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Sample records for broccoli sprout extract

  1. Selenium enrichment of broccoli sprout extract increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells

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    Suzuki Kazuhiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Broccoli is a Brassica vegetable that is believed to possess chemopreventive properties. Selenium also shows promise as an anticancer agent. Thus, selenium enrichment of broccoli has the potential to enhance the anticancer properties of broccoli sprouts. Method Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were prepared using a sodium selenite solution. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in human prostate cancer cell lines and compared with those of a control broccoli sprout extract. Results Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were superior to normal broccoli sprouts in inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing prostate-specific antigen secretion, and inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts but, not normal broccoli sprouts, induced a downregulation of the survival Akt/mTOR pathway. Conclusion Our results suggest that selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts could potentially be used as an alternative selenium source for prostate cancer prevention and therapy.

  2. Selenium enrichment of broccoli sprout extract increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki Kazuhiro; Ito Kazuto; Suradji Eka W; Yamazaki Chiho; Kobayashi Kenji; Faried Ahmad; Abdulah Rizky; Murakami Masami; Kuwano Hiroyuki; Koyama Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Broccoli is a Brassica vegetable that is believed to possess chemopreventive properties. Selenium also shows promise as an anticancer agent. Thus, selenium enrichment of broccoli has the potential to enhance the anticancer properties of broccoli sprouts. Method Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were prepared using a sodium selenite solution. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in human prostate cancer cell lines and compared with those of a control broccoli sprout ...

  3. Broccoli sprout extract prevents diabetic cardiomyopathy via Nrf2 activation in db/db T2DM mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Wang, Shudong; Ji, Honglei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Jing; Tan, Yi; Wintergerst, Kupper; Zheng, Yang; Sun, Jian; Cai, Lu

    2016-01-01

    To develop a clinic-relevant protocol for systemic up-regulation of NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), male db/db and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were given sulforaphane (SFN, an Nrf2 activator) and its natural source, broccoli sprout extract (BSE) by gavage every other day for 3 months, with four groups: vehicle (0.1 ml/10 g), BSE-low dose (estimated SFN availability at 0.5 mg/kg), BSE-high dose (estimated SFN availability at 1.0 mg/kg), and SFN (0.5 mg/kg). Cardiac function and pathological changes (hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative damage) were assessed by echocardiography and histopathological examination along with Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Both BSE and SFN significantly prevented diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Mechanistically, BSE, like SFN, significantly up-regulated Nrf2 transcriptional activity, evidenced by the increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and its downstream gene expression. This resulted in a significant prevention of cardiac oxidative damage and inflammation. For all these preventive effects, BSE at high dose provided a similar effect as did SFN. These results indicated that BSE at high dose prevents DCM in a manner congruent with SFN treatment. Therefore, it suggests that BSE could potentially be used as a natural and safe treatment against DCM via Nrf2 activation. PMID:27457280

  4. Targeting cancer stem cells with sulforaphane, a dietary component from broccoli and broccoli sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao

    2013-08-01

    Many studies have supported the protective effects of broccoli and broccoli sprouts against cancer. The chemopreventive properties of sulforaphane, which is derived from the principal glucosinolate of broccoli and broccoli sprouts, have been extensively studied. Recent research into the effects of sulforaphane on cancer stem cells (CSCs) has drawn lots of interest. CSCs are suggested to be responsible for initiating and maintaining cancer, and to contribute to recurrence and drug resistance. A number of studies have indicated that sulforaphane may target CSCs in different types of cancer through modulation of NF-κB, SHH, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. Combination therapy with sulforaphane and chemotherapy in preclinical settings has shown promising results. In this article, we focus on the effects of sulforaphane on CSCs and self-renewal pathways, as well as giving a brief review of recent human studies using broccoli sprout preparations.

  5. Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2008-05-01

    Three cultivars of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cv. Tiburon, cv. Belstar and cv. Lucky, and two cultivars of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus), cv. Rebel and cv. Bolide, were germinated for three and five days and safety aspects such as microbiological counts and biogenic amines were investigated. Cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out. Broccoli and radish sprouts contained numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, total and faecal coliform bacteria which are the usual counts for minimally processed germinated seeds. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine increased during sprout production although these levels were below those permitted by legislation (5 mg/100 g of edible food). Broccoli and radish sprouts demonstrated no toxic effects on proliferation and viability of HL-60 cells and should be included in our diets as healthy and safe fresh foods.

  6. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

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    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities; however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention.

  7. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts

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    Fahey Jed W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increased interest in consuming green vegetable sprouts has been tempered by the fact that fresh sprouts can in some cases be vehicles for food-borne illnesses. They must be grown according to proper conditions of sanitation and handled as a food product rather than as an agricultural commodity. When sprouts are grown in accordance with the criteria proposed from within the sprout industry, developed by regulatory agencies, and adhered to by many sprouters, green sprouts can be produced with very low risk. Contamination may occur when these guidelines are not followed. Methods A one year program of microbial hold-and-release testing, conducted in concert with strict seed and facility cleaning procedures by 13 U.S. broccoli sprout growers was evaluated. Microbial contamination tests were performed on 6839 drums of sprouts, equivalent to about 5 million consumer packages of fresh green sprouts. Results Only 24 (0.75% of the 3191 sprout samples gave an initial positive test for Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp., and when re-tested, 3 drums again tested positive. Composite testing (e.g., pooling up to 7 drums for pathogen testing was equally sensitive to single drum testing. Conclusion By using a "test-and-re-test" protocol, growers were able to minimize crop destruction. By pooling drums for testing, they were also able to reduce testing costs which now represent a substantial portion of the costs associated with sprout growing. The test-and-hold scheme described herein allowed those few batches of contaminated sprouts to be found prior to packaging and shipping. These events were isolated, and only safe sprouts entered the food supply.

  8. Dietary Intake of Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli Sprout Extracts during Juvenile and Adolescence Can Prevent Phencyclidine-Induced Cognitive Deficits at Adulthood.

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    Yumi Shirai

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in cognitive impairment, which is a core symptom of schizophrenia. Furthermore, a hallmark of the pathophysiology of this disease is the dysfunction of cortical inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV, which is also involved in cognitive impairment. Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent activator of the transcription factor Nrf2, which plays a central role in the inducible expressions of many cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. Keap1 is a cytoplasmic protein that is essential for the regulation of Nrf2 activity. Here, we found that pretreatment with SFN attenuated cognitive deficits, the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells, and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after repeated administration of phencyclidine (PCP. Furthermore, PCP-induced cognitive deficits were improved by the subsequent subchronic administration of SFN. Interestingly, the dietary intake of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate precursor of SFN during the juvenile and adolescence prevented the onset of PCP-induced cognitive deficits as well as the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the brain at adulthood. Moreover, the NRF2 gene and the KEAP1 gene had an epistatic effect on cognitive impairment (e.g., working memory and processing speed in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that SFN may have prophylactic and therapeutic effects on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Therefore, the dietary intake of SFN-rich broccoli sprouts during the juvenile and adolescence may prevent the onset of psychosis at adulthood.

  9. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-fang GUO; Gao-feng YUAN; Qiao-mei WANG

    2013-01-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts,the germination rate,fresh weight,contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane,as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0,20,40,60,80,and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment.The results showed that glucoerucin,glucobrassicin,and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl.However,the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations(20,40,and 60 mmol/L).NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity.A relatively high level of NaCl treatment(100 mmol/L)significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control.These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition.

  10. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet. PMID:26988507

  11. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Natella, Fausta; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina; Langridge, James; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird's-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle). We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant's developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of an

  12. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Maldini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird’s-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle. We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant’s developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the

  13. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach to study "glucosinoloma" in broccoli sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina; Natella, Fausta

    2012-09-01

    Glucosinolates are an important class of secondary plant metabolites, possessing health-promoting properties. Young broccoli plants are a very good source of glucosinolates with concentrations several times greater than in mature plants. The aim of our study was to develop a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry qualitative and quantitative method for the measure of glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts. The described method provides high sensitivity and specificity, allowing a rapid and simultaneous determination of 14 glucosinolates. The proposed method has been validated for eight glucosinolates: glucobrassicin, glucoraphanin, glucoiberin, glucoerucin, progoitrin, gluconapin, sinigrin and glucocheirolin. The linear range was 1-150 µg ml(-1), the intra-day and inter-day precision values are within 6% and 8% at the lower limit of quantification, while the overall recovery of the eight glucosinolates was 99 ± 9%. This validated method was used successfully for analysis of glucosinolates content of broccoli sprouts grown in different conditions.

  14. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

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    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1–42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE. PMID:27429807

  15. Ingestion of broccoli sprouts does not improve endothelial function in humans with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Buris; Bellostas Muguerza, Natalia; Petersen, Atheline Major;

    2010-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Ingestion of glucosinolates has previously been reported to improve endothelial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats, possibly because of an increase in NO availability in the endothelium due to an attenuation of oxidative stress; in our study we tried to see if this also would...... be the case in humans suffering from essential hypertension. METHODS: 40 hypertensive individuals without diabetes and with normal levels of cholesterol were examined. The participants were randomized either to ingest 10 g dried broccoli sprouts, a natural donor of glucosinolates with high in vitro...... antioxidative potential, for a 4 week period or to continue their ordinary diet and act as controls. Blood pressure, endothelial function measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD) and blood samples were obtained from the participants every other week and the content of glucosinolates was measured before...

  16. Potential efficacy of broccoli sprouts as a unique supplement for management of type 2 diabetes and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-05-01

    Functional foods and their nutraceutical components are now considered as supplementary treatments in type 2 diabetes and prevention of its long-term complications. Young broccoli sprouts as a functional food contain many bioactive compounds specially sulforaphane. In hyperglycemic and oxidative conditions, sulforaphane has the potential to activate the NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)-dependent antioxidant response-signaling pathway, induces phase 2 enzymes, attenuates oxidative stress, and inactivates nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), a key modulator of inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, sulforaphane induces some peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, which contribute to lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. In animal and in vitro models, sulforaphane also shows antihypertensive, anticancer, cardioprotective, and hypocholesterolemic capacity, and has bactericidal properties against Helicobacter pylori. Supplementation of type 2 diabetics with high sulforaphane content broccoli sprouts resulted in increased total antioxidant capacity of plasma and in decreased oxidative stress index, lipid peroxidation, serum triglycerides, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/LDL-cholesterol ratio, serum insulin, insulin resistance, and serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein. Sulforaphane could prevent nephropathy, diabetes-induced fibrosis, and vascular complications. Potential efficacy of sulforaphane and probably other bioactive components of young broccoli sprouts makes it as an excellent choice for supplementary treatment in type 2 diabetes.

  17. Effect of broccoli sprouts on nasal response to live attenuated influenza virus in smokers: a randomized, double-blind study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L Noah

    Full Text Available Smokers have increased susceptibility and altered innate host defense responses to influenza virus infection. Broccoli sprouts are a source of the Nrf2 activating agentsulforaphane, and short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH has been shown to reduce nasal inflammatory responses to oxidant pollutants.Assess the effects of BSH on nasal cytokines, virus replication, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in smokers and nonsmokers.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of BSH on serially sampled nasal lavage fluid (NLF cytokines, viral sequence quantity, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in NLF cells and biopsied epithelium. Healthy young adult smokers and nonsmokers ingested BSH or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate for 4 days, designated Days -1, 0, 1, 2. On Day 0 they received standard vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV intranasally. Nasal lavage fluids and nasal biopsies were collected serially to assess response to LAIV.In area under curve analyses, post-LAIV IL-6 responses (P = 0.03 and influenza sequences (P = 0.01 were significantly reduced in NLF from BSH-treated smokers, whilequinoneoxidoreductasein NLF cells was significantly increased. In nonsmokers, a similar trend for reduction in virus quantity with BSH did not reach statistical significance.In smokers, short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates appears to significantly reduce some virus-induced markers of inflammation, as well as reducing virus quantity. Nutritional antioxidant interventions have promise as a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723.

  18. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  19. Variety of Sulforaphane Content Among 15 Broccoli Sprouts%15个西兰花芽苗菜中萝卜硫素含量差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高灿红; 林俊城; 徐福乐; 郑金贵

    2012-01-01

    High nutrition, rich in sulforaphane, could prevent and inhibit cancer make broccoli sprouts becoming popular in foreign. Composite design of response surface analysis was taken to optimize the extraction of sulforaphane from broccoli sprouts. Then, the optimization extraction method was used to analyze variation of sulforaphane content among 15 broccoli sprouts. The result showed that optimization of extraction method was transonic processing time of 12 min, pH value of 5.0 and hydrolysis time of 4.3 h. There was a significant deference in content of sulforaphane among 15 germplasms of broccoli sprouts. The highest one was CDBY-10 (506.896 (μg/g) and the lowest one was CDBY-22 (50.416 μg/g). Most of their contents were between 0-200 μg/g, frequency fitting were not well. Anymore, sulforaphane content in most of the germplasms was in line with late-maturing>early-maturing>mid-maturing. CDBY-10, CDBY-20, CDBY-15 needed to be further studied and business developed as high sulforaphane content cultivars.%西兰花芽苗菜营养价值高且富含萝卜硫素,具有预防和抑制癌症的功效.为分析种质资源间萝卜、硫素含量的差异,采用响应面中心复合设计法对超声浸提时间、水解时间和提取液pH条件3个因素进行优化分析,获得最优萝卜硫素提取方法,并用该方法对种质资源中萝卜硫素含量差异分析.结果表明,超声处理时间为12 min、pH条件为5.0、水解时间为4.3 h是提取西兰花芽苗菜萝卜、硫素的最佳条件.利用该方法检测到15个种质资源的芽苗菜中萝卜硫素含量差异显著,其中CDBY-10中含量最高(506.896 μg/g)、CDBY-22中含量最低(50.416 μg/g).15个种质资源中萝卜硫素含量主要分布在0~200 μg/g,频次拟合不显著.多数种质资源萝卜硫素含量符合晚熟>早熟>中熟的规律.CDBY-10、CDBY-20、CDBY-15可作为高萝卜、硫素西兰花芽苗菜进行深入科学研究和商业开发.

  20. Influence of Extraction Method on Quality and Functionality of Broccoli Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hee; Son, Min-Jung; Lee, Eun-Ju; Park, Woo-Dong; Kim, Jong-Boo; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the quality and functionality of broccoli juice as affected by extraction method. Broccoli juice was extracted using method I (NUC Kuvings silent juicer), method II (NUC centrifugal juicer), and method III (NUC mixer), and the quality properties of the broccoli juices were analyzed using three different methods. Additionally, the antioxidative, anticancer, and anti-hyperglycemic activities of broccoli juice prepared by the three different methods were inves...

  1. Effects of the 3D-clinorotation on endogenous substances of broccoli sprout (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, K.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Miyagawa, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges in this century We are studying on space agriculture to provide foods for space living people However careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances and food safety of plants cultivated in space Broccoli sprout Brassica oleracea var italica is known to produce sulforaphane 4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate which is effective to function as an antioxidant and enhance immunity Because of such substance it is recognized to be good food materials Broccoli sprouts were then cultivated for 3 days under the 3D-clinorotation The amount of sulforaphane produced by this treatment showed no significant difference compared to the ground control Secondly we examined population of microorganisms adhered on the surface of sprout cultivated under the 3D-clinorotation Number of the microorganisms colony formed was statistically higher than the control Mold species was identified to penicillium sp based on the microscopic observation Poor construction of plant cell wall elements cellulose lignin etc is well known effects of microgravity Defense function of the broccoli plant cells might be weakened against microorganism We also speculate other possible causes for the high rate of contamination such as photosynthetic activity of the plant or microclimate air flow heat transport and humidity around the seedling affected by pseudo-microgravity or the 3D-clinorotation Those factors may relate to the difference in proliferation

  2. Influence of extraction method on quality and functionality of broccoli juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hee; Son, Min-Jung; Lee, Eun-Ju; Park, Woo-Dong; Kim, Jong-Boo; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed to compare the quality and functionality of broccoli juice as affected by extraction method. Broccoli juice was extracted using method I (NUC Kuvings silent juicer), method II (NUC centrifugal juicer), and method III (NUC mixer), and the quality properties of the broccoli juices were analyzed using three different methods. Additionally, the antioxidative, anticancer, and anti-hyperglycemic activities of broccoli juice prepared by the three different methods were investigated in vitro. The broccoli juice made by method I contained the highest polyphenol and flavonoid contents at 1,226.24 mg/L and 1,018.32 mg/L, respectively. Particularly, broccoli juice prepared by method I showed higher DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities than those of the other samples. Additionally, broccoli juice made by method I showed the highest growth inhibitory effects against HeLa, A549, AGS, and HT-29 cancer cells. Broccoli juice prepared by method I had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. These results indicate that there are important differences in chemical and functional qualities between juice extraction techniques.

  3. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizue Okada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts’ aqueous extracts (PSAE. In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts’ extracts on Aβ (1–42 structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r=0.882 which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE.

  4. Separation and Purification of Sulforaphane from Broccoli by Solid Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Row

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple solid-phase extraction (SPE method for the determination of sulforaphane in broccoli has been developed. The optimal conditions were found to be use of a silica SPE cartridge, and ethyl acetate and dichloromethane as washing and eluting solvents, respectively, which could eliminate interferences originating from the broccoli matrix. The extracts were sufficiently clean to be directly injected into high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.05 to 200 μg/mL (r = 0.998 for sulforaphane with the relative standard deviations less than 3.6%. The mean recoveries of sulforaphane from broccoli were more than 90.8% and the detection limit (S/N = 3:1 was 0.02 μg/mL. The SPE method provides a higher yield of sulforaphane from crude extracts compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction.

  5. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts and Live Attenuated Influenza Virus on Peripheral Blood Natural Killer Cells: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Müller

    Full Text Available Enhancing antiviral host defense responses through nutritional supplementation would be an attractive strategy in the fight against influenza. Using inoculation with live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV as an infection model, we have recently shown that ingestion of sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH reduces markers of viral load in the nose. To investigate the systemic effects of short-term BSH supplementation in the context of LAIV-inoculation, we examined peripheral blood immune cell populations in non-smoking subjects from this study, with a particular focus on NK cells. We carried out a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study measuring the effects of BSH (N = 13 or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate, ASH; N = 16 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to a standard nasal vaccine dose of LAIV in healthy volunteers. Blood was drawn prior to (day-1 and post (day2, day21 LAIV inoculation and analyzed for neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, T cells, NKT cells, and NK cells. In addition, NK cells were enriched, stimulated, and assessed for surface markers, intracellular markers, and cytotoxic potential by flow cytometry. Overall, LAIV significantly reduced NKT (day2 and day21 and T cell (day2 populations. LAIV decreased NK cell CD56 and CD158b expression, while significantly increasing CD16 expression and cytotoxic potential (on day2. BSH supplementation further increased LAIV-induced granzyme B production (day2 in NK cells compared to ASH and in the BSH group granzyme B levels appeared to be negatively associated with influenza RNA levels in nasal lavage fluid cells. We conclude that nasal influenza infection may induce complex changes in peripheral blood NK cell activation, and that BSH increases virus-induced peripheral blood NK cell granzyme B production, an effect that may be important for enhanced antiviral defense responses.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723.

  6. Nutraceutical Improvement Increases the Protective Activity of Broccoli Sprout Juice in a Human Intestinal Cell Model of Gut Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzza, Simonetta; Natella, Fausta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Murgia, Chiara; Rossi, Carlotta; Trošt, Kajetan; Mattivi, Fulvio; Nardini, Mirella; Maldini, Mariateresa; Giusti, Anna Maria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Scaccini, Cristina; Sambuy, Yula; Morelli, Giorgio; Baima, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Benefits to health from a high consumption of fruits and vegetables are well established and have been attributed to bioactive secondary metabolites present in edible plants. However, the effects of specific health-related phytochemicals within a complex food matrix are difficult to assess. In an attempt to address this problem, we have used elicitation to improve the nutraceutical content of seedlings of Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions. Analysis, by LC-MS, of the glucosinolate, isothiocyanate and phenolic compound content of juices obtained from sprouts indicated that elicitation induces an enrichment of several phenolics, particularly of the anthocyanin fraction. To test the biological activity of basal and enriched juices we took advantage of a recently developed in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium. Both sprouts' juices protected intestinal barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor α under marginal zinc deprivation, with the enriched juice showing higher protection. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the extent of rescue from stress-induced epithelial dysfunction correlated with the composition in bioactive molecules of the juices and, in particular, with a group of phenolic compounds, including several anthocyanins, quercetin-3-Glc, cryptochlorogenic, neochlorogenic and cinnamic acids. PMID:27529258

  7. Nutraceutical Improvement Increases the Protective Activity of Broccoli Sprout Juice in a Human Intestinal Cell Model of Gut Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzza, Simonetta; Natella, Fausta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Murgia, Chiara; Rossi, Carlotta; Trošt, Kajetan; Mattivi, Fulvio; Nardini, Mirella; Maldini, Mariateresa; Giusti, Anna Maria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Scaccini, Cristina; Sambuy, Yula; Morelli, Giorgio; Baima, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Benefits to health from a high consumption of fruits and vegetables are well established and have been attributed to bioactive secondary metabolites present in edible plants. However, the effects of specific health-related phytochemicals within a complex food matrix are difficult to assess. In an attempt to address this problem, we have used elicitation to improve the nutraceutical content of seedlings of Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions. Analysis, by LC-MS, of the glucosinolate, isothiocyanate and phenolic compound content of juices obtained from sprouts indicated that elicitation induces an enrichment of several phenolics, particularly of the anthocyanin fraction. To test the biological activity of basal and enriched juices we took advantage of a recently developed in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium. Both sprouts’ juices protected intestinal barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor α under marginal zinc deprivation, with the enriched juice showing higher protection. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the extent of rescue from stress-induced epithelial dysfunction correlated with the composition in bioactive molecules of the juices and, in particular, with a group of phenolic compounds, including several anthocyanins, quercetin-3-Glc, cryptochlorogenic, neochlorogenic and cinnamic acids. PMID:27529258

  8. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  9. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    A Ri Byun; Hyejin Chun; Jin Lee; Sang Wha Lee; Hong Soo Lee; Kyung Won Shim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided i...

  10. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed. PMID:26101533

  11. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ri Byun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L. contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n=51. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n=25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years and the other consumed placebo capsules (n=26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL- cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p=0.415 and p=0.351, resp. and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed.

  12. Effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution and labeling blood components with {sup 99m}Tc-GH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekic, Betul; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut Biber; Kilcar, Ayfer Yurt; Ichedef, Cigdem; Unak, Perihan [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences. Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: people consume vegetables without the knowledge of the side effects of the biological and chemical contents and interactions between radiopharmaceuticals and herbal extract. To this end, current study is focused on the effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucoheptonate ({sup 99m}Tc-GH) and radiolabeling of blood components. Methods: GH was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc. Quality control studies were done utilizing TLC method. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with either broccoli extract or SF as control group for 15 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from rats' heart. Radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with GH, SnCl{sub 2} and {sup 99m} Tc. Results: radiochemical yield of {sup 99m}Tc-GH is 98.46{+-}1.48 % (n=8). Biodistribution studies have shown that according to the control, the treated group with broccoli has approximately 10 times less uptake in kidney. The percentage of the radioactivity ratios of the blood components is found to be same in both groups. Conclusions: although there is no considerable effect on the radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially on kidneys. The knowledge of this change on kidney uptake may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  13. Enhancement of Alcohol Metabolism by Sprouted Peanut Extract in SD Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seong Soon; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol intake is known to induce a number of physiological symptoms, including headache, dizziness and vertigo. In this study, we investigated the attenuation effect of sprouted peanut extract (SPE) on ethanol-induced hangover in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into five groups: the control group, which was administered ethanol only; the ethanol plus SPE experimental groups, which were administered ethanol and 100, 200, or 400 mg SPE/kg b.w.; and the positive con...

  14. The estrogenic activity of isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L sprouts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HaiRong, Ma; HuaBo, Wei; Zhen, Chen; Yi, Yang; ZhengHua, Wang; Madina, Habasi; Xu, Cao; Akber, Aisa Haji

    2013-08-01

    Isoflavones have drawn attention due to their potential therapeutic use. Isoflavones are the important chemical components of the seeds and sprouts of chickpea and higher isoflavones in sprouts than in seeds. However, there have been no previous reports of the estrogenic activity of isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L sprouts (ICS) in vitro. In this study, which incorporated several in vitro bioassays methods, we systematically evaluated the estrogenic properties of ICS. MTT assay showed that ICS at the low concentration ranges (10(-3)-1 mg/L) promoted MCF-7 cell growth, while at high concentrations, (>1 mg/L) inhibited cell proliferation, indicating ICS worked at a diphasic mechanism. Flow cytometric analysis further calculated the proliferation rate of ICS at low concentration (1 mg/L). ERα/Luc trans-activation assay and then semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that ICS at low concentrations induced ERα-mediated luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells and promoted the ER downstream target gene pS2 and PR trans-activation. These effects were inhibited by ICI 182,780, a special antagonist of ER, indicating that an ER-mediating pathway was involved. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression in Ishikawa cells showed that ICS at low concentrations stimulated AP expression. Our current study is the first to demonstrate that ICS has significant estrogenic activity in vitro. ICS may be useful as a supplement to hormone replacement therapy and in dietary supplements.

  15. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety.

  16. Enhancement of Alcohol Metabolism by Sprouted Peanut Extract in SD Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seong Soon; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol intake is known to induce a number of physiological symptoms, including headache, dizziness and vertigo. In this study, we investigated the attenuation effect of sprouted peanut extract (SPE) on ethanol-induced hangover in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into five groups: the control group, which was administered ethanol only; the ethanol plus SPE experimental groups, which were administered ethanol and 100, 200, or 400 mg SPE/kg b.w.; and the positive control group, which was administered ethanol plus DAWN808(®), a commercial product. SPE-suspended water was delivered to rats via gavage 15 h and 30 min before the administration of ethanol. Blood was collected from the tail 0, 1, 3, and 5 h after ethanol administration. The results showed that serum ethanol concentrations were significantly lower in SPE treated groups than in the control group. Furthermore, hepatic alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities were enhanced by SPE in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that SPE could be useful in attenuating hangover after alcohol consumption. PMID:24772402

  17. Enhancement of Alcohol Metabolism by Sprouted Peanut Extract in SD Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seong Soon; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol intake is known to induce a number of physiological symptoms, including headache, dizziness and vertigo. In this study, we investigated the attenuation effect of sprouted peanut extract (SPE) on ethanol-induced hangover in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into five groups: the control group, which was administered ethanol only; the ethanol plus SPE experimental groups, which were administered ethanol and 100, 200, or 400 mg SPE/kg b.w.; and the positive control group, which was administered ethanol plus DAWN808®, a commercial product. SPE-suspended water was delivered to rats via gavage 15 h and 30 min before the administration of ethanol. Blood was collected from the tail 0, 1, 3, and 5 h after ethanol administration. The results showed that serum ethanol concentrations were significantly lower in SPE treated groups than in the control group. Furthermore, hepatic alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities were enhanced by SPE in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that SPE could be useful in attenuating hangover after alcohol consumption. PMID:24772402

  18. Novel concepts of broccoli sulforaphanes and disease: induction of phase II antioxidant and detoxification enzymes by enhanced-glucoraphanin broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Don; Devaraj, Sridevi; Bellur, Prasad; Lakkanna, Shantala; Vicini, John; Boddupalli, Sekhar

    2012-11-01

    Consumption of broccoli has long been considered to play a role in a healthy diet. Broccoli accumulates significant amounts of the phytonutrient glucoraphanin (4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate), which is metabolized in vivo to the biologically active sulforaphane. The preponderance of evidence available from in vitro, animal, and human studies supports the association of sulforaphane with phase II enzyme induction. This has provided impetus for developing varieties of broccoli, both sprouts and whole heads, that are rich in glucoraphanin. The cancer-preventive properties of cruciferous vegetables, especially broccoli, have been studied for decades. However, evidence of broccoli directly affecting cancer incidence or progression is ambiguous, in part because of the presence of substantial polymorphisms in enzymes that metabolize sulforaphane. Since broccoli sulforaphane is one of the most potent inducers of phase II enzymes, exploration into broccoli's impact on other areas of human health, such as cardiovascular health and upper airway immunity, has been suggested. This review provides an update on evidence supporting phase II enzyme induction by sulforaphanes, with implications for breeding broccoli varieties with enhanced amounts of glucoraphanin. Early-stage human studies of consumption of broccoli with enhanced glucoraphanin are also discussed.

  19. Free radical scavenging, antiproliferative activities and profiling of variations in the level of phytochemicals in different parts of broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ashun; Sharma, Upendra; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Singh, Bikram; Arora, Saroj

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the seeds of Broccoli (cultivar Palam samridhi) at different stages of development were being analysed for their antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. Among the antioxidant assays performed, a remarkable inhibition of superoxide radicals i.e. 94.25% observed with extracts of five days old sprout (PS5) at 2 mg/ml concentration. Although, all the extracts showed high cytotoxicity but the floret extract (PSF) found to be most effective with IC₅₀ value of 25.94 μg/ml while leaves extract (PSL) was least effective. The cell cycle analysis showed increased G₀/G₁ phase population as compare to positive control camptothecin. Profiling of various phytochemicals executed by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in order to correlate the bioactivities of the extracts. A wide variation observed in the profile of GLS hydrolytic products of different extracts obtained from the seeds, sprouts (three, five and seven days), leaves and florets.

  20. Assessment of the estrogenic activities of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) sprout isoflavone extract in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-rong MA; Jie WANG; Hong-xue QI; Yan-hua GAO; Li-juan PANG; Yi YANG; Zhen-hua WANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) is a traditional Uighur herb.In this study we investigated the estrogenic activities of the isoflavones extracted from chickpea sprouts (ICS) in ovariectomized rats.Methods:Ten-week-old virgin Sprague-Dawley female rats were ovariectomized (OVX).The rats were administered via intragastric gavage 3 different doses of ICS (20,50,or 100 mg·kg-1.d-1) for 5 weeks.Their uterine weight and serum levels of 17β-estradiol (E2),follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured.The epithelial height,number of glands in the uterus,and number of osteoclasts in the femur were histologically quantified,and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was assessed immunohistochemically.Bone structural parameters,including bone mineral density (BMD),bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV),trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were measured using Micro-CT scanning.Results:Treatments of OVX rats with ICS (50 or 100 mg·kg-1.d-1) produced significant estrogenic effects on the uteruses,including the increases in uterine weight,epithelial height and gland number,as well as in the expression of the cell proliferation marker PCNA.The treatments changed the secretory profile of ovarian hormones and pituitary gonadotropins:serum E2 level was significantly increased,while serum LH and FSH levels were decreased compared with the vehicle-treated OVX rats.Furthermore,the treatments significantly attenuated the bone loss,increased BMD,BV/TV and Tb.Th and decreased Tb.Sp and the number of osteoclasts.Treatment of OVX rats with the positive control drug E2 (0.25 mg·kg-1.d-1) produced similar,but more prominent effects.Conclusion:ICS exhibits moderate estrogenic activities as compared to E2 in ovariectomized rats,suggesting the potential use of ICS for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis caused by estrogen deficiency.

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandini Ravikumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli is an edible green plant that is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. They are rich in vitamin C, dietary fiber and also contain glucoraphin, sulforaphane, selenium and isothiocyanates. Broccoli is also an excellent source of indole-3-carbinol. These constituents present in broccoli are known to be very popular since they possess several anti-cancer properties and benefits. These anti-carcinogenic compounds have a wide variety of uses and benefits for the treatment of various diseases and disorders. Broccoli is widely used in the treatment of several forms of cancer and also treats other neural disorders. The therapeutic potential of broccoli has been explained under its role in cancer, diabetes and other diseases. In the treatment of cancer, most of the constituents or the phytochemicals of broccoli such as brassinin, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol etc. have been proved to be effectively beneficial. Even selenium plays a very important role in cancer prevention. The antioxidant activity of broccoli is induced by other phytochemicals such as glucosinolates, glucoraphin and sulforaphane. Sulforaphane in broccoli sprouts also has the potential to cure neural disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. It is also used to bring about cure in asthma and diabetic patients. Flavonoids have the effect of reducing the risk of diabetes. Therefore sulforaphane is widely used to treat various diseases and disorders.

  2. Study of Cleome Gynandra Extract on Broccoli Preservation%白花菜提取物对花椰菜保鲜效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾维丽; 张臻; 刘少阳; 王飞

    2015-01-01

    论文研究了白花菜提取物对花椰菜中微生物、褐变指数和VC含量的影响。结果表明,白花菜提取物能有效抑制微生物的生长,有效减缓花椰菜的褐变速度和VC的降解速度,较好地保持花椰菜的品质,其中1.0 g/L白花菜提取物的保鲜效果最好。%The effects of Cleome gynandra extract on total number of colony, as well as browning index and vitamin C content of Broccoli were studied. The results showed that Cleome gynandra extract could effectively eliminate the microorganism, delay the browning rate and slow down the degradation of vitamin C. 1.0g/L Cleome gynandra extract was shown to be the best to fresh-keeping and storage quality of broccoli.

  3. Study on Ultrasonic Extraction Technique of Broccoli Polysaccharide%超声波法提取西兰花多糖的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎艳婷; 刘波; 张振宇; 郝明月; 苏万平

    2012-01-01

    采用超声波辅助法提取西兰花多糖,通过单因素试验与正交试验对提取工艺进行优化,以期确定西兰花多糖的最佳提取工艺.结果表明,超声波辅助法提取西兰花多糖的最佳工艺参数为:超声时间50min,超声波功率80W,提取温度60℃,料液比1∶50(mL/g),多糖的得率为8.24%.该试验方法简单、易行,可为西兰花多糖的工业化生产提供参考.%To determine the best broccoli polysaccharide extraction process with the ultrasonic assisted-extraction technology. The technique was optimized by a single factor experiments and orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimum extraction parameters of polysaccharides was that ultrasonic time for50 min, 80 W ultrasonic power at 60℃, ratio of liquid feed 1:50 (ml/g), and polysaccharide yield was 8.24%. The test method is simple, easy, and can provide a reference for the industrial production of broccoli polysaccharide.

  4. Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD, a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in atherogenesis even in non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, dietary supplements mitigating PPHG spikes along with potent antioxidant activities may help decrease development of PPHG and oxidative stress induced pathogenesis. Objectives: The study evaluated free radicals scavenging, antioxidant properties and intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in methanol extract of two varieties of Cicer arietinum Linn viz. Bengal gram and Kabuli chana and green gram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczek raw grains and their sprouts and studied their influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy grains were procured from local markets. Free radicals scavenging antioxidant and glucose-induced hemoglobin (Hb-glycation inhibition activities were analyzed using standard in vitro procedures. In vitro antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by assessing rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats was studied by pre-treatment of rats with extracts. Results: Compared with raw seeds increase in total polyphenol and flavonoids concentration in green gram sprouts and Kabuli chana sprouts (KCs were observed. Total protein concentrations in sprouts did not differ from non-sprouted grains. 2,2′- Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid cation scavenging activity was more than twice in Bengal gram sprouts of (BGs and KCs than their raw seeds. 2,2-diphenyl-1

  5. Impact of selenium supply on se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates accumulation in selenium-biofortified brassica sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, ...

  6. Extração e isolamento de alfa-solanina de brotos de batata Extraction and isolation of alpha-solanine from potato sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Soave Spoladore

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh potato sprouts were extracted with 2% aqueous acetic acid for 48 hours. The crude alkaloidal extract was purified by repeating the operation. Precipitation by concentrated ammonium hydroxide, centrifugation, dissolution of the resulting precipitate in 2% acetic acid, till a clear alkaline supernatant was obtained. The alpha-solanine, obtained by this procedure was purified by successive recristalizations with ethyl alcohol. The total yield was about 0.02% of the fresh material, with purity greater than 99%. IR, ¹H and 13C NMR spectra are shown.

  7. Broccoli, PTEN deletion and prostate cancer: where is the link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardelli Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept that vegetables and fruits are relevant sources of cancer-preventive substances is strongly supported by population studies. Among others, cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts are thought to affect the development of various types of cancers and especially prostate tumors. Yet, the identification of the molecular mechanisms by which the 'active' compounds contained in these vegetables mediate their anticancer activity has historically lagged behind. Accordingly, direct laboratory evidence of how individual nutrients affect cancer genes and the pathways they control remains the major obstacle to progress in this research field. Here we review a recent report investigating the interaction between sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, and expression of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in pre malignant prostate tissue.

  8. Inactivation of Salmonella on Sprouting Seeds Using a Spontaneous Carvacrol Nanoemulsion Acidified with Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kyle S; Komaiko, Jennifer; Wong, Dana E; Xu, Ting; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, demand has increased for natural, minimally processed produce, including sprout-based products. Sanitization with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite is currently recommended for all sprouting seeds before germination to limit sprout-related foodborne outbreaks. A potentially promising disinfectant as an alternative to calcium hypochlorite is acidified spontaneous essential oil nanoemulsions. In this study, the efficacy of an acidified carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against mung beans and broccoli seeds artificially contaminated with a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis cocktail (ATCC BAA-709, ATCC BAA-711, and ATCC BAA-1045). Treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in acidified (50 mM acetic or levulinic acid) carvacrol nanoemulsions (4,000 or 8,000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. After treatment, the number of surviving cells was determined via plate counts and/or the most probable number (MPN) approach. Treatment for 30 min successfully reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by 4 log CFU/g on mung beans (from an initial contamination level of 4.2 to 4.6 log CFU/g) and by 2 log CFU/g on broccoli seeds (from an initial contamination level of 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/g) to below our detection limit (≤3 MPN/g). Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens and sprout yield. The final sprout product had no detectable pathogens, and total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatment. PMID:27357030

  9. Inactivation of Salmonella on Sprouting Seeds Using a Spontaneous Carvacrol Nanoemulsion Acidified with Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kyle S; Komaiko, Jennifer; Wong, Dana E; Xu, Ting; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, demand has increased for natural, minimally processed produce, including sprout-based products. Sanitization with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite is currently recommended for all sprouting seeds before germination to limit sprout-related foodborne outbreaks. A potentially promising disinfectant as an alternative to calcium hypochlorite is acidified spontaneous essential oil nanoemulsions. In this study, the efficacy of an acidified carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against mung beans and broccoli seeds artificially contaminated with a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis cocktail (ATCC BAA-709, ATCC BAA-711, and ATCC BAA-1045). Treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in acidified (50 mM acetic or levulinic acid) carvacrol nanoemulsions (4,000 or 8,000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. After treatment, the number of surviving cells was determined via plate counts and/or the most probable number (MPN) approach. Treatment for 30 min successfully reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by 4 log CFU/g on mung beans (from an initial contamination level of 4.2 to 4.6 log CFU/g) and by 2 log CFU/g on broccoli seeds (from an initial contamination level of 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/g) to below our detection limit (≤3 MPN/g). Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens and sprout yield. The final sprout product had no detectable pathogens, and total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatment.

  10. Health benefits and possible risks of broccoli - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latté, Klaus Peter; Appel, Klaus-Erich; Lampen, Alfonso

    2011-12-01

    Chemopreventive effects of broccoli, a highly valued vegetable, have been known for a long time. Several studies have demonstrated that broccoli might be beneficial by reducing the risk for the development of certain forms of cancer. These effects are generally attributed to glucosinolate-derived degradation products like isothiocyanates and indoles which are formed by the hydrolytic action of plant myrosinase and/or glucosidases deriving from the human microbial flora. However, recent in vitro and experimental animal studies indicate that broccoli, its extracts and the glucosinolate-derived degradation products might also have undesirable effects, especially genotoxic activities. However, the relevance of the genotoxic activities to human health is not known yet. This paper gives an overview on genotoxic, anti-genotoxic/chemopreventive, nutritive and antinutritive properties of broccoli, its ingredients and their degradation products. A qualitative comparison of the benefit and risk of broccoli consumption benefit-risk assessment shows that the benefit from intake in modest quantities and in processed form outweighs potential risks. For other preparations (fortified broccoli-based dietary supplements, diets with extraordinary high daily intake, consumption as a raw vegetable) further studies both for potential risks and beneficial effects are needed in order to assess the benefit and risk in the future.

  11. Extract of buckwheat sprouts scavenges oxidation and inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages (RAW264.7)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajendra Karki; Cheol-Ho Park; Dong-Wook Kim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Buckwheat has been considered as a potential source of nutraceutical components on the world market of probiotic foodstuffs.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) sprouts on oxidation and pro-inflammatory mediators.METHODS:The anti-oxidant effects of buckwheat extract (BWE) and rutin were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-and nitric oxide (NO)-scavenging activities,serum peroxidation and chelating assays.Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activities of buckwheat and rutin.NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was determined by using Griess reagent.The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS),cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in cytosolic and nuclear portions were determined by Western blot analysis.Also,the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS:Inhibitory concentration 50 values for DPPH-and NO-scavenging activities of BWE were 24.97 and 72.54 μg/mL respectively.BWE inhibited serum oxidation and possessed chelating activity.Furthermore,BWE inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.Also,BWE inhibited iNOS and COX-2 expression and NF-κB p65 translocation.CONCLUSION:Buckwheat sprouts possessed strong antioxidant activity and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory mediators in the applied model systems.Thus,buckwheat can be suggested to be beneficial in inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the free radicals and inflammatory mediators.

  12. 荞麦芽提取物抗突变和抑制肿瘤作用的实验研究%Study on antimutangenic andantitumor effect of buckwheat sprout extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国娟; 李善姬; 崔泰花; 崔承弼

    2013-01-01

    对荞麦芽提取物的抗突变和抗肿瘤作用进行研究,为开发荞麦的保健作用提供依据.实验以小鼠骨髓细胞微核实验观察荞麦芽提取物的抗突变作用,以小鼠S-180移植性肿瘤观察荞麦芽提取物的抗肿瘤效果.结果显示,荞麦芽提取物对N-甲基-N-硝基-N-亚硝基胍(MNNG)诱发的小鼠骨髓细胞微核的发生有明显的抑制效果,其中荞麦芽乙醇提取物、乙酸乙酯提取物、正丁醇提取物在80mg/kg度下,对小鼠骨髓微核的抑制率达73.4%、75.8%、74.2%;对小鼠S-180移植性肿瘤生长也有明显的抑制作用,其中荞麦芽乙醇提取物、乙酸乙酯提取物的抑瘤率达39.5%、38.0%.说明荞麦芽对体细胞DNA损伤有保护作用,对肿瘤也有一定的预防作用.%The antimutangenic and antitumor effect of buckwheat sprout extracts were studied to provide scientific basis for exploiting health function of buckwheat sprout.Antimutangenic effect of buckwheat sprout extracts were testified based on the mice bone marrow cell micronuclei test.Antitumor effects of buckwheat sprout extracts were testified based on S-180 tumor cell transplanting test.The micronuclei frequency induced by MNNG in mouse bone marrow cells was inhibited significantly by buckwheat sprout extracts.Under 80mg/kg,buckwheat ethanol extract,ethyl acetate extract and butanol extract on mouse bone marrow micronucleus inhibition rate reached to 73.4%,75.8%,74.2%.Buckwheat sprout extracts on the growth of transplanted tumor of mouse S-180 also had the obvious inhibitory action,including buckwheat sprout ethanol extract,ethyl acetate extract tumor inhibition rate reached to 39.5%,38.0%.Buckwheat sprouts had preventive effect on DNA damage in body cell,and had inhibitory effect on tumor growth.

  13. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. PMID:27155370

  14. Some Results on Sprout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep

    2015-01-01

    Sprout is a lightweight stream cipher proposed by Armknecht and Mikhalev at FSE 2015. It has a Grain-like structure with two state Registers of size 40 bits each, which is exactly half the state size of Grain v1. In spite of this, the cipher does not appear to lose in security against generic Time-Memory...... in a reasonable time using a SAT solver. Thereafter, we show that it is possible to perform a distinguishing attack on the full Sprout stream cipher in the multiple IV setting using around 240 randomly chosen IVs on an average. The attack requires around 248 bits of memory. Thereafter, we will show that for every...... a simple key recovery attack that takes time equivalent to 266.7 encryptions with negligible memory requirement. This although is not the best attack reported against this cipher in termncryptions with negligible memory requirement. This although is not the best attack reported against this cipher in terms...

  15. Flavonoid analysis of buckwheat sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Sun Mi; Park, Ji-Hae; Kim, Dae-Ok; Baek, Nam-in; Eom, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    It is known that common buckwheat sprouts contain several flavonoids, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and quercetrin, whereas tartary buckwheat sprouts contain only rutin. In this study, we evaluated flavonoids present in buckwheat sprouts and identified a previously unreported flavonoid. Simultaneous detection by HPLC was used to separate rutin and a compound that was not separated in previous studies. We used a novel HPLC elution gradient method to successfully separate rutin and the previously unidentified compound, for which we performed structural analysis. The identification of six flavonoids by HPLC was confirmed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The newly identified compound, [M+H](+) =611.17, was identified by NMR as the rutin epimer quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Unlike common buckwheat sprout, tartary buckwheat sprout contained rutin as a main flavonoid, whereas other flavonoids appeared only in trace amounts or were not detected. Quercetin-3-O-robinobioside was not detected in tartary buckwheat sprout.

  16. Fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante do extrato aquoso de broto de feijão-mungo (Vigna radiata L. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão de Lima

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Considerando a importância dos compostos fenólicos em alimentos e que o broto de feijão-mungo vem sendo incluído na culinária brasileira, este estudo teve como objetivo quantificar o teor de fenólicos totais deste vegetal e avaliar a ação antioxidante do seu extrato aquoso. MÉTODOS: Os compostos fenólicos foram extraídos por quatro sistemas de solventes e dois métodos de extração, os quais foram diferenciados no tempo (2 e 1h e número de extrações (2 e 3 extrações. Os fenólicos totais dos extratos foram quantificados por método espectrofotométrico. RESULTADOS: Os extratos obtidos com água à temperatura ambiente (28ºC, nos dois métodos de extração, foram os que apresentaram maior quantidade de fenólicos totais, sem contudo apresentar diferença significativa entre eles. O método II, que consistiu de três extrações em 1h, pode ser considerado o melhor por ter utilizado menor tempo de extração. O extrato aquoso em sistema modelo b-caroteno/ácido linoléico exibiu ação antioxidante (48,07% de inibição da oxidação, entretanto foi inferior ao padrão BHT. CONCLUSÃO: O broto de feijão-mungo possui considerável quantidade de fenólicos totais, compostos responsáveis por sua ação antioxidante, cujo consumo pode proporcionar efeitos benéficos à saúde.OBJECTIVE: Considering the importance of phenolic compounds in foods and the increasing consumption of mung bean sprouts in Brazil, this study had the objective of quantifying the total phenolic content in this vegetable and to assess the antioxidant activity of its aqueous extract. METHODS: The phenolic compounds were extracted by four solvent systems and two extraction methods, which were different in time (2 and 1h and in number of extractions (2 and 3 extractions. The total phenolic content of the extracts were quantified by the spectrophotometric method. RESULTS: The extracts obtained with water at room temperature (28ºC in both extraction

  17. Comparison of phenolic compositions between common and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Zaidul, I S M; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Mukasa, Yuji; Hashimoto, Naoto; Takigawa, Sigenobu; Noda, Takahiro; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Yamauchi, Hiroaki

    2008-10-15

    The phenolic compositions of non-germinated/germinated seeds and seed sprouts (at 6-10 day-old) of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheats were investigated. Phenolic compounds, including chlorogenic acid, four C-glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin vitexin, isovitexin), rutin and quercetin, were determined in the seed sprouts by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the edible parts of common buckwheat sprouts, individual phenolics significantly increased during sprout growth from 6 to 10 days after sowing (DAS), whereas in tartary buckwheat sprouts they did not. While the sum contents of phenolic compounds in the edible part (mean 24.4mg/g DW at 6-10 DAS) of tartary buckwheat sprouts were similar to those of common buckwheat sprouts, rutin contents in the non-germinated/germinated seeds (mean 14.7mg/g DW) and edible parts (mean 21.8mg/g DW) of tartary buckwheat were 49- and 5-fold, respectively, higher than those of common buckwheat. Extracts of the edible parts of both species showed very similar free radical-scavenging activities (mean 1.7μmol trolox eq/g DW), suggesting that the overall antioxidative activity might be affected by the combination of identified phenolics and unidentified (minor) components. Therefore, buckwheat seed sprouts are recommended for their high antioxidative activity, as well as being an excellent dietary source of phenolic compounds, particularly tartary buckwheat sprouts, being rich in rutin.

  18. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures. PMID:25952846

  19. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures.

  20. Flavonoid synthesis in buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench ) sprout grown under pseudo-microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Iwasawa, Hiroko; Hiraishi, Kanae; Sato, Seigo; Miyagawa, Teruo; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We are studying space agriculture to provide foods and oxygen for space habitats. However, careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in plants, which will be cultivated in space. We found that production of functional substances is affected by gravity in broccoli sprout (Brassica coleracea var. italica). The production of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate), in broccoli was slightly affected by gravity. Buckwheat is also known to produce several species of flavonoids, which act as an antioxidant, and enhance immunity of human. Such production of physiologically active substances, those agricultural species are accepted as good food materials. Buckwheat sprouts were cultivated for 4 days under the 3D-clinorotation. The amount of flavonoids, such as orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin, vitexin, rutin, produced by this treatment showed significant differences compared to those in the ground control. We examined effects of the gravity to the flavonoid synthesis pathways.

  1. The Determination of Free Lead in Bean Sprout and Soil with Ultrasonic Extraction%超声分离法测定植物及土壤中游离铅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡卓; 卢登峰; 张娴; 杜良伟; 梁信源; 莫利书; 黄富嵘

    2011-01-01

    提出以超声提取,单扫描极谱法测定植物和土壤中游离态铅的方法.实验发现,在酸性条件下,超声波能有效地分离提取豆芽和土壤样品中的游离铅,并用单扫描极谱法进行测定.分别以去离子水、2 mol/L HNO3、4 mol/L HNO3为溶液考察了超声介质及超声时间对铅提取量的影响.结果表明:豆芽和土壤样品在硝酸介质中分别超声80、50 min即达到饱和提取量,而在去离子水介质中超声的分离作用不大.与酸浸泡法相比,超声提取法具有更为显著的分离效果,表明超声促进了氢离子置换样品中铅离子的反应.该方法具有化学试剂消耗少、分析速度快、对环境污染小等优点,将其应用于实际样品的测定,结果满意.%A new method for determination of trace free lead in plant and soil by single sweep polarography with ultrasonic extraction was described. The results show that free lead in bean sprout and soil could be separated effectively by ultrasonic extraction in acidic solution and measured using single sweep polarography. The effects of ultrasonic medium and ultrasonic time on the extract amount of lead were investigated in deionized water,2 mol/L HNO3, and 4 mol/LHNO3 respectively. The results show that the extraction of lead in nitric acid medium reached the maximum amount with the ultrasonic time of 80 min for bean sprouts samples and the ultrasonic time of 50 min for soil samples respectively, while in deionized water media ultrasound extraction did not show any advantage in the separation of free lead from the samples. This indicates that ultrasound can accelerate the reactions of H + replacing Pb2+ in the samples.Compared with acid soak method, ultrasonic extraction is more effective, and of little chemical reagent consumption,simple procedure, rapid separation, and no environment pollution. The new method was applied to the determination of free lead in actual samples with satisfactory result.

  2. Antioxidant activity of tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum moench) buckwheat sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the differences of two types of buckwheat sprouts, namely, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.), in general composition, functional components, and antioxidant capacity. The ethanol extracts of tartary buckwheat sprouts (TBS) had higher reducing power, free radical scavenging activity, and superoxide anion scavenging activity than those of common buckwheat sprouts (CBS). As for chelating effects on ferrous ions, CBS had higher values than TBS. Rutin was the major flavonoid found in these two types of buckwheat sprouts, and TBS was 5 fold higher in rutin than CBS. The antioxidant effects of buckwheat sprouts on human hepatoma HepG2 cells revealed that both of TBS and CBS could decrease the production of intracellular peroxide and remove the intracellular superoxide anions in HepG2 cells, but TBS reduced the cellular oxidative stress more effectively than CBS, possibly because of its higher rutin (and quercetin) content.

  3. Identification of Resistance to Blackrot in Broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The screening for Black rot(Xanthomonas campestris PV.campestris)resistance in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.Var.italica Planch) lines plays an important role in breeding for Black rot resistance and is of great value to practical utilization.The broccoli in bred line"91-9318-4"was used as the experimental material in the trial.X0-2 strain of Xanthomonas campestris PV.campestris was and purified from the infected broccoli plants in the field.The spraying method was adopted in the inoculation.The trial was designed as the randomized blocks of two factors with three replications.Factor A was the foliar age and factor B was the concetrations of inoculum.Factor A had three levels A1,A2 and A3 (the 2nd 4th and 6th true-leaf stage),factor B had three levels B1,B2 and B3(106 counts/mL,107 counts/mL and 108 counts/mL).26 breeding materials of broccoli were identified for resistance to Black rot by means of the acquired method.One resistant breeding material was obtained,the identifying results showed that this screening method is practical.

