, T.; Verkerk, R.; Vermeulen, M.; Dekker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Scope: To study the effect of residual myrosinase (MYR) activity in differently processed broccoli on sulforaphane (SR) and iberin (IB) formation, bioavailability, and excretion in human volunteers. Methods and results: Five different broccoli products were obtainedwith similar glucoraphanin (GR)

  13. Production and postharvest quality maintenance of single unit and bunching broccoli in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Jett, Lewis W.

    1990-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has become an increasingly popular vegetable with American consumers. Much of the attractiveness of fresh broccoli is derived from this vegetable's high nutrition and excellent organoleptic properties. In a consumer response survey, Virginia Master Gardeners indicated a preference for broccoli that has less stalk and more florets by weight. The objectives of this research were to produce single unit broccoli, and to examine vac...

  14. Development of water oak stump sprouts under a partial overstory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Lisa M. Helmig

    1997-01-01

    A 28-year-old water oak (Quercus nigra L.) plantation was thinned from below to either 254 or 462 stems per hectare to determine the influence of a partial canopy on oak stump sprout development. Sprout clump survival, number of living sprouts in a clump, and height and DBH of the dominant sprout in a clump were measured in years l-5 and 7 after harvest. By year 7,...

  15. Development of colour of broccoli heads as affected by controlled atmosphere storage and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Zhang, X.; Verkerk, R.; Verschoor, J.A.; Otma, E.C.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2009-01-01

    Colour is one of the most important quality attributes of broccoli. Yellowing due to senescence of broccoli florets is the main external quality problem. Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage is a very effective method to maintain broccoli quality. The aim of this paper is to characterise the colour

  16. SproutCore web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Keating, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Written as a practical, step-by-step tutorial, Creating HTML5 Apps with SproutCore is full of engaging examples to help you learn in a practical context.This book is for any person looking to write software for the Web or already writing software for the Web. Whether your background is in web development or in software development, Creating HTML5 Apps with SproutCore will help you expand your skills so that you will be ready to apply the software development principles in the web development space.

  17. Long-term success of stump sprout regeneration in baldcypress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Keim; Jim L. Chambers; Melinda S. Hughes; Emile S. Gardiner; William H. Conner; John W. Day; Stephen P. Faulkner; Kenneth W. McLeod; Craig A. Miller; J. Andrew Nyman; Gary P. Shaffer; Luben D. Dimov

    2006-01-01

    Baldcypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.] is one of very few conifers that produces stump sprouts capable of becoming full-grown trees. Previous studies have addressed early survival of baldcypress stump sprouts but have not addressed the likelihood of sprouts becoming an important component of mature stands. We surveyed stands throughout south...

  18. Heterosis for horticultural traits in broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Anna L; Farnham, Mark W; Nzaramba, M Ndambe; Kimbeng, Collins A

    2007-08-01

    Over the last three decades, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica Group) hybrids made by crossing two inbred lines replaced open-pollinated populations to become the predominant type of cultivar. The change to hybrids evolved with little or no understanding of heterosis or hybrid vigor in this crop. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine levels of heterosis expressed by a set of hybrids derived by crossing relatively elite, modern inbreds (n = 9). An additional objective was to determine if PCR-based marker derived genetic similarities among the parents can be useful to predict heterosis in this crop. Thirty-six hybrids derived from a diallel mating design involving nine parents were evaluated for five horticultural characters including the head characteristics of head weight, head stem diameter, and maturity (e.g., days from transplant to harvest), and the plant vigor characteristics of plant height, and plant width in four environments. A total of 409 polymorphic markers were generated by 24 AFLP, 23 SRAP and 17 SSR primer combinations. Euclidean distances between parents were determined based on phenotypic traits. About half of the hybrids exhibited highparent heterosis for head weight (1-30 g) and stem diameter (0.2-3.5 cm) when averaged across environments. Almost all hybrids showed highparent heterosis for plant height (1-10 cm) and width (2-13 cm). Unlike other traits, there was negative heterosis for maturity, indicating that heterosis for this character in hybrids is expressed as earliness. Genetic similarity estimates among the nine parental lines ranged from 0.43 to 0.71 and were significantly and negatively correlated with highparent heterosis for all traits except for stem diameter and days from transplant to harvest. Euclidean distances were not correlated with heterosis. With modern broccoli inbreds, less heterosis was observed for head characteristics than for traits that measured plant vigor. In addition, genetic similarity

  19. Continued selenium biofortification of carrots and broccoli grown in soils once amended with Se-enriched S. pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S. Bañuelos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se biofortification has been practiced in Se-deficient regions throughout the world primarily by adding inorganic sources of Se to the soil. Considering the use of adding organic sources of Se could be useful as an alternative Se amendment for the production of Se-biofortified food crops. In this multi-year micro-plot study, we investigate growing carrots and broccoli in soils that had been previously amended with Se-enriched Stanleya pinnata Pursh (Britton three and four years prior to planting one and two, respectively. Results showed that total and extractable Se concentrations in soils (0-30 cm were 1.65 mg kg-1 and 88 µg L-1, and 0.92 mg kg-1 and 48.6 µg L-1 at the beginning of the growing season for planting one and two, respectively. After each respective growing season, total Se concentrations in the broccoli florets and carrots ranged from 6.99 to 7.83 mg kg-1 and 3.15 to 6.25 mg kg-1 in planting one and two, respectively. In broccoli and carrot plant tissues, SeMet (selenomethionine was the predominant selenoamino acid identified in Se aqueous extracts. In postharvest soils from planting one, phospholipid analyses (PLFA showed that amending the soil with S. pinnata exerted no effect on the microbial biomass, AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, actinomycetes and Gram-positive and bacterial PLFA at both 0-5 and 0-30 cm, respectively, three years later. Successfully producing Se-enriched broccoli and carrots three and four years later after amending soil with Se-enriched S. pinnata clearly demonstrates its potential source as an organic Se enriched fertilizer for Se-deficient regions.

  20. Origin of buds, branches, and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that survivor trees in rural, managed forests rebuild broken crowns with new branches and foliage after ice storm injury (Shortle et al. 2014). Veteran trees in historic parks and landscapes show repeated cycles of crown loss and recovery (Fay 2002). Crown rebuilding or reiteration from sprouts is a physiological response with architectural...

  1. Profitability of Precommericially Thinning Oak Stump Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, percommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-yr-old...

  2. Profitability of precommercially thinning oak stump sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, precommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-year-old...

  3. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  4. Carbon disulphide promotes sprouting of potato minitubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, Kh.; Hosseini, M.B.; Struik, P.C.; Tavakkol Afshari, R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of postharvest application of carbon disulphide (CS2) in various concentrations (0, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 ml m-3) and with different exposure duration (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) on breaking of dormancy and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Marfona) minitubers of

  5. Dietary Broccoli Alters Rat Cecal Microbiota to Improve Glucoraphanin Hydrolysis to Bioactive Isothiocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoji; Wang, Yanling; Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Neme, Bárbara P; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Miller, Michael J

    2017-03-10

    Broccoli consumption brings many health benefits, including reducing the risk of cancer and inflammatory diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify global alterations in the cecal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and glucoraphanin (GRP) hydrolysis to isothiocyanates ex vivo by the cecal microbiota, following different broccoli diets. Rats were randomized to consume AIN93G (control) or different broccoli diets; AIN93G plus cooked broccoli, a GRP-rich powder, raw broccoli, or myrosinase-treated cooked broccoli. Feeding raw or cooked broccoli for four days or longer both changed the cecal microbiota composition and caused a greater production of isothiocyanates ex vivo. A more than two-fold increase in NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity of the host colon mucosa after feeding cooked broccoli for seven days confirmed the positive health benefits. Further studies revealed that dietary GRP was specifically responsible for the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo, whereas changes in the cecal microbial communities were attributed to other broccoli components. Interestingly, a three-day withdrawal from a raw broccoli diet reversed the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo. Findings suggest that enhanced conversion of GRP to bioactive isothiocyanates by the cecal microbiota requires four or more days of broccoli consumption and is reversible.

  6. Exogenous ethylene inhibits sprout growth in onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufler, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Exogenous ethylene has recently gained commercial interest as a sprouting inhibitor of onion bulbs. The role of ethylene in dormancy and sprouting of onions, however, is not known. Methods A cultivar (Allium cepa ‘Copra’) with a true period of dormancy was used. Dormant and sprouting states of onion bulbs were treated with supposedly saturating doses of ethylene or with the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Initial sprouting was determined during storage at 18 °C by monitoring leaf blade elongation in a specific size class of leaf sheaths. Changes in ATP content and sucrose synthase activity in the sprout leaves, indicators of the sprouting state, were determined. CO2 and ethylene production of onion bulbs during storage were recorded. Key results Exogenous ethylene suppressed sprout growth of both dormant and already sprouting onion bulbs by inhibiting leaf blade elongation. In contrast to this growth-inhibiting effect, ethylene stimulated CO2 production by the bulbs about 2-fold. The duration of dormancy was not significantly affected by exogenous ethylene. However, treatment of dormant bulbs with 1-MCP caused premature sprouting. Conclusions Exogenous ethylene proved to be a powerful inhibitor of sprout growth in onion bulbs. The dormancy breaking effect of 1-MCP indicates a regulatory role of endogenous ethylene in onion bulb dormancy. PMID:18940850

  7. The Broccoli Syndrome: Higher Education's Pubdown Of The Minority Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Penfield; Delworth, Ursula

    1973-01-01

    The assumption underlying the broccoli syndrome is that minority group students are not familiar with a whole range of Anglo goodies''. This article points out how, as the minority student is enlightened time and again to such facts'', he perceives inherent racism in his enlightener.'' (JC)

  8. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Postharvest Senescence in Broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Tania; Griffiths, Gareth; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky

    2001-01-01

    Postharvest senescence in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica) florets results in phenotypic changes similar to those seen in developmental leaf senescence. To compare these two processes in more detail, we investigated molecular and biochemical changes in broccoli florets stored at two different temperatures after harvest. We found that storage at cooler temperatures delayed the symptoms of senescence at both the biochemical and gene expression levels. Changes in key biochemical components (lipids, protein, and chlorophyll) and in gene expression patterns occurred in the harvested tissue well before any visible signs of senescence were detected. Using previously identified senescence-enhanced genes and also newly isolated, differentially expressed genes, we found that the majority of these showed a similar enhancement of expression in postharvest broccoli as in developmental leaf senescence. At the biochemical level, a rapid loss of membrane fatty acids was detected after harvest, when stored at room temperature. However, there was no corresponding increase in levels of lipid peroxidation products. This, together with an increased expression of protective antioxidant genes, indicated that, in the initial stages of postharvest senescence, an orderly dismantling of the cellular constituents occurs, using the available lipid as an energy source. Postharvest changes in broccoli florets, therefore, show many similarities to the processes of developmental leaf senescence. PMID:11161029

  9. A transdisciplinary approach to developing an eastern broccoli industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current economic, social and scientific situations have made it attractive to establish a substantial and profitable broccoli industry in the eastern US, where several obstacles have prevented that from happening previously. Because many barriers must be overcome simultaneously, we assembled a tran...

  10. Yield, irrigation production efficiency and economic return of broccoli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effect of irrigation methods and irrigation schedules on marketable yield, irrigation oroduction efficiency and economic return of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea. Var. italica). lrrigation was applied when the sum of daily pan evaporation data from United States Weather Bureau (USWB) class- A-open ran reach approximately to ...

  11. Plant regeneration of Brassica oleracea subsp. italica (Broccoli) CV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Hypocotyl and shoot tip explants, 5-8 mm in size, were excised from 6-day-old broccoli seedlings. The explants were cultured on. MS medium incorporated with different concentrations of plant growth regulators for shoot proliferation and root formation. For shoot induction and multiplication from hypocotyl ...

  12. The Effect of Steaming on the Glucosinolate Content in Broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Knol, J.J.; Dekker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Total and individual glucosinolates were measured after different duration of steaming broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica). During steaming, the temperature profile, cell lysis and inactivation of myrosinase were assessed as well. Steaming resulted in high retention of total aliphatic and

  13. Optimization of a plant regeneration protocol for broccoli | Huang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors which influence the regeneration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were studied using an orthogonal design. The results showed that the major factor was the explant type, followed by naphthylacetic acid (NAA), benzylaminopurine (BAP), sucrose and AgNO3 in turn. The maximum regeneration was on ...

  14. No de novo sulforaphane biosynthesis in broccoli seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Antonie; Kraut, Nicolai U.; de Visser, Ries; de Vries, Marcel; Roelofsen, Han; Vonk, Roel J.

    2011-01-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane, present in significant amounts in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) seedlings in the form of its precursor glucoraphanin, has been identified as an inducer of quinine reductase, a phase-II detoxification enzyme known for its anticarcinogenic properties. Its

  15. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Broccoli EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Fang O.; Lin, Chun-Hung; Lai, Ying-Mi; Huang, Jia-Yuan; Sung, Zinmay Renee

    2012-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins regulate major developmental processes in Arabidopsis. EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2), the VEFS domain-containing PcG gene, regulates diverse genetic pathways and is required for vegetative development and plant survival. Despite widespread EMF2-like sequences in plants, little is known about their function other than in Arabidopsis and rice. To study the role of EMF2 in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. Elegance) development, we identified two broccoli EMF2 (BoEMF2) genes with sequence homology to and a similar gene expression pattern to that in Arabidopsis (AtEMF2). Reducing their expression in broccoli resulted in aberrant phenotypes and gene expression patterns. BoEMF2 regulates genes involved in diverse developmental and stress programs similar to AtEMF2 in Arabidopsis. However, BoEMF2 differs from AtEMF2 in the regulation of flower organ identity, cell proliferation and elongation, and death-related genes, which may explain the distinct phenotypes. The expression of BoEMF2.1 in the Arabidopsis emf2 mutant (Rescued emf2) partially rescued the mutant phenotype and restored the gene expression pattern to that of the wild type. Many EMF2-mediated molecular and developmental functions are conserved in broccoli and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the restored gene expression pattern in Rescued emf2 provides insights into the molecular basis of PcG-mediated growth and development. PMID:22537758

  16. Enhancement of broccoli indole glucosinolates by methyl jasmonate treatment and effects on prostate carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ann G; Juvik, John A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2014-11-01

    Broccoli is rich in bioactive components, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, which may impact cancer risk. The glucosinolate profile of broccoli can be manipulated through treatment with the plant stress hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Our objective was to produce broccoli with enhanced levels of indole glucosinolates and determine its impact on prostate carcinogenesis. Brassica oleracea var. Green Magic was treated with a 250 μM MeJA solution 4 days prior to harvest. MeJA-treated broccoli had significantly increased levels of glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin (P broccoli powder, or 10% MeJA broccoli powder. Diets were fed throughout the study until termination at 20 weeks of age. Hepatic CYP1A was induced with MeJA broccoli powder feeding, indicating biological activity of the indole glucosinolates. Following ∼ 15 weeks on diets, neither of the broccoli treatments significantly altered genitourinary tract weight, pathologic score, or metastasis incidence, indicating that broccoli powder at 10% of the diet was ineffective at reducing prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model. Whereas broccoli powder feeding had no effect in this model of prostate cancer, our work demonstrates the feasibility of employing plant stress hormones exogenously to stimulate changes in phytochemical profiles, an approach that may be useful for optimizing bioactive component patterns in foods for chronic-disease-prevention studies.

  17. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to taugeh (sprouted small green beans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Toorenenbergen, A W; Dieges, P H

    1984-09-01

    This report describes a case of allergy toward taugeh (sprouted small green beans), an important constituent of eggroll. With use of the skin prick test, RAST, and histamine release test, IgE antibodies against taugeh extract could be demonstrated. A partial cross-reactivity was observed between IgE-binding components from taugeh and peanuts. Peanut allergic patients could also experience adverse reactions after ingestion of taugeh.

  18. Plants as Biofactories: Postharvest Stress-Induced Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Glucosinolates in Broccoli Subjected to Wounding Stress and Exogenous Phytohormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-García, Daniel; Nair, Vimal; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli contains high levels of bioactive molecules and is considered a functional food. In this study, postharvest treatments to enhance the concentration of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds were evaluated. Broccoli whole heads were wounded to obtain florets and wounded florets (florets cut into four even pieces) and stored for 24 h at 20 °C with or without exogenous ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 250 ppm). Whole heads were used as a control for wounding treatments. Regarding glucosinolate accumulation, ET selectively induced the 4-hydroxylation of glucobrassicin in whole heads, resulting in ∼223% higher 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin than time 0 h samples. Additionally, glucoraphanin was increased by ∼53% in whole heads treated with ET, while neoglucobrassicin was greatly accumulated in wounded florets treated with ET or MeJA, showing increases of ∼193 and ∼286%, respectively. On the other hand, although only whole heads stored without phytohormones showed higher concentrations of phenolic compounds, which was reflected in ∼33, ∼30, and ∼46% higher levels of 1,2,2-trisinapoylgentiobose, 1,2-diferulolylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose, respectively; broccoli florets stored under air control conditions showed enhanced concentrations of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,2-disinapoylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose (∼22, ∼185, and ∼65% more, respectively). Furthermore, exogenous ET and MeJA impeded individual phenolics accumulation. Results allowed the elucidation of simple and effective postharvest treatment to enhance the content of individual glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in broccoli. The stressed-broccoli tissue could be subjected to downstream processing in order to extract and purify bioactive molecules with applications in the dietary supplements, agrochemical and cosmetics markets. PMID:26904036

  19. Plants as biofactories: Postharvest Stress-Induced Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Glucosinolates in Broccoli Subjected to Wounding Stress and Exogenous Phytohormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eVillarreal-García

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli contains high levels of bioactive molecules and is considered a functional food. In this study, postharvest treatments to enhance the concentration of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds were evaluated. Broccoli whole heads were wounded to obtain florets and wounded florets (florets cut into four even pieces and stored for 24 h at 20 ºC with or without exogenous ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm or methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 250 ppm. Whole heads were used as a control for wounding treatments. Regarding glucosinolate accumulation, ET selectively induced the 4-hydroxylation of glucobrassicin in whole heads, resulting in ~223% higher 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin than time 0 h samples. Additionally, glucoraphanin was increased by ~53% in whole heads treated with ET, while neoglucobrassicin was greatly accumulated in wounded florets treated with ET or MeJA, showing increases of ~193% and ~286%, respectively. On the other hand, although only whole heads stored without phytohormones showed higher concentrations of phenolic compounds, which was reflected in ~33%, ~30%, and 46% higher levels of 1,2,2-trisinapoylgentiobose, 1,2-diferulolylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose, respectively; broccoli florets stored under air control conditions showed enhanced concentrations of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,2-disinapoylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose (~22%, ~185%, and ~65% more, respectively. However, exogenous ET and MeJA impeded individual phenolics accumulation. Results allowed the elucidation of simple and effective postharvest treatment to enhance the content of individual glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in broccoli. The stressed-broccoli tissue could be subjected to downstream processing in order to extract and purify bioactive molecules with applications in the dietary supplements, agrochemical and cosmetics markets.

  20. Ecological and environmental factors constrain sprouting ability in tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Carl F; McMahon, Sean M

    2011-06-01

    Most theories of forest biodiversity focus on the role of seed dispersal and seedling establishment in forest regeneration. In many ecosystems, however, sprouting by damaged stems determines which species occupies a site. Damaged trees can quickly recover from disturbance and out-compete seedlings. Links among species' traits, environmental conditions and sprouting could offer insight into species' resilience to changes in climate, land use, and disturbance. Using data for 25 Neotropical tree species at two sites with contrasting rainfall and soil, we tested hypotheses on how four functional traits (seed mass, leaf mass per area, wood density and nitrogen fixation) influence species' sprouting responses to disturbance and how these relationships are mediated by a tree's environmental context. Most species sprouted in response to cutting, and many species' sprouting rates differed significantly between sites. Individual traits showed no direct correlation with sprouting. However, interactions among traits and site variables did affect sprouting rates. Many species showed increased sprouting in the higher-quality site. Most nitrogen-fixing species showed the opposite trend, sprouting more frequently where resources are scarce. This study highlights the use of functional traits as a proxy for life histories, and demonstrates the importance of environmental effects on demography.

  1. Role of endothelial cell metabolism in vessel sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Katrien; Georgiadou, Maria; Carmeliet, Peter

    2013-11-05

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are quiescent for years but can plastically switch to angiogenesis. Vascular sprouting relies on the coordinated activity of migrating tip cells at the forefront and proliferating stalk cells that elongate the sprout. Past studies have identified genetic signals that control vascular branching. Prominent are VEGF, activating tip cells, and Notch, which stimulates stalk cells. After the branch is formed and perfused, ECs become quiescent phalanx cells. Now, emerging evidence has accumulated indicating that ECs not only adapt their metabolism when switching from quiescence to sprouting but also that metabolism regulates vascular sprouting in parallel to the control by genetic signals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of combined treatments of irradiation and antimicrobial coatings on reduction of food pathogens in broccoli florets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takala, P.N.; Salmieri, S.; Vu, K.D. [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Canadian Irradiation Centre, 531, Blvd des Prairies, Laval, QC, H7V 1B7 (Canada); Lacroix, M., E-mail: Monique.Lacroix@iaf.inrs.ca [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Canadian Irradiation Centre, 531, Blvd des Prairies, Laval, QC, H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    The effect of combined treatment of antimicrobial coatings and {gamma}-radiation on reduction of food pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated in broccoli florets. Broccoli florets were inoculated with pathogenic bacteria at 10{sup 6} CFU/g. Inoculated florets were then coated with methylcellulose-based coating containing various mixtures of antimicrobial agents: organic acids (OAs) plus lactic acid bacteria metabolites (LABs), OA plus citrus extract (CE), OA plus CE plus spice mixture (SM), and OA plus rosemary extract (RE). Coated florets were irradiated with various doses (0-3.3 kGy), and microbial analyses were used to calculate the D{sub 10} value and radiosensitive relative. The coating containing OA plus CE was the most effective formulation for increasing the sensitization of Escherichia coli by 2.4 times as compared to the control without the antimicrobial coating. For Salmonella Typhimurium, coating containing OA plus LAB was the most effective formulation, increasing radiosensitivity by 2.4 times as well. All antimicrobial coatings had almost the same effect of increasing the sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes (from 1.31 to 1.45 times) to {gamma}-irradiation. - Highlights: > Demonstrate scientifically the synergistic effect of the combined treatment of gamma-irradiation and natural antimicrobial coating in reduction of food pathogens in broccoli. > The coating containing organic acids plus citrus extract was the most efficient formulation for increasing the sensitization of E. coli by 2.40 times as compared to the control. > The coating containing organic acids plus lactic acid bacteria metabolites was the most effective formulation causing the sensitization of S. Typhimurium to {gamma}-irradiation by 2.4 times. > Potential in application of developed formulations to protect food products against food pathogens.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION ON THE MAIN PRODUCTION OF BROCCOLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Doltu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was realized in the unheated greenhouse of Horting Institute Bucharest, in 2012 year. It have aimed the influence of one phase of fertilization with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 on inflorescences of broccoli, at a hybrid F1 - Ironman. The fertilizer was used before the formation of main inflorescences, in different doses (100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha, without fertilizer. Harvesting was done in 4 stages. A phase of fertilization with ammonium nitrate has influenced the main production of broccoli: the variant with fertilization 150 kg/ha has obtained the highest percentage of inflorescences formed, the average weight/inflorescence largest and superior production compared with other variants. Were obtained direct linear correlations between the doses of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 and the production aspects followed (percentage of main inflorescences harvested, average weight/inflorescence, total production, significances of the correlations very high.

  4. Polymer coating, germination and vigor of broccoli seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Celina de; Rocha Sandra Cristina dos Santos; Razera Luiz Fernandes

    2005-01-01

    Brassica oleracea var italica occupies a special place in the internal and external market of vegetables seeds. Vegetables producers demand seeds with high degree of purity, germination and vigor, since seeds' quality is the basis for the success of the production. In this work, broccoli seeds were coated in a spouted bed, by an aqueous suspension of hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose. Effects of the operating variables: spouting air temperature, atomizing air pressure and coating suspension flow rate o...

  5. Remote sensing of water and nitrogen stress in broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Diael-Deen Mohamed

    Remote sensing is being used in agriculture for crop management. Ground based remote sensing data acquisition system was used for collection of high spatial and temporal resolution data for irrigated broccoli crop. The system was composed of a small cart that ran back and forth on a rail system that was mounted on a linear move irrigation system. The cart was equipped with a sensor that had 4 discrete wavelengths; 550 nm, 660 nm, 720 nm, and 810 nm, and an infrared thermometer, all had 10 nm bandwidth. A global positioning system was used to indicate the cart position. The study consisted of two parts; the first was to evaluate remotely sensed reflectance and indices in broccoli during the growing season, and determine whether remotely sensed indices or standard deviation of indices can distinguish between nitrogen and water stress in broccoli, and the second part of the study was to evaluate remotely sensed indices and standard deviation of remotely sensed indices in broccoli during daily changes in solar zenith angle. Results indicated that nitrogen was detected using Ratio Vegetation index, RVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, Canopy Chlorophyll Concentration Index, CCCI, and also using the reflectance in the Near-Infrared, NIR, bands. The Red reflectance band capability of showing stress was not as clear as the previous indices and bands reflectance. The Canopy Chlorophyll Concentration Index, CCCI, was the most successful index. The Crop Water Stress Index was able to detect water stress but it was highly affected by the solar zenith angle change along the day.

  6. Isothiocyanate concentrations and interconversion of sulforaphane to erucin in human subjects after consumption of commercial frozen broccoli compared to fresh broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shikha; Hollands, Wendy; Teucher, Birgit; Needs, Paul W; Narbad, Arjan; Ortori, Catharine A; Barrett, David A; Rossiter, John T; Mithen, Richard F; Kroon, Paul A

    2012-12-01

    Sulforaphane (a potent anticarcinogenic isothiocyanate derived from glucoraphanin) is widely considered responsible for the protective effects of broccoli consumption. Broccoli is typically purchased fresh or frozen and cooked before consumption. We compared the bioavailability and metabolism of sulforaphane from portions of lightly cooked fresh or frozen broccoli, and investigated the bioconversion of sulforaphane to erucin. Eighteen healthy volunteers consumed broccoli soups produced from fresh or frozen broccoli florets that had been lightly cooked and sulforaphane thio-conjugates quantified in plasma and urine. Sulforaphane bioavailability was about tenfold higher for the soups made from fresh compared to frozen broccoli, and the reduction was shown to be due to destruction of myrosinase activity by the commercial blanching-freezing process. Sulforaphane appeared in plasma and urine in its free form and as several thio-conjugates forms. Erucin N-acetyl-cysteine conjugate was a significant urinary metabolite, and it was shown that human gut microflora can produce sulforaphane, erucin, and their nitriles from glucoraphanin. The short period of blanching used to produce commercial frozen broccoli destroys myrosinase and substantially reduces sulforaphane bioavailability. Sulforaphane was converted to erucin and excreted in urine, and it was shown that human colonic flora were capable of this conversion. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Evaluation of citrus, butternut and sprouting potato as mass rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of citrus, butternut and sprouting potato as mass rearing substrates for the oleander mealybug, Paracoccus burnerae (Brain) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) ... The mean number of eggs per female was higher on sprouting potatoes (121.3) than on citrus (68), but declined with an increase in temperature from 22 to ...

  8. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  9. Physiological mechanisms for potato dormancy release and sprouting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytokinins and gibberellins are required for bud breaking and sprout growth, respectively. The auxin seems to play a role in vascular development. Thus, tuber dormancy and sprouting can be controlled in potato by manipulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), especially H2O2 metabolism via the inhibition of catalase ...

  10. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings were grown under ...

  11. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC). Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings ...

  12. Evaluation of citrus, butternut and sprouting potato as mass rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    Biological control programs of mealybug species have relied on sprouting potatoes, pumpkins and butternut for rearing of both mealybugs and their natural enemies. In this study, the suitability of sprouting potatoes, butternuts and citrus as mass rearing substrates for the oleander mealybug,. Paracoccus burnerae was ...

  13. Effects of magnetic fields pretreatment of mungbean seeds on sprout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of magnetic field pretreatment of mungbean seeds on the yield and quality of sprout. The sprout elongation, biomass and nutrition ingredients (for example, concentration of soluble sugar, protein, vitamin C, etc.) were measured to test this effect of magnetic field.

  14. Production of phytotherapeutics from broccoli juice by integrated membrane processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Emel; Bagci, Pelin Onsekizoglu

    2018-03-01

    An integrated membrane process for the recovery and concentration of phytotherapeutics in broccoli juice was investigated to develop a natural product that could be of interest for food and/or pharmaceutical industry. Following a pretreatment step to remove suspended solids, the juice was ultrafiltered through a 50kDa MWCO polyethersulfone membrane. The permeate stream was further concentrated by osmotic distillation up to 42.6°Brix. During ultrafiltration, a complete recovery of sulforaphane, malic acid and citric acid was achieved, where total phenolic content and ascorbic acid were recovered at a ratio of 94.5 and 92.4%, respectively. All the bioactive compounds identified in broccoli juice was well preserved during subsequent 6-fold concentration by osmotic distillation. No significant difference was observed in total antioxidant activity of the juice throughout the operation. The proposed integrated membrane process has shown promising potential to produce a natural concentrate enriched in phytotherapeutics of the broccoli juice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plant characters of broccoli determinants of head production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Daniela Brandelero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The increasing consumption of single-head broccoli is due to several factors, among them there are food production in minimally processing form and the existence of hybrids that adapt to various climates, in addition to the simple harvesting of this typical architecture.This study aimed to identify the most relevant plant characters of broccoli, represented by growth characters, which are determinant in the production and canopy area. The study was conducted in an experimental area in Pato Branco city, PR. The 11 characters were evaluated for 365 plants, spaced with 0.8x0.5m, on a blank experiment. The characters of group 1 (height, number of leaves, stem height, stem diameter were evaluated on the 21 and 58 day after transplanting (DAT, and the leaf area was evaluated on the 17 and 32 DAT. The characters of group 2 were quantity of fresh head mass and canopy area. At the initial stage of cultivation, on the 17 and 21 DAT, variations in the plants characters did not lead toany variation in production. The higher number of leaves and the larger stem diameter on the 58 DAT determined the greater mass of the broccoli heads.

  16. Modifying the processing and handling of frozen broccoli for increased sulforaphane formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosz, Edward B; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2013-09-01

    Frozen broccoli can provide a cheaper product, with a longer shelf life and less preparation time than fresh broccoli. We previously showed that several commercially available frozen broccoli products do not retain the ability to generate the cancer-preventative agent sulforaphane. We hypothesized that this was because the necessary hydrolyzing enzyme myrosinase was destroyed during blanching, as part of the processing that frozen broccoli undergoes. This study was carried out to determine a way to overcome loss of hydrolyzing activity. Industrial blanching usually aims to inactivate peroxidase, although lipoxygenase plays a greater role in product degradation during frozen storage of broccoli. Blanching at 86 °C or higher inactivated peroxidase, lipoxygenase, and myrosinase. Blanching at 76 °C inactivated 92% of lipoxygenase activity, whereas there was only an 18% loss in myrosinase-dependent sulforaphane formation. We considered that thawing frozen broccoli might disrupt membrane integrity, allowing myrosinase and glucoraphanin to come into contact. Thawing frozen broccoli for 9 h did not support sulforaphane formation unless an exogenous source of myrosinase was added. Thermal stability studies showed that broccoli root, as a source of myrosinase, was not more heat stable than broccoli floret. Daikon radish root supported some sulforaphane formation even when heated at 125 °C for 10 min, a time and temperature comparable to or greater than microwave cooking. Daikon radish (0.25%) added to frozen broccoli that was then allowed to thaw supported sulforaphane formation without any visual alteration to that of untreated broccoli. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Quantitative trait loci mapping of heat tolerance in a doubled haploid population of broccoli using genotyping-by-sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli is a cool weather vegetable crop with a vernalization requirement to initiate and maintain floral development. Breeding for heat tolerance in broccoli has the potential to both expand viable production areas and extend the growing season. A doubled haploid (DH) population of broccoli (Bras...

  18. The broccoli (Brassica oleracea) phloem tissue proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstead, James A; Hartson, Steven D; Thompson, Gary A

    2013-11-07

    The transport of sugars, hormones, amino acids, proteins, sugar alcohols, and other organic compounds from the sites of synthesis to the sites of use or storage occurs through the conducting cells of the phloem. To better understand these processes a comprehensive understanding of the proteins involved is required. While a considerable amount of data has been obtained from proteomic analyses of phloem sap, this has mainly served to identify the soluble proteins that are translocated through the phloem network. In order to obtain more comprehensive proteomic data from phloem tissue we developed a simple dissection procedure to isolate phloem tissue from Brassica oleracea. The presence of a high density of phloem sieve elements was confirmed using light microscopy and fluorescently labeled sieve element-specific antibodies. To increase the depth of the proteomic analysis for membrane bound and associated proteins, soluble proteins were extracted first and subsequent extractions were carried out using two different detergents (SDS and CHAPSO). Across all three extractions almost four hundred proteins were identified and each extraction method added to the analysis demonstrating the utility of an approach combining several extraction protocols. The phloem was found to be enriched in proteins associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses and structural proteins. Subsequent expression analysis identified a number of genes that appear to be expressed exclusively or at very high levels in phloem tissue, including genes that are known to express specifically in the phloem as well as novel phloem genes.

  19. The effect of quickly fermented pig manure on the broccoli yield parameters and selected soil parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Difert (a pig manure fermented by caddices of domestic flies produced on sawdust litter on broccoli yield parameters and selected soil parameters were investigated on gleic fluvisol in a small-plot field trial localized at area of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra (48°18´ N, 18°05´ E.The results showed that Difert applied in doses of 250 kg N . ha−1 and 350 kg N . ha−1 acted positively on the yields of fresh primary broccoli roses. However, the results are not statistically significant. Also a positive effect on N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents in broccoli roses was recorded. Difert has a moderate alkalizing effect on soil and increases the content of Cox in the soil. Moreover Difert insignificantly decreased the content of vitamin C and significantly increased the content of nitrates in broccoli roses, but the worst qualitative effect on broccoli parameters was detected by applying mineral N fertilizers, which significantly increased the content of nitrates in broccoli roses and insignificantly decreased the vitamin C content. However, it resulted in the highest broccoli yields. The application of mineral N fertilizers had a negative effect on the total content of carbon in the soil as well.The effect of Difert on broccoli yield and soil parameters refers to the feasibility of reducing the maturing period of the manure from 6 months to 1 week, in order to decrease the manure storage capacities.

  20. Ozonated water and chlorine effects on the antioxidant properties of organic and conventional broccoli during postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in studies on sanitizers other than chlorine that can maintain the quality of organic products without affecting their phytochemical content. The effects of using chlorinated and ozonized water treatments, as sanitizing procedures, on the post-harvest quality of organic and conventional broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica was evaluated. The biochemical parameters (chlorophyll, polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of the broccoli samples were analyzed at day 0 (arrival of the plant from the field, original features, and 1, 4 and 7 days after harvest. The polyamine analysis was performed on arrival of the plant from the field and on the first and seventh days. The cultivation procedure influenced polyphenol, vitamin C and total chlorophyll content, and the highest value was observed in organic broccoli after the fourth day. Flavenoid content was higher in organic broccoli. The use of ozone appears not to have had an influence on the amount of polyphenolic, flavonoids and vitamin C during storage. Total chlorophyll content was less affected by ozonized water than by the chlorine treatment as at the first and fourth days of storage. The highest content of putrescine was found in conventional broccoli, while the highest levels of spermidine and spermine were found in organic broccoli. Antioxidant capacity was highest in organic broccoli after day 4 of storage and was affected by the bioactive compounds analyzed. Methods of cultivation influenced natural antioxidant and chlorophyll contents in broccoli under cold storage.

  1. Controlling rheology and structure of sweet potato starch noodles with high broccoli powder content by hydrocolloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, E.; Birkenhake, M.; Scholten, E.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating high volume fractions of broccoli powder in starch noodle dough has a major effect on its shear modulus, as a result of significant swelling of the broccoli particles. Several hydrocolloids with distinct water binding capacity (locust bean gum (LBG), guar gum, konjac glucomannan (KG),

  2. Bioavailability and kinetics of sulforaphane in humans after consumption of cooked versus raw broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.W.A.A.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the bioavailability and kinetics of the supposed anticarcinogen sulforaphane, the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, from raw and cooked broccoli. Eight men consumed 200 g of crushed broccoli, raw or cooked, with a warm meal in a randomized, free-living, open

  3. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  4. Effects of combined treatments of irradiation and antimicrobial coatings on reduction of food pathogens in broccoli florets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, P. N.; Salmieri, S.; Vu, K. D.; Lacroix, M.

    2011-12-01

    The effect of combined treatment of antimicrobial coatings and γ-radiation on reduction of food pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated in broccoli florets. Broccoli florets were inoculated with pathogenic bacteria at 10 6 CFU/g. Inoculated florets were then coated with methylcellulose-based coating containing various mixtures of antimicrobial agents: organic acids (OAs) plus lactic acid bacteria metabolites (LABs), OA plus citrus extract (CE), OA plus CE plus spice mixture (SM), and OA plus rosemary extract (RE). Coated florets were irradiated with various doses (0-3.3 kGy), and microbial analyses were used to calculate the D10 value and radiosensitive relative. The coating containing OA plus CE was the most effective formulation for increasing the sensitization of Escherichia coli by 2.4 times as compared to the control without the antimicrobial coating. For Salmonella Typhimurium, coating containing OA plus LAB was the most effective formulation, increasing radiosensitivity by 2.4 times as well. All antimicrobial coatings had almost the same effect of increasing the sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes (from 1.31 to 1.45 times) to γ-irradiation.

  5. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) acting as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruthiviraj, Prakash; Margret, Anita; Krishnamurthy, Poornima Priyadharsani

    2016-04-01

    Production of antimicrobial agents through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using green technology has been extensively made consistent by various researchers; yet, this study uses the flower bud's aqueous extracts of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) as a reducing agent for chloroauric acid (1 mM). After 30 min of incubation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was observed by a change in extract color from pale yellow to purple color. Synthesis of AuNps was confirmed in UV-visible spectroscopy at the range of approximately 560 nm. The SEM analysis showed the average nanoparticles size of 12-22 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AuNps was analyzed by subjecting it to human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The broccoli-synthesized AuNps showed the efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of above-mentioned microbes. It was confirmed that AuNps have the best antimicrobial agent compared to the standard antibiotics (Gentamicin and Fluconazole). When the concentrations of AuNps were increased (10, 25, and 50 µg/ml), the sensitivity zone also increased for all the tested microbes. The synthesized AuNps are capable of rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and, hence, have a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against major bacterial and fungal diseases in humans.

  6. Effects of Hot Water Immersion on Storage Quality of Fresh Broccoli Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Dong

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshly harvested broccoli heads were immersed for 0, 1, 4 or 8 min into hot water at 45 °C, and then were hydrocooled rapidly for 10 min at 10 °C. Following these treatments, the broccoli were air-dried for 30 min, then packed in commercial polymeric film bags, and, finally, stored for 16 days at –1, 1, and 12 °C. The samples treated with hot water maintained high contents of chlorophyll concentrations, their yellowing rate was delayed, and fungal infection and chilling or freezing injury were inhibited markedly. Compared to non-heat-treated broccoli, a lower level of peroxidase activity with a relatively higher chlorophyll concentration was observed when broccoli were treated with hot water. Among these heat treatments, immersion in hot water for 4 min at 45 °C was the most effective for maintaining the quality of harvested broccoli heads.