  4. Agronomy of strip intercropping broccoli with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic broccoli growers in California typically control aphids by intercropping broccoli with strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.) which attracts hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) that are important predators of aphids. A three year study with transplanted organic broccoli in Salinas, ...

  5. Dormancy and sprout control in root and tuber crops

    OpenAIRE

    Cheema, M.U.A.

    2010-01-01

    Research objectives were to study dormancy/sprout control in potato and sweetpotato, and to identify novel sprout control strategies. Consistent with sprout stimulation by gibberellins (GAs) in potato, 10 mM GA3 enhanced sprout length and number in sweetpotato roots and sprout growth was decreased by 20 ml/L piccolo (GA synthesis inhibitor). Continuous application of 10 ppm ethylene or greater prevented sprouting in sweetpotato roots over 4 weeks storage at 25° C. Sprout growth was also i...

  6. Total polyphenols and bioactivity of seeds and sprouts in several legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Sang-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Seeds and sprouts from legume crop plants have received attention as functional foods, because of their nutritive values including amino acid, fiber, trace elements, vitamins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Consumption of seeds and sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. The seeds and sprouts are excellent examples of functional food defined as lowering the risk of various diseases and/or exerting health promoting effects in addition to its nutritive value. Phenolic compounds are considered as secondary metabolites that are synthesized by plants during normal development and in response to stress conditions, and the compounds occur ubiquitously in plants as the diversified group of phytochemicals derived from phenylalanine and tyrosine. Plant phenolics include simple phenols, phenolic acids, coumarins, flavonoids, stilbenes, hydrolyzable and condensed tannins, lignans, and lignins. In plant, phenolics may act as phytoalexins, antifeedants, attractants for pollinators, contributors to the plant pigmentation, antioxidants, and protective agents against UV light, among others. In food, phenolics may contribute to the bitterness, astringency, color, flavor, odor, and oxidative stability of products. In addition, health-protecting capacity of some and antinutritional properties of other plant phenolics are of great importance to producers, processors and consumers. Several researches were conducted to compare the content of phenolics and flavonoids, antioxidant activity and antioxidant enzyme activity from seeds and sprouts of legume plants. Total phenolics (TP) content and total flavonoids (TF) level were highest in soybean sprout extracts, followed by cowpea and mungbean sprout extracts (p < 0.05). DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical) free radical scavenging activity was higher in cowpea or mungbean sprouts than in soybean sprouts. Among antioxidant enzymes

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chandini Ravikumar

    2015-01-01

    Broccoli is an edible green plant that is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. They are rich in vitamin C, dietary fiber and also contain glucoraphin, sulforaphane, selenium and isothiocyanates. Broccoli is also an excellent source of indole-3-carbinol. These constituents present in broccoli are known to be very popular since they possess several anti-cancer properties and benefits. These anti-carcinogenic compounds have a wide variety of uses and benefit...

  8. Trace element water improves the antioxidant activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Kuang

    2007-10-31

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was grown in trace element water (TEW) (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) and deionized water (DIW) to evaluate whether the beneficial effects of trace elements on the antioxidant activity could be accomplished with the supplement of TEW. At 300 ppm, TEW significantly increased the Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe contents in buckwheat sprout but not the Se content. However, the levels of rutin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin did not differ between buckwheat sprouts grown in TEW and DIW. The ethanolic extract from buckwheat sprout grown in 300 ppm of TEW showed higher ferrous ion chelating activity and inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation than that grown in DIW. The extract in the TEW group also enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase activity and lowered reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion in the human Hep G2 cell. It was concluded that TEW could increase the antioxidant activities of buckwheat sprouts.

  9. 紫茎泽兰和一年蓬浸提液化感作用的对比研究%Allelopathy of Water-extracted Solution of Eupatorium adenophorum and Erigeron annuus on the Sprouting of Radish Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭永钦; 胡兵; 熊程; 李丽; 王永模

    2011-01-01

    The allelopathy of Eupatorium adenophorum was studied by cultivating radish seeds in the water extraction of Eupatorium adenophorum root, stem and leaves,and compared with that of Erigeron annuus. Results showed that the extraction of Eupatorium adenophorum from every partion had inhibitory effect on sprouting of radish seeds; and the order of allelopathy was leafe >root >stem. At the concentration of 0.40 g/mL,the allelopathy of extration from Eupatorium adenophorum was stronger than that of Erigeron annuus and control, which meant that Eupatorium adenophorum had stronger allelopathy. It was suggested that allelopathy meda Eupatorium adenophorum more competitive than the local weeds, thus played an important role in its invasion and spreading.%采用根、茎和叶浸提液培养萝卜种子的方法研究了紫茎泽兰的化感作用,同时与本地杂草一年蓬的化感作用进行了比较.试验结果表明,紫茎泽兰各部位的浸提液对萝卜种子的萌发普遍具有抑制作用,化感强弱顺序为:叶>根>茎;在0.40g/mL的浓度下,紫茎泽兰根、茎、叶浸提液对萝卜种子胚根和胚芽的抑制作用均显著大于同浓度的一年蓬浸提液和空白对照组,表明紫茎泽兰比一年蓬具有更强的化感作用.紫茎泽兰化感作用在传播入侵过程中起着重要的作用,在与本地杂草竞争时具有优势.

  10. Attachment to an endogenous laminin-like protein initiates sprouting by leech neurons

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Leech neurons in culture sprout rapidly when attached to extracts from connective tissue surrounding the nervous system. Laminin-like molecules that promote sprouting have now been isolated from this extracellular matrix. Two mAbs have been prepared that react on immunoblots with a approximately equal to 220- and a approximately equal to 340-kD polypeptide, respectively. These antibodies have been used to purify molecules with cross-shaped structures in the electron microscope. The molecules,...

  11. Effect of salinity stress on phenolic compounds and carotenoids in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kee-Jai; Kim, Bum-Keun; Jeong, Jin-Woong; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2012-12-01

    The effect of salinity stress on the nutritional quality of buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 1, 3, 5, and 7d was investigated by analysis of the antioxidant activity and levels of phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Treatment with various concentrations of NaCl (10, 50, 100, and 200mM) resulted in an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in the sprouts compared with the control (0mM). The phenolic contents of sprouts treated with 10, 50, and 100mM after 7d of cultivation were 57%, 121%, and 153%, respectively, higher than that of the control (0mM NaCl). Moreover, the accumulation of phenolic compounds was primarily caused by an increase in the levels of 4 compounds: isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin. The carotenoid content of sprouts treated with 50 and 100mM NaCl was twice higher than that of the control. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of the sprouts was increased by NaCl treatment. Although the growth rate of sprouts decreased with >50mM NaCl, these results suggest that treatment of an appropriate concentration of NaCl improves the nutritional quality of sprouts, including the level of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity.

  12. 绿花椰菜片剂中莱菔硫烷含量测定及对急性酒精性肝损伤的保护作用%Quantitative determination of sulforaphane from broccoli extract tablets and its role in the protection of acute liver injury induced by ethanol . Journal of Zhejiang University (Agric . & Life Sci .), 2013,39(2):197-202

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝龙; 田思聪; 谭洁; 李冰; 陈镜羽; 单毓娟

    2013-01-01

    Summary Sulforaphane ( SFN) is an isothiocyanate ( ITC) which exists as a precursor of glucosinolate ( GS) in various cruciferous vegetables especially in broccoli . Sulforaphane has been regarded as a potential of anti‐cancer agent derived from diet , mostly because of its powerful induction of phase Ⅱ enzymes , and it is also acted as an antagonist of injury factors including lipopolysaccharide ( LPS) and homocysteine ( HCY) . The present study aims to explore whether broccoli extract , rich in sulforaphane , can protect the acute liver injury induced by ethanol in mice or not . The quantity of sulforaphane in broccoli extract was detected by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC) . Hematoxylin‐eosin ( HE) staining was used to determine the pathological changes in C 57BL/6 mice model with the acute liver injury induced by ethanol . The activities of alanine aminotransferase ( ALT) , aspartate aminotransferase ( AST) and alkaline phosphatase ( ALP) in serum of mice were measured using semi‐automatic biochemical analyzer . The results showed that the quantity of sulforaphane in the broccoli extract was 1 .26 mg/tablet . Liver masses in all sulforaphane treatment groups were obviously reduced which were presented as the sharply decreased ratio of liver mass/body mass . The seriously pathological evidence was observed in ethanol treatment group , while less changes were seen in the sulforaphane treatment groups . Sulforaphane could dramatically inhibit the activities of ALT , AST and ALP in serum of mice induced by ethanol , with more obvious suppression in the moderate ( 40 mg/kg) and high‐dose (80 mg/kg) groups , respectively . The result above indicates that the sulforaphane from broccoli extract tablets is able to protect the liver injury induced by ethanol .%  采用高效液相色谱法测定绿花椰菜水提物中莱菔硫烷的含量;以C57BL/6小鼠建立急性酒精性肝损伤模型,用苏木精‐伊红染色法( hematoxylin

  13. Optimization and kinetics for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of L-dopa from fava bean (Vicia faba L.) sprouts%发芽蚕豆左旋多巴超声强化提取及其动力学过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋江峰; 李大婧; 刘春泉

    2012-01-01

    In order to fully extract and utilize high bioactive natural L-DOPA (Levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine), the present study was undertaken to explore the potential applicability of ultrasonic waves to isolate L-DOPA from germinated sprouts, extraction kinetics were also preliminarily studied. Based on single factor experiments, a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the processing conditions for the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of L-DOPA in germinated fava bean sprouts and evaluate the effects of three independent variables (ultrasonic power, liquid-solid ratio and extraction time on the yield of L-DOPA. The results showed that ultrasonic power was the most important factor, the maximum yield of L-DOPA (1.47%) was found when 2.0 g germinated sprouts was extracted with 30% (by vol.) ethanol-0.1 M acetic acid solution at ultrasonic power 257 W, liquid-solid ratio 31 mL/g and extraction time 37.4 min. Under the optimum UAE conditions, L-DOPA recovery of the germinated sprouts was a little higher than that of conventional solvent extraction (CSE) and represented almost 0.58-fold increase when compared with ungerminated sprouts, UAE significantly shortened the time required for the extraction process. The yields of L-DOPA at different extraction time were simulated by three kinetic models, .i e. the film theory, the unsteady diffusion through plant and the empirical equation of Ponomaryov. The film model gave good simulation to the experimental data with the highest R2 at 0.9928. The results can provide a reference for natural L-DOPA preparation.%为了充分提取和利用高生物活性的天然左旋多巴(L-DOPA),研究了超声波强化提取发芽蚕豆L-DOPA的工艺条件,并初步探讨了超声浸提动力学过程.基于单因素试验,以超声功率、液固比、萃取时间为考察因素,采用Box-Behnken试验设计进行了工艺参数优化,结果表明,超声功率对发芽蚕豆L-DOPA得率的影响较大;原料用量2.0 g

  14. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  15. Anomalies in moisture transport during broccoli drying monitored by MRI?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Straten, van G.; Boom, R.M.; Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers unique opportunities to monitor moisture transport during drying or heating of food, which can render unexpected insights. Here, we report about MRI observations made during the drying of broccoli stalks indicating anomalous drying behaviour. In fresh broccoli

  16. Bioactive glucosinolates and antioxidant properties of broccoli seeds cultivated in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarunya Chuanphongpanich

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant health concerns of cruciferous vegetables is the presence of biologically active compounds, glucosinolates. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica is a nutritionally important crop grown all over the world. Glucosinolates have been found to have anti-cancer properties. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate glucosinolate content and antioxidant property in the seeds of broccoli cultivars widely grown in Thailand. Glucosinolates were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Total and individual glucosinolate levels varied significantly among cultivars. In all broccoli seeds, 4-methylsulfinylbutylglucosinolate (glucoraphanin was the predominant glucosinolate. The highest total glucosinolates was 65.5 µmol/g DW in ‘Top Green #067’ cultivar, followed by ‘Packman’ (58.6, ‘Green Queen’ (51.2, ‘Pak Ging’ (25.5 and ‘Rod Fai’ (20.3. The antioxidant capacities, including ABTS radical scavenging activity and ferrous ion chelating ability in the methanol and water extracts, were found to be high.

  17. Study of Active Ingredients in Black Soybean Sprouts and Their Safety in Cosmetic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinmao Dong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Active ingredients in different lengths of black soybean sprouts were extracted with water. Concentrations of the main proteins and polysaccharides were determined by the Forint phenol assay and phenol-sulfuric acid assay, respectively. Anti-oxidizing capacities of the extracts were measured in vitro using the DPPH scavenging test and whitening capacity was measured in vitro using the tyrosinase inhibition test. The effects of the bean sprout extracts on human skin fibroblasts damnified by H2O2 were studied using an MTT colorimetric assay. The safety of the extracts was determined using the red blood cell (RBC test, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay and human patch test. Results show that DPPH radical scavenging rates at different shoot lengths were all greater than 95%, while the tyrosinase inhibition capacity of the extracts reached 98%. Hemolysis rate in all extracts were lower than 10%, below the 20% regulatory limit for the RBC test. No signs of allergic reactions were observed in the human patch tests. The optimum extract was obtained from bean sprouts grown to 0.5 cm. Extracts of black bean sprouts are safe and can be used as additives in anti-aging and whitening cosmetic products.

  18. An overview of health-promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and the effect of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Andrea; Reyes, Alejandro

    2012-12-01

    Broccoli offers many heath-promoting properties owing to its content of antioxidant and anticarcinogenic compounds. The concentration and bioavailability of polyphenols, glucosinolates, sulforaphane and selenium depend on plant biochemistry, cultivation strategy and type of processing. In this article, the main biochemical properties of broccoli are reviewed regarding their health-promoting effects. Additionally, the way these properties are affected by processing is discussed. Steaming and drying result in an apparent increment of sulforaphane content as well as antioxidant activity, most likely due to an increase of the extractability of antioxidants and sulforaphane. Freezing and boiling diminish polyphenols concentration, mainly due to volatilization and leaching into the cooking water. In view of these results, the optimization of broccoli processing in order to maximize the content of bioactive compounds should be possible. The effect of processing on selenium compounds has been poorly studied so far, and therefore this topic should be investigated in the future. Finally, the effect of operating conditions in different drying processes on the content of bioactive compounds in broccoli should be investigated in a greater depth.

  19. Endophytic bacterial and fungal microbiota in sprouts, roots and stems of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenfeng; Zhai, Yanyan; Cao, Lixiang; Tan, Hongming; Zhang, Renduo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the endophytic microbiota in rice sprouts, roots, and stems, and their transmission in the plant development. Prior to DNA extraction, roots and stems were treated with 36% formaldehyde and 0.1M NaOH solutions to remove epiphytic bacterial whole 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial and fungal taxa in the sprout, root, and stem samples were analyzed using Illumina-based sequencing of the V3-V4 hyper variable regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the ITS2 regions of fungal rRNA genes, respectively. Results showed that more diverse bacterial OTUs were detected in roots than in stems, while more diverse fungal OTUs were detected in stems than in roots. Compared with the endophytic microbiota in sprouts, the bacterial OTUs increased in roots but decreased in stems, whereas the fungal OTUs in both stems and roots decreased. Sprout-borne bacterial genera Sphingomonas and Pseudomonus, and fungal genera Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, and Penicillium were detected in stems and roots. The coexistence of these indigenous bacterial and fungal taxa in sprouts, roots, and stems indicated their transmission during the development from sprouts to mature plants. The results from this study should be useful to better understand the plant-microbe interactions and to select suitable microbial taxa for rice production. PMID:27296957

  20. Anomalies in moisture transport during broccoli drying monitored by MRI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; van Boxtel, Antonius J B; Gerkema, Edo; Vergeldt, Frank J; Van As, Henk; van Straten, Gerrit; Boom, Remko M; van der Sman, Ruud G M

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers unique opportunities to monitor moisture transport during drying or heating of food, which can render unexpected insights. Here, we report about MRI observations made during the drying of broccoli stalks indicating anomalous drying behaviour. In fresh broccoli samples the moisture content in the core of the sample increases during drying, which conflicts with Fickian diffusion. We have put the hypothesis that this increase of moisture is due to the stress diffusion induced by the elastic impermeable skin. Pre-treatments that change skin and bulk elastic properties of broccoli show that our hypothesis of stress-diffusion is plausible.

  1. The influence of selenium addition during germination of Brassica seeds on health-promoting potential of sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska, Anna; Kołodziejski, Dominik; Pilipczuk, Tadeusz; Bodnar, Małgorzata; Konieczka, Piotr; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika; Cyprys, Joanna; Groszewska, Milena; Namieśnik, Jacek; Bartoszek, Agnieszka

    2014-09-01

    The correlation among selenium uptake, the content of bioactive compounds in sprouts, and biological activities triggered in cultured human cells by sprout extracts was investigated. Seeds of Brassica crops and rye were treated with SeO2 water solution. The selenium levels in sprouts increased from 1.0-4.1 to 53.3-382 μg/g dw with no influence on plant physiology according to the indices used. Neither the composition of glucosinolates (GL) in Brassica sprouts nor the myrosinase activity nor the composition of GL breakdown lipophilic products were significantly affected. In all Brassica sprouts, conversion to health-promoting isothiocyanates (ITC) and indoles corresponded to only 1% of total GLs. Low ITC concentration may explain observed lack of induction of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) detoxifying enzymes in HT29 cells exposed to sprout extracts. The insignificant impact on cell growth and genome function suggests that Brassica sprouts may be safe vehicle of selenium to combat its dietary deficiency. PMID:24827602

  2. Sweet potato cysteine proteases SPAE and SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Liang, Shu-Hao; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2015-08-15

    Sweet potato sporamins are trypsin inhibitors and exhibit strong resistance to digestion by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. In addition, they constitute the major storage proteins in the sweet potato and, after degradation, provide nitrogen as a nutrient for seedling regrowth in sprouting storage roots. In this report, four cysteine proteases-one asparaginyl endopeptidase (SPAE), two papain-like cysteine proteases (SPCP1 and SPCP2), and one granulin-containing cysteine protease (SPCP3)-were studied to determine their association with sporamin degradation in sprouting storage roots. Sporamin degradation became significant in the flesh of storage roots starting from week 4 after sprouting and this correlated with expression levels of SPAE and SPCP2, but not of SPCP1 and SPCP3. In the outer flesh near the skin, sporamin degradation was more evident and occurred earlier than in the inner flesh of storage roots. Degradation of sporamins in the outer flesh was inversely correlated with the distance of the storage root from the sprout. Exogenous application of SPAE and SPCP2, but not SPCP3, fusion proteins to crude extracts of the outer flesh (i.e., extracted from a depth of 0.3cm and within 2cm of one-week-old sprouts) promoted in vitro sporamin degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of SPAE and SPCP2 fusion proteins at 95°C for 5min prior to their application to the crude extracts reduced sporamin degradation. These data show that sweet potato asparaginyl endopeptidase SPAE and papain-like cysteine protease SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting. PMID:26363719

  3. Sweet potato cysteine proteases SPAE and SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Liang, Shu-Hao; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2015-08-15

    Sweet potato sporamins are trypsin inhibitors and exhibit strong resistance to digestion by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. In addition, they constitute the major storage proteins in the sweet potato and, after degradation, provide nitrogen as a nutrient for seedling regrowth in sprouting storage roots. In this report, four cysteine proteases-one asparaginyl endopeptidase (SPAE), two papain-like cysteine proteases (SPCP1 and SPCP2), and one granulin-containing cysteine protease (SPCP3)-were studied to determine their association with sporamin degradation in sprouting storage roots. Sporamin degradation became significant in the flesh of storage roots starting from week 4 after sprouting and this correlated with expression levels of SPAE and SPCP2, but not of SPCP1 and SPCP3. In the outer flesh near the skin, sporamin degradation was more evident and occurred earlier than in the inner flesh of storage roots. Degradation of sporamins in the outer flesh was inversely correlated with the distance of the storage root from the sprout. Exogenous application of SPAE and SPCP2, but not SPCP3, fusion proteins to crude extracts of the outer flesh (i.e., extracted from a depth of 0.3cm and within 2cm of one-week-old sprouts) promoted in vitro sporamin degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of SPAE and SPCP2 fusion proteins at 95°C for 5min prior to their application to the crude extracts reduced sporamin degradation. These data show that sweet potato asparaginyl endopeptidase SPAE and papain-like cysteine protease SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

  4. Direct-Seeded Broccoli Responses to Reduced Nitrogen Application at Shoot-Tip Straightened Stage

    OpenAIRE

    LI Hong; Li, Tingxian; Robert J. Gordon; Asiedu, Samuel K.

    2009-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important high-nutritional-value vegetable yet broccoli plant and nitrogen nutrition relations are not well understood. We conducted a study of broccoli plant response to nitrogen nutrient treatments in a commercial production field in Nova Scotia. The objectives were to quantify the effects of nitrogen nutrition on direct-seeded broccoli development and plant nitrogen uptake in different soils. The nitrogen treatments consisted of the rates of ...

  5. Production and postharvest quality maintenance of single unit and bunching broccoli in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Jett, Lewis W.

    1990-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has become an increasingly popular vegetable with American consumers. Much of the attractiveness of fresh broccoli is derived from this vegetable's high nutrition and excellent organoleptic properties. In a consumer response survey, Virginia Master Gardeners indicated a preference for broccoli that has less stalk and more florets by weight. The objectives of this research were to produce single unit broccoli, and to examine vac...

  6. Continued Selenium Biofortification of Carrots and Broccoli Grown in Soils Once Amended with Se-enriched S. pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, Gary S; Arroyo, Irvin S; Dangi, Sadikshya R; Zambrano, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) biofortification has been practiced in Se-deficient regions throughout the world primarily by adding inorganic sources of Se to the soil. Considering the use of adding organic sources of Se could be useful as an alternative Se amendment for the production of Se-biofortified food crops. In this multi-year micro-plot study, we investigate growing carrots and broccoli in soils that had been previously amended with Se-enriched Stanleya pinnata Pursh (Britton) three and 4 years prior to planting one and two, respectively. Results showed that total and extractable Se concentrations in soils (0-30 cm) were 1.65 mg kg(-1) and 88 μg L(-1), and 0.92 mg kg(-1) and 48.6 μg L(-1) at the beginning of the growing season for planting one and two, respectively. After each respective growing season, total Se concentrations in the broccoli florets and carrots ranged from 6.99 to 7.83 mg kg(-1) and 3.15 to 6.25 mg kg(-1) in planting one and two, respectively. In broccoli and carrot plant tissues, SeMet (selenomethionine) was the predominant selenoamino acid identified in Se aqueous extracts. In postharvest soils from planting one, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses showed that amending the soil with S. pinnata exerted no effect on the microbial biomass, AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), actinomycetes and Gram-positive and bacterial PLFA at both 0-5 and 0-30 cm, respectively, 3 years later. Successfully producing Se-enriched broccoli and carrots 3 and 4 years later after amending soil with Se-enriched S. pinnata clearly demonstrates its potential source as an organic Se enriched fertilizer for Se-deficient regions. PMID:27602038

  7. Continued Selenium Biofortification of Carrots and Broccoli Grown in Soils Once Amended with Se-enriched S. pinnata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, Gary S.; Arroyo, Irvin S.; Dangi, Sadikshya R.; Zambrano, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) biofortification has been practiced in Se-deficient regions throughout the world primarily by adding inorganic sources of Se to the soil. Considering the use of adding organic sources of Se could be useful as an alternative Se amendment for the production of Se-biofortified food crops. In this multi-year micro-plot study, we investigate growing carrots and broccoli in soils that had been previously amended with Se-enriched Stanleya pinnata Pursh (Britton) three and 4 years prior to planting one and two, respectively. Results showed that total and extractable Se concentrations in soils (0–30 cm) were 1.65 mg kg-1 and 88 μg L-1, and 0.92 mg kg-1 and 48.6 μg L-1 at the beginning of the growing season for planting one and two, respectively. After each respective growing season, total Se concentrations in the broccoli florets and carrots ranged from 6.99 to 7.83 mg kg-1 and 3.15 to 6.25 mg kg-1 in planting one and two, respectively. In broccoli and carrot plant tissues, SeMet (selenomethionine) was the predominant selenoamino acid identified in Se aqueous extracts. In postharvest soils from planting one, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses showed that amending the soil with S. pinnata exerted no effect on the microbial biomass, AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), actinomycetes and Gram-positive and bacterial PLFA at both 0–5 and 0–30 cm, respectively, 3 years later. Successfully producing Se-enriched broccoli and carrots 3 and 4 years later after amending soil with Se-enriched S. pinnata clearly demonstrates its potential source as an organic Se enriched fertilizer for Se-deficient regions. PMID:27602038

  8. Continued selenium biofortification of carrots and broccoli grown in soils once amended with Se-enriched S. pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S. Bañuelos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se biofortification has been practiced in Se-deficient regions throughout the world primarily by adding inorganic sources of Se to the soil. Considering the use of adding organic sources of Se could be useful as an alternative Se amendment for the production of Se-biofortified food crops. In this multi-year micro-plot study, we investigate growing carrots and broccoli in soils that had been previously amended with Se-enriched Stanleya pinnata Pursh (Britton three and four years prior to planting one and two, respectively. Results showed that total and extractable Se concentrations in soils (0-30 cm were 1.65 mg kg-1 and 88 µg L-1, and 0.92 mg kg-1 and 48.6 µg L-1 at the beginning of the growing season for planting one and two, respectively. After each respective growing season, total Se concentrations in the broccoli florets and carrots ranged from 6.99 to 7.83 mg kg-1 and 3.15 to 6.25 mg kg-1 in planting one and two, respectively. In broccoli and carrot plant tissues, SeMet (selenomethionine was the predominant selenoamino acid identified in Se aqueous extracts. In postharvest soils from planting one, phospholipid analyses (PLFA showed that amending the soil with S. pinnata exerted no effect on the microbial biomass, AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, actinomycetes and Gram-positive and bacterial PLFA at both 0-5 and 0-30 cm, respectively, three years later. Successfully producing Se-enriched broccoli and carrots three and four years later after amending soil with Se-enriched S. pinnata clearly demonstrates its potential source as an organic Se enriched fertilizer for Se-deficient regions.

  9. Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, P. J.; Beuchat, L. R.; Slutsker, L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with raw seed sprouts have occurred in several countries. Subjective evaluations indicate that pathogens can exceed 107 per gram of sprouts produced from inoculated seeds during sprout production without adversely affecting appearance. Treating seeds and sprouts with chlorinated water or other disinfectants fails to eliminate the pathogens. A comprehensive approach based on good manufacturing practices and principles of hazard analysis and critical control points can reduce the risk of sprout-associated disease. Until effective measures to prevent sprout-associated illness are identified, persons who wish to reduce their risk of foodborne illness from raw sprouts are advised not to eat them; in particular, persons at high risk for severe complications of infections with Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7, such as the elderly, children, and those with compromised immune systems, should not eat raw sprouts. PMID:10511518

  10. SproutCore web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Keating, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Written as a practical, step-by-step tutorial, Creating HTML5 Apps with SproutCore is full of engaging examples to help you learn in a practical context.This book is for any person looking to write software for the Web or already writing software for the Web. Whether your background is in web development or in software development, Creating HTML5 Apps with SproutCore will help you expand your skills so that you will be ready to apply the software development principles in the web development space.

  11. Dielectric properties of tantalum powder with broccoli-like morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Masahiko [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Suzuki, Ryosuke O. [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki@energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-04-19

    Metallic tantalum powder with broccoli-like morphology, consisting of spherical fine particles and of long rods or thin plates, was prepared in a hundred gram scale by calcium reduction of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} in molten CaCl{sub 2}. The properties as electrolytic capacitor were evaluated in comparison with commercial powder obtained by Na reduction and with powder consisting of only fine particles obtained by Ca reduction. The capacitance was larger than that of conventional powder with the same surface area, because the broccoli-like powder showed a strong resistance against shrinkage during high temperature annealing due to the framework of branches. The powder with new broccoli-like morphology can circumvent the conventional treatments for grain size control and gas removal.

  12. Research on the Inhibition of the Extractive from Purple Broccoli to the LDL Oxidative Modification Mediated by Cu2+%紫甘蓝提取物对Cu2+介导的LDL氧化修饰的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董青春; 樊琛

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The effect of the anthocyanin from purple broccoli on the LDL oxidative modification Cu~(2+) -mediated was studied. [Method] The inhibitory effect before and after pre-treatment intervention of oxidation on the content of low concentration of lipoprotein REM, TBARS and apolipopretein carbonyl in purple broccoli were investigated. [Results] TheResults showed that there was the obvious inhibition effect of anthocyanin on the LDL oxidative modification mediated by Cu~(2+) , with a dose-dependent relation. [Conclusion] The purple broccoli was beneficial to the patients related to the cardiovascular and high blood lipids disease.%[目的]研究紫甘蓝花青素时Cu~(2+)介导LDL氧化修饰作用的影响.[方法]选用紫甘蓝,对氧化干预前后低密度脂蛋白REM,TBARS及栽脂蛋白羰基含量的抑制效果进行了考察.[结果]结果表明,花青素对Cu~(2+)介导LDL氧化修饰作用具有明显的抑制作用.且呈浓度依赖关系.[结论]紫甘蓝有益于与氧化型低密度脂蛋白相关的心血管疾病患者以及高血脂人群等.

  13. Comparing potato tuberization and sprouting: opposite phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, D.

    2004-01-01

    The regulation of tuber formation and tuber sprouting are compared. As a starting point it is hypothesized that these two phenomena are opposite to each other. This idea is tested from three points of view: hormonal regulation, gene expression, and carbohydrate metabolism. It is concluded that there

  14. Carbon disulphide promotes sprouting of potato minitubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, Kh.; Hosseini, M.B.; Struik, P.C.; Tavakkol Afshari, R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of postharvest application of carbon disulphide (CS2) in various concentrations (0, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 ml m-3) and with different exposure duration (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) on breaking of dormancy and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Marfona) minitubers of t

  15. Regulation of potato tuber dormancy and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksenova, N.P.; Sergeeva, L.; Konstantinova, T.N.; Golyanovskaya, S.A.; Kolachevskaya, O.O.; Romanov, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Dormancy is the final stage of tuber life serving to preserve tubers as organs of vegetative reproduction under unfavorable growth conditions. Since the duration of potato tuber dormancy and their sprouting time have significant economic importance, much attention is given to the study of the regula

  16. No de novo sulforaphane biosynthesis in broccoli seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Antonie; Kraut, Nicolai U.; de Visser, Ries; de Vries, Marcel; Roelofsen, Han; Vonk, Roel J.

    2011-01-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane, present in significant amounts in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) seedlings in the form of its precursor glucoraphanin, has been identified as an inducer of quinine reductase, a phase-II detoxification enzyme known for its anticarcinogenic properties. Its concentrati

  17. The Effect of Steaming on the Glucosinolate Content in Broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Knol, J.J.; Dekker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Total and individual glucosinolates were measured after different duration of steaming broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica). During steaming, the temperature profile, cell lysis and inactivation of myrosinase were assessed as well. Steaming resulted in high retention of total aliphatic and i

  18. SOIL MULCHING WITH STRAW IN BROCCOLI CULTIVATION FOR EARLY HARVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kosterna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All treatments which protect soil from degradation and use of plant protection methods, other than chemicals are of great importance in the cultivation. This effect is attributed, among others, to organic mulches. By limiting the growth of weeds, maintaining proper moisture and reducing daily temperature fluctuations, mulch improves soil conditions for plant growth and development. The experiment was carried out between 2010 and 2012 at the Experimental Farm in Zawady as a split-block design with three replicates. The effect of the kind of straw (rye, corn, rape, buckwheat and its dose (10 and 20 t∙ha-1 applied as a mulch on the yield and quality of broccoli ‘Milady F1’ cultivated for early harvest was investigated. The effect of straw was compared to a control plot without mulch. Weather conditions in the successive years of the study had a significant influence on the yield and quality of broccoli. The highest yields with the best parameters were obtained in 2010 and 2012, which were characterized by sufficient rainfall for broccoli. It was not found significant differences in the yield level and weight of head between particular kinds of straw, however, all kinds of straw investigated in the experiment, irrespective of dose, contributed to a significant increase in the yield and favourably influenced the biometric features of broccoli compared to that achieved from cultivation without straw. Soil mulching with corn straw was most favourable to yield and its parameters.

  19. Effect of the growth stage and cultivar on policosanol profiles of barley sprouts and their adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Woo Duck; Yuk, Heung Joo; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Jang, Ki Chang; Lee, Jin Hwan; Han, Sang-Ik; Kang, Hang Won; Nam, Min Hee; Lee, Sung-Joon; Lee, Ji Hae; Park, Ki Hun

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an intracellular sensor that can regulate glucose levels within the cell. For this reason, it is well-known to be a target for drugs against diabetes and obesity. AMPK was activated significantly by the hexane extract of barley sprouts. This AMPK activation emerges across the growth stages of the sprout, becoming most significant (3 times above the initial stages) 10 days after sprouting. After this time, the activation decreased between 13 and 20 days post-sprouting. Analysis of the hexane extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the amounts of policosanols (PCs, which are linear, primary aliphatic alcohols with 20-30 carbons) in the plant dramatically increased between 5 days (109.7 mg/100 g) and 10 days (343.7 mg/100 g) post-sprouting and then levels fell back down, reaching 76.4 mg/100 g at 20 days post-sprouting. This trend is consistent with PCs being the active ingredient in the barley plants. We validate this by showing that hexacosanol is an activator of AMPK. The richest cultivar for PCs was found to be the Daejin cultivar. Cultivars had a significant effect on the total PC content (113.2-183.5 mg/100 g) within the plant up to 5 days post-sprouting. However this dependence upon the cultivar was not so apparent at peak stages of PC production (10 days post-sprouting). The most abundant PC in barley sprout, hexacosanol, contributed 62-80% of the total PC content at every stage. These results are valuable to determine the optimal times of harvest to obtain the highest yield of PCs. PMID:23301834

  20. Plants as biofactories: Postharvest Stress-Induced Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Glucosinolates in Broccoli Subjected to Wounding Stress and Exogenous Phytohormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eVillarreal-García

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli contains high levels of bioactive molecules and is considered a functional food. In this study, postharvest treatments to enhance the concentration of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds were evaluated. Broccoli whole heads were wounded to obtain florets and wounded florets (florets cut into four even pieces and stored for 24 h at 20 ºC with or without exogenous ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm or methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 250 ppm. Whole heads were used as a control for wounding treatments. Regarding glucosinolate accumulation, ET selectively induced the 4-hydroxylation of glucobrassicin in whole heads, resulting in ~223% higher 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin than time 0 h samples. Additionally, glucoraphanin was increased by ~53% in whole heads treated with ET, while neoglucobrassicin was greatly accumulated in wounded florets treated with ET or MeJA, showing increases of ~193% and ~286%, respectively. On the other hand, although only whole heads stored without phytohormones showed higher concentrations of phenolic compounds, which was reflected in ~33%, ~30%, and 46% higher levels of 1,2,2-trisinapoylgentiobose, 1,2-diferulolylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose, respectively; broccoli florets stored under air control conditions showed enhanced concentrations of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,2-disinapoylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose (~22%, ~185%, and ~65% more, respectively. However, exogenous ET and MeJA impeded individual phenolics accumulation. Results allowed the elucidation of simple and effective postharvest treatment to enhance the content of individual glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in broccoli. The stressed-broccoli tissue could be subjected to downstream processing in order to extract and purify bioactive molecules with applications in the dietary supplements, agrochemical and cosmetics markets.

  1. Effects of combined treatments of irradiation and antimicrobial coatings on reduction of food pathogens in broccoli florets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takala, P.N.; Salmieri, S.; Vu, K.D. [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Canadian Irradiation Centre, 531, Blvd des Prairies, Laval, QC, H7V 1B7 (Canada); Lacroix, M., E-mail: Monique.Lacroix@iaf.inrs.ca [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Canadian Irradiation Centre, 531, Blvd des Prairies, Laval, QC, H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    The effect of combined treatment of antimicrobial coatings and {gamma}-radiation on reduction of food pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated in broccoli florets. Broccoli florets were inoculated with pathogenic bacteria at 10{sup 6} CFU/g. Inoculated florets were then coated with methylcellulose-based coating containing various mixtures of antimicrobial agents: organic acids (OAs) plus lactic acid bacteria metabolites (LABs), OA plus citrus extract (CE), OA plus CE plus spice mixture (SM), and OA plus rosemary extract (RE). Coated florets were irradiated with various doses (0-3.3 kGy), and microbial analyses were used to calculate the D{sub 10} value and radiosensitive relative. The coating containing OA plus CE was the most effective formulation for increasing the sensitization of Escherichia coli by 2.4 times as compared to the control without the antimicrobial coating. For Salmonella Typhimurium, coating containing OA plus LAB was the most effective formulation, increasing radiosensitivity by 2.4 times as well. All antimicrobial coatings had almost the same effect of increasing the sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes (from 1.31 to 1.45 times) to {gamma}-irradiation. - Highlights: > Demonstrate scientifically the synergistic effect of the combined treatment of gamma-irradiation and natural antimicrobial coating in reduction of food pathogens in broccoli. > The coating containing organic acids plus citrus extract was the most efficient formulation for increasing the sensitization of E. coli by 2.40 times as compared to the control. > The coating containing organic acids plus lactic acid bacteria metabolites was the most effective formulation causing the sensitization of S. Typhimurium to {gamma}-irradiation by 2.4 times. > Potential in application of developed formulations to protect food products against food pathogens.

  2. Effects of combined treatments of irradiation and antimicrobial coatings on reduction of food pathogens in broccoli florets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of combined treatment of antimicrobial coatings and γ-radiation on reduction of food pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated in broccoli florets. Broccoli florets were inoculated with pathogenic bacteria at 106 CFU/g. Inoculated florets were then coated with methylcellulose-based coating containing various mixtures of antimicrobial agents: organic acids (OAs) plus lactic acid bacteria metabolites (LABs), OA plus citrus extract (CE), OA plus CE plus spice mixture (SM), and OA plus rosemary extract (RE). Coated florets were irradiated with various doses (0-3.3 kGy), and microbial analyses were used to calculate the D10 value and radiosensitive relative. The coating containing OA plus CE was the most effective formulation for increasing the sensitization of Escherichia coli by 2.4 times as compared to the control without the antimicrobial coating. For Salmonella Typhimurium, coating containing OA plus LAB was the most effective formulation, increasing radiosensitivity by 2.4 times as well. All antimicrobial coatings had almost the same effect of increasing the sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes (from 1.31 to 1.45 times) to γ-irradiation. - Highlights: → Demonstrate scientifically the synergistic effect of the combined treatment of gamma-irradiation and natural antimicrobial coating in reduction of food pathogens in broccoli. → The coating containing organic acids plus citrus extract was the most efficient formulation for increasing the sensitization of E. coli by 2.40 times as compared to the control. → The coating containing organic acids plus lactic acid bacteria metabolites was the most effective formulation causing the sensitization of S. Typhimurium to γ-irradiation by 2.4 times. → Potential in application of developed formulations to protect food products against food pathogens.

  3. Innovative minimal processing of mini broccoli for keeping quality and safety and enhancing bioactive compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Hernández, Ginés Benito

    2012-01-01

    [ENG] Broccoli has been described as the ‘super–vegetable’ in the media after a great number of epidemiological and laboratory studies on this Brassica specie. These studies have shown numerous health–promoting properties of broccoli such as chemopreventive, antioxidant, antitumor, antimutagenicity, anti–inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral and reduction of coronary heart disease risk. These properties are related to the high content of broccoli in phenolic compounds, glucosinolates (isothi...

  4. COMPARISON OF FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF TWO MAIN VARIETIES OF CICER ARIETINUM SPROUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beenu Tom

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the extent of free radical scavenging properties and antioxidant effects of crude extracts of sprouted Cicer arietinum (Chick pea/Chana/Bengal gram seeds. Two main varieties of Cicer arietinum seeds viz. Kabuli-chana (cream seed-coat and Bengal gram (brown seed-coat were examined and compared for their free radical scavenging properties and antioxidant effects. A crude methanol extract of the sprouted seeds were prepared. Free radical scavenging properties were evaluated against stable 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and hydrogen peroxide radical and the extent of antioxidant effect was assessed by lipid peroxidation induced by ferrous sulphate on the lipid present in the liver homogenate. The results showed that the two Cicer arietinum extracts differed in their capacities to quench or inhibit DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxide. Brown colored Cicer arietinum sprouts showed the greatest activity against DPPH radicals, hydrogen peroxide radicals and lipid peroxide compared to the cream variety. This study is clearly indicating that brown colored Cicer arietinum is effective in scavenging free radicals and has the potential to be a powerful antioxidant.

  5. Ecological and environmental factors constrain sprouting ability in tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Carl F; McMahon, Sean M

    2011-06-01

    Most theories of forest biodiversity focus on the role of seed dispersal and seedling establishment in forest regeneration. In many ecosystems, however, sprouting by damaged stems determines which species occupies a site. Damaged trees can quickly recover from disturbance and out-compete seedlings. Links among species' traits, environmental conditions and sprouting could offer insight into species' resilience to changes in climate, land use, and disturbance. Using data for 25 Neotropical tree species at two sites with contrasting rainfall and soil, we tested hypotheses on how four functional traits (seed mass, leaf mass per area, wood density and nitrogen fixation) influence species' sprouting responses to disturbance and how these relationships are mediated by a tree's environmental context. Most species sprouted in response to cutting, and many species' sprouting rates differed significantly between sites. Individual traits showed no direct correlation with sprouting. However, interactions among traits and site variables did affect sprouting rates. Many species showed increased sprouting in the higher-quality site. Most nitrogen-fixing species showed the opposite trend, sprouting more frequently where resources are scarce. This study highlights the use of functional traits as a proxy for life histories, and demonstrates the importance of environmental effects on demography. PMID:21116651

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION ON THE MAIN PRODUCTION OF BROCCOLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Doltu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was realized in the unheated greenhouse of Horting Institute Bucharest, in 2012 year. It have aimed the influence of one phase of fertilization with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 on inflorescences of broccoli, at a hybrid F1 - Ironman. The fertilizer was used before the formation of main inflorescences, in different doses (100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha, without fertilizer. Harvesting was done in 4 stages. A phase of fertilization with ammonium nitrate has influenced the main production of broccoli: the variant with fertilization 150 kg/ha has obtained the highest percentage of inflorescences formed, the average weight/inflorescence largest and superior production compared with other variants. Were obtained direct linear correlations between the doses of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 and the production aspects followed (percentage of main inflorescences harvested, average weight/inflorescence, total production, significances of the correlations very high.

  7. The potential of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), an Israeli native, as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaknin, Yiftach; Hadas, Rivka; Schafferman, Dan; Murkhovsky, Leonid; Bashan, Neta

    2008-06-01

    The potential of wild plants in Israel as sources of edible sprouts has not been investigated until now. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world; its young fleshy stems are traditionally eaten by the local Arab sector in Israel, and its sprouts are rich in antioxidants and have been used as a traditional medicine for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. The active extract of milk thistle, silymarin, is a mixture of flavonolignans and is a strong antioxidant that has been proved to promote liver cell regeneration, to reduce blood cholesterol and to help prevent cancer. The present objective was to investigate the potential of milk thistle as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants. We found that seed germination within 3-4 days was high (96%, except for striated seeds). Exposure to light significantly reduced sprout growth and significantly increased the polyphenol content and antioxidative capacity. The polyphenol content was 30% higher in seeds originating from purple inflorescences than in those from white ones. We thus found milk thistle to be a good candidate source of healthy edible sprouts.

  8. Polymer coating, germination and vigor of broccoli seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Celina de; Rocha Sandra Cristina dos Santos; Razera Luiz Fernandes

    2005-01-01

    Brassica oleracea var italica occupies a special place in the internal and external market of vegetables seeds. Vegetables producers demand seeds with high degree of purity, germination and vigor, since seeds' quality is the basis for the success of the production. In this work, broccoli seeds were coated in a spouted bed, by an aqueous suspension of hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose. Effects of the operating variables: spouting air temperature, atomizing air pressure and coating suspension flow rate o...

  9. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  10. Carbon disulphide promotes sprouting of potato minitubers

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi, Kh.; Hosseini, M.B.; Struik, P.C.; Tavakkol Afshari, R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of postharvest application of carbon disulphide (CS2) in various concentrations (0, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 ml m-3) and with different exposure duration (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) on breaking of dormancy and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Marfona) minitubers of two ages (freshly harvested and one week after harvest) and two weight classes (1.5 and 12 g). In comparison with the control minitubers, CS2 treated minitubers showed significantly shorter dormancy...

  11. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  12. Current intervention strategies for the microbial safety of sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikin, Adi Md; Zoellner, Claire; Rizvi, Syed S H

    2013-12-01

    Sprouts have gained popularity worldwide due to their nutritional values and health benefits. The fact that their consumption has been associated with numerous outbreaks of foodborne illness threatens the $250 million market that this industry has established in the United States. Therefore, sprout manufacturers have utilized the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommended application of 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite solution to seeds before germination as a preventative method. Concentrations of up to 200 ppm of chlorine wash are also commonly used on sprouts. However, chlorine-based treatment achieves on average only 1- to 3-log reductions in bacteria and is associated with negative health and environmental issues. The search for alternative strategies has been widespread, involving chemical, biological, physical, and hurdle processes that can achieve up to 7-log reductions in bacteria in some cases. The compilation here of the current scientific data related to these techniques is used to compare their efficacy for ensuring the microbial safety of sprouts and their practicality for commercial producers. Of specific importance for alternative seed and sprout treatments is maintaining the industry-accepted germination rate of 95% and the sensorial attributes of the final product. This review provides an evaluation of suggested decontamination technologies for seeds and sprouts before, during, and after germination and concludes that thermal inactivation of seeds and irradiation of sprouts are the most practical stand-alone microbial safety interventions for sprout production.

  13. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  14. Controlling rheology and structure of sweet potato starch noodles with high broccoli powder content by hydrocolloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, E.; Birkenhake, M.; Scholten, E.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating high volume fractions of broccoli powder in starch noodle dough has a major effect on its shear modulus, as a result of significant swelling of the broccoli particles. Several hydrocolloids with distinct water binding capacity (locust bean gum (LBG), guar gum, konjac glucomannan (KG),

  15. High amounts of broccoli in pasta-like products: nutritional evaluation and sensory acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, E.; Gerritsen, L.; Dekker, M.; Linden, van der E.; Scholten, E.

    2013-01-01

    Pasta and noodles were enriched with concentrations of broccoli powder (BP) up to 30% (v/v). To ensure the benefits from the broccoli nutrients, their leakage during cooking should be prevented. Such leakage is determined by the microstructure. In a previous study we have shown that the microstructu

  16. Bioavailability and kinetics of sulforaphane in humans after consumption of cooked versus raw broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.W.A.A.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the bioavailability and kinetics of the supposed anticarcinogen sulforaphane, the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, from raw and cooked broccoli. Eight men consumed 200 g of crushed broccoli, raw or cooked, with a warm meal in a randomized, free-living, open

  17. A research approach for quality based design of healthy foods: Dried broccoli as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2013-01-01

    An approach for process design based on optimization of product quality attributes is presented. Adsorption drying of broccoli with retention of its health benefits is taken as an example to illustrate the approach. Related to its content of glucosinolates, broccoli has a high potential to reduce th

  18. Ozonated water and chlorine effects on the antioxidant properties of organic and conventional broccoli during postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in studies on sanitizers other than chlorine that can maintain the quality of organic products without affecting their phytochemical content. The effects of using chlorinated and ozonized water treatments, as sanitizing procedures, on the post-harvest quality of organic and conventional broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica was evaluated. The biochemical parameters (chlorophyll, polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of the broccoli samples were analyzed at day 0 (arrival of the plant from the field, original features, and 1, 4 and 7 days after harvest. The polyamine analysis was performed on arrival of the plant from the field and on the first and seventh days. The cultivation procedure influenced polyphenol, vitamin C and total chlorophyll content, and the highest value was observed in organic broccoli after the fourth day. Flavenoid content was higher in organic broccoli. The use of ozone appears not to have had an influence on the amount of polyphenolic, flavonoids and vitamin C during storage. Total chlorophyll content was less affected by ozonized water than by the chlorine treatment as at the first and fourth days of storage. The highest content of putrescine was found in conventional broccoli, while the highest levels of spermidine and spermine were found in organic broccoli. Antioxidant capacity was highest in organic broccoli after day 4 of storage and was affected by the bioactive compounds analyzed. Methods of cultivation influenced natural antioxidant and chlorophyll contents in broccoli under cold storage.

  19. Differences in tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Greenhouse and field experiments were designed to compare the tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone and assess its potential for weed management in broccoli. Fo...

  20. Effects of combined treatments of irradiation and antimicrobial coatings on reduction of food pathogens in broccoli florets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, P. N.; Salmieri, S.; Vu, K. D.; Lacroix, M.

    2011-12-01

    The effect of combined treatment of antimicrobial coatings and γ-radiation on reduction of food pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated in broccoli florets. Broccoli florets were inoculated with pathogenic bacteria at 10 6 CFU/g. Inoculated florets were then coated with methylcellulose-based coating containing various mixtures of antimicrobial agents: organic acids (OAs) plus lactic acid bacteria metabolites (LABs), OA plus citrus extract (CE), OA plus CE plus spice mixture (SM), and OA plus rosemary extract (RE). Coated florets were irradiated with various doses (0-3.3 kGy), and microbial analyses were used to calculate the D10 value and radiosensitive relative. The coating containing OA plus CE was the most effective formulation for increasing the sensitization of Escherichia coli by 2.4 times as compared to the control without the antimicrobial coating. For Salmonella Typhimurium, coating containing OA plus LAB was the most effective formulation, increasing radiosensitivity by 2.4 times as well. All antimicrobial coatings had almost the same effect of increasing the sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes (from 1.31 to 1.45 times) to γ-irradiation.

  1. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) acting as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruthiviraj, Prakash; Margret, Anita; Krishnamurthy, Poornima Priyadharsani

    2016-04-01

    Production of antimicrobial agents through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using green technology has been extensively made consistent by various researchers; yet, this study uses the flower bud's aqueous extracts of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) as a reducing agent for chloroauric acid (1 mM). After 30 min of incubation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was observed by a change in extract color from pale yellow to purple color. Synthesis of AuNps was confirmed in UV-visible spectroscopy at the range of approximately 560 nm. The SEM analysis showed the average nanoparticles size of 12-22 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AuNps was analyzed by subjecting it to human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The broccoli-synthesized AuNps showed the efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of above-mentioned microbes. It was confirmed that AuNps have the best antimicrobial agent compared to the standard antibiotics (Gentamicin and Fluconazole). When the concentrations of AuNps were increased (10, 25, and 50 µg/ml), the sensitivity zone also increased for all the tested microbes. The synthesized AuNps are capable of rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and, hence, have a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against major bacterial and fungal diseases in humans.

  2. Effect of Hot Water Treatment on Postharvest Shelf Life and Quality of Broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ping; LI Wu

    2003-01-01

    Broccoli was stored at 0, 10, or 20℃ after immersion in hot water (38 -52℃ ) for 10 or 30min. Yellowing of broccoli was significantly slowed and shelf life significantly increased when broccoli wastreated with hot water at 42 -46℃ and then stored at 10 or 20℃. Heat injury occurred when treatment washigher than 46℃ in some varieties. Broccoli lasted 2 -3 days longer when stored at 10℃ and 1 -2 days longerwhen stored at 20℃ after hot water treatment at 46℃. There was no significant effect of treatment on shelflife after long time storage at 0℃. Weight loss was reduced by hot water treatment and the respiration behav-ior of the broccoli was also changed.

  3. Identification and quantification of glucosinolates in sprouts derived from seeds of wild Eruca sativa L. (salad rocket) and Diplotaxis tenuifolia L. (wild rocket) from diverse geographical locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard N; Carvalho, Rosa; Mellon, Fred A; Eagles, John; Rosa, Eduardo A S

    2007-01-10

    The Brassicaceae rocket species Eruca sativa L. (salad rocket) and Diplotaxis tenuifolia L. (wild rocket) are consumed throughout the world in salads, predominantly the leaves but also the flowers and more recently the sprouts (seedlings). Ontogenic profiling of glucosinolates and flavonoids in plants derived from commercial seed of these species has previously been done, but no studies have been conducted to determine how geographical origin affects glucosinolate composition in rocket species. Seeds from wild E. sativa L. and D. tenuifolia L. from diverse regions of the world were obtained from gene banks and grown under controlled conditions. Sprouts were harvested when they would normally be harvested for consumption, and glucosinolates were extracted and profiled in these accessions. All of the sprouts from Italian E. sativa L. had consistently high total glucosinolate content, with only a few exceptions, and also the highest percentage contents of 4-mercaptobutylglucosinolate. In contrast, sprouts produced from Central and Eastern European seeds had a much higher percentage of 4-methylthiobutylglucosinolate. With a single exception, Tunisia, all sprouts produced from North African seeds had very high 4-methylthiobutylglucosinolate contents. The single sample from China had a high total glucosinolate content and glucosinolate profile that was very similar to the accessions from Uzbekistan and Pakistan. All of the D. tenuifolia L. sprouts had consistently high total glucosinolate contents, and a high percentage of this was 4-mercaptobutylglucosinolate. This glucosinolate variation in levels and profiles of the rockets can be used for genetic studies, selected breeding, and human intervention studies.