  7. DNA damage and repair activity after broccoli intake in young healthy smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riso, Patrizia; Martini, Daniela; Møller, Peter

    2010-01-01

    compounds, including smokers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of broccoli intake on biomarkers of DNA damage and repair. Twenty-seven young healthy smokers consumed a portion of steamed broccoli (250 g/day) or a control diet for 10 days each within a crossover design with a washout period...... mRNA expression levels of repair and defence enzymes: 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X-type motif 1 (NUDT1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). After broccoli consumption, the level of oxidised DNA lesions decreased by 41% (95% confidence interval: 10%, 72......%) and the resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced DNA strand breaks increased by 23% (95% CI: 13%, 34%). Following broccoli intake, a higher protection was observed in subjects with glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1-null genotype. The expression level and activity of repair enzymes was unaltered. In conclusion, broccoli...

  8. Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Charlotte N; Derdemezis, Christos; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Doleman, Joanne F; Saha, Shikha; Leung, Wing; Potter, John F; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mithen, Richard F

    2015-05-01

    Cruciferous-rich diets have been associated with reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), which may be due to the action of isothiocyanates derived from glucosinolates that accumulate in these vegetables. This study tests the hypothesis that a diet rich in high glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli will reduce plasma LDL-C. One hundred and thirty volunteers were recruited to two independent double-blind, randomly allocated parallel dietary intervention studies, and were assigned to consume either 400 g standard broccoli or 400 g HG broccoli per week for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were quantified before and after the intervention. In study 1 (37 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet reduced plasma LDL-C by 7.1% (95% CI: -1.8%, -12.3%, p = 0.011), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 1.8% (95% CI +3.9%, -7.5%, ns). In study 2 (93 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet resulted in a reduction of 5.1% (95% CI: -2.1%, -8.1%, p = 0.001), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 2.5% (95% CI: +0.8%, -5.7%, ns). When data from the two studies were combined the reduction in LDL-C by the HG broccoli was significantly greater than standard broccoli (p = 0.031). Evidence from two independent human studies indicates that consumption of high glucoraphanin broccoli significantly reduces plasma LDL-C. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Supplementation of broccoli or Bifidobacterium longum-fermented broccoli suppresses serum lipid peroxidation and osteoclast differentiation on alveolar bone surface in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Irie, Koichiro; Endo, Yasumasa; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Ishikado, Atsushi; Sato, Takehiko; Harada, Kayo; Suido, Hirohisa; Morita, Manabu

    2012-04-01

    High-cholesterol diet enhances osteoclastic activity on alveolar bone by increasing serum lipid peroxidation. We hypothesized that supplementation with dietary antioxidants, such as found in broccoli and its fermented products, might suppress increases in serum lipid peroxidation, contributing to the inhibition of osteoclastic activity after high-cholesterol diet intake. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of broccoli and fermented broccoli consumption on serum lipid peroxidation and osteoclast differentiation in alveolar bone of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. In this 12-week study, rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6/group): a control group (fed regular diet) and 3 experimental groups (fed a high-cholesterol [1% wt/wt] diet, or a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with either broccoli powder [5% wt/wt] or Bifidobacterium longum-fermented broccoli powder [5% wt/wt]). Serum hexanoyl-lysine (HEL) levels were measured as a parameter of lipid peroxidation. The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts in alveolar bone was enumerated to evaluate osteoclast differentiation. When compared with regular diet, the high-cholesterol diet increased serum HEL levels and resulted in a higher number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at 12 weeks. The high-cholesterol diet supplemented with broccoli or B. longum-fermented broccoli showed lower levels of serum HEL and fewer TRAP-positive osteoclasts than the high-cholesterol diet at 12 weeks. In conclusion, consumption of broccoli, or its fermented product, inhibited the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on osteoclast differentiation in rat alveolar bone by suppressing serum lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sprouting Droplets Driven by Physical Effects Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Katherine A; Stoev, Iliya D; French, David J; Abou-Hassan, Ali; Clegg, Paul S

    2017-05-02

    Combining a partially miscible three-liquid system with interfacially trapped silica colloids, we show that small droplets can exhibit dramatic growth phenomena driven by physical effects alone. The mass dense droplets sprout tubes which grow vertically upward in a gravitational field and respond to the presence of other droplets in their path. Two of the liquids in our system are water and toluene. By varying the third liquid, we are able to relate the growth behavior to the details of the underlying three-fluid phase diagram and the changes to the interfacial tension. Additionally, we introduce a pendant drop in the path of our growing drop. We use this to confirm that growth is driven by the partitioning of solvents, that exchange of solvents between droplets is chemically selective, and that the exchange behavior can itself generate further growth phenomena.

  11. Quality parameters and antioxidant properties in organic and conventionally grown broccoli after pre-storage hot water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Pedro Javier; Tucker, Gregory A; Valero, Daniel; Serrano, María

    2013-03-30

    Demand for broccoli has increased due to its high content of bioactive compounds. However, broccoli is a perishable commodity with a short shelf life mainly due to dehydration, yellowing and losses of bioactive compounds. Thus, efficient treatments to preserve broccoli quality are needed. The effect of heat treatment on senescence and antioxidant compounds evolution during storage at 20 °C was evaluated in organic and conventionally grown broccoli. Senescence evolved quickly as manifested by floral head yellowing, which was higher in conventional than in organic broccolis, but senescence was significantly delayed by heat treatment. All organic acids, including ascorbic acid, were found at higher concentrations in organic than in conventional broccoli at harvest but decreased during storage in all broccolis. Phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity (in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions) also decreased during storage, although these decreases were higher in conventional than in organic broccolis, and no differences were found attributable to heat treatment. Heat treatment was effective in delaying broccoli senescence, manifested by chlorophyll retention. In addition, organic broccoli maintained higher concentrations of bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid and phenolics) and antioxidant potential during storage than conventional broccoli, with higher potential health beneficial effects. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Sugita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS is a relatively rare form of food allergy which develops in individuals who are sensitized to pollen. Tree pollens, especially birch pollen, frequently induce PFAS; however, the incidence of PFAS due to grass or weed pollens such as ragweed or mugwort is relatively rare. Mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS is an example of a PFAS in which individuals sensitized to mugwort may develop an allergy to mustard and experience severe reactions. We herein describe a case of MMAS due to broccoli consumption.

  13. Microbiological quality of selected ready-to-eat leaf vegetables, sprouts and non-pasteurized fresh fruit-vegetable juices including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Garbowska, Monika; Stefańska, Ilona; Pluta, Antoni

    2017-08-01

    Bacteria of the genus Cronobacter are emerging food-borne pathogens. Foods contaminated with Cronobacter spp. may pose a risk to infants or adults with suppressed immunity. This study was aimed at determining the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) plant-origin food products available on the Polish market with special emphasis on the prevalence of Cronobacter genus bacteria. Analyses were carried out on 60 samples of commercial RTE type plant-origin food products, including: leaf vegetables (20 samples), sprouts (20 samples) and non-pasteurized vegetable, fruit and fruit-vegetable juices (20 samples). All samples were determined for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. The isolates of Cronobacter spp. were subjected to genetic identification and differentiation by 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and RAPD-PCR and evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility by the disk diffusion assay. The TAMB count in samples of lettuces, sprouts and non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices was in the range of 5.6-7.6, 6.7-8.4 and 2.9-7.7 log CFU g -1 , respectively. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in 21 (35%) samples of the products, including in 6 (30%) samples of leaf vegetables (rucola, lamb's lettuce, endive escarola and leaf vegetables mix) and in 15 (75%) samples of sprouts (alfalfa, broccoli, small radish, lentil, sunflower, leek and sprout mix). No presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in the analyzed samples of non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices. The 21 strains of Cronobacter spp. isolated from leaf vegetable and sprouts included: 13 strains of C. sakazakii, 4 strains of C. muytjensii, 2 strains of C. turicensis, one strain of C. malonaticus and one strain of C. condimenti. All isolated C. sakazakii, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis and C. malonaticus strains were sensitive to ampicillin, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin

  14. INNOVATIVE SPECIFIC PRODUCTS: ORGANIC SPROUTS (MICROGREENS AND SEEDLINGS (BABY LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The assortment of salad crops, process parameters for production of seedlings (Baby leaf and sprouts (Microgreens is presented. The principles of the selection and sale of salad crops in the local market are recommended.

  15. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforap...

  16. Effect of Selenium Enrichment on the Growth, Photosynthesis and Mineral Nutrition of Broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef GHASEMI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli is placed in primary selenium (Se accumulator group plants, which is considered as an important source of Se for providing human daily need. This experiment used an outdoor hydroponic system to evaluate the effects of Se foliar application at the rates of 0, 10, 50, and 100 μg Se/ml concentrations fortnightly. Among yield parameters, the head weight of broccoli was significantly affected. Se treated broccoli plants produced heavier head than the control; however, head weight among three Se concentrations (Se10, Se50, Se100 was not significantly different. Although most of the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were not significant, Se treated broccolis maximal fluorescence yield (Fm was higher than the control. Significant increase in chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll was observed as a result of Se treatments. Different Se concentrations did not have positive or negative effects on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake. Se treatment at 100 μg Se/ml concentration however, contributed to the highest content of sulfur in broccoli head. Se content of broccoli head increased with the increase in sprayed Se concentrations. The highest concentration of Se (1.41 mg Se/kg dry matter in broccoli head was recorded in Se100, which showed significant difference compared with Se0 and Se10.

  17. Genetic regulation of glucoraphanin accumulation in Beneforté® broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traka, Maria H; Saha, Shikha; Huseby, Stine; Kopriva, Stanislav; Walley, Peter G; Barker, Guy C; Moore, Jonathan; Mero, Gene; den Bosch, Frans; Constant, Howard; Kelly, Leo; Schepers, Hans; Boddupalli, Sekhar; Mithen, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    Diets rich in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var italica) have been associated with maintenance of cardiovascular health and reduction in risk of cancer. These health benefits have been attributed to glucoraphanin that specifically accumulates in broccoli. The development of broccoli with enhanced concentrations of glucoraphanin may deliver greater health benefits. Three high-glucoraphanin F1 broccoli hybrids were developed in independent programmes through genome introgression from the wild species Brassica villosa. Glucoraphanin and other metabolites were quantified in experimental field trials. Global SNP analyses quantified the differential extent of B. villosa introgression The high-glucoraphanin broccoli hybrids contained 2.5–3 times the glucoraphanin content of standard hybrids due to enhanced sulphate assimilation and modifications in sulphur partitioning between sulphur-containing metabolites. All of the high-glucoraphanin hybrids possessed an introgressed B. villosa segment which contained a B. villosa Myb28 allele. Myb28 expression was increased in all of the high-glucoraphanin hybrids. Two high-glucoraphanin hybrids have been commercialised as Beneforté® broccoli. The study illustrates the translation of research on glucosinolate genetics from Arabidopsis to broccoli, the use of wild Brassica species to develop cultivars with potential consumer benefits, and the development of cultivars with contrasting concentrations of glucoraphanin for use in blinded human intervention studies. PMID:23560984

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of Brassica oleracea Sprouts Crude Juice in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Masci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ aberrant production and aggregation are major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, causing neuronal death via oxidative stress. Several studies have highlighted the importance of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds in the treatment of AD, but complex food matrices, characterized by a different relative content of these phytochemicals, have been neglected. In the present study, we analyzed the protective effect on SH-SY5Y cells treated with the fragment Aβ25–35 by two crude juices of broccoli sprouts containing different amounts of phenolic compounds as a result of different growth conditions. Both juices protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death as evidenced by cell viability, nuclear chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation measurements. These effects were mediated by the modulation of the mitochondrial function and of the HSP70 gene transcription and expression. Furthermore, the juices upregulated the intracellular glutathione content and mRNA levels or activity of antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. Although the effects of the two juices were similar, the juice enriched in phenolic compounds showed a greater efficacy in inducing the activation of the Nrf2 signalling pathway.

  19. Human iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cell Sprouting Assay in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by growth factors initiates a cascade of events in vivo consisting of EC tip cell selection, sprout formation, EC stalk cell proliferation, and ultimately vascular stabilization by support cells. Although EC functional assays can recapitulate one or more aspects of angiogenesis in vitro, they are often limited by a lack of definition to the substratum and lack of dependence on key angiogenic signaling axes. Here, we designed and characterized a chemically-defined model of endothelial sprouting behavior in vitro using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs). Thiol-ene photopolymerization was used to rapidly encapsulate iPSC-ECs at high density in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel spheres and subsequently to rapidly encapsulate iPSC-EC-containing hydrogel spheres in a cell-free over-layer. The hydrogel sprouting array here maintained pro-angiogenic phenotype of iPSC-ECs and supported growth factor-dependent proliferation and sprouting behavior. The sprouting model responded appropriately to several reference pharmacological angiogenesis inhibitors, which suggests the functional role of vascular endothelial growth factor, NF-κB, matrix metalloproteinase-2/9, protein kinase activity, and β-tubulin in endothelial sprouting. A blinded screen of 38 putative vascular disrupting compounds (pVDCs) from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s ToxCast library identified five compounds th

  20. Heat Transfer during Blanching and Hydrocooling of Broccoli Florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribe-Salazar, Rosalina; Caro-Corrales, José; Hernández-Calderón, Óscar; Zazueta-Niebla, Jorge; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Carrazco-Escalante, Marco; Vázquez-López, Yessica

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this work was to simulate heat transfer during blanching (90 °C) and hydrocooling (5 °C) of broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. Italica) and to evaluate the impact of these processes on the physicochemical and nutrimental quality properties. Thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity [line heat source], specific heat capacity [differential scanning calorimetry], and bulk density [volume displacement]) of stem and inflorescence were measured as a function of temperature (5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 °C). The activation energy and the frequency factor (Arrhenius model) of these thermophysical properties were calculated. A 3-dimensional finite element model was developed to predict the temperature history at different points inside the product. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental temperature histories was carried out. Quality parameters (firmness, total color difference, and vitamin C content) and peroxidase activity were measured. The satisfactory validation of the finite element model allows the prediction of temperature histories and profiles under different process conditions, which could lead to an eventual optimization aimed to minimize the nutritional and sensorial losses in broccoli florets. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica head initiation under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kałużewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A two–year study on the influence of temperature on broccoli head initiation was carried out at the ''Marcelin'' experimental station of the Poznań University of Life Sciences. In each year of the study, plants were planted in the field at four dates. The evaluation of the developmental phase of the broccoli shoot apex was based on the analysis of microscope slides. The date of head initiation was assumed as the day on which the first of the examined apices were found to be at the early generative phase. The plant characteristics (number of leaves, leaf area and stem diameter on the date of initiation were also determined. Variation in length of the period from planting to head initiation was found both between dates of planting and between experimental years. The shortest period from planting to initiation was when the plants were planted in April and June (17-18 days in the first year and the longest one for planting in April in the first year of the study (29 days. The length of the period from planting to head initiation depended on mean daily air temperature. The higher the temperature was, the shorter was the period.

  2. Broccoli/weed/soil discrimination by optical reflectance using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Federico

    1995-04-01

    Broccoli is grown extensively in Scotland, and has become one of the main vegetables cropped, due to its high yields and profits. Broccoli, weed and soil samples from 6 different farms were collected and their spectra obtained and analyzed using discriminant analysis. High crop/weed/soil discrimination success rates were encountered in each farm, but the selected wavelengths varied in each farm due to differences in broccoli variety, weed species incidence and soil type. In order to use only three wavelengths, neural networks were introduced and high crop/weed/soil discrimination accuracies for each farm were achieved.

  3. Selenium Supplementation of Amaranth Sprouts Influences Betacyanin Content and Improves Anti-Inflammatory Properties via NFκB in Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Pasko, Pawel; Zagrodzki, Pawel; Gajdzik, Ewelina; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Gorinstein, Shela

    2016-02-01

    Sprouts contain potent compounds which while influencing crucial transduction pathways in cell reveal anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we report the biological activity for seeds and colourful sprouts of four types of edible amaranth, as amaranth has recently attracted interest due to its appreciable nutritional value. MTT assay conducted for the amaranth seeds and sprouts did not show any adverse effect on the viability of murine RAW 264.7 cells. As amaranth accumulates selenium, the sprouts were supplemented with this trace element (10 mg/L; 15 mg/L Se as sodium selenite) while growing. Selenium concentration in sprouts was observed to be significantly correlated with betacyanins content of the tested species. The amounts of Se and betacyanins in sprouts varied for various Amaranth species. In the present study, Amaranthus cruentus sprouts with the highest betacyanins (19.30 ± 0.57-28.85 ± 2.23 mg of amaranthin/100 g of fresh weight) and high total selenium (22.51 ± 1.57-1044.75 ± 73.08 μg/L in methanol extracts) content prevented NFκB translocation to the cell nucleus and subsequently exerted an anti-inflammatory effect by significant decreasing inflammatory interleukin 6 production (587.3 ± 34.2-710.0 ± 88.1 pg/mL) in the cell culture of activated RAW 264.7 macrophages (vs LPS control 1520 ± 114 pg/mL).

  4. Comparison in accumulation of lanthanide elements among three Brassicaceae plant sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Yasumi; Awaya, Yumi; Ogihara, Yurie; Yoshida, Miyuki; Yawata, Ayako; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2012-07-01

    Three kinds of sprouts in the Brassicaceae family of plants, namely, pink kale, radish and mustard were evaluated for the possibility of phytoremediation of lanthanides. The mustard sprout more efficiently accumulated lanthanides (e.g. 0.26 nmol La/g) than other Brassicaceae family plant sprouts (0.16 nmol La/g in the radish), however the radish sprout showed the fastest growth among three sprouts. Faster growth compensated for less efficiency in lanthanide accumulation (28 pmol La in the radish vs. 12 pmol La in the mustard) indicating that the radish is the most preferable sprout for the phytoremediation of lanthanides.

  5. Impact of thermal processing on sulforaphane yield from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In broccoli, sulforaphane forms when the glucosinolate glucoraphanin is hydrolyzed by the endogenous plant thiohydrolase myrosinase. A myrosinase cofactor directs hydrolysis away from formation of bioactive sulforaphane and toward an inactive product, sulforaphane nitrile. The cofactor is more hea...

  6. SATURDAY: EPA Administrator to Deliver Remarks at Third Annual Broccoli Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - On Saturday, April 25, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will give remarks at the Third Annual Broccoli City Festival's Earth Day celebration. Administrator McCarthy will speak about EPA's efforts to implement President Obama's Climate Ac

  7. Compositional and proteomic analyses of genetically modified broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) harboring an agrobacterial gene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2014-01-01

    .... We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102...

  8. Radiographic images and relationship of the internal morphology and physiological potential of broccoli seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Haynna Fernandes Abud; Silvio Moure Cícero; Francisco Guilhien Gomes Junior

    2017-01-01

    Image analysis using X-rays is an efficient technique for assessing the seed quality of several species, presenting itself as a rapid response method that is simple to execute, reproducible and non-destructive. Thus, this research adjusted a methodology that aims to relate the internal morphology of broccoli seeds to their physiological potential through radiographic analysis of seeds and computerized images of seedlings. The broccoli cultivars used were Piracicaba Precoce and Ramoso Santana ...

  9. The effects of priming on vigor and viability of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Jett, Lewis W.

    1994-01-01

    Seed priming is a controlled hydration process, followed by dehydration, that allows pregerminative metabolic activity to proceed without germination. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of priming on intrinsic characteristics of seed germination including temperature, water, and development, in order to understand how priming affects the germination of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) seeds. Priming of broccoli seeds consistently impro...

  10. Influence of different blanching methods on colour, ascorbic acid and phenolics content of broccoli

    OpenAIRE

    Severini, C; Giuliani, R.; De Filippis, A; Derossi, A.; T. DE PILLI

    2015-01-01

    Lack of nutrients in cooking water, high energetic costs, high water consumption and recycling are some drawbacks of vegetable blanching. Those disadvantages could be bypassed using microwave blanching. Three blanching methods (microwave, boiling water and steaming) were compared in this study in order to determine their effects on some functional properties of broccoli. In addition, the thermal damage on broccoli colour was evaluated. The effectiveness of each blanching process was performed...

  11. Combinations of tomato and broccoli enhance antitumor activity in dunning r3327-h prostate adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Lindshield, Brian L; Wang, Shihua; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2007-01-15

    The consumption of diets containing 5 to 10 servings of fruits and vegetables daily is the foundation of public health recommendations for cancer prevention, yet this concept has not been tested in experimental models of prostate cancer. We evaluated combinations of tomato and broccoli in the Dunning R3327-H prostate adenocarcinoma model. Male Copenhagen rats (n=206) were fed diets containing 10% tomato, 10% broccoli, 5% tomato plus 5% broccoli (5:5 combination), 10% tomato plus 10% broccoli (10:10 combination) powders, or lycopene (23 or 224 nmol/g diet) for approximately 22 weeks starting 1 month prior to receiving s.c. tumor implants. We compared the effects of diet to surgical castration (2 weeks before termination) or finasteride (5 mg/kg body weight orally, 6 d/wk). Castration reduced prostate weights, tumor areas, and tumor weight (62%, Ptomato reduced tumor weight by 34% (Ptomato and broccoli was more effective at slowing tumor growth than either tomato or broccoli alone and supports the public health recommendations to increase the intake of a variety of plant components.

  12. Comparison of the effect of raw and blanched-frozen broccoli on DNA damage in colonocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Anthony; Fuller, Zoë; Collins, Andrew R; Ratcliffe, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of cruciferous vegetables may protect against colorectal cancer. Cruciferous vegetables are rich in a number of bioactive constituents including polyphenols, vitamins and glucosinolates. Before consumption, cruciferous vegetables often undergo some form of processing that reduces their content of bioactive constituents and may determine whether they exert protective effects. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of raw and blanched-frozen broccoli to protect colonocytes against DNA damage, improve antioxidant status and induce xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME). Fifteen Landrace × Large White male pigs were divided into five age-matched and weight-matched sets (79 days, SD 3, and 34·7 kg, SD 3·9, respectively). Each set consisted of siblings to minimize genetic variation. Within each set, pigs received a cereal-based diet, unsupplemented (control) or supplemented with 600 g day(-1) of raw or blanched-frozen broccoli for 12 days. The consumption of raw broccoli caused a significant 27% increase in DNA damage in colonocytes (p = 0·03) relative to the control diet, whereas blanched-frozen broccoli had no significant effect. Both broccoli diets had no significant effect on plasma antioxidant status or hepatic and colonic XME. This study is the first to report that the consumption of raw broccoli can damage DNA in porcine colonocytes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Compositional and proteomic analyses of genetically modified broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) harboring an agrobacterial gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2014-08-28

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, "Green King". Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined.

  14. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Silvio J; Yuan, Youxi; Faquin, Valdemar; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Li, Li

    2011-04-27

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here, we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expresion. We found that the total Se content varied with over 2-fold difference among the leaf tissues of broccoli accessions when the plants were treated with 20 μM Na(2)SeO(4). Approximately half of total Se accumulated in leaves was Se-methylselenocysteine and selenomethionine. Transcriptional regulation of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate sulfurylase and selenocysteine Se-methyltransferase gene expression might contribute to the different levels of Se accumulation in broccoli. Total glucosinolate contents were not affected by the concentration of selenate application for the majority of broccoli accessions. Essential micronutrients (i.e., Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) remained unchanged among half of the germplasm. Moreover, the total antioxidant capacity was greatly stimulated by selenate in over half of the accessions. The diverse genotypic variation in Se, glucosinolate, and antioxidant contents among accessions provides the opportunity to breed broccoli cultivars that simultaneously accumulate Se and other health benefit compounds.

  15. Quantitative Determination of the Glucosinolates Sinigrin and Progoitrin by Specific Antibody ELISA Assays in Brussels Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn HE; van Holst GJ; van Der Kruk GC; Raaijmakers-Ruijs; Postma

    1998-02-16

    Glucosinolates from Brussels sprout samples were extracted using an effective concentration of 2% phosphoric acid followed by a neutralization step and heat treatment for removal of inactivated protein. The (potentially) bitter glucosinolates sinigrin and progoitrin were found to be stable during this new extraction protocol. Antisera, as raised against hemisuccinate-linked glucosinolate conjugates, were very specific in sandwich ELISA assays for their corresponding substrates. The ELISA assays showed maximally 7.4% cross-reactivity to other aliphatic glucosinolates and were log-linear from the nM to µM range. In comparison to the standard HPLC method, the sinigrin and progoitrin ELISA respectively slightly and considerably overestimate the actual content of these glucosinolates. The progoitrin content of samples as determined either with the ELISA assay or by HPLC, however, is highly correlated (r(2) = 0.92, n = 12, p < 0.01), suggesting that the former assay is also applicable for the screening of the progoitrin content in Brussels sprout samples.

  16. Induction of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes by broccoli sulforaphane: Perspectives in maintaining the antioxidant activity of vitamins A, C, and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhar s Boddupalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of fruits and vegetables is recognized as an important part of a healthy diet. Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables in particular has been associated with a decreased risk of several degenerative and chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Members of the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage, accumulate significant concentrations of glucosinolates, which are metabolized in vivo to biologically active isothiocyanates (ITCs. The ITC sulforaphane, which is derived from glucoraphanin, has garnered particular interest due to its extraordinary ability to induce expression of several enzymes via the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Nrf2/ARE gene products are typically characterized as Phase II detoxification enzymes and/or antioxidant (AO enzymes. Over the last decade, human clinical studies have begun to provide in vivo evidence of both Phase II and AO enzyme induction by SF. Many AO enzymes are redox cycling enzymes that maintain redox homeostasis and activity of free radical scavengers such as such as vitamins A, C and E. In this review, we present the existing evidence for induction of PII and AO enzymes by SF, the interactions of SF-induced AO enzymes and proposed maintenance of the essential vitamins A, C and E, and, finally, the current view of genotypic effects on ITC metabolism and AO enzyme induction and function.

  17. Survival of pathogens of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea Gemifera group) in crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Vlaswinkel, M.E.T.; Groenenboom-de Haas, B.H.; Kastelein, P.; Hoof, van R.A.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Krijger, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mycosphaerella brassicicola (ringspot), Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae (dark leaf spot) and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (black spot) can infect leaves of Brussels sprouts resulting in yield losses. Infections of outer leaves of sprouts cause severe losses in quality. Crop

  18. Thermal sum of potato plants and tuber sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the thermal sum of the different stages of development of potato plants to better understand its relationship with tuber sprouting. The potato clones SMIJ461-1, SMINIA793101-3 and SMINIA97145-2 and the cultivar Macaca were evaluated in spring and autumn crop seasons in Santa Maria and Julio de Castilhos, RS. Emergence (EM, tuber initiation (TI and onset of senescence (OS of the plants were determined and the accumulated thermal sum (aTS was calculated in each phase. After harvesting, tubers were stored at 20oC for 15 days for curing and then stored at 10 or 20°C to quantify the percentage of sprouted tubers and the number of sprouts per tuber at 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage. The experiment was a factorial of four potato clones and two growth conditions, season and storage temperature, in a random design with four replications of 20 tubers. The environmental conditions of Julio de Castilhos in the spring resulted in a greater aTS from EM and TI to OS than those of Santa Maria, meaning that different crop locations and even seasons should be considered for making inferences about tuber sprouting based upon aTS. The management of storage temperature can promote or retard tuber sprouting, but its effect depends on the potato clone. Based upon combined correlation estimations, the aTS between EM-OS or between TI-OS is a good estimator for potato tuber sprouting.

  19. Comparison of a-amylase activity in some sprouting Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    2004-11-16

    Nov 16, 2004 ... a-amylase from sprouting maize, rice, acha, and sorghum were exhibited at 6.5, 5.5, 6.5 and 5.8 respectively. ... and 0.23; 12.5x10-2 and 0.56; 7.0x10-2 and 0.29; 12.5x10-2 and 0.50 for a-amylase from sprouting maize, acha, rice ... cultivation of barley in Nigeria has however met with little success. As such ...

  20. Use of Seed Sprouting in Modification of Food Nutrients and Pasting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were found to differ significantly (p < 0.05) in the minerals, anti nutritional composition and pasting properties of the flours. Sprouting increased the mineral contents of the flours generally the calcium content of non-sprouted red kidney beans (13.8 mg/100 g) increased to 16.1 mg/100 g in the sprouted flour.

  1. Role of gibberellins in 1,8-Cineole mediated sprout inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter, potato tubers are dormant and will not sprout. Tuber dormancy is lost during postharvest storage and the subsequent sprouting results in the loss of tuber processing and nutritional qualities. Therefore, control of tuber sprouting is an essent...

  2. Effects of season of cut and residual overstory density on stump sprout growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara L. Keyser

    2015-01-01

    Stump sprouts contribute to the regeneration potential of upland hardwood forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains (Cook and others 1988); however, most of the information regarding stump sprout potential and subsequent sprout growth and development is from studies following regeneration cuts.

  3. Factors influencing the growth of Salmonella during sprouting of naturally contaminated alfalfa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tong-Jen; Reineke, Karl F; Chirtel, Stuart; VanPelt, Olif M

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the factors that affect Salmonella growth during sprouting of naturally contaminated alfalfa seeds associated with two previous outbreaks of salmonellosis were examined. A minidrum sprouter equipped with automatic irrigation and rotation systems was built to allow sprouting to be conducted under conditions similar to those used commercially. The growth of Salmonella during sprouting in the minidrum was compared with that observed in sprouts grown in glass jars under conditions commonly used at home. The level of Salmonella increased by as much as 4 log units after 48 h of sprouting in jars but remained constant during the entire sprouting period in the minidrum. The effect of temperature and irrigation frequency on Salmonella growth was examined. Increasing the sprouting temperature from 20 to 30 degrees C increased the Salmonella counts by as much as 2 log units on sprouts grown both in the minidrum and in the glass jars. Decreasing the irrigation frequency from every 20 min to every 2 h during sprouting in the minidrum or from every 4 h to every 24 h during sprouting in the glass jars resulted in an approximately 2-log increase in Salmonella counts. The levels of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, and Salmonella in spent irrigation water closely reflected those found in sprouts, confirming that monitoring of spent irrigation water is a good way to monitor pathogen levels during sprouting.

  4. Effects of Sub-irrigation at Different Growth Stages on Growth of Pot-cultured Summer-sowing for Fall-harvest Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuka Nakano; Kunihiko Okada; Hidekazu Sasaki

    2017-01-01

    ... of sub-irrigation at different growth stages of broccoli and levels of precipitation. Summer-sown fall-harvest broccoli was transplanted in a large pot of andosol or gray lowland soil under rain shelter...

  5. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Influences of Cry1Ac broccoli on larval survival and oviposition of diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. Using genotyping-by-sequencing to develop broccoli markers for construction of a high-density linkage map and to identify quantitative trait loci associated with heat tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat stress reduces the yield and quality of broccoli heads imposing seasonal and geographic limits to broccoli production. For the most part, the risk of producing broccoli with head defects (uneven beads, bracts in heads, etc.) induced by high temperatures has restricted commercial production in t...

  8. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  9. Effect of sprouting and pre-gelatinization on the physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sprouted (96-hour) and pregelatinized (780C) sorghum grains were milled and blended with graded proportion of pigeon-pea and used in formulating flaked breakfast cereal. A commercial ready-to-serve breakfast cereal served as product control. The flour blends and formulated products were subjected to the ...

  10. Sprout selection and performance of goats fed Acacia karroo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia karroo Hayne is the dominant invading species in semi-arid savannas of South Africa and is an ecological threat of our modern era. This study investigated the preference and intake rates by goats when fed A. karroo coppice sprouts of different basal diameter sizes, viz. 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm. A study was also ...

  11. Bud initiation and optimum harvest date in Brussels sprouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Sukkel, W.

    1999-01-01

    For six cultivars of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) with a decreasing degree of earliness, or optimum harvest date, the time of bud initiation was determined during two seasons. Fifty percent of the plants had initiated buds between 60 and 75 days after planting (DAP) in 1994

  12. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  13. Factors affecting seed set in brussels sprouts, radish and cyclamen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murabaa, El A.I.M.

    1957-01-01

    If brussels sprouts were, self-fertilized, seed setting increased with age of the flower buds until a maximum some days before buds opened. After that, set decreased rapidly. Warmth shortened the period over which selfing was possible and shortened the period to the opening of the flowers. Most

  14. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, K.; Cheng, Y.; Xing, Y.; Lin, L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity

  15. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Is it worth it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouted grains have gained renewed interest among grazing dairy farmers in response to high grain prices, grain scarcity (in the organic dairy sector) and challenges in producing high-quality forages. This interest has been spurred by high-profile advertising by companies selling the systems, as we...

  16. Photosynthate distribution patterns in cherrybark oak seedling sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; John D. Hodges; Emile S. Gardiner; Andrew W. Ezell

    2003-01-01

    Summary We used 14C tracers to determine photosynthate distribution in cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedling sprouts following release from competing mid-story vegetation. Fall acquisition of labeled photosynthates by seedlings followed expected source--sink patterns, with root and basal stem tissues...

  17. Effects of Growth Hormones on Sprouting and Rooting of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to assess the effect of growth hormone on sprouting and rooting ability of Jatropha curcas (L). Stem cuttings from mature plants were treated with two types of growth hormones: Naphthalene Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid while the untreated cuttings were used as control.

  18. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-18

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  19. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Baenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo, a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  20. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  1. Yield formation in Brussels sprouts: effects of nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, R.

    2000-01-01

    Data of two field experiments, in which the nitrogen application rate was varied between 0 and 300 kg/ha, were used to analyze the factors that affect marketable yield in Brussels sprouts. Marketable yield (Y) is a function of radiation use efficiency (RUE), cumulative intercepted radiation (IPAR),

  2. Effect of processing (sprouting and fermentation) of five local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    ABSTRACT: The effect of processing (combined sprouting and fermentation) on chemical composition, tannin content, in vitro protein digestibility and mineral element composition of five local varieties were studied. The five varieties studied were: “chakalari white, chakalari red, yafimoro, tumbuna and mire”. The parameters ...

  3. Nitrogen and post-harvest yellowing of Brussels sprouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of a late nitrogen application on post-harvest yellowing of Brussels sprouts. Application of nitrogen, whether as granular fertilizer or as a lower amount sprayed over the crop in a watery solution, increased the nitrogen concentration in the outer leaves of the

  4. Study of selenocompounds from selenium-enriched culture of edible sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes-Collado, Virginia; Morell-Garcia, Albert; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2013-12-15

    Selenium is recognised as an essential micronutrient for humans and animals. One of the main sources of selenocompounds in the human diet is vegetables. Therefore, this study deals with the Se species present in different edible sprouts grown in Se-enriched media. We grew alfalfa, lentil and soy in a hydroponic system amended with soluble salts, containing the same proportion of Se, in the form of Se(VI) and Se(IV). Total Se in the sprouts was determined by acidic digestion in a microwave system and by ICP/MS. Se speciation was carried out by enzymatic extraction (Protease XIV) and measured by LC-ICP/MS. The study shows that the Se content of plants depends on the content in the growth culture, and that part of the inorganic Se was biotransformed mainly into SeMet. These results contribute to our understanding of the uptake of inorganic Se and its biotransformation by edible plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Passive recruitment of circulating leukocytes into capillary sprouts from existing capillaries in a microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzan, Omid; Burns, Jennie M; Robichaux, Jennifer L; Murfee, Walter L; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2011-06-07

    Recent evidence implicating leukocytes in angiogenesis raises the question of whether leukocytes and other cells circulating with the blood in microvascular networks can home to capillary sprouts intraluminally. This study describes an investigation of leukocyte trafficking in sprouting capillaries fabricated using soft lithography. The leukocytes passing with whole blood through existing capillaries were able to enter microfabricated capillary sprouts of variable length and sprouting angle due to the mechanical interaction with red blood cells (RBCs) at the sprouting bifurcation, in spite of the complete absence of blood flow through the blind-ended sprouts or any chemoattractants. The RBCs formed "comet tails" (the densely packed cellular trains forming behind leukocytes as they move through narrow capillaries) and effectively pushed leukocytes into the microfabricated sprouts while bypassing them at the sprouting bifurcation. Individual sprouts filled with several leukocytes, as wells as RBCs and platelets, were observed. The results of this study suggest that (i) blood cells are likely present in capillary sprouts throughout their development, (ii) leukocytes and other circulating cells may use this mechanism to home to capillary sprouts intraluminally for direct engraftment, and (iii) tissues may use this phenomenon as another mechanism for local recruitment of leukocytes from the blood stream.

  6. The water factor in harvest-sprouting of hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Sprouting in unthreshed, ripe, hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is induced by rain, but sprouting does not necessarily occur because the crop is wetted. The spike and grain water conditions conducive to sprouting were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Sprouting did not occur in field growing wheat wetted to 110% water concentration until the spike water concentration was reduced to 12% and maintained at this concentration for 2 days before wetting. When cut at growth stage 11.3, Feekes scale, Saratovskaya 20 (USSR) sprouted after 4 days drying, Olaf and Alex between 7 and 15 days drying and Columbus, recognized for its resistance to harvest time sprouting, after more than 15 days drying. Sprouting potential was enhanced after 4 wetting drying cycles in which any wetted interval was too brief to permit sufficient water imbibition to initiate sprouting. At harvest ripeness, grain water concentration exceeded spike water concentration by 0.7 percentage units. Following 6 months storage, 20% of the kernels in 300 spike bundles (simulating windrows) sprouted within 28 hrs after initiation of wetting to saturation (150% water concentration). Ninety percent sprouting occurred within 8 days in bundles maintained at 75% water concentration and higher, but less sprouting occurred in bundles dried to 50% water concentration before resaturation.

  7. Growth and yield of broccoli fertilized with doses of velvet bean in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Rúbia Diniz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dose effects of green manure in vegetable crops production are still poorly understood. There are few scientific studies indicate that increasing the dose may influence plants characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of doses of velvet bean green manure on growth and yield, the partitioning of dry matter and nitrogen (N in plants of broccoli, as well as determine the apparent recovery and physiological efficiency of use N. We established four treatments plus a control. The treatments consisted of four levels of green manure: 0, 3, 6, 9 t ha-1 on a dry matter basis, with the addition of 12 t ha-1 of compost. Doses of green manure applied influenced the growth and yield of broccoli. The distribution of dry matter between plant parts of broccoli is not influenced by the doses of green manure. Doses of green manure influenced the amount of N accumulated in the inflorescence and whole plant of broccoli. The apparent recovery of N from green manure and efficiency of N use by plants of broccoli are positively associated with the applied doses.

  8. Glucosinolate biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Woo Tae; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Nam, Sang-Yong; Jho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-02-01

    Here we present previously unreported glucosinolate production by hairy root cultures of broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica). Growth media greatly influenced the growth and glucosinolate content of hairy root cultures of broccoli. Seven glucosinolates, glucoraphanin, gluconapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin, were identified by analysis of the broccoli hairy root cultures. Both half and full strength B5 and SH media enabled the highest accumulation of glucosinolates. In most cases, the levels of glucosinolates were higher in SH and BS media. Among the 7 glucosinolates, the accumulation of neoglucobrassicin was very high, irrespective of growth medium. The neoglucobrassicin content was 7.4-fold higher in SH medium than 1/2 MS, in which its level was the lowest. The 1/2 B5 medium supported the production of the highest amounts of glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, the levels for which were 36.2- and 7.9- fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. The 1/2 SH medium enabled the highest accumulation of glucoraphanin and gluconapin in the broccoli hairy root cultures, whose levels were 1.8- and 4.6-fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. Our results suggest that hairy root cultures of broccoli could be a valuable alternative approach for the production of glucosinolate compounds.

  9. Potential of different mechanical and thermal treatments to control off-flavour generation in broccoli puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutidou, Maria; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Acharya, Parag

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this study was scientifically investigate the impact of the sequence of different thermo-mechanical treatments on the volatile profile of differently processed broccoli puree, and to investigate if any relationship persists between detected off-flavour changes and microstructural changes as a function of selected process conditions. Comparison of the headspace GC-MS fingerprinting of the differently processed broccoli purees revealed that an adequate combination of processing steps allows to reduce the level of off-flavour volatiles. Moreover, applying mechanical processing before or after the thermal processing at 90°C determines the pattern of broccoli tissue disruption, resulting into different microstructures and various enzymatic reactions inducing volatile generation. These results may aid the identification of optimal process conditions generating a reduced level of off-flavour in processed broccoli. In this way, broccoli can be incorporated as a food ingredient into mixed food products with limited implications on sensorial consumer acceptance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolism of phenolic compounds by Lactobacillus spp. during fermentation of cherry juice and broccoli puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Bai, Yunpeng; Di Cagno, Raffaela; Gobbetti, Marco; Gänzle, Michael G

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the metabolism of phenolic acids and flavonoids during lactic acid fermentation of cherry juice and broccoli puree for potential food and pharmaceutical purposes. When fermenting cherry juice and broccoli puree, Lactobacillus spp. exhibited strain-specific metabolism of phenolic acid derivatives. The metabolism of protocatechuic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids through phenolic acid decarboxylases and reductases differed between mMRS and cherry juice and broccoli puree. The synthesis of reduced compounds was the highest during food fermentations and the substrate seemed to modulate the metabolism of phenolic compounds. The reduction of phenolic acids involves a hydrogen donor and the re-oxidation of the reduced co-factor NADH, which may provide a metabolic advantage through NAD(+) regeneration. Quinic acid reduction may replace fructose and pyruvate as hydrogen acceptors, and it may provide an energetic advantage to heterofermentative bacteria when growing in broccoli puree lacking of fructose. This study demonstrated that phenolics metabolism may confer a selective advantage for lactobacilli in vegetable and fruit fermentation, and the metabolic routes are strongly dependent on the intrinsic factors of substrate. Fermented cherry juice and broccoli puree, due to the selected bacterial bioconversion pathways, are enriched in phenolic derivative with high human bioavailability and biological activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Propagation of Variation in Glucosinolate Levels as effected by Controlled Atmosphere and Temperature in a Broccoli Batch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Zhang, X.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2008-01-01

    Broccoli combines high levels of vitamins, fibres and glucosinolates (GLS) with a low calorie count. GLS are precursors for the characteristic broccoli flavour and have anti-carcinogenic properties. This study describes the effect of controlled atmo¬sphere (CA) and temperature on GLS concentrations

  12. Effect of matrix and particle type on rheological, textural and structural properties of broccoli pasta and noodles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, E.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.; Scholten, E.

    2013-01-01

    Durum wheat semolina (DWS) pasta and sweet potato starch (SPS) noodles were incorporated with dif ferent volume fractions and types of broccoli powder (up to 20% v/v). The incorporation of high volume fractions of broccoli powder produced in-house in SPS noodles increases the modulus of the dough

  13. Using weighted trait indices to select the best performing broccoli hybrids in multi-site and multi-year trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding and implementing evaluation data from vegetable trials conducted across multiple years and environments by multiple raters presents numerous challenges. In order to select new broccoli hybrids suitable for eastern production, the SCRI East Coast Broccoli Project has conducted over 32 p...

  14. Regional hybrid broccoli trials provide a means to further breeding efforts of this increasingly important vegetable crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) entitled “Establishing an Eastern Broccoli Industry” is funded under the Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI), and a primary component of the project is a system of regional hybrid broccoli trials conducted along the eastern seaboard. Hybrids currently ...

  15. Evaluation of different cooking conditions on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) to improve the nutritional value and consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongoni, Radhika; Verkerk, Ruud; Steenbekkers, Bea; Dekker, Matthijs; Stieger, Markus

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to gain insights into the effect of the cooking method on the liking as well as the retention of glucosinolates in broccoli. With this knowledge it can be concluded whether the health aspects of broccoli be improved by the cooking method without deteriorating sensory perception. For this, broccoli was cooked by methods commonly applied by consumers: boiling with a cold (water) start; boiling with a hot (water) start; and steaming. Firmness, greenness and amount of total glucosinolates in cooked broccoli were instrumentally determined. Sensory evaluation by untrained consumers (n = 99) for liking and sensory attributes intensity rating were performed on broccoli cooked by steaming and boiling-cold start at three time points, which resulted in 'high', 'medium', 'low' firm broccoli samples. At the end of cooking, steaming showed an increase in the amount of total glucosinolates (+17%). Boiling-hot start (-41%) and boiling-cold start (-50%) showed a decrease in amount of total glucosinolates. Sensory evaluation did not show statistically significant differences between steaming and boiling-cold start in liking at 'high' and 'medium' firmness; and in the attribute intensity ratings (except for juiciness at 'medium' firmness, and flavour at 'medium' and 'low' firmness). This study demonstrates that medium firm broccoli showed optimum liking and that steaming compared to boiled-cold start showed higher amount of glucosinolates. It is concluded that the health aspects of broccoli can be improved without reducing the sensory aspects by optimising the cooking method.

  16. How do High Temperatures Limit Broccoli Production: Is It Possible for this Cole Crop to Take the Heat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is generally thought that broccoli does not grow well in most environments during summer months in the eastern United States, because high temperatures can damage the developing heads causing the harvested vegetable to be unmarketable. Identification of broccoli varieties that produce a quality ...

  17. Optimization of the composition of the powdered cereal sprouts mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas-Šaponjac Vesna T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sprouts of cereals have received significant attention as functional food due to their nutritional and functional value. Consumption of sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. Cereal grains contain several classes of phytochemicals, i.e. phenolics, chlorophylls, and carotenoids. However, their nutritional and chemical profile is altered and improved during germination. The purpose of this study was to find the best ratio of the powdered wheat (WS, oat (OS and barley (BS sprouts for designing the cereal sprout mixture (CSM with the highest total phenolic content (TPh and antioxidant capacity (AC, using Simplex-Centroid experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM. Single- and multi-response optimizations showed that OS did not contribute to TPh or AC values of CSM and, therefore, was not included in any of the compositions of the optimized CSM. Single-response optimizations showed that the highest TPh was found for CSM containing 82% BS and 18% WS, while the best AC was found for pure BS. The predicted ratio of cereal sprout powders in CSM obtained by multi-response optimization was: 96% BS and 4% WS. This mixture possessed the highest predicted TPh and AC (372.32 mg GAE/100 g, 549.99 μmol TE/100 g, respectively, which was confirmed to be in accordance with the experimental values. Based on the results obtained in this study, a designed CSM is proposed as a convenient ingredient of functional food products, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.

  18. Identification and analysis of isothiocyanates and new acylated anthocyanins in the juice of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Petrillo, Gianna; Valgimigli, Luca

    2012-07-15

    The freeze-dried sprouts' juice of Raphanus sativus (L.) cv. Sango was prepared and analysed for the first time. HPLC analysis of total isothiocyanates, after protein displacement, resulted in 77.8 ± 3.0 μmol/g of dry juice while GC-MS analysis of hexane and acetone extracts showed E- and Z-raphasatin (8.9 and 0.11 μmol/g, respectively) and sulforaphene (11.7 μmol/g), summing up to 20.7 ± 1.7 μmol/g of free isothiocyanates. Sprouts' juice contained an unprecedented wealth of anthocyanins and a new fractionation methodology allowed us to isolate 34 mg/g of acylated anthocyanins (28.3 ± 1.9 μmol/g), belonging selectively to the cyanidin family. Analysis was performed by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS(n) and extended to deacylated anthocyanins and aglycones, obtained, respectively, by alkaline and acid hydrolysis. This study identified 70 anthocyanins, 19 of which have never been described before and 32 of which are reported here in R. sativus for the first time. Sango radish sprouts are exceptional dietary sources of heath-promoting micronutrients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

    2011-04-27

    Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound.

  20. Role of PFKFB3-driven glycolysis in vessel sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Katrien; Georgiadou, Maria; Schoors, Sandra; Kuchnio, Anna; Wong, Brian W; Cantelmo, Anna Rita; Quaegebeur, Annelies; Ghesquière, Bart; Cauwenberghs, Sandra; Eelen, Guy; Phng, Li-Kun; Betz, Inge; Tembuyser, Bieke; Brepoels, Katleen; Welti, Jonathan; Geudens, Ilse; Segura, Inmaculada; Cruys, Bert; Bifari, Franscesco; Decimo, Ilaria; Blanco, Raquel; Wyns, Sabine; Vangindertael, Jeroen; Rocha, Susana; Collins, Russel T; Munck, Sebastian; Daelemans, Dirk; Imamura, Hiromi; Devlieger, Roland; Rider, Mark; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Schuit, Frans; Bartrons, Ramon; Hofkens, Johan; Fraisl, Peter; Telang, Sucheta; Deberardinis, Ralph J; Schoonjans, Luc; Vinckier, Stefan; Chesney, Jason; Gerhardt, Holger; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Vessel sprouting by migrating tip and proliferating stalk endothelial cells (ECs) is controlled by genetic signals (such as Notch), but it is unknown whether metabolism also regulates this process. Here, we show that ECs relied on glycolysis rather than on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production and that loss of the glycolytic activator PFKFB3 in ECs impaired vessel formation. Mechanistically, PFKFB3 not only regulated EC proliferation but also controlled the formation of filopodia/lamellipodia and directional migration, in part by compartmentalizing with F-actin in motile protrusions. Mosaic in vitro and in vivo sprouting assays further revealed that PFKFB3 overexpression overruled the pro-stalk activity of Notch, whereas PFKFB3 deficiency impaired tip cell formation upon Notch blockade, implying that glycolysis regulates vessel branching. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium, and Calcium Minerals Level in Fresh and Boiled Broccoli and Cauliflower by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerdy

    2018-01-01

    Vegetables from the cabbage family vegetables consumed by many people, which is known healthful, by eaten raw, boiled, or cooked (stir fry or soup). Vegetables like broccoli and cauliflower contain vitamins, minerals, and fiber. This study aims to determine the decrease percentage of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium minerals level caused by boiled broccoli and cauliflower by atomic absorption spectrometry. Boiled broccoli and cauliflower prepared by given boiled treatment in boiling water for 3 minutes. Fresh and boiled broccoli and cauliflower carried out dry destruction, followed by quantitative analysis of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium minerals respectively at a wavelength of 589.0 nm; 766.5 nm; 285.2 nm; and 422.7 nm, using atomic absorption spectrometry methods. After the determination of the sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium minerals level followed by validation of analytical methods with accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ) parameters. Research results show a decrease in the sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium minerals level in boiled broccoli and cauliflower compared with fresh broccoli and cauliflower. Validation of analytical methods gives results that spectrometry methods used for determining sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium minerals level are valid. It concluded that the boiled gives the effect of decreasing the minerals level significantly in broccoli and cauliflower.

  2. The effect of post-harvest and packaging treatments on glucoraphanin concentration in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Tomkins, Bruce; Nicolas, Marc E; Premier, Robert R; Bennett, Richard N; Eagling, David R; Taylor, Paul W J

    2002-12-04

    The effects of post-harvest and packaging treatments on glucoraphanin (4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate), the glucosinolate precursor of anticancer isothiocyanate sulforaphane [4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate], were examined in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) during storage times. The results showed that at 20 degrees C, 55% loss of glucoraphanin concentration occurred in broccoli stored in open boxes during the first 3 days of the treatment and 56% loss was found in broccoli stored in plastic bags by day 7. Under both air and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, glucoraphanin concentration appeared to fluctuate slightly during 25 days of storage and the concentrations under CA was significantly higher than those stored under air treatment. In modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) treatments, glucoraphanin concentration in air control packaging decreased significantly whereas there were no significant changes in glucoraphanin concentration in MAP with no holes at 4 degrees C and two microholes at 20 degrees C for up to 10 days. Decreases in glucoraphanin concentration occurred when the broccoli heads deteriorated. In the present study, the best method for preserving glucoraphanin concentration in broccoli heads after harvest was storage of broccoli in MAP and refrigeration at 4 degrees C. This condition maintained the glucoraphanin concentration for at least 10 days and also maintained the visual quality of the broccoli heads.

  3. Storage related changes of cell wall based dietary fiber components of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Stanojlovic, Luisa; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2017-03-01

    Storage related changes in the cell wall composition potentially affect the texture of plant-based foods and the physiological effects of cell wall based dietary fiber components. Therefore, a detailed characterization of cell wall polysaccharides and lignins from broccoli stems was performed. Freshly harvested broccoli and broccoli stored at 20°C and 1°C for different periods of time were analyzed. Effects on dietary fiber contents, polysaccharide composition, and on lignin contents/composition were much more pronounced during storage at 20°C than at 1°C. During storage, insoluble dietary fiber contents of broccoli stems increased up to 13%. Storage related polysaccharide modifications include an increase of the portions of cellulose, xylans, and homogalacturonans and a decrease of the neutral pectic side-chains arabinans and galactans. Broccoli stem lignins are generally rich in guaiacyl units. Lignins from freshly harvested broccoli stems contain slightly larger amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units than syringyl units. Syringyl units are predominantly incorporated into the lignin polymers during storage, resulting in increased acetyl bromide soluble lignin contents. NMR-based analysis of the interunit linkage types of broccoli stem lignins revealed comparably large portions of resinol structures for a guaiacyl rich lignin. Incorporation of syringyl units into the polymers over storage predominantly occurs through β-O-4-linkages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hibernating myocardium results in partial sympathetic denervation and nerve sprouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Stanley F.; Ovchinnikov, Vladislav; Canty, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernating myocardium due to chronic repetitive ischemia is associated with regional sympathetic nerve dysfunction and spontaneous arrhythmic death in the absence of infarction. Although inhomogeneity in regional sympathetic innervation is an acknowledged substrate for sudden death, the mechanism(s) responsible for these abnormalities in viable, dysfunctional myocardium (i.e., neural stunning vs. sympathetic denervation) and their association with nerve sprouting are unknown. Accordingly, markers of sympathetic nerve function and nerve sprouting were assessed in subendocardial tissue collected from chronically instrumented pigs with hibernating myocardium (n = 18) as well as sham-instrumented controls (n = 7). Hibernating myocardium exhibited evidence of partial sympathetic denervation compared with the normally perfused region and sham controls, with corresponding regional reductions in tyrosine hydroxylase protein (−32%, P myocardium (n = 9). In conclusion, sympathetic nerve dysfunction in hibernating myocardium is most consistent with partial sympathetic denervation and is associated with regional nerve sprouting. The extent of sympathetic remodeling is similar in animals that develop sudden death compared with survivors; this suggests that sympathetic remodeling in hibernating myocardium is not an independent trigger for sudden death. Nevertheless, sympathetic remodeling likely contributes to electrical instability in combination with other factors. PMID:23125211

  6. Effects of sulfur fertilization on the accumulation of health-promoting phytochemicals in radish sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenguang; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-08-07

    The effects of sulfur fertilization on the growth profile, the contents of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls, total phenolics, and the FRAP value in radish seeds and sprouts were investigated. The concentrations of glucosinolates and antioxidants in sprouts were strongly influenced by the process of germination. Sulfur fertilization induced significant increases in the contents of individual glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and total phenolics. The phenolic contents in sprouts cultivated using 20, 60, or 100 mg/L sulfate were 20.7%, 40.4%, and 40.8% higher, respectively, than those of 7-day-old control sprouts. No detectable effects were observed on the contents of 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin and vitamin C. In addition, the accumulation of anthocyanins in 7-day-old sprouts decreased by 14.8-39.3% upon sulfur fertilization. These findings indicated that the application of sulfur fertilization has the potential to enhance the levels of health-promoting compounds in radish sprouts.

  7. The effects of UV radiation during the vegetative period on antioxidant compounds and postharvest quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Yasin; Dogan, Adem; Kasimoglu, Zehra; Sahin-Nadeem, Hilal; Polat, Ersin; Erkan, Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effects of supplementary UV radiation during the vegetative period on antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and postharvest quality of broccoli heads during long term storage was studied. The broccolis were grown under three different doses of supplementary UV radiation (2.2, 8.8 and 16.4 kJ/m(2)/day) in a soilless system in a glasshouse. Harvested broccoli heads were stored at 0 °C in modified atmosphere packaging for 60 days. The supplementary UV radiation (280-315 nm) during the vegetative period significantly decreased total carotenoid, the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b content but increased the ascorbic acid, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of broccolis. All supplementary UV treatments slightly reduced the antioxidant activity of the broccolis, however, no remarkable change was observed between 2.2 and 8.8 kJ/m(2) radiation levels. The sinigrin and glucotropaeolin contents of the broccolis were substantially increased by UV treatments. The prolonged storage period resulted in decreased ascorbic acid, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as antioxidant activity. Discoloration of the heads, due to decreased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, was also observed with prolonged storage duration. Glucosinolates levels showed an increasing tendency till the 45th day of storage, and then their levels started to decline. The weight loss of broccoli heads during storage progressively increased with storage time in all treatments. Total soluble solids, solids content and titratable acidity decreased continuously during storage. Titratable acidity was not affected by UV radiation doses during the storage time whereas soluble solids and solids content (dry matter) were significantly affected by UV doses. Supplementary UV radiation increased the lightness (L*) and chroma (C*) values of the broccoli heads. Pre-harvest UV radiation during vegetative period seems to be a promising tool for increasing the beneficial health components

  8. Catalase inhibition accelerates dormancy release and sprouting in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Bajji; Mahmoud M’Hamdi; Frédéric Gastiny; Jorge A. Rojas-Beltran; Patrick du Jardin

    2007-01-01

    The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism in dormancy release and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers has been investigated using three complementary approaches. In the first approach, the evolution of the sprouting kinetics, H2O2 content and antioxidant enzyme activities were examined during tuber storage. The most important changes occurred at the « bud/sprout » level. In particular, dormancy release was accompanied by a transient but remarkable increase in H2O2 c...

  9. SPROUTS: a database for the evaluation of protein stability upon point mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Lonquety, Mathieu; Lacroix, Zo?; Papandreou, Nikolaos; Chomilier, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    SPROUTS (Structural Prediction for pRotein fOlding UTility System) is a new database that provides access to various structural data sets and integrated functionalities not yet available to the community. The originality of the SPROUTS database is the ability to gain access to a variety of structural analyses at one place and with a strong interaction between them. SPROUTS currently combines data pertaining to 429 structures that capture representative folds and results related to the predict...

  10. Evaluation of the free volume theory to predict moisture transport and quality changes during broccoli drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Moisture diffusion in porous broccoli florets and stalks is modeled by using the free volume and Maxwell-Eucken theories. These theories are based on the mobility of water and show the variation of the effective diffusion coefficient for a wide range of temperatures and moisture content of

  11. Evaluation of the Free Volume Theory to Predict Moisture Transport and Quality Changes During Broccoli Drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture diffusion in porous broccoli florets and stalks is modeled using the free volume and Maxwell-Eucken theories. These theories are based on the mobility of water and concern the variation of the effective diffusion coefficient for a wide range of temperature and moisture content during

  12. Modelling the effect of pH on the colour degradation of blanched broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Barringer, S.A.; Biekman, E.S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In ready-to-eat salads, a low pH is often applied in the salad dressing. The effect of pH on the colour change of blanched-frozen-and-thawed broccoli was studied. Different acids were used to achieve the pH values in buffer solutions. A model on chlorophyll degradation in fruits and vegetables was

  13. Modelling the change in colour in broccoli and green beans during blanching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Schijvens, E.P.H.M.; Biekman, E.S.A.

    2001-01-01

    The green colour of vegetables changes considerably during heat treatments like blanching. Green beans from two different countries and growing seasons, and the stems and florets of broccoli were heat-treated from 40 up to 96 °C. The colour was monitored with the CIE-Lab system. Expressing the green

  14. Biotechnological advancement in genetic improvement of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of molecular biotechnology, plant genetic engineering techniques have opened an avenue for the genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has significantly contributed to the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop, of the family Brassicaceae; however, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during the commercial cultivation of broccoli. Thus, genetic engineering can be used as a tool to add specific characteristics to existing cultivars. However, a pre-requisite for transferring genes into plants is the availability of efficient regeneration and transformation techniques. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering provide an opportunity to improve broccoli in many aspects. The goal of this review is to summarize genetic transformation studies on broccoli to draw the attention of researchers and scientists for its further genetic advancement.

  15. Broccoli Cultivar Performance under Organic and Conventional Management Systems and Implications for Crop Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, E.N.C.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Caldas Paulo, M.J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Juvik, J.A.; Hutton, M.G.; Myers, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    To determine if present commercial broccoli cultivars meet the diverse needs of organic management systems, such as adaptation to low N input, mechanical weed management, and no chemical pesticide use, and to propose the selection environments for crop improvement for organic production, we compared

  16. Moisture Sorption Isotherms of Broccoli Interpreted with the Flory-Huggins Free Volume Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Maanen, van J.F.C.; Deventer, van H.C.; Straten, van G.; Boom, R.M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the Flory Huggins Free Volume theory is used to interpret the sorption isotherms of broccoli from its composition and using physical properties of the components. This theory considers the mixing properties of water, biopolymers and solutes and has the potential to describe the

  17. Impact of different drying trajectories on degradation of nutritional compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Oliviero, T.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns the degradation of the nutritional compounds glucoraphanin (GR) and vitamin C (Vc), and the inactivation of the enzyme myrosinase (MYR) in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) during drying with air temperatures in the range of 30e60 C. Dynamic optimization is applied to find

  18. Growth and yield responses of broccoli cultivars to different rates of nitrogen at western Chitwan, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Raj Kumar; Sharma, Moha Datta; Shakya, Santa Man

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted with the objective to determine the optimum rate of nitrogen (N) fertilizer for effective growth and yield of two varieties of broccoli in southern plain of Nepal. The experiment was laid out with two-factorial completely random block design (RCBD) comprising two...

  19. Changes of glucosinolates in mixed fresh-cut broccoli and cauliflower florets in modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, M; Peters, P; Krumbein, A

    2007-10-01

    Glucosinolates of broccoli and cauliflower florets were assessed to determine the effect of modified-atmosphere packaging on postharvest glucosinolate dynamics in mixed florets of Brassica vegetables. Mixed-packaged broccoli and cauliflower florets stored in food trays sealed with 2 different microperforated biaxial-oriented polypropylene films for up to 7 d at 8 degrees C were analyzed. Both applied modified atmospheres (1% O(2)+ 21% CO(2); 8% O(2)+ 14% CO(2)) maintained aliphatic glucosinolates in cauliflower florets, whereas in broccoli florets, the aliphatic glucosinolate concentration decreased slightly in each modified atmosphere. In addition, total indole glucosinolate concentration for both broccoli and cauliflower florets was maintained, and even increased in cauliflower florets at 1% O(2)+ 21% CO(2) due to rising neoglucobrassicin concentration. Thus, to simultaneously maintain glucosinolates and external appearance as well as to prevent off-odor, a modified atmosphere of 1% O(2)+ 21% CO(2) provides a suitable environment for storage of this Brassica floret medley for up to 7 d at 8 degrees C.

  20. Effects of application timing of saline irrigation water on broccoli production and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation with moderately saline water is a necessity in many semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean Basin, and requires adequate irrigation management strategies. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), a crop moderately tolerant to salinity stress, was used to evaluate the effects of the applica...

  1. Impact of thermal processing on sulforaphane yield from broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace C; Farnham, Mark; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2012-07-11

    In broccoli, sulforaphane forms when the glucosinolate glucoraphanin is hydrolyzed by the endogenous plant thiohydrolase myrosinase. A myrosinase cofactor directs hydrolysis away from the formation of bioactive sulforaphane and toward an inactive product, sulforaphane nitrile. The cofactor is more heat sensitive than myrosinase, presenting an opportunity to preferentially direct hydrolysis toward sulforaphane formation through regulation of thermal processing. Four broccoli cultivars were microwave heated, boiled, or steamed for various lengths of time. Production of nitrile during hydrolysis of unheated broccoli varied among cultivars from 91 to 52% of hydrolysis products (Pinnacle > Marathon > Patriot > Brigadier). Boiling and microwave heating caused an initial loss of nitrile, with a concomitant increase in sulforaphane, followed by loss of sulforaphane, all within 1 min. In contrast, steaming enhanced sulforaphane yield between 1.0 and 3.0 min in all but Brigadier. These data are proof of concept that steaming for 1.0-3.0 min provides less nitrile and more sulforaphane yield from a broccoli meal.

  2. Broccoli glucosinolate degradation is reduced performing thermal treatment in binary systems with other food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giambanelli, E.; Verkerk, R.; Fogliano, V.; Capuano, E.; Antuono, D' L.F.; Oliviero, T.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolate (GL) stability has been widely studied in different Brassica species. However, the matrix effect determined by the presence of other ingredients occurred in many broccoli-based traditional recipes may affect GL thermal degradation. In this study, the matrix effect on GL thermal

  3. Doubled haploid inbred lines USVL048 and USVL131 of heading broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two inbred lines of heading broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), designated USVL048 and USVL131, were released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2012. Both of the released lines are doubled haploids originally derived from another culture. As do...

  4. Establishing an eastern broccoli industry: where are we and where do we need to go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) entitled “Establishing an Eastern Broccoli Industry” has been underway since the fall of 2010 and funded under the USDA Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI), which was established as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This project has brought together research...

  5. Metabolomic assessment reveals a stimulatory effect of calcium treatment on glucosinolates contents in broccoli microgreen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preharvest calcium application has been shown to increase broccoli microgreen yield and extend shelf life. Here we investigated the effect of calcium application on its metabolome using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem with mass spectrometry (HRMS). The data collected were...

  6. Effects of pre- and postharvest calcium treatments on shelf life and postharvest quality of broccoli microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microgreens’ extremely short shelf life limits their commercial usage. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of pre- and post- harvest treatments using different forms of calcium on the postharvest quality and shelf-life of broccoli microgreens. Preharvest spray with calcium lactate, ...

  7. Koeling van bloemkool en broccoli op de veiling "De Tuinbouw" te Grootebroek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, P.M.M.; Hendriks, A.G.M.

    1980-01-01

    In een proef op de veiling "De Tuinbouw" in Grootebroek is zowel bloemkool als broccoli opgeslagen gedurende respectievelijk een en drie dagen bij 2 graden C en 95% r.v. Na koeling zijn de kolen geplaatst in een donkere ruimte met een temperatuur van 18 graden C en een r.v. van 90%. Beoordeeld is op

  8. Using regional broccoli trial data to select experimental hybrids for input into advanced yield trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large amount of phenotypic trait data are being generated in regional trials that are implemented as part of the Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) project entitled “Establishing an Eastern Broccoli Industry”. These data are used to identify the best entries in the trials for inclusion in ...

  9. Purification and characterization of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Andrea; Angulo, Alejandro; Cabañas, Fernanda

    2014-12-03

    Myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.147) from broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by concanavalin A affinity chromatography, with an intermediate dialysis step, resulting in 88% recovery and 1318-fold purification. These are the highest values reported for the purification of any myrosinase. The subunits of broccoli myrosinase have a molecular mass of 50-55 kDa. The native molecular mass of myrosinase was 157 kDa, and accordingly, it is composed of three subunits. The maximum activity was observed at 40 °C and at pH below 5.0. Kinetic assays demonstrated that broccoli myrosinase is subjected to substrate (sinigrin) inhibition. The Michaelis-Menten model, considering substrate inhibition, gave Vmax equal to 0.246 μmol min(-1), Km equal to 0.086 mM, and K(I) equal to 0.368 mM. This is the first study about purification and characterization of broccoli myrosinase.

  10. PEMANFAATAN HASIL SAMPING PENGOLAHAN TEPUNG TAPIOKA UNTUK PEMBUATAN NATA DE CASSAVA: KAJIAN PENAMBAH SUKROSA DAN EKSTRAK KECAMBAH [The Utilization of By Product of Tapioca Industry on Nata de Cassava Processing : To Study the Addition of Sucrose and Mungbean Sprout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifda Naufali

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available By product of tapioca industry, which is an environmental problem, has a potential to be a raw material of nata production due to its high carbohydrate content. Nata is high-fibre food which is an important for the health. The research on which this article was aimed at finding out the potential of by product of tapioca industry as a raw material of nata production by improving the nutrition addition, adding sucrose and mungbean sprout extract. Completely Randomized Design was applied in this research with three replication. The sucrose addition with three levels, namely 2.5, 5 and 7.5% and mungbean sprout extract addition with three levels, namely 0.25, 0.5 and 7.5%. The examined parameters were the contents of water, crude fiber, pH after incubation, thickness, wet rendement, dry rendement and texture. The research concluded that the addition of 7.5% sucrose was the optimum concentration which producing nata with highest wet rendemnet 41.67 % (w/w and 8.77 mm thick; addition of 0.75 % sprout mungbean extract was optimum concentration producing nata of 41.00 % (w/w wet rendement and 8.02 mm thick. The best treatment was combination of 7.5 % ucrose and 0.75 mungbean sprout extract addition

  11. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  12. Sprouting ability and biomass production of downy and silver birch stumps of different diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord [Department of Bioenergy, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the sprouting ability of stumps of different diameters of downy (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and silver (Betula pendula Roth) birch. The number of living stumps, and the number and height of sprouts were recorded annually and the biomass of the sprouts was calculated. Two hundred naturally regenerated downy and silver birches were examined. These were part of a commercial cleaning in late August 1983, which left 20-cm-high stumps. The experimental site was located on forest land in central Sweden (latitude 60 15'N, longitude 16 01'E). The stumps were categorised into four diameter classes: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39 and 40-50 mm. The site was examined in September of the year after cutting and on a number of occasions up to 9 years after cutting. The number of living stumps of each species was recorded. When the sprouts were 9 years old, their diameter at breast height was recorded. Then, the sprouts were cut and stems and branches were dried and weighted. After 1 and 9 years, the percentage of surviving downy birch stumps was 90% and 61%, respectively. The equivalent figures for silver birch were 82% and 55%. The number of sprouts per stump differed significantly between the species and the stump diameter classes. The greatest mean number of downy birch sprouts per stump (2.8{+-}0.3) was for the diameter class 40-50 mm, and for silver birch sprouts (2.3{+-}0.2), for the 30-39 mm stumps. The diameter at breast height, height and weight of individual sprouts 9 years after cutting were significantly different between downy and silver birches and the diameter classes. The mean downy birch sprout weight (1.00{+-}0.01 kg d.w. stump{sup -1}) varied between diameter classes and the heaviest sprout weight (1.18{+-}0.02 kg d.w. stump{sup -1}) was produced by 30-39 mm stumps. The heaviest silver birch sprout, 1.94{+-}0.04 kg d.w., was also produced by 40-50 mm stumps. The mean weight was 1.55{+-}0.05 kg d.w. The sprout biomass per living

  13. A rapid and automated fiber optic-based biosensor assay for the detection of Salmonella in spent irrigation water used in the sprouting of sprout seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Marianne F; Lim, Daniel V

    2004-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of foodborne illness have been linked to the consumption of contaminated sprouts. The spent irrigation water used to irrigate sprouts can carry many microorganisms, including pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These pathogens are believed to originate from the seeds. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends that sprout producers conduct microbiological testing of spent irrigation water from each production lot at least 48 h after seeds have germinated. Microbial analysis for the detection of Salmonella is labor-intensive and takes days to complete. A rapid and automated fiber-optic biosensor assay for the detection of Salmonella in sprout rinse water was developed in this study. Alfalfa seeds contaminated with various concentrations of Salmonella Typhimurium were sprouted. The spent irrigation water was assayed 67 h after alfalfa seed germination with the RAPTOR (Research International, Monroe, Wash.), an automated fiber optic-based detector. Salmonella Typhimurium could be positively identified in spent irrigation water when seeds were contaminated with 50 CFU/g. Viable Salmonella Typhimurium cells were also recovered from the waveguides after the assay. This biosensor assay system has the potential to be directly connected to water lines within the sprout-processing facility and to operate automatically, requiring manual labor only for preventative maintenance. Therefore, the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in spent irrigation water could be continuously and rapidly detected 3 to 5 days before the completion of the sprouting process.

  14. BROCCOLI: Software for Fast fMRI Analysis on Many-Core CPUs and GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eEklund

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data is becoming ever more computationally demanding as temporal and spatial resolutions improve, and large, publicly available data sets proliferate. Moreover, methodological improvements in the neuroimaging pipeline, such as non-linear spatial normalization, non-parametric permutation tests and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches, can dramatically increase the computational burden. Despite these challenges, there do not yet exist any fMRI software packages which leverage inexpensive and powerful graphics processing units (GPUs to perform these analyses. Here, we therefore present BROCCOLI, a free software package written in OpenCL (Open Computing Language that can be used for parallel analysis of fMRI data on a large variety of hardware configurations. BROCCOLI has, for example, been tested with an Intel CPU, an Nvidia GPU and an AMD GPU. These tests show that parallel processing of fMRI data can lead to significantly faster analysis pipelines. This speedup can be achieved on relatively standard hardware, but further, dramatic speed improvements require only a modest investment in GPU hardware. BROCCOLI (running on a GPU can perform non-linear spatial normalization to a 1 mm3 brain template in 4-6 seconds, and run a second level permutation test with 10,000 permutations in about a minute. These non-parametric tests are generally more robust than their parametric counterparts, and can also enable more sophisticated analyses by estimating complicated null distributions. Additionally, BROCCOLI includes support for Bayesian first-level fMRI analysis using a Gibbs sampler. The new software is freely available under GNU GPL3 and can be downloaded from github (https://github.com/wanderine/BROCCOLI/.

  15. [Determination of 6 kinds of plant growth regulator in bean sprout by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Fan, Sai; Wu, Guohua; Zhao, Rong; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Xudong

    2016-05-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 6 plant growth regulator (PGR) residues in bean sprout was developed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). 6-Benzylaminopurine, isopentennyladenine, 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid, indole-3- acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid were concerned. Bean sprout samples were extracted by acetonitrile and QuEChERS extraction kit, purified by C18 powers. After centrifugation, the sample liquids was diluted 10 times by ultrapure water. The chromatographic analysis was carried out on an waters acquity UPLC BEH C18 column( 100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm). The analyzer confirmed and quantified by mass spectrum of triple quadrupole in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and quantified by matrix-matched external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in each range with correlation coefficients greater than 0.998. 3 levels spiked recoveries were carried out using blank bean sprout extraction as substrate, the recoveries ranged from 84.2% to 107.5%, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 3.08% to 12.71%. The qualitative limits of detections (S/N = 3) were 0.03-3.0 microg/kg and the quantitative limits(S/N = 10) were 0.1-10.0 microg/kg for the 6 PGRs. The method is simple and easy to operate, with less organic reagent, high sensitivity and good stability. It is suitable for the detection of 6 kinds of plant growth regulators in bean sprouts.

  16. Catalase inhibition accelerates dormancy release and sprouting in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Bajji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 metabolism in dormancy release and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers has been investigated using three complementary approaches. In the first approach, the evolution of the sprouting kinetics, H2O2 content and antioxidant enzyme activities were examined during tuber storage. The most important changes occurred at the « bud/sprout » level. In particular, dormancy release was accompanied by a transient but remarkable increase in H2O2 content. In the second approach, the effect of a catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6 inhibitor (thiourea or of exogenous H2O2 application on tuber sprouting behaviour was assessed. Both treatments resulted in a reduction of the dormancy period and in rapid and synchronised sprouting of the treated tubers when compared to the control as well as in increased sprout number per tuber. In the third approach, the effect of CAT inhibition on potato tuber dormancy and sprouting was evaluated using the transgenic technology. Plants partially repressed in their CAT activity were produced and, once again, CAT inhibition resulted in acceleration of the sprouting kinetics and in increased sprout number of the transgenic tubers compared to those from the wild type. It thus appears that tuber dormancy and sprouting can be controlled in potato by the manipulation of H2O2 metabolism via the inhibition of CAT activity. The possible mechanisms whereby CAT inhibitors or H2O2 overcome dormancy and promote sprouting in the potato tuber are discussed in relation to what is known in other plant models (seeds and fruit tree buds.

  17. Effect of water content and temperature on inactivation kinetics of myrosinase in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, T.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Broccoli belongs to the Brassicaceae plant family consisting of widely eaten vegetables containing high concentrations of glucosinolates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates by endogenous myrosinase (MYR) can form isothiocyanates with health-promoting activities. The effect of water content (WC)

  18. Thermal stability of L-ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid oxidase in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Makule, Edna Edward; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-05-01

    The thermal stability of vitamin C (including l-ascorbic acid [l-AA] and dehydroascorbic acid [DHAA]) in crushed broccoli was evaluated in the temperature range of 30 to 90 degrees C whereas that of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) was evaluated in the temperature range of 20 to 95 degrees C. Thermal treatments (for 15 min) of crushed broccoli at 30 to 60 degrees C resulted in conversion of l-AA to DHAA whereas treatments at 70 to 90 degrees C retained vitamin C as l-AA. These observations indicated that enzymes (for example, AAO) could play a major role in the initial phase (that is, oxidation of l-AA to DHAA) of vitamin C degradation in broccoli. Consequently, a study to evaluate the temperature-time conditions that could result in AAO inactivation in broccoli was carried out. In this study, higher AAO activity was observed in broccoli florets than stalks. During thermal treatments for 10 min, AAO in broccoli florets and stalks was stable until around 50 degrees C. A 10-min thermal treatment at 80 degrees C almost completely inactivated AAO in broccoli. AAO inactivation followed 1st order kinetics in the temperature range of 55 to 65 degrees C. Based on this study, a thermal treatment above 70 degrees C is recommended for crushed vegetable products to prevent oxidation of l-AA to DHAA, the onset of vitamin C degradation. The results reported in this study are applicable for both domestic and industrial processing of vegetables into products such as juices, soups, and purees. In this report, we have demonstrated that processing crushed broccoli in a temperature range of 30 to 60 degrees C could result in the conversion of l-ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic (DHAA), a very important reaction in regard to vitamin C degradation because DHAA could be easily converted to other compounds that do not have the biological activity of vitamin C.

  19. Evaluation of Probiotic Diversity from Soybean (Glycine max) Seeds and Sprouts Using Illumina-Based Sequencing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yali; Zhang, Miaomiao; Deng, Zujun; Cao, Lixiang

    2017-07-24

    There is increasing interest in the use of plant probiotics as environmental-friendly and healthy biofertilizers. The study aimed at selecting for novel probiotic candidates of soybean (Glycine max). The bacteriome and mycobiome of soybean sprouts and seeds were analyzed by Illumina-based sequencing. Seeds contained more diverse bacteria than those in sprouts. The seeds contained similar fungal diversity with sprouts. Total 15 bacterial OTUs and 4 fungal OTUs were detected in seeds and sprouts simultaneously, suggesting that the sprouts contained bacterial and fungal taxa transmitted from seeds. The Halothiobacillus was the most dominant bacterial genus observed and coexisted in seeds and sprouts. The OTUs belonged to Ascomycota were the most dominant fungal taxa observed in seeds and sprouts. Halothiobacillus was firstly identified as endophytic probiotics of soybean. The results suggested that sprouts might contain diverse plant probiotics of mature plants and Illumina-based sequencing can be used to screen for probiotic candidates.