  4. Reproductive fitness of outcrossed hybrids between transgenic broccoli (brassica oleracea) carrying the ipt transgene and conventional varieties of kale, broccoli and cauliflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollens are potential carriers for genetically modified crops to transfer genetic materials horizontally to other plants. For phanerogams, pollen viability and cross-compatibility are critical factors for successful outcross hybridization. To evaluate this possibility, this project investigated pollen viability and pod setting rate by comparing broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Planck) and broccoli transformed with the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene. Both served as pollen donors and four other varieties as pollen receptors to determine outcross rates. For pollen viability, F1 progeny was higher (p?0.05) for the cross of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue significantly by FDA (fluorescein diacetate) assay. Higher successful hybrids were observed for transgenic ipt broccoli with Fu Yue, Li Syue and Green King. As pollen properties, number and grain diameter were significantly larger (p?0.05) in hybrid combinations of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue and Green King significantly (p?0.05). The pod setting rates were higher while transgenic ipt broccoli served as donor plant. These results analyzing pollen properties between transgenic crops with possible outcross candidates would serve as one of those critical strategies for evaluating environmental biosafety issues for transgenic crops. (author)

  5. ADAPTABILITY, FERTILIZER EFFECT AND NUTRITION CONTENT OF VARIOUS BROCCOLI CULTIVAR (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica INTRODUCED IN KOPANG, CENTRAL LOMBOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenul Gafari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to determine adaptability of eight introduced broccoli cultivars in the tropical climate, the effect of fertilizers, as well as determine the content of vitamin A, C and fiber owned by the cultivar. This research was using randomized complete block design ( RCBD with two factors. The first factorsare different broccoli cultivars namely Broccoli 'Lucky', Broccoli 'B - 106', Broccoli 'B-116', Broccoli 'B-112', Broccoli 'Green 2109' F1, Broccoli 'Green calabrase' and Broccoli 'Green Magic 'and Broccoli' Mujur'as a control. The second factors fertilizer of ZA, manure and urea. This research was performed in Kopang, Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, for seven months from December 2014 to Juni 2015.Analysis of the nutrient content was done at the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, University of Mataram, Lombok. Parameters observed in this research were plant height, number and weight of leaves, and quality of curd. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA if significantly different then tested further by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5% level. The results showed all the cultivars able to adapt. Broccoli 'B-106' is a cultivar that has the quality and quantity of curd most excellent and able to adapt to high temperatures. ZA fertilizer application will produce curd weight and diameter greater than that ofmanure or urea. The research also showed that cultivar B-112 has the highest content of vitamin A, B-116 has the highest vitamin C and Green 2109F1 has the highest fibers.

  6. Broccoli consumption and chronic atrophic gastritis among Japanese males: an epidemiological investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato K

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous in vitro and animal experiments have shown that sulforaphane, which is abundant in broccoli, inhibits Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and blocks gastric tumor formation. This suggests that broccoli consumption prevents chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG introduced by H. pylori infection and, therefore, gastric cancer. For an epidemiological investigation of the relationship between the broccoli consumption and CAG, a cross-sectional study of 438 male employees, aged 39 to 60 years, of a Japanese steel company was conducted. CAG was serologically determined with serum cut-off values set at pepsinogen I < or = 70 ng/ml and a ratio of serum pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II < or = 3.0. Broccoli consumption (weekly frequency and diet were monitored by using a 31-item food frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of CAG among men who ate broccoli once or more weekly was twice as high as that among men who consumed a negligible amount (P < 0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that broccoli consumption once or more weekly significantly increased the risk for CAG (odds ratio, 3.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-8.38; P < 0.05, after controlling for age, education, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. The present study failed to show an expected association between frequent broccoli consumption and a low prevalence of CAG.

  7. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica head initiation under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kałużewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A two–year study on the influence of temperature on broccoli head initiation was carried out at the ''Marcelin'' experimental station of the Poznań University of Life Sciences. In each year of the study, plants were planted in the field at four dates. The evaluation of the developmental phase of the broccoli shoot apex was based on the analysis of microscope slides. The date of head initiation was assumed as the day on which the first of the examined apices were found to be at the early generative phase. The plant characteristics (number of leaves, leaf area and stem diameter on the date of initiation were also determined. Variation in length of the period from planting to head initiation was found both between dates of planting and between experimental years. The shortest period from planting to initiation was when the plants were planted in April and June (17-18 days in the first year and the longest one for planting in April in the first year of the study (29 days. The length of the period from planting to head initiation depended on mean daily air temperature. The higher the temperature was, the shorter was the period.

  8. Polymer coating, germination and vigor of broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Celina de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica oleracea var italica occupies a special place in the internal and external market of vegetables seeds. Vegetables producers demand seeds with high degree of purity, germination and vigor, since seeds' quality is the basis for the success of the production. In this work, broccoli seeds were coated in a spouted bed, by an aqueous suspension of hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose. Effects of the operating variables: spouting air temperature, atomizing air pressure and coating suspension flow rate over the dependent variables: seeds germination, seeds accelerated aging and the speed of seeds germination in soil, were investigated in a factorial scheme trial. The maximum processing time was 120 min. A totally randomized experiment evaluated and compared seeds germination and vigor of the coated and non-coated seeds. There was no identifiable, pronounced difference on germination of coated and non-coated seeds, accelerated aging of seeds, and speed of seeds germination in the soil. Coating with hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose in the spouted bed did not alter broccoli seeds physiologic quality. The surface of coated seeds presented satisfactory distribution and spreading of the polymer film, uniform and individual coating and homogeneous aspect.

  9. Heat Transfer during Blanching and Hydrocooling of Broccoli Florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribe-Salazar, Rosalina; Caro-Corrales, José; Hernández-Calderón, Óscar; Zazueta-Niebla, Jorge; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Carrazco-Escalante, Marco; Vázquez-López, Yessica

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this work was to simulate heat transfer during blanching (90 °C) and hydrocooling (5 °C) of broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. Italica) and to evaluate the impact of these processes on the physicochemical and nutrimental quality properties. Thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity [line heat source], specific heat capacity [differential scanning calorimetry], and bulk density [volume displacement]) of stem and inflorescence were measured as a function of temperature (5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 °C). The activation energy and the frequency factor (Arrhenius model) of these thermophysical properties were calculated. A 3-dimensional finite element model was developed to predict the temperature history at different points inside the product. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental temperature histories was carried out. Quality parameters (firmness, total color difference, and vitamin C content) and peroxidase activity were measured. The satisfactory validation of the finite element model allows the prediction of temperature histories and profiles under different process conditions, which could lead to an eventual optimization aimed to minimize the nutritional and sensorial losses in broccoli florets.

  10. Starch-related Enzymes during Potato Tuber Dormancy and Sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sergeeva, L.I.; Claassens, M.M.J.; Jamar, D.C.L.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2012-01-01

    Activities of enzymes presumably involved in starch biosynthesis (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, AGPase) and/or breakdown (starch phosphorylase, STP; amylases) were determined during potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber dormancy and sprouting. Overall activities of all these enzymes decreased during

  11. Neuroprotective Effect of Brassica oleracea Sprouts Crude Juice in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Masci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ aberrant production and aggregation are major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, causing neuronal death via oxidative stress. Several studies have highlighted the importance of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds in the treatment of AD, but complex food matrices, characterized by a different relative content of these phytochemicals, have been neglected. In the present study, we analyzed the protective effect on SH-SY5Y cells treated with the fragment Aβ25–35 by two crude juices of broccoli sprouts containing different amounts of phenolic compounds as a result of different growth conditions. Both juices protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death as evidenced by cell viability, nuclear chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation measurements. These effects were mediated by the modulation of the mitochondrial function and of the HSP70 gene transcription and expression. Furthermore, the juices upregulated the intracellular glutathione content and mRNA levels or activity of antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. Although the effects of the two juices were similar, the juice enriched in phenolic compounds showed a greater efficacy in inducing the activation of the Nrf2 signalling pathway.

  12. Storage changes in the quality of sound and sprouted flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, R; Nagi, H P; Sharma, S; Sekhon, K S

    1993-07-01

    Sound and sprouted flours (24 and 48 hr) from bread wheat (WL-1562), durum wheat (PBW-34) and triticale (TL-1210) were stored at room temperature (34.8 degrees C) and relative humidity (66.7%) for 0, 45, 90 and 135 days to assess the changes in physico-chemical and baking properties. Protein, gluten, sedimentation value, starch and crude fat decreased during storage in all the samples; however, the decrease was more in sprouted flours. Free amino acids, proteolytic activity, diastatic activity and damaged starch decreased with increase in storage period. Total sugars and free fatty acids increased more rapidly in the flours of sprouted wheats during 135 days of storage. Loaf volume of breads decreased during storage in both sound and sprouted flour but the mean percent decrease in loaf volume was more in stored sound flours. Aging of sprouted flour for 45 days improved the cookie and cake making properties but further storage was of no value for these baked products. Chapati making properties of stored sound and sprouted flour were inferior to that of fresh counterparts. PMID:8332585

  13. Selenium Supplementation of Amaranth Sprouts Influences Betacyanin Content and Improves Anti-Inflammatory Properties via NFκB in Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Pasko, Pawel; Zagrodzki, Pawel; Gajdzik, Ewelina; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Gorinstein, Shela

    2016-02-01

    Sprouts contain potent compounds which while influencing crucial transduction pathways in cell reveal anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we report the biological activity for seeds and colourful sprouts of four types of edible amaranth, as amaranth has recently attracted interest due to its appreciable nutritional value. MTT assay conducted for the amaranth seeds and sprouts did not show any adverse effect on the viability of murine RAW 264.7 cells. As amaranth accumulates selenium, the sprouts were supplemented with this trace element (10 mg/L; 15 mg/L Se as sodium selenite) while growing. Selenium concentration in sprouts was observed to be significantly correlated with betacyanins content of the tested species. The amounts of Se and betacyanins in sprouts varied for various Amaranth species. In the present study, Amaranthus cruentus sprouts with the highest betacyanins (19.30 ± 0.57-28.85 ± 2.23 mg of amaranthin/100 g of fresh weight) and high total selenium (22.51 ± 1.57-1044.75 ± 73.08 μg/L in methanol extracts) content prevented NFκB translocation to the cell nucleus and subsequently exerted an anti-inflammatory effect by significant decreasing inflammatory interleukin 6 production (587.3 ± 34.2-710.0 ± 88.1 pg/mL) in the cell culture of activated RAW 264.7 macrophages (vs LPS control 1520 ± 114 pg/mL). PMID:26162623

  14. Selenium Supplementation of Amaranth Sprouts Influences Betacyanin Content and Improves Anti-Inflammatory Properties via NFκB in Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Pasko, Pawel; Zagrodzki, Pawel; Gajdzik, Ewelina; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Gorinstein, Shela

    2016-02-01

    Sprouts contain potent compounds which while influencing crucial transduction pathways in cell reveal anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we report the biological activity for seeds and colourful sprouts of four types of edible amaranth, as amaranth has recently attracted interest due to its appreciable nutritional value. MTT assay conducted for the amaranth seeds and sprouts did not show any adverse effect on the viability of murine RAW 264.7 cells. As amaranth accumulates selenium, the sprouts were supplemented with this trace element (10 mg/L; 15 mg/L Se as sodium selenite) while growing. Selenium concentration in sprouts was observed to be significantly correlated with betacyanins content of the tested species. The amounts of Se and betacyanins in sprouts varied for various Amaranth species. In the present study, Amaranthus cruentus sprouts with the highest betacyanins (19.30 ± 0.57-28.85 ± 2.23 mg of amaranthin/100 g of fresh weight) and high total selenium (22.51 ± 1.57-1044.75 ± 73.08 μg/L in methanol extracts) content prevented NFκB translocation to the cell nucleus and subsequently exerted an anti-inflammatory effect by significant decreasing inflammatory interleukin 6 production (587.3 ± 34.2-710.0 ± 88.1 pg/mL) in the cell culture of activated RAW 264.7 macrophages (vs LPS control 1520 ± 114 pg/mL).

  15. Ozonated water and chlorine effects on the antioxidant properties of organic and conventional broccoli during postharvest

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima; Tatiana Marquini Machado; Luciana Manoel de Oliveira; Luciana da Silva Borges; Valber de Albuquerque Pedrosa; Paola Vanzani; Fabio Vianello

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in studies on sanitizers other than chlorine that can maintain the quality of organic products without affecting their phytochemical content. The effects of using chlorinated and ozonized water treatments, as sanitizing procedures, on the post-harvest quality of organic and conventional broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) cv. Italica was evaluated. The biochemical parameters (chlorophyll, polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity) of the broccoli sample...

  16. Bioactive glucosinolates and antioxidant properties of broccoli seeds cultivated in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sarunya Chuanphongpanich; Sukon Phanichphant; Duang Bhuddasukh; Maitree Suttajit; Busaban Sirithunyalug

    2006-01-01

    One of the most significant health concerns of cruciferous vegetables is the presence of biologically active compounds, glucosinolates. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is a nutritionally important crop grown all over the world. Glucosinolates have been found to have anti-cancer properties. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate glucosinolate content and antioxidant property in the seeds of broccoli cultivars widely grown in Thailand. Glucosinolates were analyzed with high...

  17. Broccoli yield in response to top-dressing fertilization with green manure and biofertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Bernardo de Freitas; Márcio Sousa Rocha; Ricardo Henrique Silva Santos; Letícia Monteiro da Silva Freitas; Leandro de Almeida Resende

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the productive performance of broccoli under different top-dressing organic fertilizations. The experiment was conducted under protected cultivation, in a completely randomized design with four replications, with two plants per experimental unit. Broccoli seedlings were produced in a commercial substrate in styrofoam trays. The seedlings were transplanted to plastic pots containing 10.0 L of substrate made up of subsoil and organic compost at the rat...

  18. Investigation on the influence of pre-treatments on drying behaviour of broccoli by MRI experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der, R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van, H.; Straten, van, FE; Boom, R.M.; Boxtel, van, C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) allows the monitoring of internal moisture content of food products during drying non-destructively. In an experimental set-up with continuous and controlled hot air supply, the internal moisture distribution of broccoli with different pre-treatments are measured during drying. Moisture distribution, drying rate and shrinkage are compared and analyzed quantitatively. MRI results indicated that for fresh broccoli stalks the moisture content in the cor...

  19. Cultivation conditions and selenium fertilization alter the phenolic profile, glucosinolate, and sulforaphane content of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca J; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Banuelos, Gary; Finley, John W

    2005-01-01

    Broccoli is a food often consumed for its potential health-promoting properties. The health benefits of broccoli are partly associated with secondary plant compounds that have bioactivity; glucosinolates and phenolic acids are two of the most abundant and important in broccoli. In an effort to determine how variety, stress, and production conditions affect the production of these bioactive components broccoli was grown in the greenhouse with and without selenium (Se) fertilization, and in the field under conventional or organic farming procedures and with or without water stress. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify 12 primary phenolic compounds. Variety had a major effect: There was a preponderance of flavonoids in the Majestic variety, but hydroxycinnamic esters were relatively more abundant in the Legacy variety. Organic farming and water stress decreased the overall production of phenolics. Se fertilization increased glucosinolates in general, and sulforaphane in particular, up to a point; above that Se fertilization decreased glucosinolate production. Organic farming and water stress also decreased glucosinolate production. These data show environmental and genetic variation in phenolics and glucosinolates in broccoli, and warn that not all broccoli may contain all health-promoting bioactive components. They further show that selection for one bioactive component (Se) may decrease the content of other bioactive components such as phenolics and glucosinolates. PMID:16117613

  20. 西兰花种子中萝卜硫素酶解浸提工艺研究%Leaching Process Research of Sulforaphane with Broccoli Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢述琼; 何珺; 舒华

    2016-01-01

    西兰花中含有丰富的抗癌物质,对大多数癌症都有较强的作用。本文研究了从西兰花种子中酶解浸提萝卜硫素的工艺,确定其最佳的酶解浸提参数。通过单因素梯度实验研究,采用自身芥子苷酶酶解以及密封浸提方式提取西兰花种子中萝卜硫素,主要对酶解时间,酶解料液比,酶解pH,超声浸提乙醇浓度,超声浸提时间,超声浸提次数几种浸提参数进行研究。结果表明:西兰花种子中萝卜硫素酶解浸提最佳条件为:酶解时间为8 h以上,酶解料液比为12,酶解pH为7,超声浸提溶剂为80%乙醇,超声浸提时间为30 min,超声浸提的次数为2次。西兰花种子中萝卜硫素的酶解浸提工艺参数达到最佳时,其提取率可以大大的提高。%Broccoli contains abundant anti-cancer substances, for most cancer it has a stronger effect. This experiment studied Enzyme solution leaching process of sulforaphane in broccoli seeds, determining the optimum enzymic extraction parameters. Through the single factor gradient experiment research, using own mustard glucoside enzyme digestion and seal extraction method to extract sulforaphane in broccoli seeds, enzymatic hydrolysis time, solid-liquid ratio, acidity leaching, extraction of ethanol concentration, extraction time and ultrasonic extraction times were mainly studied. Results showed that the optimum leaching conditions were as follows: enzymolysis time of 8 h, solid-liquid ratio of 12, leaching pH of 7, extraction solvent of 80% ethanol, extraction time for 30 min, the number of ultrasonic extraction of 2 times. The extraction parameter of sulforaphane gets to the best, its extraction efficiency can be greatly improved.

  1. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting induced by botulinum toxin type A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jiang; Yi Xiang; Xingyue Hu; Huaying Cai

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A is a potent muscle relaxant that blocks the transmission and release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A has served as an effective and safe therapy for strabismus and focal dystonia. However, muscular weakness is temporary and after 3-4 months, muscle strength usually recovers because function-al recovery is mediated by nerve sprouting and reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction. Acrylamide may produce neurotoxic substances that cause retrograde necrotizing neuropathy and inhibit nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A. This study investigated whether acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. A tibial nerve sprouting model was established through local injection of botulinum toxin type A into the right gastrocnemius muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats. Following intramuscular injection, rats were given intraperitoneal injection of 3%acrylamide every 3 days for 21 days. Nerve sprout-ing appeared 2 weeks after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A and single-fiber electromyography revealed abnormal conduction at the neuromuscular junction 1 week after intra-muscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. Following intraperitoneal injection of acrylamide, the peak muscle ifber density decreased. Electromyography jitter value were restored to normal levels 6 weeks after injection. This indicates that the maximal decrease in ifber density and the time at which functional conduction of neuromuscular junction was restored were delayed. Addition-ally, the increase in tibial nerve ifbers was reduced. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A and may be used to prolong the clinical dosage of botulinum toxin type A.

  2. Induction of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes by broccoli sulforaphane: Perspectives in maintaining the antioxidant activity of vitamins A, C, and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhar s Boddupalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of fruits and vegetables is recognized as an important part of a healthy diet. Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables in particular has been associated with a decreased risk of several degenerative and chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Members of the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage, accumulate significant concentrations of glucosinolates, which are metabolized in vivo to biologically active isothiocyanates (ITCs. The ITC sulforaphane, which is derived from glucoraphanin, has garnered particular interest due to its extraordinary ability to induce expression of several enzymes via the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Nrf2/ARE gene products are typically characterized as Phase II detoxification enzymes and/or antioxidant (AO enzymes. Over the last decade, human clinical studies have begun to provide in vivo evidence of both Phase II and AO enzyme induction by SF. Many AO enzymes are redox cycling enzymes that maintain redox homeostasis and activity of free radical scavengers such as such as vitamins A, C and E. In this review, we present the existing evidence for induction of PII and AO enzymes by SF, the interactions of SF-induced AO enzymes and proposed maintenance of the essential vitamins A, C and E, and, finally, the current view of genotypic effects on ITC metabolism and AO enzyme induction and function.

  3. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.B.; Pedersen, M.H.; Skov, P.S.;

    2008-01-01

    Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes.......Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes....

  4. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Simsek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS and Hard White Spring (HWS wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat.

  5. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability.

  6. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. PMID:25156799

  7. Effects of Yeast Polysaccharide on Growth and Flavonoid Accumulation in Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Zhao; Jianglin Zhao; Lianxin Peng; Liang Zou; Jingbo Wang; Lingyun Zhong; Dabing Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS) on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat). Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures ...

  8. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to inactivate Salmonella enterica on mungbean sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although fresh-sprouted beans and grains are considered a good source of nutrients, they have been associated with foodborne outbreaks. Sprouts provide a good matrix for microbial localization and growth due to optimal conditions of temperature and humidity while sprouting. Also, the lack of a kill...

  9. Investigation of functional properties and color changes of corn extrudates enriched with broccoli or olive paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisharat, Ghassan I; Katsavou, Ioanna D; Panagiotou, Nikolaos M; Krokida, Magdalini K; Maroulis, Zacharias B

    2015-12-01

    Following the tendency of replacing common food snacks with healthier food products, extruded snacks with corn flour and broccoli (4-10%) or olive paste (4-8%) were investigated in this study. The effect of material characteristics, including feed moisture content (14-19%), and broccoli or olive paste concentration, and extrusion conditions, including screw speed (150-250 r/min), and extrusion temperature (140-180 ℃), on the functional properties (water absorption index, water solubility index, and oil absorption index), as well as color change (ΔE) of the extruded snacks was studied. Regression analysis showed that screw speed did not significantly influence (p > 0.05) the properties. After mathematical modelling it was found that broccoli and olive paste concentration, as well as temperature increment, caused a decrease in water absorption index (minimum of 5.6 and 6.4 g/g sample, respectively) and an increase in water solubility index (maximum of 18.7 and 10.9 g/100 g sample, respectively), while feed moisture presented opposite tendency. Higher extrusion temperature led to an increment of oil absorption index (approximately to 1.2 and 1 mL/g sample) and decrement of color changes. Finally, feed moisture and broccoli concentration lowered oil absorption index and color of corn/broccoli extrudates, while olive paste concentration caused their increment.

  10. High amounts of broccoli in pasta-like products: nutritional evaluation and sensory acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E; Gerritsen, L; Dekker, M; van der Linden, E; Scholten, E

    2013-11-01

    Pasta and noodles were enriched with concentrations of broccoli powder (BP) up to 30% (v/v). To ensure the benefits from the broccoli nutrients, their leakage during cooking should be prevented. Such leakage is determined by the microstructure. In a previous study we have shown that the microstructure can change dramatically in such broccoli-enriched products. In this article we investigated the amount of nutrients retained within the product. As a representative of nutrients we have chosen glucosinolates (GLs). Therefore, we have investigated the concentration of these phytochemicals in dried and cooked pasta and noodles. We have found that glucosinolates present in the pasta and noodles increase linearly with the volume fraction of BP up to 20%. At 30% BP the retained amount of GLs was equal to that of 20% BP and did not increase further. Therefore incorporation of 30% BP does not lead to additional health benefits over incorporation of 20% BP. We conclude that the nutritional function of our pasta-like products can be improved by enrichment up to 20% broccoli. This value is much higher than that found in common commercial products (which is a few percent). In this article we also briefly address the sensory acceptability of such products. Up to 20% broccoli the products turned out to remain acceptable. Combining this with our results on texture analysis we conclude that the GLs release, sensory acceptability and textural properties are related via the microstructure.

  11. Growth and yield of broccoli fertilized with doses of velvet bean in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Rúbia Diniz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dose effects of green manure in vegetable crops production are still poorly understood. There are few scientific studies indicate that increasing the dose may influence plants characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of doses of velvet bean green manure on growth and yield, the partitioning of dry matter and nitrogen (N in plants of broccoli, as well as determine the apparent recovery and physiological efficiency of use N. We established four treatments plus a control. The treatments consisted of four levels of green manure: 0, 3, 6, 9 t ha-1 on a dry matter basis, with the addition of 12 t ha-1 of compost. Doses of green manure applied influenced the growth and yield of broccoli. The distribution of dry matter between plant parts of broccoli is not influenced by the doses of green manure. Doses of green manure influenced the amount of N accumulated in the inflorescence and whole plant of broccoli. The apparent recovery of N from green manure and efficiency of N use by plants of broccoli are positively associated with the applied doses.

  12. The Propagation of Variation in Glucosinolate Levels as effected by Controlled Atmosphere and Temperature in a Broccoli Batch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Zhang, X.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2008-01-01

    Broccoli combines high levels of vitamins, fibres and glucosinolates (GLS) with a low calorie count. GLS are precursors for the characteristic broccoli flavour and have anti-carcinogenic properties. This study describes the effect of controlled atmo¬sphere (CA) and temperature on GLS concentrations

  13. Effect of matrix and particle type on rheological, textural and structural properties of broccoli pasta and noodles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, E.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.; Scholten, E.

    2013-01-01

    Durum wheat semolina (DWS) pasta and sweet potato starch (SPS) noodles were incorporated with dif ferent volume fractions and types of broccoli powder (up to 20% v/v). The incorporation of high volume fractions of broccoli powder produced in-house in SPS noodles increases the modulus of the dough an

  14. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Keqin; Cheng, Yongqiang; Xing, Ying; Lin, Li; Nout, Robert; Liang, Jianfen

    2010-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity (p 

  15. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Baenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo, a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  16. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-18

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  17. Nutritional quality of sous vide cooked carrots and brussels sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaro, Emma; Mazzeo, Teresa; Visconti, Attilio; Manzi, Chiara; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-06-13

    Phytochemicals (carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant capacity (measured by TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP assays) were evaluated on carrots and Brussels sprouts sous vide processed and then stored refrigerated for 1, 5, and 10 days and compared with the corresponding raw and oven-steamed products. Data showed that sous vide cooked carrots had higher amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid than steamed products, and only a slight decrease of phenolic compounds was recorded during sous vide storage. Contrasting results were obtained on sous vide processed Brussels sprouts: higher carotenoid amounts and TEAC and TRAP values and lower phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and FRAP values were exhibited by sous vide in comparison with steamed samples. Phytochemicals and TAC also decreased during Brussels sprout sous vide storage with the exception of carotenoids. The results of this study demonstrated that sous vide preparation can preserve and/or enhance the nutritional quality of carrots, which remain a good source of carotenoids also after long refrigerated storage, whereas the same treatment could be recommended as an alternative to oven-steaming in the preparation of Brussels sprouts for short-term maintenance to avoid a large ascorbic acid depletion.

  18. Nutritional quality of sous vide cooked carrots and brussels sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaro, Emma; Mazzeo, Teresa; Visconti, Attilio; Manzi, Chiara; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-06-13

    Phytochemicals (carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant capacity (measured by TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP assays) were evaluated on carrots and Brussels sprouts sous vide processed and then stored refrigerated for 1, 5, and 10 days and compared with the corresponding raw and oven-steamed products. Data showed that sous vide cooked carrots had higher amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid than steamed products, and only a slight decrease of phenolic compounds was recorded during sous vide storage. Contrasting results were obtained on sous vide processed Brussels sprouts: higher carotenoid amounts and TEAC and TRAP values and lower phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and FRAP values were exhibited by sous vide in comparison with steamed samples. Phytochemicals and TAC also decreased during Brussels sprout sous vide storage with the exception of carotenoids. The results of this study demonstrated that sous vide preparation can preserve and/or enhance the nutritional quality of carrots, which remain a good source of carotenoids also after long refrigerated storage, whereas the same treatment could be recommended as an alternative to oven-steaming in the preparation of Brussels sprouts for short-term maintenance to avoid a large ascorbic acid depletion. PMID:22568492

  19. Nitrogen balances during growth of Brussels sprouts and leeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, R.; Willigen, de P.; Kreuzer, A.D.H.; Smit, A.L.; Werf, van der A.

    1996-01-01

    The nitrogen balance at different N-application rates was determined in Brussels sprouts and leeks during growth of the crop in two field experiments on a sandy soil. The N-input (from fertilizer and mineralisation) and the N-output (N in the above-ground crop parts and the residual mineral N in the

  20. Effect of Different Growth State of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) on Low Temperature Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xin-mei; LI Yue-fang; YU Xi-hong

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the responding of different growth state on low temperature in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), we took prematurity broccoli hybrid as the objects. It was found that growth state was varied under different sowing time , moreover, stem became wider with the increasing of light density at the same leaf age.Seedling age of responding to low temperature vernalization only when they grew five leaves above and with over 3.03± 0.07 centimeter stalk width in "Qingfeng Broccoli 103". The older leaf age was and the stronger plant was, the more sensitive and the shorter demanded duration time on low temperature was, and the shorter time required when the plants entered into critical period of floral bud differentiation.

  1. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Sprouting Angiogenesis: Proteases Pave the Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzana, A; Fibbi, G; Margheri, F; Biagioni, A; Luciani, C; Del Rosso, M; Chillà, A

    2015-01-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis consists of the expansion and remodelling of existing vessels, where the vascular sprouts connect each other to form new vascular loops. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are a subtype of stem cells, with high proliferative potential, able to differentiate into mature Endothelial Cells (ECs) during the neovascularization process. In addition to this direct structural role EPCs improve neovascularization, also secreting numerous pro-angiogenic factors able to enhance the proliferation, survival and function of mature ECs, and other surrounding progenitor cells. While sprouting angiogenesis by mature ECs involves resident ECs, the vasculogenic contribution of EPCs is a high hurdle race. Bone marrowmobilized EPCs have to detach from the stem cell niche, intravasate into bone marrow vessels, reach the hypoxic area or tumour site, extravasate and incorporate into the new vessel lumen, thus complementing the resident mature ECs in sprouting angiogenesis. The goal of this review is to highlight the role of the main protease systems able to control each of these steps. The pivotal protease systems here described, involved in vascular patterning in sprouting angiogenesis, are the matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), the serineproteinases urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) associated with its receptor (uPAR) and receptorassociated plasminogen/plasmin, the neutrophil elastase and the cathepsins. Since angiogenesis plays a critical role not only in physiological but also in pathological processes, such as in tumours, controlling the contribution of EPCs to the angiogenic process, through the regulation of the protease systems involved, could yield new opportunities for the therapeutic prospect of efficient control of pathological angiogenesis. PMID:26321757

  2. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra;

    2016-01-01

    therefore developed an interactive annotation tool, EXTRACT, which helps curators identify and extract standard-compliant terms for annotation of metagenomic records and other samples. Behind its web-based user interface, the system combines published methods for named entity recognition of environment...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  3. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane.

  4. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane. PMID:23411305

  5. Comparison of the degradation and leaching kinetics of glucosinolates during processing of four Brassicaceae (broccoli, red cabbage, white cabbage, Brussels sprouts)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarvan, I.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are secondary metabolites of Brassica vegetables that are associated with health benefits. The concentrations of these compounds are strongly affected by processing of the vegetables. During thermal treatment of Brassicaceae, such as domestic cooking, different mechanisms affect

  6. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

    2004-10-01

    Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

  7. Ozone fumigation increases the abundance of nutrients in Brassica vegetables: broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Nosek, Michał; Ślesak, Irenusz; Edward KUNICKI; Dziurka, Michał; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    B rassicaceae vegetables, among them broccoli and Chinese cabbage, are well recognized due to the nutritional properties. Four-week-old Chinese cabbage and broccoli seedlings were fumigated with O3 for 3 days before being transplanted into the field. The effect of O3 treatment was determined after reaching marketable quality (ca. 10 weeks). The inflorescences of O3-treated broccoli were enriched in vitamin E (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol), whereas Chinese cabbage heads had an increased conte...

  8. Biotechnological advancement in genetic improvement of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of molecular biotechnology, plant genetic engineering techniques have opened an avenue for the genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has significantly contributed to the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop, of the family Brassicaceae; however, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during the commercial cultivation of broccoli. Thus, genetic engineering can be used as a tool to add specific characteristics to existing cultivars. However, a pre-requisite for transferring genes into plants is the availability of efficient regeneration and transformation techniques. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering provide an opportunity to improve broccoli in many aspects. The goal of this review is to summarize genetic transformation studies on broccoli to draw the attention of researchers and scientists for its further genetic advancement. PMID:26971329

  9. Broccoli glucosinolate degradation is reduced performing thermal treatment in binary systems with other food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giambanelli, E.; Verkerk, R.; Fogliano, V.; Capuano, E.; Antuono, D' L.F.; Oliviero, T.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolate (GL) stability has been widely studied in different Brassica species. However, the matrix effect determined by the presence of other ingredients occurred in many broccoli-based traditional recipes may affect GL thermal degradation. In this study, the matrix effect on GL thermal degrada

  10. Modelling the change in colour in broccoli and green beans during blanching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Schijvens, E.P.H.M.; Biekman, E.S.A.

    2001-01-01

    The green colour of vegetables changes considerably during heat treatments like blanching. Green beans from two different countries and growing seasons, and the stems and florets of broccoli were heat-treated from 40 up to 96 °C. The colour was monitored with the CIE-Lab system. Expressing the green

  11. Moisture Distribution in Broccoli: Measurements by MRI Hot Air Drying Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The internal moisture distribution that arise in food products during drying, is a key factor for the retention of quality attributes. To reveal the course of moisture content in a product, internal moisture profiles in broccoli florets are measured by MRI imaging during drying experiments

  12. Moisture Sorption Isotherms of Broccoli Interpreted with the Flory-Huggins Free Volume Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, R.G.M. van der; Maanen, J.F.C. van; Deventer, H.C. van; Straten, G. van; Boom, R.M.; Boxtel, A.J.B. van

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the Flory Huggins Free Volume theory is used to interpret the sorption isotherms of broccoli from its composition and using physical properties of the components. This theory considers the mixing properties of water, biopolymers and solutes and has the potential to describe the sorptio

  13. Koeling van bloemkool en broccoli op de veiling "De Tuinbouw" te Grootebroek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, P.M.M.; Hendriks, A.G.M.

    1980-01-01

    In een proef op de veiling "De Tuinbouw" in Grootebroek is zowel bloemkool als broccoli opgeslagen gedurende respectievelijk een en drie dagen bij 2 graden C en 95% r.v. Na koeling zijn de kolen geplaatst in een donkere ruimte met een temperatuur van 18 graden C en een r.v. van 90%. Beoordeeld is op

  14. Informatieblad Mineralen en Milieukwaliteit : nitraatuitspoeling uit gewasresten van broccoli, prei en suikerbiet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Om nitraatuitspoeling terug te dringen is het nodig om het N-overschot te verlagen. Bij sommige gewassen (bijv. broccoli en suikerbieten) zit het N-overschot grotendeels in de gewasresten. De vraag is in welke mate het N-overschot in de vorm van gewasresten bijdraagt aan nitraatuitspoeling, en in ho

  15. Moisture distribution in broccoli: measurements by MRI hot air drying experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    The internal moisture distribution that arise in food products during drying, is a key factor for the retention of quality attributes. To reveal the course of moisture content in a product, internal moisture profiles in broccoli florets are measured by MRI imaging during drying experiments with cont

  16. Effects of stir-fry cooking with different edible oils on the phytochemical composition of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Diego A; López-Berenguer, Carmen; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that Brassica vegetables in general and broccoli in particular protect humans against cancer; they are rich sources of glucosinolates and possess a high content on flavonoids, vitamins, and mineral nutrients. The contents of total intact glucosinolates, total phenolics, vitamin C, and minerals (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and copper) in the edible portions of freshly harvested broccoli (florets), which was subjected to stir-frying treatments, were evaluated. In the present work, the stir-fry cooking experiments were carried out using different edible oils from plant origin (refined olive oil, extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, soyabean oil, and safflower oil) known and used worldwide. Results showed that during stir-frying, phenolics and vitamin C were more affected than glucosinolates and minerals. Stir-fry cooking with extra virgin olive, soybean, peanut, or safflower oil did not reduce the total glucosinolate content of the cooked broccoli compared with that of the uncooked sample. The vitamin C content of broccoli stir-fried with extra virgin olive or sunflower oil was similar to that of the uncooked sample, but greater than those samples stir-fried with other oils. PMID:17995900

  17. Broccoli consumption interacts with GSTM1 to perturb oncogenic signalling pathways in the prostate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Traka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that people who consume more than one portion of cruciferous vegetables per week are at lower risk of both the incidence of prostate cancer and of developing aggressive prostate cancer but there is little understanding of the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we quantify and interpret changes in global gene expression patterns in the human prostate gland before, during and after a 12 month broccoli-rich diet. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Volunteers were randomly assigned to either a broccoli-rich or a pea-rich diet. After six months there were no differences in gene expression between glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1 positive and null individuals on the pea-rich diet but significant differences between GSTM1 genotypes on the broccoli-rich diet, associated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFbeta1 and epidermal growth factor (EGF signalling pathways. Comparison of biopsies obtained pre and post intervention revealed more changes in gene expression occurred in individuals on a broccoli-rich diet than in those on a pea-rich diet. While there were changes in androgen signalling, regardless of diet, men on the broccoli diet had additional changes to mRNA processing, and TGFbeta1, EGF and insulin signalling. We also provide evidence that sulforaphane (the isothiocyanate derived from 4-methylsuphinylbutyl glucosinolate that accumulates in broccoli chemically interacts with TGFbeta1, EGF and insulin peptides to form thioureas, and enhances TGFbeta1/Smad-mediated transcription. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that consuming broccoli interacts with GSTM1 genotype to result in complex changes to signalling pathways associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis in the prostate. We propose that these changes may be mediated through the chemical interaction of isothiocyanates with signalling peptides in the plasma. This study provides, for the first time, experimental evidence obtained in humans to

  18. DNA damage and repair activity after broccoli intake in young healthy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riso, Patrizia; Martini, Daniela; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Bonacina, Gaia; Moro, Massimo; Porrini, Marisa

    2010-11-01

    Cruciferous vegetables contain compounds with antioxidant properties (e.g. carotenoids, vitamin C and folates) and can alter the activity of xenobiotic metabolism (i.e. isothiocyanates). These constituents may be particularly important for subjects who are exposed to free radicals and genotoxic compounds, including smokers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of broccoli intake on biomarkers of DNA damage and repair. Twenty-seven young healthy smokers consumed a portion of steamed broccoli (250 g/day) or a control diet for 10 days each within a crossover design with a washout period. Blood was collected before and after each period. The level of oxidatively damaged DNA lesions (formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase-sensitive sites), resistance to ex vivo H(2)O(2) treatment and repair of oxidised DNA lesions were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also measured mRNA expression levels of repair and defence enzymes: 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X-type motif 1 (NUDT1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). After broccoli consumption, the level of oxidised DNA lesions decreased by 41% (95% confidence interval: 10%, 72%) and the resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced DNA strand breaks increased by 23% (95% CI: 13%, 34%). Following broccoli intake, a higher protection was observed in subjects with glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1-null genotype. The expression level and activity of repair enzymes was unaltered. In conclusion, broccoli intake was associated with increased protection against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA strand breaks and lower levels of oxidised DNA bases in PBMCs from smokers. This protective effect could be related to an overall improved antioxidant status.

  19. BROCCOLI: Software for Fast fMRI Analysis on Many-Core CPUs and GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eEklund

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data is becoming ever more computationally demanding as temporal and spatial resolutions improve, and large, publicly available data sets proliferate. Moreover, methodological improvements in the neuroimaging pipeline, such as non-linear spatial normalization, non-parametric permutation tests and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches, can dramatically increase the computational burden. Despite these challenges, there do not yet exist any fMRI software packages which leverage inexpensive and powerful graphics processing units (GPUs to perform these analyses. Here, we therefore present BROCCOLI, a free software package written in OpenCL (Open Computing Language that can be used for parallel analysis of fMRI data on a large variety of hardware configurations. BROCCOLI has, for example, been tested with an Intel CPU, an Nvidia GPU and an AMD GPU. These tests show that parallel processing of fMRI data can lead to significantly faster analysis pipelines. This speedup can be achieved on relatively standard hardware, but further, dramatic speed improvements require only a modest investment in GPU hardware. BROCCOLI (running on a GPU can perform non-linear spatial normalization to a 1 mm3 brain template in 4-6 seconds, and run a second level permutation test with 10,000 permutations in about a minute. These non-parametric tests are generally more robust than their parametric counterparts, and can also enable more sophisticated analyses by estimating complicated null distributions. Additionally, BROCCOLI includes support for Bayesian first-level fMRI analysis using a Gibbs sampler. The new software is freely available under GNU GPL3 and can be downloaded from github (https://github.com/wanderine/BROCCOLI/.

  20. Antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of some food grain powder in meat model system

    OpenAIRE

    Yogesh, K.; Jha, S. N.; Ahmad, Tanbir

    2012-01-01

    In-vitro antioxidant activity of some food grains [sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata), mung bean, sprouted chana (Cicer arietinum), chana, corn (Zea mays), methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and rajma (Phaseolus vulgaris)] powder extracts (FGE) was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity (SA) method. Total phenolics and reducing power were also estimated in these extracts. The antioxidant potential of these extracts was also estimated in a meat model system. Total phenolics in FGE r...

  1. Histogenesis of potato light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus

    OpenAIRE

    Grażyna Garbaczewska

    2013-01-01

    Developmental stages of potato (Solanum tuberosum) light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) have been distinguished. Potato light sprouts from healthy tubers differentiate in the early stages to the apical and basal parts, which are characterized by distinct dynamics of growth. Ultrastructural examination of apex meristem and phloem ontogeny was carried out for healthy plants. In the development of potato light sprouts of plants infected with PLRV ...

  2. Acute O 3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Jones, Wendy S; Burton, Andrew J; Nagy, John; Kubiske, Mark E

    2011-09-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O(3)) concentration (110-490 nmol mol(-1)) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O(3) pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O(3) exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O(3) and/or CO(2) for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O(3) damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O(3) damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O(3) damage as it directly controlled O(3) uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O(3) exposure. Moreover, elevated CO(2) did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O(3) dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O(3) levels.

  3. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.

  4. Dissociation between mossy fiber sprouting and rapid kindling with low-frequency stimulation of the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, L L; Mohapel, P; Jenkins, E M; Hannesson, D K; Corcoran, M E

    1998-01-19

    In an attempt to determine whether sprouting of mossy fibers is invariably correlated with kindling of seizures, we subjected rats to rapid kindling with long trains of low-frequency stimulation of the amygdala that resulted in development of generalized seizures within a mean of five stimulations. For comparison, we subjected other rats to conventional kindling with short trains of high-frequency stimulation of the amygdala that resulted in development of generalized seizures within a mean of 13 stimulations. We found no evidence of mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus of rats killed one day after completion of rapid kindling, as compared to yoked controls, although significant sprouting was seen in rats killed one day after completion of conventional kindling. When we examined tissue from rats killed 20 days after rapid kindling, however, we did find significant sprouting, suggesting that mossy fiber sprouting can be triggered by rapid kindling if sufficient survival time is allowed. The observed disparity between completion of rapid low-frequency kindling and detection of mossy fiber sprouting suggests that mossy fiber sprouting may be associated more with sustained survival time after neuronal activation than with kindling per se. Furthermore, the similar time course of conventional kindling and of mossy fiber sprouting obscures the determination of a causal role of mossy fiber sprouting in conventional kindling.

  5. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Senay Simsek; Jae-Bom Ohm; Haiyan Lu; Mory Rugg; William Berzonsky; Alamri, Mohammed S.; Mohamed Mergoum

    2014-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS) and Hard White Spring (HWS) wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscositi...

  6. Study on optimization of forced sprouting of Chinese yam. Development of a Chinese yam forced sprouting device; Nagaimo saiga saitekika kenkyu. Nagaimo saiga sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, M.; Konno, T.; Kogayashi, Y. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)

    2000-03-24

    In Chinese yam cultivation in Hokkaido, curing and forced sprouting treatments are indispensable, by which the cut faces of seed yams are dried completely into cork, and the treatments are the important factors to govern the yield. In practice, the work is being done using vinyl greenhouses, but it tends to be dependent of climate, its control is complex, and much labor is consumed for an extended period of time. Status of sprouting also tends to become non-uniform. In order to perform simply and stably the curing and the forced sprouting treatment, an electric heat utilizing device was developed, that can identify suitable environmental conditions and realize the conditions. It was verified that both of the curing (using air permeable sheets) and the forced sprouting treatment (using temperature keeping sheets) can raise and maintain the temperature to the optimum value. Humidity stayed in an adequate humidity band for the curing and the forced sprouting treatment at about 70% when the air permeable sheets are used, and 80% to saturation when the temperature keeping sheets are used, respectively. Some humidifying water addition may suffice the cultivation during the period of the forced sprouting, and the temperature control has reduced largely manpower consumption when compared to the greenhouse side window opening and closing practice. No re-stacking is required to make the sprouting condition uniform, thus production stability can be enhanced. (NEDO)

  7. Effects of broccoli rotation on lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor and on the population density of sclerotia in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, J J; Subbarao, K. V.; Koike, S T

    2003-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Spence Road site and at the Hartnell College East Campus site in Salinas, CA, to determine the effects of crop rotation with broccoli or a fallow period on lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor and the density of pathogen sclerotia in the soil. Treatments at the Spence Road site with low inoculum density (cm(3) Of Soil) distributed randomly included: successive crops of lettuce (LLL), lettuce rotated with broccoli (LBL), and lettuce followed by a fallow ...

  8. Mint essential oil can induce or inhibit potato sprouting by differential alteration of apical meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Dudai, Nativ; Fischer, Ravit; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Shoseyov, Oded; Eshel, Dani

    2010-06-01

    Sprouting of potatoes during storage, due to tuber dormancy release, is associated with weight loss and softening. Sprout-preventing chemicals, such as chlorpropham (CIPC), can negatively impact the environment and human health. Monthly thermal fogging with mint (Mentha spicata L.) essential oil (MEO) inhibited sprouting in eight potato cultivars during large-volume 6-month storage: the tubers remained firm with 38% lower weight loss after 140 days of storage. The sprout-inhibitory action may be nullified: treated tubers washed with water resumed sprouting within days, with reduced apical dominance. MEO application caused local necrosis of the bud meristem, and a few weeks later, axillary bud (AX) growth was induced in the same sprouting eye. MEO components analysis showed that 73% of its content is the monoterpene R-carvone. Tubers treated with synthetic R-carvone in equivalent dose, 4.5 microl l(-1), showed an inhibitory effect similar to that of MEO. Surprisingly, 0.5 microl l(-1) of MEO or synthetic R-carvone catalyzed AX sprouting in the tuber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an essential oil vapor inducing early sprouting of potato tubers. R-carvone caused visible damage to the meristem membrane at sprout-inhibiting, but not sprout-inducing doses, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. After 5 days' exposure to R-carvone, its derivatives transcarveol and neo-dihydrocarveol were found in buds of tubers treated with the inhibitory dose, suggesting biodegradation. These experiments demonstrate the potential of MEO vapor as an environmentally friendly alternative to CIPC in stored potatoes and as a research tool for the control of sprouting in plants. PMID:20390295

  9. Catalase inhibition accelerates dormancy release and sprouting in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Bajji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 metabolism in dormancy release and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers has been investigated using three complementary approaches. In the first approach, the evolution of the sprouting kinetics, H2O2 content and antioxidant enzyme activities were examined during tuber storage. The most important changes occurred at the « bud/sprout » level. In particular, dormancy release was accompanied by a transient but remarkable increase in H2O2 content. In the second approach, the effect of a catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6 inhibitor (thiourea or of exogenous H2O2 application on tuber sprouting behaviour was assessed. Both treatments resulted in a reduction of the dormancy period and in rapid and synchronised sprouting of the treated tubers when compared to the control as well as in increased sprout number per tuber. In the third approach, the effect of CAT inhibition on potato tuber dormancy and sprouting was evaluated using the transgenic technology. Plants partially repressed in their CAT activity were produced and, once again, CAT inhibition resulted in acceleration of the sprouting kinetics and in increased sprout number of the transgenic tubers compared to those from the wild type. It thus appears that tuber dormancy and sprouting can be controlled in potato by the manipulation of H2O2 metabolism via the inhibition of CAT activity. The possible mechanisms whereby CAT inhibitors or H2O2 overcome dormancy and promote sprouting in the potato tuber are discussed in relation to what is known in other plant models (seeds and fruit tree buds.

  10. Mint essential oil can induce or inhibit potato sprouting by differential alteration of apical meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Dudai, Nativ; Fischer, Ravit; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Shoseyov, Oded; Eshel, Dani

    2010-06-01

    Sprouting of potatoes during storage, due to tuber dormancy release, is associated with weight loss and softening. Sprout-preventing chemicals, such as chlorpropham (CIPC), can negatively impact the environment and human health. Monthly thermal fogging with mint (Mentha spicata L.) essential oil (MEO) inhibited sprouting in eight potato cultivars during large-volume 6-month storage: the tubers remained firm with 38% lower weight loss after 140 days of storage. The sprout-inhibitory action may be nullified: treated tubers washed with water resumed sprouting within days, with reduced apical dominance. MEO application caused local necrosis of the bud meristem, and a few weeks later, axillary bud (AX) growth was induced in the same sprouting eye. MEO components analysis showed that 73% of its content is the monoterpene R-carvone. Tubers treated with synthetic R-carvone in equivalent dose, 4.5 microl l(-1), showed an inhibitory effect similar to that of MEO. Surprisingly, 0.5 microl l(-1) of MEO or synthetic R-carvone catalyzed AX sprouting in the tuber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an essential oil vapor inducing early sprouting of potato tubers. R-carvone caused visible damage to the meristem membrane at sprout-inhibiting, but not sprout-inducing doses, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. After 5 days' exposure to R-carvone, its derivatives transcarveol and neo-dihydrocarveol were found in buds of tubers treated with the inhibitory dose, suggesting biodegradation. These experiments demonstrate the potential of MEO vapor as an environmentally friendly alternative to CIPC in stored potatoes and as a research tool for the control of sprouting in plants.

  11. Influence of different blanching methods on colour, ascorbic acid and phenolics content of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severini, C; Giuliani, R; De Filippis, A; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2016-01-01

    Lack of nutrients in cooking water, high energetic costs, high water consumption and recycling are some drawbacks of vegetable blanching. Those disadvantages could be bypassed using microwave blanching. Three blanching methods (microwave, boiling water and steaming) were compared in this study in order to determine their effects on some functional properties of broccoli. In addition, the thermal damage on broccoli colour was evaluated. The effectiveness of each blanching process was performed measuring the lost of peroxidase activity, that results more rapidly in microwaves and steam treatments (50 and 60 s respectively) than in boiling water treatment (120 s). The colour indexes did not allow to discriminate a significant difference among treatments. The increase of treatment time caused a vitamin C decrease in samples blanched by boiling water and steam; this trend was not observed in microwaved samples. The phenols content did not significantly vary depending both on type and on time of treatment.

  12. 出版业经济惨淡,Broccoli Books关门

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    据出版动画、漫画、游戏类图书的Broccoli Books有限公司总裁Kaname Tezuka披露,Broccoli国际出版美国公司,包括旗下的Broccoli Books出版社和Boysen berry出版社将于今年底关门。他表示,这是日本母公司的决定,“根据美国漫画图书市场和美国经济的整体状况,公司领导层决定最好暂时将力量集中在日本市场。”

  13. Effect of Nitrogen and Boron in Seed Yield and Yield Attributing Characters of Broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khanal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant nutrient is one of the limiting factors affecting crop production. Nitrogen and boron are major nutrients in case of broccoli. So, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and boron in seed yield and yield attributing characters of broccoli in Rampur, Chitwan during winter season. The experiment was laid out in factorial RCBD design with four levels of nitrogen and two levels of boron. Each plot consists of 25 plants which were separated by 60 * 60 cm spacing. There are altogether eight treatments replicates thrice. Local variety Calabrese was used. Significant effect of different dose of nitrogen and boron on yield attributing characters was found. Also interactive effect of nitrogen and boron in number of pods, pod length, seed yield and number of seeds per pod was found significantly different.

  14. Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao-feng YUAN; Bo SUN; Jing YUAN; Qiao-mei WANG

    2009-01-01

    The effects of five domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwaving, boiling, stir-frying, and stir-frying followed by boiling (stir-frying/boiling), on the nutrients and health-promoting compounds of broccoli were investigated. The results show that all cooking treatments, except steaming, caused significant losses of chlorophyll and vitamin C and significant decreases of total soluble proteins and soluble sugars. Total aliphatic and indole glucosinolates were significantly modified by all cooking treatments but not by steaming. In general, the steaming led to the lowest loss of total glucosinolates, while stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling presented the highest loss. Stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling, the two most popular methods for most homemade dishes in China, cause great losses of chlorophyll, soluble protein, soluble sugar, vitamin C, and glucosinolates, but the steaming method appears the best in retention of the nutrients in cooking broccoli.

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Petronella, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 foodborne salmonellosis outbreak in Canada and the United States implicated, for the first time, sprouted chia seed powder as the vehicle of transmission. Here, we report the draft whole genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica strains isolated from sprouted powders related to the aforementioned outbreak. PMID:27660774

  16. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility. PMID:26396436

  17. Different aspects of S-carvone A natural potato sprout growth inhibitor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, J.