  20. Yield formation in Brussels sprouts: effects of nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Booij, R.

    2000-01-01

    Data of two field experiments, in which the nitrogen application rate was varied between 0 and 300 kg/ha, were used to analyze the factors that affect marketable yield in Brussels sprouts. Marketable yield (Y) is a function of radiation use efficiency (RUE), cumulative intercepted radiation (IPAR), partitioning of biomass (P) and the dry matter concentration in the buds (DMC): Y=RUE*IPAR*P/DMC. The effect of nitrogen application rate on marketable yield was analyzed in these terms. RUE was no...

  1. Vitamin C, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Broccoli Florets Grown under Different Nitrogen Treatments Combined with Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peñas Elena

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli consumption is rising worldwide and fertilization is a tool to increase its production. However, little is known about the effect of mineral supplementation to the soil on the bioactive compounds. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to analyze the content of vitamin C, total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of broccoli florets cultivated under different nitrogen (N conditions in combination with selenium (IV and VI. Greenhouse experiments were conducted in broccoli grown in commercial soil treated with different N sources [(NH42SO4, NaNO3, NH4NO3 or CO(NH22 at 160 kg N/ha]. In addition, selenium (Se salts [Na2SeO3 (Se IV or Na2SeO4 (Se VI at 10 and 20 kg Se/ha] were applied. There were no evidences of the influence of N treatment on vitamin C content whilst Se (IV or VI uptake led to a significant reduction of this vitamin in broccoli florets, irrespective of the N source. In contrast, total phenolics content and antioxidant capacity underwent a significant increment under N application. However, their combination with Se salts modified total phenolic content and antioxidant capacities in broccoli florets depending on N source and Se doses. Among all the experimental trials, application of NH4NO3 combined with 10 g Se (IV/ha was the elective treatment strategy to produce broccoli florets with higher content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity and, therefore, enhanced functionality.

  2. Control of endothelial sprouting by a Tel-CtBP complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roukens, M. Guy; Alloul-Ramdhani, Mariam; Baan, Bart; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Peterson-Maduro, Josi; van Dam, Hans; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Baker, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We show that the transcriptional repressor Tel plays an evolutionarily conserved role in angiogenesis: it is indispensable for the sprouting of human endothelial cells and for normal development of the Danio rerio blood circulatory system. Tel orchestrates endothelial sprouting by binding to the

  3. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  4. Development of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce following thinning and pruning in south-east Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; R. James Barbour; Michael H. McClellan; Dean L. Parry

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and size of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were assessed in five 23-29 year-old mixed Sitka spruce-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands that were uniformly thinned and pruned to 2.4, 3.7 and 5.2 m lift heights. Six to nine years after treatment sprouts were...

  5. Preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans in the highland tropics of Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Andrade-Piedra, Jorge L.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans occurs in the highland tropics of Ecuador. In three separate experiments in the field, P. infestans was identified on the preemerged sprouts of 49, 5, and 43% of tubers, respectively...... is consistent with high levels of disease sometimes seen in recently emerged potato fields. These experiments indicate a need to reconsider disease management approaches.......Experiments were conducted to determine whether preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans occurs in the highland tropics of Ecuador. In three separate experiments in the field, P. infestans was identified on the preemerged sprouts of 49, 5, and 43% of tubers, respectively......, which had been removed from soil prior to emergence. Tubers had been planted within 10 m of approximately 300-m2 plots with mature potato plants severely infected with late blight. Infection potential of potato sprouts also was evaluated in the greenhouse by applying 10-ml sporangial suspensions (50...

  6. Influence of size of onion bulb cv. 'Czerniakowska' on its dormancy, sprouting and rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bielińska-Czarnecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sprouting and rooting of onion bulb explants (bulbs deprived of open and closed shells and of whole onion bulbs of three sizes, horizontal diameters: 2.5-3.5 cm, 3.6-5.0 cm, 5.1-7.0 cm were studied. During storage the earliest sprouting and rooting of bulb explants and of the whole onion bulbs was observed in small bulbs of diameters: 2.5-3.5, and the latest in large bulbs of 5.1-7.0 cm. The longer the period of storage the larger the amount of sprouted and rooted bulb explants and whole bulbs, At the same time differences in the rate of sprouting and rooting in small and large onion bulbs were diminishing. In bulb explants, sprouting and rooting appeared much earlier and in a larger number than in whole onion bulbs. However, bulb explants of large bulbs generally had more leaves than those of small onion bulbs.

  7. Rooting stem cuttings of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) utilizing hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew H. Gocke; Daniel J. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The ability to root stem cuttings collected from hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees was evaluated for 26 codominant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) trees growing in Durham County, NC. Sprouting occurred, the same year as felling, on 23 of the 26 tree stumps and sprout number was significantly and positively correlated with stump diameter. The...

  8. Consumption of selenium-enriched broccoli increases cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo, a preliminary human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Chen, Ronan K-Y; Lill, Ross E; Hedderley, Duncan I; Herath, Thanuja D; Matich, Adam J; McKenzie, Marian J

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for human health, including immune function. Previous research indicates that Se supplementation may cause a shift from T helper (Th)1- to Th2-type immune responses. We aim to test the potential health promoting effects of Se-enriched broccoli. In a human trial, 18 participants consumed control broccoli daily for 3 days. After a 3-day wash-out period, the participants were provided with Se-enriched broccoli containing 200 μg of Se per serving for 3 days. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected at the start and end of each broccoli feeding period for analysis of total Se and measurement of cytokine production from PBMC stimulated with antigens ex vivo. Plasma Se content remained consistent throughout the control broccoli feeding period and the baseline of the Se-enriched broccoli period (1.22 μmol/L) and then significantly increased following 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding. Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22) production from PBMC significantly increased after 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding compared with baseline. This study indicates that consumption of Se-enriched broccoli may increase immune responses toward a range of immune challenges. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Influence of Interval Between Postharvest Lettuce Residue Management and Subsequent Seeding of Broccoli on Cabbage Maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Infestation on Broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V; Godfrey, Larry D; Bettiga, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Larval stages of cabbage maggot, Delia radicum (L.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), attack the roots of Brassica crops and cause severe economic damage. In the Salinas Valley of California, Brassica crops are often planted after successive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crops. The interval between postharvest soil incorporation of lettuce residue and the subsequent Brassica crop can be as short as 7 d, which could influence D. radicum infestation on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck). In 2014 and 2015, the effect of intervals between crops (IBC) on D. radicum infestation was evaluated. The treatments were 7, 20, 33, and 48 d IBC, and NL (no lettuce), 7, 21, 36, and 49 d IBC in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Insect counts and feeding damage on broccoli was assessed during 3-6 wk after planting. Adult Delia fly captures were significantly greater at 7 d than 36-49 d IBC in both years. In both years, D. radicum eggs collected were significantly greater at 7 d than at 33 d or 36 d IBC plots. Larvae collected were significantly greater at 7 d IBC than all other treatments in 2014, but not in 2015. Similarly, severity of feeding injury was significantly greater in 7 d than 33 d or 48 d IBC in 2014, but not in 2015. In 2015, broccoli with no prior lettuce had significantly lower Delia flies and D. radicum egg densities than 7 d or 21 d IBC. The implication of these results as a cultural control tactic for D. radicum infestation is discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Assessing the Public Health Impact and Effectiveness of Interventions To Prevent Salmonella Contamination of Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hongliu; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Sprouts have been a recurring public health challenge due to microbiological contamination, and Salmonella has been the major cause of sprout-associated outbreaks. Although seed treatment and microbiological testing have been applied as risk reduction measures during sprout production, the extent to which their effectiveness in reducing the public health risks associated with sprouts has not been well investigated. We conducted a quantitative risk assessment to measure the risk posed by Salmonella contamination in sprouts and to determine whether and how mitigation strategies can achieve a satisfactory risk reduction based on the assumption that the risk reduction achieved by a microbiological sampling and testing program at a given sensitivity is equivalent to that achieved by direct inactivation of pathogens. Our results indicated that if the sprouts were produced without any risk interventions, the health impact caused by sprouts contaminated with Salmonella would be very high, with a median annual estimated loss of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of 691,412. Seed treatment (with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite) or microbiological sampling and testing of spent irrigation water (SIW) alone could reduce the median annual impact to 734 or 4,856 DALYs, respectively. Combining seed treatment with testing of the SIW would further decrease the risk to 58 DALYs. This number could be dramatically lowered to 3.99 DALYs if sprouts were produced under conditions that included treating seeds with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite plus microbiological testing of seeds, SIW, and finished products. Our analysis shows that the public health impact due to Salmonella contamination in sprouts could be controlled if seeds are treated to reduce pathogens and microbiological sampling and testing is implemented. Future advances in intervention strategies would be important to improve sprout safety further.

  11. Flow cytometry for rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in seed sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bledar Bisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc. have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1 of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present in relatively low numbers. We combined DNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with flow cytometry (FCM for the rapid molecular detection of Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in artificially contaminated alfalfa and other seed sprouts. Components of the assay included a set of cooperatively binding probes, a chemical blocking treatment intended to reduce non-specific background, and sample concentration via tangential flow filtration (TFF. We were able to detect S. Typhimurium in sprout wash at levels as low as 103 CFU ml−1 sprout wash (104 CFU g−1 sprouts against high microbial backgrounds (~108 CFU g−1 sprouts. Hybridization times were typically 30 min, with additional washing, but we ultimately found that S. Typhimurium could be readily detected using hybridization times as short as 2 min, without a wash step. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of combined DNA-FISH and FCM for rapid detection of Salmonella in this challenging food matrix and provide industry with a useful tool for compliance with sprout production standards proposed in the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA.

  12. Tortuous Microvessels Contribute to Wound Healing via Sprouting Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Diana C; Yu, Zhixian; Brighton, Hailey E; Bear, James E; Bautch, Victoria L

    2017-10-01

    Wound healing is accompanied by neoangiogenesis, and new vessels are thought to originate primarily from the microcirculation; however, how these vessels form and resolve during wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated properties of the smallest capillaries during wound healing to determine their spatial organization and the kinetics of formation and resolution. We used intravital imaging and high-resolution microscopy to identify a new type of vessel in wounds, called tortuous microvessels. Longitudinal studies showed that tortuous microvessels increased in frequency after injury, normalized as the wound healed, and were closely associated with the wound site. Tortuous microvessels had aberrant cell shapes, increased permeability, and distinct interactions with circulating microspheres, suggesting altered flow dynamics. Moreover, tortuous microvessels disproportionately contributed to wound angiogenesis by sprouting exuberantly and significantly more frequently than nearby normal capillaries. A new type of transient wound vessel, tortuous microvessels, sprout dynamically and disproportionately contribute to wound-healing neoangiogenesis, likely as a result of altered properties downstream of flow disturbances. These new findings suggest entry points for therapeutic intervention. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Proteomics and transcriptomics of broccoli subjected to exogenously supplied and transgenic senescence-induced cytokinin for amelioration of postharvest yellowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Li, Hui-Chun; Lai, Ying-Mi; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2013-11-20

    Previously, we investigated transgenic broccoli harboring senescence-associated-gene (SAG) promoter-triggered isopentenyltransferase (ipt), which encodes the key enzyme for cytokinin (CK) synthesis and mimics the action of exogenous supplied CK in delaying postharvest senescence of broccoli. Here, we used proteomics and transcriptomics to compare the mechanisms of ipt-transgenic and N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BA) CK treatment of broccoli during postharvest storage. The 2 treatments conferred common and distinct mechanisms. BA treatment decreased the quantity of proteins involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid metabolism, and ipt-transgenic treatment increased that of stress-related proteins and molecular chaperones and slightly affected levels of carbohydrate metabolism proteins. Both treatments regulated genes involved in CK signaling, sugar transport, energy and carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism, although ipt-transgenic treatment to a lesser extent. BA treatment induced genes encoding molecular chaperones, whereas ipt-transgenic treatment induced stress-related genes for cellular protection during storage. Both BA and ipt-transgenic treatments acted antagonistically on ethylene functions. We propose a long-term acclimation of metabolism and protection systems with ipt-transgenic treatment of broccoli and short-term modulation of metabolism and establishment of a protection system with both BA and ipt-transgenic treatments in delaying senescence of broccoli florets. Transgenic broccoli harboring senescence-associated-gene (SAG) promoter-triggered isopentenyltransferase (ipt), which encodes the key enzyme for cytokinin (CK) synthesis and N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BA) CK treated broccoli both showed retardation of postharvest senescence during storage. The mechanisms underlying the two treatments were compared. The combination of proteomic and transcriptomic evidences revealed that the 2 treatments conferred common

  14. Impact of Preharvest Sprouting of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Field on Starch, Protein, and Arabinoxylan Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaerts, Heleen; Roye, Chiara; Derde, Liesbeth J; Sinnaeve, Georges; Meza, Walter R; Bodson, Bernard; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-11-09

    To obtain detailed knowledge on possible changes in the properties of starch, proteins, and arabinoxylan as a result of field preharvest sprouting (PHS), three wheat varieties were harvested at maturity and several weeks later when severe PHS had occurred. Falling number values of flour dropped from 306 to 147 s (Sahara), 382 to 155 s (Forum), and 371 to 230 s (Tobak). Blocking of α-amylase activity demonstrated that the decline in falling number and changes in RVA pasting and gelation properties were not caused by changes in intrinsic starch properties as a result of PHS. PHS had no influence on the SDS-extractability and molecular weight distribution of the proteins. For arabinoxylan, incipient breakdown was noticed, leading to a higher amount and average degree of polymerization of water extractable arabinoxylan. Results show that strategies to cope with severely PHS in wheat should focus on blocking enzyme activities.

  15. Evaluation of Medicago sativa L. sprouts as antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seida, Ahmed; El-Hefnawy, Hala; Abou-Hussein, Dina; Mokhtar, Fatma Alzahraa; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf

    2015-11-01

    Medicago sativa L. (Alfalfa) is traditionally used to treat diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the potential antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic activity of M. sativa sprouts in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes via i.p. injection of 55 mg/kg of STZ. Experimental animals were divided into the following groups: GP1 (normal), GP2 (STZ-hyperlipidemic), GP3 (rouvastatin), GP4 (metformin), GP 5-9 (diabetic treated with methanolic, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts). The administration of the total methanolic extract (500 mg/kg), the petroleum ether (32.5mg) and butanol fractions (60 mg) for 4 weeks significantly decreased (p<0.05) triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) in comparison to rouvastatin. Petroleum ether fraction proved to exhibit the best activity as antihyperlipidemic agent (12.23%). On the other hand, ethyl acetate fraction retained the best activity (vs. metformin) as antihyperglycemic agent. Histopathological evidences on liver, pancreas and spleen were in agreement with the above mentioned results. Purification, characterization, and identification of isolated compounds from the active fractions afforded 9 compounds: β-sitosterol and stigmasterol from the petroleum ether fraction; 10-hydroxy-coumestrol, apigenin, genistein, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, 7, 4'- dihydroxyflavone, quercetin-3-glucoside and sissotrin from the ethyl acetate fraction.

  16. Influence of different blanching methods on colour, ascorbic acid and phenolics content of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severini, C; Giuliani, R; De Filippis, A; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2016-01-01

    Lack of nutrients in cooking water, high energetic costs, high water consumption and recycling are some drawbacks of vegetable blanching. Those disadvantages could be bypassed using microwave blanching. Three blanching methods (microwave, boiling water and steaming) were compared in this study in order to determine their effects on some functional properties of broccoli. In addition, the thermal damage on broccoli colour was evaluated. The effectiveness of each blanching process was performed measuring the lost of peroxidase activity, that results more rapidly in microwaves and steam treatments (50 and 60 s respectively) than in boiling water treatment (120 s). The colour indexes did not allow to discriminate a significant difference among treatments. The increase of treatment time caused a vitamin C decrease in samples blanched by boiling water and steam; this trend was not observed in microwaved samples. The phenols content did not significantly vary depending both on type and on time of treatment.

  17. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  18. Broccoli yield in response to top-dressing fertilization with green manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Bernardo de Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the productive performance of broccoli under different top-dressing organic fertilizations. The experiment was conducted under protected cultivation, in a completely randomized design with four replications, with two plants per experimental unit. Broccoli seedlings were produced in a commercial substrate in styrofoam trays. The seedlings were transplanted to plastic pots containing 10.0 L of substrate made up of subsoil and organic compost at the ratio of 3:1 (v/v, respectively, which is equivalent to about 20.0 t ha-1 of organic compost at planting. After seedling establishment, the top-dressing fertilization treatments were applied: gliricidia biomass associated or not with liquid biofertilizer of cattle manure to the soil and bokashi. Two control treatments were established: one with mineral fertilization recommended for the crop and the other without top-dressing fertilization. The broccoli production was evaluated (commercial standard. Plants that received mineral fertilizer were more productive, however, they were not significantly different (p>0.05, by Dunnet test, from the plants fertilized with 2.5 t ha-1 gliricidiabiomass (dry mass associated with liquid biofertilizer (2.0 L m-2 applied to soil. Top-dressing fertilizations with only gliricidia, at 2.5 and 5.0 t ha-1 of biomass (dry mass, resulted in no significant increase in production of broccoli inflorescence. The use of bokashi in addition to gliricidia biomass and liquid biofertilizer reduced the efficiency of the fertilization compared with plants that received only gliricidia and liquid biofertilizer.

  19. Genetic analysis of glucosinolate variability in broccoli florets using genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Allan F; Yousef, Gad G; Reid, Robert W; Chebrolu, Kranthi K; Thomas, Aswathy; Krueger, Christopher; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Jackson, Eric; Juvik, John A

    2015-07-01

    The identification of genetic factors influencing the accumulation of individual glucosinolates in broccoli florets provides novel insight into the regulation of glucosinolate levels in Brassica vegetables and will accelerate the development of vegetables with glucosinolate profiles tailored to promote human health. Quantitative trait loci analysis of glucosinolate (GSL) variability was conducted with a B. oleracea (broccoli) mapping population, saturated with single nucleotide polymorphism markers from a high-density array designed for rapeseed (Brassica napus). In 4 years of analysis, 14 QTLs were associated with the accumulation of aliphatic, indolic, or aromatic GSLs in floret tissue. The accumulation of 3-carbon aliphatic GSLs (2-propenyl and 3-methylsulfinylpropyl) was primarily associated with a single QTL on C05, but common regulation of 4-carbon aliphatic GSLs was not observed. A single locus on C09, associated with up to 40 % of the phenotypic variability of 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl GSL over multiple years, was not associated with the variability of precursor compounds. Similarly, QTLs on C02, C04, and C09 were associated with 4-methylsulfinylbutyl GSL concentration over multiple years but were not significantly associated with downstream compounds. Genome-specific SNP markers were used to identify candidate genes that co-localized to marker intervals and previously sequenced Brassica oleracea BAC clones containing known GSL genes (GSL-ALK, GSL-PRO, and GSL-ELONG) were aligned to the genomic sequence, providing support that at least three of our 14 QTLs likely correspond to previously identified GSL loci. The results demonstrate that previously identified loci do not fully explain GSL variation in broccoli. The identification of additional genetic factors influencing the accumulation of GSL in broccoli florets provides novel insight into the regulation of GSL levels in Brassicaceae and will accelerate development of vegetables with modified or enhanced GSL

  20. Ozone effects on yield quality of spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeiren, Karine; De Bock, Maarten; Horemans, Nele; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2012-02-01

    The impact of elevated tropospheric ozone (O 3) on the quality of spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv Ability) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv Italic cv Monaco) was assessed during a three year Open - Top Chamber (OTC) experiment. Current ambient O 3 levels were compared to an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day over the entire growing season. The qualitative responses were expressed as a function of the accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic O 3 dose above a threshold of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area (POD 6). Our results provide clear evidence that O 3 has an influence on the qualitative attributes of the harvested products of these Brassica species. The responses were comparable whether they were expressed as a function of the accumulated O 3 concentrations or of the modelled O 3 uptake. The protein concentration of oilseed rape seeds and broccoli heads was significantly increased in response to O 3. There was also a shift in the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil derived from seeds of oilseed rape. Oleic acid (18:1) declined significantly ( p broccoli an important shift occurred from indolic to aliphatic GSLs although the total GSL concentration was not changed. The increase in the aliphatic/indolic GSL ratio ( p broccoli were not influenced by O 3; glutathione (GSH) was slightly increased in response to a higher O 3 uptake ( p < 0.05). The consequences of these changes with regard to food and feed quality and human health are discussed.

  1. Broccoli-shaped biosensor hierarchy for electrochemical screening of noradrenaline in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emran, Mohammed Y; Mekawy, Moataz; Akhtar, Naeem; Shenashen, Mohamed A; El-Sewify, Islam M; Faheem, Ahmed; El-Safty, Sherif A

    2018-02-15

    Monitoring and determination of ultra-trace concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitter such as noradrenaline (NA) in living cells with simple, sensitive and selective assays are significantly interesting. We design NA-electrode sensing system based on C-, N-doped NiO broccoli-like hierarchy (CNNB). The spherical broccoli-head umbrella architectures associated with nano-tubular arrangements enabled to tailor NA biosensor design. The homogenous doping and anisotropic dispersion of CN nanospheres along the entire NB head nanotubes lead to creating of abundant electroactive sites in the interior tubular vessels and outer surfaces for ultrasensitive detection of NA in living cells such as PC12. The CNNB biosensor electrodes showed efficient electrocatalytic activity, enhanced kinetics for electrooxidation of NA, and fast electron-transfer between electrode-electrolyte interface surfaces, enabling synergistic enhancement in sensitivity, and selectivity at a low-detectable concentration of ∼ 6nM and reproducibility of broccoli-shaped NA-electrodes. The integrated CNNB biosensor electrodes showed evidence of monitoring and screening of NA released from PC12 cells under K + ion-extracellular stimulation process. The unique features of CNNB in terms of NA-selectivity among multi-competitive components, long-term stability during the detection of NA may open their practical, in-vitro application for extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters detection in living cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stability of Bioactive Compounds in Broccoli as Affected by Cutting Styles and Storage Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Contreras, Ana Mariel; Nair, Vimal; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2017-04-15

    Broccoli contains bioactive molecules and thus its consumption is related with the prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases. The application of wounding stress to horticultural crops is a common practice, since it is the basis for the fresh-cut produce industry. In this study, the effect of four different cutting styles (CSs) (florets (CS1), florets cut into two even pieces (CS2), florets cut into four even pieces (CS3), and florets processed into chops (CS4)) and storage time (0 and 24 h at 20 °C) on the content of bioactive compounds in broccoli was evaluated. Immediately after cutting, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid content increased by 122.4% and 41.6% in CS4 and CS2, respectively. Likewise, after storage, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid increased by 46.7% and 98.2%, respectively in CS1. Glucoerucin and gluconasturtiin content decreased by 62% and 50%, respectively in CS3; whereas after storage most glucosinolates increased in CS1. Total isothiocyanates, increased by 133% immediately in CS4, and after storage CS1 showed 65% higher levels of sulforaphane. Total ascorbic acid increased 35% after cutting in CS2, and remained stable after storage. Results presented herein would allow broccoli producers to select proper cutting styles that preserve or increase the content of bioactive molecules.

  3. Validation of the Analytical Method for the Determination of Flavonoids in Broccoli

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    Tuszyńska Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, accurate and selective HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of quercetin and kaempferol, which are the main flavonols in broccoli. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column using a mobile phase composed of methanol/water (60/40 and phosphoric acid 0.2% at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min-1. The detection was carried out on a DAD detector at 370 nm. This method was validated according to the requirements for new methods, which include selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. The current method demonstrates good linearity, with R2 > 0.99. The recovery is within 98.07-102.15% and 97.92-101.83% for quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. The method is selective, in that quercetin and kaempferol are well separated from other compounds of broccoli with good resolution. The low limit of detection and limit of quantitation of quercetin and kaempferol enable the detection and quantitation of these flavonoids in broccoli at low con–centrations.

  4. Radiographic images and relationship of the internal morphology and physiological potential of broccoli seeds

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    Haynna Fernandes Abud

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Image analysis using X-rays is an efficient technique for assessing the seed quality of several species, presenting itself as a rapid response method that is simple to execute, reproducible and non-destructive. Thus, this research adjusted a methodology that aims to relate the internal morphology of broccoli seeds to their physiological potential through radiographic analysis of seeds and computerized images of seedlings. The broccoli cultivars used were Piracicaba Precoce and Ramoso Santana represented by ten lots of each one. The study was conducted using X-ray imaging for seed analysis, in which the area, density and circularity measures were obtained as internal morphology characteristics of seeds. After a germination test, the seedling length was obtained 5 days after sowing. Multivariate analysis was carried out using principal components analysis. It was concluded that the X-ray test is efficient for evaluating the internal morphology of broccoli seeds and associating it with seedling length, thereby classifying seed lots at different levels of vigor.

  5. [Effect of abamectin insecticide on the microbial community in broccoli phyllosphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-Guo; Tang, Ling; Li, Zu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Li; Xu, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Hong-Xun; Zhuang, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Zhi-Hui

    2009-05-15

    The indigenous microbial communities within the plant phyllosphere are highly diverse and include many different species of bacteria, filamentous fungi, yeasts and algae which play important ecological roles. This study was the first attempt to assess the impact of abamectin treatments on microbial communities of broccoli phyllosphere using two culture-independent techniques of phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Results showed that low concentration of abamectin treatments did not affect the microbial biomass and microbial community structure of broccoli phyllosphere significantly. However, high concentration of abamectin treatments significantly change the microbial community structure including a decrease of total and bacterial biomass, and a decrease in the ratio of Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacteria, but did not change the fungal biomass. Moreover, PLFA suggested that the number of unsaturated and cyclopropane phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs: 16: 1omega9t, 18: 1omega7, cy17:0 and cy19:0) increased with high concentration abamectin treatment, while the saturated PLFAs i15:0, a15:0, i16:0 and a17:0 decreased. The appearance terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs: 58, 96, 236 and 420 bp) indicated that some bacteria might play a significant role in abamectin degradation in broccoli phylosphere, while the disappeared T-RFs (51, 89, 99, 338, 66, 223 and 482 bp) implied some other bacteria might potentially serve as microbial indicator of abamectin exposure.

  6. Utility of the broccoli sign in the distinction of prolapsed uterine tumor from cervical tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Priyanka; Chang, Stephanie T. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Rabban, Joseph T. [Department of Anatomic Pathology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Chen, Lee-may [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Yeh, Benjamin M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Coakley, Fergus V., E-mail: Fergus.Coakley@radiology.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: To describe the utility, histopathological basis, and clinical correlates of the broccoli sign. Methods: The committee on human research approved this HIPAA compliant study and waived written informed consent. Based on the records of the senior author and our multidisciplinary Gynecologic Oncology Tumor Board, we retrospectively identified thirteen women (mean age of 48.8 years; range, 34-74) with a cervical mass seen at MR imaging (n = 13) or CT (n = 5) that demonstrated the previously reported broccoli sign (i.e., a soft tissue stalk connecting the cervical mass to the uterine cavity) on one or other modality. All available clinical, imaging, and histopathological records were reviewed, with particular emphasis on initially suspected diagnosis, final proven diagnosis, and outcome. Results: Cervical cancer was the initial clinically suspected diagnosis in 6 of 13 patients. Surgical resection demonstrated prolapsed uterine tumor in all patients, consisting of endometrioid adenocarcinoma (n = 7), carcinosarcoma (n = 2), adenosarcoma (n = 1), and leiomyoma (n = 3). Excluding the three patients with leiomyomas, currently, 7 patients with malignant tumors are disease free after a mean interval of 15 months (range, 3-45) and 3 patients have been lost to follow-up. Conclusion: A stalk connecting an apparent cervical mass seen at CT or MR imaging to the endometrial cavity ('broccoli sign') favors the diagnosis of a prolapsed uterine tumor; these prolapsed uterine tumors can often be malignant but appear to have a good prognosis.

  7. Effect of visible light treatments on postharvest senescence of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchert, Agustin M; Gómez Lobato, Maria E; Villarreal, Natalia M; Civello, Pedro M; Martínez, Gustavo A

    2011-01-30

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) is a rapidly perishable vegetable crop. Several postharvest treatments have been applied in order to delay de-greening. Since light has been shown to have an effect on pigment accumulation during development and darkness is known to induce senescence, the effect of continuous and periodic exposure to low-intensity white light at 22 °C on postharvest senescence of broccoli heads was assayed. Exposure to a constant dose of 12 micromol m(-2) s(-1) was selected as the most suitable treatment and was employed for subsequent experiments. During the course of the treatments, hue and L* values as well as chlorophyll content and visual observation of florets indicated an evident delay in yellowing in treated samples compared with controls. No statistically significant differences in total protein content were found, but soluble protein content was higher in treated samples. Total and reducing sugar as well as starch levels decreased during postharvest senescence, with lower values in control samples. The results of this study indicate that storage under continuous low-intensity light is an efficient and low-cost treatment that delays postharvest senescence while maintaining the quality of harvested broccoli florets. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Proteomic analysis of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) under high temperature and waterlogging stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Su-Ching; Shen, Yu-Hsing; Lo, Hsiao-Feng

    2015-12-01

    The production of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is largely reduced by waterlogging and high temperature stresses. Heat-tolerant and heat-susceptible broccoli cultivars TSS-AVRDC-2 and B-75, respectively, were used for physiological and proteomic analyses. The objective of this study was to identify TSS-AVRDC-2 and B-75 proteins differentially regulated at different time periods in response to waterlogging at 40 °C for three days. TSS-AVRDC-2 exhibited significantly higher chlorophyll content, lower stomatal conductance, and better H2O2 scavenging under stress in comparison to B-75. Two-dimensional liquid phase fractionation analyses revealed that Rubisco proteins in both varieties were regulated under stressing treatments, and that TSS-AVRDC-2 had higher levels of both Rubisco large and small subunit transcripts than B-75 when subjected to high temperature and/or waterlogging. This report utilizes physiological and proteomic approaches to discover changes in the protein expression profiles of broccoli in response to heat and waterlogging stresses. Higher levels of Rubisco proteins in TSS-AVRDC-2 could lead to increased carbon fixation efficiency to provide sufficient energy to enable stress tolerance under waterlogging at 40 °C.

  9. Solid-liquid systems for the hydrolysis of glycoalkaloids from potato (Solanum tuberosum L tuber sprouts and solanidine isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nada Č.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanidine (C17H43O/V is a steroidal aglycone of glycoalkaloids and an important precursor for the synthesis of hormones and some pharmacologically active compounds. Glycoalkaloids are hydrolysed by mineral acid yielding solanidine and a carbohydrate moiety. In this paper the kinetics of hydrolysis of glycoalkaloids from potato (Solanum tuberosum L tuber sprouts by using solid-liquid systems were studied as well as solanidine isolation from the liquid phase of the system. The dried and milled tuber sprouts of potato were used as the solid phase and solutions of hydrochloric acid of different concentration in 96 % vol. ethanol, mixed with chloroform in a volume ratio of 2:3, 1:1, 3:2 and 4:1, were used as the liquid phase. The aim of the paper was to choose the optimal concentration of hydrochloric acid in ethanol, the volume ratio of hydrochloric acid in ethanol to chloroform in the liquid phase and the time for solanidine hydrolytic extraction, as well as to isolate solanidine from the liquid phase.

  10. Dietary chemoprevention of PhIP induced carcinogenesis in male Fischer 344 rats with tomato and broccoli.

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    Kirstie Canene-Adams

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP, found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 45 were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet, PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study, or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks. Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers.

  11. Dietary chemoprevention of PhIP induced carcinogenesis in male Fischer 344 rats with tomato and broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Sfanos, Karen S; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G; Brayton, Cory; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2013-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP), found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 45) were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet), PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study), or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks). Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS) lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers.

  12. Dietary Chemoprevention of PhIP Induced Carcinogenesis in Male Fischer 344 Rats with Tomato and Broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Sfanos, Karen S.; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G.; Brayton, Cory; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP), found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 45) were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet), PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study), or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks). Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS) lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers. PMID:24312188

  13. Dietary broccoli mildly improves neuroinflammation in aged mice but does not reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Brigitte E; Chen, Yung-Ju; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress and heightened inflammatory response to infection. Dietary interventions to reduce these changes are therefore desirable. Broccoli contains glucoraphanin, which is converted to sulforaphane (SFN) by plant myrosinase during cooking preparation or digestion. Sulforaphane increases antioxidant enzymes including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase and heme oxygenase I and inhibits inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that dietary broccoli would support an antioxidant response in brain and periphery of aged mice and inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and sickness. Young adult and aged mice were fed control or 10% broccoli diet for 28 days before an intraperitoneal LPS injection. Social interactions were assessed 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after LPS, and mRNA was quantified in liver and brain at 24 hours. Dietary broccoli did not ameliorate LPS-induced decrease in social interactions in young or aged mice. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was unaffected by broccoli consumption but was induced by LPS in brain and liver of adult and aged mice. In addition, IL-1β was elevated in brain of aged mice without LPS. Broccoli consumption decreased age-elevated cytochrome b-245 β, an oxidative stress marker, and reduced glial activation markers in aged mice. Collectively, these data suggest that 10% broccoli diet provides a modest reduction in age-related oxidative stress and glial reactivity, but is insufficient to inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. Thus, it is likely that SFN would need to be provided in supplement form to control the inflammatory response to LPS. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli.

  15. Novel molecular, cytotoxical, and immunological study on promising and selective anticancer activity of Mung bean sprouts

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    Hafidh Rand R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of mung bean sprouts (MBS and the underlying mechanisms against human cervical and hepatocarcinoma cancer cells were explored. Methods MBS cytotoxicity and MBS-induced anticancer cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-β from cancer cells, and immunological cytokines, IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-10 from peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC were assessed by MTS and ELISA assays. Apoptotic cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The expression level of apoptotic genes (Bax, BCL-2, Capsases 7–9 and cell cycle regulatory genes (cyclin D, E, and A and tumor suppressor proteins (p27, p21, and p53 was assessed by real-time qPCR in the cancer cells treated with extract IC50. Results The cytotoxicity on normal human cells was significantly different from HeLa and HepG2 cells, 163.97 ± 5.73, 13.3 ± 0.89, and 14.04 ± 1.5 mg/ml, respectively. The selectivity index (SI was 12.44 ± 0.83 for HeLa and 11.94 ± 1.2 for HepG2 cells. Increased levels of TNF-α and IFN-β were observed in the treated HeLa and HepG2 culture supernatants when compared with untreated cells. MBS extract was shown to be an immunopolarizing agent by inducing IFNγ and inhibiting IL-4 production by PBMC; this leads to triggering of CMI and cellular cytotoxicity. The extract induced apoptosis, in a dose and time dependent manner, in treated HeLa and HepG2, but not in untreated, cells (P Conclusion MBS extract was shown to be a potent anticancer agent granting new prospects of anticancer therapy using natural products.

  16. Nutritional and Antioxidant Potential of Lentil Sprouts Affected by Elicitation with Temperature Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Baraniak, Barbara

    2014-04-09

    The influences of temperature stress on antioxidant potential and nutritional quality of lentil sprouts were studied. Temperature treatments (TC, 1 h at 4 °C; TH, 1 h at 40 °C) significantly improved the nutraceutical potential without any negative effect on nutritional quality. In comparison to control, elicited sprouts were characterized by elevated content of condensed tannins, flavonoids, and total phenolics. The highest content of total phenolics and flavonoids was determined for 6-day-old TH sprouts -23.7 ± 0.87 and 2.50 ± 0.07 mg/(g of dry weight (DW)), respectively. The general trend of antiradical, lipid preventing, and reducing properties in elicited sprouts indicates a significantly improvement of these activities. The highest reducing power was determined for 6-day-old sprouts induced at TH (0.43 ± 0.02 mmol of Trolox/(g of DW)), while the lowest for 3-day-old sprouts elicited at TC (0.29 ± 0.02 mmol of Trolox/(g of DW)). Both modifications effectively elevated the ability to prevent lipids against oxidation (in 3-day-old sprouts a 3.3- and 4-fold increase for TC and TH, respectively).

  17. Endophytic bacterial and fungal communities transmitted from cotyledons and germs in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yali; Kuang, Zaoyuan; Deng, Zujun; Zhang, Ren; Cao, Lixiang

    2017-07-01

    Seed-borne endophytes could be transmitted into sprouts. Whether this happened in peanuts and the difference between microbial taxa in peanut germs and cotyledons remain unknown. In this research, Illumina-based sequencing was employed to investigate the microbial taxa in peanut germs, cotyledons, and sprouts. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was isolated and inoculated into peanut sprouts, and then, the growth of peanut seedlings was measured. The results illustrated that diverse bacteria and fungi were detected in peanut germs, cotyledons, and sprouts. The number of bacterial OTUs declined with the germination from germs and cotyledons to sprouts. However, the number of fungal OTUs increased during the seedling procedure. Seed-borne dominant bacterial genera Halothiobacillus and Synechococcus and fungal genera Humicola, Emericella, and Penicillium were detected in sprouts. Based on the endophytic community information, the Halothiobacillus strains were isolated from sprouts. Pot experiments that illustrated the growth of peanut seedlings inoculated with the strain were promoted. These results provide new understanding into plant-microbe interactions in peanut and suggest that the selection for biocontrol agents based on mycobiome and bacteriome analysis is reliable and feasible compared with the present greenhouse selection.

  18. The Effect of Differentiated Nutrition on the Content of Antioxidants in Broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Uher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the impact of differentiated nutrition, using different rates of nitrogen and sulphur, on the level of antioxidants, particularly vitamin E1 (α-tocopherol, vitamin C and β-carotene in the broccoli rosette. The experimental broccoli variety was Tiburon F1. It is a strong medium-late variety with a vegetation period of 82 days. In the 3-year field trial we observed the effects of different rates of nitrogen and sulphur on the amount of antioxidant compounds in broccoli. The experiment consisted of four fertilisation treatments: 1 unfertilised control, 2 fertilised with 200 kg N.ha−1, 3 also fertilized with 200 kg N.ha−1 and supplemented with 50 kg S.ha−1, 4 200 kg.ha−1 and 60 kg S.ha−1 was applied. To determine the amount of β-carotene and vitamin E1, the slightly modified method of Olives Barb et al. (2006 was used. The vitamin C content was determined by titration. Nitrogen nutrition has a significant impact not only on the amount of harvested broccoli, but also on the content of β-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E1. The average content of β-carotene for the entire experimental period ranged from 24.84 mg.kg−1 to 30.13 mg.kg−1 of fresh mass. The content of β-carotene in broccoli rosettes increased as per the following order of treatments: control > N:S (200:50 kg.ha−1 > N:S (200:60 kg.ha−1 > N (kg.ha−1. The β-carotene content increased significantly only in treatment 2 (30.13 mg.kg−1 as compared to all the other treatments. The level of vitamin C revealed the significant effect of fertilisation in all the treatments (567.9–614.2 mg.kg−1 in contrast to the control variant (528.4 mg.kg−1. What is more, in treatment 4 the content of vitamin C increased significantly in contrast to fertilised treatments 2 and 3. The average content of vitamin E1 ranged from 4.33 mg.kg−1 to 4.88 mg.kg−1 of fresh mass. There were no significant differences among the untreated control

  19. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

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    Leena Hamberg

    Full Text Available We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr. Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh. 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  20. Histogenesis of potato light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Garbaczewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stages of potato (Solanum tuberosum light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus (PLRV have been distinguished. Potato light sprouts from healthy tubers differentiate in the early stages to the apical and basal parts, which are characterized by distinct dynamics of growth. Ultrastructural examination of apex meristem and phloem ontogeny was carried out for healthy plants. In the development of potato light sprouts of plants infected with PLRV a great many anomalies have been described. Three types of light sprouts developed from infected tubers. Anatomical investigations indicated a rapid growth of the number of necroses in the phloem, and submicroscopic observations showed the presence of virus particles and cytopathological structures: tubular and vesicular structures, paramural bodies and callose deposits. In the companion cells of the phloem the occurrence of very regular inclusions of virus particles was recorded.