    1995-01-01

    After harvest, potato tubers are usually stored at a temperature of 6-8°C in combination with the application of a synthetic sprout inhibitor. Frequently used sprout inhibitors are isopropyl N-phenyl-carbamate (propham or IPC), isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamate (chlorpropham or CIPC) or a combin

  18. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Petronella, Nicholas; Tamber, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 foodborne salmonellosis outbreak in Canada and the United States implicated, for the first time, sprouted chia seed powder as the vehicle of transmission. Here, we report the draft whole genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica strains isolated from sprouted powders related to the aforementioned outbreak. PMID:27660774

  20. The spatial and temporal rooting pattern of Brussels sprouts and leeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.L.; Booij, R.; Werf, van der A.

    1996-01-01

    Rooting intensity and root distribution of Brussels sprouts and leeks were assessed in field experiments and in the Wageningen Rhizolab, a rhizotron facility built in 1990, in relation to their contrasting N uptake behaviour (Brussels sprouts usually take up N rapidly after planting, resulting in so

  1. Broccoli yield in response to top-dressing fertilization with green manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Bernardo de Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the productive performance of broccoli under different top-dressing organic fertilizations. The experiment was conducted under protected cultivation, in a completely randomized design with four replications, with two plants per experimental unit. Broccoli seedlings were produced in a commercial substrate in styrofoam trays. The seedlings were transplanted to plastic pots containing 10.0 L of substrate made up of subsoil and organic compost at the ratio of 3:1 (v/v, respectively, which is equivalent to about 20.0 t ha-1 of organic compost at planting. After seedling establishment, the top-dressing fertilization treatments were applied: gliricidia biomass associated or not with liquid biofertilizer of cattle manure to the soil and bokashi. Two control treatments were established: one with mineral fertilization recommended for the crop and the other without top-dressing fertilization. The broccoli production was evaluated (commercial standard. Plants that received mineral fertilizer were more productive, however, they were not significantly different (p>0.05, by Dunnet test, from the plants fertilized with 2.5 t ha-1 gliricidiabiomass (dry mass associated with liquid biofertilizer (2.0 L m-2 applied to soil. Top-dressing fertilizations with only gliricidia, at 2.5 and 5.0 t ha-1 of biomass (dry mass, resulted in no significant increase in production of broccoli inflorescence. The use of bokashi in addition to gliricidia biomass and liquid biofertilizer reduced the efficiency of the fertilization compared with plants that received only gliricidia and liquid biofertilizer.

  2. Ozone effects on yield quality of spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeiren, Karine; De Bock, Maarten; Horemans, Nele; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2012-02-01

    The impact of elevated tropospheric ozone (O 3) on the quality of spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv Ability) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv Italic cv Monaco) was assessed during a three year Open - Top Chamber (OTC) experiment. Current ambient O 3 levels were compared to an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day over the entire growing season. The qualitative responses were expressed as a function of the accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic O 3 dose above a threshold of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area (POD 6). Our results provide clear evidence that O 3 has an influence on the qualitative attributes of the harvested products of these Brassica species. The responses were comparable whether they were expressed as a function of the accumulated O 3 concentrations or of the modelled O 3 uptake. The protein concentration of oilseed rape seeds and broccoli heads was significantly increased in response to O 3. There was also a shift in the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil derived from seeds of oilseed rape. Oleic acid (18:1) declined significantly ( p broccoli an important shift occurred from indolic to aliphatic GSLs although the total GSL concentration was not changed. The increase in the aliphatic/indolic GSL ratio ( p properties of these vegetables. The vitamin C (ascorbate - ASC) and α-TOC concentrations of broccoli were not influenced by O 3; glutathione (GSH) was slightly increased in response to a higher O 3 uptake ( p < 0.05). The consequences of these changes with regard to food and feed quality and human health are discussed.

  3. On the Strains of Erwinia carotouora subsp. carotouora Isolated from Radish Seedlings and Broccoli Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchiya, Kenichi; Karnjanarat, Surang; Hayashi, Mitsunori; Umeno, Masayoshi; Wakimoto, Satoshi

    1987-01-01

    Twenty bacterial strains isolated from edible radish seedlings (Kaiware-daikon : Raphunus sativus L.) and broccoli plants (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plen.) showing soft rot were compared on the basis of pathogenicity and physiological, biochemical and serological properties. Ten strains isolated from each host were homogeneous and they were identical in being positive for the following properties : rod shaped cells with peritrichous flagellation, anaerobic growth, fermentative metabolism...

  4. Dark-chilling of Seedlings Affects Initiation and Morphology of Broccoli Inflorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta GRABOWSKA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The constant supply of broccoli heads for a vegetable market can be kept by the differentiation of sowing time and the age of seedlings. Dark-chilling of young seedlings can also modify the time of transplanting, subsequent plant development, yield and inflorescence quality. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of seedling dark-chilling on the inflorescence initiation and the morphological quality of broccoli heads. The experiment was carried out at the University of Agriculture in Krakow (South Poland in the years 2009 and 2010, with broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck medium late cultivar ‘Monaco’ F1. The examined factors were the age of seedlings (4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-week-old and dark-chilling (2°C/2 weeks and non-chilled control. Microscopic analysis of the apex sections was performed to determine the time of the inflorescence differentiation in chilled and non-chilled seedlings of different age. Chosen morphological features of the mature heads were also described as depended on age and chilling of seedlings. The inflorescence initiation was observed between 4 and 6 week of the plant ontogeny. Especially 4-week-old seedlings, chilled by two weeks, were more advanced in the generative development in comparison to non-chilled control. Low temperature applied in the seedling stage did not cause the head buttoning. Inflorescences developed by broccoli planted from 4 and 6-week-old seedlings, both chilled and control, were characterized by the best visual quality, determined by a convex head shape, tight branching angle, small and uniform size and regular form of flower buds. Chilling of oldest, 8- and 10-week-old seedlings negatively affected the inflorescence quality, through planed and spread shape of heads and non-uniform shape of flower buds.

  5. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes enter broccoli cells enhancing growth and water uptake of plants exposed to salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Ballesta, Mª Carmen; Zapata, Lavinia; Chalbi, Najla; Carvajal, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Background Carbon nanotubes have been shown to improve the germination and growth of some plant species, extending the applicability of the emerging nano-biotechnology field to crop science. Results In this work, exploitation of commercial multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in control and 100 mM NaCl-treated broccoli was performed. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that MWCNTs can enter the cells in adult plants with higher accumulation under salt stress. Positive effect of MWC...

  6. Organic broccoli production on transition soils: Comparing cover crops, tillage and sidedress N

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg, D.L.; Morse, R.D.; Welbaum, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Little information is available about how farmers in transition to organic practices should manage short- and long-term N fertility. The objectives of this research were (1) to evaluate the leguminous cover crops lablab (Dolichos lablab L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and a mixture of sunn hemp and cowpea (Vigna sinensis Endl.) as N sources; (2) to compare N availability and broccoli yield when cover crops were incorporated with conventi...

  7. Post Harvest Treatment Effects on Crown-Cut Broccoli Shelf Life

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Reddy Yettella Venkata

    2004-01-01

    The effects of packaging treatments, post harvest cooling delay and storage duration on color, texture, ascorbic acid content, weight loss and glucosinolate retention in crown-cut heads of broccoli were studied. Oxygen and CO2 levels inside shrink wrap packages were also monitored. Shrink wrap packaging had a significant positive effect on hue angle (p<0.05). Packaging and post harvest cooling delay had no effect on hue difference and total color difference. While post harvest cooling dela...

  8. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    . A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling...... seed dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was......Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable...

  9. Validation of the Analytical Method for the Determination of Flavonoids in Broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuszyńska Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, accurate and selective HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of quercetin and kaempferol, which are the main flavonols in broccoli. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column using a mobile phase composed of methanol/water (60/40 and phosphoric acid 0.2% at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min-1. The detection was carried out on a DAD detector at 370 nm. This method was validated according to the requirements for new methods, which include selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. The current method demonstrates good linearity, with R2 > 0.99. The recovery is within 98.07-102.15% and 97.92-101.83% for quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. The method is selective, in that quercetin and kaempferol are well separated from other compounds of broccoli with good resolution. The low limit of detection and limit of quantitation of quercetin and kaempferol enable the detection and quantitation of these flavonoids in broccoli at low con–centrations.

  10. Utility of the broccoli sign in the distinction of prolapsed uterine tumor from cervical tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Priyanka; Chang, Stephanie T. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Rabban, Joseph T. [Department of Anatomic Pathology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Chen, Lee-may [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Yeh, Benjamin M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Coakley, Fergus V., E-mail: Fergus.Coakley@radiology.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: To describe the utility, histopathological basis, and clinical correlates of the broccoli sign. Methods: The committee on human research approved this HIPAA compliant study and waived written informed consent. Based on the records of the senior author and our multidisciplinary Gynecologic Oncology Tumor Board, we retrospectively identified thirteen women (mean age of 48.8 years; range, 34-74) with a cervical mass seen at MR imaging (n = 13) or CT (n = 5) that demonstrated the previously reported broccoli sign (i.e., a soft tissue stalk connecting the cervical mass to the uterine cavity) on one or other modality. All available clinical, imaging, and histopathological records were reviewed, with particular emphasis on initially suspected diagnosis, final proven diagnosis, and outcome. Results: Cervical cancer was the initial clinically suspected diagnosis in 6 of 13 patients. Surgical resection demonstrated prolapsed uterine tumor in all patients, consisting of endometrioid adenocarcinoma (n = 7), carcinosarcoma (n = 2), adenosarcoma (n = 1), and leiomyoma (n = 3). Excluding the three patients with leiomyomas, currently, 7 patients with malignant tumors are disease free after a mean interval of 15 months (range, 3-45) and 3 patients have been lost to follow-up. Conclusion: A stalk connecting an apparent cervical mass seen at CT or MR imaging to the endometrial cavity ('broccoli sign') favors the diagnosis of a prolapsed uterine tumor; these prolapsed uterine tumors can often be malignant but appear to have a good prognosis.

  11. Exergetic performance analyses of drying of broccoli florets in a tray drier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, the drying process is one of the major procedures of food preservation and an important unit operation in a wide variety of food industries. Recently, drying of vegetables is of a particular interest because it is added to various ready-to-eat meals in order to improve their nutritional quality due to health benefit compounds present in vegetables (vitamins, phytochemicals, dietary fibers). Broccoli has been described as a vegetable with a high nutritional value due to its important content of vitamins, antioxidants and anti-carcinogenic compounds. Broccoli dehydration has not been investigated to a great extent and a few data are available in the open literature. In this study, broccoli florets were dried in a tray drier at a temperature range of 50-70 deg C with an air velocity range of 0.5-1.5 m/s. The performance of the process and system was evaluated using the exergy analysis method. Based on the experimental data, effects of the drying air temperature and the velocity on the performance of the drying process were discussed. It was obtained that the exergy evaporation rate and the exergetic efficiency of the process were obtained to vary between 0.0006-0.0029 kW and 0.27-1.16%, respectively. They increased as the drying air temperature increased, while the exergetic efficiency decreased with the rise in the drying air velocity. (author)

  12. Sprouted buckwheat an important vegetable source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Brajdes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Germination process is the only food processing which provides asignificant increase of the nutritional value by enhancing the bioavailability of some nutritional compounds, such as vitamins. The aim of our study was to test the antioxidant properties of the buckwheat sprout. The total polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid contents during seven days of germination were determined. The results indicate that important changes occur in the amount of biologically active compounds during germination: the amount of polyphenols increases from 50.26 to 298.03 mg/100g d.w., the amount of rutin increases from 13.66 to 283.43 mg/100g d.w., the amount of quercitin increases from 4.77 to 223.76 mg/100g d.w., whereasthe amount of ascorbic acid increases from 0 to 1.09 mg/100g d.w. Due to the excellent antioxidant properties, the buckwheat sprouts can be considered good candidate ingredients for functional foods to be used for lowering the risk of various diseases and/or for exerting health promoting effects in addition to its nutritive value.

  13. Systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome in monkeys fed alfalfa sprouts: role of a nonprotein amino acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Bardana, E J; Pirofsky, B; Craig, S; McLaughlin, P

    1982-04-23

    Hematologic and serologic abnormalities similar to those observed in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed in cynomolgus macaques fed alfalfa sprouts. L-Canavanine sulfate, a constituent of alfalfa sprouts, was incorporated into the diet and reactivated the syndrome in monkeys in which an SLE-like syndrome had previously been induced by the ingestion of alfalfa seeds or sprouts. PMID:7071589

  14. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli. PMID:27446156

  15. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli. PMID:27446156

  16. Dietary chemoprevention of PhIP induced carcinogenesis in male Fischer 344 rats with tomato and broccoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstie Canene-Adams

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP, found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 45 were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet, PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study, or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks. Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers.

  17. Dietary chemoprevention of PhIP induced carcinogenesis in male Fischer 344 rats with tomato and broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Sfanos, Karen S; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G; Brayton, Cory; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2013-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP), found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 45) were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet), PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study), or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks). Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS) lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers. PMID:24312188

  18. Assessing the Public Health Impact and Effectiveness of Interventions To Prevent Salmonella Contamination of Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hongliu; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Sprouts have been a recurring public health challenge due to microbiological contamination, and Salmonella has been the major cause of sprout-associated outbreaks. Although seed treatment and microbiological testing have been applied as risk reduction measures during sprout production, the extent to which their effectiveness in reducing the public health risks associated with sprouts has not been well investigated. We conducted a quantitative risk assessment to measure the risk posed by Salmonella contamination in sprouts and to determine whether and how mitigation strategies can achieve a satisfactory risk reduction based on the assumption that the risk reduction achieved by a microbiological sampling and testing program at a given sensitivity is equivalent to that achieved by direct inactivation of pathogens. Our results indicated that if the sprouts were produced without any risk interventions, the health impact caused by sprouts contaminated with Salmonella would be very high, with a median annual estimated loss of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of 691,412. Seed treatment (with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite) or microbiological sampling and testing of spent irrigation water (SIW) alone could reduce the median annual impact to 734 or 4,856 DALYs, respectively. Combining seed treatment with testing of the SIW would further decrease the risk to 58 DALYs. This number could be dramatically lowered to 3.99 DALYs if sprouts were produced under conditions that included treating seeds with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite plus microbiological testing of seeds, SIW, and finished products. Our analysis shows that the public health impact due to Salmonella contamination in sprouts could be controlled if seeds are treated to reduce pathogens and microbiological sampling and testing is implemented. Future advances in intervention strategies would be important to improve sprout safety further.

  19. Flow cytometry for rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in seed sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bledar Bisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc. have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1 of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present in relatively low numbers. We combined DNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with flow cytometry (FCM for the rapid molecular detection of Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in artificially contaminated alfalfa and other seed sprouts. Components of the assay included a set of cooperatively binding probes, a chemical blocking treatment intended to reduce non-specific background, and sample concentration via tangential flow filtration (TFF. We were able to detect S. Typhimurium in sprout wash at levels as low as 103 CFU ml−1 sprout wash (104 CFU g−1 sprouts against high microbial backgrounds (~108 CFU g−1 sprouts. Hybridization times were typically 30 min, with additional washing, but we ultimately found that S. Typhimurium could be readily detected using hybridization times as short as 2 min, without a wash step. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of combined DNA-FISH and FCM for rapid detection of Salmonella in this challenging food matrix and provide industry with a useful tool for compliance with sprout production standards proposed in the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA.

  20. Outbreaks caused by sprouts, United States, 1998-2010: lessons learned and solutions needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechet, Amy M; Herman, Karen M; Chen Parker, Cary; Taormina, Peter; Johanson, Joy; Tauxe, Robert V; Mahon, Barbara E

    2014-08-01

    After a series of outbreaks associated with sprouts in the mid-1990s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published guidelines in 1999 for sprouts producers to reduce the risk of contamination. The recommendations included treating seeds with an antimicrobial agent such as calcium hypochlorite solution and testing spent irrigation water for pathogens. From 1998 through 2010, 33 outbreaks from seed and bean sprouts were documented in the United States, affecting 1330 reported persons. Twenty-eight outbreaks were caused by Salmonella, four by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and one by Listeria. In 15 of the 18 outbreaks with information available, growers had not followed key FDA guidelines. In three outbreaks, however, the implicated sprouts were produced by firms that appeared to have implemented key FDA guidelines. Although seed chlorination, if consistently applied, reduces pathogen burden on sprouts, it does not eliminate the risk of human infection. Further seed and sprouts disinfection technologies, some recently developed, will be needed to enhance sprouts safety and reduce human disease. Improved seed production practices could also decrease pathogen burden but, because seeds are a globally distributed commodity, will require international cooperation. PMID:25076040

  1. 大豆芽中异黄酮抗氧化活性研究%Antioxidant Activity of Isoflavones from Soybean Sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏福华; 张永忠

    2012-01-01

    The isoflavones extracting from soybean sprouts, anti-hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical experiment and compare with soy isoflavones. The results showed that the antioxidant activity of isoflavones in sprouts higher than the antioxidant activity of soy isoflavones. Presumably, because of an increase in soybean isoflavone content of the germination process, making the sprouts isoflavones, antioxidant activity higher.%以大豆芽为原料提取异黄酮,进行羟自由基和超氧阴离子自由基清除能力试验。结果表明,大豆芽中异黄酮具有较强的抗氧化活性,在一定质量浓度范围内随着浓度的增加其抗氧化活性增强。与相同质量浓度的大豆异黄酮相比,大豆芽中异黄酮的抗氧化活性强于未发芽大豆中的异黄酮。

  2. Vegetable product containing caseinomacropeptide and germinated seed and sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Simsek, Sebnem; Buyukkestelli, Hulya Ilyasoglu

    2016-01-01

    In this study vegetable product containing germinated seed and sprouts of lentils and cowpeas, and caseinomacropeptide isolated from whey is produced. Three different forms of vegetable product namely puree (VP), freeze-dried (FD) and drum-dried (DD) are produced. Freeze-dried and DD forms are produced to diversify forms of utilization and to improve functionality such as increased shelf life and decreased storage space. Their beneficial effects on health are determined using in vitro methods. All forms displayed antioxidant activities against DPPH radical and oxygen radical, α-amylase inhibitory activities, bile acid binding capacities, and angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Freeze-dried product exhibited the strongest inhibition on α-amylase and ACE with the IC50 value 0.09 μM total phenolic and 0.82 mg protein/g sample, respectively when evaluated on the basis of serving size. PMID:26788011

  3. Caloric values for young sprouts of nine hardwood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neenan, M. (An Foras Taluntais, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland); Steinbeck, K.

    1979-09-01

    Caloric content, specific gravity, and ash content of 6- to 15-year-old sprouts of nine hardwood species were determined in midsummer. Energy values for wood, bark, first order branches, twigs, and leaves were determined with an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The values found for coppice material averaged 4791 cal/g and were comparable to published values for older wood. Intraspecific differences among tissues were greater than the relatively small but significant differences among species. Differences in yield potential are therefore likely to outweigh variations in caloric content among species where total energy production per unit of land area is concerned. Ash content varied from 0.65 percent for wood to 5.88 percent for bark.

  4. Autonomic fiber sprouting in the skin in chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Geraldine

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pain is a major symptom associated with chronic inflammation. In previous work from our laboratory, we have shown that in animal models of neuropathic pain there is a sprouting of sympathetic fibers into the upper dermis, a territory normally devoid of them. However, it is not known whether such sympathetic spouting, which is likely trophic factor mediated, also occurs in chronic inflammation and arthritis. In the present study, we used a rat model of chronic inflammation in which a small single dose of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA was injected subcutaneously, unilaterally, into the plantar surface of the hindpaw. This led to a localized long-term skin inflammation and arthritis in all joints of the hindpaw. Animals were perfused with histological fixatives at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after the injection. Experimental animals treated with CFA were compared to saline-injected animals. We then investigated the changes in the pattern of peripheral innervation of the peptidergic nociceptors and sympathetic fibers in rat glabrous hindpaw skin. Antibodies directed towards calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH were used for the staining of peptidergic and sympathetic fibers, respectively. Immunofluorescence was then used to analyze the different nerve fiber populations of the upper dermis. At 4 weeks following CFA treatment, DBH-immunoreactive (IR fibers were found to sprout into the upper dermis, in a pattern similar to the one we had observed in animals with a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in a previous publication. There was also a significant increase in the density of CGRP-IR fibers in the upper dermis in CFA treated animals at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-injection. The increased peptidergic fiber innervation and the ectopic autonomic fibers found in the upper dermis may have a role in the pain-related behavior displayed by these animals.

  5. Influence of size of onion bulb cv. 'Czerniakowska' on its dormancy, sprouting and rooting

    OpenAIRE

    M. Bielińska-Czarnecka; A. Kępkowa; E. Kielak; E. Zdanowska

    2013-01-01

    Sprouting and rooting of onion bulb explants (bulbs deprived of open and closed shells) and of whole onion bulbs of three sizes, horizontal diameters: 2.5-3.5 cm, 3.6-5.0 cm, 5.1-7.0 cm were studied. During storage the earliest sprouting and rooting of bulb explants and of the whole onion bulbs was observed in small bulbs of diameters: 2.5-3.5, and the latest in large bulbs of 5.1-7.0 cm. The longer the period of storage the larger the amount of sprouted and rooted bulb explants and whole bul...

  6. Sulforaphane formation and bioaccessibility are more affected by steaming time than meal composition during in vitro digestion of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvan, I; Kramer, E; Bouwmeester, H; Dekker, M; Verkerk, R

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli is a rich source of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin (GR). After hydrolysis of GR by the endogenous enzyme myrosinase, sulforaphane (SF) or sulforaphane nitrile (SFN) are produced, depending on environmental conditions. How the conversion of GR and bioaccessibility of released breakdown products are affected by steaming (raw, 1min, 2min and 3min steamed) and meal composition (protein or lipid addition) was studied with an in vitro digestion model (mouth, stomach, intestine, but not colonic digestion). The main formation of SF and SFN occurred during in vitro chewing. The contents of GR, SF and SFN did not change after further digestion, as the irreversible inactivated myrosinase under gastric conditions caused no further GR hydrolysis. SF concentrations were up to 10 times higher in raw and 1min steamed broccoli samples after digestion compared to longer-steamed broccoli. Protein or lipid addition had no influence on the formation and bioaccessibility of SF or SFN. PMID:27507513

  7. Effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on glucosinolates and antioxidant attributes in broccoli florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Congxi; Miao, Huiying; Qian, Hongmei; Yao, Leishuan; Wang, Bingliang; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-11-01

    The effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on the contents of glucosinolates and antioxidants (vitamin C, polyphenols, carotenoid and chlorophyll), as well as the antioxidant capacity in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets were investigated in the present study. Our results showed that the glucosinolate accumulations were significantly decreased after pre-freezing processing, whereas elevated levels of phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll, and also antioxidant capacity were observed in frozen broccoli florets. The contents of vitamin C remained constant during above mentioned processing. In conclusion, the current industrial freezing processing method is a good practice for the preservation of main antioxidant nutrients in broccoli florets, although some improvements in pre-freezing processing, such as steam blanching and ice-water cooling, are needed to attenuate the decrease in glucosinolate content. PMID:27211670

  8. Antibacterial activity of green tea and broccoli extracts against Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Silván, José Manuel; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Carvajal, Micaela; Diego A. Moreno; García-Viguera, Cristina; Martínez-Rodríguez, Adolfo J.; Pascual-Teresa, Sonia de

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo se encuentra bajo la licencia Creative Commons Attribution 3.0-- Trabajo presentado al II Congreso Internacional de Investigación e Innovación en Ingeniería, Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos (IICTA 2014), celebrado del 27 al 30 de mayo de 2014 en Medellín (Colombia).

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF ANTAGONISTS OF Xanthomonas campestris ISOLATED FROM RHIZOSPHERE ZONE OF BROCCOLI FARM AT KEMBANG MERTA VILLAGE, TABANAN, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Treesna Wulansari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this research were to isolate and identify antagonists of Xanthomonas campestris from rhizosphere zone of broccoli plants. Soil samples were collected from broccoli farm located at Kembang Merta village, Tabanan, Bali. Isolation and identification of the antagonists were conducted at the Laboratory of Microbiology, Udayana University. Two fungal (Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride and two bacterial (Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. antagonists potentially to be developed as biocontrol agents of Xanthomonas campestris were successfully identified in this research

  10. Histogenesis of potato light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Garbaczewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stages of potato (Solanum tuberosum light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus (PLRV have been distinguished. Potato light sprouts from healthy tubers differentiate in the early stages to the apical and basal parts, which are characterized by distinct dynamics of growth. Ultrastructural examination of apex meristem and phloem ontogeny was carried out for healthy plants. In the development of potato light sprouts of plants infected with PLRV a great many anomalies have been described. Three types of light sprouts developed from infected tubers. Anatomical investigations indicated a rapid growth of the number of necroses in the phloem, and submicroscopic observations showed the presence of virus particles and cytopathological structures: tubular and vesicular structures, paramural bodies and callose deposits. In the companion cells of the phloem the occurrence of very regular inclusions of virus particles was recorded.

  11. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hamberg

    Full Text Available We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr. Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh. 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  12. Development of a method for the analysis of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengzu; Zhao, Pengyue; Shan, Weili; Gong, Yong; Jian, Qiu; Pan, Canping

    2012-09-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts. The sample preparation procedure was based on a QuEChERS method. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9985) and precision (RSDs ≤ 13.0%). Average recoveries of four PGRs ranged between 74.9% and 106.3% at spiking levels 0.05, 0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1). The LODs and LOQs were in the ranges of 0.27-9.3 μg kg(-1) and 0.90-31 μg kg(-1), respectively. The procedure was applied to 18 bean sprout samples, and benzyladenine was found in some of the analyzed samples.

  13. Growth and yield responses of broccoli cultivars to different rates of nitrogen at western Chitwan, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Raj Kumar; Sharma, Moha Datta; Shakya, Santa Man;

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted with the objective to determine the optimum rate of nitrogen (N) fertilizer for effective growth and yield of two varieties of broccoli in southern plain of Nepal. The experiment was laid out with two-factorial completely random block design (RCBD) comprising two......% higher total curd than Calabrese. Similarly, curd production increased N rate up to 200 kg ha-1 reaching a maximum of 14.47 t ha-1. This indicated that optimum level of N could be beyond the rates tested in this study, which needs further experimentation....

  14. An outbreak of Salmonella Newport associated with mung bean sprouts in Germany and the Netherlands, October to November 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, C; Bernard, H; Prager, R; Rabsch, W; Hiller, P; Malorny, B; Pfefferkorn, B; Frank, C; de Jong, A; Friesema, I; Stark, K; Rosner, Bm

    2014-01-09

    The largest Salmonella enterica serovar Newport outbreak (n=106) ever reported in Germany occurred in October and November 2011. Twenty associated cases were reported in the Netherlands. The outbreak investigation included an analytical epidemiological study, molecular typing of human and food isolates and food traceback investigations. Unspecified Salmonella had been detected in samples of mung bean sprouts at a sprout producer (producer A) in the Netherlands and mung bean sprouts contaminated with S. Newport had been found during routine sampling at a sprout distributor in Germany. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis of sprouts being the infection vehicle. In a case-control study, we compared 50 notified adult S. Newport cases with 45 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis cases regarding their food consumption in the three days before illness. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, only sprout consumption was significantly associated with S. Newport infection (odds ratio: 18.4; 95% confidence interval: 2.2-150.2). Molecular typing patterns of human isolates were indistinguishable from a mung bean sprouts isolate. Traceback of sprouts led to distributors and producer A in the Netherlands. Since sprouts are frequently contaminated with microorganisms, consumers need to be aware that consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked sprouts may pose a health risk.

  15. Macronutrients, Phytochemicals, and Antioxidant Activity of Soybean Sprout Germinated with or without Light Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeming; Chang, Sam K C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the macronutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activities of yellow soybean sprout (YSS) and green soybean sprout (GSS) with different germination days. YSS and GSS were obtained by sprouting soybean in darkness or with light exposure at 21 °C. Lipid, protein, carbohydrate, and ash contents were analyzed before and after soybean germination. Phytochemicals (total phenolic compounds, saponin, and isoflavone) were also determined. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were determined to examine the antioxidant activities of soybean sprout. Results showed YSS had a higher yield than GSS. Based on dry mass composition, 7-d germination of GSS decreased 14% protein, 37% lipid, 22% carbohydrate, and 16% ash, whereas 7-d germination of YSS decreased 6% protein and 47% lipid. Carbohydrate did not change and ash significantly increased for the 7-d germinated YSS. Lipid was greatly metabolized in germination, which explained why the protein relative percentage in dried soybean sprout was higher than that in the corresponding soybean. Total phenolic compounds and saponin (mg/g soybean sprout, dry basis) had the same accumulation trend in soybean sprout with the increases in germination days. Aglycone isoflavones (genistein, glycitein, and daidzein) and daidzin showed an increased trend, whereas malonylgenistin and malonylglycitin showed a decreased trend with germination days for both GSS and YSS. The change in other isoflavones did not show definite trends. GSS had 20% more antioxidant activities than YSS (7-d germinated soybean sprout). The increases in ORAC antioxidant activity suggest eating GSS may be more beneficial than GSS for promoting human health.

  16. Development of Lipophilic Antioxidants and Chloroplasts during the Sprouting of Diverse Triticum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Jochen U; Flockerzie, Miriam; Longin, C Friedrich H; Würschum, Tobias; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of sprouting times and illumination conditions on lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids, tocochromanols, alkylresorcinols, and steryl ferulates), chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was investigated using four varieties each of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum), spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta), durum (T. durum), emmer (T. dicoccum), and einkorn (T. monococcum). Carotenoid levels significantly increased during sprouting, particularly, under light exposure. In contrast, concentrations of other lipophilic antioxidants were affected to a lesser extent. Moreover, the quantitative development of lipophilic antioxidants was evidently determined by genotype. On the basis of the levels of carotenoids newly synthesized during sprouting, a chloroplast development index indicated that chloroplast ontogenesis during sprouting occurred at different species-dependent rates. Thermal degradation of carotenoids, tocochromanols, chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was observed during the drying of sprouts at 40 and 90 °C, while alkylresorcinol and steryl ferulate levels remained unaffected. Wheat sprouts were shown to be potential functional ingredients to increase the nutritional value of cereal products. PMID:26752117

  17. Development of Lipophilic Antioxidants and Chloroplasts during the Sprouting of Diverse Triticum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Jochen U; Flockerzie, Miriam; Longin, C Friedrich H; Würschum, Tobias; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of sprouting times and illumination conditions on lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids, tocochromanols, alkylresorcinols, and steryl ferulates), chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was investigated using four varieties each of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum), spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta), durum (T. durum), emmer (T. dicoccum), and einkorn (T. monococcum). Carotenoid levels significantly increased during sprouting, particularly, under light exposure. In contrast, concentrations of other lipophilic antioxidants were affected to a lesser extent. Moreover, the quantitative development of lipophilic antioxidants was evidently determined by genotype. On the basis of the levels of carotenoids newly synthesized during sprouting, a chloroplast development index indicated that chloroplast ontogenesis during sprouting occurred at different species-dependent rates. Thermal degradation of carotenoids, tocochromanols, chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was observed during the drying of sprouts at 40 and 90 °C, while alkylresorcinol and steryl ferulate levels remained unaffected. Wheat sprouts were shown to be potential functional ingredients to increase the nutritional value of cereal products.

  18. Callus cell proliferation from broccoli leaf slice using IBA and BAP in vitro culture: Its biochemical and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Hossain, A B M; Haq, Imdadul; Ibrahim, Nasir A; Aleissa, Mohammed Saad

    2016-03-01

    Plant tissue or cell culture keeps a significant role in micro-propagation in the plant production industry. Combination of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and other plant growth regulators like 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was used in the most of the research in tissue culture. The study was carried out to investigate the optimization of the concentration of IBA and BAP combination (0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.50, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 mg/l) for the root, callus and leaf proliferation from the leaf cutting slice. The highest number (6.75) of root proliferation was observed in the concentration of 2.0 mg/l IBA+0.25 mg/l BAP combination. The callus initiation was found in the concentration of IBA 1.0-3.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0-2.0 mg/l. However, the highest callus weight was observed at the concentration of IBA 1.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0 mg/l combination than other combination of concentrations. Positively leaf initiation and formation was better in the concentration of IBA 1-3.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0-2.0 mg/l combination. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydarzyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging potential was higher (70.1%) in leaves extract than in callus extracts (46.3%) at the concentration of 10 mg/ml though both extracts had lower DPPH free radical scavenging activity compared to the positive control, vitamin C and BHT. Theresults conclude that the optimum concentration was IBA 1.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0 mg/l combination to produce callus cell proliferation and concentration of 2.0 mg/l IBA+0.25 mg/l BAP combination was the optimum for root proliferation of broccoli in vitro.

  19. Callus cell proliferation from broccoli leaf slice using IBA and BAP in vitro culture: Its biochemical and antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Sharif Hossain

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissue or cell culture keeps a significant role in micro-propagation in the plant production industry. Combination of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP and other plant growth regulators like 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA or Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA was used in the most of the research in tissue culture. The study was carried out to investigate the optimization of the concentration of IBA and BAP combination (0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.50, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 mg/l for the root, callus and leaf proliferation from the leaf cutting slice. The highest number (6.75 of root proliferation was observed in the concentration of 2.0 mg/l IBA+0.25 mg/l BAP combination. The callus initiation was found in the concentration of IBA 1.0–3.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0–2.0 mg/l. However, the highest callus weight was observed at the concentration of IBA 1.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0 mg/l combination than other combination of concentrations. Positively leaf initiation and formation was better in the concentration of IBA 1–3.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0–2.0 mg/l combination. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydarzyl (DPPH free radical scavenging potential was higher (70.1% in leaves extract than in callus extracts (46.3% at the concentration of 10 mg/ml though both extracts had lower DPPH free radical scavenging activity compared to the positive control, vitamin C and BHT. Theresults conclude that the optimum concentration was IBA 1.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0 mg/l combination to produce callus cell proliferation and concentration of 2.0 mg/l IBA+0.25 mg/l BAP combination was the optimum for root proliferation of broccoli in vitro.

  20. Optimization of a blanching step to maximize sulforaphane synthesis in broccoli florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Carmen; Barrientos, Herna; Román, Juan; Mahn, Andrea

    2014-02-15

    A blanching step was designed to favor sulforaphane synthesis in broccoli. Blanching was optimised through a central composite design, and the effects of temperature (50-70 °C) and immersion time in water (5-15 min) on the content of total glucosinolates, glucoraphanin, sulforaphane, and myrosinase activity were determined. Results were analysed by ANOVA and the optimal condition was determined through response surface methodology. Temperature between 50 and 60 °C significantly increased sulforaphane content (pblanching at 70 and 74 °C diminished significantly this content, compared to fresh broccoli. The optimal blanching conditions given by the statistical model were immersion in water at 57 °C for 13 min; coinciding with the minimum glucosinolates and glucoraphanin content, and with the maximum myrosinase activity. In the optimal conditions, the predicted response of 4.0 μmol sulforaphane/g dry matter was confirmed experimentally. This value represents a 237% increase with respect to the fresh vegetable.

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Xanthomonas campestris strains isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli were identified according to their pathogenicity, phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Pathogenicity was confirmed by the injection method with a hypodermic syringe into the mesophilic tissue of cabbage leaves. All strains were Gramnegative, aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, grew at 35°C, produced levan, H2S and indole, did not reduce nitrate, hydrolyzed Tween 80, starch, gelatin and esculin and did not show tolerance to 0.1 and 0.02% TTC. The strains produced acid from d-arabinose, arginine, dulcitol, galactose, d-glucose, maltose, mannose, sorbitol, sucrose and xylose. The genetic characterization was based on the sequence analyses of 16S rDNA and ERIC and BOX PCR. Strains of different pathovars were also used to compare PCR resulting patterns. BOX-PCR of the strains from kale and broccoli, obtained using (GTG5 primer, yielded patterns with a high similarity level to pathovar reference strain Xcc. The strains from cabbage yielded BOX and ERIC product patterns, distinguishing them from the other tested strains and reference strains. 16S rDNA of the representative strains was closely related to Xcc strain ATCC 33913. ERIC PCR and BOX using (GTG5 primer generated different Xcc patterns and were effective in distinguishing strains from different plant hosts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43010 i br. III46007

  2. Stingless bees damage broccoli inflorescences when collecting fibers for nest building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Jorge Nunes dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (Hymenoptera: Apidae is an important pollinator for various crops, but constitutes an occasional pest of other plant species since it causes injury to leaves, stems, flowers and fruits while collecting nest materials. The aim of the present study was to determine the damage caused by T. spinipes to a broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica, Brassicaceae growing on an organic farm. A significant number of plants (72.5 % presented damaged inflorescences, while 39% of all of the inflorescences suffered some degree of injury. The activities of T. spinipes caused scarifications on the stems of the inflorescences, and these typically evolved to epidermal cicatrices up to 10 mm wide. In some cases, the lesions were sufficiently deep to cause partial destruction of the vascular tissues, and this lead to thinner (< 5 mm diameter floral stems that may collapse. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the attack of broccoli plants by T. spinipes. The results obtained should serve to highlight the possibility that stingless bees could be responsible for direct and/or indirect damage to vegetable crops, and to stimulate the development of control strategies for these incidental pests.

  3. Pure phosphine fumigation treatment at low temperature for postharvest control of western flower thrips on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Pure phosphine fumigation at a low temperature of 2°C was studied as an alternative fumigant to meth...

  4. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants. PMID:26721234

  5. Persistence of Indicator and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Broccoli following Manure Spreading and Irrigation with Fecally Contaminated Water: Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Généreux, Mylène; Breton, Marie Jo; Fairbrother, John Morris; Fravalo, Philippe; Côté, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    In 2011 and 2012, trials consisting of experimental plots were carried out to evaluate the presence of pathogenic (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella) and prevalence of indicator (Escherichia coli) microorganisms in broccoli fertilized with liquid hog manure or mineral fertilizers and irrigated zero, one, or two times with E. coli-contaminated water. In 2011, results showed that E. coli contamination in broccoli heads was affected by the interval between irrigation and sampling (P = 0.0236), with a significant decrease between the first and third day following irrigation (P = 0.0064). In 2012, irrigation frequency significantly increased E. coli prevalence in broccoli samples (P = 0.0499). In 2012, E. coli counts in the soil were significantly influenced by the type of fertilizer applied, as plots receiving liquid hog manure showed higher bacterial counts (P = 0.0006). L. monocytogenes was recovered in one broccoli sample, but geno-serogrouping differentiated the isolate from those recovered in manure and irrigation water. The L. monocytogenes serogroup IIA, pulsotype 188 strain was found in six soil samples and in irrigation water applied 5 days before soil sampling. This study highlights the link between E. coli levels in irrigation water, irrigation frequency, and interval between irrigation and harvest on produce contamination. It also demonstrates that L. monocytogenes introduced into the soil following irrigation can persist for up to 5 days.

  6. Discriminating between cultivars and treatments of broccoli using mass spectral fingerprinting and analysis of variance-principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolite fingerprints, obtained with direct injection mass spectrometry (MS) with both positive and negative ionization, were used with analysis of variance-principal components analysis (ANOVA-PCA) to discriminate between cultivars and growing treatments of broccoli. The sample set consisted of ...

  7. Variation in Broccoli Cultivar Phytochemical Content under Organic and Conventional Management Systems: Implications in Breeding for Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, E.N.C.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Myers, J.R.; Caldas Paulo, M.J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Zhu, N.; Juvik, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture requires cultivars that can adapt to organic crop management systems without the use of synthetic pesticides as well as genotypes with improved nutritional value. The aim of this study encompassing 16 experiments was to compare 23 broccoli cultivars for the content of phytochemic

  8. Alterations in Chlorophyll a Fluorescence and Pigments Concentration in the Leaves of Cauliflower and Broccoli Transplants Subjected to Chilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata WOJCIECHOWSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and photosynthetic pigments content in leaves of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. ‘Monaco’ F1 and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis cv. ‘Bruce’ F1 transplants were analyzed to investigate the effects of chilling temperatures (6 and 10 °C and the exposure length (1 or 2 weeks on the photosynthetic apparatus condition in 3-year experiment. Data were compared to control plants exposed to 14 °C for 1 and 2 weeks. The lowest values of maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm and the performance index (PI were observed in cauliflower chilled at 6 °C for 2 weeks. This was not accompanied by any substantial reduction in chlorophylls concentration, however, significant correlations between Fv/Fm or PI and chlorophylls content in cauliflower leaves were found. There was no negative effects of chilling on photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll content in broccoli leaves, the amount of carotenoids significantly increased in the broccoli chilled for 2 weeks in 6 °C. The chlorophyll a fluorescence indices and accelerated carotenoids synthesis showed that broccoli had less vulnerable photosynthetic apparatus to stress-induced temperatures and more efficient protection mechanisms in comparison to cauliflower transplants.

  9. Sulforaphane formation and bioaccessibility are more affected by steaming time than meal composition during in vitro digestion of broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarvan-Kruse, Irmela; Kramer, E.; Bouwmeester, H.; Dekker, M.; Verkerk, R.

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli is a rich source of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin (GR). After hydrolysis of GR by the endogenous enzyme myrosinase, sulforaphane (SF) or sulforaphane nitrile (SFN) are produced, depending on environmental conditions. How the conversion of GR and bioaccessibility of released breakdown p

  10. The Impact of Broccoli II & Tomato II on European patents in conventional breeding, GMO’s and Synthetic Biology:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    On 25 March 2015, the Enlarged Board of Appeal of the European Patent Office (EBA) finally delivered its’ much awaited decisions on the consolidated referrals G2/12 (“Tomato II”) and G2/13 (“Broccoli II”). The EBA affirmed that products, namely plants or parts thereof, obtained by essentially bio...

  11. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants.

  12. Preparation of amino acid-based polymer functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as adsorbents for analysis of plant growth regulators in bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shilei; Qi, Li; Li, Nan; Wang, Minglin

    2016-09-01

    A novel magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent has been developed for enriching two plant growth regulators, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), in bean sprouts. For preparing the MSPE adsorbent, poly(N-methacryloyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)), amino acid-based polymer, was modified onto the magnetic nanoparticles via "grafting to" method by free radical polymerization. The resultant P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The adsorption amount of Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe) nanoparticles to 2,4-D and 4-CPA were 39.82mgg(-1) and 29.02mgg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the prepared MSPE adsorbents showed good selectivity towards 2,4-D and 4-CPA due to the hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic forces between the target analytes and Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe). The results demonstrated that the proposed MSPE adsorbents have high affinity to the targets 2,4-D and 4-CPA. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed materials were successfully applied to enrich 2,4-D and 4-CPA in bean sprouts samples. The recovery values of the bean sprouts solution spiked the targets were from 90.9% to 96.4% with the relative standard deviations of 2.3-3.9%. Our work proved that the novel Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe) nanoparticles were the good adsorbents of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) and have good potential for the analysis of trace compound in real samples. PMID:27343600

  13. Preparation of amino acid-based polymer functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as adsorbents for analysis of plant growth regulators in bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shilei; Qi, Li; Li, Nan; Wang, Minglin

    2016-09-01

    A novel magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent has been developed for enriching two plant growth regulators, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), in bean sprouts. For preparing the MSPE adsorbent, poly(N-methacryloyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)), amino acid-based polymer, was modified onto the magnetic nanoparticles via "grafting to" method by free radical polymerization. The resultant P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The adsorption amount of Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe) nanoparticles to 2,4-D and 4-CPA were 39.82mgg(-1) and 29.02mgg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the prepared MSPE adsorbents showed good selectivity towards 2,4-D and 4-CPA due to the hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic forces between the target analytes and Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe). The results demonstrated that the proposed MSPE adsorbents have high affinity to the targets 2,4-D and 4-CPA. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed materials were successfully applied to enrich 2,4-D and 4-CPA in bean sprouts samples. The recovery values of the bean sprouts solution spiked the targets were from 90.9% to 96.4% with the relative standard deviations of 2.3-3.9%. Our work proved that the novel Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe) nanoparticles were the good adsorbents of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) and have good potential for the analysis of trace compound in real samples.

  14. Physiological analysis on pre-harvest sprouting in recombinant inbred rice lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Longxing; WANG Xi; TAN Huijuan; CHEN Haisheng; YANG Changdeng; ZHUANG Jieyun; ZHENG Kangle

    2007-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting(PHS)in rice production is usually caused by high temperature and humidity or continuous rains.It frequently happens in F1 in hybrid rice seed production.The PHS or "Physiologically germinated" seeds are of lower quality,by which the hybrid rice seed production is badly affected every three years at a loss of 20% or even 50% yield in seed production over the vast Yangtse River Valley and Southwest China.It is estimated that PHS causes an average decrease of seed activity by 10%.A recombinant inbred line population including 304 lines,derived from a cross between Indica rice(Oryza sativa L.)cultivars Zhong-156 and Gumei-2,was used to study the PHS physiology.Based on the data of sprouting rate in panicles and sprouting rate in grains,two kinds of lines,namely easy-to-sprout lines and hard-to-sprout lines,were selected to investigate their physiological differences when PHS happened.The experiment was conducted in a special field with a microclimate of higher temperature and humidity.The results indicated that it was easier to produce PHS from the female parent GM-2 than the male parent ZH-156,besides,the GA1 content and amylase activity in GM-2 grains were higher than those in ZH-156.However,the abscisic acid(ABA)content in GM-2 grains was lower than that in ZH-156.Higher temperature and higher humidity facilitated the GA~ increment from milk ripe stage to yellow ripe stage.GM-2 and the easily-sprouting lines showed an even higher increase in GA1 than ZH-156 and the hardly-sprouting lines,which enhanced the amylase activity and induced pre-harvest sprouting.This may be the physiological basis for pre-harvest sprouting induced by higher temperature and higher humidity,and these special characteristics must be inherited from their parents.

  15. Maleic hydrazide: sprout suppression of potatoes in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blauwer, V; Demeulemeester, K; Demeyere, A; Hofmans, E

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the active substance maleic hydrazide was released on the Belgian market. Maleic hydrazide is authorized in potatoes as foliar treatment for instore sprout suppression and control of volunteers. The mode of action is based on blocking cell division whilst cell elongation is not affected. The product must be applied at once during the growing season, only after at least 80% of the tubers have reached 25 mm diameter and not later than 3 weeks before haulm killing. The first 24 h after application, no meaningful precipitation should occur to insure sufficiently uptake of the product by the crop. Field trials were set up for 4 years (2005-2008) and 4 locations per year with application of maleic hydrazide in four different cultivars (Bintje, Fontane, Asterix and Cilena). After application, the cultivar Asterix showed almost every year a temporarily phytotoxicity (bronze discoloration). On the first place yield was determined. When maleic hydrazide was applied too early (80% tubers % 25mm diameter) yield was negatively affected (3 years on 4) except for the cultivar Cilena (fresh market). Internal quality (dry matter and fry quality) was not influenced by the application of maleic hydrazide. Only Fontane had a slightly lower dry matter content. Maleic hydrazide also influenced appearance of secondary growth. However, the results were very variable depending on cultivar, location and time of application. After harvest, the tubers were kept in storage and assessed monthly on germination. Potatoes treated late in the growing season, showed a shorter dormancy period. A part of the tubers was replanted the following spring to verify volunteer control. Additional trials were set up by the Flemish government for two years (2010-2011). The results of previous trials were confirmed. Additional, the influence of maleic hydrazide on internal germination during storage was examined on the cultivar Innovator. The tests clearly showed a positive effect for this parameter

  16. Hic-5 mediates the initiation of endothelial sprouting by regulating a key surface metalloproteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jui M; Abbey, Colette A; Duran, Camille L; Seo, Heewon; Johnson, Gregory A; Bayless, Kayla J

    2016-02-15

    During angiogenesis, endothelial cells must coordinate matrix proteolysis with migration. Here, we tested whether the focal adhesion scaffold protein Hic-5 (also known as TGFB1I1) regulated endothelial sprouting in three dimensions. Hic-5 silencing reduced endothelial sprouting and lumen formation, and sprouting defects were rescued by the return of Hic-5 expression. Pro-angiogenic factors enhanced colocalization and complex formation between membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, also known as MMP14) and Hic-5, but not between paxillin and MT1-MMP. The LIM2 and LIM3 domains of Hic-5 were necessary and sufficient for Hic-5 to form a complex with MT1-MMP. The degree of interaction between MT1-MMP and Hic-5 and the localization of the complex within detergent-resistant membrane fractions were enhanced during endothelial sprouting, and Hic-5 depletion lowered the surface levels of MT1-MMP. In addition, we observed that loss of Hic-5 partially reduced complex formation between MT1-MMP and focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2), suggesting that Hic-5 bridges MT1-MMP and FAK. Finally, Hic-5 LIM2-LIM3 deletion mutants reduced sprout initiation. Hic-5, MT1-MMP and FAK colocalized in angiogenic vessels during porcine pregnancy, supporting that this complex assembles during angiogenesis in vivo. Collectively, Hic-5 appears to enhance complex formation between MT1-MMP and FAK in activated endothelial cells, which likely coordinates matrix proteolysis and cell motility. PMID:26769900

  17. Effect of application of Chlorpropham in sprouting of olluco tubers (Ullucus tuberosus L. under storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Aliaga

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the effect of Chlorpropham on the sprouting of root’s tubers vegetables (Ullucus tuberosum L. Tarmeño variety during storage at 15 °C and RH of 85 %, the treatments were 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg of Chlorpropham / kg of tubers, in a completely random design with 4 repetitions. After 60 days of storage the sprouts, length for the control without Chlorpropham was 9.63 cm and for the treatments with Chlorpropham from 0.22 to 0.71 cm after 90 days the length of the sprouts were kept the same and some of them began to dry up, except the control where increased in size from 15 to 20 cm. After 90 days of storage, weight loss for the treatments with Chlorpropham was averaged of 21 % and for the witness of 37.35 %. All Chlorpropham treatments showed a lower number of sprouts per tuber, lower length of buds, fewer number of tubers with sprouts and less weight loss, with a p <0.05, Duncan test showed don’t exist significant differences between treatments with Chlorpropham for the assessed variables, but significant differences with the control treatment

  18. Change in carbohydrate and enzymes from harvest to sprouting in garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Kambiz; Mohammadi Chiane, Siamak; Mianabadi, Manizheh; Ghaderifar, Farshid; Mousavizadeh, Seyyed Javad

    2016-05-01

    Changes in carbohydrates, enzymes, and pigments were investigated in the Red Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Azarshahr bulbs in storage from harvest to sprouting. For storage period, garlic cloves of the same diameter with 3-4 g weight were arranged in dark condition and exposed to 4 and 21°C, separately. Soluble sugar, total sugar, glucose, sucrose, fructose, starch, chlorophyll a, b, ab, carotenoid, anthocyanin, lipase, α-amylase, and protease were measured every 2 weeks up to sprouting time. Result revealed that starch, lipase, and protease levels declined at the end of storage when clove sprouting started at both 4 and 21°C storage temperature. Starch, glucose, chlorophyll a, b, ab, and carotenoid content during the first 14 days and sucrose at 42 days showed a decreasing trend. Anthocyanin showed an increasing trend 14 and 42 days after harvesting and then decreased at the end of storage (when sprouting began) at both 4 and 21°C storage periods. Finally, starch, glucose, and sucrose measurement can be used as a criterion to predict sprouting time of garlic, due to the decrease in the levels of starch, lipase, and protease, and increase in the levels of α-amylase, glucose, and sucrose in garlic cloves under storage. PMID:27247767

  19. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts.

  20. Agent-based model of angiogenesis simulates capillary sprout initiation in multicellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, J; Chappell, J C; Cluceru, J G; Mac Gabhann, F; Bautch, V L; Peirce, S M

    2015-09-01

    Many biological processes are controlled by both deterministic and stochastic influences. However, efforts to model these systems often rely on either purely stochastic or purely rule-based methods. To better understand the balance between stochasticity and determinism in biological processes a computational approach that incorporates both influences may afford additional insight into underlying biological mechanisms that give rise to emergent system properties. We apply a combined approach to the simulation and study of angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from existing networks. This complex multicellular process begins with selection of an initiating endothelial cell, or tip cell, which sprouts from the parent vessels in response to stimulation by exogenous cues. We have constructed an agent-based model of sprouting angiogenesis to evaluate endothelial cell sprout initiation frequency and location, and we have experimentally validated it using high-resolution time-lapse confocal microscopy. ABM simulations were then compared to a Monte Carlo model, revealing that purely stochastic simulations could not generate sprout locations as accurately as the rule-informed agent-based model. These findings support the use of rule-based approaches for modeling the complex mechanisms underlying sprouting angiogenesis over purely stochastic methods. PMID:26158406

  1. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts. PMID:26433888

  2. Metabolomic analysis of phenolic compounds in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprouts treated with methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Lim, Jeong-Ho

    2011-05-25

    The effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on phytochemical production in buckwheat sprouts cultivated under dark conditions (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 d) were investigated by metabolomic analysis, using ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) mass spectroscopy (MS) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). MeJA-treated and control groups showed no differences in growth but were clearly discriminated from each other on PLS-DA score plots. The metabolites contributing to the discrimination were assigned as chlorogenic acid, catechin, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, vitexin, and quercitrin, which have various health effects. Moreover, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin were assigned as the main phytochemicals of sprouts cultivated under dark conditions. The accumulation of these metabolites caused the phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of the sprouts to increase. Further, this study revealed that their accumulation resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by MeJA treatment. Therefore, these metabolites may be useful for better understanding the effects of MeJA on buckwheat sprout phytochemicals and contribute to improving the functional quality of the sprouts.

  3. Enhanced antimicrobial effect of organic acid washing against foodborne pathogens on broccoli by vacuum impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-18

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of vacuum impregnation applied to the washing process for removal of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes from broccoli surfaces. Broccoli was inoculated with the two foodborne pathogens and treated with simple dipping washing or with vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 5, 10, 20, or 30 min. There were two methods of vacuum impregnation: continuous and intermittent. After 30 min of 101.3 kPa (=14.7 psi, simple dipping), 61.3 kPa (=8.9 psi), and 21.3 kPa (=3.1 psi) of continuous vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.5, 1.7, and 2.3 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. After 30 min of 101.3, 61.3, and 21.3 kPa of intermittent vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.5, 2.3, and 3.7 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.6, 2.1, and 3.2 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. Scanning electron photomicrographs showed that bacteria tend to attach to or become entrapped in protective sites after simple wash processing (dipping). However, most bacteria were washed out of protective sites after intermittent treatment. Direct treatment of cell suspensions with vacuum impregnation showed that it had no inactivation capacity in itself since there were no significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) between the reduction rates of non- and vacuum impregnation treatment. These results demonstrate that the increased antimicrobial effect of vacuum impregnation can be attributed to increased accessibility of sanitizer and an enhanced washing effect in protected sites on produce. Color, texture and titratable acidity values of broccoli treated with intermittent vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 30 min were not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) different from those of untreated samples even though a storage interval was needed for titratable acidity values to be reduced to levels comparable to those of

  4. Effect of cooking on the concentration of bioactive compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Avenger) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Alphina F1) grown in an organic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; de Oliveira, Viviani Ruffo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Brassica vegetables have been shown to have antioxidant capacities due to the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamins. This study evaluates the influence of different processing conditions (boiling, steaming, microwaving and sous vide) on the stability of flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin A in broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences grown in an organic system. Results indicated that sous vide processing resulted in greater antioxidant capacity and that all processes contributed in some way to an increased content of antioxidant compounds in both cauliflower and broccoli.

  5. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L. "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel David Dufoo-Hurtado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that seed bulbs from ‘Coreano’ variety conditioned at 5 °C for five weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic seed cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23 °C, and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5 °C for five weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous

  6. Changes in SeMSC, Glucosinolates and Sulforaphane Levels, and in Proteome Profile in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica Fertilized with Sodium Selenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moenne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC, total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica. Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 mmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  7. 青花菜不同器官中4-甲基亚磺酞丁基硫苷及萝卜硫素含量分析%Analysis of Glucoraphanin and Sulforaphane Contents in Different Organs of Broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雪琴; 谢祝捷; 李光庆; 邱海荣; 李媛

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The anticarcinogenic activity of broccoli is most likely to be due to the activity of the isothiocyanates sulforaphane derived from glucoraphanin. In order to provide information in broccoli breeding for high nutrition quality, the goal of this study is to determine the contents of glucoraphanin and sulforaphane and analyze the correlation between them which is in the florets, stems and leaves of different genotypes of broccoli. [Result] Both glucoraphanin and sulforapane content difference was extremely significant in the florets, stems and leaves of different broccoli genotypes. The highest contents of them were both in the florets, while the lowest contents were in the leaves. The mean value of glucoraphanin content in the florets was 4.4- and 13.97-fold,respectively, higher than that in the stems and leaves, and the mean value of sulforaphane content in the florets was 4- and 8.7-fold,respectively, higher than that in the stems and leaves. However, compared to most materials, there were higher glucoraphanin contents in the stems and leaves of some broccoli materials about 50% of which in the florets. The correlation coefficient between the glucoraphanin and sulforaphane contents in the florets, stems and leaves of the ten different genotype broccoli materials were 0.9886**, 0.9994**, 0.9935** respectively. [Conclusion] There exist some genotypic differences which can significant affect the glucoraphanin content in different genotype broccoli materials and organs. In the development and application of sulforaphane, the glucoraphanin contents can be the screening index. Broccoli materials which have higher glucoraphanin contents in the stems and leaves can be selected as the raw materials for extraction of the sulforaphane from the wastes.%[目的]青花菜的抗癌功能生要与4-甲基亚确酰丁墓硫苷的降解产物萝卜硫素有关,通过测定不同青花菜材料花球、茎和叶片中两者的含量并分析两者含量间的相关

  8. Effect of blanching temperature and dipping time on drying time of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Drying characteristics of broccoli was experimentally studied in cabinet-type convective dryer. Experiments were conducted using constant air velocity of 2 m/s and air temperature of 60 . Drying rate increased with increasing blanching temperature and thus reduced the drying time. The experimental drying data were used to fit twelve drying models and drying rate constants and coefficients of the models were determined by non-linear regression analysis. Estimations by the Midilli et al. model were in good agreement with the experimental data obtained. Fick's second law was used to calculate the effective moisture diffusivity, which varied from 1.987 to 3.577 × 10(-8) m(2)/s for the given blanching temperature range. The rehydration ratio was observed to increase with increasing blanching temperature.

  9. 秋花椰菜引种试验%Trial of introducing autumn broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文注; 叶明鑫; 陈艺婷; 颜慧莹; 陈龙杰

    2012-01-01

    Trial test of 13 introduced broccoli varieties has been carried out in Xiang' an district of Xiamen city in autumn of 2011. Two qualified and resistant varieties SWONSEA and SUPER FORMEN were screened by comparison of plant chacteristicrs, resistance, corm pattern, single corm weight, yield and quality.%2011年秋季在厦门市翔安区对引入的13个花椰菜品种进行试种,通过植株性状、抗逆性、球型、单球重、产量及品质的比较,初步筛选出优质、抗性好的秋花椰菜品种SWONSEA和SUPERFORMEN。

  10. Effect of blanching temperature and dipping time on drying time of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Drying characteristics of broccoli was experimentally studied in cabinet-type convective dryer. Experiments were conducted using constant air velocity of 2 m/s and air temperature of 60 . Drying rate increased with increasing blanching temperature and thus reduced the drying time. The experimental drying data were used to fit twelve drying models and drying rate constants and coefficients of the models were determined by non-linear regression analysis. Estimations by the Midilli et al. model were in good agreement with the experimental data obtained. Fick's second law was used to calculate the effective moisture diffusivity, which varied from 1.987 to 3.577 × 10(-8) m(2)/s for the given blanching temperature range. The rehydration ratio was observed to increase with increasing blanching temperature. PMID:23744113

  11. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, C.A.; Curvetto, N.R.; Orioli, G.A. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)); Arguello, J.A. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Dept. de Biologia Aplicada)

    1991-02-01

    The effects of an acute dose of {gamma}-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19+-1{sup 0}C and 42+-2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author).

  12. Disinfection of seeds and sprout inhibition of potatoes with low energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, S. E-mail: setsuko@nfri.affrc.go.jp; Hayashi, T

    2000-03-01

    Electrons at acceleration voltages of 170-190 kV reduced microbial count of seeds of adzuki bean, pot herb mustered and black gram to undetectable levels without any detrimental effects on the germination ability. However, electrons at 200 kV or higher affected the growing of black gram sprouts. The energies of electrons at the surface of seed (15 cm distance from the accelerator's window) at acceleration voltages of 170-190 kV were estimated to be 60-90 kV, based on the stopping powers of titanium and air. Electrons at acceleration voltages of 250 kV or higher inhibited sprouting of potato tubers of various cultivars. The results suggest the efficacy of low energy electron treatment for disinfection of seeds and sprout inhibition of potatoes. (author)

  13. Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Sulphur Compounds in White Radish During the First Three Days of Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doinița Borș

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Glucosinolates (GLs and S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide (SMCSO are natural sulphur containing phytochemicals. They are two of the most important bioactive compounds found in brassica vegetables, which are highly regarded for their health-promoting activity. In this study we have analysed the content of GLs and SMCSO in white radish, by an HPLC-MS method, in order to illustrate their biosynthesis and accumulation during the first 72 hours of sprouting. Total GLs content ranged between  54.17 and 126.86 µmol/g DW. There were eight GLs identified, in radish sprouts and around 94 % of them were aliphatic. Obvious differences, during the 72 hours of sprouting, were noticed in glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin. S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide content ranged between 0.21 and 35.95 µmol/g DW. Our results revealed a negative strong correlation between GLs and SMCSO.

  14. Combined Effects of Blue and Ultraviolet Lights on the Accumulation of Flavonoids in Tartary Buckwheat Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blue and UV-A (365 nm/UV-C (254 nm or their combinations on the levels of total flavonoids, rutin, quercetin, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL, chalcone isomerase (CHI, rutin degrading enzymes (RDEs and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity in tartary buckwheat sprouts were investigated in this study. The total flavonoids content in the tartary buckwheat sprouts irradiated with blue light followed by UV-C (BL+UV-C raised by 10%, compared with the opposite combination sequence (UV-C+BL. However, blue light did not show the same results when combined with UV-A, and their combinations on the accumulation of total flavonoids were still lower than that of UV-A/UV-C. Key enzymes (PAL, CHI and RDEs revealed a significant correlation with total flavonoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  15. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of an acute dose of γ-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19±10C and 42±2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author)

  16. Vegetative and reproductive plasticity of broccoli at three levels of incident photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the effects of shading on the growth, development, dry matter partitioning, and plant architecture of broccoli, ‘Legacy’ hybrid plants were grown in pots in a greenhouse under black shading meshes to generate different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The average incident PAR was 23 mol PPF m–2 d–1 under control conditions, 15.2 under a 35% mesh, and 6.7 under a 70% mesh. The air temperature was within the range 15-22°C. As shading increased so did the duration of the growth cycle and the leaf area (LA). Shading did not affect the number of leaves, although the upper ones were more erect. The stem length and the accumulated intercepted PAR (IPAR) were negatively related. Inflorescence diameter and commercial fresh weight decreased only with the 70% mesh. Shading did not affect stem dry weight (DW) but altered dry matter allocation in the root and spear. The DW of the leaves maintained an average 45.7% of the total DW despite the greater LA developed under shade. The net assimilation rate diminished with the reduction of IPAR, and the LA increased; the plant relative growth rate was therefore practically constant. With increased shading, the leaves and the stem became the dominant photosynthate sinks. The commercial fresh weight achieved with 15.2 mol photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) m–2 d–1 was equivalent to that obtained with 23 mol PPF m–2 d–1, but the cycle was extended for 4.5 days. With 6.7 mol PPF m–2 d–1, yield diminished because of the lower DW produced in a cycle extended by 15 days, and because more dry matter was allocated to the stem than to the spear. Based on these results, broccoli could be considered a shade-tolerant plant. (author)

  17. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p crops (UNECE, Mills, 2004), can indeed be applied for spring oilseed rape. The reduction of oilseed rape yield showed the highest correlation with the ozone uptake during the vegetative growth stage: when only the first 47 days after emergence were used to calculate POD 6, R2 values increased up to 0.476 or even 0.545 when the first 23 days were excluded. The highest ozone treatments, corresponding to the future ambient level by 2100 (IPCC, Meehl et al., 2007), led to a reduction of approximately 30% in oilseed rape seed yield in comparison to the current ozone concentrations. Oil percentage was also significantly reduced in response to ozone ( p oil yield was even more severely affected by elevated ozone exposure compared to seed yield: critical levels for oil yield dropped to 3.2 ppm h and 3.9 mmol m -2. For broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  18. Gene expression regulation of sprout inhibition and water retention genes in potatoes by 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potato is the fifth largest agricultural crop in the world and a dietary staple in many cultures. When sprouting, the potato produces the toxin solanine and begins to sweeten, a process that makes the potato undesirable for consumer use. Sprout inhibitors such as 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN) ar...

  19. Preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans in the highland tropics of Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Andrade-Piedra, Jorge L.;

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans occurs in the highland tropics of Ecuador. In three separate experiments in the field, P. infestans was identified on the preemerged sprouts of 49, 5, and 43% of tubers, respectively...

  20. Effects of Yeast Polysaccharide on Growth and Flavonoid Accumulation in Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat. Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures on day 6, the total rutin and quercentin content was effectively increased to 42.8 mg/gdw, or about 1.4-fold in comparison with the control of 31.2 mg/gdw. Feeding with 800 mg/L of YPS on day 9, the sprouts biomass was increased by about 8% compared to the control culture (0.99 gdw/100 sprouts versus 0.92 gdw/100 sprouts. Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. It could be an effective strategy for improving the functional quality of the F. tataricum sprouts provided with YPS.

  1. Contact-inhibited chemotaxis in de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeland M H Merks

    Full Text Available Blood vessels form either when dispersed endothelial cells (the cells lining the inner walls of fully formed blood vessels organize into a vessel network (vasculogenesis, or by sprouting or splitting of existing blood vessels (angiogenesis. Although they are closely related biologically, no current model explains both phenomena with a single biophysical mechanism. Most computational models describe sprouting at the level of the blood vessel, ignoring how cell behavior drives branch splitting during sprouting. We present a cell-based, Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model (also called Cellular Potts Model simulation of the initial patterning before the vascular cords form lumens, based on plausible behaviors of endothelial cells. The endothelial cells secrete a chemoattractant, which attracts other endothelial cells. As in the classic Keller-Segel model, chemotaxis by itself causes cells to aggregate into isolated clusters. However, including experimentally observed VE-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of chemotaxis in the simulation causes randomly distributed cells to organize into networks and cell aggregates to sprout, reproducing aspects of both de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth. We discuss two branching instabilities responsible for our results. Cells at the surfaces of cell clusters attempting to migrate to the centers of the clusters produce a buckling instability. In a model variant that eliminates the surface-normal force, a dissipative mechanism drives sprouting, with the secreted chemical acting both as a chemoattractant and as an inhibitor of pseudopod extension. Both mechanisms would also apply if force transmission through the extracellular matrix rather than chemical signaling mediated cell-cell interactions. The branching instabilities responsible for our results, which result from contact inhibition of chemotaxis, are both generic developmental mechanisms and interesting examples of unusual patterning instabilities.

  2. Preservation of Brussels Sprouts by Pullulan Coating Containing Oregano Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraśniewska, Karolina; Gniewosz, Małgorzata; Kosakowska, Olga; Cis, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of pullulan (a fungal polysaccharide) film containing oregano essential oil (OEO) at 1.0 to 10.0% was evaluated against bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The quality of the sprouts, as determined by weight loss, color, and appearance, was monitored during storage at 2 and 16°C. An organoleptic evaluation of odor preference and odor acceptability of OEO on the Brussels sprouts was also conducted. The antimicrobial activity of pullulan films with OEO increased significantly with the increase in OEO concentration (1 to 10%). Pullulan films with OEO were more effective for inhibiting the growth of yeasts and molds than for inhibiting gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Pullulan with 1.0% OEO was an effective combination and was used subsequently as the base coating for maintaining the safety and quality of fresh Brussels sprouts stored at 16°C for 14 days. The pullulan coating containing 1.0% OEO reduced Aspergillus niger populations by 2 log CFU/g. This coating also reduced weight loss in the sprouts. Compared with uncoated Brussels sprouts, the percent weight loss after 14 days was reduced in samples coated with pullulan and with pullulan plus 1% OEO by 3.81 and 6.06%, respectively, after storage at 2°C and by 8.04 and 9.30%, respectively, after storage 16°C. The coating also significantly reduced changes in general appearance and color during storage. Evaluation of the organoleptic properties indicated that pullulan containing OEO had only a slight detrimental effect on odor properties. Incorporating OEO into a delivery system for antimicrobial compounds in pullulan coatings extended the microbiological shelf life of Brussels sprouts. PMID:26939662

  3. Development of Buckwheat Sprouts Dried Noodles%苦荞苗挂面的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠

    2013-01-01

    The effects on dose of buckwheat sprouts in dried noodles on its cooking time,cooked-off rate and cooking loss were studied.Experiments results showed that with the increasing of buckwheat sprouts addition dose,the cooking time gradually reduced,while cooked-off rate and cooking loss decreased firstly and then increased.The cooked-off rate was the lowest when buckwheat sprouts addition dose was 5%,10%,15%; and cooking loss was the lowest when buckwheat sprouts addition dose was 20%.Considering the quality and nutritional value of buckwheat sprouts dry noodles,the appropriate addition dose of buckwheat sprouts should be 20%~25%.%研究了苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum)苗添加量对挂面烹调时间、熟断条率、烹调损失率的影响.结果表明,随着苦荞苗添加量的增加,烹调时间逐渐减少,熟断条率和烹调损失率先降低后增加;熟断条率在苦荞苗添加量为5%、10%、15%时最低,烹调损失率在苦荞苗添加量为20%时最低;综合考虑苦荞苗挂面的品质和营养价值,苦荞苗合适的添加量为20%~25%.

  4. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B Carmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST—is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that ten days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay.

  5. Applications of immunomagnetic capture and time-resolved fluorescence to detect outbreak Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-I.; Gordon, Marsha; Fett, William F.; Gehring, Andrew G.; Irwin, Peter L.

    2004-03-01

    Commercially available alfalfa seeds were inoculated with low levels (~ 4 CFU/g) of pathogenic bacteria. The inoculated seeds were then allowed to sprout in sterile tap water at 22°C. After 48 hours, the irrigation water and sprouts were separately transferred to bovine heart infusion (BHI) media. The microbes in the BHI samples were allowed to grow for 4 hours at 37°C and 160 rpm. Specific immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were then applied to capture the E.coli O157 and/or Salmonella in the growth media. Separation and concentration of IMB-captured pathogens were achieved using magnetic separators. The captured E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp were further tagged with europium (Eu) labeled anti-E. coli O157 antibodies and samarium (Sm) labeled anti-Salmonella antibodies, respectively. After washing, the lanthanide labels were extracted out from the complexes by specific chelators to form strongly fluorescent chelates. The specific time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) associated with Eu or Sm was measured to estimate the extent of capture of the E. coli O157 and Salmonella, respectively. The results indicated that the approach could detect E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica from the seeds inoculated with ~ 4 CFU/g of the pathogens. Non-targeted bacteria, e.g., Aeromonas and Citrobacter exhibited essentially no cross reactivity. Since the pathogen detection from the sprouts was achieved within 6 hours, the developed methodology could be use as a rapid, sensitive and specific screening process for E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica in this popular salad food.

  6. Effect of application of Chlorpropham in sprouting of olluco tubers (Ullucus tuberosus L.) under storage

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Aliaga; Frank Velásquez; René Mendoza; Roberto Chuquilín

    2011-01-01

    It was evaluated the effect of Chlorpropham on the sprouting of root’s tubers vegetables (Ullucus tuberosum L.) Tarmeño variety during storage at 15 °C and RH of 85 %, the treatments were 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg of Chlorpropham / kg of tubers, in a completely random design with 4 repetitions. After 60 days of storage the sprouts, length for the control without Chlorpropham was 9.63 cm and for the treatments with Chlorpropham from 0.22 to 0.71 cm after 90 days the length of the spro...

  7. Effect of Spearmint Oil on Sprouting and Processing Quality of Diamant and Sinora Potato Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Hind A. ELbashir; Abdel Halim; Ahmed, R.; Khahil S. Yousif

    2011-01-01

    The effect of spearmint oil on the storage and processing qualities of two potato varieties Diamant and Sinora was investigated and compared with the sprout inhibitor, isopropyl - N 3-chlorophenyl carbamate (CIPC). Potatoes were stored at 10±1ºC and (73-78% RH) for 6 months. Results showed spearmint oil was as effective as CIPC in checking the break of dormancy, fast sprout growth, high fresh weight loss but unlike CIPC did not kill the eye buds; so can be used for seed tubers. The oil had no...

  8. Tolerant Mechanism and Chromosome Location of Gene Controlling Sprouting Tolerance in Aegilops Tauschii Cosson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xiu-jin; ZHENG You-liang; LIU Deng-cai; WEI Yu-ming; YAN Ze-hong; ZHOU Yong-hong

    2002-01-01

    An artificial amphiploid RSP (2n = 42, AABBDD) between tetraploid landrace Ailanmai(Triticum turgidum L., 2n= 28, AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD, 2n = 14) expressed high tolerance to preharvest sprouting which derived from Ae. tauschii. Tolerance to preharvest sprouting of RSP was examined by four ways in six varying periods after anthesis. The germination percentages of preharvest intact spikes were only 6.06 % in its high peak period of germination. Its tolerance was mainly decided by the seed a recessive trait which was controlled by one gene, located on chromosome 2D.

  9. Parâmetros cinéticos da Glutationa S-Transferase e sua ativação por extratos de vegetais Kinetics parameters of Glutathione S-Transferase and its activation by vegetable extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Lopes Torres

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a indução da Glutationa S-Transferase, com extratos de vegetais, e caracterizar os parâmetros cinéticos desta enzima. Foram obtidos os extratos aquoso, etanólico e hexanólico de vegetais, amplamente consumidos no Brasil, como berinjela (Solanum melongena L., couve-flor (Brassica oleracea L., couve (Brassica oleracea L., brócolis (Brassica oleracea L., couve-de-bruxelas (Brassicaoleraea L., cebola (Allium cepa L., alho (Allium sativum L.; vegetais que apresentam gosto amargo, como jiló (Solanum gilo Raddi, guariroba (Syagrus oleracea Becc., mostarda (Brassica nigra L., carqueja (Cacalia spp., e de plantas relacionadas, na cultura popular, como curadoras de determinadas doenças, como a babosa (Aloe vera L.. A atividade da enzima foi determinada usando como substrato o 1 cloro 2, 4 dinitrobenzeno, na presença dos extratos vegetais. A mistura da reação, sem a presença do extrato, foi considerada controle. Das amostras de vegetais avaliadas, a berinjela, a couve e o brócolis apresentaram maior indução na atividade da GST, sendo o extrato etanólico o mais eficaz. A enzima apresentou um Vmax de 0,016 abs. min-1/unidade da enzima e um Km de 0,323mM. O baixo valor de Km encontrado indica uma alta especificidade da enzima pelo substrato 1 cloro 2, 4 dinitrobenzeno e a atividade máxima da enzima foi na faixa de pH entre 6,5 e 7,0.This study was done to evaluate induction Glutathione S-Transferase, with vegetable extracts, and characterize its kinetics parameters. The aqueous, alcoholic, and hexanoic extracts were obtained from vegetables widely consumed in Brazil: eggplant (Solanum melongena L., cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., cauli leaves (Brassica oleracea L., broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Brussels sprout (Brassicaoleraea L., onions (Allium cepa L., garlic (Allium sativum L.; and bitter tasting vegetable such as jiló (Solanum gilo Raddi, guariroba (Syagrus oleracea Becc., black mustard

  10. Influence of sous vide processing, steaming and boiling on vitamin retention and sensory quality in broccoli florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M A

    1993-10-01

    In this study the effect of sous vide processing, steaming and traditional boiling of broccoli florets on retention of ascorbic acid, vitamin B6 and folacin was investigated. Freshly prepared samples were also sensorily evaluated. In all heat treatments ascorbic acid was found to have the highest retention, and was therefore judged not to be suitable as an indicator for vitamin retention in general. When the three types of heat treatment were compared, boiling showed lowest retention of all the vitamins examined (45-64% in 5 min), whereas sous-vide processing gave the highest retentions (97-100% in 5 min). Retentions during steaming were a little lower (83-100% in 5 min). Sensory evaluation showed that sous-vide cooked and steamed broccoli florets generally had higher acceptability than boiled. PMID:8249480

  11. Immunodetection and quantification of insulin-like antigens in sprouts: development of an efficient functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Pathak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormone Insulin is a drug used for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Insulin used in this experiment is derived from bovine and pork pancreas, as well as through recombinant technology. Patients with diabetes mellitus face an inability to utilize glucose from blood due to either less secretion of insulin, or the inability of the insulin to act; As a result of this glucose levels in the blood rise. The prevention and treatment of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus one is world’s major public health issues. Natural alternatives have a big role to play in this field. This study aims at discovering functional foods rich in Insulin like proteins. Here we are reporting Insulin-like proteins synthesizing during the embryo development stage of Glycine max: soybean, Vigna radiata: moong and Vigna unguiculata: cowpea seeds. Hence, germination transforms these seeds containing human insulin like proteins.Methods: In our investigation we have provided protein extraction with Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The plant materials weighing 1g were crushed in mortar and pestle, and the protein from the plant materials was extracted with 20 ml of 0.05 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.6. The suspensions were centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 15 min, and the clear supernatants were subjected to Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of insulin-like proteins. We have used USDA nutritional data sources for the analysis of new products. Results: Our results demonstrate that Insulin is not expressed in dry mature dormant seeds, but is expressed only during the embryo development stage. Dry mature dormant seeds and the seeds germinated for 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and 96 hours of Glycine max, Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata, were investigated for expression of insulin through immunodetection using anti-insulin antibodies. Dry dormant seeds of all the three seeds showed zero expression at 450 nm for insulin, while

  12. Methyl jasmonate and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment effects on quinone reductase inducing activity and post-harvest quality of broccoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Mo Ku

    Full Text Available Effect of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA and post-harvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP treatments on broccoli floret glucosinolate (GS concentrations and quinone reductase (QR, an in vitro anti-cancer biomarker inducing activity were evaluated two days prior to harvest, at harvest and at 10, 20, and 30 days of post-harvest storage at 4 °C. MeJA treatments four days prior to harvest of broccoli heads was observed to significantly increase floret ethylene biosynthesis resulting in chlorophyll catabolism during post-harvest storage and reduced product quality. Post-harvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, which competitively binds to protein ethylene receptors, maintained post-harvest floret chlorophyll concentrations and product visual quality in both control and MeJA-treated broccoli. Transcript abundance of BoPPH, a gene which is responsible for the synthesis of pheophytinase, the primary enzyme associated with chlorophyll catabolism in broccoli, was reduced by 1-MCP treatment and showed a significant, negative correlation with floret chlorophyll concentrations. The GS, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin were significantly increased by MeJA treatments. The products of some of the GS from endogenous myrosinase hydrolysis [sulforaphane (SF, neoascorbigen (NeoASG, N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C, and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC] were also quantified and found to be significantly correlated with QR. Sulforaphane, the isothiocyanate hydrolysis product of the GS glucoraphanin, was found to be the most potent QR induction agent. Increased sulforaphane formation from the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin was associated with up-regulated gene expression of myrosinase (BoMyo and the myrosinase enzyme co-factor gene, epithiospecifier modifier1 (BoESM1. This study demonstrates the combined treatment of MeJA and 1-MCP increased QR activity without post-harvest quality loss.

  13. Effect of vetch wheat mixture and broccoli as preceding crops on organic summer vegetables: on farm trial in western Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ASLAN, Burcay

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming requires the use of practices such as crop rotation, green manure and compost application instead of chemical compounds to enhance farm productivity. In this study, effects of two pre-crops (vetch-wheat mixture and broccoli) and additional fertilization (AF) strategy (compost and commercial fertilizer) were tested on organic production of two main crops (tomato and zucchini) and on soil fertility. The main aim of this on-farm trial is to evaluate the applicability of the resul...

  14. Fall and spring broccoli yields and weed control under no-till and conventional tillage with overseeded legume living mulches

    OpenAIRE

    Infante, Michelle Louise

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with 'BigSur' broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) at two sites in fall of 1993 and at two sites in the spring of 1994 on a Hayter loam in southwestern Virginia. Objectives were to determine the tillage main-plot (CT = conventional tillage, and NT = no-tillage) and weed-control subplot (C = no overseeding or preemergent herbicide; HB = oxyfluorfen; RC = red clover (Trifolium pratense L.); WC = Dutch white clover (Trifolium repens L.); and ...

  15. EFFECT OF SHADING ON INCIDENCE OF BLACK ROT DISEASE AND YIELD QUALITY OF BROCCOLI IN HUMID TROPICAL REGIONS OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karistsapol Nooprom

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the experimental location of Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand, from April to June, 2012. Split-plot in randomized complete block design was used in this experiment with four replications. The broccoli plants under the shading had the lowest incidence of black rot disease (14.48% which was significantly lower than the full sunlight (76.91%. There was a positive impact of the shading on yield quality of the broccoli. The Yok Kheo had the highest head length and diameter (39.13 cm and 12.11 cm, respectively when planting under the shading. These results consistent with broccoli total yield, the highest total yield was obtained from the Yok Kheo under the both shading and full sunlight (10.92 t.ha-1 and 8.29 t.ha-1, respectively, followed by the Green Queen under the shading (6.21 t.ha-1. Therefore, the appropriate variety for planting during dry season in humid tropical regions of Thailand was the Yok Kheo and Green Queen because its total yield per hectare was higher than of the Top Green and they also had higher quality of head.

  16. MG SPROUTS: A Project-in-a-Box Approach to Educational Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn,Sheri; Slagle, Krissy

    2016-01-01

    MG SPROUTS was developed as a "project-in-a-box" program, a self-contained educational programming tool for Extension agents working with master gardener Extension volunteers (MGEVs). The program design incorporates programmatic materials and project management materials and follows best management practices for volunteer management. MG…

  17. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed. PMID:26742616

  18. The transcription factor MEF2C negatively controls angiogenic sprouting of endothelial cells depending on oxygen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Sturtzel

    Full Text Available The MADS box transcription factor MEF2C has been detected by us to be upregulated by the angiogenic factors VEGF-A and bFGF in endothelial cells. We have here investigated its potential role for angiogenesis. MEF2C was surprisingly found to strongly inhibit angiogenic sprouting, whereas a dominant negative mutant rather induced sprouting. The factor mainly affected migratory processes of endothelial cells, but not proliferation. In gene profiling experiments we delineated the alpha-2-macroglobulin gene to be highly upregulated by MEF2C. Further data confirmed that MEF2C in endothelial cells indeed induces alpha-2-macroglobulin mRNA as well as the secretion of alpha-2-macroglobulin and that conditioned supernatants of cells overexpressing MEF2C inhibit sprouting. Alpha-2-macroglobulin mediates, at least to a large extent, the inhibitory effects of MEF2C as is shown by knockdown of alpha-2-macroglobulin mRNA by lentiviral shRNA expression which reduces the inhibitory effect. However, under hypoxic conditions the VEGF-A/bFGF-mediated upregulation of MEF2C is reduced and the production of alpha-2-macroglobulin largely abolished. Taken together, this suggests that the MEF2C/alpha-2-macroglobulin axis functions in endothelial cells as a negative feed-back mechanism that adapts sprouting activity to the oxygen concentration thus diminishing inappropriate and excess angiogenesis.

  19. Gestational weight gain: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts comparative impact trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reporte...

  20. Features of a reciprocating sprout-broadcaster in the process of granular fertilizer application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, L.

    1979-01-01

    IntroductionSince the end of the 1950's, variable bout width distributors were used for broadcast application of granular fertilizers. The bout width is a multiple of the width of the metering and distribution devices. The most important types are the spinning disc and reciprocating sprout broadcast

  1. Axonal sprouting regulates myelin basic protein gene expression in denervated mouse hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M B; Poulsen, F R; Finsen, B

    2000-01-01

    radiatum of CA3 and the dentate hilus, which display axonal sprouting but no degenerative changes or microglial activation, and (2) the outer part of the molecular layer of the fascia dentata, and in stratum moleculare of CA3 and stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1, areas that display dense anterograde...

  2. Human iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cell Sprouting Assay in Synthetic Hydrogel Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by growth factors initiates a cascade of events in vivo consisting of EC tip cell selection, sprout formation, EC stalk cell proliferation, and ultimately vascular stabilization by support cells. Although EC functional assays can rec...

  3. Effects of different media on the enrichment of low numbers of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in mung bean sprouts and on the development of the sprout microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, H; Tasara, T; Zwietering, M H; Joosten, H; Stephan, R

    2016-09-01

    Sprouted seeds have been implicated in a number of serious outbreaks caused by Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Sprouts pose a very complex challenge to bacterial pathogen enrichment and detection since they naturally contain high levels of background microflora including members of the Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the currently used method cannot ensure reliable detection of STEC in sprouts. In this study, we compared different media for the enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae in their ability to promote the growth of stressed STEC at 37°C and 42°C. Mung bean sprouts were spiked with low levels of STEC and their growth was recorded over time. In addition, the microbiome of mung bean sprouts was analysed before and after enrichment. Our results indicate that the growth of dry-stressed STEC is comparable in all of the tested enrichment media except for mTSB+Novobiocin and not influenced by the incubation temperature. Low levels of STEC spiked into the sprouts resuspended in media only grew to levels of around 4logcfu/ml during enrichment, which could reduce the probability of detection. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum detected within the microbiome of non-enriched mung bean sprouts. During enrichment in EE-broth, Proteobacteria remained the most abundant phylum. In contrast, during enrichment in BPW the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased whereas Firmicutes increased when compared to the non-enriched mung bean sprout microbiome. The microbiome composition was not significantly influenced by the incubation temperature during enrichment in both BPW and EE-broth. This is the first study to examine the microbiome on sprouted mung bean seeds during BPW and EE enrichment and relates the bacterial community composition changes to the enrichment of pathogens. PMID:27240217

  4. Effects of different media on the enrichment of low numbers of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in mung bean sprouts and on the development of the sprout microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, H; Tasara, T; Zwietering, M H; Joosten, H; Stephan, R

    2016-09-01

    Sprouted seeds have been implicated in a number of serious outbreaks caused by Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Sprouts pose a very complex challenge to bacterial pathogen enrichment and detection since they naturally contain high levels of background microflora including members of the Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the currently used method cannot ensure reliable detection of STEC in sprouts. In this study, we compared different media for the enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae in their ability to promote the growth of stressed STEC at 37°C and 42°C. Mung bean sprouts were spiked with low levels of STEC and their growth was recorded over time. In addition, the microbiome of mung bean sprouts was analysed before and after enrichment. Our results indicate that the growth of dry-stressed STEC is comparable in all of the tested enrichment media except for mTSB+Novobiocin and not influenced by the incubation temperature. Low levels of STEC spiked into the sprouts resuspended in media only grew to levels of around 4logcfu/ml during enrichment, which could reduce the probability of detection. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum detected within the microbiome of non-enriched mung bean sprouts. During enrichment in EE-broth, Proteobacteria remained the most abundant phylum. In contrast, during enrichment in BPW the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased whereas Firmicutes increased when compared to the non-enriched mung bean sprout microbiome. The microbiome composition was not significantly influenced by the incubation temperature during enrichment in both BPW and EE-broth. This is the first study to examine the microbiome on sprouted mung bean seeds during BPW and EE enrichment and relates the bacterial community composition changes to the enrichment of pathogens.

  5. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. sprouts germinated under red light irradiation induce disease resistance against bacterial rotting disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Dhakal

    Full Text Available Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs, including red (650-660, far red (720-730 and blue (440-450 nm or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes.

  6. Production of ready-to-eat lentil sprouts with improved antioxidant capacity: optimization of elicitation conditions with hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluates the optimal conditions for elicitation with H2O2 for improving the antioxidant capacity of lentil sprouts. Generally, except for 3-day-old sprouts, elicitation increased phenolic content (in respect to the control). The highest phenolic content was determined for 2-day-old sprouts treated with 15 mM H2O2 (0.71 mg/gf.m.). All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts. The highest elevation (3.2-fold) was found for 5-day-old sprouts (single 15 mM H2O2 treatment). A significant increase was also found on the 2nd and 4th days (2.13- and 2.14-fold, respectively). Elicitation induced tyrosine and phenylalanine ammonia-lyases activities. H2O2 treatments induced the activity of catalase - especially for 2-day-old sprouts treated with 150 mM H2O2 (597 U/gf.m.). Elicitation with H2O2 is a useful tool for designing some features of sprouts. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity are strongly affected by concentration of the elicitor, and time and intervals of its application. PMID:25766821

  7. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chongtao; Rymut, Susan; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-05-01

    Mung bean sprouts, typically consumed raw or minimally cooked, are often contaminated with pathogens. Internalized pathogens pose a high risk because conventional sanitization methods are ineffective for their inactivation. The studies were performed (i) to understand the potential of internalization of Salmonella in mung bean sprouts under conditions where the irrigation water was contaminated and (ii) to determine if pre- and postharvest intervention methods are effective in inactivating the internalized pathogen. Mung bean sprouts were grown hydroponically and exposed to green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium through maturity. One experimental set received contaminated water daily, while other sets received contaminated water on a single day at different times. For preharvest intervention, irrigation water was exposed to UV, and for postharvest intervention-contaminated sprouts were subjected to a chlorine wash and UV light. Harvested samples were disinfected with ethanol and AgNO3 to differentiate surface-associate pathogens from the internalized ones. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each set was quantified using the plate count method. Internalized Salmonella Typhimurium was detected at levels of 2.0 to 5.1 log CFU/g under all conditions. Continuous exposure to contaminated water during the entire period generated significantly higher levels of Salmonella Typhimurium internalization than sets receiving contaminated water for only a single day (P < 0.05). Preintervention methods lowered the level of internalized Salmonella by 1.84 log CFU/g (P < 0.05), whereas postintervention methods were ineffective in eliminating internalized pathogens. Preintervention did not completely inactivate bacteria in sprouts and demonstrated that the remaining Salmonella Typhimurium in water became more resistant to UV. Because postharvest intervention methods are ineffective, proper procedures for maintaining clean irrigation water must be followed

  8. Comparation of Salt Stress Resistance between Broccoli and Cauliflower%盐胁迫下西兰花和花椰菜抗逆性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋海燕

    2015-01-01

    Comparation of salt stress resistance between Broccoli and cauliflower was studied in this paper. The results showed that the concentration of NaCl that significantly inhibited seedling growth of broccoli and cauliflower was 300 mmol/L and 100 mmol/L, respectively. Under the salt stress, the proline content, SOD activity and POD activity of broccoli were higher than that of cauliflower, while the MDA content of broccoli were lower than that of cauliflower, which showed the physiological basis of higher salt resistance in broccoli.%研究比较盐胁迫下西兰花和花椰菜的抗盐性大小。结果表明,NaCl胁迫显著(P<0.05)抑制西兰花幼苗生长的浓度为300 mmol/L;显著抑制花椰菜幼苗生长的浓度为100 mmol/L。盐胁迫下,西兰花脯氨酸含量和SOD、POD活性均较花椰菜高,而丙二醛含量较花椰菜低。结果表明盐胁迫下保护酶活性增强和脯氨酸积累是西兰花具有较强抗盐能力的重要生理学基础。

  9. ANTIOXIDANT PLANT EXTRACTS IN THE MEAT PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The review highlights the role of antioxidants in minimizing oxidative changes that may adversely affect the quality of meat and meat products, cause changes in their testing and nutritional properties. This applies particularly to the use of natural antioxidants based on plant extracts, which can be a good alternative to traditional antioxidants, thanks to its high content of phenolic compounds. From the literature it can be concluded that extracts of broccoli, rosemary, mint, grape seed and green tea have a significant antioxidant effect in the meat products. Broccoli and grape seeds extracts have a pronounced antioxidant activity compared to synthetic antioxidants. Laminarin/fucoidan extracts have prooxidative effect on lipid perperoxidation. Essential oils of L. angustifolia and M. piperita effectively inhibit E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus in the chopped beef meat. The alcoholic extract of the dried leaves of oregano has the highest content of total phenols, however, does not exhibit antioxidant properties. The extracts of rosemary, orange, lemon, mint and curry have positive effect on the color of the meat products. When choosing natural antioxidants it is necessary to pay attention to their impact on testing and qualitative characteristics of these food products.

  10. 物理刺激提高豆芽中大豆异黄酮含量的研究%Study on improving the content of soybean isoflavone in bean sprouts by the physical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尉志鹏; 杨海艳; 高天宇; 魏哓晶; 邵倩倩; 杨帅; 解雪飞; 杨志孝

    2014-01-01

    目的:筛选适宜的物理刺激方法,提高豆芽中大豆异黄酮的含量水平,提高大豆芽的品质。方法利用多种物理因素(紫外、高热、低温等)刺激的方式,刺激生长中的豆芽,使其产生应激反应。利用超声振荡法提取豆芽中的大豆异黄酮。在最佳波长下测定吸光度值,并通过标准曲线求出产品中大豆异黄酮浓度,根据线性回归方程计算出豆芽中大豆异黄酮的含量并加以比较。结果在豆芽生长过程中,人为加大温差,用0℃和50℃冷热交替刺激能有效提高异黄酮含量,比常规恒温(26.5℃)生产的豆芽大豆异黄酮含量提高了44.24%。结论本实验成功筛选到提高豆芽中大豆异黄酮含量的方法,此法生产豆芽不但简单易行,便于推广,而且提高了营养品质,具有重要的实际应用价值。%Objective:To screen out the suitable physical stimulation in order to increase the content of soybean isofla-vone in bean sprout and improve the quality of the bean sprouts. Methods:A variety of physical factors( UV,high or low temperature,etc. )was used to stimulate the growing bean sprouts to make stress response. Soybean isoflavone was extrac-ted by ultrasonic vibration method. The absorbance value was determination at the optimum wavelength,and through the standard curve of concentration of isoflavone products,according to the linear regression equation to calculate the content of isoflavone in bean sprout and compared. Results:In bean sprout growth process,0 ℃ and 50 ℃ alternating hot and cold stimulation in increasing temperature difference can effectively improve the isoflavone content. Compared to the bean sprouts produced with conventional constant temperature(26. 5℃),soybean isoflavone content was increased by 44. 24%. Conclusion:The experiment is successful in screening the suitable physical stimulation to increase the content of soybean isoflavone in bean sprout. This

  11. Sprouting productivity and allometric relationships of two oak species managed for traditional charcoal making in central Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, R.; Ghilardi, A.; Vega, E.; Skutsch, M.; Oyama, K.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable production systems for woodfuels in developing countries require basic information on tree productivity, and particularly on their coppicing productivity under current forms of management. We report biomass equations and sprouting productivity of two oak species (Quercus castanea and Que

  12. Metabolic profiling of Vitex agnus castus leaves, fruits and sprouts: analysis by LC/ESI/(QqQ)MS and (HR) LC/ESI/(Orbitrap)/MS n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Angela; Montoro, Paola; D'Urso, Gilda; Macchia, Mario; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Food supplements based on Vitex agnus castus L. (Verbenaceae) fruits, also known as chasteberry, are routinely used by women against somatic and psychic premenstrual symptoms such as depression, sadness or irritability. With the aim of highlighting the differences in the chemical profiles of cultivated fruits and different parts of wild plants (fruits, leaves and sprouts) of V. agnus castus, a method concerning with the quali-quantitative study of the derived hydroalcoholic extracts was carried out by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray negative ionization Orbitrap multicollisional high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/(Orbitrap)MS(n)) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray negative ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/(QqQ)MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. PMID:25305595

  13. Influence of selenium supplementation on fatty acids profile and biological activity of four edible amaranth sprouts as new kind of functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, Pawel; Gdula-Argasinska, Joanna; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Quilty, Brid; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Zagrodzki, Pawel

    2015-08-01

    Suitability assessment of amaranth sprouts as a new functional food was carried out. The optimisation of sprouting process and the influence of selenium supplementation, in doses 10, 15, and 30 mg/l of selenium as sodium selenite, on amaranth growth and fatty acid profile were examined. Methods such as FRAP, DPPH, polyphenols content and GPX activity were applied to characterize antioxidant potential of seeds and sprouts of four different edible amaranth genera. E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans were used to evaluate amaranth sprouts antimicrobial properties. Interaction between amaranth sprouts and biological systems was assessed by analysing antibacterial and antifungal properties with a disc diffusion test. The studies proved amaranth sprouts to be potentially attractive as functional food. As confirmed by all the data amaranth sprouts are suitable as a moderate selenium accumulator and are rich in essential fatty acids, especially linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, which are precursors of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, it opens dietary opportunities for amaranth sprouts. They can also serve as a moderate source of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the experiments revealed neither antibacterial, nor antifungal properties of sprouts. In general, amaranth sprouts biological activity under evaluation has failed to prove to be significantly impacted by selenium fertilization.

  14. Effect of radiation processing on nutritional and sensory quality of minimally processed green gram and garden pea sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, radiation processing of minimally processed green gram and garden pea sprouts was carried out at doses 1 and 2 kGy. The effect of this treatment on different quality parameters like vitamin C content, total carotenoids content, sensory quality, texture, and color was determined over a storage period of 12 days at two different temperatures, a 4 and 8 deg. C. It was observed that treatment of irradiation (1 and 2 kGy) and storage period did not have any significant effect on vitamin C content of control as well as irradiated sprout samples stored at 4 and 8 deg.C. Total carotenoids content of sprouts stored at 4, as well as at 8 deg. C, for 12 days remained almost unchanged after irradiation as well as during storage. Sensory evaluation studies showed that irradiation had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the ratings of any of the sensory attributes in green gram as well as garden pea sprouts and, thus, did not alter the overall acceptability of the irradiated sprouts. Textural studies revealed that there was no significant change (p>0.05) in the firmness of irradiated sprouts (1 and 2 kGy) as compared to control samples at both the temperatures. Storage period of 12 days also did not affect the firmness of sprouts significantly. Color measurement results indicated no drastic change in the color coordinates of the green gram samples except greenness of controls stored at both the temperatures, which showed insignificant decrease in the a * values. Thus, the nutritional as well as sensory quality of minimally processed green gram and garden pea sprouts did not alter significantly after gamma irradiation with a dose of 1 and 2 kGy

  15. Promotion of neural sprouting using low-level green light-emitting diode phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noa; Duadi, Hamootal; Cohen, Ortal; Samet, Tamar; Zilony, Neta; Schori, Hadas; Shefi, Orit; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-02-01

    We irradiated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line with low-level light-emitting diode (LED) illumination at a visible wavelength of 520 nm (green) and intensity of 100 mW/cm2. We captured and analyzed the cell morphology before LED treatment, immediately after, and 12 and 24 h after treatment. Our study demonstrated that LED illumination increases the amount of sprouting dendrites in comparison to the control untreated cells. This treatment also resulted in more elongated cells after treatment in comparison to the control cells and higher levels of expression of a differentiation related gene. This result is a good indication that the proposed method could serve in phototherapy treatment for increasing sprouting and enhancing neural network formation.

  16. Effect of Spearmint Oil on Sprouting and Processing Quality of Diamant and Sinora Potato Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind A. ELbashir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of spearmint oil on the storage and processing qualities of two potato varieties Diamant and Sinora was investigated and compared with the sprout inhibitor, isopropyl - N 3-chlorophenyl carbamate (CIPC. Potatoes were stored at 10±1ºC and (73-78% RH for 6 months. Results showed spearmint oil was as effective as CIPC in checking the break of dormancy, fast sprout growth, high fresh weight loss but unlike CIPC did not kill the eye buds; so can be used for seed tubers. The oil had no adverse effects on reducing sugars, dry matter, specific gravity and chips yield. After storage for six months both varieties were still suitable for making chips and French fries. Consumers preferred chips prepared from Sinora tubers and French fries prepared from Diamant tubers treated with spearmint oil.

  17. Inductive effect of coconut water on germination of seeds and sprouting of corms of Dracontium grayumianum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine the promotional effect of coconut water, gibberellic acid, cold stratification and mechanical scarification on seed germination of Dracontium grayumianum, and the effect of gibberellic acid and coconut water on the sprouting of corms of the same species. The seeds without the inductive treatment were unable to germinate, but the immersion in coconut water had significant effects, producing a germination rate of 50%, higher than the effect achieved with other treatments. The liquid endosperm of coconut also had favorable effect on the sprouting of corms under nursery conditions, like the treatment with gibberellic acid solution. This is the first report of the use of coconut water as a promoter of seed germination with high latency, which places this resource as an additional alternative, highly efficient, and cost-effective, for use in plant propagation strategies of species with seeds of deep dormancy.

  18. Dendritic sprouting and compensatory synaptogenesis in an identified interneuron follow auditory deprivation in a cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, R R; Nolen, T G; Casaday, G C

    1985-11-01

    We examined the effect of chronic afferent deprivation on an identified interneuron (Int-1) in the auditory system of the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. In normal intact crickets, the auditory afferents from each ear terminate ipsilaterally onto a single Int-1. Each bilaterally paired Int-1 is excited by ultrasound stimulation of its ipsilateral ear but not by the contralateral ear. Unilateral removal of an ear early in postembryonic development deprives the developing Int-1 of ipsilateral auditory innervation. Consequently, the ipsilateral dendrites of the deprived interneuron sprout, grow aberrantly across the ganglionic midline, and terminate specifically in the intact auditory neuropile of the contralateral (unlesioned) side, where they form functional synapses with the contralateral afferents. This unusual compensatory dendritic sprouting restores auditory function to the neuron. Thus, it is demonstrated that the dendritic shape of an identified Int, as well as its synaptic connectivity, is altered as a consequence of chronic sensory deprivation.

  19. Simulation of tumor induced angiogenesis using an analytical adaptive modeling including dynamic sprouting and blood flow modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghavi, Nadia; Hosseini, Farideh S; Sardarabadi, Mohammad; Kalani, Hadi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive model for tumor induced angiogenesis is developed that integrates generation and diffusion of a growth factor originated from hypoxic cells, adaptive sprouting from a parent vessel, blood flow and structural adaptation. The proposed adaptive sprout spacing model (ASS) determines position, time and number of sprouts which are activated from a parent vessel and also the developed vascular network is modified by a novel sprout branching prediction algorithm. This algorithm couples local vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations, stresses due to the blood flow and stochastic branching to the structural reactions of each vessel segment in response to mechanical and biochemical stimuli. The results provide predictions for the time-dependent development of the network structure, including the position and diameters of each segment and the resulting distributions of blood flow and VEGF. Considering time delays between sprout progressions and number of sprouts activated at different time durations provides information about micro-vessel density in the network. Resulting insights could be useful for motivating experimental investigations of vascular pattern in tumor induced angiogenesis and development of therapies targeting angiogenesis. PMID:27179697

  20. Effect of sprouting and roasting processes on some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of soybean seed and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Free fatty acid contents of sprouted soybean oil were found between 1.26% (Adasoy) and 4.20% (Nazlıcan and Türksoy). Peroxide values (PV) of sprouted soybean oils were found between 1.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 3.85meq/kg (A3935), while peroxide values of roasted seed oils were determined between 2.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 4.03meq/kg (Nova). Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were found as major fatty acids of soybean genotypes. Oleic acid contents of samples were found between 19.07% (roasted Adasoy) and 35.31% (roasted A3935), linoleic contents of oils ranged between 42.17% (roasted Nazlican) and 54.76% (sprouted A3127). Macro and micro element contents of sprouted, oven roasted and raw (untreated) soybean seeds were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. The potassium contents of soybean seeds ranged between 16,375mg/kg (raw Adasoy) and 20,357mg/kg (sprouted A3127, while phosphorus contents of seeds varied from 5427mg/kg (oven roasted Türksoy) to 7759mg/kg (sprouted Nova). The micro element contents of samples were found to be different depending on the processing procedures and soybean genotypes. PMID:24518351

  1. Effect of sprouting and roasting processes on some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of soybean seed and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Free fatty acid contents of sprouted soybean oil were found between 1.26% (Adasoy) and 4.20% (Nazlıcan and Türksoy). Peroxide values (PV) of sprouted soybean oils were found between 1.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 3.85meq/kg (A3935), while peroxide values of roasted seed oils were determined between 2.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 4.03meq/kg (Nova). Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were found as major fatty acids of soybean genotypes. Oleic acid contents of samples were found between 19.07% (roasted Adasoy) and 35.31% (roasted A3935), linoleic contents of oils ranged between 42.17% (roasted Nazlican) and 54.76% (sprouted A3127). Macro and micro element contents of sprouted, oven roasted and raw (untreated) soybean seeds were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. The potassium contents of soybean seeds ranged between 16,375mg/kg (raw Adasoy) and 20,357mg/kg (sprouted A3127, while phosphorus contents of seeds varied from 5427mg/kg (oven roasted Türksoy) to 7759mg/kg (sprouted Nova). The micro element contents of samples were found to be different depending on the processing procedures and soybean genotypes.