  1. Influence of dietary blueberry and broccoli on cecal microbiota activity and colon morphology in mdr1a(-/-) mice, a model of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Butts, Christine A; Zhu, Shuotun; Roy, Nicole C; McNabb, Warren C; Ansell, Juliet

    2012-03-01

    Enteric microbiota has been shown to be associated with various pathological conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory colonic effects of blueberries and broccoli in mdr1a(-/-) mice (IBD mouse model) through modification of microbiota composition in the gastrointestinal tract. The mdr1a(-/-) mice were fed either a control diet or the control diet supplemented with either 10% blueberry or broccoli for 21 wk. We investigated the influence of these diets on cecal microbiota and organic acids, colon morphology, and bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes. In comparison to mice fed the control diet, blueberry and broccoli supplementation altered cecum microbiota similarly with the exception of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which was found to be significantly lower in broccoli-fed mice. High concentrations of butyric acid and low concentrations of succinic acid were observed in the cecum of broccoli-fed mice. Blueberry- and broccoli-supplemented diets increased colon crypt size and the number of goblet cells per crypt. Only the broccoli-supplemented diet significantly lowered colonic inflammation compared to mice fed the control diet. Translocation of total microbes to mesenteric lymph nodes was lower in broccoli-fed mice compared to blueberry and control diet groups. Dietary blueberries and/or broccoli altered the composition and metabolism of the cecal microbiota and colon morphology. Overall, these results warrant further investigation through clinical studies to establish whether the consumption of blueberries and/or broccoli is able to alter the composition and metabolism of large intestine microbiota and promote colon health in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a method for the analysis of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengzu; Zhao, Pengyue; Shan, Weili; Gong, Yong; Jian, Qiu; Pan, Canping

    2012-09-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts. The sample preparation procedure was based on a QuEChERS method. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9985) and precision (RSDs ≤ 13.0%). Average recoveries of four PGRs ranged between 74.9% and 106.3% at spiking levels 0.05, 0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1). The LODs and LOQs were in the ranges of 0.27-9.3 μg kg(-1) and 0.90-31 μg kg(-1), respectively. The procedure was applied to 18 bean sprout samples, and benzyladenine was found in some of the analyzed samples.

  3. Effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on glucosinolates and antioxidant attributes in broccoli florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Congxi; Miao, Huiying; Qian, Hongmei; Yao, Leishuan; Wang, Bingliang; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-11-01

    The effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on the contents of glucosinolates and antioxidants (vitamin C, polyphenols, carotenoid and chlorophyll), as well as the antioxidant capacity in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets were investigated in the present study. Our results showed that the glucosinolate accumulations were significantly decreased after pre-freezing processing, whereas elevated levels of phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll, and also antioxidant capacity were observed in frozen broccoli florets. The contents of vitamin C remained constant during above mentioned processing. In conclusion, the current industrial freezing processing method is a good practice for the preservation of main antioxidant nutrients in broccoli florets, although some improvements in pre-freezing processing, such as steam blanching and ice-water cooling, are needed to attenuate the decrease in glucosinolate content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of reactive oxygen species on quality maintenance of broccoli florets with electrostatic atomized water particle treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Masahiro; Aiamla-Or, Sukanya; Tanaka, Shuhei; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Masuda, Yukihiro; Yamauchi, Naoki

    2017-12-15

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particle (EAWP) treatment on quality maintenance during postharvest storage was determined to clarify a physiological role of reactive oxygen species in broccoli florets. The EAWP treatment suppressed the floret yellowing of broccoli during storage. The hydrogen peroxide content increased immediately after EAWP treatment but then remained at a low level during storage. Catalase (CAT) activity increased rapidly with EAWP treatment and was higher than that in the control for the first 4days of storage. The BoCAT gene expression level with EAWP treatment also showed a high trend as compared to the control. The gene expressions of BoRboh, BoCu/ZnSOD, and BoAPX showed almost the same tendency with or without EAWP treatment. These findings suggested that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment and regulated by CAT could be relevant to maintaining the quality of broccoli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  6. Macronutrients, Phytochemicals, and Antioxidant Activity of Soybean Sprout Germinated with or without Light Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeming; Chang, Sam K C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the macronutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activities of yellow soybean sprout (YSS) and green soybean sprout (GSS) with different germination days. YSS and GSS were obtained by sprouting soybean in darkness or with light exposure at 21 °C. Lipid, protein, carbohydrate, and ash contents were analyzed before and after soybean germination. Phytochemicals (total phenolic compounds, saponin, and isoflavone) were also determined. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were determined to examine the antioxidant activities of soybean sprout. Results showed YSS had a higher yield than GSS. Based on dry mass composition, 7-d germination of GSS decreased 14% protein, 37% lipid, 22% carbohydrate, and 16% ash, whereas 7-d germination of YSS decreased 6% protein and 47% lipid. Carbohydrate did not change and ash significantly increased for the 7-d germinated YSS. Lipid was greatly metabolized in germination, which explained why the protein relative percentage in dried soybean sprout was higher than that in the corresponding soybean. Total phenolic compounds and saponin (mg/g soybean sprout, dry basis) had the same accumulation trend in soybean sprout with the increases in germination days. Aglycone isoflavones (genistein, glycitein, and daidzein) and daidzin showed an increased trend, whereas malonylgenistin and malonylglycitin showed a decreased trend with germination days for both GSS and YSS. The change in other isoflavones did not show definite trends. GSS had 20% more antioxidant activities than YSS (7-d germinated soybean sprout). The increases in ORAC antioxidant activity suggest eating GSS may be more beneficial than GSS for promoting human health. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to inactivate Salmonella enterica on mungbean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodduk, Vara; Annous, Bassam A; Liu, Linshu; Yam, Kit L

    2014-11-01

    Although freshly sprouted beans and grains are considered to be a source of nutrients, they have been associated with foodborne outbreaks. Sprouts provide good matrices for microbial localization and growth due to optimal conditions of temperature and humidity while sprouting. Also, the lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to reduce Salmonella on artificially inoculated mungbean sprouts. The effectiveness of gaseous chlorine dioxide (0.5 mg/liter of air) with or without tumbling (mechanical mixing) was compared with an aqueous chlorine (200 ppm) wash treatment. Tumbling the inoculated sprouts during the chlorine dioxide gas application for 15, 30, and 60 min reduced Salmonella populations by 3.0, 4.0, and 5.5 log CFU/g, respectively, as compared with 3.0, 3.0, and 4.0 log CFU/g reductions obtained without tumbling, respectively. A 2.0 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella was achieved with an aqueous chlorine wash. The difference in microbial reduction between chlorine dioxide gas versus aqueous chlorine wash points to the important role of surface topography, pore structure, bacterial attachment, and/or biofilm formation on sprouts. These data suggested that chlorine dioxide gas was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells that are attached to inaccessible sites and/or are within biofilms on the sprout surface as compared with an aqueous chlorine wash. Consequently, scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that chlorine dioxide gas treatment was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells attached to inaccessible sites and within biofilms on the sprout surfaces.

  8. Comparative miRNAs analysis of Two contrasting broccoli inbred lines with divergent head-forming capacity under temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chien; Fu, Shih-Feng; Norikazu, Monma; Yang, Yau-Wen; Liu, Yu-Ju; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in growth, development, and stress response at the post-transcriptional level. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italic) is an important vegetable crop, and the yield and quality of broccoli are decreased by heat stress. The broccoli inbred lines that are capable of producing head at high temperature in summer are unique varieties in Taiwan. However, knowledge of miRNAomes during the broccoli head formation under heat stress is limited. In this study, molecular characterization of two nearly isogenic lines with contrasting head-forming capacity was investigated. Head-forming capacity was better for heat-tolerant (HT) than heat-sensitive (HS) broccoli under heat stress. By deep sequencing and computational analysis, 20 known miRNAs showed significant differential expression between HT and HS genotypes. According to the criteria for annotation of new miRNAs, 24 novel miRNA sequences with differential expression between the two genotypes were identified. To gain insight into functional significance, 213 unique potential targets of these 44 differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. These targets were implicated in shoot apical development, phase change, response to temperature stimulus, hormone and energy metabolism. The head-forming capacity of the unique HT line was related to autonomous regulation of Bo-FT genes and less expression level of heat shock protein genes as compared to HS. For the genotypic comparison, a set of miRNAs and their targets had consistent expression patterns in various HT genotypes. This large-scale characterization of broccoli miRNAs and their potential targets is to unravel the regulatory roles of miRNAs underlying heat-tolerant head-forming capacity.

  9. Development and quality evaluation of hypoallergic complementary foods from rice incorporated with sprouted green gram flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiya Bazaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour and green gram flour (sprouted as well as unsprouted were blended in different proportions with apple pulp, sugar, milk and water for formulation of 12 hypoallergic diets. The formulations were studied for physico-chemical properties, antinutrient content (phytate and oxalate and in vitro protein digestibility. Blending and sprouting significantly affected all the studied parameters. Sprouting significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved protein content and in vitro protein digestibility, while carbohydrate content and antinutrients decreased significantly. Nutrition profile of water-based diets met RDA guidelines only after addition of sprouted green gram flour and were comparable to control (commercial weaning food. Water-based formulation showed lower sensory score than milk-based diets; however, addition of sprouted green gram flour significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved their overall acceptability. It could be concluded that by incorporating sprouted green gram flour, milk could be replaced with water for production of hypoallergic weaning foods without affecting the nutritional and sensory attributes of formulations and thereby making the production more economical, especially for underdeveloped countries.

  10. Evaluation of Cabbage- and Broccoli-genetic Resources for Resistance to Clubroot and Fusarium Wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot and Fusarium wilt of cole crops (Brassica oleracea L. are destructive diseases which for many years has brought a decline in quality and large losses in yields all over the world. The breeding of resistant cultivars is an effective approach to reduce the use of chemical fungicides and minimize crop losses. This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 60 cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata and 6 broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica lines provided by The RDA-Genebank Information Center to clubroot and Fusarium wilt. To investigate resistance to clubroot, seedlings of the genetic resources were inoculated with Plasmodiophora brassicae by drenching the roots with a mixed spore suspension (1 : 1 of two isolates. Of the tested genetic resources, four cabbage lines were moderately resistant and ‘K166220’ represented the highest resistance to P. brassicae. The others were susceptible to clubroot. On the other hand, to select resistant plants to Fusarium wilt, the genetic resources were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans by dipping the roots in spore suspension of the fungus. Among them, 17 cabbage and 5 broccoli lines were resistant, 16 cabbage lines were moderately resistant, and the others were susceptible to Fusarium wilt. Especially, three cabbage (‘IT227115’, ‘K161791’, ‘K173350’ and two broccoli (‘IT227100’, ‘IT227099’ lines were highly resistant to the fungus. We suggest that the resistant genetic resources can be used as a basic material for resistant B. oleracea breeding system against clubroot and Fusarium wilt.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF EST-SSR MARKERS TO ASSESS GENETIC DIVERSITY OF BROCCOLI AND ITS RELATED SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Kholilatul Izzah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of Expressed Sequence Tag-Simple Sequence Repeat (EST-SSR markers derived from public database is known to be more efficient, faster and low cost. The objective of this study was to generate a new set of EST-SSR markers for broccoli and its related species and their usefulness for assessing their genetic diversity. A total of 202 Brassica oleracea ESTs were retrieved from NCBI and then assembled into 172 unigenes by means of CAP3 program. Identification of SSRs was carried out using web-based tool, RepeatMasker software. Afterwards, EST-SSR markers were developed using Primer3 program. Among the identified SSRs, trinucleotide repeats were the most common repeat types, which accounted for about 50%. A total of eight primer pairs were successfully designed and yielded amplification products. Among them, five markers were polymorphic and displayed a total of 30 alleles with an average number of six alleles per locus. The polymorphic markers were subsequently used for analyzing genetic diversity of 36 B. oleracea cultivars including 22 broccoli, five cauliflower and nine kohlrabi cultivars based on genetic similarity matrix as implemented in NTSYS program. At similarity coefficient of 61%, a UPGMA clustering dendrogram effectively separated 36 genotypes into three main groups, where 30 out of 36 genotypes were clearly discriminated. The result obtained in the present study would help breeders in selecting parental lines for crossing. Moreover, the novel EST-SSR markers developed in the study could be a valuable tool for differentiating cultivars of broccoli and related species.

  12. APOE-Sensitive Cholinergic Sprouting Compensates for Hippocampal Dysfunctions Due to Reduced Entorhinal Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Jean-Bastien; Héraud, Céline; Cosquer, Brigitte; Herbeaux, Karine; Aubert, Julien; Sartori, Maxime; Goutagny, Romain; Mathis, Chantal

    2016-10-05

    Brain mechanisms compensating for cerebral lesions may mitigate the progression of chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which often precedes AD, is characterized by neuronal loss in the entorhinal cortex (EC). This loss leads to a hippocampal disconnection syndrome that drives clinical progression. The concomitant sprouting of cholinergic terminals in the hippocampus has been proposed to compensate for reduced EC glutamatergic input. However, in absence of direct experimental evidence, the compensatory nature of the cholinergic sprouting and its putative mechanisms remain elusive. Transgenic mice expressing the human APOE4 allele, the main genetic risk factor for sporadic MCI/AD, display impaired cholinergic sprouting after EC lesion. Using these mice as a tool to manipulate cholinergic sprouting in a disease-relevant way, we showed that this sprouting was necessary and sufficient for the acute compensation of EC lesion-induced spatial memory deficit before a slower glutamatergic reinnervation took place. We also found that partial EC lesion generates abnormal hyperactivity in EC/dentate networks. Dentate hyperactivity was abolished by optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic fibers. Therefore, control of dentate hyperactivity by cholinergic sprouting may be involved in functional compensation after entorhinal lesion. Our results also suggest that dentate hyperactivity in MCI patients may be directly related to EC neuronal loss. Impaired sprouting during the MCI stage may contribute to the faster cognitive decline reported in APOE4 carriers. Beyond the amyloid contribution, the potential role of both cholinergic sprouting and dentate hyperactivity in AD symptomatogenesis should be considered in designing new therapeutic approaches. Currently, curative treatment trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have failed. The endogenous ability of the brain to cope with neuronal loss probably represents one of the

  13. Modulation of plasma antioxidant levels, glutathione S-transferase activity and DNA damage in smokers following a single portion of broccoli: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riso, Patrizia; Del Bo', Cristian; Vendrame, Stefano; Brusamolino, Antonella; Martini, Daniela; Bonacina, Gaia; Porrini, Marisa

    2014-02-01

    Broccoli is a rich source of bioactive compounds (i.e. glucosinolates, carotenoids, vitamin C and folate) that may exert an antioxidant effect and reduce oxidative damage. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of broccoli consumption on carotenoids, vitamin C and folate absorption, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, and oxidatively induced DNA damage in male smokers. Ten healthy subjects consumed a single portion of steamed broccoli (250 g) with cooked pasta. Blood was drawn at baseline and at 3, 6 and 24 h from consumption. Broccoli significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased plasma level of vitamin C and folate (+35% and 70%, respectively) at 3 h, and β-carotene (+8%) at 6 h. A modulation of GST activity occurred in plasma 6 h after broccoli consumption. A significant (P ≤ 0.01) reduction of the levels of H₂O₂-induced DNA damage (-18%) was observed in blood mononuclear cells 24 h after broccoli intake in GSTM1 positive, but not in GSTM1 null subjects. One portion of broccoli increased plasma antioxidant levels, modulated plasma GST activity and improved cell resistance against H₂O₂-induced DNA damage in healthy smokers. These results support the importance of consuming fruit and vegetable regularly. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A diet rich in high-glucoraphanin broccoli interacts with genotype to reduce discordance in plasma metabolite profiles by modulating mitochondrial function123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Charlotte N; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Defernez, Marianne; Janssens, Astrid; Leung, Wing; Doleman, Joanne F; Potter, John F

    2013-01-01

    Background: Observational and experimental studies suggest that diets rich in cruciferous vegetables and glucosinolates may reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: We tested the hypothesis that a 12-wk dietary intervention with high-glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli would modify biomarkers of CVD risk and plasma metabolite profiles to a greater extent than interventions with standard broccoli or peas. Design: Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 400 g standard broccoli, 400 g HG broccoli, or 400 g peas each week for 12 wk, with no other dietary restrictions. Biomarkers of CVD risk and 347 plasma metabolites were quantified before and after the intervention. Results: No significant differences in the effects of the diets on biomarkers of CVD risk were found. Multivariate analyses of plasma metabolites identified 2 discrete phenotypic responses to diet in individuals within the HG broccoli arm, differentiated by single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the PAPOLG gene. Univariate analysis showed effects of sex (P broccoli arm, the consequence of the intervention was to reduce variation in lipid and amino acid metabolites, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, and acylcarnitines between the 2 PAPOLG genotypes. Conclusions: The metabolic changes observed with the HG broccoli diet are consistent with a rebalancing of anaplerotic and cataplerotic reactions and enhanced integration of fatty acid β-oxidation with TCA cycle activity. These modifications may contribute to the reduction in cancer risk associated with diets that are rich in cruciferous vegetables. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01114399. PMID:23964055

  15. Influence of elicitation with H₂O₂ on phenolics content, antioxidant potential and nutritional quality of Lens culinaris sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Baraniak, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    The use of lentil sprouts as bioreactors for obtaining low-processed food with modified composition and biological activity was studied. Special emphasis was placed on the nutritional quality. Sprouts metabolism was elicited with 20 mmol L⁻¹ and 200 mmol L⁻¹ H₂O₂. The polyphenolics content and antioxidative abilities at different germination stages of lentil were studied. Both sprouting and elicitation significantly influenced the nutritional and nutraceutical quality of sprouts. In comparison to control conditions both treatments gave an increase in caffeic, salicylic acid and genistein contents in 4-day-old sprouts and p-hydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic, o-coumaric, p-coumaric acids and naringenin, (+)-catechin contents for 6-day-old sprouts. Elicitation significantly increased the ability to prevent lipid against peroxidation. The antioxidant potential was the most effectively elevated in 6-day-old sprouts. Elicitation caused a significant decrease in protein content associated with a significant elevation in the non-protein nitrogen content. Induction of sprout metabolism caused a decrease of bioavailable starch and subsequent elevation of resistant starch content. The significantly elevated antioxidant potential, high content of resistant starch and low starch bioaccessibility of sprouts elicited with H₂O₂ indicated that this technology allows the production of functional food products with particular characteristics. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Preparation of amino acid-based polymer functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as adsorbents for analysis of plant growth regulators in bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shilei; Qi, Li; Li, Nan; Wang, Minglin

    2016-09-01

    A novel magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent has been developed for enriching two plant growth regulators, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), in bean sprouts. For preparing the MSPE adsorbent, poly(N-methacryloyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)), amino acid-based polymer, was modified onto the magnetic nanoparticles via "grafting to" method by free radical polymerization. The resultant P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The adsorption amount of Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe) nanoparticles to 2,4-D and 4-CPA were 39.82mgg(-1) and 29.02mgg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the prepared MSPE adsorbents showed good selectivity towards 2,4-D and 4-CPA due to the hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic forces between the target analytes and Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe). The results demonstrated that the proposed MSPE adsorbents have high affinity to the targets 2,4-D and 4-CPA. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed materials were successfully applied to enrich 2,4-D and 4-CPA in bean sprouts samples. The recovery values of the bean sprouts solution spiked the targets were from 90.9% to 96.4% with the relative standard deviations of 2.3-3.9%. Our work proved that the novel Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe) nanoparticles were the good adsorbents of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) and have good potential for the analysis of trace compound in real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary Broccoli Lessens Development of Fatty Liver and Liver Cancer in Mice Given Diethylnitrosamine and Fed a Western or Control Diet123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Ju; Wallig, Matthew A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2016-01-01

    Background: The high-fat and high-sugar Westernized diet that is popular worldwide is associated with increased body fat accumulation, which has been related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Without treatment, NAFLD may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a cancer with a high mortality rate. The consumption of broccoli in the United States has greatly increased in the last 2 decades. Epidemiologic studies show that incorporating brassica vegetables into the daily diet lowers the risk of several cancers, although, to our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate HCC prevention through dietary broccoli. Objective: We aimed to determine the impact of dietary broccoli on hepatic lipid metabolism and the progression of NAFLD to HCC. Our hypothesis was that broccoli decreases both hepatic lipidosis and the development of HCC in a mouse model of Western diet–enhanced liver cancer. Methods: Adult 5-wk-old male B6C3F1 mice received a control diet (AIN-93M) or a Western diet (high in lard and sucrose, 19% and 31%, wt:wt, respectively), with or without freeze-dried broccoli (10%, wt:wt). Starting the following week, mice were treated once per week with diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 45 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally at ages 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 12 wk). Hepatic gene expression, lipidosis, and tumor outcomes were analyzed 6 mo later, when mice were 9 mo old. Results: Mice receiving broccoli exhibited lower hepatic triglycerides (P broccoli feeding (P = 0.006), whereas microsomal triglyceride transfer protein was upregulated (P = 0.045), supporting the finding that dietary broccoli decreased hepatic triglycerides. Conclusion: Long-term consumption of whole broccoli countered both NAFLD development enhanced by a Western diet and hepatic tumorigenesis induced by DEN in male B6C3F1 mice. PMID:26865652

  18. Dietary Broccoli Lessens Development of Fatty Liver and Liver Cancer in Mice Given Diethylnitrosamine and Fed a Western or Control Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Ju; Wallig, Matthew A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2016-03-01

    The high-fat and high-sugar Westernized diet that is popular worldwide is associated with increased body fat accumulation, which has been related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Without treatment, NAFLD may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a cancer with a high mortality rate. The consumption of broccoli in the United States has greatly increased in the last 2 decades. Epidemiologic studies show that incorporating brassica vegetables into the daily diet lowers the risk of several cancers, although, to our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate HCC prevention through dietary broccoli. We aimed to determine the impact of dietary broccoli on hepatic lipid metabolism and the progression of NAFLD to HCC. Our hypothesis was that broccoli decreases both hepatic lipidosis and the development of HCC in a mouse model of Western diet-enhanced liver cancer. Adult 5-wk-old male B6C3F1 mice received a control diet (AIN-93M) or a Western diet (high in lard and sucrose, 19% and 31%, wt:wt, respectively), with or without freeze-dried broccoli (10%, wt:wt). Starting the following week, mice were treated once per week with diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 45 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally at ages 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 12 wk). Hepatic gene expression, lipidosis, and tumor outcomes were analyzed 6 mo later, when mice were 9 mo old. Mice receiving broccoli exhibited lower hepatic triglycerides (P broccoli feeding (P = 0.006), whereas microsomal triglyceride transfer protein was upregulated (P = 0.045), supporting the finding that dietary broccoli decreased hepatic triglycerides. Long-term consumption of whole broccoli countered both NAFLD development enhanced by a Western diet and hepatic tumorigenesis induced by DEN in male B6C3F1 mice. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Effect of sprouting of soybean on the chemical composition and quality of soymilk and tofu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugkar, D Agrahar

    2014-05-01

    The effect of sprouting of soybean and preparing soymilk and tofu on the yield, nutritional quality, anti-nutritional profile, colour attributes, organoleptic quality and texture profile (tofu) of four commonly used varieties of India were studied to assess the feasibility of using sprouting as a non-chemical, non-thermal tool to improve quality of soy products. Soymilk was prepared from sprouted and unsprouted seeds with process parameters of 121 °C for 25 min. Coagulation of soymilk was done with 3% CaSO4 at 80 °C. Products from sprouted varieties showed an increase in protein (fb) of 7% in milk and 13% in tofu across varieties; a reduction in fat (fb) of 24% in milk and 12% in tofu; in trypsin inhibitor (db) of 73% in milk and 81% in tofu; in phytic acid (db) of 59% in milk and 56% in tofu across varieties. Tofu from sprouted seeds had higher protein and whiteness index but tofu strength was around 43% lesser than its unsprouted counterpart. Taste acceptability showed an increase of 10% and 6.3%; flavour of 23.2% and 11.6% and overall acceptability of 9.9% and 4.4% in milk and in tofu respectively from sprouted varieties. The improvements in composition and quality parameters was seen in all the varieties tested showing that sprouting could be beneficial for product development across varieties. The time and temperature used for production of soymilk was conventional (121 °C for 25 min). Evaluation of time and/temperature reductions could be tried out to reduce the heat requirement and intensity, which could result in better nutritional and functional quality products.

  20. High resolution mass spectrometry studies of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol in broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotou, Maroula G; Revelou, Panagiota-Kyriaki; Pappas, Christos; Constantinou-Kokotou, Violetta

    2017-12-15

    Broccoli is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Among them, sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol have attracted a lot of attention, since their consumption is associated with reduced risk of cancer. In this work, the development of an efficient and direct method for the simultaneous determination of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol in broccoli using UPLC-HRMS/MS is described. The correlation coefficient, and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.993, 0.77mg/L and 2.35mg/L for sulforaphane and 0.997, 0.42mg/L, 1.29mg/L for indole-3-carbinol, respectively. The content of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol varied between 72±9-304±2mg and 77±1-117±3mg per 100g of fresh florets, respectively. Taking into consideration the differences in cultivar, geography, season and environmental factors, the results agreed with values published in the literature using other techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasound assisted immersion freezing of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ying; Zhang, Min; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to research the ultrasound-assisted freezing (UAF) of broccoli. CaCl2 solution was used as freezing medium. The comparative advantage of using UAF over normal freezing on the freezing time, cell-wall bound calcium to total calcium ratio, textural properties, color, drip loss and L-ascorbic acid contents was evaluated. The application of UAF at selected acoustic intensity with a range of 0.250-0.412 W/cm(2) decreased the freezing time and the loss of cell-wall bound calcium content. Compared to normal freezing, the values of textural properties, color, L-ascorbic acid content were better preserved and the drip loss was significantly minimized by the application of UAF. However, when outside that range of acoustic intensity, the quality of the ultrasound-assisted frozen broccoli was inferior compared to that of the normally frozen samples. Selected the appropriate acoustic intensity was very important for the application of UAF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stingless bees damage broccoli inflorescences when collecting fibers for nest building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Jorge Nunes dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (Hymenoptera: Apidae is an important pollinator for various crops, but constitutes an occasional pest of other plant species since it causes injury to leaves, stems, flowers and fruits while collecting nest materials. The aim of the present study was to determine the damage caused by T. spinipes to a broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica, Brassicaceae growing on an organic farm. A significant number of plants (72.5 % presented damaged inflorescences, while 39% of all of the inflorescences suffered some degree of injury. The activities of T. spinipes caused scarifications on the stems of the inflorescences, and these typically evolved to epidermal cicatrices up to 10 mm wide. In some cases, the lesions were sufficiently deep to cause partial destruction of the vascular tissues, and this lead to thinner (< 5 mm diameter floral stems that may collapse. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the attack of broccoli plants by T. spinipes. The results obtained should serve to highlight the possibility that stingless bees could be responsible for direct and/or indirect damage to vegetable crops, and to stimulate the development of control strategies for these incidental pests.

  3. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes enter broccoli cells enhancing growth and water uptake of plants exposed to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ballesta, M Carmen; Zapata, Lavinia; Chalbi, Najla; Carvajal, Micaela

    2016-06-08

    Carbon nanotubes have been shown to improve the germination and growth of some plant species, extending the applicability of the emerging nano-biotechnology field to crop science. In this work, exploitation of commercial multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in control and 100 mM NaCl-treated broccoli was performed. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that MWCNTs can enter the cells in adult plants with higher accumulation under salt stress. Positive effect of MWCNTs on growth in NaCl-treated plants was consequence of increased water uptake, promoted by more-favourable energetic forces driving this process, and enhanced net assimilation of CO2. MWCNTs induced changes in the lipid composition, rigidity and permeability of the root plasma membranes relative to salt-stressed plants. Also, enhanced aquaporin transduction occurred, which improved water uptake and transport, alleviating the negative effects of salt stress. Our work provides new evidences about the effect of MWCNTs on plasma membrane properties of the plant cell. The positive response to MWCNTs in broccoli plants opens novel perspectives for their technological uses in new agricultural practices, especially when 1plants are exposed to saline environments.

  4. Collembola Diversity between Chemical Pesticide and Bioinsecticide in Broccoli Farm (Brassica oleraceae var. italica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, Y.; Suhara

    2017-02-01

    The existance of Collembola diversity was determined by how land system work. Farming systems with excessive pesticide application can reduce number of Collembola. On the other hand nowaday people aware of environment by using bioinsecticide. The Method were comparing two land system which use Chemical pestisice and Bioinsecticide. Procedure were using Trapping wells (PMS) in three plots; T0: control without treatment, T1: Chemical Insecticide, T2 : Bioinsecticide for 24 hours. The factors that measure are abiotic factors by taking 10 grams of soil planting Broccoli (Brassica oleraceae var Italica), after 24 hours of taking separates it with other land animals, then identifying Collembola species were using Microcam based on identification book of Collembola. The result showed that density and Biodiversity of land system bioinsecticide was the highest value and indic. It was found also that in Broccoli farm dicovered 3 Familia and 8 species of Collembola both litter and soil. Species found that Isotomurus sp, Seira sp, Lepidosira sp, Coecobrya sp, Callyntura sp, Homidia sp, Sallina sp and Ascocytrus sp, three Family is derived from Isotomidae, Entomobryidae and Paronellid.

  5. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum – the causal agent of broccoli soft rot in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Gašić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot symptoms were observed on broccoli plants in several commercial fields in the western part of Serbia. Six strains of bacteria were isolated from diseased tissues and identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum using conventional bacteriological and molecular methods. All strains were non-fluorescent, gram-negative, facultative anaerobes, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive, causing soft rot on potato and carrot slices and did not induce hypersensitive reaction on tobacco leaves. They grew in 5% NaCl and at 37°C, did not produce acid from α-methyl glucoside, sorbitol and maltose, nor reducing substances from sucrose, but utilized lactose and trehalose, and did not produce indole or lecithinase. The investigated strains showed characteristic growth on Logan’s medium and did not produce blue pigmented indigoidine on GYCA medium nor “fried egg” colonies on PDA. The identity of strains was confirmed by ITS-PCR and ITS-RFLP analyses and by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. In a pathogenicity assay, all strains caused tissue discoloration and soft rot development on inoculated broccoli head tissue fragments.

  6. Identification and characterization of microRNAs related to salt stress in broccoli, using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yunhong; Tian, Yunming; Luo, Xiaojun; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Zuoping; Liu, Ying; Qiu, Yihan; Hou, Bing; Sun, Dan; Deng, Hongyu; Qian, Shen; Yao, Kaitai

    2014-09-03

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of endogenous regulators of a broad range of physiological processes, which act by regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. The brassica vegetable, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), is very popular with a wide range of consumers, but environmental stresses such as salinity are a problem worldwide in restricting its growth and yield. Little is known about the role of miRNAs in the response of broccoli to salt stress. In this study, broccoli subjected to salt stress and broccoli grown under control conditions were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Differential miRNA expression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The prediction of miRNA targets was undertaken using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthology (KO) database and Gene Ontology (GO)-enrichment analyses. Two libraries of small (or short) RNAs (sRNAs) were constructed and sequenced by high-throughput Solexa sequencing. A total of 24,511,963 and 21,034,728 clean reads, representing 9,861,236 (40.23%) and 8,574,665 (40.76%) unique reads, were obtained for control and salt-stressed broccoli, respectively. Furthermore, 42 putative known and 39 putative candidate miRNAs that were differentially expressed between control and salt-stressed broccoli were revealed by their read counts and confirmed by the use of stem-loop real-time RT-PCR. Amongst these, the putative conserved miRNAs, miR393 and miR855, and two putative candidate miRNAs, miR3 and miR34, were the most strongly down-regulated when broccoli was salt-stressed, whereas the putative conserved miRNA, miR396a, and the putative candidate miRNA, miR37, were the most up-regulated. Finally, analysis of the predicted gene targets of miRNAs using the GO and KO databases indicated that a range of metabolic and other cellular functions known to be associated with salt stress were up-regulated in broccoli treated with salt. A comprehensive

  7. Sulforaphane formation and bioaccessibility are more affected by steaming time than meal composition during in vitro digestion of broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarvan-Kruse, Irmela; Kramer, E.; Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, R.

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli is a rich source of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin (GR). After hydrolysis of GR by the endogenous enzyme myrosinase, sulforaphane (SF) or sulforaphane nitrile (SFN) are produced, depending on environmental conditions. How the conversion of GR and bioaccessibility of released breakdown

  8. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants.

  9. Salinity’s influence on boron toxicity in broccoli: II. Impacts on boron uptake, uptake mechanisms and tissue ion relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited research has been conducted on the interactive effects of salinity and boron stresses on plants despite their common occurrence in natural systems. The purpose of this research was to determine and quantify the interactive effects of salinity, salt composition and boron on broccoli (Brassica...

  10. Quantitative trait loci mapping of heat tolerance in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using genotyping-by-sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predicted rising global temperatures due to climate change have generated a demand for crops that are resistant to yield and quality losses from heat stress. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is a cool weather crop with high temperatures during production decreasing both head quality and yie...

  11. Effect of water content and temperature on inactivation kinetics of myrosinase in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, T; Verkerk, R; Van Boekel, M A J S; Dekker, M

    2014-11-15

    Broccoli belongs to the Brassicaceae plant family consisting of widely eaten vegetables containing high concentrations of glucosinolates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates by endogenous myrosinase (MYR) can form isothiocyanates with health-promoting activities. The effect of water content (WC) and temperature on MYR inactivation in broccoli was investigated. Broccoli was freeze dried obtaining batches with WC between 10% and 90% (aw from 0.10 to 0.96). These samples were incubated for various times at different temperatures (40-70°C) and MYR activity was measured. The initial MYR inactivation rates were estimated by the first-order reaction kinetic model. MYR inactivation rate constants were lower in the driest samples (10% WC) at all studied temperatures. Samples with 67% and 90% WC showed initial inactivation rate constants all in the same order of magnitude. Samples with 31% WC showed intermediate initial inactivation rate constants. These results are useful to optimise the conditions of drying processes to produce dried broccoli with optimal MYR retention for human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative trait loci mapping of heat tolerance in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using genotyping-by-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Sandra E; Stansell, Zachary J; Couillard, David M; Farnham, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    Five quantitative trait loci and one epistatic interaction were associated with heat tolerance in a doubled haploid population of broccoli evaluated in three summer field trials. Predicted rising global temperatures due to climate change have generated a demand for crops that are resistant to yield and quality losses from heat stress. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is a cool weather crop with high temperatures during production decreasing both head quality and yield. Breeding for heat tolerance in broccoli has potential to both expand viable production areas and extend the growing season but breeding efficiency is constrained by limited genetic information. A doubled haploid (DH) broccoli population segregating for heat tolerance was evaluated for head quality in three summer fields in Charleston, SC, USA. Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of 1,423 single nucleotide polymorphisms developed through genotyping-by-sequencing identified five QTL and one positive epistatic interaction that explained 62.1% of variation in heat tolerance. The QTL identified here can be used to develop markers for marker-assisted selection and to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying plant response to heat stress.

  13. Selenium biofortification of broccoli and carrots grown in soil amended with Se-enriched hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amending soils with Se-hyperaccumulator plant derived sources of selenium (Se) may be useful for increasing Se content in food crops in Se-deficient regions of the world. In this study, we evaluated total Se and the different chemical species of Se in broccoli and carrots grown in soils amended with...

  14. QTL mapping for quinone reductase activity in broccoli with Hepa1c1c7 cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floret tissue from 125 F2:3 broccoli families derived from the cross 'VI-158 x Brocolette Neri E. Cespuglio (BNC)' was harvested in 2009. Tissue was freeze-dried and stored in the dark at -80 until use. Distilled water was added to floret tissue (50 mg/mL) and auto-hydrolyzed for 24 hours in room te...

  15. Temperature and light conditions at different latitudes affect sensory quality of broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Tor J; Mølmann, Jørgen Ab; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Schreiner, Monica; Velasco, Pablo; Hykkerud, Anne L; Cartea, Elena; Lea, Per; Skaret, Josefine; Seljåsen, Randi

    2017-08-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a popular vegetable grown at a wide range of latitudes. Plants were grown in 2009-2011 in pots with standardized soil, irrigation and nutrient supply under natural temperature and light conditions at four locations (42-70° N). A descriptive sensory analysis of broccoli florets was performed by a trained panel to examine any differences along the latitudinal gradient for 30 attributes within appearance, odour, taste/flavour and texture. Average results over three summer seasons in Germany, southern Norway and northern Norway showed that the northernmost location with low temperatures and long days had highest scores for bud coarseness and uniform colour, while broccoli from the German location, with high temperatures and shorter days, had highest intensity of colour hue, whiteness, bitter taste, cabbage flavour, stale flavour and watery flavour. Results from two autumn seasons at the fourth location (42° N, Spain), with low temperatures and short days, tended toward results from the two northernmost locations, with an exception for most texture attributes. Results clearly demonstrate that temperature and light conditions related to latitude and season affect the sensory quality of broccoli florets. Results may be used in marketing special quality regional or seasonal products. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts.

  17. Increased antioxidant activity and polyphenol metabolites in methyl jasmonate treated mung bean (Vigna radiata sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    Full Text Available Abstract Mung bean sprouts are a popular health food both in China and worldwide. We determined the optimal concentration of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA for the promotion of the sprouting in mung beans (Vigna radiata. The 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging test showed that MeJA application resulted in significantly improved antioxidant capacity in the sprouts 72 h later. Measurement of total polyphenols in MeJA-treated beans from 0 to 168 h, using Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetry, showed that the polyphenols changing was significantly correlated with antioxidant activity. The main polyphenols isovitexin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, daidzein, genistein, isoquercitrin, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/QqQ MS and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. MeJA promoted the production of polyphenols, metabolites, and antioxidants in the sprouts; therefore, its use may allow sprouts to be prepared more quickly or increase their nutritional value.

  18. Effect of sheath gas in atmospheric-pressure plasma jet for potato sprouting suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, S.; Monma, M.; Sasaki, K.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs) attract much interest for medical and agricultural applications. We try to apply APPJs for the suppression of potato sprouting in the long-term storage. In this study, we investigated the effect of sheath gas in APPJ on the suppression efficiency of the potato sprouting. Our APPJ was composed of an insulated thin wire electrode, a glass tube, a grounded electrode which was wound on the glass tube, and a sheath gas nozzle which was attached at the end of the glass tube. The wire electrode was connected to a rectangular-waveform power supply at a frequency of 3 kHz and a voltage of +/- 7 kV. Helium was fed through the glass tube, while we tested dry nitrogen, humid nitrogen, and oxygen as the sheath gas. Eyes of potatoes were irradiated by APPJ for 60 seconds. The sprouting probability was evaluated at two weeks after the plasma irradiation. The sprouting probability was 28% when we employed no sheath gases, whereas an improved probability of 10% was obtained when we applied dry nitrogen as the sheath gas. Optical emission spectroscopy was carried out to diagnose the plasma jet. It was suggested that reactive species originated from nitrogen worked for the efficient suppression of the potato sprouting.