  2. Effect of cooking on the concentration of bioactive compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Avenger) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Alphina F1) grown in an organic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; de Oliveira, Viviani Ruffo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Brassica vegetables have been shown to have antioxidant capacities due to the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamins. This study evaluates the influence of different processing conditions (boiling, steaming, microwaving and sous vide) on the stability of flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin A in broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences grown in an organic system. Results indicated that sous vide processing resulted in greater antioxidant capacity and that all processes contributed in some way to an increased content of antioxidant compounds in both cauliflower and broccoli. PMID:25442619

  3. The Effects of Light and Temperature on Biotin Synthesis in Pea Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Shin; Ohnuki, Risa; Moriki, Aoi; Abe, Megumi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Sone, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is an essential micronutrient, and is a cofactor for several carboxylases that are involved in the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. Because plant cells can synthesize their own biotin, a wide variety of plant-based foods contains significant amounts of biotin; however, the influence of environmental conditions on the biotin content in plants remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different cultivation conditions on the biotin content and biotin synthesis in pea sprouts (Pisum sativum). In the experiment, the pea sprouts were removed from their cotyledons and cultivated by hydroponics under five different lighting and temperature conditions (control [25ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], low light [25ºC, 4-h light/20-h dark cycle], dark [25ºC, 24 h dark], low temperature [12ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], and cold [6ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle]) for 10 d. Compared to the biotin content of pea sprouts under the control conditions, the biotin contents of pea sprouts under the low-light, dark, and cold conditions had significantly decreased. The dark group showed the lowest biotin content among the groups. Expression of the biotin synthase gene (bio2) was also significantly decreased under the dark and cold conditions compared to the control condition, in a manner similar to that observed for the biotin content. No significant differences in the adenosine triphosphate content were observed among the groups. These results indicate that environmental conditions such as light and temperature modulate the biotin content of pea plant tissues by regulating the expression of biotin synthase. PMID:27117847

  4. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle: a consequence of prolonged feeding barley malt sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, O; Karahan, S; Basalan, M; Kabakci, N

    2006-04-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) in ruminants has been recognized as a consequence of excess sulphur intake. The present study describes clinical, gross and histopathological findings of PEM following an abrupt change of diet in two ranches housing 2750 dairy and 2300 beef cattle. As a result of severe PEM, 256 cattle died or were slaughtered. Clinical findings included circling, hypersensitivity, excessive salivation, hypermetria, incoordination, blindness and death. The first clinical signs occurred in beef calves (6-8 months old) at a holding facility. Clinical signs of the disorder continued intermittently during the 5-month period in both ranches and were more evident in calves and lactating dairy cows. The affected cattle did not respond to thiamine injections. Clinical signs disappeared gradually following removal of barley malt sprouts from the diet. Although macroscopic lesions were not apparent in the brain tissues of some animals, histopathology typical of PEM was found in most cases: spongiosis in the neuropil and neuronal necrosis, haemorrhage, capillary hyperplasia, fibrinoid degeneration in arterioles, multifocal liquefaction necroses in the grey matter and abundance of gitter cells with vacuolar large cytoplasm. Sulphide in rumen fluid of a clinically affected animal was measured as 1.55 mg/dl, which is considerably higher than that collected from two control cows (mean 0.21 mg/dl). The total sulphur content of the diet containing barley malt sprouts was estimated to be 0.45%, which is also higher than the National Research Council (NRC) maximum tolerable levels. In conclusion, PEM can result from excess barley malt sprout intake because of its higher sulphur content. Clinical signs may occur shortly after the intake of barley malt sprout as outbreaks with a higher number of deaths or as an ongoing periodic condition. PMID:16533327

  5. Improved synthesis methods of standards used for quantitative determination of total isothiocyanates from broccoli in human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Frederiksen, Hanne;

    2007-01-01

    A well-known method for quantification of isothiocyanates (ITCs) and their metabolites is the condensation reaction with 1,2-benzenedithiole to produce 1,3-benzodithiole-2-thione, which can be quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Standards of an ITC metabolite and 1,3-benzodithio...... excretion of ITCs from 10 healthy subjects who consumed 350 g broccoli. The excretion was investigated throughout 48 h showing a cumulative urinary ITC excretion of 49.1 +/- 25.2% of the dose....

  6. Dietary Chemoprevention of PhIP Induced Carcinogenesis in Male Fischer 344 Rats with Tomato and Broccoli

    OpenAIRE

    Kirstie Canene-Adams; Sfanos, Karen S; Chung-Tiang Liang; Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian; Nelson, William G.; Cory Brayton; Marzo, Angelo M. De

    2013-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP), found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevente...

  7. Chemical diversity in Mentha spicata: antioxidant and potato sprout inhibition activity of its essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Shailendra S; Prakash, Om; Padalia, Rajendra C; Vivekanand; Pant, Anil K; Mathela, Chandra S

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils from fresh aerial parts of Mentha spicata L. collected from ten different natural habitats of Uttarakhand, India were analyzed by a combination of GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The analysis revealed that monoterpenoids (46.1%-91.6%), mainly carvone (15.3%-68.5%), piperetenone oxide (24.0%-79.2%) and alpha-humulene (0.1%-29.9%), were the major constituents of the essential oils, but with significant qualitative and quantitative differences among the other constituents. Cluster analysis of the oil composition was carried out in order to discern the differences and similarities within different accessions collected from different natural habitats. The essential oils were also screened for their antioxidant activities by chelating properties of Fe2+, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and their reducing power. The essential oils of two chemo variants (viz. carvone and piperetenone oxide types) were also tested for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) sprout suppressant activity. The results showed that these oils exhibit good sprout inhibition activity in comparison to CIPC and iodine, the standard sprout suppressant. PMID:21941918

  8. The broccoli-born isothiocyanate sulforaphane impairs nucleotide excision repair: XPA as one potential target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piberger, Ann Liza; Köberle, Beate; Hartwig, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SFN), the major hydrolysis product of glucosinolates present in broccoli, has frequently been proposed to exert anticarcinogenic properties, mainly due to the induction of the nrf2/Keap1/ARE-signaling pathway. As potential underlying mechanism, a SFN-dependent zinc release from Keap1, the negative regulator of nrf2, has been described. This raises the question whether SFN is able to interfere with other zinc binding structures as well, for example those essential for DNA repair. Within this study, a SFN-induced deliberation of zinc from a synthesized peptide resembling the zinc binding domain of the xeroderma pigmentosum A (XPA) protein was observed starting at 50 μM SFN. Since XPA is absolutely required for nucleotide excision repair, the impact of SFN on the repair of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide ((+)-anti-BPDE)-induced DNA adducts in HCT 116 cells was investigated. While preincubation with SFN did not affect initial lesion levels, a dose-dependent repair inhibition of (+)-anti-BPDE-induced DNA damage during the first 12 h after lesion induction was observed, starting at 1 μM SFN. In contrast, the later phase of DNA repair was not impaired by SFN. In support of an inactivation of XPA also in cells, SFN increased the (+)-anti-BPDE-induced cytotoxicity XPA dependently in XP12RO cells. Comparison of p53-proficient and p53-deficient cells revealed no difference in SFN-induced DNA repair inhibition, indicating that p53 is no cellular target of SFN. Since DNA repair processes are required to maintain DNA integrity, the presented data suggest a potential impairment of genomic stability by SFN.

  9. Growth of lowland broccoli coconut coir dust and peat based growing media using fertigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out inside the greenhouse to determine the response of lowland broccoli (Brassica oleracea) plants grown in five mixtures of coconut coir dust and peat as the growing media. The growing mixes were prepared in the following ratios (% by vol): 100% coconut coir dust, 75% coconut coir dust + 25% peat, 50% coconut coir dust + 50% peat, 25% coconut coir dust + 75% peat and 100% peat. The plants were supplied with 200 mg 1-1 nitrogen using a computerized fertigation system developed at MINT Plants grown on 100% peat exhibited reduced plant growth and yield compared to plants grown on mixes containing coconut coir dust. Plants growth and yield were increased on growing media contained > 50% coconut coir dust; however, the highest total plant dry weight, plant height and yield were obtained from plants grown on 100% coconut coir dust. Total nitrogen concentration in the leaves and stems was not significantly different in all mixture of the growing media regardless of whether coconut coir dust or peat was used. In general, nitrate -nitrogen concentrations were lowest in the floret than in the leaves and stem tissues of plants grown on all growing media used in the study. However, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the leaves, stems and florets were lowest in the plants grown on 100% peat compared to the plants grown on growing media containing coconut coir dust. The concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the florets, which ranged from 290 to 450 mg N kg-l/dry weight, are considered to be under permissible levels by European standards. (Author)

  10. Effects of white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes on carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression levels and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Sanghyun; Chung, Sun-Ok; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-18

    In this study, the optimum wavelengths of light required for carotenoid biosynthesis were determined by investigating the expression levels of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) exposed to white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Most carotenoid biosynthetic genes showed higher expression in sprouts irradiated with white light at 8 days after sowing than in those irradiated with blue and red lights. The dominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts were lutein and β-carotene. The richest accumulation of total carotenoids was observed in sprouts grown under white light (1282.63 μg g(-1) dry weight), which was relatively higher than that in sprouts grown under blue and red lights (940.86 and 985.54 μg g(-1), respectively). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing the production of carotenoids and other important secondary metabolites in tartary buckwheat sprouts by using LED technology.

  11. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coli (STEC) and other pathogenic bacteria in seeds and sprouted seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    contamination of seeds with bacterial foodborne pathogens acquired prior to germination. Due to the high humidity and the favourable temperature during sprouting, bacterial pathogens present on dry seeds can multiply on the sprouts. Contamination with pathogenic bacteria must be minimized by identification......Sprouted seeds are young seedlings obtained from the germination of seeds. They are ready-to-eat foods which have caused large outbreaks. The bacterial pathogens most frequently associated with illness due to contaminated sprouted seeds are Salmonella and to a lesser extent STEC. Bacillus cereus...

  12. Effect of germination time on proximate analysis, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed Fouad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lentil plant, Lens culinaris L., is a member of the Leguminoceae family and constitutes one of the most important traditional dietary components. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of sprouting for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days on proximate, bioactive compounds and antioxidative characteristics of lentil (Lens culinaris sprouts. Material and methods. Lentil seeds were soaked in distilled water (1:10, w/v for 12 h at room temperature (~25°C, then kept between thick layers of cotton cloth and allowed to germinate in the dark for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. The nutritional composition, protein solubility, free amino acids, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raw and germinated samples were determined using standard official procedures. Results. Sprouting process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05 increases in moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, protein solubility, free amino acids, total, reducing and nonreducing sugars. However, oil content, antinutritional factors (tannins and phytic acid significantly (P ≤ 0.05 decreased. Results indicated that total essential amino acids of lentil seeds protein formed 38.10% of the total amino acid content. Sulfur-containing amino acids were the first limiting amino acid, while threonine was the second limiting amino acid in raw and germinated lentil seeds. Sprouting process has a positive effect on the essential amino acid contents and protein efficiency ratio (PER of lentil sprouts. Phenolics content increased from 1341.13 mg/100 g DW in raw lentil seeds to 1411.50, 1463.00, 1630.20 and 1510.10 in those samples germinated for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days, respectively. Sprouted seeds had higher DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities. Conclusions. Based on these results, sprouting process is recommended to increase nutritive value, and antioxidant activity of lentil seeds.

  13. Evaluation of Image Analysis to Determine the N-Fertilizer Demand of Broccoli Plants (Brassica oleracea convar. botrytis var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Graeff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous models have been developed for calculating optimum decision rules for nitrogen fertilization based on remote sensing techniques. New technologies related to digital image analysis may provide an alternative method to estimate nutrient status faster and more efficiently than current techniques. A series of field studies was conducted to determine the applicability of digital image analysis for nitrogen demand estimates in broccoli plants. Digital images were taken under constant light conditions in various wavelength ranges (380–1300 nm using a digital imager. Images were processed for the parameters ∗ and ∗ in the ∗∗∗ color system. The image analysis showed a close correlation between the nitrogen status of broccoli plants and the parameter ∗ of the ∗∗∗ color system especially in the wavelength ranges 510780 and 516780 nm. The relationship between nutrient concentration in leaf dry matter and the parameters ∗ was used to determine the N fertilizer demand within the cultivation period. Estimated N amounts were applied as top dressing four weeks after setting and were 100 kg ha−1 lower than the standard fertilizer rate. Calculated N balances indicated a total uptake of applied N amounts in the image-based N treatments without considerable yield loss. Thus, digital image analysis proved to be an effective means of determining nitrogen status and adjusting fertilizer applications to preserve or enhance crop quality and yield considering sustainability.

  14. Differential responses of two broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica) cultivars to salinity and nutritional quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Alcaraz-López, Carlos; Mota-Cadenas, César; Martínez-Ballesta, María del Carmen; Moreno, Diego A; Ferchichi, Ali; Carvajal, Micaela

    2012-01-01

    The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos) to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots-that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration-and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψ(π)), root hydraulic conductance (L(0)), and stomatal conductance (G(s)). The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs) content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  15. Differential Responses of Two Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica Cultivars to Salinity and Nutritional Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokri Zaghdoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na+ and Cl− ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots—that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration—and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψπ, root hydraulic conductance (L0, and stomatal conductance (Gs. The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  16. Enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani in transgenic broccoli with a Trichoderma viride endochitinase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ya; REN Shu-xin; GUO Yang-dong; ZHANG Lei; LIAN Wei-ran; XU Feng-feng; LI Shuang-tao; XIANG Juan; ZHANG Guo-zhen; HU Zan-min; ZHAO Bing

    2015-01-01

    A endochitinase gene (Tch ) from the fungus Trichoderma viride was introduced into broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Sixty-eight putative transformants were obtained and the presence of the Tch gene was conifrmed by both PCR and Southern blot analysis. RT-PCR analysis showed an accumulation of the transcript encoding the endochitinase protein in the transgenic plants. Using real-time quantitative PCR, the expression proifling of endochitinase gene was analyzed. Primary transformants and selfed progeny were examined for expression of the endo-chitinase using a lfuorometric assay and for their resistance to the pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani. The endochitinase activities in T0 in vitro plants, T0 mature plants and T1 mature plants were correlated with leaf lesions, and the transgenic line T618 had high endochitinse activities of 102.68, 114.53 and 120.27 nmol L–1 MU min–1 mg–1 protein in the three kinds of plants, respectively. The endochitinase activity showed a positive correlation with the resistance to the pathogens. Most transgenic T0 broccoli had increased resistance to the pathogens of B. cinerea and R. solani in leaf assays and this resistance was conifrmed to be inheritable. These ifndings suggested that expression of the Tch gene from T. viride could enhance resistance to pathogenic fungi in Brassica species.

  17. Discriminating between cultivars and treatments of broccoli using mass spectral fingerprinting and analysis of variance-principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthria, Devanand L; Lin, Long-Ze; Robbins, Rebecca J; Finley, John W; Banuelos, Gary S; Harnly, James M

    2008-11-12

    Metabolite fingerprints, obtained with direct injection mass spectrometry (MS) with both positive and negative ionization, were used with analysis of variance-principal components analysis (ANOVA-PCA) to discriminate between cultivars and growing treatments of broccoli. The sample set consisted of two cultivars of broccoli, Majestic and Legacy, the first grown with four different levels of Se and the second grown organically and conventionally with two rates of irrigation. Chemical composition differences in the two cultivars and seven treatments produced patterns that were visually and statistically distinguishable using ANOVA-PCA. PCA loadings allowed identification of the molecular and fragment ions that provided the most significant chemical differences. A standardized profiling method for phenolic compounds showed that important discriminating ions were not phenolic compounds. The elution times of the discriminating ions and previous results suggest that they were common sugars and organic acids. ANOVA calculations of the positive and negative ionization MS fingerprints showed that 33% of the variance came from the cultivar, 59% from the growing treatment, and 8% from analytical uncertainty. Although the positive and negative ionization fingerprints differed significantly, there was no difference in the distribution of variance. High variance of individual masses with cultivars or growing treatment was correlated with high PCA loadings. The ANOVA data suggest that only variables with high variance for analytical uncertainty should be deleted. All other variables represent discriminating masses that allow separation of the samples with respect to cultivar and treatment.

  18. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF A NUMBER OF INTRODUCED BROCCOLI CULTIVARS (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. IN BATUR VILLAGE, KINTAMANI DISTRICT, BANGLI REGENCY, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Kadek Raleni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. is a vegetable crop belongs to Brassicaceae family. Broccoli has high nutrition, high in fiber and contains isotiacyanate that has anticancer activity. Broccoli market in Indonesia, particularly in modern supermarkets, increases 15-20% per year, however, productivity was still low, therefore effort to increase broccoli production in Indonesia need to be investigated. Field trial was conducted at Batur Village, Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, Bali, to find out cultivars that were adapted in tropical region. Introduced cultivars being trialed were ‘Alborada’, ‘Belstar’, ‘Fiesta’, ‘Sarasota’, ‘Bay Meadows’, ‘Castle Dome’, ‘Liutenant’, ‘Iron Man’, ‘Marathon’, ‘Green Gold’, ‘Imperial’, ‘Green Magic’ and ‘Lucky’ as control. Variable observed were vegetative growth, curding period, and productivity of each cultivar. This study employed Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replicates (plots and 8 plants each plot. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of variance on Costat program, followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT on 1% level. Results show that each cultivar varied in adaptability in tropical region. ‘Castle Dome’ has the highest productivity, while ‘Fiesta’ was the lowest.

  19. 冰温贮藏对西兰花保鲜的影响%Effect of ice-temperature storage on the freshness retaining of broccolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林本芳; 鲁晓翔; 李江阔; 陈绍慧

    2012-01-01

    研究冰温贮藏对西兰花保鲜效果的影响。将西兰花分为两组,一组存于冰温库中(-0.7~-0.4)℃,另一组存于普通冷库中(-1~1)℃。每14d取样测定其理化指标及营养成分。实验结果表明:冰温贮藏对于延缓西兰花可溶性固形物含量、可溶性糖浓度和VC含量的下降具有明显的效果,可显著抑制西兰花贮藏期间乙烯生成率,延迟乙烯高峰的出现,但对呼吸的抑制效果不大;冰温贮藏提高了西兰花POD、SOD和CAT等的活性,降低了PPO的活性,延缓了西兰花的衰老。这说明西兰花适于冰温贮藏,且冰温贮藏的效果优于普通冷藏的效果。%In order to investigate the effect of ice-temperature storage on the results of freshness retaining of broccolis,the broccolis were stored under two different storage temperatures.One was-0.7~-0.4℃,and the other was-1~1℃.The physicochemical indexes and nutrition components were measured for 14 days.The research results showed that the soluble solids content,soluble sugar and vitamine C of the broccolis by ice-temperature storage decreased less than that of ordinary storage.Ice-temperature storage could significantly inhibit the ethylene generation rate of the broccolis,but the inhibition effect on respiration of the broccolis was not obvious.The activities of peroxidase(POD),superoxide dismutase(SOD)and catalase(CAT)were promoted and the activity of polyphenol oxidas(PPO)was reduced,in turn,the ripening of broccolis was delayed.Therefore,the storage effect of broccolis by ice-temperature storage is superior to that by ordinary storage.

  20. Tracer studies on the incorporation of [2-14C]-DL-mevalonate into chlorophylls a and b, alpha-chaconine, and alpha-solanine of potato sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozukue, N; Tsuchida, H; Friedman, M

    2001-01-01

    Chlorophyll and glycoalkaloids are synthesized in different parts of the potato plant including leaves, tubers, and sprouts. Although light stimulates the biosynthesis of both constituents, the question of whether the two biosynthetic pathways are under the same genetic control has not been resolved. This study investigated the dynamics of incorporation of labeled [2-(14)C]-DL-mavalonate into chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and the glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine in potato sprouts after 7 and 14 days of storage in the light and in the dark. No chlorophyll synthesis occurred in the dark. Fractionation of the "glycoalkaloid" extract followed by high-performance liquid chromatography produced four peaks. The fractions were collected and analyzed for radioactivity. About 80% of the radioactivity resided in fraction 1, the composition of which is unknown. Two of the fractions, with 1-14% of the original label, were alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine. The radioactivity derived from mevalonate largely resides in unidentified compound(s) eluting as a single peak on the HPLC column before the peaks associated with the glycoalkaloids. The specific radioactivity of alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine increased approximately 2-fold in going from 7 to 14 days of exposure in the light and in the dark. These and additional observations point to the near identity of the dynamics of biosynthesis of the two glycoalkaloids. These data also implicate a non-mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of both chlorophylls and the glycoalkaloids and are consistent with independent genetic control of the concurrent formation of the two classes of compounds during greening of potatoes.

  1. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  2. 西兰花干燥过程中还原型Vc与氧化型Vc的变化%Changes of ascorbic acid in processes of dehydrated broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞; 司俊娜; 樊振江; 高愿军

    2012-01-01

    The changes of L-ascorbic acid and I. dehydroascorbic acid during the processes of dehydrated broccoli were studied. The results showed that;the saving of ascorbic acid dealed with steam blanching were higher than treated by hot water, and treaed broccoli 2 mm with hot water in 80℃ had the thinkable result . Broccolis cooling wsth ice-water were better than natural cooling to the saving of ascorbic acid. The ascorbic acid could be saving to the maximize retention treated with vacuum freeze dried, which wass better than treated with microwave drying and hot air drying, and could maintain the shape and the color of broccoli. And treated broccoli 6 h in -25℃ was the best method.%研究西兰花脱水加工过程中还原型Vc和氧化型Vc的变化.结果表明:经过蒸汽热烫的西兰花,其还原型Vc和氧化型Vc的保存率高于热水热烫的保存率,其中80℃蒸汽热烫处理2 min效果最好;热烫后冰水冷却的西兰花还原型Vc和氧化型Vc.保存率高于自然冷却;真空冷冻干燥能将西兰花中还原型Vc和氧化型Vc.最大程度的保留.西兰花脱水加工过程中氧化型Vc的保存率高于还原型Vc,说明西兰花中的还原型Vc更易被破坏.

  3. 聚乳酸薄膜对西兰花的保鲜效果分析%Effect of Polylactic Acid Film Packaging on Preservation of Broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 张一珠; 付正义; 张伟阳; 程树军

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) film was applied to preserve broccoli with polyethylene (PE) film packaging and without packaging as controls. The effect of PLA film on preservation of broccoli quality was investigated by periodically recording quality changes during storage at a constant temperature of (20 ± 3) ℃. The results showed that the vitamin C and chlorophyll contents of broccoli were declined, while the relative conductivity and peroxidase (POD) activity were increased during storage under all three packaging conditions. The broccoli packaged in PLA film showed minimum changes. From the above results it is clear that PLA film can preserve broccoli quality obviously and effectively prolong its shelf life at normal temperature.%用聚乳酸(polylactic acid,PLA)薄膜包装西兰花,以聚乙烯(polyethylene,PE)薄膜包装和无膜包装为对照组,在(20±3)℃条件下对西兰花的相关指标进行定期测定,研究PLA薄膜对西兰花的保鲜效果。结果表明:在PLA薄膜、PE薄膜和无膜包装贮藏过程中,西兰花的VC、叶绿素含量均呈下降趋势,且前者含量明显高于后两者,而相对电导率、过氧化物酶活性均呈上升趋势,前者明显低于后两者。可见,PLA薄膜包装处理对常温条件下的西兰花有明显的保鲜效果,能有效地延长西兰花的常温货架期。

  4. Effect of Cooking on Isoflavones, Phenolic Acids, and Antioxidant Activity in Sprouts of Prosoy Soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Shweta; Chang, Sam K C

    2016-07-01

    Soy sprouts possess health benefits and is required to be cooked before consumption. The effects of cooking on the phenolic components and antioxidant properties of soy sprouts with different germination days were investigated. A food-grade cultivar Prosoy with a high protein content was germinated for 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 d and cooked till palatable for 20, 20, 5, 5, and 7 min, respectively. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), condensed tannins content (CTC), individual phenolic acids, isoflavones, DPPH, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of raw and cooked sprouts were measured. Cooking caused significant losses in phenolic content and antioxidant activities, and maximum loss was on day 3 > 5 > 7, including TPC (32%, 23%, and 15%), TFC (50%, 44%, and 20%), CTC (73%, 47%, and 12%), DPPH (31%, 15%, and 5%), FRAP (34%, 25%, and 1%), and ORAC (34%, 22%, 32%), respectively. Cooking caused significant losses in most individual phenolic acid, benzoic group, cinnamic group, total phenolic composition, individual isoflavones, and total isoflavones. The losses of phenolic acids such as gallic, protocatechuic, hydroxybenzoic, syringic, chlorogenic, or sinapic acids during cooking were not compensated by the increases in trihydroxybenzoic, vanillic or coumaric acids on certain days of germination. Cooking caused minimal changes in phenolic acid composition of day 1 and 2 sprouts compared to 3, 5, and 7 d sprouts. PMID:27258930

  5. Transcript profiling reveals that cysteine protease inhibitors are up-regulated in tuber sprouts after extended darkness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Veronica; Fantino, Elisa; Cerrudo, Ignacio; Bachmann, Sandra; Santin, Franco; Ulloa, Rita M

    2016-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are an excellent staple food due to its high nutritional value. When the tuber reaches physiological competence, sprouting proceeds accompanied by changes at mRNA and protein levels. Potato tubers become a source of carbon and energy until sprouts are capable of independent growth. Transcript profiling of sprouts grown under continuous light or dark conditions was performed using the TIGR 10K EST Solanaceae microarray. The profiles analyzed show a core of highly expressed transcripts that are associated to the reactivation of growth. Under light conditions, the photosynthetic machinery was fully activated; the highest up-regulation was observed for the Rubisco activase (RCA), the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and the Photosystem II 22 kDa protein (CP22) genes, among others. On the other hand, sprouts exposed to continuous darkness elongate longer, and after extended darkness, synthesis of chloroplast components was repressed, the expression of proteases was reduced while genes encoding cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) and metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitors (MPIs) were strongly induced. Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis confirmed that MPI levels correlated with the length of the dark period; however, CPI expression was strong only after longer periods of darkness, suggesting a feedback loop (regulation mechanism) in response to dark-induced senescence. Prevention of cysteine protease activity in etiolated sprouts exposed to extended darkness could delay senescence until they emerge to light. PMID:27075731

  6. Metabolic alterations of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a during germination of two soybean sprout varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Chang, Woo-Suk; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2013-12-01

    The metabolic changes of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a during germination of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) sprout varieties, 'Pungsannamulkong' and 'Bosug', have been studied. Seeds were germinated at 20 °C with 80% humidity in the darkness and sampled at 2 day intervals for 10 days. Partial least squares (PLS) scores plot showed that the responses of three metabolites during germination were linearly linked with each other except for day 2 in both varieties. PLS loading plots indicated that lutein content in whole sprout and cotyledon was closely associated with germination in 'Pungsannamulkong' while the chlorophyll a content in whole sprouts was highly linked with germination in 'Bosug'. Heatmap analyses revealed that lutein and β-carotene levels, but not those of chlorophyll a, accumulated in whole soybean sprouts and cotyledon. While hypocotyls did not accumulate lipophilic pigments during germination, the accumulation of lutein and β-carotene in the cotyledons was greater in 'Pungsannamulkong' than in 'Bosug' sprouts. In addition, the contents of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a increased from those in the seeds. Overall, the metabolic changes of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a during germination are affected not only by variety but also by organ type.

  7. Microencapsulation of sulforaphane from broccoli seed extracts by gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Saldaña, Jesús S; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Cantú-Soto, Ernesto U; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2016-06-15

    Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that has received attention in recent years due to its chemopreventive properties. However, the uses and applications of this compound are very limited, because is an unstable molecule that is degraded mainly by changes in temperature and pH. In this research, the use of food grade polymers for microencapsulation of sulforaphane was studied by a complex coacervation method using the interaction of oppositely charged polymers as gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin. The polymers used were previously characterized in moisture content, ash and nitrogen. The encapsulation yield was over 80%. The gelatin/pectin complex had highest encapsulation efficiency with 17.91%. The presence of sulforaphane in the complexes was confirmed by FTIR and UV/visible spectroscopy. The materials used in this work could be a new and attractive option for the protection of sulforaphane.

  8. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2013-06-01

    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  9. Fortifi cation of white fl at bread with sprouted red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruthika Viswanathan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Protein quantity in diet including the digestibility and bioavailability of protein is of importance to eradicate undernutrition in developing countries. Bread protein is an incomplete source as it lacks an essential amino acid lysine. When they are combined with other plant foods like pulses and legumes, they become a complete source of protein. Since bread is most common staple food the objective of this study is to fortify bread with legumes in order to increase the total protein content of bread to 13-15% which is required to meet at least 1/3rd of protein requirement of an adult recommended daily allowance. Material and methods. Fortifi cation of fl at bread was done by adding sprouted red kidney bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris at 5, 15 and 25% to white fl our. The composite bread was analysed for crude protein and in vitro protein digestibility using the Kjeldahl and pepsin-pancreatin method. Results. The protein content of raw beans showed trivial increase on soaking for 17h and sprouting for 3 days. On the other hand, a remarkable increase was observed in protein digestibility i.e., 8% and 11% respectively. The protein content of control and composite breads increased gradually at 1% and protein digestibility decreased by 12% from control. This is due to the presence of dietary fi bers which bind with protein and inhibit its digestibility. Conclusion. The study infers that sprouting the beans for 72 h did not show any remarkable increase in protein content but a signifi cant increase in invitro protein digestibility was observed. Overall, breads made using 15% legume fl our was comparatively equal in protein content, with overall acceptable quality.

  10. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs; Inhibicion de brotes en raices, tuberculos y bulbos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna C, P.C

    1992-05-15

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  11. anteiso-Fatty Acids in Brussels Sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera L.): Quantities, Enantioselectivities, and Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibler, Dorothee; Seyfried, Carolin; Kaffarnik, Stefanie; Vetter, Walter

    2015-10-14

    anteiso-Fatty acids (aFAs) are a class of branched-chain fatty acids that are characterized by one methyl branch on the antepenultimate carbon of the straight acyl chain. aFAs are mainly produced by bacteria, and sources in vegetables are scarce. This study reports the concentrations of odd-numbered aFAs (a15:0-a21:0) in Brussels sprout buds. Selective enrichment followed by enantioselective gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode revealed that both a15:0 and a17:0 were (S)-enantiopure in Brussels sprout samples. δ(13)C values (‰) of a17:0 in Brussels sprouts were comparable with those of palmitic acid, indicating no different source for both fatty acids. PMID:26390192

  12. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinová, Jana P; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-08-15

    The presence of caprolactam, a precursor of Nylon-6, among those synthetic polymers which are widely-spread throughout the environment, could be the reason for its being found in plants. The aim of this work was to confirm the previously described presence of caprolactam in dry and sprouted achenes, as well as in achene exudates of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). When the lyophilized sprouted and dry buckwheat achenes, along with exudates from growth experiments, with caprolactam-free medium were analysed by HPLC, no caprolactam was found. After addition of caprolactam into the growth medium, we confirmed the uptake of caprolactam in the lyophilized sprouted buckwheat achenes. The uptake of caprolactam is also a function of light conditions during the growth experiments. Caprolactam also inhibits the content of phenolic compounds; especially rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and homoorientin in buckwheat plants. PMID:24679794

  13. Evolution and Distribution of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities during Preharvest Sprouting of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaerts, Heleen; Roye, Chiara; Derde, Liesbeth J; Sinnaeve, Georges; Meza, Walter R; Bodson, Bernard; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-07-20

    To date, research on preharvest sprouted (PHS) wheat has mostly been conducted on kernels germinated under laboratory conditions, which differ widely from conditions in the field. To obtain detailed knowledge of the evolution of hydrolytic enzyme activities in PHS wheat (Triticum aestivum), a broad collection of samples from three varieties was obtained by harvesting before, at, and after maturity. Delaying harvest time coupled with periods of heavy rainfall caused sprouting in the kernels, observed as a drop in Falling Number and an increase in α-amylase activity. The appearance of α- and β-amylase, peptidase, and endoxylanase activity during field sprouting was independent from each other. Consequently, Falling Number could not be used to predict activity of other hydrolytic enzymes. When differentiating endogenous from kernel-associated microbial enzymes, results showed that α- and β-amylase and peptidase activity of PHS kernels were predominantly of endogenous origin, whereas endoxylanase activity was largely from microbial origin. PMID:27341479

  14. Growth of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, and Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of human illness associated with the consumption of fresh sprouts has increased very sharply during the past decade. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth dynamics of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, an...

  15. Cutaneous collateral axonal sprouting re-innervates the skin component and restores sensation of denervated Swine osteomyocutaneous alloflaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhaib Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Reconstructive transplantation such as extremity and face transplantation is a viable treatment option for select patients with devastating tissue loss. Sensorimotor recovery is a critical determinant of overall success of such transplants. Although motor function recovery has been extensively studied, mechanisms of sensory re-innervation are not well established. Recent clinical reports of face transplants confirm progressive sensory improvement even in cases where optimal repair of sensory nerves was not achieved. Two forms of sensory nerve regeneration are known. In regenerative sprouting, axonal outgrowth occurs from the transected nerve stump while in collateral sprouting, reinnervation of denervated tissue occurs through growth of uninjured axons into the denervated tissue. The latter mechanism may be more important in settings where transected sensory nerves cannot be re-apposed. In this study, denervated osteomyocutaneous alloflaps (hind- limb transplants from Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC-defined MGH miniature swine were performed to specifically evaluate collateral axonal sprouting for cutaneous sensory re-innervation. The skin component of the flap was externalized and serial skin sections extending from native skin to the grafted flap were biopsied. In order to visualize regenerating axonal structures in the dermis and epidermis, 50 um frozen sections were immunostained against axonal and Schwann cell markers. In all alloflaps, collateral axonal sprouts from adjacent recipient skin extended into the denervated skin component along the dermal-epidermal junction from the periphery towards the center. On day 100 post-transplant, regenerating sprouts reached 0.5 cm into the flap centripetally. Eight months following transplant, epidermal fibers were visualized 1.5 cm from the margin (rate of regeneration 0.06 mm per day. All animals had pinprick sensation in the periphery of the transplanted skin within 3 months post

  16. Screening for bioactive metabolites in plant extracts modulating glucose uptake and fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Kotowska, Dorota Ewa; Olsen, Louise Cathrine Braun;

    2014-01-01

    while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes...... bioassays, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ-mediated transactivation, adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cell cultures, and glucose uptake in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary porcine myotubes, as well as one in vivo bioassay, fat accumulation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We...

  17. EFFECT OF SOIL SULFUR FERTILIZER AND SOME FOLIAR FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BROCCOLI IN SALINE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Husain JASIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Factorial experiment was conducted in the open fields of Agricultural College, Al-Qasim Green University during the agricultural seasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 to study the effect of adding two levels of agricultural sulfur (control and add 100 kg.ha-1 and four levels of nutrient spray (without spray, high-potash fertilizer, high-phosphorus fertilizer and humic acid on growth and yield of broccoli under drip irrigation and polyethylene soil mulching in saline soil (9.6 dS.m-1. Randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. The results showed that agricultural sulfur led to increase number of leaves, leaf area, leaves chlorophyll content, diameter and weight of flower head compared to control. Spraying foliar fertilizer and its interaction with sulfur fertilizer also led to increase all of parameters above (except leaves chlorophyll content significantly compared to control treatment.

  18. Cultivation Technique for Broccoli in Plateau Conditions%西兰花高原栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟平红

    2000-01-01

    @@ 西兰花(broccoli)又名青花菜、绿花菜等,因其色泽碧绿、脆嫩爽口、营养丰富而深受消费者和生产者青睐.但西兰花在我国栽培历史较短,贵州更是栽培较少,远远不能满足市场需求.笔者根据贵州高原的气候特点,经过对西兰花的品种选择、播种期、育苗方法等进行了试验研究,初步摸索出一套适合海拔1 100 m左右的西兰花高原栽培技术.

  19. Influence of cooking conditions on organoleptic and health-related properties of artichokes, green beans, broccoli and carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Sofía; Mir-Bel, Jorge; Oria, Rosa; Salvador, María L

    2017-02-15

    Colour, pigments, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were investigated in artichokes, green beans, broccoli and carrots cooked under different conditions. Domestic induction hobs with temperature control were used to evaluate the effect of boiling, sous-vide cooking and water immersion cooking at temperatures below 100°C on the properties of each vegetable. Sous-vide cooking preserved chlorophyll, carotenoids, phenolic content and antioxidant activity to a greater extent than boiling for all of the vegetables tested and retained colour better, as determined by a(∗). A reduction of only 10-15°C in the cooking temperature was enough to improve the properties of the samples cooked by water immersion, except for green beans. Artichokes and carrots suffered pronounced losses of antioxidant activity during boiling (17.0 and 9.2% retention, respectively), but the stability of this parameter significantly increased with sous-vide cooking (84.9 and 55.3% retention, respectively).

  20. Yield and Quality Components of Broccoli Cultivars (Brassica oleracea L. convar. botrytis (L. Alef. var. italica Plenck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Toth

    1998-12-01

    According to total yield in the three investigation years it was not possible to point out any cultivar. The highest yield and average weight of top inflorescences was achieved with cultivars Fiesta, Bolivia, Platini and Viking (6.3, 6.2, 6.2 and 6.0 t×ha -1 , resp. 169, 168, 168 and 162 g. Evaluation of the compactness of these inflorescences suggest an exceptional strength. Cultivars Citation and Cruiser excel as regards the production and yield of side inflorescences (2.2 and 2.4 t×ha -1 . For the broccoli production in north-west Croatia during the summer-autumn period recommended cultivars for fresh consumption are Bolivia, Fiesta, Platini and Viking and for processing industries Citation and Cruser.

  1. Nitric oxide mediates isoflavone accumulation and the antioxidant system enhancement in soybean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Caifeng; Yang, Runqiang; Zhou, Yulin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationships between endogenous NO signal transduction pathways, the antioxidant system and isoflavone accumulation induced by UV-B radiation in soybean sprouts. Results showed that UV-B-triggered NO generation induced isoflavone accumulation by up-regulating the activity and gene expression of key enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL; chalcone isomerase, CHI; chalcone synthase, CHS; isoflavone synthase, IFS) that participate in isoflavone biosynthesis and enhanced the antioxidant system by regulating levels of antioxidants (glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione S-transferase, GST; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione GSH; ascorbic acid, ASC), antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; peroxidase, POD; catalase, CAT) and their gene expression. These effects were inhibited by the addition of a specific NO-scavenger, carboxy-PTIO (cPTIO). The inhibition was reversed through application of the exogenous NO donor, SNP. Overall, NO is an essential signaling molecule, mediating UV-B-induced isoflavone accumulation and the antioxidant system enhancement in soybean sprouts. PMID:26988515

  2. Influence of storage and packaging conditions on the quality of soy flour from sprouted soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrahar-Murugkar, Dipika; Jha, Krishna

    2011-06-01

    Full fat soy (Glycine max L) flour (FFSF) from germinated 'MAUS 47' variety was packed in Al foil laminated paper (75 microns Al foil), low density polyethylene (LDPE, 125 microns), biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP, 100 microns) packets and polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET) jars and stored in ambient (25-35 °C, 45-55%RH) and accelerated conditions (40 °C, 90% RH) and tested every 15 days for a period of 75 days for changes in moisture, protein, fat, free fatty acid and nitrogen solubility. Increase in contents of moisture and free fatty acid with corresponding decrease in fat and solubility were observed in all stored packs more under accelerated conditions as compared to ambient conditions of storage. Among packaging materials FFSF from sprouted soybean was best kept in Al foil laminated packages followed by LDPE and BOPP packaging materials. Flour from sprouted soybean could be kept safely for 90 days in ambient and 75 days in accelerated conditions. PMID:23572754

  3. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging detects mossy fiber sprouting in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiros, Jackeline M.; Polli, Roberson S.; Paiva, Fernando F.; Longo, Beatriz M.; Mello, Luiz E.; Silva, Afonso C.; Tannús, Alberto; Covolan, Luciene

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) is a frequent finding following status epilepticus (SE). The present study aimed to test the feasibility of using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to detect MFS in the chronic phase of the well-established pilocarpine (Pilo) rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods To modulate MFS, cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis inhibitor, was co-administered with Pilo in a sub-group of animals. In vivo MEMRI was performed 3 months after induction of SE and compared to the neo-Timm histological labeling of zinc mossy fiber terminals in the dentate gyrus (DG). Key findings Chronically epileptic rats displaying MFS as detected by neo-Timm histology had a hyperintense MEMRI signal in the DG, while chronically epileptic animals that did not display MFS had minimal MEMRI signal enhancement compared to non-epileptic control animals. A strong correlation (r = 0.81, P<0.001) was found between MEMRI signal enhancement and MFS. Significance This study shows that MEMRI is an attractive non-invasive method to detect mossy fiber sprouting in vivo and can be used as an evaluation tool in testing therapeutic approaches to manage chronic epilepsy. PMID:22642664

  4. Genetics of pre-harvest sprouting resistance in a cross of Canadian adapted durum wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Knox, R E; Clarke, J M; Clarke, F R; Singh, A; Depauw, R M; Cuthbert, R D

    2014-01-01

    Severe losses attributable to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) have been reported in Canada in recent years. The genetics of PHS resistance have been more extensively studied in hexaploid wheat and generally not using combinations of elite agronomic parents. The objective of our research was to understand the genetic nature of PHS resistance in an elite durum cross. A doubled haploid (DH) population and checks were phenotyped in replicated trials for grain yield and PHS traits over 3 years in western Canada. The response of intact spikes to sprouting conditions, sampled over two development time points, was measured in a rain simulation chamber. The DH population was genotyped with simple sequence repeat and Diversity Arrays Technology markers. Genotypes were a significant source of variation for grain yield and PHS resistance traits in each tested environment. Transgressive segregant DH genotypes were identified for grain yield and PHS resistance measurements. Low or no correlation was detected between grain yield and PHS, while correlation between PHS resistance measurements was moderate. The heritability of PHS resistance was moderate and higher than grain yield. Significant quantitative trait loci with small effect were detected on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 5B, 7A and 7B. Both parents contributed to the PHS resistance. Promising DH genotypes with high and stable grain yield as well as PHS resistance were identified, suggesting that grain yield and PHS can be improved simultaneously in elite genetic materials, and that these DH genotypes will be useful parental material for durum breeding programs. PMID:24659906

  5. Phenylalanine and LED lights enhance phenolic compound production in Tartary buckwheat sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Min; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Yeon-Bok; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2015-06-15

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) concentrations and various light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the accumulation of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, vitexin, rutin, quercetin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside) in Tartary buckwheat sprouts. We found that 5mM was the optimum l-Phe concentration for the synthesis of total and individual phenolic compounds. The highest rutin (53.09 mg/g DW) and chlorogenic acid (5.62 mg/g DW) content was observed with Red+Blue and white lights. Comprehensive differences in total and individual anthocyanin content were observed between different lights; however, the total anthocyanin content (9.12 mg/g DW) was 1.5-fold higher in blue light. The expression levels of regulatory genes, such as FtDFR and FtANS, were 7.1-fold higher with l-Phe treatment. Gene expression results showed that the phenolic compounds in Tartary buckwheat sprouts increased with the use of l-Phe and LED lights.

  6. Synthesis of biomimetic cerium oxide by bean sprouts bio-template and its photocatalytic performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周梦凯; 张凯; 陈丰; 陈志刚

    2016-01-01

    Biomimetic nano CeO2 materials were prepared by using bean sprouts as bio-template through impregnation and thermal decomposition. For characterization of structure, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis/DRS) nitrogen adsorp-tion-desorption measurements and Labsolar H2 system were adopted. The results demonstrated that the samples prepared at 550 ºC not only completely removed the original bio-template, but also retained the morphology and microstructure of bean sprouts. Then the biomorphic structure of fluorite structure CeO2 material was obtained. Micro-pores with a diameter of about 2–3 nm were distributed among the particles, which provided more favorable channel for the photocatalytic reaction. Biomimetic CeO2 materials exhibited clear red shift (50 nm) compared with powder CeO2, which could be excited by visible irradiation. Biomimetic CeO2 materials dis-played the superior photocatalytic activity for the hydrogen production by water splitting under the sunlight irradiation, the hydrogen yield could reach 400μmol/g catalyst after 6 h.

  7. VAMP-2 promotes neurite elongation and SNAP-25A increases neurite sprouting in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasu, M; Kimura, K; Kataoka, M; Takahashi, M; Okajima, S; Kawaguchi, S; Hirasawa, Y; Ide, C; Mizoguchi, A

    2000-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attached protein (SNAP) receptor (SNARE)-mediated membrane fusion system is involved in vesicle fusion in the plasma membrane that allows expansion for neurite elongation. There have been several reports analyzing the effects of neurite outgrowth by inhibition of SNAREs. In this study, we took the opposite approach by overexpressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion SNAREs, including VAMP-2, SNAP-25A, and syntaxin1A, in PC12 cells to investigate the role of SNAREs in the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. Neurite outgrowth analysis demonstrated that: (1) GFP-VAMP-2 increased the length of individual neurites, without changing the number of neurites per cell; (2) GFP-SNAP-25A increased the number of neurites per cell, with no change in the length of the individual neurites. In both cases, the total length of neurites per cell was increased; (3) GFP-syntaxin1A resulted in no significant change, either in neurite length, or in the number of neurites per cell. These findings suggest that when overexpressed in PC12 cells, VAMP-2 can promote neurite elongation, while SNAP-25A can stimulate neurite sprouting. On the other hand, overexpression of syntaxin1A neither promotes nor inhibits neurite outgrowth. Thus VAMP-2 and SNAP-25A play different roles in neurite elongation and sprouting.

  8. Vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout ameliorated hyperglycemia and impaired memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xueqin; Zhang, Ling; Xia, Qing; Sun, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cai, Hongxin; Yang, Xiaoda; Xia, Zuoli; Tang, Yujing

    2008-10-01

    Vanadium compounds have been recognized for their hypoglycemic effects; however, potential short and long-term vanadium toxicity has slowed the acceptance for therapeutic use. In the present work, three batches of vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout (VCS) were prepared by incubating chickpea seeds in presence of 200, 100, and 50 microg/ml of sodium orthovanadate (SOV). The effects of oral administration of chickpea sprout (CS) and VCS food for 8 weeks on streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats were investigated. Both CS and VCS food was found to ameliorate some hyperglycemic symptoms of the diabetic rats, i.e. improve lipid metabolism, decrease blood glucose level, prevent body weight loss, and reduce impairment of diabetic related spatial learning and memory. Serum insulin was substantially elevated in treated diabetic rats, which is probably one important reason for the hypoglycemic effect. Compared with CS alone, VCS100 food exhibited remarkably enhanced effectiveness in alleviating diabetes induced hyperglycemia and memory loss. Moreover, vanadium-enriched chickpeas appeared to abolish the vanadium induced toxicity associated with administration of this metal for diabetes during the 8-week study period. This study suggested further work of the vanadium speciation in CS and novel hypoglycemic mechanism for the antidiabetic activity of vanadium agents. Vanadium containing (VCS) food could be a dietary supplement for the diabetic status.

  9. Rice Germosprout Extract Protects Erythrocytes from Hemolysis and the Aorta, Brain, Heart, and Liver Tissues from Oxidative Stress In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Shahdat; Bhowmick, Sujan; Sarkar, Marzan; Hassan, Mehedi; Hussain, Jakir; Islam, Saiful; Shahjalal, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Identifying dietary alternatives for artificial antioxidants capable of boosting antihemolytic and antioxidative defense has been an important endeavor in improving human health. In the present study, we studied antihemolytic and antioxidative effects of germosprout (i.e., the germ part along with sprouted stems plus roots) extract prepared from the pregerminated rice. The extract contained considerable amounts of antioxidant β-carotene (414±12 ng/g of extract) and phytochemicals such as tota...

  10. The efficacy of six elite isolates of the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum against the sprouting of European aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Hantula, Jarkko

    2016-04-15

    The sprouting of broad-leaved trees after cutting is problematic in forest regeneration areas, along roads and railways, under electric power and above gas pipe lines. In Finland, one of the most difficult species to control in these areas is the European aspen (Populus tremula), which produces both stump sprouts and root suckers after saplings have been cut. In this study, we investigated whether a decay fungus of broad-leaved trees, Chondrostereum purpureum, could be used as a biological control agent against aspen sprouting. The efficacy of six elite strains of C. purpureum (improved earlier in a breeding process) was investigated on aspen for three years. The most efficient C. purpureum strain, R53, tested earlier on birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), was efficient in causing mortality of aspen stumps and preventing the development of root suckers. With this strain, stump mortality was 78%, while significantly lower in control stumps which were cut only (47%). Aspen trees in the vicinity of the treatments (within a 10 m radius around each sapling) decreased the efficacy of C. purpureum. This study shows that the decay fungus C. purpureum can successfully be used in the sprout control of aspen saplings.

  11. Effect of iron-chelate treatments during imbibition on the concentration of minerals and phenolic compounds in three edible sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe is an essential micronutrient involved in fundamental biological processes in humans, as well as in plants. In particular, Fe is known as a very important mineral due to its frequent deficiency in humans. The objectives of this study were to increase Fe concentration in three species of sprouts (...

  12. Combined effect of aqueous chlorine dioxide and modified atmosphere packaging on inhibiting Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in mungbean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H-H; Lee, S-Y

    2007-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) combined with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on inhibiting total mesophilic microorganisms, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in mungbean sprouts during refrigerated storage. Mungbean sprouts were packaged using 4 different methods (air, vacuum, CO2 gas, and N2 gas) following treatment with water or 100 ppm ClO2 for 5 min and stored at 5 +/- 2 degrees C. The population of total mesophilic microorganisms in mungbean sprouts was about 8.4-log(10) CFU/g and this level was not significantly reduced by treatment with water or ClO2 (P > 0.05). However, when samples were packaged under vacuum, N2 gas, or CO2 gas following treatment with ClO2, the populations of total mesophilic microorganisms were significantly reduced during storage (P 0.05). However, treatment with ClO2 significantly reduced populations of S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 3.0- and 1.5-log CFU/g, respectively (P < 0.05), and these reduced cell levels were maintained or decreased in samples packaged under vacuum or in N2 or CO2 gas during storage. These results suggest that the combination of ClO2 treatment and MAP such as CO2 gas packaging may be useful for inhibiting microbial contamination and maintaining quality in mungbean sprouts during storage. PMID:18034740

  13. Effects of Organic and Waste-Derived Fertilizers on Yield, Nitrogen and Glucosinolate Contents, and Sensory Quality of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvsthus, Ingunn; Breland, Tor Arvid; Hagen, Sidsel Fiskaa; Brandt, Kirsten; Wold, Anne-Berit; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Seljåsen, Randi

    2015-12-23

    Organic vegetable production attempts to pursue multiple goals concerning influence on environment, production resources, and human health. In areas with limited availability of animal manure, there is a need for considering various off-farm nutrient resources for such production. Different organic and waste-derived fertilizer materials were used for broccoli production at two latitudes (58° and 67°) in Norway during two years. The fertilizer materials were applied at two rates of total N (80 and 170 kg ha(-1)) and compared with mineral fertilizer (170 kg ha(-1)) and no fertilizer. Broccoli yield was strongly influenced by fertilizer materials (algae meal fertilizer). Yield, but not glucosinolate content, was linearly correlated with estimated potentially plant-available N. However, extruded shrimp shell and mineral NPK fertilizer gave higher glucosinolate contents than sheep manure and no fertilizer. Sensory attributes were less affected by fertilizer material and plant-available N.

  14. Effects of Organic and Waste-Derived Fertilizers on Yield, Nitrogen and Glucosinolate Contents, and Sensory Quality of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvsthus, Ingunn; Breland, Tor Arvid; Hagen, Sidsel Fiskaa; Brandt, Kirsten; Wold, Anne-Berit; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Seljåsen, Randi

    2015-12-23

    Organic vegetable production attempts to pursue multiple goals concerning influence on environment, production resources, and human health. In areas with limited availability of animal manure, there is a need for considering various off-farm nutrient resources for such production. Different organic and waste-derived fertilizer materials were used for broccoli production at two latitudes (58° and 67°) in Norway during two years. The fertilizer materials were applied at two rates of total N (80 and 170 kg ha(-1)) and compared with mineral fertilizer (170 kg ha(-1)) and no fertilizer. Broccoli yield was strongly influenced by fertilizer materials (algae meal fertilizer). Yield, but not glucosinolate content, was linearly correlated with estimated potentially plant-available N. However, extruded shrimp shell and mineral NPK fertilizer gave higher glucosinolate contents than sheep manure and no fertilizer. Sensory attributes were less affected by fertilizer material and plant-available N. PMID:26553169

  15. A Comparative Study of Collagen Matrix Density Effect on Endothelial Sprout Formation Using Experimental and Computational Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir; Mohammadaliha, Negar; Heilshorn, Sarah C; Bauer, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    A thorough understanding of determining factors in angiogenesis is a necessary step to control the development of new blood vessels. Extracellular matrix density is known to have a significant influence on cellular behaviors and consequently can regulate vessel formation. The utilization of experimental platforms in combination with numerical models can be a powerful method to explore the mechanisms of new capillary sprout formation. In this study, using an integrative method, the interplay between the matrix density and angiogenesis was investigated. Owing the fact that the extracellular matrix density is a global parameter that can affect other parameters such as pore size, stiffness, cell-matrix adhesion and cross-linking, deeper understanding of the most important biomechanical or biochemical properties of the ECM causing changes in sprout morphogenesis is crucial. Here, we implemented both computational and experimental methods to analyze the mechanisms responsible for the influence of ECM density on the sprout formation that is difficult to be investigated comprehensively using each of these single methods. For this purpose, we first utilized an innovative approach to quantify the correspondence of the simulated collagen fibril density to the collagen density in the experimental part. Comparing the results of the experimental study and computational model led to some considerable achievements. First, we verified the results of the computational model using the experimental results. Then, we reported parameters such as the ratio of proliferating cells to migrating cells that was difficult to obtain from experimental study. Finally, this integrative system led to gain an understanding of the possible mechanisms responsible for the effect of ECM density on angiogenesis. The results showed that stable and long sprouts were observed at an intermediate collagen matrix density of 1.2 and 1.9 mg/ml due to a balance between the number of migrating and proliferating

  16. Microbiological quality of fresh, minimally-processed fruit and vegetables, and sprouts from retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadias, M; Usall, J; Anguera, M; Solsona, C; Viñas, I

    2008-03-31

    A survey of fresh and minimally-processed fruit and vegetables, and sprouts was conducted in several retail establishments in the Lleida area (Catalonia, Spain) during 2005-2006 to determine whether microbial contamination, and in particular potentially pathogenic bacteria, was present under these commodities. A total of 300 samples--including 21 ready-to-eat fruits, 28 whole fresh vegetables, 15 sprout samples and 237 ready-to-eat salads containing from one to six vegetables--were purchased from 4 supermarkets. They were tested for mesophilic and psychrotrophic aerobic counts, yeasts and moulds, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, presumptive E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes counts as well as for the presence of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica and thermotolerant Campylobacter. Results for the fresh-cut vegetables that we analyzed showed that, in general, the highest microorganism counts were associated with grated carrot, arugula and spinach (7.8, 7.5 and 7.4 log cfu g(-1) of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms; 6.1, 5.8 and 5.2 log cfu g(-1) of yeast and moulds; 5.9, 4.0 and 5.1 log cfu g(-1) lactic acid bacteria and 6.2, 5.3 and 6.0 log cfu g(-1) of Enterobacteriaceae). The lowest counts were generally associated with fresh-cut endive and lettuce (6.2 and 6.3 log cfu g(-1) of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms; 4.4 and 4.6 log cfu g(-1) of yeast and moulds; 2.7 and 3.8 log cfu g(-1) lactic acid bacteria and 4.8 and 4.4 log cfu g(-1) of Enterobacteriaceae). Counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were as high as those of mesophilic microorganisms. Microbiological counts for fresh-cut fruit were very low. Sprouts were highly contaminated with mesophilic (7.9 log cfu g(-1)), psychrotrophic microorganisms (7.3 log cfu g(-1)) and Enterobacteriaceae (7.2 log cfu g(-1)) and showed a high incidence of E. coli (40% of samples). Of the samples analyzed, four (1.3%) were Salmonella positive and two (0.7%) harboured L. monocytogenes. None of the

  17. Sensitivity of produce respiration models used in the MAP-DESIGN software on the shelf life simulation of broccoli in the modified atmosphere package

    OpenAIRE

    Weerasak Lertsiriyothin

    2009-01-01

    Optimization for the designing of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for broccoli was made by the MAP-DESIGN software (author’s own code). The software is capable of dealing with all parameters required for the designing of MAP for fresh produce, namely packaging materials, package dimensions, storage conditions, and plant respiratory models. Computational algorithms were carefully designed based upon widely-used theories of living plant respiration, gas permeability through packaging film...