  19. SPROUTS: a database for the evaluation of protein stability upon point mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonquety, Mathieu; Lacroix, Zoé; Papandreou, Nikolaos; Chomilier, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    SPROUTS (Structural Prediction for pRotein fOlding UTility System) is a new database that provides access to various structural data sets and integrated functionalities not yet available to the community. The originality of the SPROUTS database is the ability to gain access to a variety of structural analyses at one place and with a strong interaction between them. SPROUTS currently combines data pertaining to 429 structures that capture representative folds and results related to the prediction of critical residues expected to belong to the folding nucleus: the MIR (Most Interacting Residues), the description of the structures in terms of modular fragments: the TEF (Tightened End Fragments), and the calculation at each position of the free energy change gradient upon mutation by one of the 19 amino acids. All database results can be displayed and downloaded in textual files and Excel spreadsheets and visualized on the protein structure. SPROUTS is a unique resource to access as well as visualize state-of-the-art characteristics of protein folding and analyse the effect of point mutations on protein structure. It is available at http://bioinformatics.eas.asu.edu/sprouts.html.

  20. The response of broccoli (Brassica oleracea convar. italica) varieties on foliar application of selenium: uptake, translocation, and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šindelářová, Kristýna; Száková, Jiřina; Tremlová, Jana; Mestek, Oto; Praus, Lukáš; Kaňa, Antonín; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A model small-scale field experiment was set up to investigate selenium (Se) uptake by four different varieties of broccoli plants, as well as the effect of Se foliar application on the uptake of essential elements for plants calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). Foliar application of sodium selenate (Na2SeO4) was carried out at two rates (25 and 50 g Se/ha), and an untreated control variant was included. Analyses of individual parts of broccoli were performed, whereby it was found that Se in the plant accumulates mainly in the flower heads and slightly less in the leaves, stems, and roots, regardless of the Se rate and broccoli variety. In most cases, there was a statistically significant increase of Se content in all parts of the plant, while there was no confirmed systematic influence of the addition of Se on the changing intake of other monitored elements. Selenization of broccoli leads to an effective increase in the Se content at a rate of 25 g/ha, whereas the higher rate did not result in a substantial increase of Se content compared to the lower rate in all varieties. Therefore, the rate of 25 g/ha can be recommended as effective to produce broccoli with an increased Se content suitable for consumption. Moreover, Se application resulted in an adequate increase of the main organic compounds of Se, such as selenocystine (SeCys2), selenomethionine (SeMet), and Se-methylselenocysteine (Se-MeSeCys).

  1. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L. "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel David Dufoo-Hurtado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that seed bulbs from ‘Coreano’ variety conditioned at 5 °C for five weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic seed cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23 °C, and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5 °C for five weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous

  2. Disinfection of seeds and sprout inhibition of potatoes with low energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, S. E-mail: setsuko@nfri.affrc.go.jp; Hayashi, T

    2000-03-01

    Electrons at acceleration voltages of 170-190 kV reduced microbial count of seeds of adzuki bean, pot herb mustered and black gram to undetectable levels without any detrimental effects on the germination ability. However, electrons at 200 kV or higher affected the growing of black gram sprouts. The energies of electrons at the surface of seed (15 cm distance from the accelerator's window) at acceleration voltages of 170-190 kV were estimated to be 60-90 kV, based on the stopping powers of titanium and air. Electrons at acceleration voltages of 250 kV or higher inhibited sprouting of potato tubers of various cultivars. The results suggest the efficacy of low energy electron treatment for disinfection of seeds and sprout inhibition of potatoes. (author)

  3. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael

    2004-01-01

    . A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling seed...... dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was identified...... was syntenic to both rice chromosome 3 and 11. In both cases, corresponding QTLs for seed dormancy have been mapped in rice. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-May...

  4. Persimmon Fruit Powder May Substitute Indolbi, a Synthetic Growth Regulator, in Soybean Sprout Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Park, Yong-Sung; Kim, Dong Joon; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2017-09-03

    Soybean sprouts are a major food item in Korea. Various studies have been carried out to enhance their yield and nutritional values. The objective of the present study was to examine the influence of persimmon fruit powder and Indolbi, a synthetic plant growth regulator, on the yield and nutritional value of soybean sprouts. Seeds were soaked in tap water containing 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% (w/v) persimmon fruit powder and the samples were named as PT-1, PT-2, PT-3, and PT-4, respectively. The yield increment was almost doubled in PT-3 and PT-4 than in the Indolbi treated sprouts on basis of the control. Vitamin C, isoflavones, and total phenolic contents as well as antioxidant potentials (determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays) were also significantly (p products.

  5. Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Sulphur Compounds in White Radish During the First Three Days of Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doinița Borș

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Glucosinolates (GLs and S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide (SMCSO are natural sulphur containing phytochemicals. They are two of the most important bioactive compounds found in brassica vegetables, which are highly regarded for their health-promoting activity. In this study we have analysed the content of GLs and SMCSO in white radish, by an HPLC-MS method, in order to illustrate their biosynthesis and accumulation during the first 72 hours of sprouting. Total GLs content ranged between  54.17 and 126.86 µmol/g DW. There were eight GLs identified, in radish sprouts and around 94 % of them were aliphatic. Obvious differences, during the 72 hours of sprouting, were noticed in glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin. S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide content ranged between 0.21 and 35.95 µmol/g DW. Our results revealed a negative strong correlation between GLs and SMCSO.

  6. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, C.A.; Curvetto, N.R.; Orioli, G.A. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)); Arguello, J.A. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Dept. de Biologia Aplicada)

    1991-02-01

    The effects of an acute dose of {gamma}-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19+-1{sup 0}C and 42+-2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author).

  7. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-01-01

    ... organogenesis from hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Solan green head) has been developed. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were used from 10 to 12...

  8. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important, nutritionally rich vegetable crop, but severely affected by environmental stresses, pests and diseases which cause massive yield and quality losses...

  9. LC-MS/MS quantification of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol metabolites in human plasma and urine after dietary intake of selenium-fortified broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauder, Johanna; Winkler, Stefanie; Bub, Achim; Rüfer, Corinna E; Pignitter, Marc; Somoza, Veronika

    2011-08-10

    This study aimed at developing a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of sulforaphane (SFN) and indole-3-carbinol metabolites in plasma and urine after dietary intake of regular and selenium-fertilized broccoli using stable isotope dilution analysis. In a three-armed, placebo-controlled, randomized human intervention study with 76 healthy volunteers, 200 g of regular (485 μg of total glucosinolates and fertilized broccoli (589 μg of total glucosinolates and 0.25 μg of selenium per gram fresh weight) was administered daily for 4 weeks. Glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin metabolites quantified in plasma and urine were SFN-glutathione, SFN-cysteine, SFN-cysteinylglycine, SFN-acetylcysteine, and indole-3-carboxaldehyde, indole-3-carboxylic acid, and ascorbigen, respectively. Dietary intake of selenium-fertilized broccoli increased serum selenium concentration analyzed by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy by up to 25% (p urine compared to regular broccoli.

  10. Computational screening of tip and stalk cell behavior proposes a role for apelin signaling in sprout progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Palm (Margriet); M.G. Dallinga (Marchien); E. van Dijk (Erik); I. Klaassen (Ingeborg); R.O. Schlingemann (Reinier); R.M.H. Merks (Roeland)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAngiogenesis involves the formation of new blood vessels by sprouting or splitting of existing blood vessels. During sprouting, a highly motile type of endothelial cell, called the tip cell, migrates from the blood vessels followed by stalk cells, an endothelial cell type that forms the

  11. Computational Screening of Tip and Stalk Cell Behavior Proposes a Role for Apelin Signaling in Sprout Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, Margriet M.; Dallinga, Marchien G.; van Dijk, Erik; Klaassen, Ingeborg; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; Merks, Roeland M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the formation of new blood vessels by sprouting or splitting of existing blood vessels. During sprouting, a highly motile type of endothelial cell, called the tip cell, migrates from the blood vessels followed by stalk cells, an endothelial cell type that forms the body of the

  12. The Involvement of Gibberellins in 1,8-Cineole-Mediated Inhibition of Sprout Growth in Russet Burbank Tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The involvement of gibberellins in 1,8-cineole-mediated inhibition of tuber sprout growth was investigated in non-dormant field- and greenhouse-grown tubers of Russet Burbank. Continuous exposure of tubers to cineole in the vapor-phase resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of sprout growth. Comp...

  13. Long-term effects of burning on woody plant species sprouting on the False thornveld of Eastern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ratsele, C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sprouting allows woody plant species to persist in a site after a wide range of disturbances (e.g. prolonged fire), where opportunities for seedling establishment are limited. A study to investigate long-term effects of fire sprouting of woody...

  14. Characteristics of soybean sprout locally cultivated in the Jeonju region, used for Bibimbap and Kongnamul-gukbap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Eun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Soybean sprouts cultivated using Chinese soybeans in Jeonju were better in the overall acceptability than those grown in other regions because the Jeonju product contained two to three times less amino acids, such as leucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, than the other regional products, which tasted bitter. The cultivating water may affect the free amino-acid content of soybean sprouts and their taste.

  15. Gene expression regulation of sprout inhibition and water retention genes in potatoes by 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potato is the fifth largest agricultural crop in the world and a dietary staple in many cultures. When sprouting, the potato produces the toxin solanine and begins to sweeten, a process that makes the potato undesirable for consumer use. Sprout inhibitors such as 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN) ar...

  16. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B Carmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST—is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that ten days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay.

  17. Contact-inhibited chemotaxis in de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeland M H Merks

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels form either when dispersed endothelial cells (the cells lining the inner walls of fully formed blood vessels organize into a vessel network (vasculogenesis, or by sprouting or splitting of existing blood vessels (angiogenesis. Although they are closely related biologically, no current model explains both phenomena with a single biophysical mechanism. Most computational models describe sprouting at the level of the blood vessel, ignoring how cell behavior drives branch splitting during sprouting. We present a cell-based, Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model (also called Cellular Potts Model simulation of the initial patterning before the vascular cords form lumens, based on plausible behaviors of endothelial cells. The endothelial cells secrete a chemoattractant, which attracts other endothelial cells. As in the classic Keller-Segel model, chemotaxis by itself causes cells to aggregate into isolated clusters. However, including experimentally observed VE-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of chemotaxis in the simulation causes randomly distributed cells to organize into networks and cell aggregates to sprout, reproducing aspects of both de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth. We discuss two branching instabilities responsible for our results. Cells at the surfaces of cell clusters attempting to migrate to the centers of the clusters produce a buckling instability. In a model variant that eliminates the surface-normal force, a dissipative mechanism drives sprouting, with the secreted chemical acting both as a chemoattractant and as an inhibitor of pseudopod extension. Both mechanisms would also apply if force transmission through the extracellular matrix rather than chemical signaling mediated cell-cell interactions. The branching instabilities responsible for our results, which result from contact inhibition of chemotaxis, are both generic developmental mechanisms and interesting examples of unusual patterning instabilities.

  18. Preservation of Brussels Sprouts by Pullulan Coating Containing Oregano Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraśniewska, Karolina; Gniewosz, Małgorzata; Kosakowska, Olga; Cis, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of pullulan (a fungal polysaccharide) film containing oregano essential oil (OEO) at 1.0 to 10.0% was evaluated against bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The quality of the sprouts, as determined by weight loss, color, and appearance, was monitored during storage at 2 and 16°C. An organoleptic evaluation of odor preference and odor acceptability of OEO on the Brussels sprouts was also conducted. The antimicrobial activity of pullulan films with OEO increased significantly with the increase in OEO concentration (1 to 10%). Pullulan films with OEO were more effective for inhibiting the growth of yeasts and molds than for inhibiting gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Pullulan with 1.0% OEO was an effective combination and was used subsequently as the base coating for maintaining the safety and quality of fresh Brussels sprouts stored at 16°C for 14 days. The pullulan coating containing 1.0% OEO reduced Aspergillus niger populations by 2 log CFU/g. This coating also reduced weight loss in the sprouts. Compared with uncoated Brussels sprouts, the percent weight loss after 14 days was reduced in samples coated with pullulan and with pullulan plus 1% OEO by 3.81 and 6.06%, respectively, after storage at 2°C and by 8.04 and 9.30%, respectively, after storage 16°C. The coating also significantly reduced changes in general appearance and color during storage. Evaluation of the organoleptic properties indicated that pullulan containing OEO had only a slight detrimental effect on odor properties. Incorporating OEO into a delivery system for antimicrobial compounds in pullulan coatings extended the microbiological shelf life of Brussels sprouts.

  19. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  20. Study of selenocompounds from selenium-enriched culture of edible sprouts

    OpenAIRE

    Funes Collado, Virginia; Morell García, Albert; Rubio i Rovira, Roser; López Sánchez, José Fermín

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is recognised as an essential micronutrient for humans and animals. One of the main sources of selenocompounds in the human diet is vegetables. Therefore, this study deals with the Se species present in different edible sprouts grown in Se-enriched media. We grew alfalfa, lentil and soy in a hydroponic system amended with soluble salts, containing the same proportion of Se, in the form of Se(VI) and Se(IV). Total Se in the sprouts was determined by acidic digestion in a microwave sys...

  1. Legume seeds and cereal grains' capacity to accumulate iron while sprouting in order to obtain food fortificant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Dawidziak, Magdalena; Staniek, Halina; Król, Ewelina; Piasecka-Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Prepared sprouts, after culturing in a medium with an increased iron concentration, could become a beneficial food iron fortificant. However, the efficient iron accumulation depends on the plants genus, species and/or varieties. The aim of the study was to indicate the seeds or grains which accumulate iron most efficiently during the sprouting process. Alfalfa, lentil, lupine and soybean seeds as well as wheat grains were sprouted in abiotic stress conditions induced by the excess of iron(II) in culture media. The tolerance of these plants to iron concentration and its accumulation in the material obtained (with FAAS method) were analyzed. The smallest tolerance was noted for lentil seeds and wheat grains. Other plants developed in 25 mM solution of FeSO4. The highest accumulation of iron was observed in alfalfa sprouts. However, lupine and soybean seeds are the most recommended raw material for the production of the sprouts on an industrial scale.

  2. Estimation of Agricultural Pesticide Use in Drainage Basins Using Land Cover Maps and County Pesticide Data. National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Beets Okra Broccoli Onions Brussel sprouts Parsley Cabbage Peanuts Canola Potatoes Cantaloupes Sweet Corn Carrots Sweet Potatoes Cauliflower Sweet...2003, at http://ca.water.usgs.gov/pnsp/rep/ofr00250 U.S. Department of Commerce, 1993, Bureau of Census, County boundaries extracted from TIGER

  3. Antimicrobial Effect of Extracts of Cruciferous Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Hu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The cruciferous vegetables cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, Chinese radish, Chinese kale, and Chinese kitam were used in this study to prepare water-soluble and methanol-water extracts. Crude protein extracts were also obtained by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE anion exchange chromatography. Water-soluble polysaccharides were prepared by ethanol precipitation followed by ultrafiltration. The antimicrobial effects of all these extracts were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast. Crude protein extracts exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity in monoculture experiments. The antimicrobial effects of cruciferous vegetables were also studied by steeping beef, carrot, and celery in chlorine (10 ppm or citric acid solution (1% containing the crude protein extract (500 ppm for different time periods. Total aerobic plate counts and coliform counts on these foods decreased significantly after 10 minutes in all steeping solutions (p < 0.05.

  4. Different mossy fiber sprouting patterns in ILAE hippocampal sclerosis types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeiser, Barbara; Li, Jinmei; Brandt, Armin; Zentner, Josef; Doostkam, Soroush; Freiman, Thomas M

    2017-10-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most prevalent pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) characterized by segmental neuronal cell loss in the cornu ammonis (CA) 1-4. In addition, migration of granule cells and reorganization of their axons is observed, known as granule cell dispersion (GCD) and mossy fiber sprouting (MFS). The loss of mossy fibers` (MF) target cells in CA4 and CA3 was considered to be causative for MFS. The ILAE HS (International League Against Epilepsy) classification identifies three subtypes with different cell loss patterns in CA1-4. We studied the relation of ILAE HS subtypes to GCD and MFS to corroborate clinico-pathological subgroups in a large retrospective single-center series. Hippocampal specimen of 319 patients were screened, 214 could be used for analysis. Immunohistochemical stainings for semi-quantitative analysis of neuronal cell loss (NeuN) and MFS (synaptoporin) were performed. Presurgical data were available from patient files and seizure outcome was classified according to Engel score after surgery. In 39 patients (18%) no neuronal cell loss (ILAE no-HS), no GCD and no MFS was observed. In 154 patients (72%) severe neuronal cell loss was seen in CA1, CA4 and CA3 (ILAE HS 1, typical HS); in addition extensive GCD and MFS was observed. In 17 patients (8%) cell loss was seen predominantly in CA1 (ILAE HS 2); despite different cell loss pattern these hippocampi also showed GCD and MFS. In 4 patients (2%) cell loss was predominately detected in CA3 and CA4 (ILAE HS type 3), consecutively GCD and MFS were observed. Longer epilepsy duration and younger age at surgery was more often associated with ILAE HS 2 and febrile convulsions were completely absent in ILAE no-HS. Yet, seizure onset, age at initial precipitating injury and postsurgical seizure outcome did not show any significant association with ILAE HS subtypes. GCD and MFS might develop independently from the neuronal cell loss of MF target cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  5. Changes in SeMSC, glucosinolates and sulforaphane levels, and in proteome profile in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica) fertilized with sodium selenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Ignacio; Barrientos, Herna; Mahn, Andrea; Moenne, Alejandra

    2013-05-07

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC), total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica). Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 μmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot) and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  6. Influence of thermal processing on hydrolysis and stability of folate poly-gamma-glutamates in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Verlinde, Philippe; Mukisa, Ivan Muzira; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-04-14

    The folate poly-gamma-glutamate profile, their concentrations, and hydrolysis by endogenous gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) were evaluated in broccoli, carrot and tomato. Further studies on the effect of time and temperature on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis and stability were carried out in broccoli since this vegetable showed the highest long-chain and total folate poly-gamma-glutamate concentration. The evolution of l-ascorbic acid, total phenols and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values was evaluated in parallel. Upon thermal inactivation of GGH prior to crushing, it was observed that broccoli, carrot and tomato contained poly-gamma-glutamates with one to seven glutamate residues but differed in the predominant poly-gamma-glutamates. Crushing of raw broccoli, carrot and tomato resulted in significant poly-gamma-glutamate profile changes in broccoli and carrot (indicating GGH-catalyzed hydrolysis) but not in tomato. In this study, the actual crushing of raw broccoli matrix had a greater effect on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis than incubation conditions (0-30 min at 25-55 degrees C). During treatments at 25-140 degrees C, folate retention was higher at 80 and 100 degrees C than at the other temperatures. A similar trend in thermal stability was observed for folates, vitamin C, total phenols and TEAC value, an indication that conditions that result in endogenous antioxidants degradation might also result in folate degradation.

  7. Changes in SeMSC, Glucosinolates and Sulforaphane Levels, and in Proteome Profile in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica Fertilized with Sodium Selenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moenne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC, total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica. Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 mmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  8. Parâmetros cinéticos da Glutationa S-Transferase e sua ativação por extratos de vegetais Kinetics parameters of Glutathione S-Transferase and its activation by vegetable extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Lopes Torres

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a indução da Glutationa S-Transferase, com extratos de vegetais, e caracterizar os parâmetros cinéticos desta enzima. Foram obtidos os extratos aquoso, etanólico e hexanólico de vegetais, amplamente consumidos no Brasil, como berinjela (Solanum melongena L., couve-flor (Brassica oleracea L., couve (Brassica oleracea L., brócolis (Brassica oleracea L., couve-de-bruxelas (Brassicaoleraea L., cebola (Allium cepa L., alho (Allium sativum L.; vegetais que apresentam gosto amargo, como jiló (Solanum gilo Raddi, guariroba (Syagrus oleracea Becc., mostarda (Brassica nigra L., carqueja (Cacalia spp., e de plantas relacionadas, na cultura popular, como curadoras de determinadas doenças, como a babosa (Aloe vera L.. A atividade da enzima foi determinada usando como substrato o 1 cloro 2, 4 dinitrobenzeno, na presença dos extratos vegetais. A mistura da reação, sem a presença do extrato, foi considerada controle. Das amostras de vegetais avaliadas, a berinjela, a couve e o brócolis apresentaram maior indução na atividade da GST, sendo o extrato etanólico o mais eficaz. A enzima apresentou um Vmax de 0,016 abs. min-1/unidade da enzima e um Km de 0,323mM. O baixo valor de Km encontrado indica uma alta especificidade da enzima pelo substrato 1 cloro 2, 4 dinitrobenzeno e a atividade máxima da enzima foi na faixa de pH entre 6,5 e 7,0.This study was done to evaluate induction Glutathione S-Transferase, with vegetable extracts, and characterize its kinetics parameters. The aqueous, alcoholic, and hexanoic extracts were obtained from vegetables widely consumed in Brazil: eggplant (Solanum melongena L., cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., cauli leaves (Brassica oleracea L., broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Brussels sprout (Brassicaoleraea L., onions (Allium cepa L., garlic (Allium sativum L.; and bitter tasting vegetable such as jiló (Solanum gilo Raddi, guariroba (Syagrus oleracea Becc., black mustard

  9. Plant regeneration from leaf protoplasts of Brassica oleracea var. italica CV Green Comet broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D; Earle, E D

    1986-02-01

    A procedure is described for regeneration of plants from leaf protoplasts of the hybrid broccoli cultivar, Green Comet (Brassica oleracea var italica). The totipotency of protoplasts isolated from plants regenerated from hypocotyl explants (GCR) was greater than that of protoplasts from plants grown directly from seed (GC). Using medium B developed by Pelletier et al (1983), division efficiencies greater than 70% were obtained in leaf protoplasts isolated from GCR. Approximately 1% of these protoplasts formed calli on solidified medium; 77% of the calli regenerated shoots. In contrast, protoplasts from seed-grown material showed a lower division efficiency (15-22%) and fewer protoplast-derived calli produced shoots. Some of the 178 protoplast-derived plants grown to maturity had variant phenotypes.

  10. Proliferation and glucosinolates accumulation of broccoli adventitious roots in liquid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhut, Nguyen Minh; Tien, Le Thi Thuy

    2017-09-01

    Cotyledons from 7-day-old in vitro broccoli seedling were used as explant source in adventitious root induction on MS medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose, 1.6 mg/l IBA and 7 g/l agar. Adventitious roots from cotyledons were transferred to liquid medium containing the same components as rooting medium for two weeks, then subcultured to MS medium with diferent sugar, macrominerals and casein hydrolysate concentrations. The best adventitious root growth was observed in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose, 600 mg/l casein hydrolysate and 1.6 mg/l IBA (growth index of 4.00 in about 14 culture days with inoculum density of 1.0 g fresh weight / 30 ml of culture medium). The culturing process can be stopped on the 28th day for root biomass and on the 35th day for glucosinolates.

  11. Effects of operating factors on osmotic dehydration of broccoli stalk slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Salina Md Salim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effects of sucrose concentration (40–60% w/v, immersion time (1–5 h, and temperature (25–65°C on water loss (WL and solute gain (SG during osmotic dehydration of broccoli stalk slices were quantitatively investigated using response surface methodology. It was found that concentration of sucrose solution, immersion time, and temperature affected the WL during osmotic dehydration process. Significant factors affecting the SG are the temperature and immersion time. The operating conditions to obtain water removal of 62% with solute intake of 7% were found to be at a sucrose concentration of 56% w/v, temperature of 42°C, and immersion time of 4 h.

  12. Risk Assessment of Salmonellosis from Consumption of Alfalfa Sprouts and Evaluation of the Public Health Impact of Sprout Seed Treatment and Spent Irrigation Water Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhuan; Pouillot, Régis; Santillana Farakos, Sofia M; Duret, Steven; Spungen, Judith; Fu, Tong-Jen; Shakir, Fazila; Homola, Patricia A; Dennis, Sherri; Van Doren, Jane M

    2018-01-16

    We developed a risk assessment of human salmonellosis associated with consumption of alfalfa sprouts in the United States to evaluate the public health impact of applying treatments to seeds (0-5-log10 reduction in Salmonella) and testing spent irrigation water (SIW) during production. The risk model considered variability and uncertainty in Salmonella contamination in seeds, Salmonella growth and spread during sprout production, sprout consumption, and Salmonella dose response. Based on an estimated prevalence of 2.35% for 6.8 kg seed batches and without interventions, the model predicted 76,600 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15,400-248,000) cases/year. Risk reduction (by 5- to 7-fold) predicted from a 1-log10 seed treatment alone was comparable to SIW testing alone, and each additional 1-log10 seed treatment was predicted to provide a greater risk reduction than SIW testing. A 3-log10 or a 5-log10 seed treatment reduced the predicted cases/year to 139 (95% CI 33-448) or 1.4 (95% CI SIW testing, a 3-log10 or 5-log10 seed treatment reduced the cases/year to 45 (95% CI 10-146) or SIW coverage was less complete (i.e., less representative), a smaller risk reduction was predicted, e.g., a combined 3-log10 seed treatment and SIW testing with 20% coverage resulted in an estimated 92 (95% CI 22-298) cases/year. Analysis of alternative scenarios using different assumptions for key model inputs showed that the predicted relative risk reductions are robust. This risk assessment provides a comprehensive approach for evaluating the public health impact of various interventions in a sprout production system. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Selenium-Induced Toxicity Is Counteracted by Sulfur in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ming; Hui, Maixia; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Pan, Siyi; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to enhance the consumption of Se in human diets. A thoroughly understanding of the effects of Se on plant growth is important for Se biofortification in food crops. Given that Se is an analog of sulfur (S) and can be toxic to plants, its effect on plant growth is expected to be greatly affected by S nutrition. However, this remains to be further understood. Here, we evaluated the influence of Se treatments on broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) growth when S was withheld from the growth nutrient solution. We found that Se was highly toxic to plants when S nutrition was poor. In contrast to Se treatments with adequate S nutrition that slightly reduced broccoli growth, the same concentration of Se treatments without S supplementation dramatically reduced plant sizes. Higher Se toxicity was observed with selenate than selenite under low S nutrition. We examined the bases underlying the toxicity. We discovered that the high Se toxicity in low S nutrition was specifically associated with an increased ratio of Se in proteins verse total Se level, enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, elevated lipid peroxidation causing increased cell membrane damage, and reduced antioxidant enzyme activities. Se toxicity could be counteracted with increased supplementation of S, which is likely through decreasing non-specific integration of Se into proteins and altering the redox system. The present study provides information for better understanding of Se toxicity and shows that adequate S nutrition is important to prevent Se toxicity during biofortification of crops by Se fertilization.

  14. Consumer behaviour towards vegetables: a study on domestic processing of broccoli and carrots by Dutch households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongoni, R; Verkerk, R; Dekker, M; Steenbekkers, L P A

    2015-06-01

    Preferences for sensory properties (e.g. taste and texture) are assumed to control cooking behaviour with respect to vegetables. Conditions such as the cooking method, amount of water used and the time-temperature profile determine the nutritional quality (e.g. vitamins and phytochemicals) of cooked vegetables. Information on domestic processing and any underlying motives can be used to inform consumers about cooking vegetables that are equally liked and are nutrient-rich. Two online self-reporting questionnaires were used to identify domestic processing conditions of broccoli and carrots by Dutch households. Questions on various aspects of domestic processing and consumer motives were included. Descriptive data analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were performed for both vegetables, separately, to group consumers with similar motives and behaviour towards vegetables. Approximately 70% of consumers boiled vegetables, 8-9% steamed vegetables, 10-15% stir fried raw vegetables and 8-10% stir fried boiled vegetables. Mainly texture was used as a way to decide the 'doneness' of the vegetables. For both vegetables, three clusters of consumers were identified: texture-orientated, health-orientated, or taste-orientated. The texture-orientated consumers are identified as the most prevalent (56-59%) group in the present study. Statistically significant associations are found between domestic processing conditions and clusters, whereas no such association are found between demographic details and clusters. A wide variation in domestic processing of broccoli and carrots is found in the present study. Mainly sensory properties (i.e. texture and taste) determined the domestic processing conditions. The findings of the present study can be used to optimise cooking to yield vegetables that meet consumer's specific sensory preference and are higher in nutrients, and as well as to communicate with target consumer groups. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Selenium-Induced Toxicity Is Counteracted by Sulfur in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient for humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to enhance the consumption of Se in human diets. A thoroughly understanding of the effects of Se on plant growth is important for Se biofortification in food crops. Given that Se is an analog of sulfur (S and can be toxic to plants, its effect on plant growth is expected to be greatly affected by S nutrition. However, this remains to be further understood. Here, we evaluated the influence of Se treatments on broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica growth when S was withheld from the growth nutrient solution. We found that Se was highly toxic to plants when S nutrition was poor. In contrast to Se treatments with adequate S nutrition that slightly reduced broccoli growth, the same concentration of Se treatments without S supplementation dramatically reduced plant sizes. Higher Se toxicity was observed with selenate than selenite under low S nutrition. We examined the bases underlying the toxicity. We discovered that the high Se toxicity in low S nutrition was specifically associated with an increased ratio of Se in proteins verse total Se level, enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, elevated lipid peroxidation causing increased cell membrane damage, and reduced antioxidant enzyme activities. Se toxicity could be counteracted with increased supplementation of S, which is likely through decreasing non-specific integration of Se into proteins and altering the redox system. The present study provides information for better understanding of Se toxicity and shows that adequate S nutrition is important to prevent Se toxicity during biofortification of crops by Se fertilization.

  16. SAYSOY- Space Apparatus to Yield SOY sprouts: Growing sprouts in a growth support system for experiments on unmanned platforms in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Scala, Michele; Eduardo, Pasquale; Haladich, Marco; Castagnolo, Dario; Fortezza, Raimondo

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to design and develop an automatic growth support system for sprouts production in Space addressing a main biological requirement: seedling development had to occur completely under microgravity conditions from seed imbibition until chemical fixation of seedlings. This research is placed within the scenario of producing sprouts of soy, and other species, on board of Space platforms to integrate astronauts' diet with fresh food.The project SAYSOY was submitted within the Education programmes of ESA and was selected for the flight onboard of FOTON M2 satellite. The experiment is based on previous tests conducted on ground in simulated low-gravity conditions where emphasis was addressed to the effect of altered gravity on biological processes that affect nutritional value (metabolism of phenolics) and taste satisfaction (hydration of tissues, vascular differentiation and lignification affecting turgidity and softness of sprouts). The hardware was developed according to the specifications of the FOTON capsule and biological requirements in the sight of the planned analyses of biometrical anatomy on the recovered seedlings. The experiment SAYSOY was successfully conducted flying from May 31st to June 16th, 2005.

  17. The effect of tea fermentation on rosmarinic acid and antioxidant properties using selected in vitro sprout culture of Orthosiphon aristatus as a model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunaefi, Dase; Smetanska, Iryna

    2013-12-01

    Orthosiphon aristatus, an Indonesian medicinal plant, is normally used as a traditional herbal tea. Recently, this plant has begun to attract attention due to its antioxidant properties. However, little is known about tea fermentation effect on antioxidant properties of this plant. Thus, to extend the tea fermentation study, in vitro sprout culture of this plant was established as a new feature model. This model plant was selected based on three reasons. Firstly, as a native tropical plant, to grow this plant in sub-tropic area is considered difficult. Secondly, the in vitro sprout culture is more genetically stable compared to other types of in vitro cultures. Thirdly, results showed that this in vitro sprout culture grew faster and produced higher biomass than in vitro tissue culture. Both characteristics are important in producing tea leaves. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was twofold. First was to establish high rosmarinic acid line of in vitro sprout culture of Orthosiphon aristatus by elicitation. Second was to evaluate the effect of tea fermentation on antioxidant properties of this plant. Results showed that yeast extract (5 g/L) elicitation resulted in the highest production of rosmarinic acid. This elicited plant was subjected to partial and full tea fermentation. Results revealed that both tea fermentations decreased the level of rosmarinic acid, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and flavonols. These decreases were concomitant with reduced antioxidant activities as measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity assays. HPLC results showed that the longer the tea fermentation was, the greater reduction rosmarinic acid was found. High correlation value of 0.922 between rosmarinic acid and antioxidant activities was also observed. These results indicated that rosmarinic acid is the major contributor to the antioxidant activities

  18. Chloroxyanion residue on seeds and sprouts after chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a 6-h chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg seed) on total coliform bacteria, seed germination, and on the presence of chlorate and perchlorate residues in seed rinse, seed soak, and in alfalfa sprouts was determined. Chlorate residues in 20000 ppm cal...

  19. Chopper GEN2 + Glyphosate efficacy for height classes of hardwood sprouts recolonizing six clearcut pine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmie Yeiser; Andrew Ezell

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess sprout size as a determinant of subsequent control by a standard, single rate of imazapyr +glyphosate applied during site preparation. All study sites were in the hilly upper coastal plain of Mississippi (Winston or Oktibbeha Counties) or Louisiana (Sabine or Winn Parishes) and supported loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations...

  20. Effect of Soybean Sprouting and Beta-Glucanase Treatment of Wet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soymilk samples were produced from different varieties of soybean (Samsoy 1, Samsoy 2 and TGX). One batch of each variety of soybeans was sprouted (48 h), wet milled, and treated with beta-glucanase enzyme. An untreated batch of wet milled soybean served as control. Soymilk was processed from each soybean ...

  1. Distinct activities of Bartonella henselae type IV secretion effector proteins modulate capillary-like sprout formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, F; Ellner, Y; Guye, P; Rhomberg, T A; Weber, H; Augustin, H G; Dehio, C

    2009-07-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bh) can lead to vasoproliferative tumour lesions in the skin and inner organs known as bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. The knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-triggered angiogenic process is confined by the lack of a suitable animal model and a physiologically relevant cell culture model of angiogenesis. Here we employed a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay of collagen gel-embedded endothelial cell (EC) spheroids to study the angiogenic properties of Bh. Spheroids generated from Bh-infected ECs displayed a high capacity to form sprouts, which represent capillary-like projections into the collagen gel. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system and a subset of its translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) were found to profoundly modulate this Bh-induced sprouting activity. BepA, known to protect ECs from apoptosis, strongly promoted sprout formation. In contrast, BepG, triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements, potently inhibited sprouting. Hence, the here established in vitro model of Bartonella- induced angiogenesis revealed distinct and opposing activities of type IV secretion system effector proteins, which together with a VirB/VirD4-independent effect may control the angiogenic activity of Bh during chronic infection of the vasculature.

  2. Effects of green veining on natural enemies of invertebrate pest species in leek and sprouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.; Griffioen, A.J.; Veen, van der M.; Straten, van der M.J.J.; Noordam, A.P.; Heijerman, Th.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Meeuwsen, H.A.M.; Timmermans, H.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Arachnids and insects have been sampled with different methods in leek, sprouts and adjacent green veining (i.e. (semi-)natural non-crop elements). Composition of 10 taxonomic or functional groups of potential enemies has been analysed in relation to crop type, green veining at the farm, and

  3. Perforant path lesioning induces sprouting of CA3-associated fibre systems in mouse hippocampal formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drøjdahl, Nina; Hegelund, Iørn V; Poulsen, Frantz R

    2002-01-01

    In comparison to the rat, the anatomy of the mouse hippocampus, and in particular the response to entorhinal cortex lesioning, is less well characterised. Here we studied the axonal sprouting response after lesioning of the entorhinodentate perforant path projection in young adult SJL/J and C57BL...

  4. Carbon allocation and morphology of cherrybark oak seedlings and sprouts under three light regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Emile S. Gardiner; John D. Hodges; Andrew W. Ezell

    2008-01-01

    Continued problems in regenerating oak forests has led to a need for more basic infomation on oak seedling biology.In the present study, carbon allocation and morphology were compared between cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings and sprouts at I -Lag grown in full, 47%, and 20% sunlight....

  5. The effect of gibberellins on sprouting of cuttings and quality of bush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of gibberellins on sprouting of cuttings and subsequent quality of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC). The study was conducted under a 40% shade net with light/shading as a gradient. Treatments consisted of gibberellins (Progibb 40%) applied at various rates as follows: 0, 1, 2, ...

  6. Effects of growth media and hormones on the sprouting and rooting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Massularia acuminata is both a medicinal and economic tree species. Despite its usefulness, adequate attention has not been given to its propagation and cultivation. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of growth media and hormonal concentration on the sprouting and rooting of M. acuminata stem cuttings using ...

  7. Axonal sprouting regulates myelin basic protein gene expression in denervated mouse hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M B; Poulsen, F R; Finsen, B

    2000-01-01

    radiatum of CA3 and the dentate hilus, which display axonal sprouting but no degenerative changes or microglial activation, and (2) the outer part of the molecular layer of the fascia dentata, and in stratum moleculare of CA3 and stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1, areas that display dense anterograde...

  8. Human iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cell Sprouting Assay in Synthetic Hydrogel Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by growth factors initiates a cascade of events in vivo consisting of EC tip cell selection, sprout formation, EC stalk cell proliferation, and ultimately vascular stabilization by support cells. Although EC functional assays can rec...

  9. Cell autonomy of HIF effects in Drosophila: tracheal cells sense hypoxia and induce terminal branch sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanin, Lázaro; Dekanty, Andrés; Romero, Nuria; Irisarri, Maximiliano; Gorr, Thomas A; Wappner, Pablo

    2008-04-01

    Drosophila tracheal terminal branches are plastic and have the capacity to sprout out projections toward oxygen-starved areas, in a process analogous to mammalian angiogenesis. This response involves the upregulation of FGF/Branchless in hypoxic tissues, which binds its receptor Breathless on tracheal cells. Here, we show that extra sprouting depends on the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)-alpha homolog Sima and on the HIF-prolyl hydroxylase Fatiga that operates as an oxygen sensor. In mild hypoxia, Sima accumulates in tracheal cells, where it induces breathless, and this induction is sufficient to provoke tracheal extra sprouting. In nontracheal cells, Sima contributes to branchless induction, whereas overexpression of Sima fails to attract terminal branch outgrowth, suggesting that HIF-independent components are also required for full induction of the ligand. We propose that the autonomous response to hypoxia that occurs in tracheal cells enhances tracheal sensitivity to increasing Branchless levels, and that this mechanism is a cardinal step in hypoxia-dependent tracheal sprouting.

  10. The Impact of Broccoli II & Tomato II on European patents in conventional breeding, GMO’s and Synthetic Biology:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    On 25 March 2015, the Enlarged Board of Appeal of the European Patent Office (EBA) finally delivered its’ much awaited decisions on the consolidated referrals G2/12 (“Tomato II”) and G2/13 (“Broccoli II”). The EBA affirmed that products, namely plants or parts thereof, obtained by essentially...... biological processes are – unlike individual plant varieties – principally patentable under the European Patent Convention (EPC). This decision leaves considerable leeway for patenting novel and inventive plants and products thereof, which have been produced by “conventional” methods including breeding steps....... The EBA has also clarified that this applies irrespective of if such claims are formulated in a product-by-process format or as a per se product . Moreover, the combined effect of Broccoli & Tomato I & II opens new opportunities for patenting GMOs - provided that all other patent criteria are also met...

  11. Rapid estimation of glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants in leaves of Chinese kale and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) in two seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Kristin; Verkerk, Ruud; Bonnema, Guusje; Dekker, Matthijs

    2012-08-15

    Kinetic modeling was used as a tool to quantitatively estimate glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants. Literature shows that thermal degradation rates differ in different vegetables. Well-characterized plant material, leaves of broccoli and Chinese kale plants grown in two seasons, was used in the study. It was shown that a first-order reaction is appropriate to model glucosinolate degradation independent from the season. No difference in degradation rate constants of structurally identical glucosinolates was found between broccoli and Chinese kale leaves when grown in the same season. However, glucosinolate degradation rate constants were highly affected by the season (20-80% increase in spring compared to autumn). These results suggest that differences in glucosinolate degradation rate constants can be due to variation in environmental as well as genetic factors. Furthermore, a methodology to estimate rate constants rapidly is provided to enable the analysis of high sample numbers for future studies.

  12. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water and ethanol vapours treatment on functional properties of mung bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem; Upadhyay, Neelam; Soni, Jyoti

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was conducted with the objective to study the effects of various treatments and storage conditions on ascorbic acid, total phenols, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase activity of mung bean sprouts. The sprouts subjected to various treatments viz., pulsed electric field (PEF) (10,000 V for 10 s), hot water dip (HWD) (50 °C for 2 min), ethanol vapours (1 h) and UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h); and then stored at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval till end of shelf life. Different treatments given to sprouts resulted in differential effect on various parameters. The ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity were highest in ethanol vapours treated sprouts. There was a general decrease in polyphenol oxidase activity by various treatments. During storage ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of sprouts first increased and then decreased significantly, however, for polyphenol oxidase activity a progressive increase with increase in storage period was observed. The trends were similar at room and low temperature storage conditions. Thus, it can be concluded that the ethanol vapours significantly improved the ascorbic acid content, total phenols and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts, both at room as well as low temperature conditions of storage.

  13. Methyl jasmonate and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment effects on quinone reductase inducing activity and post-harvest quality of broccoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Mo Ku

    Full Text Available Effect of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA and post-harvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP treatments on broccoli floret glucosinolate (GS concentrations and quinone reductase (QR, an in vitro anti-cancer biomarker inducing activity were evaluated two days prior to harvest, at harvest and at 10, 20, and 30 days of post-harvest storage at 4 °C. MeJA treatments four days prior to harvest of broccoli heads was observed to significantly increase floret ethylene biosynthesis resulting in chlorophyll catabolism during post-harvest storage and reduced product quality. Post-harvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, which competitively binds to protein ethylene receptors, maintained post-harvest floret chlorophyll concentrations and product visual quality in both control and MeJA-treated broccoli. Transcript abundance of BoPPH, a gene which is responsible for the synthesis of pheophytinase, the primary enzyme associated with chlorophyll catabolism in broccoli, was reduced by 1-MCP treatment and showed a significant, negative correlation with floret chlorophyll concentrations. The GS, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin were significantly increased by MeJA treatments. The products of some of the GS from endogenous myrosinase hydrolysis [sulforaphane (SF, neoascorbigen (NeoASG, N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C, and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC] were also quantified and found to be significantly correlated with QR. Sulforaphane, the isothiocyanate hydrolysis product of the GS glucoraphanin, was found to be the most potent QR induction agent. Increased sulforaphane formation from the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin was associated with up-regulated gene expression of myrosinase (BoMyo and the myrosinase enzyme co-factor gene, epithiospecifier modifier1 (BoESM1. This study demonstrates the combined treatment of MeJA and 1-MCP increased QR activity without post-harvest quality loss.

  14. Methyl jasmonate and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment effects on quinone reductase inducing activity and post-harvest quality of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang Mo; Choi, Jeong Hee; Kim, Hyoung Seok; Kushad, Mosbah M; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2013-01-01

    Effect of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and post-harvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments on broccoli floret glucosinolate (GS) concentrations and quinone reductase (QR, an in vitro anti-cancer biomarker) inducing activity were evaluated two days prior to harvest, at harvest and at 10, 20, and 30 days of post-harvest storage at 4 °C. MeJA treatments four days prior to harvest of broccoli heads was observed to significantly increase floret ethylene biosynthesis resulting in chlorophyll catabolism during post-harvest storage and reduced product quality. Post-harvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which competitively binds to protein ethylene receptors, maintained post-harvest floret chlorophyll concentrations and product visual quality in both control and MeJA-treated broccoli. Transcript abundance of BoPPH, a gene which is responsible for the synthesis of pheophytinase, the primary enzyme associated with chlorophyll catabolism in broccoli, was reduced by 1-MCP treatment and showed a significant, negative correlation with floret chlorophyll concentrations. The GS, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin were significantly increased by MeJA treatments. The products of some of the GS from endogenous myrosinase hydrolysis [sulforaphane (SF), neoascorbigen (NeoASG), N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C), and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC)] were also quantified and found to be significantly correlated with QR. Sulforaphane, the isothiocyanate hydrolysis product of the GS glucoraphanin, was found to be the most potent QR induction agent. Increased sulforaphane formation from the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin was associated with up-regulated gene expression of myrosinase (BoMyo) and the myrosinase enzyme co-factor gene, epithiospecifier modifier1 (BoESM1). This study demonstrates the combined treatment of MeJA and 1-MCP increased QR activity without post-harvest quality loss.

  15. Small RNA Sequencing Reveals Differential miRNA Expression in the Early Development of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Yu; Wu, Mei; Li, Lihong; Jin, Chuan; Zhang, Qingli; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2017-01-01

    Pollen development is an important and complex biological process in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Although the cytological characteristics of pollen development are well defined, the regulation of its early stages remains largely unknown. In the present study, miRNAs were explored in the early development of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) pollen. A total of 333 known miRNAs that originated from 235 miRNA families were detected. Fifty-five novel miRNA candidates were identified. Sixty of the 333 known miRNAs and 49 of the 55 predicted novel miRNAs exhibited significantly differential expression profiling in the three distinct developmental stages of broccoli pollen. Among these differentially expressed miRNAs, miRNAs that would be involved in the developmental phase transition from uninucleate microspores to binucleate pollen grains or from binucleate to trinucleate pollen grains were identified. miRNAs that showed significantly enriched expression in a specific early stage of broccoli pollen development were also observed. In addition, 552 targets for 127 known miRNAs and 69 targets for 40 predicted novel miRNAs were bioinformatically identified. Functional annotation and GO (Gene Ontology) analysis indicated that the putative miRNA targets showed significant enrichment in GO terms that were related to plant organ formation and morphogenesis. Some of enriched GO terms were detected for the targets directly involved in plant male reproduction development. These findings provided new insights into the functions of miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in broccoli pollen development.

  16. Effect of nonwoven jute agrotextile mulch on soil health and productivity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) in lateritic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Koushik; Kundu, Manik Chandra; Saha, Biplab; Ghosh, Goutam Kumar

    2018-01-16

    A field experiment was conducted in winter season of 2015-2016 in the dry lateritic soil of Eastern India to study the effect of different thicknesses of nonwoven jute agrotextile mulches (NJATM) along with other mulches on soil health, growth and productivity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.). The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with six treatments viz., T 1 (control, i.e. no mulching), T 2 (300 gsm NJATM), T 3 (350 gsm NJATM), T 4 (400 gsm NJATM), T 5 (rice straw) and T 6 (black polythene mulch), each of which was replicated four times. The highest average curd weight (355.25 g) and yield (8.53 t ha -1 ) of broccoli were recorded in T 3 treatment. The lowest density of broad leaved weed, sedges and grasses were recorded in T 6 treatment which was statistically at par with T 4 . All the treatments composing of NJATM increased the population of all the soil microbes except bacteria in the root rhizosphere of broccoli from their initial population. On average, the highest population of fungi (54.0 × 10 3  cfu per g) and actinomycetes (134.75 × 10 3  cfu per g) was recorded with T 3 and T 4 treatments respectively in the post-harvest soil. The soil moisture was conserved in all treatments compared to control showing highest moisture content in T 4 treatment. Organic carbon and available N, P and K contents of soil were increased in all mulch treated plots compared to control, and their initial value and their highest value were recorded in T 3 . The NJATM of 350 gsm thickness was very effective compared to other mulches in increasing the growth and productivity of broccoli by suppressing weeds, increasing moisture, microbial population and nutrient content of the lateritic soil.

  17. Methyl Jasmonate and 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatment Effects on Quinone Reductase Inducing Activity and Post-Harvest Quality of Broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang Mo; Choi, Jeong Hee; Kim, Hyoung Seok; Kushad, Mosbah M.; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.; Juvik, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and post-harvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments on broccoli floret glucosinolate (GS) concentrations and quinone reductase (QR, an in vitro anti-cancer biomarker) inducing activity were evaluated two days prior to harvest, at harvest and at 10, 20, and 30 days of post-harvest storage at 4 °C. MeJA treatments four days prior to harvest of broccoli heads was observed to significantly increase floret ethylene biosynthesis resulting in chlorophyll catabolism during post-harvest storage and reduced product quality. Post-harvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which competitively binds to protein ethylene receptors, maintained post-harvest floret chlorophyll concentrations and product visual quality in both control and MeJA-treated broccoli. Transcript abundance of BoPPH, a gene which is responsible for the synthesis of pheophytinase, the primary enzyme associated with chlorophyll catabolism in broccoli, was reduced by 1-MCP treatment and showed a significant, negative correlation with floret chlorophyll concentrations. The GS, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin were significantly increased by MeJA treatments. The products of some of the GS from endogenous myrosinase hydrolysis [sulforaphane (SF), neoascorbigen (NeoASG), N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C), and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC)] were also quantified and found to be significantly correlated with QR. Sulforaphane, the isothiocyanate hydrolysis product of the GS glucoraphanin, was found to be the most potent QR induction agent. Increased sulforaphane formation from the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin was associated with up-regulated gene expression of myrosinase (BoMyo) and the myrosinase enzyme co-factor gene, epithiospecifier modifier1 (BoESM1). This study demonstrates the combined treatment of MeJA and 1-MCP increased QR activity without post-harvest quality loss. PMID:24146962

  18. Ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene differentially regulate gene expression during onion sprout suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Katherine; Chope, Gemma A; Hammond, John P; Thompson, Andrew J; Terry, Leon A

    2011-07-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is regarded as a nonclimacteric vegetable. In onions, however, ethylene can suppress sprouting while the ethylene-binding inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can also suppress sprout growth; yet, it is unknown how ethylene and 1-MCP elicit the same response. In this study, onions were treated with 10 μL L(-1) ethylene or 1 μL L(-1) 1-MCP individually or in combination for 24 h at 20°C before or after curing (6 weeks) at 20°C or 28°C and then stored at 1°C. Following curing, a subset of these same onions was stored separately under continuous air or ethylene (10 μL L(-1)) at 1°C. Onions treated with ethylene and 1-MCP in combination after curing for 24 h had reduced sprout growth as compared with the control 25 weeks after harvest. Sprout growth following storage beyond 25 weeks was only reduced through continuous ethylene treatment. This observation was supported by a higher proportion of down-regulated genes characterized as being involved in photosynthesis, measured using a newly developed onion microarray. Physiological and biochemical data suggested that ethylene was being perceived in the presence of 1-MCP, since sprout growth was reduced in onions treated with 1-MCP and ethylene applied in combination but not when applied individually. A cluster of probes representing transcripts up-regulated by 1-MCP alone but down-regulated by ethylene alone or in the presence of 1-MCP support this suggestion. Ethylene and 1-MCP both down-regulated a probe tentatively annotated as an ethylene receptor as well as ethylene-insensitive 3, suggesting that both treatments down-regulate the perception and signaling events of ethylene.

  19. Ethylene and 1-Methylcyclopropene Differentially Regulate Gene Expression during Onion Sprout Suppression1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Katherine; Chope, Gemma A.; Hammond, John P.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Terry, Leon A.

    2011-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is regarded as a nonclimacteric vegetable. In onions, however, ethylene can suppress sprouting while the ethylene-binding inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can also suppress sprout growth; yet, it is unknown how ethylene and 1-MCP elicit the same response. In this study, onions were treated with 10 μL L−1 ethylene or 1 μL L−1 1-MCP individually or in combination for 24 h at 20°C before or after curing (6 weeks) at 20°C or 28°C and then stored at 1°C. Following curing, a subset of these same onions was stored separately under continuous air or ethylene (10 μL L−1) at 1°C. Onions treated with ethylene and 1-MCP in combination after curing for 24 h had reduced sprout growth as compared with the control 25 weeks after harvest. Sprout growth following storage beyond 25 weeks was only reduced through continuous ethylene treatment. This observation was supported by a higher proportion of down-regulated genes characterized as being involved in photosynthesis, measured using a newly developed onion microarray. Physiological and biochemical data suggested that ethylene was being perceived in the presence of 1-MCP, since sprout growth was reduced in onions treated with 1-MCP and ethylene applied in combination but not when applied individually. A cluster of probes representing transcripts up-regulated by 1-MCP alone but down-regulated by ethylene alone or in the presence of 1-MCP support this suggestion. Ethylene and 1-MCP both down-regulated a probe tentatively annotated as an ethylene receptor as well as ethylene-insensitive 3, suggesting that both treatments down-regulate the perception and signaling events of ethylene. PMID:21593215

  20. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chongtao; Rymut, Susan; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-05-01

    Mung bean sprouts, typically consumed raw or minimally cooked, are often contaminated with pathogens. Internalized pathogens pose a high risk because conventional sanitization methods are ineffective for their inactivation. The studies were performed (i) to understand the potential of internalization of Salmonella in mung bean sprouts under conditions where the irrigation water was contaminated and (ii) to determine if pre- and postharvest intervention methods are effective in inactivating the internalized pathogen. Mung bean sprouts were grown hydroponically and exposed to green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium through maturity. One experimental set received contaminated water daily, while other sets received contaminated water on a single day at different times. For preharvest intervention, irrigation water was exposed to UV, and for postharvest intervention-contaminated sprouts were subjected to a chlorine wash and UV light. Harvested samples were disinfected with ethanol and AgNO3 to differentiate surface-associate pathogens from the internalized ones. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each set was quantified using the plate count method. Internalized Salmonella Typhimurium was detected at levels of 2.0 to 5.1 log CFU/g under all conditions. Continuous exposure to contaminated water during the entire period generated significantly higher levels of Salmonella Typhimurium internalization than sets receiving contaminated water for only a single day (P methods lowered the level of internalized Salmonella by 1.84 log CFU/g (P methods were ineffective in eliminating internalized pathogens. Preintervention did not completely inactivate bacteria in sprouts and demonstrated that the remaining Salmonella Typhimurium in water became more resistant to UV. Because postharvest intervention methods are ineffective, proper procedures for maintaining clean irrigation water must be followed throughout production in a hydroponic system.

  1. Comparative Morphology, Transcription, and Proteomics Study Revealing the Key Molecular Mechanism of Camphor on the Potato Tuber Sprouting Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qin Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sprouting regulation in potato tubers is important for improving commercial value and producing new plants. Camphor shows flexible inhibition of tuber sprouting and prolongs the storage period of potato, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown. The results of the present study suggest that camphor inhibition caused bud growth deformities and necrosis, but after moving to more ventilated conditions, new sprouts grew from the bud eye of the tuber. Subsequently, the sucrose and fructose contents as well as polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity were assessed after camphor inhibition. Transcription and proteomics data from dormancy (D, sprouting (S, camphor inhibition (C, and recovery sprouting (R samples showed changes in the expression levels of approximately 4000 transcripts, and 700 proteins showed different abundances. KEGG (Kyoto encyclopaedia of genes and genomes pathway analysis of the transcription levels indicated that phytohormone synthesis and signal transduction play important roles in tuber sprouting. Camphor inhibited these processes, particularly for gibberellic acid, brassinosteroids, and ethylene, leading to dysregulation of physiological processes such as cutin, suberine and wax biosynthesis, fatty acid elongation, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose metabolism, resulting in bud necrosis and prolonged storage periods. The KEGG pathway correlation between transcripts and proteins revealed that terpenoid backbone biosynthesis and plant–pathogen interaction pathways showed significant differences in D vs. S samples, but 13 pathways were remarkably different in the D vs. C groups, as camphor inhibition significantly increased both the transcription levels and protein abundance of pathogenesis-related protein PR-10a (or STH-2, the pathogenesis-related P2-like precursor protein, and the kirola-like protein as compared to sprouting. In recovery sprouting, these genes and proteins were decreased at both the

  2. Impact of pre-harvest light spectral properties on health- and sensory-related compounds in broccoli florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Johansen, Tor J; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Hagen, Sidsel F; Mølmann, Jørgen A B

    2016-04-01

    Plants grown at different latitudes experience differences in light spectral composition. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italica) plants were grown in climate-controlled chambers under supplemental wavelengths (red, far-red, red + far-red or blue) from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The light treatments were combined with two cold climate temperatures (12 and 15 °C) during broccoli head formation to investigate the effects on morphology and content of health- and sensory-related compounds: glucosinolates, flavonols, ascorbic acid and soluble sugars. Supplemental far-red and red + far-red light led to elongated plants and the lowest total glucosinolate content in broccoli florets. The content of quercetin was highest with supplemental red light. Vitamin C was not significantly affected by the light treatments, but 12 °C gave a higher content than 15 °C. The effects of supplemental red and far-red light suggest an involvement of phytochromes in the regulation of glucosinolates and flavonols. A shift in red:far-red ratio could cause changes in their content besides altering the morphology. The sugar and vitamin C content appears to be unaffected by these light conditions. Supplemental blue light had little effect on plant morphology and content of the health- and sensory related compounds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Optimization of pulsed electric field pre-treatments to enhance health-promoting glucosinolates in broccoli flowers and stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Suarez, Manuel; Plaza, Lucia; Hossain, Mohammad B; Brunton, Nigel; Lyng, James G; Rai, Dilip K

    2015-07-01

    The effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment variables (electric field strength and treatment time) on the glucosinolate content of broccoli flowers and stalks was evaluated. Samples were subjected to electric field strengths from 1 to 4 kV cm(-1) and treatment times from 50 to 1000 µs at 5 Hz. Data fitted significantly (P < 0.0014) the proposed second-order response functions. The results showed that PEF combined treatment conditions of 4 kV cm(-1) for 525 and 1000 µs were optimal to maximize glucosinolate levels in broccoli flowers (ranging from 187.1 to 212.5%) and stalks (ranging from 110.6 to 203.0%) respectively. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values, with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.59 to 8.80%. The use of PEF processing at moderate conditions could be a suitable method to stimulate production of broccoli with high health-promoting glucosinolate content. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Cytochrome P450 IA2 activity in man measured by caffeine metabolism: effect of smoking, broccoli and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistisen, K; Loft, S; Poulsen, H E

    1991-01-01

    The activity of 3 enzymes related to the bioactivation of toxic compounds and the development of cancer--cytochrome P450 IA2, N-acetyl transferase (NAT), and xanthine oxidase (XO)--can be measured from the ratios of formed metabolites excreted into urine. In the 3 experiments that comprised this study, subjects received at least 1 cup of coffee 2- 6 hours before spot urine samples were taken. The subjects included 335 healthy male and female volunteers who provided information on tobacco, caffeine, and broccoli intake in the preceding 2 weeks, 23 healthy men who exercised 8 hours/day for 30 days, and 9 subjects whose diet included green beans and broccoli. As expected, the ratio reflecting P450 IA2 activity was 66% and 70% higher, respectively, in men and women who smoked at least 10 cigarettes/day compared to male and female nonsmokers. The XO ratio also was significantly increased in smokers. 30 days of vigorous physical exercise increased the P450 IA2 ratio by 50% and the XO ratio by over 100%. Broccoli induced a 19% increase in P450 IA2 activity, while pregnancy and oral contraceptive use reduced this ratio by 29% and 20%, respectively. Since these ratios appear to yield reliable indicators of enzyme activity, prospective studies of their association with cancer development are recommended.

  5. Variation in bioactive content in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) grown under conventional and organic production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Juan; Reilly, Kim; Villacreces, Salvador; Gaffney, Michael; Grant, James; Brunton, Nigel

    2015-04-01

    Broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables contain a number of bioactive compounds, in particular glucosinolates and polyphenols, which are proposed to confer health benefits to the consumer. Demand for organic crops is at least partly based on a perception that organic crops may contain higher levels of bioactive compounds; however, insufficient research has been carried out to either support or refute such claims. In this study we examined the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total and individual glucosinolates in two varieties of broccoli grown over 2 years in a split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. Levels of total phenolics and total flavonoids showed a significant year-on-year variation but were not significantly different between organic and conventional production systems. In contrast, levels of the indolyl glucosinolates glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were significantly higher (P organic compared to fully conventional management. Organic cultivation practices resulted in significantly higher levels of glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin in broccoli florets; however, other investigated compounds were unaffected by production practices. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. ANTIOXIDANT PLANT EXTRACTS IN THE MEAT PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The review highlights the role of antioxidants in minimizing oxidative changes that may adversely affect the quality of meat and meat products, cause changes in their testing and nutritional properties. This applies particularly to the use of natural antioxidants based on plant extracts, which can be a good alternative to traditional antioxidants, thanks to its high content of phenolic compounds. From the literature it can be concluded that extracts of broccoli, rosemary, mint, grape seed and green tea have a significant antioxidant effect in the meat products. Broccoli and grape seeds extracts have a pronounced antioxidant activity compared to synthetic antioxidants. Laminarin/fucoidan extracts have prooxidative effect on lipid perperoxidation. Essential oils of L. angustifolia and M. piperita effectively inhibit E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus in the chopped beef meat. The alcoholic extract of the dried leaves of oregano has the highest content of total phenols, however, does not exhibit antioxidant properties. The extracts of rosemary, orange, lemon, mint and curry have positive effect on the color of the meat products. When choosing natural antioxidants it is necessary to pay attention to their impact on testing and qualitative characteristics of these food products.

  7. Effects of light quality on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hongmei; Liu, Tianyu; Deng, Mingdan; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Shen, Wangshu; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-04-01

    The effects of different light qualities, including white, red and blue lights, on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source. Our results showed that blue light treatment significantly decreased the content of gluconapin, the primary compound for bitter flavor in shoots, while increased the glucoraphanin content in roots. Moreover, the maximum content of vitamin C was detected in the white-light grown sprouts and the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanins, as well as the strongest antioxidant capacity were observed in blue-light grown sprouts. Taken together, the application of a colorful light source is a good practice for improvement of the consumers' acceptance and the nutritional phtyochemicals of Chinese kale sprouts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingdan; Qian, Hongmei; Chen, Lili; Sun, Bo; Chang, Jiaqi; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Wang, Qiaomei

    2017-05-01

    The effects of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main healthy phytochemicals as well as antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage were investigated. 6-day-old sprouts were treated by red light for 24h before harvest and sampled for further analysis of nutritional quality on the first, second and third day after harvest. The results indicated that red light exposure notably postponed the degradation of aliphatic, indole, and total glucosinolates during postharvest storage. The vitamin C level was remarkably higher in red light treated sprouts on the first and second day after harvest when compared with the control. In addition, red light treatment also enhanced the accumulation of total phenolics and maintained higher level of antioxidant activity than the control. All above results suggested that pre-harvest red light treatment might provide a new strategy to maintain the nutritive value of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sprouting productivity and allometric relationships of two oak species managed for traditional charcoal making in central Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, R.; Ghilardi, A.; Vega, E.; Skutsch, Margaret; Oyama, K.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable production systems for woodfuels in developing countries require basic information on tree productivity, and particularly on their coppicing productivity under current forms of management. We report biomass equations and sprouting productivity of two oak species (Quercus castanea and

  10. Influence of selenium supplementation on fatty acids profile and biological activity of four edible amaranth sprouts as new kind of functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, Pawel; Gdula-Argasinska, Joanna; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Quilty, Brid; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Zagrodzki, Pawel

    2015-08-01

    Suitability assessment of amaranth sprouts as a new functional food was carried out. The optimisation of sprouting process and the influence of selenium supplementation, in doses 10, 15, and 30 mg/l of selenium as sodium selenite, on amaranth growth and fatty acid profile were examined. Methods such as FRAP, DPPH, polyphenols content and GPX activity were applied to characterize antioxidant potential of seeds and sprouts of four different edible amaranth genera. E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans were used to evaluate amaranth sprouts antimicrobial properties. Interaction between amaranth sprouts and biological systems was assessed by analysing antibacterial and antifungal properties with a disc diffusion test. The studies proved amaranth sprouts to be potentially attractive as functional food. As confirmed by all the data amaranth sprouts are suitable as a moderate selenium accumulator and are rich in essential fatty acids, especially linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, which are precursors of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, it opens dietary opportunities for amaranth sprouts. They can also serve as a moderate source of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the experiments revealed neither antibacterial, nor antifungal properties of sprouts. In general, amaranth sprouts biological activity under evaluation has failed to prove to be significantly impacted by selenium fertilization.

  11. Determination of the variations in levels of phenolic compounds in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) sprouts infected by anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Han; Jeong, Sung Woo; Cho, Young Ah; Park, Semin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Bae, Dong Won; Chung, Jong Il; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Park, Soo-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han; Jin, Jong Sung; Shin, Sung Chul

    2013-09-01

    Soybean sprouts (Kongnamool) are one of the most popular and nutritive traditional vegetables in East Asia. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious diseases of soybean sprouts. In order to obtain basic information for breeding and/or selecting soybean genotypes with increased natural defense against anthracnose, phenolic compounds were profiled for healthy and infected soybean (Glycine max Merr.) sprouts by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Tryptophan and eight phenolic compounds (daidzin, genistin, malonyldaidzin, malonylgenistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein and coumestrol) were determined from healthy and inoculated sprouts. Total identified phenolic content was 40.02 ± 0.03 mg kg⁻¹, 99.4% of which was isoflavones. The monitoring suggested that de novo induced glycitein appeared to act as a phytoalexin in the defence mechanism of the soybean sprouts against C. gloeosporioides, and constitutively formed seven phenolic components that functioned as phytoanticipins in the diseased soybean sprouts. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Influence of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Gibberellic Acid on Phenylpropanoid Accumulation in Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Ha; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Park, Yun Ji; Morgan, Abubaker M A; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2017-02-28

    We investigated the effects of natural plant hormones, indole-3-acetic (IAA) acid and gibberellic acid (GA), on the growth parameters and production of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in common buckwheat sprouts. A total of 17 phenolic compounds were identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Among these, seven compounds (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, and quercetin) were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after treating the common buckwheat sprouts with different concentrations of the hormones IAA and GA. At a concentration of 0.5 mg/L, both IAA and GA exhibited the highest levels of growth parameters (shoot length, root length, and fresh weight). The HPLC analysis showed that the treatment of sprouts with IAA at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/L produced higher or comparable levels of the total phenolic compounds than the control sprout and enhanced the production of rutin. Similarly, the supplementation with 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L GA increased the content of rutin in buckwheat sprouts. Our results suggested that the treatment with optimal concentrations of IAA and GA enhanced the growth parameters and accumulation of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in buckwheat sprouts.

  13. Influence of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Gibberellic Acid on Phenylpropanoid Accumulation in Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ha Park

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of natural plant hormones, indole-3-acetic (IAA acid and gibberellic acid (GA, on the growth parameters and production of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in common buckwheat sprouts. A total of 17 phenolic compounds were identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. Among these, seven compounds (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, and quercetin were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC after treating the common buckwheat sprouts with different concentrations of the hormones IAA and GA. At a concentration of 0.5 mg/L, both IAA and GA exhibited the highest levels of growth parameters (shoot length, root length, and fresh weight. The HPLC analysis showed that the treatment of sprouts with IAA at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/L produced higher or comparable levels of the total phenolic compounds than the control sprout and enhanced the production of rutin. Similarly, the supplementation with 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L GA increased the content of rutin in buckwheat sprouts. Our results suggested that the treatment with optimal concentrations of IAA and GA enhanced the growth parameters and accumulation of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in buckwheat sprouts.

  14. Simulation of tumor induced angiogenesis using an analytical adaptive modeling including dynamic sprouting and blood flow modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghavi, Nadia; Hosseini, Farideh S; Sardarabadi, Mohammad; Kalani, Hadi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive model for tumor induced angiogenesis is developed that integrates generation and diffusion of a growth factor originated from hypoxic cells, adaptive sprouting from a parent vessel, blood flow and structural adaptation. The proposed adaptive sprout spacing model (ASS) determines position, time and number of sprouts which are activated from a parent vessel and also the developed vascular network is modified by a novel sprout branching prediction algorithm. This algorithm couples local vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations, stresses due to the blood flow and stochastic branching to the structural reactions of each vessel segment in response to mechanical and biochemical stimuli. The results provide predictions for the time-dependent development of the network structure, including the position and diameters of each segment and the resulting distributions of blood flow and VEGF. Considering time delays between sprout progressions and number of sprouts activated at different time durations provides information about micro-vessel density in the network. Resulting insights could be useful for motivating experimental investigations of vascular pattern in tumor induced angiogenesis and development of therapies targeting angiogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Slugs control methods (Deroceras sp. Müller in lettuce and broccoli crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar G. Claudia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    At the Botana experimental farm of Universidad de Narino, the effect of different management practices of slugs was evaluated, using a randomized block design with five treatments (beer traps, milk traps, sisal bags, metaldehyde, and a control and six repetitions. The evaluated variables were: captured individuals, affected plants and damage index that were estimated by analysis of variance and Tukey comparison tests. The results show highly significant differences between treatments in different phenological crops stages, the most effective were the metaldehyde and the beer trap with a caught individual number of 89 for lettuce and 126 for broccoli, being the treatments with lower percentages of affected plants. The damage index was evaluated based on percentages and proposed scales to observed crops damage, considering that the treatments described above stood out with mild damage index. This allows involved the beer treatment in an integrated management program for slugs as an alternative for reducing the pest population.

  16. Effects of Replacement of Concentrate Mixture by Broccoli Byproducts on Lactating Performance in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Yi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of feeding pelletized broccoli byproducts (PBB on milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. In Trial 1, an in vitro gas test determined the optimal replacement level of PBB in a concentrate mixture in a mixed substrate with Chinese wild ryegrass hay (50:50, w/w at levels of 0, 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% (dry matter basis. When the concentrate was replaced by PBB at a level of 20%, no adverse effects were found on the gas volume or its rate constant during ruminal fermentation. In trial 2, 24 lactating cows (days in milk = 170.4±35; milk yield = 30±3 kg/d; body weight = 580 ±13 kg were divided into 12 blocks based on day in milk and milk yield and randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a basic diet with or without PBB replacing 20% of the concentrate mixture. The feeding trial lasted for 56 days; the first week allowed for adaptation to the diet. The milk composition was analyzed once a week. No significant difference in milk yield was observed between the two groups (23.5 vs 24.2 kg. A significant increase was found in milk fat content in the PBB group (p0.05. These results indicated that PBB could be included in dairy cattle diets at a suitable level to replace concentrate mixture without any adverse effects on dairy performance.

  17. Starch and protein analysis of wheat bread enriched with phenolics-rich sprouted wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-08-01

    Wheat flour in the bread formula was replaced with sprouted wheat flour (SF) characterized by enhanced nutraceutical properties, at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. The addition of SF slightly increased the total protein content; however, it decreased their digestibility. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins were also observed; especially, in the bands corresponding with 27kDa and 15-17kDa proteins. These results were also confirmed by SE-HPLC technique, where a significant increase in the content of proteins and peptides (molecular masses breads with 20% of SF. Bread enriched with sprouted wheat flour had more resistant starch, but less total starch, compared to control bread. The highest in vitro starch digestibility was determined for the control bread. The studied bread with lowered nutritional value but increased nutritional quality can be used for special groups of consumers (obese, diabetic). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perfection of technology of production of bakery products on the basis of crushed sprouted wheat grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Huzin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The promising direction of innovative technologies in bakery is the production of bread with the use of wheat germ (Triticumaestivum L., in which all the nutrients incorporated into the grain by nature are rationally used. Germination of grain is accompanied by a significant increase in its antioxidant capacity, which makes it advisable to use sprouted grain in food formulas, not only to increase nutritional value and enrichment with dietary fiber, but also to slow down the rancidity of food lipids. The practical significance of the research is the creation of innovative technology to produce a new bakery product using germinated wheat grains (Triticumaestivum L.. The analysis of the existing market of sprouted grain and prospects of its development, the analysis of consumers' information regarding sprouted grain was carried out. The rational regimes of germination of wheat (Triticumaestivum L., allowing to obtain an additive in the formulation of bakery products with maximum biological activity, are determined. It is shown that the length of sprouts of germinated seeds used in this recipe should not exceed 2 mm. It was found that under the selected germination conditions, the shoots reach the required length within 48 hours of germination. Thus, in spite of a slight difference in price, the products will be in demand and be competitive in the market of bread and bakery products. In the food industry, there is an opportunity to bring to the market a new category of functional foods that have not only high nutritional value, but also the ability to improve health and reduce the risk of diseases.

  19. Elongation, proliferation & migration differentiate endothelial cell phenotypes and determine capillary sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popel Aleksander S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis, the growth of capillaries from preexisting blood vessels, has been extensively studied experimentally over the past thirty years. Molecular insights from these studies have lead to therapies for cancer, macular degeneration and ischemia. In parallel, mathematical models of angiogenesis have helped characterize a broader view of capillary network formation and have suggested new directions for experimental pursuit. We developed a computational model that bridges the gap between these two perspectives, and addresses a remaining question in angiogenic sprouting: how do the processes of endothelial cell elongation, migration and proliferation contribute to vessel formation? Results We present a multiscale systems model that closely simulates the mechanisms underlying sprouting at the onset of angiogenesis. Designed by agent-based programming, the model uses logical rules to guide the behavior of individual endothelial cells and segments of cells. The activation, proliferation, and movement of these cells lead to capillary growth in three dimensions. By this means, a novel capillary network emerges out of combinatorially complex interactions of single cells. Rules and parameter ranges are based on literature data on endothelial cell behavior in vitro. The model is designed generally, and will subsequently be applied to represent species-specific, tissue-specific in vitro and in vivo conditions. Initial results predict tip cell activation, stalk cell development and sprout formation as a function of local vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations and the Delta-like 4 Notch ligand, as it might occur in a three-dimensional in vitro setting. Results demonstrate the differential effects of ligand concentrations, cell movement and proliferation on sprouting and directional persistence. Conclusion This systems biology model offers a paradigm closely related to biological phenomena and highlights previously

  20. Bud sprouting and floral induction and expression of FT in loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Carmina; Gil-Muñoz, Francisco; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; García-Lorca, Ana; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Mesejo, Carlos; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A; Agustí, Manuel

    2017-07-14

    EjFT1 and EjFT2 genes were isolated and sequenced from leaves of loquat. EjFT1 is involved in bud sprouting and leaf development, and EjFT2 in floral bud induction. Loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.] is an evergreen species belonging to the family Rosaceae, such as apple and pear, whose reproductive development, in contrast with these species, is a continuous process that is not interrupted by winter dormancy. Thus, the study of the mechanism of flowering in loquat has the potential to uncover the environmental and genetic networks that trigger flowering more accurately, contributing for a better understanding of the Rosaceae floral process. As a first step toward understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling flowering, extensive defoliation and defruiting assays, together with molecular studies of the key FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, were carried out. FT exhibited two peaks of expression in leaves, the first one in early to mid-May, the second one in mid-June. Two FT genes, EjFT1 and EjFT2, were isolated and sequenced and studied their expression. Expression of EjFT1 and EjFT2 peaks in mid-May, at bud sprouting. EjFT2 expression peaks again in mid-June, coinciding with the floral bud inductive period. Thus, when all leaves of the tree were continuously removed from early to late May vegetative apex differentiated into panicle, but when defoliation was performed from early to late June apex did not differentiate. On the other hand, fruit removal advanced EjFT1 expression in old leaves and the sooner the fruit detached, the sooner the bud sprouted. Accordingly, results strongly suggest that EjFT1 might be related to bud sprouting and leaf development, while EjFT2 might be involved in floral bud induction. An integrative model for FT functions in loquat is discussed.

  1. The Effects of Light and Temperature on Biotin Synthesis in Pea Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Shin; Ohnuki, Risa; Moriki, Aoi; Abe, Megumi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Sone, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is an essential micronutrient, and is a cofactor for several carboxylases that are involved in the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. Because plant cells can synthesize their own biotin, a wide variety of plant-based foods contains significant amounts of biotin; however, the influence of environmental conditions on the biotin content in plants remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different cultivation conditions on the biotin content and biotin synthesis in pea sprouts (Pisum sativum). In the experiment, the pea sprouts were removed from their cotyledons and cultivated by hydroponics under five different lighting and temperature conditions (control [25ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], low light [25ºC, 4-h light/20-h dark cycle], dark [25ºC, 24 h dark], low temperature [12ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], and cold [6ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle]) for 10 d. Compared to the biotin content of pea sprouts under the control conditions, the biotin contents of pea sprouts under the low-light, dark, and cold conditions had significantly decreased. The dark group showed the lowest biotin content among the groups. Expression of the biotin synthase gene (bio2) was also significantly decreased under the dark and cold conditions compared to the control condition, in a manner similar to that observed for the biotin content. No significant differences in the adenosine triphosphate content were observed among the groups. These results indicate that environmental conditions such as light and temperature modulate the biotin content of pea plant tissues by regulating the expression of biotin synthase.

  2. Hardwood re-sprout control in hydrologically restored Carolina Bay depression wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Lee, Justin

    2009-06-01

    Carolina bays are isolated depression wetlands located in the upper coastal plain region of the eastern Unites States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches as a result of agricultural conversion. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna species. Previous bay restoration projects have identified woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. Three bays were hydrologically restored on the Savannah River Site, SC, by plugging drainage ditches. Residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays were harvested and the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change was monitored. A foliar herbicide approved for use in wetlands (Habitat® (Isopropylamine salt of Imazapyr)) was applied on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acer rubrum L.), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), and water oak (Quercus nigra L.) sprouting. The effectiveness of the foliar herbicide was tested across a hydrologic gradient in an effort to better understand the relationship between depth and duration of flooding, the intensity of hardwood re-sprout pressure, and the need for hardwood management practices such as herbicide application.

  3. Three-dimensional rapid visualization of matrix deformations around angiogenic sprouts (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuwe, Christian; Vayens, Marie-Mo; Jorge Peñas, Alvaro; Krajnik, Bartosz; Van Oosterwyck, Hans; Roeffaers, Maarten B. J.

    2017-02-01

    At the cell - extracellular matrix interface, physiologically important traction forces exerted by angiogenic sprouts can be investigated indirectly by mapping the consecutive matrix deformations. In this paper we present an approach to study these forces in three dimensions and with high time resolution. The technique employs lightsheet microscopy, in which a sheet of light is used to illuminate the sample - resulting in z-sectioning capability, superior image recording speed and reduced phototoxicity. For this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are transduced with a LifeAct adenoviral vector to visualize the actin cytoskeleton during live sprouting into a collagen type I hydrogel. The calculation of the matrix deformations is formulated as a B-spline-based 3D non-rigid image registration process that warps the image of beads inside the stressed gel to match the image after stress relaxation. Using this approach we study the role of fast moving actin filaments for filopodia- and tip-cell dynamics in 3D under chemically defined culture conditions such as inhibited acto-myosin force generation. With a time resolution in the range of ten seconds, we find that our technique is at least 20 times faster than conventional traction force microscopy based on confocal imaging. Ultimately, this approach will shed light on rapid mechano-chemical feedback mechanisms important for sprouting angiogenesis.