  18. Change of related isoenzyme during vernalization in broccoli%青花菜绿体春化过程中同工酶变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘生财; 蒋欣梅; 于锡宏

    2009-01-01

    试验以青花菜早熟品种"清风103"为试材,对青花菜绿体春化过程中植株中春化相关的酶进行研究.结果表明,青花菜植株在低温春化处理过程中,NR、EST和α-淀粉酶及ASP的活性都呈增加趋势.对EST、α-淀粉酶和POD同工酶分析发现,经过低温春化处理后既有新谱带的产生,也有谱带的消失,产生或消失的谱带可能与青花菜春化有关.%The experiment took early maturing variety broccoli Qingfeng 103 as experimental material. Related isoenzyme during vernalization in broccoli was studied in this research. The results showed that NR, EST, α-amylase and ASP activity were significantly increased during vernalization. After the analyse of EST, α-amylase and POD isoenzyme, some new bands appeared but some disappeared. Perhaps these bands were associated with vernalization in broccoli.

  19. Assessing Competence of Broccoli Consumption on Inflammatory and Antioxidant Pathways in Restraint-Induced Models: Estimation in Rat Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khalaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence advocated the protective and therapeutic potential of natural compounds and phytochemicals used in diets against pathological conditions. Herein, the outcome of dietary whole broccoli consumption prior to restraint stress has been investigated in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of male rats, two important regions involved in the processing of responses to stressful events. Interestingly, a region-specific effect was detected regarding some of antioxidant defense system factors: nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2 antioxidant pathway, mitochondrial prosurvival proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, and apoptotic cell death proteins. Dietary broccoli supplementation modulated the restraint-induced changes towards a consistent overall protection in the hippocampus. In the prefrontal cortex, however, despite activation of most of the protective factors, presumably as an attempt to save the system against the stress insult, some detrimental outcomes such as induced malate dehydrogenase (MDA level and cleaved form of caspase-3 were detectable. Such diversity may be attributed in one hand to the different basic levels and/or availability of defensive mechanisms within the two studied cerebral regions, and on the other hand to the probable dose-dependent and hormetic effects of whole broccoli. More experiments are essential to demonstrate these assumptions.

  20. 不同贮藏条件对青花菜品质的影响%Effects of Storage Conditions on the Quality of Broccolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佩; 侯军; 石英

    2011-01-01

    Effects of such conditions as temperature, relative humidity and light on storage quality of broccoli were studied. The results showed that, in the three combinations of temperature and relative humidity, the weight and L-ascorbic acid of broccoli and hardness of stem could be maintained by the condition of 15 ℃ and 75% relative humidity. Under the lighting conditions (at the temperature of 20±2 ℃ ), the soluble solids contents (SSC) of buds and the weight of broccoli were decreased slowly. But L-ascorbic acid and hardness decreased more quickly under the lighting conditions.%研究了不同温湿度及光照条件对青花菜采后贮藏品质的影响.结果表明,在三种温湿度组合处理中,以15℃温度、75%相对湿度的条件可有效减少青花菜的失重,保持花茎的硬度和还原型抗坏血酸含量,延长贮藏期;室温(20±2℃)光照条件有利于减少青花菜的失重和可溶性固形物含量的下降速率,但不利于硬度及还原型抗坏血酸的保持.

  1. 青花菜气相色谱指纹图谱研究%Study on Gas Chromatographic Fingerprint of Broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬群; 胡寅侠

    2014-01-01

    With FPD as detector , the fingerprint features of broccoli were studied by gas chromatographic method using DB-1701 and HP-5 capillary column respectively .The results showed that the broccoli had 2 peaks in both 2 columns, and their retention times were all very stable .The peak areas among different sam-ples were obviously different , and there was no obvious proportional relation between 2 peaks of the same sam-ple.The GC fingerprint could be used as one of the bases of broccoli quality assessment .%采用气相色谱法,分别利用DB-1701和HP-5毛细管柱,以FPD为检测器,研究了青花菜的指纹图谱特点。结果显示,青花菜在2种柱子中均表现为2个峰,且其保留时间均非常稳定,但不同样品间峰面积差异较大;同一样品中2个峰的峰面积没有明显的比例关系。气相色谱指纹图谱可作为青花菜质量控制的依据之一。

  2. 西兰花甜玉米复合蔬菜纸的研制%Study on Compound Vegetable Paper of Broccoli and Sweet Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤慧民; 尚海英

    2015-01-01

    With broccoli and sweet corn as raw material, sodium alginate, carrageenan,starch as adhesive, based on single factor experiment, the production process conditions of vegetable paper of broccoli and sweet corn was optimized through orthogonal experiment.The result showed that the acquired vegetable paper was best in color, flavor, taste and texture adopting the condition of the quality ratio of broccoli slurry and sweet corn pulp was 2:1,sodium alginate 0.5%, carrageenan 0.6%, starch 8%, film thickness 1.5 mm, drying 4 h at 65℃.%以西兰花和甜玉米为原料,海藻酸钠、卡拉胶、淀粉为胶黏剂,在单因素的基础上,采用正交试验法确定西兰花甜玉米复合蔬菜纸的最佳生产工艺条件:西兰花浆和甜玉米浆的质量比例是2:1、0.5%的海藻酸钠、0.6%卡拉胶、8%淀粉,涂膜厚度1.5 mm,65℃干燥4 h.所制得的蔬菜纸色、香、味、形俱佳.

  3. Lentiviral vectors express chondroitinase ABC in cortical projections and promote sprouting of injured corticospinal axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rong-Rong; Muir, Elizabeth M; Alves, João Nuno; Rickman, Hannah; Allan, Anna Y; Kwok, Jessica C; Roet, Kasper C D; Verhaagen, Joost; Schneider, Bernard L; Bensadoun, Jean-Charles; Ahmed, Sherif G; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael J; Keynes, Roger J; Fawcett, James W; Rogers, John H

    2011-09-30

    Several diseases and injuries of the central nervous system could potentially be treated by delivery of an enzyme, which might most effectively be achieved by gene therapy. In particular, the bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC is beneficial in animal models of spinal cord injury. We have adapted the chondroitinase gene so that it can direct secretion of active chondroitinase from mammalian cells, and inserted it into lentiviral vectors. When injected into adult rat brain, these vectors lead to extensive secretion of chondroitinase, both locally and from long-distance axon projections, with activity persisting for more than 4 weeks. In animals which received a simultaneous lesion of the corticospinal tract, the vector reduced axonal die-back and promoted sprouting and short-range regeneration of corticospinal axons. The same beneficial effects on damaged corticospinal axons were observed in animals which received the chondroitinase lentiviral vector directly into the vicinity of a spinal cord lesion.

  4. Acceleration of vascular sprouting from fabricated perfusable vascular-like structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Osaki

    Full Text Available Fabrication of vascular networks is essential for engineering three-dimensional thick tissues and organs in the emerging fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we describe the fabrication of perfusable vascular-like structures by transferring endothelial cells using an electrochemical reaction as well as acceleration of subsequent endothelial sprouting by two stimuli: phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and fluidic shear stress. The electrochemical transfer of cells was achieved using an oligopeptide that formed a dense molecular layer on a gold surface and was then electrochemically desorbed from the surface. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, adhered to gold-coated needles (ϕ600 μm via the oligopeptide, were transferred to collagen gel along with electrochemical desorption of the molecular layer, resulting in the formation of endothelial cell-lined vascular-like structures. In the following culture, the endothelial cells migrated into the collagen gel and formed branched luminal structures. However, this branching process was strikingly slow (>14 d and the cell layers on the internal surfaces became disrupted in some regions. To address these issues, we examined the effects of the protein kinase C (PKC activator, PMA, and shear stress generated by medium flow. Addition of PMA at an optimum concentration significantly accelerated migration, vascular network formation, and its stabilization. Exposure to shear stress reoriented the cells in the direction of the medium flow and further accelerated vascular network formation. Because of the synergistic effects, HUVECs began to sprout as early as 3 d of perfusion culture and neighboring vascular-like structures were bridged within 5 d. Although further investigations of vascular functions need to be performed, this approach may be an effective strategy for rapid fabrication of perfusable microvascular networks when engineering three-dimensional fully

  5. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacev, Benjamin A; Liu, Jun O

    2011-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50) dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  6. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Nacev

    Full Text Available Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA, an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50 dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  7. Research of Natamycin on the Freshness Retaining of Broccolis%纳他霉素对西兰花的保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林本芳; 鲁晓翔; 李江阔; 陈绍慧

    2012-01-01

    研究纳他霉素处理对西兰花冷藏保鲜品质的影响。纳他霉素处理浓度分别为800mg/L、1200mg/L,在(0±1)℃冷藏期间每10d取样测定西兰花理化指标及营养成分。结果表明:与冷藏对照相比,纳他霉素处理对于延缓西兰花可溶性固形物含量、Vc含量及叶绿素含量的下降均有明显效果,并可抑制西兰花贮藏期间的呼吸强度;纳他霉素处理可提高西兰花SOD的活性和降低PPO活性,延缓了细胞膜相对透性的升高。说明冷藏结合纳他霉素处理对西兰花的成熟衰老有抑制作用,其中经1200mg/L处理的西兰花保鲜效果较好。%This paper investigated the effect of different concentrations (800mg/L,1200mg/L) of natamycin on the quality of Broccolis stored at -1 ℃ - 1 ℃. The physicochemical indexes and nutrition components of Broccolis were detected every 10days. The results showed that the soluble solids, vitamine C and chlorophyll content of broccolis by natamycin treatment decreased less than that just by cold storage. Natamycin could inhibit the increase of respiratory intensity, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and slowed down polyphenol oxidase(PPO) activity and de- creased cell membrane permeability. These results showed that cold storage combined with natamycin treatment could delay ripening of Broccoli, wherein the storage effect of Broccolis with 1200 mg/L natamycin treatment was better than that with 800mg/L.

  8. 长白楤木嫩芽中刺龙芽皂苷C的分离纯化及结构鉴定%Separation and Structural Identification of Congmuyanoside C from Young Sprouts of Aralia continentalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯颖; 潘旋; 孟宪军; 李天来; 刘欣

    2011-01-01

    A saponin monomer was obtained from the young sprouts of Aralia continentalis through extraction with 70% aqueous ethanol solution,sequential purification by AB-8 macroporous resin adsorption,silica gel column chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative HPLC separation.The compound was structurally identified by NMR spectroscopy as congmuyanoside C.%为了寻找长白楤木嫩芽中的皂苷活性单体,采用70%乙醇提取,AB-8大孔吸附树脂纯化,硅胶柱层析、凝胶柱层析和制备液相进行分离,利用NMR波谱法鉴定化合物的结构。结果分离得到一个皂苷单体,经鉴定为刺龙芽皂苷C。

  9. Extraction of light filth from canned green leafy vegetables: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, R G; Boese, J L

    1979-05-01

    The official first action method, 44.108, for the extraction of light filth from whole or chopped canned greens specifies a water-heptane flotation that results in the flotation of an excessive amount of interfering plant material and in low recoveries. A new method has been developed using a 40% isopropanol-water-mineral oil flotation. The new method yielded a decreased amount of plant material and 84.9% recovery of the aphid spike compared with 42.5% recovery of the spike by the official method. The new method has been adopted as official first action to replace the existing method, except for broccoli. PMID:479085

  10. Influence of cooking conditions on organoleptic and health-related properties of artichokes, green beans, broccoli and carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Sofía; Mir-Bel, Jorge; Oria, Rosa; Salvador, María L

    2017-02-15

    Colour, pigments, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were investigated in artichokes, green beans, broccoli and carrots cooked under different conditions. Domestic induction hobs with temperature control were used to evaluate the effect of boiling, sous-vide cooking and water immersion cooking at temperatures below 100°C on the properties of each vegetable. Sous-vide cooking preserved chlorophyll, carotenoids, phenolic content and antioxidant activity to a greater extent than boiling for all of the vegetables tested and retained colour better, as determined by a(∗). A reduction of only 10-15°C in the cooking temperature was enough to improve the properties of the samples cooked by water immersion, except for green beans. Artichokes and carrots suffered pronounced losses of antioxidant activity during boiling (17.0 and 9.2% retention, respectively), but the stability of this parameter significantly increased with sous-vide cooking (84.9 and 55.3% retention, respectively). PMID:27664628

  11. IEC与UV测定黄豆芽和绿豆芽中亚硝酸盐含量%Determination of Nitrite Content in Yellow Bean Sprouts and Mung Bean Sprouts by Ion Chromatography and Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晓燕; 马光路; 张海芳

    2016-01-01

    The bean sprouts on the market were determined by nitrite content. The contents of nitrite in the sam-ples were determined by ion chromatography and spectrophotometry. The contents of nitrite in yellow bean sprouts and mung bean sprouts were different. Ion chromatography is a new type of chromatographic separation technology,and it is more suitable for the detection of nitrite,which is characterized by rapid,simple,sensitive and selective.%对市场上豆芽进行亚硝酸盐含量测定。采用离子色谱法和分光光度法比较测定样品中的亚硝酸盐含量。黄豆芽和绿豆芽中亚硝酸盐含量各不相同。离子色谱作为一种新型的色谱分离技术,比分光光度法更适合于亚硝酸盐的检测,具有快速、简便、灵敏、选择性强等特点。

  12. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Organic Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders Implicated in a Foodborne Salmonellosis Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamber, Sandeep; Swist, Eleonora; Oudit, Denise

    2016-05-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of sprouted chia and flax seed powders, no data have been reported on their intrinsic physicochemical properties and background microflora. Here, we report the moisture content, water activity, pH, and fatty acid methyl ester and bacteriological profiles of 19 sprouted chia and flax seed samples, 10 of which were associated with an outbreak of salmonellosis in Canada and the United States. The physicochemical parameters of the Salmonella-positive samples did not differ significantly from those of the negative samples. However, the higher Enterobacteriaceae and coliform levels on the contaminated powders were associated with the presence of Salmonella. Enumeration of Salmonella by the most probable number (MPN) method revealed concentrations ranging from 1 MPN per 3 g of powder to 1 MPN per 556 g of powder. The results of this study demonstrate that low numbers of Salmonella may be linked to foodborne outbreaks.

  13. Effects of gamma radiation on sprouting turmeric rhizome and the quality and resulting characteristics in powdered form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhizomes were submitted to doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 kGy and stored at 26 ± 1 deg C and 85% relative humidity for 135 days. In 45 day intervals samples were collected for analysis of the rhizomes and processed into ground turmeric. The higher the dose the longer the time required for sprouting. At 0.15 kGy there was no sprouting up to 135 days of storage, however callus started to appear. The levels of curcuminoid pigments in ground turmeric were not affected by irradiation dose; however they varied with storage time. The CIE L*a*b* color characteristics of ground turmeric were not affected by radiation dose, but changed with storage time, except for 0.15 kGy. (author)

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on sprouting turmeric rhizome and the quality and resulting characteristics in powdered form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peret-Almeida, Lucia [UNI-BH, Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Junqueira, Roberto Goncalves; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (FAFAR/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia

    2008-07-01

    Rhizomes were submitted to doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 kGy and stored at 26 {+-} 1 deg C and 85% relative humidity for 135 days. In 45 day intervals samples were collected for analysis of the rhizomes and processed into ground turmeric. The higher the dose the longer the time required for sprouting. At 0.15 kGy there was no sprouting up to 135 days of storage, however callus started to appear. The levels of curcuminoid pigments in ground turmeric were not affected by irradiation dose; however they varied with storage time. The CIE L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *} color characteristics of ground turmeric were not affected by radiation dose, but changed with storage time, except for 0.15 kGy. (author)

  15. Content of amino acids and the quality of protein in Brussels sprouts, both raw and prepared for consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisiewska, Zofia; Slupski, Jacek; Skoczen-Slupska, Radoslawa; Kmiecik, Waldemar [Department of Raw Materials and Processing of Fruit and Vegetables, Agricultural University of Krakow, Balicka 122, 30-149 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the content of amino acids and the quality of protein in Brussels sprouts. The investigation included the raw material, cooked sample and two types of frozen product stored at -20 C for 12 months and then prepared for consumption. The frozen products investigated were obtained using the traditional method (blanching before freezing) and the modified method (cooking before freezing, then defrosting and heating in microwave oven after refrigerated storage) of the ready-to-eat type. Brussels sprouts, both fresh and prepared for consumption, were a good source of protein and amino acids. Proline and glutamic acid were dominating; leucine and tyrosine with phenylalanine were limiting amino acids. The product obtained by modified method contained 16% less amino acids in 16 g N than the raw material and 14% less than the raw material after cooking, and also 10% lower than that of the traditionally obtained product. (author)

  16. Differential gene expression during compensatory sprouting of dendrites in the auditory system of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, H W; McCarthy, S S; Johansen, S L; Harris, J M

    2009-08-01

    Neurones that lose their presynaptic partners because of injury usually retract or die. However, when the auditory interneurones of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus are denervated, dendrites respond by growing across the midline and forming novel synapses with the opposite auditory afferents. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to detect transcriptional changes 3 days after denervation. This is a stage at which we demonstrate robust compensatory dendritic sprouting. Whereas 49 unique candidates were down-regulated, no sufficiently up-regulated candidates were identified at this time point. Several candidates identified in this study are known to influence the translation and degradation of proteins in other systems. The potential role of these factors in the compensatory sprouting of cricket auditory interneurones in response to denervation is discussed.

  17. Differences between the Bud End and Stem End of Potatoes in Dry Matter Content, Starch Granule Size, and Carbohydrate Metabolic Gene Expression at the Growing and Sprouting Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bailin; Zhang, Guodong; Murphy, Agnes; De Koeyer, David; Tai, Helen; Bizimungu, Benoit; Si, Huaijun; Li, Xiu-Qing

    2016-02-10

    Potatoes usually have the tuber bud end dominance in growth during tuber bulking and in tuber sprouting, likely using carbohydrates from the tuber stem end. We hypothesized that the tuber bud end and tuber stem end coordination in carbohydrate metabolism gene expression is different between the bulking dominance and sprouting dominance of the tuber bud end. After comparing the growing tubers at harvest from a green vine and the stage that sprouts just started to emerge after storage of tubers at room temperature, we found the following: (1) Dry matter content was higher in the tuber stem end than the tuber bud end at both stages. (2) The starch granule size was larger in the tuber bud end than in the tuber stem end. (3) The tuber bud end had higher gene expression for starch synthesis but a lower gene expression of sucrose transporters than the tuber stem end during tuber growing. (4) The tuber stem end at the sprouting stage showed more active gene expression in both starch degradation and resynthesis, suggesting more active export of carbohydrates, than the tuber bud end. The results indicate that the starch accumulation mechanism in the tuber bud end was different between field growing and post-harvest sprouting tubers and that tubers already increased dry matter and average starch granule sizes in the tuber bud end prior to the rapid growth of sprouts. PMID:26760673

  18. GROWTH RATE AND IDENTIFICATION OF YEASTS IN THREE DIFFERENT MEDIA: FLOUR, SPROUT OF CEREALS AND COMMERCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P DEHGHAN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The yeasts are a large group of fungi. In addition to their different uses in food industries and pharmacology they can also cause human and animal infections under predisposing factors. For investigating the yeast"s growth phases and diagnosis of the species, they should culture in media from natural sources like the seeds on the commercial media. According to yeast"s nutritinal requierments and considering the various nutritional materials of seeds like wheat, rice, barney and better use of these seed"s compounds during sprouting, this research was done with the aim of measurment of growth rate and yeasts characterization in such media. Methods. For making seeds media, a fixed quantity of seed"s flour or sprout"s flour was added to a certain amount of agar in acidotic condition (pH=5.8. The germination of seeds was done by Hus method and for colony counting Mc, Farland tubes were used and microscopic and macroscopic characteristics were investigated and compared in both synthetic and seed media Results. The results showed that the rate of yeasts growth in all germinated seeds was more than the seeds themeselves. Statistical analysis showed no significal difference between the growth rate of yeasts in both wheat and barney sprout compared to the commercial media. In the microscopic studies, the species of Candida albicans in wheat flour has produced more chlamydoconidia than the synthetic medium of corn meal agar. Also production of the capsule in C.neoformans in the seed"s media has been better than the synthetic media. Discussion. According to the promising results obtained from the present study regard to the growth rate and differentiation of the fungal species in such media, standardization and mass production of them in our country would seem to be an productive step towards self sufficiency.

  19. MMP-sensitive PEG diacrylate hydrogels with spatial variations in matrix properties stimulate directional vascular sprout formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael V Turturro

    Full Text Available The spatial presentation of immobilized extracellular matrix (ECM cues and matrix mechanical properties play an important role in directed and guided cell behavior and neovascularization. The goal of this work was to explore whether gradients of elastic modulus, immobilized matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-sensitivity, and YRGDS cell adhesion ligands are capable of directing 3D vascular sprout formation in tissue engineered scaffolds. PEGDA hydrogels were engineered with mechanical and biofunctional gradients using perfusion-based frontal photopolymerization (PBFP. Bulk photopolymerized hydrogels with uniform mechanical properties, degradation, and immobilized biofunctionality served as controls. Gradient hydrogels exhibited an 80.4% decrease in elastic modulus and a 56.2% decrease in immobilized YRGDS. PBFP hydrogels also demonstrated gradients in hydrogel degradation with degradation times ranging from 10-12 hours in the more crosslinked regions to 4-6 hours in less crosslinked regions. An in vitro model of neovascularization, composed of co-culture aggregates of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, was used to evaluate the effect of these gradients on vascular sprout formation. Aggregate invasion in gradient hydrogels occurred bi-directionally with sprout alignment observed in the direction parallel to the gradient while control hydrogels with homogeneous properties resulted in uniform invasion. In PBFP gradient hydrogels, aggregate sprout length was found to be twice as long in the direction parallel to the gradient as compared to the perpendicular direction after three weeks in culture. This directionality was found to be more prominent in gradient regions of increased stiffness, crosslinked MMP-sensitive peptide presentation, and immobilized YRGDS concentration.

  20. Simultaneous determination of plant growth regulator and pesticides in bean sprouts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Gon; Park, Duck-Woong; Kang, Gyung-Ri; Kim, Tae-Sun; Yang, Yongshik; Moon, Su-Jin; Choi, Eun-Ah; Ha, Dong-Ryong; Kim, Eun-Sun; Cho, Bae-Sik

    2016-10-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method based on QuEChERS approach using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the determination of 6-benzylaminopurine, carbendazim and thiabendazole in bean sprouts. Sodium chloride and sodium acetate were used for salting-out step and magnesium sulfate for clean-up. The validation of optimized method was satisfactory with recoveries, between 89.5% and 103.2% for the three compounds, and relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 3.3% at 20 and 40ng/g fortification levels (n=5). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2.1-3.7ng/g and 6.3-11.1ng/g, respectively. Monitoring of 126 bean sprout samples collected from local markets was performed to verify the adaptability in real samples. No pesticides were detected but 6-benzylaminopurine was found in 3 samples at the level of 15-20ng/g. The optimized method should be applicable for monitoring of 6-benzylaminopurine, carbendazim and thiabendazole in bean sprouts in short time. PMID:27132845

  1. Transgenic inhibition of astroglial NF-κB leads to increased axonal sparing and sprouting following spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Roberta; Hurtado, Andres; Persaud, Trikaldarshi; Esham, Kim; Pearse, Damien D.; Oudega, Martin; Bethea, John R.

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that NF-κB inactivation in astrocytes leads to improved functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). This correlated with reduced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans, and increased white matter preservation. Hence we hypothesized that inactivation of astrocytic NF-κB would create a more permissive environment for axonal sprouting and regeneration. We induced both contusive and complete transection SCI in GFAP-IκBα-dn and WT mice and performed retrograde (fluorogold) and anterograde (biotinylated dextran amine) tracing eight weeks after injury. Following contusive SCI, more fluorogold-labeled cells were found in motor cortex, reticular formation, and raphe nuclei of transgenic mice. Spared and sprouting biotinylated dextran amine-positive corticospinal axons were found caudal to the lesion in GFAP-IκBα-dn mice. Higher numbers of fluorogold-labeled neurons were detected immediately rostral to the lesion in GFAP-IκBα-dn mice, accompanied by increased expression of synaptic and axonal growth-associated molecules. After transection, however, no fluorogold-labeled neurons or biotinylated dextran amine-filled axons were found rostral and caudal to the lesion, respectively, in either genotype. These data demonstrated that inhibiting astroglial NF-κB resulted in a growth-supporting terrain promoting sparing and sprouting, rather than regeneration, of supraspinal and propriospinal circuitries essential for locomotion, hence contributing to the improved functional recovery observed after SCI in GFAP-IκBα-dn mice. PMID:19522780

  2. Bioconversion of biomass residue from the cultivation of pea sprouts on spent Pleurotus sajor-caju compost employing Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Abu Bakar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting is a green technology for the purpose of nutrient enrichment from a variety of organic waste products. In this study, saw dust-based spent mushroom compost (SMC, an organic waste and biomass residue, was used as a medium for the cultivation of pea sprouts. After harvesting the pea sprouts, the growth medium was reused to culture earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus. The culturing activity was conducted for 50 days without any pre-composting or thermocomposting. Thus duration of vermicomposting process was shortened as opposed to previous work on vermicomposting of saw dust-based SMC (no amendment for 70 days. The culturing treatments were conducted in triplicate, including one treatment without earthworms as the control. The analysis showed that concentrations of macronutrients in vermicompost were higher compared to controls, in which N = 4.12%, P = 2.07% and K = 1.56%. The C:N ratio was 11.77, which indicates a stabilisation and maturity of the organic waste compost, compared with the C:N ratio for the control, which was 59.34. At the end of the experiment, increment of total biomass and number of earthworms were observed and no mortality was recorded. The results suggested that vermicomposting could be used as an environmentally valuable technology to convert saw dust used for mushroom and pea sprouts cultivation into vermicompost or bio-fertiliser by employing L. rubellus.

  3. Molecular characterisation and the light-dark regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-15

    Seven partial-length cDNAs and 1 full-length cDNA that were involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and 2 partial-length cDNAs that encoded carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases were first isolated and characterised in 2 tartary buckwheat cultivars (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.), Hokkai T8 and Hokkai T10. They were constitutively expressed at high levels in the leaves and flowers, where carotenoids are mostly distributed. During the seed development of tartary buckwheat, an inverse correlation between transcription level of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase and carotenoid content was observed. The light-grown sprouts exhibited higher levels of expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in T10 and carotenoid content in both T8 and T10 compared to the dark-grown sprouts. The predominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat were lutein and β-carotene, and very abundant amounts of these carotenoids were found in light-grown sprouts. This study might broaden our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and indicates targets for increasing the production of carotenoids in tartary buckwheat.

  4. Transformation of Broccoli with KTI Gene and the Bioassay for Diamondback Moth Resistance%抗虫相关基因KTI对青花菜的转化及其对小菜蛾抗性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江汉民; 宋文芹; 刘莉莉; 文正华; 姚星伟; 单晓政; 孙德岭

    2013-01-01

    KTI gene was transformed into broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica) genome via Agrobacterium mediated transformation method using broccoli lines '09LR-11' as explants. Thirteen kanamycin resistant broccoli plants were obtained. PCR analysis with primers specific to KTI gene identified 8 KTI positive plants. Southern blotting analysis with KTI gene as probes showed that the KTI gene was integrated into broccoli genome. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the KTI gene was expressed in transgenic broccoli. Both laboratory and field tests proved that the transgenic broccoli plants were resistant to diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella larvae) .%以青花菜(Brassica oleraceaL.ssp.italica)下胚轴为外植体,通过农杆菌介导的遗传转化方法将来源于杨树的Kunitz型丝氨酸胰蛋白酶抑制剂(KTI)基因导入青花菜品系‘09LR-11’中,获得13株卡那霉素抗性植株.以KTI特异引物对转基因植株进行PCR检测,其中8株为KTI阳性植株.Southernblot分析进一步表明,基因KTI已成功整合到青花菜基因组中.RT-PCR检测表明,KTI在转基因青花菜中已成功表达.通过室内叶片离体试验和田间观察,初步证明转KTI青花菜对小菜蛾幼虫具有一定抗性.

  5. 辽西地区露地西兰花(绿花椰菜)栽培技术要点%Cultivation Technology of Broccoli in Western Area of Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜津宁; 胡新颖; 杨迎东; 裴新辉; 商旭文; 颜范悦

    2012-01-01

    Planting technology of broccoli in autumn, including variety selection, seedling breeding, planting and managements, prevention and cure for plant diseases and insect pests, harvest were introduced. These techniques would provide references for the production of broccoli in autumn.%该文从品种选择、秧苗培育、整地定植、病虫害防治、收获及贮藏等方面介绍了辽西地区西兰花秋茬栽培技术,以期指导露地秋茬西兰花生产。

  6. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Thomson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n=82, enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012.

  7. Purification and characterization of catalase from sprouted black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandukuri, Sai Srikar; Noor, Ayesha; Ranjini, S Shiva; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2012-03-15

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is a legume which belongs to Fabaceae family. It is a rich source of protein. It has been known to have interesting small molecule antioxidant activity. However, its enzymatic antioxidant properties have not been explored much. In the present work we studied catalase, a principal antioxidant enzyme from black gram seeds. Day four sprouted black gram seeds were found to have a significant catalase content approximately of 15,240 U/g seeds. IMAC (Seph 4B-IDA-Zn(II)) was used for purifying this catalase, a purification fold of 106 and a high specific activity of 25,704 U/mg was obtained. The K(m) and V(max) of the purified catalase were found to be 16.2 mM and 2.5 μmol/min. The effect of inhibitors like Sodium azide (NaN(3)) and EDTA and different metal ions on catalase activity were studied. NaN(3), Fe(3+)and Cu(2+) were found to have profound inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity. Other metal ions like Ni(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) had both enhancing and inhibitory effects. The enzyme showed optimal activity at a temperature of 40°C and pH 7.0. It was stable over a broad range of pH 6.0-10.0 and had a half life of 7h 30 min at 50°C.

  8. Recent evidence for activity-dependent initiation of sympathetic sprouting and neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Ming ZHANG; Judith A. Strong

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic injury or inflammatory irritation of the peripheral nervous system often leads to persistent pathophysiological pain states. It has been well-documented that, after peripheral nerve injury or inflammation, functional and anatomical alterations sweep over the entire peripheral nervous system including the peripheral nerve endings, the injured or inflamed afferent fibers, the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and the central afferent terminals in the spinal cord. Among all the changes, ectopic discharge or spontaneous activity of primary sensory neurons is of great clinical interest, as such discharges doubtless contribute to the develop-ment of pathological pain states such as neuropathic pain. Two key sources of abnormal spontaneous activity have been identified following peripheral nerve injury: the injured afferent fibers (neuroma) leading to the DRG, and the DRG somata. The purpose of this review is to provide a global account of the abnormal spontaneous activity in various animal models of pain. Particular attention is focused on the consequence of peripheral nerve injury and localized inflammation. Further, mechanisms involved in the generation of spontaneous activity are also reviewed; evidence of spontaneous activity in contributing to abnormal sympathetic sprouting in the axotomized DRG and to the initiation of neuropathic pain based on new findings from our research group are discussed. An improved understanding of the causes of spontaneous activity and the origins of neuropathic pain should facilitate the development of novel strategies for effective treatment of pathological pain.

  9. Engineering of in vitro 3D capillary beds by self-directed angiogenic sprouting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M Chan

    Full Text Available In recent years, microfluidic systems have been used to study fundamental aspects of angiogenesis through the patterning of single-layered, linear or geometric vascular channels. In vivo, however, capillaries exist in complex, three-dimensional (3D networks, and angiogenic sprouting occurs with a degree of unpredictability in all x,y,z planes. The ability to generate capillary beds in vitro that can support thick, biological tissues remains a key challenge to the regeneration of vital organs. Here, we report the engineering of 3D capillary beds in an in vitro microfluidic platform that is comprised of a biocompatible collagen I gel supported by a mechanical framework of alginate beads. The engineered vessels have patent lumens, form robust ~1.5 mm capillary networks across the devices, and support the perfusion of 1 µm fluorescent beads through them. In addition, the alginate beads offer a modular method to encapsulate and co-culture cells that either promote angiogenesis or require perfusion for cell viability in engineered tissue constructs. This laboratory-constructed vascular supply may be clinically significant for the engineering of capillary beds and higher order biological tissues in a scalable and modular manner.

  10. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n = 82), enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012. PMID:27595023

  11. 盐碱胁迫对西兰花种子萌发的影响%Effect of Salt and Alkaline Stress on Seed Germination of Broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芬芬

    2012-01-01

    The germination and protection enzyme activities of Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L. embryo under the different concentration of NaCl and Na2CO3 stress were examined in this experiment. The results showed that the germination of broccoli was promoted under the low concentration of NaCl (≤20 mmol/L). Germination of broccoli was inhibited under the Na2CO3 stress when concentration of Na+ was the same. SOD and POD activities of embryo under the Na2CO3 stress were lower than the NaCl stress, and MDA content was higher than the NaCl stress. Comprehensive analysis showed that the threshold values of broccoli tolerance to NaCl and Na2CO3 were 445.5 mmol/L and 64.1 mmol/L.%本试验通过采用不同浓度的NaCl和Na2CO3胁迫萌发期的西兰花(Brassica oleracea L.var.botrytis L.)种子,调查了其发芽和胚保护酶活性等指标.研究结果表明,低浓度(≤20 mmol/L)的NaCl胁迫对西兰花各发芽指标有促进作用,在等Na+浓度胁迫下,各Na2CO3胁迫对各发芽指标均表现出抑制作用.Na2CO3胁迫处理胚的SOD和POD活性低于NaCl胁迫处理,MDA含量高于NaCl胁迫处理.综合分析表明,西兰花耐盐阈值和耐碱阈值分别为445.5 mmol/L和64.1 mmol/L.

  12. Standardized cultivation technique for exported pollution-free broccoli%出口西兰花无公害标准化栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少珍

    2012-01-01

    根据10多年的引种试验、无公害栽培试验和示范推广的结果,总结一套符合出口质量要求、高产优质高效的西兰花无公害标准化栽培技术。%According to the results of introduction,pollution-free cultivation,demonstration and popularization in local area for more than ten years,a standardized pollution-free cultivation technique for broccoli which meet the quality requirements for exportation,with high yield and benefit was summarized in this paper.

  13. Establishment and Optimization of Broccoli Regeneration System%西兰花再生体系的建立与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘煜; 王红波; 王传琦; 李晶

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Using axenic seedlings as explants, several factors influencing regeneration rate of broccoli were studied and a successful tissue regeneration system was established and optimized. Methods: Using tissue culture mesthod to induce the explant of broccoli yielding bud and root. Results: The study showed that the geno⁃type influenced regeneration rate greatly. The regeneration rate of Zhu-lv and Qing-xiu was above 91% while Ding⁃feng1 is 80.3%; differentiation ability of hypocotyls which had been cultured 6 days was the strongest. When the medium contained 3 mg/L 6-BA and 0.2 mg/L IAA, the differentiation rate of hypocotyls reached the highest lev⁃el and the degree of vitrification was the lowest. In the medium contains 0.2 mg/L IBA or 0.2 mg/L NAA, adventi⁃tious root could be successfully induced from the adventitious buds. Conclusion: Broccoli regeneration system has been successfully established, which laid the foundation for the establishment of broccoli genetic transformation sys⁃tem.%  目的:以西兰花无菌苗为材料,对影响西兰花再生的各种素进行研究,建立并优化西兰花的再生体系.方法:用组织培养法,对西兰花的外植体进行诱导生芽、生根.结果:不同品种的再生率差别较大,珠绿和青秀两个品种的再生率达91%以上,而鼎丰一号仅为80.3%;培养6 d 的下胚轴分化能力最强;当培养基中添加3 mg/L 6-BA 和0.2 mg/L IAA 时,下胚轴的分化率最高,玻璃化程度也降到最低;当培养基中添加0.2 mg/L IBA 或0.2 mg/L NAA时,可成功诱导不定芽生根.结论:建立并优化了西兰花再生体系,为西兰花遗传转化体系的建立奠定了基础.

  14. Research Progress of Broccoli in the Prevention and Treatment of Diseases%西兰花预防和治疗肿瘤研究的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪姣; 王佳蕊; 黄春琦; 徐殿琴; 张婷; 许健

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the morbidity of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and other diseases were increasing constantly. Meanwhile, people gradually realized that diet played an important role in the prevention or treatment of chronic disease by providing useful elements. Many papers have confirmed that glucosinolates, anthocyanin, vitamins and other beneficial ingredients in broccoli had the function of preventing cancer, diabetes and eye disease, and protecting cardio-vascular and antioxidation. This suggested that increasing our daily diet intake of broccoli could promote the health, prevent diseases. In this paper, we reviewed the medicinal value of broccoli and the influence of cooking and temperature on its useful elements, and illustrated different roles of different effective components of broccoli in the treatment of diseases.%近年来,肿瘤、心血管疾病及糖尿病等疾病的发病率不断上升,人们意识到可以在日常饮食中通过提供有益成分而起到预防或治疗疾病的作用。大量文献证实西兰花中所含有的芥子油苷、花青素、维生素等有益成分具有抗癌、预防糖尿病及眼部疾病、保护心血管抗氧化等作用,提示在日常饮食中增加西兰花的摄入可以促进身体健康,起到防病、治病和改善体质的功效。本文主要综述了西兰花的药用价值以及烹饪、温度等对其有效成分的影响,并总结了西兰花中不同的有效成分治疗疾病的作用。

  15. 打孔包装对西兰花品质的影响%Influence of Perforated Packaging on Broccoli Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 张蕾

    2012-01-01

    分别在2种厚度的PP薄膜(40,50μm)上以一定间距打不同数量的孔(φ280μm),制得了PP微孔薄膜。将PP微孔薄膜(40μm)制成了自立袋采包装西兰花。通过改变自立袋上微孔的位置,观测袋内气体和西兰花叶绿素含量的变化。结果表明:开孔位置影响袋内O2和CO2气体含量;打孔数量为2个,孔间隔2cm,开孔在西兰花花蕾处时,袋内花蕾处呈低O2和高CO2状态,所包西兰花的叶绿素含量最高,西兰花最新鲜;在环境温度一定的条件下,PP微孔自立袋的厚度、开孔位置、孔径和孔数是影响袋内气体含量的重要因素。%The PP micro-perforated films of 40μm and 50 μm thickness with different number of holes (diameter of 280 μm) in certain distance were prepared. Self-supporting bag was made using the micro-perforated PP film (40μm) for packing broccoli. Change of gas content and chlorophyll content of broccoli was observed by altering micro-perforation's position. The experiment results showed that micro perforation's position affect the content of O2 and CO2 ; when 2 holes separating by 2crn are punched in the broccoli bud, high O2 concentration and CO2 low concentration is produced, content of broccoli's chlorophyll is highest and broccoli is the freshest. The thickness of micro-perforated self-supporting bag, micro-perforation's position, perforation diameter and perforation number are important factors influencing gas content in the package when the environmental temperature is certain.

  16. 青花菜流通过程中营养品质变化的研究%Study on changes of nutritional quality in circulation of broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭李维; 王清; 杨娜; 高丽朴

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同流通温度和包装方式对青花菜外观品质与营养成分的影响。实验结果表明:青花菜在流通过程中随着组织的衰老,其叶绿素、VC、可溶性糖及可溶性蛋白质含量均呈下降趋势。青花菜在5℃中流通比在20℃中能更好地保持其营养成分。利用0.03mm厚的聚乙烯薄膜包装既可避免青花菜失水萎蔫,又可抑制黄化率。20℃无包装处理的青花菜最佳流通时间为1d,20℃PE处理的为2d,5℃无包装处理的为6d,5℃PE处理的为12d。%The effect of different temperature and packaging on the quality and nutrients of broccoli was studied.The results showed that the contents of chlorophyll,ascorbic acid,soluble sugars were decreased with senescence of broccoli in the circulation process.In addition,The broccoli were circulated at 5℃ that could better maintain the quality and nutrients than circulation at 20℃.Packaged with 0.03mm PE could not only prevent the loss of water,but also inhibit the rate of yellowing.Therefore,the broccoli PE packaging could keep a better appearance for 2 days,1 day longer than those directly exposed to the air at 20℃,while cold chain could show great advantage during transportation,the brocoli packed by PE film could store 12d at 5℃,and the unpackaged might keep better quality for 6 days as well.

  17. Transcriptome and Metabolome Analyses of Glucosinolates in Two Broccoli Cultivars Following Jasmonate Treatment for the Induction of Glucosinolate Defense to Trichoplusia ni (Hübner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Becker, Talon M; Juvik, John A

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopteran larvae growth is influenced by host plant glucosinolate (GS) concentrations, which are, in turn, influenced by the phytohormone jasmonate (JA). In order to elucidate insect resistance biomarkers to lepidopteran pests, transcriptome and metabolome analyses following JA treatments were conducted with two broccoli cultivars, Green Magic and VI-158, which have differentially induced indole GSs, neoglucobrassicin and glucobrassicin, respectively. To test these two inducible GSs on growth of cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), eight neonate cabbage looper larvae were placed onto each of three plants per JA treatments (0, 100, 200, 400 µM) three days after treatment. After five days of feeding, weight of larvae and their survival rate was found to decrease with increasing JA concentrations in both broccoli cultivars. JA-inducible GSs were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Neoglucobrassicin in Green Magic and glucobrassicin in VI-158 leaves were increased in a dose-dependent manner. One or both of these glucosinolates and/or their hydrolysis products showed significant inverse correlations with larval weight and survival (five days after treatment) while being positively correlated with the number of days to pupation. This implies that these two JA-inducible glucosinolates can influence the growth and survival of cabbage looper larvae. Transcriptome profiling supported the observed changes in glucosinolate and their hydrolysis product concentrations following JA treatments. Several genes related to GS metabolism differentiate the two broccoli cultivars in their pattern of transcriptional response to JA treatments. Indicative of the corresponding change in indole GS concentrations, transcripts of the transcription factor MYB122, core structure biosynthesis genes (CYP79B2, UGT74B1, SUR1, SOT16, SOT17, and SOT18), an indole glucosinolate side chain modification gene (IGMT1), and several glucosinolate hydrolysis genes (TGG1, TGG2, and ESM1) were

  18. Evaluation of real-time PCR coupled with immunomagnetic separation or centrifugation for the detection of healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella spp. on mung bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qianwang; Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yang, Yishan; Lee, Sang-Myun; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-04-01

    Fresh mung bean sprouts have been identified as a source of many Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and accurate detection methodology for low levels of healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella on mung bean sprouts using real-time PCR coupled with either immunomagnetic separation (PCR-IMS) or centrifugation (PCR-cen). Initially, three parameters of IMS; specificity/sensitivity, bacterial concentration and bead incubation time were optimized. Secondly, limit of detection (LOD) was determined for the optimized PCR-IMS and PCR-cen. These two methods were compared against PCR alone (PCR) and the standard culture method (ISO) for their ability to detect Salmonella using inoculated and uninoculated sprouts. Under optimum IMS conditions (10(5)CFU/ml for 30 min), capture efficiency of Salmonella in sprout suspensions was lower than 40%, most probably due to the non-specific binding of the background microbiota. PCR-IMS and PCR-cen had a similar LOD at 10(3)CFU/ml, which was one log unit lower than PCR. Enrichment of 10h was sufficient to detect 100% of the inoculated sprouts with both PCR-IMS and PCR-cen, which was significantly faster compared to PCR and the ISO method. Moreover, the validation study using uninoculated sprouts revealed that PCR-IMS and PCR-cen were equally effective on Salmonella detection, showing 98.3% accuracy. These results suggest that PCR-cen would be the effective and less costly method for the detection of both healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella on mung bean sprouts.

  19. Facile Determination of Forchlorfenuron in Bean Sprout via QuEChERs Sample Preparation Technique%QuEChERs前处理快速测定豆芽中氯吡脲残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛建霏; 雷绍荣; 郭灵安; 欧阳华学; 梁立

    2012-01-01

    建立了基于QuEChERS前处理的高效液相色谱法快速测定豆芽中氯吡脲残留的方法.样品经过PSA分散固相萃取净化,使用高效液相色谱紫外检测器进行测定.线性范围0.005~100.0 μg/mL,方法的定量限为0.01 mg/kg,检出限为0.003mg/kg,空白豆芽样品中氯吡脲的添加浓度在0.05 ~0.2 mg/kg范围内的回收率为80%~100%,日内和日间变异系数均小于10.该方法操作简便,所用试剂对环境污染小,分析成本低,适用于豆芽中氯吡脲的检测,并可推广用于一些其他水果及蔬菜中氯吡脲的测定.%A facile high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of forchlorfenuron residual in bean sprout based on QuEChERs (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe) sample preparation technique. After dispersive solid extraction purification using PSA, forchlorfenuron residual was quantified with HPLC-UV. The linearity of the analytical response across the studied range of concentrations ( 0.005 -100. Oμg/mL) was excellent. The limits of quantification and determination are 0.01 and 0.003 mg/ kg, respectively. The average recoveries were 80 % - 100 % , inter and intra CVs were lower than 10 % for blank bean sprout samples spiked with 0.05 - 0.2 mg/kg of forchlorfenuron. The method was facile, environment-friendly and at low cost, which was not only suitable for the determination of forchlorfenuron residual in bean sprout but also in many other fruits and vegetables.

  20. ADAM17 Promotes Motility, Invasion, and Sprouting of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mężyk-Kopeć

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels actively participate in tumor progression and dissemination. ADAM17, a sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules, is believed to promote tumor development, facilitating both tumor cell proliferation and migration, as well as tumor angiogenesis. In this work we addressed the issue of whether ADAM17 may also promote tumor lymphangiogenesis. First, we found that ADAM17 is important for the migratory potential of immortalized human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC. When ADAM17 was stably silenced in LEC, their proliferation was not affected, but: (i single-cell motility, (ii cell migration through a 3D Matrigel/collagen type I matrix, and (iii their ability to form sprouts in a 3D matrix were significantly diminished. The differences in the cell motility between ADAM17-proficient and ADAM17-silenced cells were eliminated by inhibitors of EGFR and HER2, indicating that ADAM17-mediated shedding of growth factors accounts for LEC migratory potential. Interestingly, ADAM17 depletion affected the integrin surface expression/functionality in LEC. ADAM17-silenced cells adhered to plastic, type I collagen, and fibronectin faster than their ADAM17-proficient counterparts. The difference in adhesion to fibronectin was abolished by a cyclic RGD peptide, emphasizing the involvement of integrins in the process. Using a soluble receptor array, we identified BIG-H3 among several candidate proteins involved in the phenotypic and behavioral changes of LEC upon ADAM17 silencing. In additional assays, we confirmed the increased expression of BIG-H3, as well as TGFβ2 in ADAM17-silenced LEC. The antilymphangiogenic effects of ADAM17 silencing in lymphatic endothelial cells suggest further relevance of ADAM17 as a potential target in cancer therapy.

  1. ADAM17 Promotes Motility, Invasion, and Sprouting of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mężyk-Kopeć, Renata; Wyroba, Barbara; Stalińska, Krystyna; Próchnicki, Tomasz; Wiatrowska, Karolina; Kilarski, Witold W; Swartz, Melody A; Bereta, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels actively participate in tumor progression and dissemination. ADAM17, a sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules, is believed to promote tumor development, facilitating both tumor cell proliferation and migration, as well as tumor angiogenesis. In this work we addressed the issue of whether ADAM17 may also promote tumor lymphangiogenesis. First, we found that ADAM17 is important for the migratory potential of immortalized human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). When ADAM17 was stably silenced in LEC, their proliferation was not affected, but: (i) single-cell motility, (ii) cell migration through a 3D Matrigel/collagen type I matrix, and (iii) their ability to form sprouts in a 3D matrix were significantly diminished. The differences in the cell motility between ADAM17-proficient and ADAM17-silenced cells were eliminated by inhibitors of EGFR and HER2, indicating that ADAM17-mediated shedding of growth factors accounts for LEC migratory potential. Interestingly, ADAM17 depletion affected the integrin surface expression/functionality in LEC. ADAM17-silenced cells adhered to plastic, type I collagen, and fibronectin faster than their ADAM17-proficient counterparts. The difference in adhesion to fibronectin was abolished by a cyclic RGD peptide, emphasizing the involvement of integrins in the process. Using a soluble receptor array, we identified BIG-H3 among several candidate proteins involved in the phenotypic and behavioral changes of LEC upon ADAM17 silencing. In additional assays, we confirmed the increased expression of BIG-H3, as well as TGFβ2 in ADAM17-silenced LEC. The antilymphangiogenic effects of ADAM17 silencing in lymphatic endothelial cells suggest further relevance of ADAM17 as a potential target in cancer therapy.

  2. Mercury content of sprouts and harvested roots from treated sweet potato mother roots. [Ipomoea batatas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisingh, D.; Nielsen, L.W.

    1972-01-01

    Mercury containing fungicides have been used extensively for seed and root disease control, but data on the fate of the mercury (Hg) are scarce. Experiments were designed to see if Hg applied to propagative sweet potato roots increased the Hg-content of edible roots. Roots were treated with Semesan Bel(hydroxymercurinitrophenol + hydroxymercurichlorophenol), Mertect (Thiabendazole: 2-(4-Thiazolyl)-benzimidazole), or Botran (2,6-Dichloro-4-nitroanaline) at recommended rates or with water. Treated roots were bedded into sandy loam soil, and the plants were harvested at 2 and 3 months after bedding. Some sprouts transplanted at 2 months were grown to maturity, and the harvested roots were analyzed. Hg analyses were performed by flameless atomic absorption. Roots treated prior to planting with Semesan Bel, Mertect, Botran, and water contained 23.0, 0.05, 0.03 and 0.03 ..mu..g/g dry wt, respectively. At the 2-month harvest, the leaves and stems of the Semesan Bel-treated plants contained 5 times more Hg than those of the other treatments. By the 3-month harvest, the amount of Hg in plant leaves and stems from Hg-treated roots was 2 to 3 times that of the others. Fall harvested fleshy roots contained 0.03, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.03 ..mu..g/g dry wt Hg for the Semesan Bel, Mertect, Botran, and water treatments, respectively. This demonstrates that the Hg applied to the mother root was translocated to the new plant, but little if any was translocated to the new fleshy roots.