  4. Dll4-containing exosomes induce capillary sprout retraction in a 3D microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharghi-Namini, Soheila; Tan, Evan; Ong, Lee-Ling Sharon; Ge, Ruowen; Asada, H. Harry

    2014-01-01

    Delta-like 4 (Dll4), a membrane-bound Notch ligand, plays a fundamental role in vascular development and angiogenesis. Dll4 is highly expressed in capillary endothelial tip cells and is involved in suppressing neighboring stalk cells to become tip cells during angiogenesis. Dll4-Notch signaling is mediated either by direct cell-cell contact or by Dll4-containing exosomes from a distance. However, whether Dll4-containing exosomes influence tip cells of existing capillaries is unknown. Using a 3D microfluidic device and time-lapse confocal microscopy, we show here for the first time that Dll4-containing exosomes causes tip cells to lose their filopodia and trigger capillary sprout retraction in collagen matrix. We demonstrate that Dll4 exosomes can freely travel through 3D collagen matrix and transfer Dll4 protein to distant tip cells. Upon reaching endothelial sprout, it causes filopodia and tip cell retraction. Continuous application of Dll4 exosomes from a distance lead to significant reduction of sprout formation. This effect correlates with Notch signaling activation upon Dll4-containing exosome interaction with recipient endothelial cells. Furthermore, we show that Dll4-containing exosomes increase endothelial cell motility while suppressing their proliferation. These data revealed novel functions of Dll4 in angiogenesis through exosomes. PMID:24504253

  5. Concentrating biomass of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea) and spinach (Amaranthus sp.) by ultrafiltration for source of organic acids and natural antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspiyanto, Susilowati, Agustine; Lotulung, Puspa D.; Maryati, Yati

    2017-11-01

    Organic acids and polyphenol from fermentation of green vegetables by Kombucha culture are novelty functional food to achieve prebiotic and natural antioxidant. Ultrafiltration (UF) mode was performed to concentrate biomass of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Amaranthus spp.) at stirrer rotation speed of 200, 300 and 400 rpm, room temperature and trans membrane pressure 40 psia for 30 minutes. Based on total organic acids, experiment activity showed that the best treatment on biomass of fermented broccoli and spinach were reached at stirrer rotation speed of 400 rpm and 300 rpm, respectively. In this condition, fermented broccoli and spinach concentrates gave total acids 0.83 % and 0.81 %, total polyphenol 0.06 % and 0.11 %, reducing sugar 63.95 mg/mL and 20.54 mg/mL, total sugars 2.43 ug/mL and 2.28 ug/mL, total solids 6.42 % and 7.17 %, respectively. Compared with feed, the optimum condition on fermented spinach and broccoli concentrates increased total acids 13.33 % and 10 %, however decreased total polyphenol 34.1 % and 41 %. Identification on monomer from fermented spinach and broccoli at optimum condition on lactic acid were dominated by monomers with molecular weights (MWs) 252.19 and 252.36 Dalton (Da.), and monomer of polyphenol dominated by monomer with MWs 193.17 and 193.22 Da. and relative intensity 100 %. Fermented broccoli has potency as prebiotic, meanwhile fermented spinach has potency as anti oxidant.

  6. Yield, quality, and concentration of seven heavy metals in cabbage and broccoli grown in sewage sludge and chicken manure amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Kochhar, Tejinder S; Coolong, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The mobility of heavy metals from soil into the food chain and their subsequent bioaccumulation has increased the attention they receive as major environmental pollutants. The objectives of this investigation were to: i) study the impact of mixing native agricultural soil with municipal sewage sludge (SS) or chicken manure (CM) on yield and quality of cabbage and broccoli, ii) quantify the concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in soil amended with SS or CM, and iii) determine bioavailability of heavy metals to cabbage leaves and broccoli heads at harvest. Analysis of the two soil amendments used in this investigation indicated that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Pb, and organic matter content were significantly greater (P grown in soil amended with CM was low compared to plants grown in no-mulch soil. No significant differences were found in Cd and Pb accumulation between cabbage and broccoli. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mo were greater in broccoli than cabbage. Total metals and plant available metals were also determined in the native and amended soils. Results indicated that the concentration of heavy metals in soils did not necessary reflect metals available to plants. Regardless of soil amendments, the overall bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of seven heavy metals in cabbage leaves and broccoli heads revealed that cabbage and broccoli were poor accumulators of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb (BAF 1 for Zn and Mo. Elevated Ni and Mo bioaccumulation factor (BAF >1) of cabbage grown in chicken manure mixed soil is a characteristic that would be less favorable when cabbage is grown on sites having high concentrations of these two metals.

  7. Elicitation with abiotic stresses improves pro-health constituents, antioxidant potential and nutritional quality of lentil sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał

    2015-07-01

    Phenolic content and antioxidant potential of lentil sprouts may be enhanced by treatment of seedlings in abiotic stress conditions without any negative influence on nutritional quality. The health-relevant and nutritional quality of sprouts was improved by elicitation of 2-day-old sprouts with oxidative, osmotic, ion-osmotic and temperature stresses. Among the sprouts studied, those obtained by elicitation with osmotic (600 mM mannitol) and ion-osmotic (300 mM NaCl) shocks had the highest total phenolic content levels: 6.52 and 6.56 mg/g flour, respectively. Oxidative stress significantly enhanced the levels of (+)-catechin and p-coumaric acid. A marked elevation of the chlorogenic and gallic acid contents was also determined for sprouts induced at 4 °C and 40 °C. The elevated phenolic content was translated into the antioxidant potential of sprouts, especially the ability to reduce lipid oxidation. A marked elevation of this ability was determined for seedlings treated with 20 mM, 200 mM H2O2 (oxidative stress) and 600 mM mannitol (osmotic stress); about a 12-fold, 8-fold and 9.5-fold increase in respect to control sprouts. The highest ability to quench free radicals was observed in sprouts induced by osmotic stress (IC50- 4.91 and 5.12 mg/ml for 200 mM and 600 mM mannitol, respectively). The highest total antioxidant activity indexes were determined for sprouts elicited with 20 mM H2O2 and 600 mM mannitol: 4.0 and 3.4, respectively. All studied growth conditions, except induction at 40 °C, caused a significant elevation of resistant starch levels which was also affected in a subsequent reduction of starch digestibility. Improvement of sprout quality by elicitation with abiotic stresses is a cheap and easy biotechnology and it seems to be an alternative to conventional techniques applied to improve the health promoting phytochemical levels and bioactivity of low-processed food.

  8. Effect of cooking on the concentration of bioactive compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Avenger) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Alphina F1) grown in an organic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; de Oliveira, Viviani Ruffo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Brassica vegetables have been shown to have antioxidant capacities due to the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamins. This study evaluates the influence of different processing conditions (boiling, steaming, microwaving and sous vide) on the stability of flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin A in broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences grown in an organic system. Results indicated that sous vide processing resulted in greater antioxidant capacity and that all processes contributed in some way to an increased content of antioxidant compounds in both cauliflower and broccoli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organelle Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Help to Distinguish Carpelloid Stamen and Normal Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sources in Broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2015-01-01

    We previously discovered carpelloid stamens when breeding cytoplasmic male sterile lines in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). In this study, hybrids and multiple backcrosses were produced from different cytoplasmic male sterile carpelloid stamen sources and maintainer lines. Carpelloid stamens caused dysplasia of the flower structure and led to hooked or coiled siliques with poor seed setting, which were inherited in a maternal fashion. Using four distinct carpelloid stamens and twelve distinct normal stamens from cytoplasmic male sterile sources and one maintainer, we used 21 mitochondrial simple sequence repeat (mtSSR) primers and 32 chloroplast SSR primers to identify a mitochondrial marker, mtSSR2, that can differentiate between the cytoplasm of carpelloid and normal stamens. Thereafter, mtSSR2 was used to identify another 34 broccoli accessions, with an accuracy rate of 100%. Analysis of the polymorphic sequences revealed that the mtSSR2 open reading frame of carpelloid stamen sterile sources had a deletion of 51 bases (encoding 18 amino acids) compared with normal stamen materials. The open reading frame is located in the coding region of orf125 and orf108 of the mitochondrial genomes in Brassica crops and had the highest similarity with Raphanus sativus and Brassica carinata. The current study has not only identified a useful molecular marker to detect the cytoplasm of carpelloid stamens during broccoli breeding, but it also provides evidence that the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited and provides a basis for studying the effect of the cytoplasm on flower organ development in plants. PMID:26407159

  10. Potency of microfiltration membrane process in purifying broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as functional food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Maryati, Yati; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Purifying broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) using mixture of L. bulgaricus, S. thermopillus, L. acidophillusand Bifidobacteriumbifidum and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as carbon source have been performed to recover biomass concentrate for probiotic and antioxidant. Purification of fermented broccoli was conducted through microfiltration (MF) membrane of 0.15 µm at stirrer rotation speed 400 rpm, room temperature and pressure 40 psia for 30 minutes. Fermented broccoli produced via fermentation process with fermentation time 0 (initial) and 48 hours, and LAB concentration 10% and 20% (v/v) represented as biomass of A, B, C and D. The experimental result showed that based on selectivity of total organic acids, separating optimization was achieved at biomass D (fermentation time 48 hours and mixed LAB culture concentration 20%). Concentrate composition produced in this condition were total acids 6.04%, total solids 24.31%, total polyphenol 0.0252%, reducing sugar 68.25 mg/mL, total sugars 30.89 mg/mL, and dissolved protein 28.54 mg/mL with pH 3.94. In this condition, recovery of biomass concentrate of D for total acids 5.64 folds, total solids 1.82 folds, total polyphenol 3.03 folds, reducing sugar 1.16 folds, total sugars 1.19 folds, and dissolved protein 0.67 folds compared with feed (initial process). Identification of monomer of biomass concentrate D as polyphenol derivatives at T2,01 and T3.01 gave monomer with molecular weight (MW) 192.78 Dalton (Da.), and monomer with MW 191.08, 191.49 and 192.07 Da., while lactic acid derivatives showed MW 251.13, 251.6 and 252.14, and monomer with MW 250.63, 252.14 and 254.22 Da.

  11. Dietary Chemoprevention of PhIP Induced Carcinogenesis in Male Fischer 344 Rats with Tomato and Broccoli

    OpenAIRE

    Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Sfanos, Karen S.; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G.; Brayton, Cory; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP), found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevente...

  12. Irradiation to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on ready-to-eat radish and mung bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, M L; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Kawasaki, T; Nakauma, M; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S; Isshikii, K

    2004-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of ionizing radiation in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on commercial ready-to-eat radish and mung bean sprouts and to assess the chemical and physical quality of these sprouts. The use of ionizing radiation was investigated as a means of reducing or totally inactivating these pathogens, if present, on the sprouts. Treatment of mung bean and radish sprouts with a dose of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, respectively, significantly reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella to nondetectable limits. The total vitamin C content was gradually reduced with the increase in irradiation dose (P vitamin C was nonsignificant for radish sprouts and significant for mung bean sprouts (P < 0.04). The color, firmness, and overall visual quality of the tested sprouts were acceptable when effective doses were applied to both radish and mung bean sprouts. Therefore, ionizing radiation could be useful in reducing the population of pathogens on sprouts and yet retain acceptable quality parameters.

  13. A comparative transcriptome and proteomics analysis reveals the positive effect of supplementary Ca(2+) on soybean sprout yield and nutritional qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinkun; Yang, Runqiang; Zhou, Yulin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-06-30

    Effects of Ca(2+) on yield and nutritional qualities of soybean sprout were investigated. Ca-treated sprouts had higher yield than water-treated ones. Metabolism of selected storage materials and bioactive substances in soybean sprouts was strengthened by Ca(2+). The phytic acid and saponin content of Ca-treated soybean sprouts were lower than those of control. Supplemental Ca(2+) increased content of gamma-aminobutyric acid, isoflavones, phenolics, and vitamins, respectively. These findings indicate that supplemental Ca(2+) can increase soybean sprout yield and improve its nutritional qualities. The comparative transcriptome and proteomics between water-treated and Ca-treated soybean sprouts were studied. As consequence 1912 genes and 460 proteins were up- or down-regulated after 4days of Ca(2+) treatment. The functional classification of these differentially expressed genes and proteins indicated their connection with primary/secondary metabolic pathways, ion transport, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation. The results obtained here will enable to understand how changes in yield and nutritional quality are regulated by extra Ca(2+) in soybean sprouts. In this study, a total of 1912 genes and 460 proteins involved in the growth, storage material decomposition, and bioactive substance synthesis in soybean sprouts after treated with Ca(2+) were identified. This is the first report of a comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of soybean sprout in response to supplemental Ca(2+). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Does inter-plant variation in sprouting time affect the growth/reproduction trade-off and herbivory in a tropical tree species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilio Fagundes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The timing of phenological events varies within and among populations, affecting the performance of individual plants differently. We evaluated the effects of relative variation in sprouting time on the display of reproductive events, vegetative growth and herbivory in Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae. A total of 93 trees of C. langsdorffii was monitored daily to determine their sprouting time. We collected ten terminal branches of each plant to evaluate vegetative growth, production of defense compounds and insect herbivore damage. The sprouting time for the studied population lasted 67 days. Variation in sprouting time did not affect the probability of plants to enter the reproductive stage. Plants that entered the reproductive stage showed greater vegetative biomass. Variation in sprouting time had a negative relationship with branch growth and a positive relationship with the number of leaflets. Leaf phenol concentration did not vary in relation to sprouting time or plant phenology, but herbivory was higher in plants that sprouted later. The relationships among plant sprouting time, vegetative development and display of reproductive stage in C. langsdorffii are discussed. The results of this study also suggest that early sprouting prior to the rainy season is a strategy used by C. langsdorffii to escape herbivores attacks.

  15. Effect of germination time on proximate analysis, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, A Ahmed; Rehab, F M Ali

    2015-01-01

    The lentil plant, Lens culinaris L., is a member of the Leguminoceae family and constitutes one of the most important traditional dietary components. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of sprouting for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days on proximate, bioactive compounds and antioxidative characteristics of lentil (Lens culinaris) sprouts. Lentil seeds were soaked in distilled water (1:10, w/v) for 12 h at room temperature (~25°C), then kept between thick layers of cotton cloth and allowed to germinate in the dark for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. The nutritional composition, protein solubility, free amino acids, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raw and germinated samples were determined using standard official procedures. Sprouting process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, protein solubility, free amino acids, total, reducing and nonreducing sugars. However, oil content, antinutritional factors (tannins and phytic acid) significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased. Results indicated that total essential amino acids of lentil seeds protein formed 38.10% of the total amino acid content. Sulfur-containing amino acids were the first limiting amino acid, while threonine was the second limiting amino acid in raw and germinated lentil seeds. Sprouting process has a positive effect on the essential amino acid contents and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of lentil sprouts. Phenolics content increased from 1341.13 mg/100 g DW in raw lentil seeds to 1411.50, 1463.00, 1630.20 and 1510.10 in those samples germinated for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days, respectively. Sprouted seeds had higher DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities. Based on these results, sprouting process is recommended to increase nutritive value, and antioxidant activity of lentil seeds.

  16. Comparison of Listeria monocytogenes recoveries from spiked mung bean sprouts by the enrichment methods of three regulatory agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchon, Kaitlin E; Hitchins, Anthony D; Smiley, R Derike

    2017-09-01

    Three selective enrichment methods, the United States Food and Drug Administration's (FDA method), the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service's (USDA method), and the EN ISO 11290-1 standard method, were assessed for their suitability for recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from spiked mung bean sprouts. Three parameters were evaluated; the enrichment L. monocytogenes population from singly-spiked sprouts, the enrichment L. monocytogenes population from doubly-spiked (L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua) sprouts, and the population differential resulting from the enrichment of doubly-spiked sprouts. Considerable L. monocytogenes inter-strain variation was observed. The mean enrichment L. monocytogenes populations for singly-spiked sprouts were 6.1 ± 1.2, 4.9 ± 1.2, and 6.9 ± 2.3 log CFU/mL for the FDA, USDA, and EN ISO 11290-1 methods, respectively. The mean L. monocytogenes populations for doubly-spiked sprouts were 4.7 ± 1.1, 5.5 ± 1.3, and 4.6 ± 1.4 log CFU/mL for the FDA, USDA, and ISO 11290-1 enrichment methods, respectively. The corresponding mean population differentials were 2.8 ± 1.1, 3.3 ± 1.3, and 3.6 ± 1.4 Δlog CFU/mL for the same three enrichment methods, respectively. The presence of L. innocua and resident microorganisms on the sprouts negatively impacted final levels of L. monocytogenes with all three enrichment methods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  18. Belowground induction by Delia radicum or phytohormones affect aboveground herbivore communities on field-grown broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prisca Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Induced plant defence in response to phytophagous insects is a well described phenomenon. However, so far little is known about the effect of induced plant responses on subsequently colonizing herbivores in the field. Broccoli plants were induced in the belowground compartment using (i infestation by the root-herbivore Delia radicum, (ii root application of jasmonic acid (JA or (iii root application of salicylic acid (SA. The abundance of D. radicum and six aboveground herbivores displaying contrasting levels of host specialisation were surveyed for five weeks. Our study showed that the response of herbivores was found to differ from one another, depending on the herbivore species, its degree of specialisation and the root treatment. The abundance of the root herbivore D. radicum and particularly the number of emerging adults was decreased by both phytohormone treatments, while the number of D. radicum eggs was increased on conspecific infested plants. The root infestation exhibited moderate effects on the aboveground community. The abundance of the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae was strongly increased on D. radicum infested plants, but the other species were not impacted. Root hormone applications exhibited a strong effect on the abundance of specialist foliar herbivores. A higher number of B. brassicae and Pieris brassicae and a lower number of Plutella xylostella were found on JA treated plants. On SA treated plants we observed a decrease of the abundance of B. brassicae, Pi. rapae and P. xylostella. Surprisingly, generalist species, Mamestra brassicae and Myzus persicae were not affected by root induction treatments. Finally, root treatments had no significant effect on either glucosinolate profiles of the heads or on plant quality parameters. These results are discussed from the perspective of below- aboveground interactions and adaptations of phytophagous insects to induced plant responses according to their trophic specialisation level.

  19. Two novel bioactive glucosinolates from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survay, Nazneen Shaik; Kumar, Brajesh; Jang, Mi; Yoon, Do-Young; Jung, Yi-Sook; Yang, Deok-Chun; Park, Se Won

    2012-09-01

    Two novel glucosinolates along with one known glucosinolate were isolated from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets. Their structures were established mainly by 1D ((1)H and (13)C NMR), 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, DEPT 135°, HSQC and HMBC), and Tandem MS-MS spectrometric data as 2-mercaptomethyl sulfinyl glucosinolate [(Z)-4-(methylsulfinyl)-N-(sulfooxy)-2-((2'S,3'R,4'S,5'S,6'R)-3',4',5'-trihydroxy-6'(hydroxylmethyl)-2'-mercapto tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl) butane amide] 1, (Z)-1-((2S,5S)-5-hydroxytetra-hydro-2H-pyran-2-ylthio)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl) ethylidene amino sulfate 2 and a known cinnamoyl [6'-O-trans-(4″-hydroxy cinnamoyl)4-(methylsulphinyl)butyl glucosinolate] 3. Compound 1 exhibited scavenging activity against DPPH with an inhibitory concentration IC(50) of 20 mM, whereas compound 3 was a weak antioxidant when compared to the standard quercetin (5 mM) as a positive control. Both the compounds showed a significant and similar antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an IC(50) of <625 μg/mL when compared to antibiotic duricef. Against Salmonella typhimurium the IC(50) of 1 and 3 was determined as <625 μg/mL and <1250 μg/mL, respectively, when compared to ampicillin (IC(50) ≤ 39 μg/mL) as a positive control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Apoptotic role of natural isothiocyanate from broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) in experimental chemical lung carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana Deepa Priya, D; Gayathri, R; Gunassekaran, G R; Murugan, S; Sakthisekaran, D

    2013-05-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli [Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. (Brassicaceae)]. Since it is among the most potent bioactive components with antioxidant and antitumor properties, it has received intense attention in the recent years for its chemopreventive properties. The present work determined the rehabilitating role in alleviating the oxidative damage caused by benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] to biomolecules and the apoptotic cascade mediated by orally administered isothiocyanate-SFN (9 µmol/mouse/day) against B(a)P (100 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) induced pulmonary carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Oxidative damage was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, glycoprotein components, protein carbonyl levels and DNA-protein crosslinks. DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis and caspase-3 activity by ELISA proved apoptotic induction by SFN along with the protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Cyt c. SFN treatment was found to decrease the H2O2 production (p < 0.001) in cancer induced animals, proving its antioxidant potential. Apoptosis was induced by increasing the release of Cyt c (p < 0.001) from mitochondria, decreasing and increasing the expression of Bcl-2 (p < 0.01) and Bax (p < 0.001), respectively. Caspase-3 activity was also enhanced (p < 0.001) which leads to DNA fragmentation in SFN treated groups. Our results reflect the rehabilitating role of SFN in B(a)P induced lung carcinogenesis.

  1. In vitro antioxidative activity of moss extract, and effect of moss on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kohlrabi and radish sprouts exhibited higher anti- oxidative activities, as determined by both DPPH and ABST assays [21]. Ethanol extracts of five edible spring flowers in Korea such as Forsythia koreana Nakai, Rhododendron mucronulatum. Turcz., Prunus avium, Magnolia lilyflora, and. Magnolia denudate have been ...

  2. Tracer studies on the incorporation of [2-14C]-DL-mevalonate into chlorophylls a and b, alpha-chaconine, and alpha-solanine of potato sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozukue, N; Tsuchida, H; Friedman, M

    2001-01-01

    Chlorophyll and glycoalkaloids are synthesized in different parts of the potato plant including leaves, tubers, and sprouts. Although light stimulates the biosynthesis of both constituents, the question of whether the two biosynthetic pathways are under the same genetic control has not been resolved. This study investigated the dynamics of incorporation of labeled [2-(14)C]-DL-mavalonate into chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and the glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine in potato sprouts after 7 and 14 days of storage in the light and in the dark. No chlorophyll synthesis occurred in the dark. Fractionation of the "glycoalkaloid" extract followed by high-performance liquid chromatography produced four peaks. The fractions were collected and analyzed for radioactivity. About 80% of the radioactivity resided in fraction 1, the composition of which is unknown. Two of the fractions, with 1-14% of the original label, were alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine. The radioactivity derived from mevalonate largely resides in unidentified compound(s) eluting as a single peak on the HPLC column before the peaks associated with the glycoalkaloids. The specific radioactivity of alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine increased approximately 2-fold in going from 7 to 14 days of exposure in the light and in the dark. These and additional observations point to the near identity of the dynamics of biosynthesis of the two glycoalkaloids. These data also implicate a non-mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of both chlorophylls and the glycoalkaloids and are consistent with independent genetic control of the concurrent formation of the two classes of compounds during greening of potatoes.

  3. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2013-06-01

    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  4. [Effects of water stress on protein expression and physiological properties of different genotype wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) sprouts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ming; Deng, Xi-ping; Yang, Shu-shen; Cao, Rang; Guo, Hong-bo; Zhang, Fang

    2009-09-01

    With drought-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar Changwu 134 and drought-sensitive cultivar Zhengyin 1 as test materials, and by using -1.2 MPa PEG 6000 to treat their seeds, this paper studied the protein expression and physiological properties of the sprouts under different soil moisture conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that water stress induced the production of two new proteins with molecular weights of 39.5 kDa and 23.0 kDa in Changwu 134 but not in Zhengyin 1 sprouts. Under normal water supply, the expression of the protein with molecular weight of 48.5 kDa in the sprouts of both Changwu 134 and Zhengyin 1 increased with sprout growth. This protein was preliminarily named as water-sensitive protein, due to its water-sensitivity and of newly discovered protein. The determinations of physiological properties showed that under water stress, the sprouts of drought-resistant Changwu 134 had higher root/shoot ratio and higher relative water content, but lower relative membrane permeability and lower malondlaldehyde content than those of drought-sensitive Zhengyin 1.

  5. Phytochemical composition and biological activity of 8 varieties of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) sprouts and mature taproots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Paul R; Barnes, David M

    2011-01-01

    Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) are members of the cruciferous vegetable family that contain many classes of biologically active phytochemicals. This study determined the phytochemical composition of the sprouts and mature taproots of 8 radish varieties. Radish sprouts contained significantly greater concentrations of glucosinolates (3.8-fold) and isothiocyanates (8.2-fold) than the mature radish taproot and also contained significantly greater concentrations of phenolics (on average 6.9-fold). The anthocyanin concentrations of the mature radish taproot were significantly greater than in the sprouts of red, pink, and purple varieties. The primary anthocyanidins present in the red and pink radish varieties were pelargonidin and delphinidin, while the primary anthocyanidin in the purple radish variety was cyanidin. Radish sprouts were between 9- and 59-fold more potent than the corresponding mature taproot at activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) in a stably transfected hepatoma cell line. The ARE activity of the radish sprouts and mature taproots was significantly correlated with the total isothiocyanate concentration of the radishes. Practical Application: Understanding the influence variety and developmental stage has on the biological activity of cruciferous vegetables provides important information for further studies examining the in vivo effects of radish treatment and foundation for providing recommendations to reduce the risk of chronic disease through dietary intervention.

  6. Responses of growing Japanese quails that received selenium from selenium enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Chinrasri, Orawan; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Thosaikham, Withpol; Aengwanich, Worapol

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selenium (Se) from Se-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) on the performance and Se concentrations in tissues of growing Japanese quails. Two hundred quails were divided into five treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates and each replicate contained ten quails in a completely randomize design. The experiment was conducted for 5 weeks. The treatments were T1, control diet; T2, control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3, T4, and T5, control diet plus 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched kale sprout. The results revealed that Se supplementation had no impact on feed intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of quails (p > 0.05). However, Se supplementation from both sodium selenite and Se-enriched kale sprout increased (p kale sprout. The results indicate that Se from Se-enriched kale sprout offers no advantage over Se from sodium selenite on tissue Se concentration.

  7. Effect of ascorbic acid postharvest treatment on enzymatic browning, phenolics and antioxidant capacity of stored mung bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Małgorzata; Świeca, Michał

    2018-01-15

    Enzymatic browning limits the postharvest life of minimally processed foods, thus the study selected the optimal inhibitors of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and evaluated their effect on enzymatic browning, phenolics and antioxidant capacity of stored mung bean sprouts. The sprouts treated with 2mM and 20mM ascorbic acid had a lowered PPO activity; compared to the control by 51% and 60%, respectively. The inhibition was reflected in a significant decrease in enzymatic browning. The sprouts treated with 20mM ascorbic acid had 22% and 23% higher phenolic content after 3 and 7days of storage, respectively. Both storage and ascorbic acid treatment increased potential bioaccessibility of phenolics. Generally, there was no effect of the treatments on the antioxidant capacity; however, a significant increase in the reducing potential was determined for the sprouts washed with 20mM ascorbic acid. In conclusion, ascorbic acid treatments may improve consumer quality of stored sprouts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sympathetic nerve sprouting fails to occur in the trigeminal ganglion after peripheral nerve injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongenhielm, U; Boissonade, F M; Westermark, A; Robinson, P P; Fried, K

    1999-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injury induces sprouting of sympathetic nerve fibers in dorsal root ganglia after spinal nerve injury. In the present study, we sought to determine the extent of intraganglionic noradrenergic sprouting in the trigeminal system. The inferior alveolar nerve, a major branch of the mandibular division, or the infraorbital nerve of the maxillary division was either ligated or chronically constricted in Sprague-Dawley rats and recovery permitted for either 2-3 or 6-9 weeks. In some animals both nerves were injured. Using immunohistochemistry with tyrosine hydroxylase antibodies, we found no signs of sympathetic nerve fiber sprouting in the trigeminal ganglion after injury. In contrast, sciatic nerve injury in rat littermates induced a widespread autonomic nerve outgrowth in affected DRGs. Thus, sensory ganglion sympathetic nerve sprouting does not seem to be a general outcome of PNS injury, but is restricted to certain specific locations. Sympathetic nerve fiber networks that surround primary sensory neurons have been suggested to form a structural basis for interactions between the sympathetic and sensory nervous systems after PNS injury. Such interactions, sometimes resulting in paraesthesia or dysaesthesia in patients, appear to be less common in territories innervated by the trigeminal nerve than in spinal nerve regions. The lack of injury-induced intraganglionic sympathetic sprouting in the trigeminal ganglion may help to explain this observation.

  9. Regeneration Dynamics of Coast Redwood, a Sprouting Conifer Species: A Review with Implications for Management and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L. O’Hara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb. ex. D. Don Endl. is unique among conifer species because of its longevity, the great sizes of individual trees, and its propensity to reproduce through sprouts. Timber harvesting in the native redwood range along the coast of the western United States has necessitated restoration aimed to promote old forest structures to increase the total amount of old forest, the connectivity between old forests, and to enhance the resiliency of these ecosystems. After disturbance or harvest, healthy redwood stumps sprout vigorously, often producing dozens of sprouts within two years of disturbance. These sprouts form highly aggregated spatial patterns because they are clustered around stumps that may number less than 50 ha−1. Thinning of sprouts can accelerate individual tree growth, providing an effective restoration strategy to accelerate formation of large trees and old forest structures or increase stand growth for timber production. However, management, including restoration activities, is a contentious issue throughout the native range of redwood because of the history of overexploitation of this resource and perceptions that overexploitation is continuing. This paper reviews the science of early stand dynamics in coast redwood and their implications for restoration and other silvicultural strategies.

  10. Ciliary neurotrophic factor is not required for terminal sprouting and compensatory reinnervation of neuromuscular synapses: re-evaluation of CNTF null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Megan C; Son, Young-Jin

    2007-06-01

    Loss of synaptic activity or innervation induces sprouting of intact motor nerve terminals that adds or restores nerve-muscle connectivity. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and terminal Schwann cells (tSCs) have been implicated as molecular and cellular mediators of the compensatory process. We wondered if the previously reported lack of terminal sprouting in CNTF null mice was due to abnormal reactivity of tSCs. To this end, we examined nerve terminal and tSC responses in CNTF null mice using experimental systems that elicited extensive sprouting in wildtype mice. Contrary to the previous report, we found that motor nerve terminals in the null mice sprout extensively in response to major sprouting-stimuli such as exogenously applied CNTF per se, botulinum toxin-elicited paralysis, and partial denervation by L4 spinal root transection. In addition, the number, length and growth patterns of terminal sprouts, and the extent of reinnervation by terminal or nodal sprouts, were similar in wildtype and null mice. tSCs in the null mice were also reactive to the sprouting-stimuli, elaborating cellular processes that accompanied terminal sprouts or guided reinnervation of denervated muscle fibers. Lastly, CNTF was absent in quiescent tSCs in intact, wildtype muscles and little if any was detected in reactive tSCs in denervated muscles. Thus, CNTF is not required for induction of nerve terminal sprouting, for reactivation of tSCs, and for compensatory reinnervation after nerve injury. We interpret these results to support the notion that compensatory sprouting in adult muscles is induced primarily by contact-mediated mechanisms, rather than by diffusible factors.

  11. Effect of time of day for harvest and postharvest treatments on the sugar metabolism of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Hasperue

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available     Loss of sugars contributes to accelerate postharvest senescence of broccoli. Several treatments have been developed to delay senescence, but in many cases their effects on sugar metabolism were not analyzed. We studied the effect of harvest at different times of day (08:00, 13:00 and 18:00 h and of several postharvest treatments as heat treatment (HT, modified atmosphere (MA and 1-methylcylcopropene (1-MCP on sugar levels and activities of enzymes related to sucrose and starch degradation. Harvesting at the end of day delayed the loss of chlorophylls and caused the lowest decrement in sugars, although no differences in invertase, sucrose synthase and β-amylase activities were detected among samples. Treatments of MA and 1-MCP caused a lower loss of glucose and fructose, while HT caused a lower decrement of sucrose. Treated samples maintained higher levels of chlorophylls. The treatments reduced the activity of invertase and sucrose synthase and induced higher levels of β-amylase activity. Harvesting at the end of day and performing simultaneously a MA treatment could be a good combination to maintain the green color of the inflorescence and sugar levels during postharvest of broccoli.

  12. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on sensory quality and contents of glucosinolates, flavonols and vitamin C in broccoli florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølmann, Jørgen A B; Steindal, Anne L H; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Seljåsen, Randi; Lea, Per; Skaret, Josefine; Johansen, Tor J

    2015-04-01

    Broccoli is grown around the world at a wide range of photoperiods and temperatures, which may influence both sensory quality and phytochemical contents. Florets produced in phytotron and at two semi-field sites (70 °N and 58 °N) were examined for effects of contrasting temperatures and photoperiods on sensory quality and contents of glucosinolates, flavonols and vitamin C. Growth conditions associated with high northern latitudes of low temperature and long photoperiods, produced bigger floral buds, and florets with sweeter taste and less colour hue than more southern conditions. The contents of vitamin C did not vary, while the response of individual glucosinolates varied with temperature and day length, and contents of quercetin and kaempferol were lower in phytotron than under semi-field conditions. Thus, our results show that contrasting temperatures and photoperiods influence the sensory quality of broccoli florets, while contents of different bioactive phytochemicals are not influenced in a unidirectional pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential Responses of Two Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica Cultivars to Salinity and Nutritional Quality Improvement

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    Chokri Zaghdoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na+ and Cl− ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots—that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration—and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψπ, root hydraulic conductance (L0, and stomatal conductance (Gs. The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  14. Atmospheric carbon dioxide changes photochemical activity, soluble sugars and volatile levels in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumbein, Angelika; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Schonhof, Ilona; Schreiner, Monika

    2010-03-24

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration is an environmental factor currently undergoing dramatic changes. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of doubling the ambient CO(2) concentration on plant photochemistry as measured by photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), soluble sugars and volatiles in broccoli. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased qP values in leaves by up to 100% and 89% in heads, while glucose and sucrose in leaves increased by about 60%. Furthermore, in broccoli heads elevated CO(2) concentration induced approximately a 2-fold increase in concentrations of three fatty acid-derived C(7) aldehydes ((E)-2-heptenal, (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal), two fatty acid-derived C(5) alcohols (1-penten-3-ol, (Z)-2-pentenol), and two amino acid-derived nitriles (phenyl propanenitrile, 3-methyl butanenitrile). In contrast, concentrations of the sulfur-containing compound 2-ethylthiophene and C(6) alcohol (E)-2-hexenol decreased. Finally, elevated CO(2) concentration increased soluble sugar concentrations due to enhanced photochemical activity in leaves and heads, which may account for the increased synthesis of volatiles.

  15. Differential responses of two broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica) cultivars to salinity and nutritional quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Alcaraz-López, Carlos; Mota-Cadenas, César; Martínez-Ballesta, María del Carmen; Moreno, Diego A; Ferchichi, Ali; Carvajal, Micaela

    2012-01-01

    The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos) to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots-that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration-and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψ(π)), root hydraulic conductance (L(0)), and stomatal conductance (G(s)). The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs) content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  16. The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Willigen, de P.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was studied in four field experiments. The methods of application were broadcast application vs band placement and split application. Maximum uptake of nitrogen

  17. Evaluation of consumer acceptance of west coast versus east coast-produced broccoli through sensory analysis of quality rating factors and nutritionally important metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production trials and germplasm evaluation of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) developed for eastern U.S. production conditions have identified lines and cultivars that are better adapted to more stressful, variable East Coast environments. As a part of this work sponsored by the USDA SCIR...

  18. Characterization of industrial broccoli discards (Brassica oleracea var. italica) for their glucosinolate, polyphenol and flavonoid contents using UPLC MS/MS and spectrophotometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Minty; Badr, Ashraf; Desjardins, Yves; Gosselin, Andre; Angers, Paul

    2018-04-15

    The agrifood industry produces tons of waste and substandard products that are discarded at great expense. Valorization of industrial residues curbs issues related to food security and environmental problems. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is associated with varied beneficial health effects, but its production yields greater than 25% rejects. We aimed to characterize and quantify industrial broccoli by-products for their glucosinolate and polyphenol contents as a first step towards industrial bio-refining. Broccoli segments and rejected lots of 10 seed cultivars were analyzed using UPLC MS/MS. Variability in the contents of bioactive molecules was observed within and between the cultivars. Broccoli by-products were rich in glucosinolates (0.2-2% dry weight sample), predominantly glucoraphanin (32-64% of the total glucosinolates), whereas the polyphenolic content was less than 0.02% dry weight sample. Valorization of industrial residues facilitates the production of high value functional food ingredients along with socio-economic sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A heterogeneous in vitro three dimensional model of tumour-stroma interactions regulating sprouting angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa de Sampaio, Pedro; Auslaender, David; Krubasik, Davia; Failla, Antonio Virgilio; Skepper, Jeremy N; Murphy, Gillian; English, William R

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is an essential process for tumour progression and is an area of significant therapeutic interest. Different in vitro systems and more complex in vivo systems have been described for the study of tumour angiogenesis. However, there are few human 3D in vitro systems described to date which mimic the cellular heterogeneity and complexity of angiogenesis within the tumour microenvironment. In this study we describe the Minitumour model--a 3 dimensional human spheroid-based system consisting of endothelial cells and fibroblasts in co-culture with the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, for the study of tumour angiogenesis in vitro. After implantation in collagen-I gels, Minitumour spheroids form quantifiable endothelial capillary-like structures. The endothelial cell pre-capillary sprouts are supported by the fibroblasts, which act as mural cells, and their growth is increased by the presence of cancer cells. Characterisation of the Minitumour model using small molecule inhibitors and inhibitory antibodies show that endothelial sprout formation is dependent on growth factors and cytokines known to be important for tumour angiogenesis. The model also shows a response to anti-angiogenic agents similar to previously described in vivo data. We demonstrate that independent manipulation of the different cell types is possible, using common molecular techniques, before incorporation into the model. This aspect of Minitumour spheroid analysis makes this model ideal for high content studies of gene function in individual cell types, allowing for the dissection of their roles in cell-cell interactions. Finally, using this technique, we were able to show the requirement of the metalloproteinase MT1-MMP in endothelial cells and fibroblasts, but not cancer cells, for sprouting angiogenesis.

  20. A heterogeneous in vitro three dimensional model of tumour-stroma interactions regulating sprouting angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Correa de Sampaio

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is an essential process for tumour progression and is an area of significant therapeutic interest. Different in vitro systems and more complex in vivo systems have been described for the study of tumour angiogenesis. However, there are few human 3D in vitro systems described to date which mimic the cellular heterogeneity and complexity of angiogenesis within the tumour microenvironment. In this study we describe the Minitumour model--a 3 dimensional human spheroid-based system consisting of endothelial cells and fibroblasts in co-culture with the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, for the study of tumour angiogenesis in vitro. After implantation in collagen-I gels, Minitumour spheroids form quantifiable endothelial capillary-like structures. The endothelial cell pre-capillary sprouts are supported by the fibroblasts, which act as mural cells, and their growth is increased by the presence of cancer cells. Characterisation of the Minitumour model using small molecule inhibitors and inhibitory antibodies show that endothelial sprout formation is dependent on growth factors and cytokines known to be important for tumour angiogenesis. The model also shows a response to anti-angiogenic agents similar to previously described in vivo data. We demonstrate that independent manipulation of the different cell types is possible, using common molecular techniques, before incorporation into the model. This aspect of Minitumour spheroid analysis makes this model ideal for high content studies of gene function in individual cell types, allowing for the dissection of their roles in cell-cell interactions. Finally, using this technique, we were able to show the requirement of the metalloproteinase MT1-MMP in endothelial cells and fibroblasts, but not cancer cells, for sprouting angiogenesis.