  3. Laser synthesized super-hydrophobic conducting carbon with broccoli-type morphology as a counter-electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Rohan; Agarkar, Shruti; Debgupta, Joyashish; Shinde, Deodatta; Lefez, Benoit; Banerjee, Abhik; Jog, Jyoti; More, Mahendra; Hannoyer, Beatrice; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2012-10-01

    A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode.A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and equipment details, solar cell fabrication protocol, electrolyte spreading time measurement details, XPS spectra, electronic study, film adhesion test detailed analysis and field emission results. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32082g

  4. 花椰菜在不同贮藏温度下的品质变化及货架期预测%The Quality Changes of Broccoli Stored at Different Temperatures and Its Shelf Life Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晨; 刘宝林; 王欣; 董庆利; 孙雅琼

    2009-01-01

    Broccoli is nutritious and tasty.In this study,Broccoli was stored at 0℃,6℃,24℃ respectively.The sensory quality,water loss and ascorbic acid content were measured at various time intervals to study the effects of temperature on the quality of broccoli.It was found that the degradation of ascorbic acid content followed the first order reaction kinetics.The activation energy of ascorbic acid was determined.Taking 50% ascorbic acid loss as the threshold,a mathematic model for predicting the shelf life of broccoli was established.%花椰菜是一种清香爽脆、营养丰富的蔬菜,试验在0、6℃及室温24℃下贮藏花椰菜,从感官品质、失水率及V_C含量3方面研究温度对其品质的影响.确定了花椰菜中V_C含量下降遵循一级动力学反应,并据此计算出反应的表观活化能Ea进一步推算出以V_C含量下降50%为货架期终点时,花椰菜的货架期计算公式.

  5. 不同贮藏性青花菜花球的抗氧化特性%Antioxidative Properties of Broccoli Florets of Cultivars with Different Storability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进才; 赵习姮

    2011-01-01

    为研究青花菜(Brassica oleracea L.Var.italica)花球的抗氧化特性与贮藏性的关系,选取贮藏性不同的春季2个品种(“绿颜”和“城堡”)和秋季2个品种(“爱国者”和“高地”),将采后花球贮藏于20℃条件下,在贮藏开始时和4d后,测定了花球呼吸速率、衰老生理指标(叶绿素、蛋白质和丙二醛(MDA)含量)和抗氧化特性指标(活性氧超氧阴离子和过氧化氢含量,抗氧化酶超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)和抗坏血酸过氧化氢酶(APX)活性,抗氧化物质抗坏血酸(AsA)和β-胡萝卜素(β-Car)含量).“绿颜”和“爱国者”贮藏开始时,呼吸速率低,活性氧含量少,抗氧化酶活性低;贮藏4d后,叶绿素和蛋白质含量高,MDA含量少,SOD、CAT和POD活性上升幅度大,APX活性和AsA、β-Car含量下降幅度小.结果表明:“绿颜”比“城堡”、“爱国者”比“高地”衰老慢,耐贮藏;耐贮藏青花菜品种的花球具有采收时抗氧化酶活性低,贮藏期间SOD、CAT和POD活性上升幅度大,APX活性和抗氧化物质含量下降幅度小的抗氧化特性.%In this work, relationship between the storability of broccoli {Brassica oleracea L. Var. Italica) florets and their antioxidative properties was investigated. Broccoli florets of four cultivars from the spring "Green face" and "Castle" and autumn "Patriot" and "Heights" with different storage properties were harvested and stored at 20 ℃ until use. Respiratory rate of broccoli florets and senescence physiological indicators (chlorophyll, protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents) and antioxidative properties indicators (reactive oxygen species contents of super-oxide and hydrogen peroxide, antioxidative enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), anti-oxidative substances contents of ascorbic acid (AsA) and β-carotene (β-Car)) of broccoli flower buds

  6. Studies on the Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Lactobacillus-fermented Broccoli Beverage%西兰花乳酸菌饮料的制备及其抗氧化作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董青青; 胡海杰; 肖文佳; 安兴娟; 姬阿美; 杜稳; 张同存; 罗学刚

    2015-01-01

    Using broccoli as main material,green-protecting condition,formulations,stability,fermentative strain and fermentation process of broccoli lactobacillus beverage were researched in this paper. The optimized technology was ultimately set up as after broccoli was stripped and sliced,Using 50% broccoli juice,10% orange juice,5% flavedo,6% sucrose,0.2% citric acid,0.25% salt and 0.2% CMC-Na as materials fermenting with lactobacillus plantarum for 4 hours at 30℃in anaerobic box. Broccoli lactobacillus beverage made by this technology has an unique flavor and nice trait. Additionally,broccoli has antioxidant activity,allows people to avoid free radical damage,reduce the incidence of cancer. the efficiency of antioxidant and antiradical of the Pre-fermentation and fermented broccoli was determined by the DPPH.%以西兰花为主要原料,通过对西兰花乳酸菌发酵饮料的原料护色方法、配方、稳定性、发酵菌种及发酵过程进行分析,最终优化建立了西兰花乳酸菌发酵制备工艺为:西兰花汁50%,橙汁10%,橙皮5%,蔗糖6%,柠檬酸0.2%,盐0.25%,CMC-Na为0.2%作为发酵原料,按照3%量接种植物乳杆菌后,在厌氧培养箱中30℃发酵4h。以此工艺生产的西兰花乳酸菌发酵饮料具有独特的风味和良好的性状。另外,西兰花具有抗氧化性,可以使人们避免受到自由基的伤害,降低发病几率。利用DPPH法对发酵前后西兰花的抗氧化、清除自由基能力进行了测定。西兰花汁发酵前对DPPH的清除率为67.09%,发酵后对DPPH的清除率为82.85%,结果表明发酵后比发酵前西兰花抗氧化能力明显增强。

  7. LED复合光处理对西兰花低温保鲜效果的影响%Effect of LED Composite Light on Preservation of Broccoli during Cold Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 阎瑞香; 张娜

    2015-01-01

    In order to study on effect of different treat of LED composite light on preservation of broccoli ,fresh broccoli was used as the main materials .By measuring the indicators at 4 ℃ low temperature conditions , such as sensory quality ,vitamin C content ,chlorophyll content and broccoli ethylene production rate ,effect of LED compos-ite light on preservation for broccoli was determined .The results showed that treatment with LED composite of red and blue was better for the quality of broccoli compared with non-light treatment.The former could extend storage time by 10-15 d.Meanwhile,it could got a higher score of sensory evaluation ,prevented the rapid decline in im-portant nutrient substance vitamin C content of broccoli ,delayed the time of the evolution of ethylene and the ap-pearance of respiration peak , decreased the respiration variable peak , and reduced membrane lipid peroxidation damage of broccoli during storage .%为研究不同LED复合光处理对西兰花保鲜效果的影响。以新鲜西兰花为材料,通过测定4℃低温条件下,西兰花的感官品质、维生素C含量、叶绿素含量、乙烯生成速率等各项指标,研究LED红蓝、LED红绿复合光处理对西兰花保鲜效果的影响。结果表明,与无光处理方式相比, LED红蓝复合光处理效果显著,不仅延长了西兰花保鲜期10~15 d左右,而且较好地保持了西兰花原有的外观品质,阻止了西兰花贮藏期间重要营养物质Vc含量的快速流失,延缓了贮藏期间乙烯释放量峰值和呼吸跃变出现的时间,显著降低了呼吸跃变的峰值,减少了膜脂过氧化对西兰花造成的损伤。

  8. Transgenic inhibition of astroglial NF-kappa B leads to increased axonal sparing and sprouting following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Roberta; Hurtado, Andres; Persaud, Trikaldarshi; Esham, Kim; Pearse, Damien D; Oudega, Martin; Bethea, John R

    2009-07-01

    We previously showed that Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) inactivation in astrocytes leads to improved functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). This correlated with reduced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, and increased white matter preservation. Hence we hypothesized that inactivation of astrocytic NF-kappaB would create a more permissive environment for axonal sprouting and regeneration. We induced both contusive and complete transection SCI in GFAP-Inhibitor of kappaB-dominant negative (GFAP-IkappaBalpha-dn) and wild-type (WT) mice and performed retrograde [fluorogold (FG)] and anterograde [biotinylated dextran amine (BDA)] tracing 8 weeks after injury. Following contusive SCI, more FG-labeled cells were found in motor cortex, reticular formation, and raphe nuclei of transgenic mice. Spared and sprouting BDA-positive corticospinal axons were found caudal to the lesion in GFAP-IkappaBalpha-dn mice. Higher numbers of FG-labeled neurons were detected immediately rostral to the lesion in GFAP-IkappaBalpha-dn mice, accompanied by increased expression of synaptic and axonal growth-associated molecules. After transection, however, no FG-labeled neurons or BDA-filled axons were found rostral and caudal to the lesion, respectively, in either genotype. These data demonstrated that inhibiting astroglial NF-kappaB resulted in a growth-supporting terrain promoting sparing and sprouting, rather than regeneration, of supraspinal and propriospinal circuitries essential for locomotion, hence contributing to the improved functional recovery observed after SCI in GFAP-IkappaBalpha-dn mice.

  9. Evaluation on the Apparent Metabolic Energy and Apparent Heal Amino Acid Digestibility of Broccoli LPC and Broccoli Residues for Broilers%西兰花叶蛋白和茎叶粉对肉仔鸡代谢能和回肠氨基酸表观消化率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂芹; 梁丽萍; 李建涛; 刘国华; 张姝; 郑爱娟

    2011-01-01

    通过2个试验测定了西兰花叶蛋白和茎叶粉在肉仔鸡中的氮校正表观代谢能和回肠氨基酸的表观消化率,为合理利用西兰花资源提供科学依据和数据参考.试验1选用体重相近的22日龄健康肉仔鸡144只,随机分成3个组,每组8个重复,公母各50%.其中1组饲喂基础日粮,另2组分别饲喂试验日粮(西兰花叶蛋白30%替代基础日粮,西兰花茎叶粉35%替代基础日粮).选用TiO2为外源指示剂进行代谢试验;试验2选用体重相近的26日龄健康肉仔鸡96只,随机分为2组,每组8个重复,公母各50%.选用TiO2为外源指示剂,采用回肠末端法进行代谢试验.结果表明:西兰花叶蛋白和茎叶粉在肉仔鸡中的表观代谢能分别为8.86MJ·kg-1和2.48 MJ·kg-1,氮校正表观代谢能分别为8.14 MJ·kg-1和1.86 MJ·kg-1;西兰花叶蛋白和茎叶粉在肉仔鸡中4种限制性氨基酸的回肠末端表观消化率分别为赖氨酸(48.11±4.28)%和(73.00±6.64)%,蛋氨酸(39.51±4.60)%和(79.18±3.91)%,苏氨酸(33.11±4.66)%和(59.38±6.25)%,胱氨酸(33.47±2.94)%和(65.82±4.46)%;存肉仔鸡中17种氨基酸的回肠末端表观消化率的平均值为(39.57±4.45)%和(71.75±4.85)%.可见,西兰花茎叶粉在肉仔鸡中的表观代谢能较低,西兰花叶蛋白在肉仔鸡中回肠末端氨基酸的消化率较低.%To assess the apparent metabolic energy and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of broccoli leaf protein concentrate (LPC) and broccoli residues for broilers, two experiments were carried out. In experiment one,one hundred and forty-four 22-day-old broilers were allocated randomly into three treatments,each of them contained eight repetitions, male and female half and haft. Titanium dioxide was used as the exogenous indicator to carry out the metabolic test, One group was fed basic diet, other two groups were fed test diets in which the basic diet was replaced by 30% broccoli LPC and 35% broccoli residues respectively. In

  10. SpRoUTS (Space Robot Universal Truss System): Reversible Robotic Assembly of Deployable Truss Structures of Reconfigurable Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel; Cheung, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Automatic deployment of structures has been a focus of much academic and industrial work on infrastructure applications and robotics in general. This paper presents a robotic truss assembler designed for space applications - the Space Robot Universal Truss System (SpRoUTS) - that reversibly assembles a truss from a feedstock of hinged andflat-packed components, by folding the sides of each component up and locking onto the assembled structure. We describe the design and implementation of the robot and show that the assembled truss compares favorably with prior truss deployment systems.

  11. 外源硝普钠处理对青花菜贮藏过程中品质的影响%The Effect of Exogenous Sodium Nitroprusside Treatment on Broccoli Quality during the Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史君彦; 王清; 高丽朴; 杨娜

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to provide certain theoretical basis for the protection of broccoli. [ Method] Exogenous sodium nitroprusside was used to in the experiment. Under the condition of 20 ℃ and RH 95% , the optimal SNP concentration of broccoli was determined. [ Result ] The exogenous SNP could effectively maintain the quality of broccoli, inhabited the yellowing of broccoli and the increasing of cell membrane permeability, and maintain the soluble solids content, decreased the degradation rate of chlorophyll and delayed the loss of Vc. [ Conclusion] Exogenous sodium nitroprusside can effectively maintain the quality of broccoli to keep it fresh.%[目的]为常温下青花菜的科学保鲜提供理论依据.[方法]试验采用外源硝普钠(SNP)作为NO供体处理青花菜,并在常温(20℃)、RH95%条件下贮藏观察,确定最优SNP浓度下的青花菜相应品质指标.[结果]200μmol/L外源SNP处理可有效地延缓青花菜的黄化,抑制细胞膜透性的增加,维持了其可溶性固形物含量,降低了叶绿素的降解速率,延缓了Vc的流失,有效保持了青花菜的品质.[结论]适宜浓度的外源硝普钠处理能够有效保持青花菜的品质,有较好的保鲜效果.

  12. 冰温结合气调保鲜膜对西兰花保鲜效果的影响%The fresh-keeping effect of ice-temperature combined with plastic film on broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 关文强; 张怡

    2012-01-01

    研究冰温条件下不同厚度保鲜膜包装的西兰花品质变化情况,为西兰花的长期保鲜提供依据。结果表明,冰温库的温度控制性能良好,在(-0.1±0.2)℃之间波动;保鲜膜结合冰温贮藏对西兰花具有保鲜效果,保鲜膜越厚,保鲜效果越明显,能够有效延长西兰花贮藏时间,可达110d,比普通冷库有效延长贮藏期30d,同时能够防止西兰花霉烂,保持Vc和可溶性固形物含量,抑制色素降解。%Under the condition of ice-temperature, the quality of broccoli packaged by different thickness of plastic film was test, which would provide the basis for long-term preservation of broccoli. The results showed that the ice-temperature storage had a stable temperature at -0.1 ℃ and the fluctuations is 0.2℃ . The ice-temperature storage combined with plastic-film package played a significant role in preservation of broccoli, the plastic film is thicker, the effect of preservation is more obvious, which can effectively extend the storage time of broccoli, up to 110 d, that is 30 d longer than the normal cold storage, meanwhile prevented broccoli to rot, maintained the Vc and soluble solids content, inhibited anthocyanin degraded.

  13. Effects of Different Pollination Periods on Seed Yield of Broccoli Self-incompatible Lines%不同授粉时期对青花菜自交不亲和系种子产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李易蓉; 木万福; 袁建民; 但忠; 苏银玲; 杨龙

    2013-01-01

    为了提高青花菜自交不亲和系种子产量,研究了授粉时期对不同熟性青花菜自交不亲和系结荚率、平均单荚籽粒数、种子千粒质量和种子产量的影响。研究结果表明,不同授粉时期对青花菜自交不亲和系种子生产有显著差异,早熟青花菜自交不亲和系在末花期授粉的结荚率、单荚籽粒数、种子千粒质量、种子产量最高,而中熟、晚熟青花菜自交不亲和系在盛花期授粉结荚率、单荚籽粒数、种子千粒质量、种子产量最高。%In order to increase the seed yield of self-incompatible lines of broccoli, we studied the effects of different pollination periods on podding rate, grain number of a single pod, thousand seed weight and seed yield of the self -incompatible lines of broccoli in this paper. The results showed that, different pollination periods affected the seed production of the self-incompatible lines of broccoli significantly. The late flowering period was the best pollination period for early-maturing broccoli cultivar, while the full-bloom period was best for mid-maturing and late-maturing cultivars, by doing so, we could obtain the highest podding rate, grain number of a single pod, thousand seed weight and seed yield of the three different kinds of broccoli cultivars.

  14. The use of biodegradable mulch for tomato and broccoli production: Crop yield and quality, mulch deterioration, and growers' perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jeremy Scott

    Biodegradable mulch may offer the benefits of polyethylene mulch for crop production with the added benefit of biodegradability. Four studies were carried out in Mount Vernon, WA to evaluate biodegradable mulch for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) production. The first study compared four biodegradable mulch treatments: BioAgri, BioTelo, WeedGuardPlus (cellulose product), and SB-PLA-10/11/12 (experimental, non-woven fabric), to polyethylene mulch and bare ground in high tunnels and in the open field for tomato yield and fruit quality over three growing seasons. Biodegradable plastic films produced yields and fruit quality comparable to polyethylene. Moreover, high tunnels increased total and marketable fruit weight five and eight times, respectively, compared to the open field. The second study quantified relationships among visual assessment parameters and mulch mechanical properties. Visual assessments and mechanical property tests of polyethylene, BioAgri, BioTelo, WeedGuardPlus, and SB-PLA-10/11/12, were made over three growing seasons. Regression analyses found the strongest relationship overall (r2 = 0.41) to be between the percent of initial breaking force in the machine direction and log 10 of percent visual deterioration. However, evaluating mulch products individually and increasing sample frequency are recommended for future research. The third study evaluated three biodegradable mulch products, BioAgri, Crown 1, and SB-PLA-11, after soil-incorporation. The average area of recovered mulch fragments decreased for all mulch products over time. The number of mulch fragments initially increased for all mulch products, with the greatest number of Crown 1 and BioAgri fragments recovered 132 and 299 days after incorporation, respectively. At 397 days after soil-incorporation, the total area of recovered fragments of Crown 1 and BioAgri was 0% and 34% of the theoretical maximum area, respectively. The fourth study

  15. Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment and the Phenylpropanoid Pathway Precursors Feeding Improve Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Quinoa Sprouts via an Induction of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyases Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Świeca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide treatment and the phenylpropanoid pathway precursors feeding affected the antioxidant capacity of quinoa sprouts. Compared to the control, total phenolics content was significantly increased by treatment of control sprouts with 50 mM and 200 mM H2O2—an elevation of about 24% and 28%, respectively. The highest increase of flavonoids content was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with shikimic acid. All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts (at least by 50% compared to control. The highest reducing power was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained by phenylalanine feeding (5.03 mg TE/g DW and those obtained from the seeds fed with tyrosine (5.26 mg TE/g DW. The activities of L-tyrosine (TAL and L-phenylalanine (PAL ammonia-lyases were strongly affected by germination time as well as the applied modification of sprouting. On the 3rd day the highest PAL activity was determined for both untreated and induced with 50 mM H2O2 sprouts obtained by phenylalanine feeding. H2O2 induced TAL activity; the highest TAL activity was determined for 3-day-old sprouts induced with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with phenylalanine.

  16. The Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Fermentation on Antioxidant Properties of Selected in Vitro Sprout Culture of Orthosiphon aristatus (Java Tea as a Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dase Hunaefi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High rosmarinic acid (RA productivity has been achieved by applying jasmonic acid and yeast extract elicitors to the in vitro sprout culture of Orthosiphon aritatus (IOSC. The highest RA accumulation from three solvents was detected in IOSC after treatment with yeast extract (5 g/L. HPLC analysis clearly confirmed a drastic increase in RA subjected to yeast extract elicitation. Therefore, this yeast extract elicited IOSC was chosen for a lactic acid bacteria (LAB fermentation study as a model system. This selected IOSC was subjected to different types of LAB fermentations (Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM for different periods of time 24, 48 and 72 h. The LAB fermentations consisted of solid state fermentations (SSF and liquid state fermentations (LSF in a Digital Control Unit (DCU fermenter system. The aim was to determine the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant properties of the plant extract. Results indicated that all types of LAB fermentation decreased the level of RA and total phenolics, however, a slight increase in total flavonoids and flavonols was observed in SSF samples. HPLC results confirmed that the longer the fermentation, the greater the reduction in RA content. The highest reduction was obtained in the sample of LSF inoculated with L. plantarum for a period of 72 h. The temperature of fermentation (37 °C was predicted as contributing to the declining level in RA content. The loss in RA was concomitant with a loss of total antioxidant activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC, and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD-like activity. These results indicate that RA is the major contributor to the antioxidant activity of this plant.

  17. Quantitative anatomical and behavioral analyses of regeneration and collateral sprouting following spinal cord transection in the nurse shark (ginglymostoma cirratum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderd, J B

    1979-01-01

    The spinal cord was transected at the mid-thoracic level in 32 nurse sharks. Four animals per group were sacrificed at intervals of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 90 days postoperative. Two groups of fish underwent a subsequent spinla1 cord retransection at the same site at 90 days and were sacrificed 10 and 20 days later. Three sections of spinal cord were removed from each shark for histological analysis. Behaviorally, timed trials for swimming speed and a strength test for axial musculature contraction caudal to the lesion site were performed at 5 day postoperative intervals. Histological analysis showed little regeneration (9-13 percent) of two descending tracts 90 days following the lesion and no return of rostrally controlled movements caudal to the lesion. However, synaptic readjustment did occur caudal to the lesion. This phenomenon was attributed to local segmental sprouting of adjacent, intact nerve fibers. A close correlation was shown between this synaptic readjustment and the strength of uncontrollable undulatory movements seen caudal to the lesion site following spinal cord transection. The relationship of regeneration and collateral sprouting to quantitative behavioral changes is discussed. PMID:543459

  18. Crucial role of TRPC1 and TRPC4 in cystitis-induced neuronal sprouting and bladder overactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Boudes

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: During cystitis, increased innervation of the bladder by sensory nerves may contribute to bladder overactivity and pain. The mechanisms whereby cystitis leads to hyperinnervation of the bladder are, however, poorly understood. Since TRP channels have been implicated in the guidance of growth cones and survival of neurons, we investigated their involvement in the increases in bladder innervation and bladder activity in rodent models of cystitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To induce bladder hyperactivity, we chronically injected cyclophosphamide in rats and mice. All experiments were performed a week later. We used quantitative transcriptional analysis and immunohistochemistry to determine TRP channel expression on retrolabelled bladder sensory neurons. To assess bladder function and referred hyperalgesia, urodynamic analysis, detrusor strip contractility and Von Frey filament experiments were done in wild type and knock-out mice. RESULTS: Repeated cyclophosphamide injections induce a specific increase in the expression of TRPC1 and TRPC4 in bladder-innervating sensory neurons and the sprouting of sensory fibers in the bladder mucosa. Interestingly, cyclophosphamide-treated Trpc1/c4(-/- mice no longer exhibited increased bladder innervations, and, concomitantly, the development of bladder overactivity was diminished in these mice. We did not observe a difference neither in bladder contraction features of double knock-out animals nor in cyclophosphamide-induced referred pain behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data suggest that TRPC1 and TRPC4 are involved in the sprouting of sensory neurons following bladder cystitis, which leads to overactive bladder disease.

  19. Sympathetic nerve fibers sprout into rat odontoblast layer, but not into dentinal tubules, in response to cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeno, Yoichi; Sugawara, Yumiko; Iikubo, Masahiro; Shoji, Noriaki; Sasano, Takashi

    2008-04-11

    This study was designed to determine if sympathetic nerve fibers exist in dentinal tubules in rat normal dental pulp, and if they sprout into the dentinal tubules in response to artificial cavity preparation in dentin. Sympathetic nerve fibers in rat molar dental pulp were labeled using an anterograde axonal transport technique involving injection of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) into the superior cervical ganglion (SCG). They were then observed using light and electron microscopes. In normal dental pulp (control), scattered WGA-HRP reaction products were observed in unmyelinated nerve endings in the odontoblast layer and subodontoblastic region. In injured pulp 3 weeks after cavity preparation, reaction products were about 1.8-times more plentiful in the above areas (versus control pulp). However, no labeled nerve fibers were observed in the dentinal tubules in either control or injured dental pulp. These results indicate that although sympathetic nerve fibers do indeed sprout in rat dental pulp in response to cavity preparation, they do not penetrate into the dentinal tubules in which postganglionic nerve endings derived from the SCG were not originally present.

  20. The effect of soil mulching with organic mulches, on weed infestation in broccoli and tomato cultivated under polypropylene fibre, and without a cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosterna Edyta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was done on the effect of different types of organic mulches that were applied in form of straw to the soil mulching process, on the weed infestation, number, and fresh mass of weeds in broccoli cv. Milady F1 (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck and tomato cv. Polfast F1 (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. grown under polypropylene fibre as a covering, or grown without a covering. The different types of organic straw mulches were: rye (Secale cereale L., corn (Zea mays L., rape (Brassica napus L. subsp. napus, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.. All the organic mulches were applied at a dose of 10 t/ha. The effect of the mulches was compared to a control plot which had no mulch. The type of organic mulch applied to the soil mulching process influenced species composition, number, and fresh mass of weeds. This effect could be the result of the properties of the mulch (colour, structure, etc. or the allelopathic effect on the germination and growth of individual weeds species. Irrespective of the investigated factors, 24 and 25 weeds species, respectively, were observed immediately after cover removal and before broccoli and tomato harvest. In the first date of estimation Chenopodium album L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv., Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve, Stellaria media (L. Vill., and Viola tricolor L. dominated, however, before the vegetables were harvested Ch. album, V. tricolor, Veronica arvensis L., and E. crus-galli dominated. An application of polypropylene fibre contributed to an increase in the number and fresh mass of weeds in both vegetables in the first date of estimation (after cover removal. During this period, vegetables cannot compete with weeds. It is important to note, though, that before the vegetables were harvested, a decrease was found in the number and fresh mass of weeds in the covered plots. The most efficient weed limiter, both after cover removal and also before the broccoli and

  1. Effect of Zn on seed germination of broccoli%锌对青花菜种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲丽; 颉建明; 张帆; 郁继华

    2014-01-01

    以不同Zn2+浓度(0、0.05、0.5、5、10、50、100、200 mg/L)的ZnSO4溶液处理青花菜种子,研究锌对青花菜种子萌发的影响.结果表明:青花菜种子的发芽指标随着Zn2+浓度的增加均表现出先升高后降低的变化趋势;相对发芽率、相对发芽势、发芽指数均在 Zn2+浓度为100 mg/L 时达到最大;活力指数、胚根长、胚芽长和生物量在10 mg/L时达到最大;当Zn2+浓度大于100 mg/L时,对青花菜种子萌发和生长起到抑制作用.%The seeds of broccoli were treated by zinc sulfate solution of different Zn2+ concentrations(0, 0.05,0.5,5,10,50,100,200 mg/L),thus the effect of Zn on seed germination of broccoli was studied.The results showed that all the values of germination indexes firstly increased and then decreased with the in-creasing of Zn2+ concentration.The relative germination rate,relative germination potential and germina-tion index reached to their maximum values when the concentration of Zn2+ was 100 mg/L,while the seed vigor index,radicle root length,bud root length and biomass were all reached to their maximum values when the concentration of Zn2+ was 10 mg/L.When the concentration of Zn2+ was higher than 100 mg/L, it inhibited the germination and growth of broccoli seeds.

  2. Broccoli production depending on the seed production system and organic and mineral fertilizer Produção de brócolos em função do sistema de produção da semente e do tipo de substrato

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos Lopes; Janaína Mauri; Adésio Ferreira; Rodrigo S Alexandre; Allan R de Freitas

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, in Alegre, Espirito Santo state, Brazil, to evaluate the broccoli production depending on the seed production system and organic and mineral fertilization. Seeds of the broccoli cultivar Ramoso Piracicaba were originated from lots of seed obtained in an organic and conventional production system. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four replications in a factorial arrangement combina...

  3. 硒浸种对绿豆芽用特性及营养品质的影响%Effects of Soaking with Selenium on the Sprout Traits and Nutritional Quality of Mung Bean Sprout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华华; 李航宇; 秦少伟; 康玉凡

    2015-01-01

    模拟工厂化生产豆芽条件,以不同浓度亚硒酸钠溶液浸泡绿豆12 h,研究硒对豆芽芽用特性、营养品质及1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼自由基(DPPH)清除率的影响。结果显示:低浓度硒(10μmol/L)可以提高绿豆芽产量和产出比,并增加根长、下胚轴长、总长和VC含量;随硒浓度升高,产量性状、根长、下胚轴长、总长、VC含量不断降低,但下胚轴粗、可溶性糖含量、可溶性蛋白含量逐渐升高;总酚含量随浓度的升高呈先降低后升高的趋势;DPPH自由基清除率则随着硒浓度升高呈现先升高后降低的变化趋势,但处理的清除率均高于对照。试验表明10μmol/L亚硒酸钠溶液浸泡绿豆12 h适于生产富硒绿豆芽。%In this study, mung bean seeds were soaked in varied concentrations of Selenium (Se) for 12 hours and then germinated in growth chamber to stimulate the production of mung bean sprouts in factory. The effects of Se on mung bean sprout traits, nutritional qualities and antioxidant capacities were investigated. The results showed that low concentration (10 μmol/L) treatment can increase the biomass, output ratio, root length, hypocotyl length, total length and vitamin C content. Biomass, output ratio, root length, hypocotyl length, total length and vitamin C content were suppressed, while hypocotyl diameter, soluble sugar and soluble protein contents increased when treated with high concentrations of Se. Total phenolic content decreased at low concentrations and increased at high concentrations. DPPH free-radical-scavenging capacities of Se treatments were higher than that of control and peaked at 50μmol/L. In conclusion, 10μmol/L was better for production of Se-enriched mung bean sprouts according to this study.

  4. Green pests and diseases-controlling techniques and efficacy of broccoli%花椰菜病虫害绿色防控技术及其效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明真

    2012-01-01

    福建省云霄县佳州村“佳田农民专业合作社”蔬菜生产基地推广实施花椰菜病虫害绿色防控技术,取得显著成效。该文介绍了绿色防控技术的示范效果及主要措施。%Green pests and diseases-controlling techniques of broccoli were popularized and applied to vegetable production bases of Jia tian farmers' professional co-operatives in Jia zhou village, Yunxiao county, Fujian province. This demonstration obtained significant effect. This paper introduced the demonstration effect and main measures of green controlling techniques.

  5. 青花菜新品种瑞青8号的选育%Breeding of Broccoli New Variety Ruiqing No.8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦文斌; 戴忠良; 吴国平; 王建华; 张振超; 潘跃平

    2013-01-01

    瑞青8号是以青花菜细胞质雄性不育材料CMS034为不育源,与优良稳定的青花菜自交系0512经过多代回交转育,育成的不育性稳定、经济性状良好的青花菜细胞质雄性不育系CMS0512,再以雄性不育系CMS0512为母本,优良的青花菜自交系038为父本配制的杂交一代品种.瑞青8号株高60 em左右,株幅65 cm左右,叶色绿,叶面光滑;花球半球形,横径17.5 cm左右,纵径14 cm左右;花球紧密,蕾粒细小,色浓绿,花茎细,不中空,单花球重0.55 kg左右,产量达1400 kg/667 m2左右.属中早熟,定植后72 d左右采收,腋芽2~4个,在主花球采收后,侧花球可连续采收1~2次,植株生长势强、整齐度高、抗逆性强,抗霜霉病、黑腐病.%Cauliflower male sterile line CMS034 used as sterile source was crossed and backcrossed by broccoli inbred line 0512 with excellent stability for several successive generations, and broccoli oytoplasmic male sterile line CMS0512 with stable sterility and good economic traits was bred. Then, CMS0512 (female parent) was hybridized by good broccoli inbred line 038 (male parent) , finally the broccoli hybrid Ruiqing No. 8 was bred. The plant height of Ruiqing No. 8 is about 60 cm, and its plant breadth is about 65 cm with green and glossy leaves. The ball - flower is semi - circular and close with the horizontal diameter of a-bout 17.5 cm and vertical diameter of about 14 cm, and it has small bud granulocyte, dark green color, and fine flower stems without hollow. Its single ball - flower is about 0. 55 kg in weight, and its yield is about 1400 kg/667 m2. Ruiqing No. 8 belongs to middle - early maturing variety, and it can be harvested about 72 d after transplanting. This variety has 2-4 axillary buds. After the harvest of main ball - flower, the lateral ball - flowers can be picked continuously for 1 ~ 2 times. Ruiqing No. 8 has strong growth potential, high uniformity, strong adversity resistance, and resistance to downy mildew and

  6. 青花菜主要农艺性状的相关分析%Correlation Analysis of Main Agronomic Characters of Broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆信娟; 杨峰; 樊继德

    2011-01-01

    The 21 agronomic characters of 29 cultivars of broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. italica Planch. ) were evaluated, and the correlations among these agronomic characters were analyzed. The correlation analysis indicated that there were significant correlations (P < 0. 05 ) between 23 pairs of characters and very significant correlations (P < 0. 01 ) between 14 pairs of characters.%对29个青花菜品种的21个农艺性状进行了评价和相关分析.相关分析结果表明: 23对性状之间相关性达到显著水平,14对性状之间相关性达到极显著水平.

  7. 中早熟花椰菜品种对比试验初报%Comparison Test of Early Maturing Broccoli Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国坤; 叶明鑫; 黄永修; 李文北

    2015-01-01

    In this test, Fengtianquansong 65d, Changsheng 65d and other 8 new cauliflower varieties were introduced, with Qingnong 65d as comparison. The results showed that there was strong disease resistance, good quality, and high yield in Changsheng 65d. Therefore, Changsheng 65d could be considered as early maturing broccoli variety and extended at Xiamen area.%本实验引进了丰田全松65d、长胜65d等8个青梗花椰菜新品种,以庆农65d作为对照进行比较试验。结果发现,长胜65d品种抗病性强、品质好、产量高、市场畅销,可作为厦门秋季花椰菜中早熟品种进行推广种植。

  8. Vigor de sementes de brócolos submetidas a coberturas biodegradáveis e micronutrientes Vigor of broccoli seeds submitted to biodegradable coatings and micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana A. Batista

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento e a aplicação de filmes ou coberturas biodegradáveis na horticultura são técnicas praticadas há vários anos, que visam promover melhoria na qualidade do produto. no presente trabalho desenvolveu-se e caracterizou-se biofilmes de pectina, gelatina e ácidos graxos e verificou-se sua eficiência como cobertura para sementes de brócolos (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica. Os filmes foram caracterizados quanto à solubilidade em água. A contagem e a observação de plantas de brócolos, a partir da germinação de sementes cobertas e não cobertas foi realizada em média a cada três dias, aos 27 dias fêz-se a quantificação da matéria fresca e seca. Os filmes de pectina e ácido esteárico foram 100% solúveis em água, enquanto os elaborados com pectina e gelatina (1/1 foram apenas 18%. A aplicação das coberturas filmogênicas nas sementes de brócolos não afetou a emergência das plantas, demonstrando assim sua potencialidade para uso comercial. Os fertilizantes molibdato de sódio (0,2 mg L-1 e ácido bórico (1mg L-1, aplicados juntamente com os biofilmes, também não afetaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento das plantas.The development and application of biodegradable coatings and films have been used for many years in order to improve quality of the coated or packed product. The development and characterization of pectin and pectin/gelatin-based biofilms with fatty acids was evaluated and verified their efficiency as coatings to broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica. The solubility in water of the films was determined. The counting and visual observations of the germinated broccoli seeds were done each three days and fresh and dried weight of the plants were determined at the end of the experiment. Pectin-based films with stearic acid were 100% soluble in water and composite films of pectin and gelatin were 18%. The application of the biodegradable coatings on broccoli seeds had no effect on the

  9. Effects of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai over Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin in broccoli, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Mérida State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Labrador Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Trichoderma harzianum in suppressing clubroot of brassicas, which is caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was tested on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck, in field conditions, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Merida State, Venezuela. The experiment showed that the applications of a biopesticide based on this antagonist had a significant effect on the percentage of health plants and the crop yields, in dependence of the dose used. In addition, the relation benefits/cost was also favorable. These results showed that, for these particular conditions, P. brassicae is an adequate biological alternative to control the clubroot of brassicas, no aggressive to environment and human beings, useful for the transition phase toward a sustainable agriculture, without chemical pesticides.

  10. 青花菜新品种湘绿2号、湘绿3号光合特性比较%Comparison of Photosynthetic Characteristics between New Broccoli Cultivars Xianglv No.2 and Xianglv No.3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚丹燕; 吴秋云; 龚意辉; 黄科

    2013-01-01

    The new broccoli cultivars,Xianglv No.2 and Xianglv No.3,were taken as materials and broccoli cultivar Shenglv was taken as control to compare the photosynthetic characteristics among the three broccoli cultivars.The results indicated that the leaf photosynthetic rate showed a positive correlation with yield of broccoli,namely the yield of broccoli was high when leaf photosynthetic rate was high without midday depression.The Xianglv No.3 had the highest activity of nitrate reductase,relatively high photosynthetic efficiency and yield,but its fertilizer tolerance was weak.The Xianglv No.2 had the lowest activity of nitrate reductase,the highest photosynthetic efficiency and yield,its fertilizer tolerance was also strong.The assimilation ability of broccoli to nitrate nitrogen was strong in Xianglv No.3 and weak in Xianglv No.2.The Xianglv No.2 could be extended because its yield is the highest,and it is a crop with high photosynthetic efficiency.%以青花菜新品种湘绿2号、湘绿3号为材料,以青花菜圣绿品种为对照,比较了3种青花菜品种的光合特性.结果表明:青花菜叶片的光合速率与产量呈正相关,叶片光合速率高,其产量也高,且没有午休现象.湘绿3号硝酸还原酶活性最高,光合效率也比较高,产量较高,耐肥性弱;湘绿2号硝酸还原酶活性最低,光合效率最高,产量也最高,耐肥性强.湘绿3号对硝态氮的吸收同化能力强,湘绿2号对硝态氮的吸收同化能力弱.湘绿2号产量最高,是高光效的作物,可以推广种植.

  11. 基于颜色参数变化的青花菜叶绿素含量预测模型%A Prediction Model for Chlorophyll Content in Post-harvest Broccoli Based on Color Parameter Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许凤; 杨震峰; 裴娇艳; 郑永华

    2011-01-01

    为研究青花菜贮藏期间叶绿素含量和颜色变化的关系,通过不同温度贮藏实验建立基于颜色参数-a/b值的叶绿素含量预测模型。将青花菜贮藏在273、278、283、293、303K条件下,测定花蕾-a/b值和叶绿素含量的变化。基于Arrhenius动力学方程分别建立青花菜-a/b值、叶绿素含量与贮藏时间和温度之间的动力学模型,再根据-a/b值与叶绿素含量变化的线性关系,进一步建立基于-a/b值的叶绿素含量预测模型。在275、280、285、295、305K贮藏温度条件下对基于-a/b值的叶绿素含量预测模型进行验证,%In order to explore the relationship between chlorophyll content and color change of post-harvest broccoli during storage,a prediction model for chlorophyll content was established based on color parameter changes.Freshly harvested broccoli was stored at different temperatures(273,278,283,293 K and 303 K),and the color parameter-a/b value and chlorophyll content of broccoli were determined.Kinetic models of-a/b value and chlorophyll content with respect to storage time and temperature were established on the basis of Arrhenius equation.In addition,a prediction model for chlorophyll content based on-a/b value was further developed according to the linear relationship between chlorophyll content and-a/b value.Moreover,the prediction model for chlorophyll content based on-a/b value was validated using broccoli stored at 275,280,285,295 K and 305 K with a relative prediction error of 4.31%.The chlorophyll content of broccoli can be accurately predicted at the storage temperature from 273 K to 305 K using this prediction model.Therefore,the prediction model is acceptable for applying the color parameter-a/b to evaluate broccoli quality.

  12. Comparison of New Broccoli Cultivars in Jiangsu Area%江苏地区青花菜新品种比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立晓; 曾爱松; 高兵; 严继勇

    2014-01-01

    2011-2012年,在江苏南京以圣绿为对照,对江苏省近年来育成的6个青花菜品种进行比较试验。试验结果表明,苏绿3号、苏绿2号、瑞绿5号和瑞绿6号4个品种单花球质量大,产量高,商品花球合格率较高,抗病性强,营养品质较佳,综合性状较好,可作为保鲜出口或中球内销预选品种在江苏省推广种植,为江苏省选择高产、优质、商品性佳的青花菜新品种提供了基础依据。%We took Shenglv as control cultivar, and carried out the comparative test of six broccoli cultivars from 2011 to 2012. The results showed that the four cultivars Sulv No.3, Sulv No.2, Ruilv No.5 and Ruilv No.6 had outstanding comprehensive characters, and their single flower head weight, yield, commercial qualification rate, resistance to diseases and nutrition quality were better than those of control and the other cultivars, so they were suitable for extension of cultivation in Jiangsu area for fresh-keeping export and domestic sales. Furthermore, this comparative test provided basic references for screening of new broccoli cultivars with high yield, excellent quality and good commercial characters.

  13. Water balance and N-metabolism in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants depending on nitrogen source under salt stress and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Carvajal, Micaela; Ferchichi, Ali; Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María

    2016-11-15

    Elevated [CO2] and salinity in the soils are considered part of the effects of future environmental conditions in arid and semi-arid areas. While it is known that soil salinization decreases plant growth, an increased atmospheric [CO2] may ameliorate the negative effects of salt stress. However, there is a lack of information about the form in which inorganic nitrogen source may influence plant performance under both conditions. Single factor responses and the interactive effects of two [CO2] (380 and 800ppm), three different NO3(-)/NH4(+) ratios in the nutrient solution (100/0, 50/50 and 0/100, with a total N concentration of 3.5mM) and two NaCl concentrations (0 and 80mM) on growth, leaf gas exchange parameters in relation to root hydraulic conductance and N-assimilating enzymes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants were determined. The results showed that a reduced NO3(-) or co-provision of NO3(-) and NH4(+) could be an optimal source of inorganic N for broccoli plants. In addition, elevated [CO2] ameliorated the effect of salt exposure on the plant growth through an enhanced rate of photosynthesis, even at low N-concentration. However, NO3(-) or NO3(-)/NH4(+) co-provision display differential plant response to salt stress regarding water balance, which was associated to N metabolism. The results may contribute to our understanding of N-fertilization modes under increasing atmospheric [CO2] to cope with salt stress, where variations in N nutrition significantly influenced plant response.

  14. Water balance and N-metabolism in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants depending on nitrogen source under salt stress and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Carvajal, Micaela; Ferchichi, Ali; Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María

    2016-11-15

    Elevated [CO2] and salinity in the soils are considered part of the effects of future environmental conditions in arid and semi-arid areas. While it is known that soil salinization decreases plant growth, an increased atmospheric [CO2] may ameliorate the negative effects of salt stress. However, there is a lack of information about the form in which inorganic nitrogen source may influence plant performance under both conditions. Single factor responses and the interactive effects of two [CO2] (380 and 800ppm), three different NO3(-)/NH4(+) ratios in the nutrient solution (100/0, 50/50 and 0/100, with a total N concentration of 3.5mM) and two NaCl concentrations (0 and 80mM) on growth, leaf gas exchange parameters in relation to root hydraulic conductance and N-assimilating enzymes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants were determined. The results showed that a reduced NO3(-) or co-provision of NO3(-) and NH4(+) could be an optimal source of inorganic N for broccoli plants. In addition, elevated [CO2] ameliorated the effect of salt exposure on the plant growth through an enhanced rate of photosynthesis, even at low N-concentration. However, NO3(-) or NO3(-)/NH4(+) co-provision display differential plant response to salt stress regarding water balance, which was associated to N metabolism. The results may contribute to our understanding of N-fertilization modes under increasing atmospheric [CO2] to cope with salt stress, where variations in N nutrition significantly influenced plant response. PMID:27450252

  15. Effect of chemical stress on germination of cv Dalia bean (Phaseolus vularis L.) as an alternative to increase antioxidant and nutraceutical compounds in sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Magdalena; Guevara-González, Ramón G; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chitosan (CH), salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at different concentrations on the antinutritional and nutraceutical content, as well as the antioxidant capacity of bean sprouts (cv Dalia). All elicitors at medium and high concentrations reduced the antinutritional content of lectins (48%), trypsin inhibitor (57%), amylase inhibitor (49%) and phytic acid (56%). Sprouts treated with CH, SA and H2O2 (7μM; 1 and 2mM, and 30mM respectively) increased the content of phenolic compounds (1.8-fold), total flavonoids (3-fold), saponins (1.8-fold) and antioxidant capacity (37%). Furthermore, the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed an increase of several nutraceutical compounds in bean sprouts treated with SA such as coumaric (8.5-fold), salicylic (115-fold), gallic (25-fold) and caffeic (1.7-fold) acids, as well as epigallocatechin (63-fold), rutin (41-fold) and quercetin (16.6-fold) flavonoids. The application of elicitors in bean seed during sprouting enhances their nutraceutical properties. PMID:27374516

  16. 荞麦芽功能性成分研究综述%Research Review on the Functional Composition of Buckwheat Sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国娟; 徐红艳; 崔泰花; 金铁岩; 李官浩; 崔承弼

    2012-01-01

    发芽可以提高荞麦的营养价值和功能特性,荞麦芽具有口感良好、营养丰富、无过敏性反应等优点。该文介绍了荞麦芽的培养过程及其在生长过程中各种功能性成分的变化,对荞麦芽产品的开发前景进行展望,以期促进荞麦芽的开发利用。%Malting can enhance the nutritional and functional properties of buckwheat.Buckwheat sprouts as a new type of food with good taste,nutrient-rich,non-allergic reactions and so on.The change of buckwheat sprouts various functional components during the growth process were introduced in this paper,and the development prospects of buckwheat sprouts product were discussed,so as to promote the development and utilization of buckwheat sprout.

  17. Influential Factors and Characteristics of Harvest Sprouting of Spring Wheat%春小麦穗发芽影响因素及特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车京玉; 邵立刚; 王岩; 李长辉; 马勇; 高凤梅; 张起昌; 刘宁涛; 邹东月; 田超

    2015-01-01

    研究对不同春小麦新品种、不同收获期、温度、降落值对春小麦穗发芽和籽粒发芽的影响。试验结果表明:不同品种克春1号、克旱21号、克丰12号与克旱15号穗发芽率抗性差异较大,收获期对发芽率影响较大,收获越晚发芽越严重。各小麦品种在15℃条件下的籽粒平均发芽率比20℃条件下低,尤其是收获越晚时较高的温度对发芽更适宜。不同小麦品种降落值大小不同,与穗发芽率呈负相关。本研究可为选育抗穗发芽品种提供依据。%The current research investigated the influence of cultivar, harvest time, temperature, and falling number on harvest sprou-ting and grain germination of spring wheat. Notable differences in harvest-sprouting resistance were observed among four cultivars of spring wheat (Kechun 1, Kehan 21, Kefeng 12 and Kehan 15). Harvest time substantially affected the rates of grain germination and harvest sprouting, which markedly increased with postponing harvest time. Each tested cultivar showed a lower rate of gain germination at 15℃ relative to 20℃;a higher temperature occurring at a later harvest time was especially favorable to germination. Falling number varied among different wheat cultivars, showing a negative correlation with the rate of harvest sprouting. The present study provided the basis for selecting wheat cultivars with resistance to harvest sprouting.

  18. Intraepidermal neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-immunoreactive nerve fibres: evidence for sprouting in uremic patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, O; Hilliges, M; Ståhle-Bäckdahl, M

    1989-05-01

    The use of indirect immunohistochemistry in 12 patients on maintenance hemodialysis has shown weak or moderately strong neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-immunoreactive nerve terminals and fibres sprouting throughout the layers of the epidermis. No such terminals or fibres were found in any of 15 controls. There was no difference between uremic patients with pruritus and those without. Furthermore, NSE-positive nerve fibres with a normal appearance were seen in the dermis, at the epidermal-dermal junctional zone and sometimes entering the stratum basale in both patients and controls. The immunoreactive nerves were thin, smooth and, at their terminal fields, varicose. The immunoreactivity seemed to be associated chiefly with sensory nerves. Thus, our results suggest that uremic patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis develop an abnormal pattern of cutaneous innervation. PMID:2657508

  19. Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in Summer and Autumn Broccoli Standardized Cultivation Techniques%云贵高原反季青花菜标准化栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴平

    2012-01-01

    云贵高原夏秋季节气候温凉,适于种植反季青花菜,本文结合多年生产实践,从品种选择、培育壮苗、规格定植、肥水管理、病虫防治、适时采收等措施总结介绍了一套云贵高原冷凉山区反季青花菜标准化栽培技术。%Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in summer and autumn climate was cool and suitable for growing-season broccoli, the paper summary description is a combination of years of production practices, species selection, nurturing seedlings, specifications planting, fertilizer and water management, pest control, timely harvest measuresYunnan-Guizhou Plateau in cold mountain-season broccoli standardization of cultivation techniques.

  20. Serum From Advanced Heart Failure Patients Promotes Angiogenic Sprouting and Affects the Notch Pathway in Human Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannella, Micaela; Caliceti, Cristiana; Fortini, Francesca; Aquila, Giorgio; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Pannuti, Antonio; Fortini, Cinzia; Morelli, Marco Bruno; Fucili, Alessandro; Francolini, Gloria; Voltan, Rebecca; Secchiero, Paola; Dinelli, Giovanni; Leoncini, Emanuela; Ferracin, Manuela; Hrelia, Silvana; Miele, Lucio; Rizzo, Paola

    2016-12-01

    It is unknown whether components present in heart failure (HF) patients' serum provide an angiogenic stimulus. We sought to determine whether serum from HF patients affects angiogenesis and its major modulator, the Notch pathway, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In cells treated with serum from healthy subjects or from patients at different HF stage we determined: (1) Sprouting angiogenesis, by measuring cells network (closed tubes) in collagen gel. (2) Protein levels of Notch receptors 1, 2, 4, and ligands Jagged1, Delta-like4. We found a higher number of closed tubes in HUVECs treated with advanced HF patients serum in comparison with cells treated with serum from mild HF patients or controls. Furthermore, as indicated by the reduction of the active form of Notch4 (N4IC) and of Jagged1, advanced HF patients serum inhibited Notch signalling in HUVECs in comparison with mild HF patients' serum and controls. The circulating levels of NT-proBNP (N-terminal of the pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide), a marker for the detection and evalutation of HF, were positively correlated with the number of closed tubes (r = 0.485) and negatively with Notch4IC and Jagged1 levels in sera-treated cells (r = -0.526 and r = -0.604, respectively). In conclusion, we found that sera from advanced HF patients promote sprouting angiogenesis and dysregulate Notch signaling in HUVECs. Our study provides in vitro evidence of an angiogenic stimulus arising during HF progression and suggests a role for the Notch pathway in it. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2700-2710, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26987674

  1. Case study of a new method for the classification and analysis of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu damage to young chestnut sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a new chestnut pest that is causing a serious problem worldwide. This gall wasp causes severe infestations of Italian Castanea sativa stands, which lowers their productivity. The most effective method for controlling gall wasp infestations is to introduce the parasitoid, Torymus sinensis, although experience shows that it can be 6-18 years before it is effective in reducing the infestation to acceptable levels. From a silvicultural point of view, it is important to reduce the damage as rapidly as possible to maintain plant vigour and fruit production, thereby avoiding chestnut stand degradation and abandonment before biological control is effective. This study analyzed the damage caused by Dryocosmus kuriphilus during normal plant development and detected differences in plant susceptibility, irrespective of genetic factors. Data were collected from a young Castanea sativa coppice stand in Tuscany (Italy where damage was evaluated during the 2010 growing season. The study consisted of two phases: (1 classification of the damages caused by galls; and (2 studying the galls and damage distribution effects on different vigour chestnut sprouts to determine whether there were preferred oviposition sites or different degrees of susceptibility to gall wasp attack depending on a plant’s physiological state. The D. kuriphilus damage classification scale was based on two factors: damage position (the vegetative organ attacked and damage effect (abnormal organ development caused by galls. This classification included damage types that had not been previously described in literature. The statistical analysis identified differences in damage susceptibility in terms of: axis (stem or branches, plant organs (shoots, leaves, or buds, position of the attacked node (high or low region of the axis, and sprout vigour. Information on the D. kuriphilus damage distribution and its effect on plants with different levels vigour can be used to

  2. Determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid residues in bean sprout samples by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定豆芽中2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏慧; 陆自强; 杨益众

    2011-01-01

    A method for determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid residues in bean sprout samples by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography was developed. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was extracted with alkaline water from bean sprout samples and then the total extract was cleaned up by the LC-18 cartridges and eluted by CH3OH after centrifugation, filtration and acidification. CH3OH-H2O CV/V, 4 : 1) was applied as mobile phase, the flow rate was 0. 8 Ml · min-1 , detection wavelength was 290 nm and the analysis was carried out by separation with Agilent TC-C18 column and determination with PDA detector. Under the experimental conditions the results of determination were as follows: the detection limit of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was 0. 01 mg · kg-1 (S/N=3) , the average fortified recoveries of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the blank was 91. 16% - 108. 35% and the relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 5) was 3. 51% -6. 27%. The method was simple, sensitive, accurate and repeatable and can be used to determine 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid residues in bean sprout samples.%为建立高效液相色谱法测定豆芽中2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸残留量的方法,样品采用碱化水提取,离心、过滤后将提取液酸化,经LC-18固相萃取小柱净化,甲醇洗脱,以甲醇-水(体积比4:1)为流动相,流速为0.8 mL·min-1,检测波长为290 nm.用Agilent TC-C18色谱柱分离,PDA紫外检测器测定豆芽中2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸含量.结果表明:该方法2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸的检测限(S/N=3)为0.01 mg·kg-1,样品回收率为91.16%~108.35%,RSD为3.51%~6.27%.该方法操作过程简单,灵敏度和准确度较高,重复性好,可用于豆芽中2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸残留量的检测.

  3. Esverdeamento e brotação em cultivares alemães e holandeses de batata Observations on greening and sprout growth in german and dutch potato varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Lopes de Castro

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen German and five Dutch potato varieties were observed in relation to greening and sprout growth development in the tubers. The Dutch varieties Jaerla and Bintje and the German varieties Atica, Emergo and Topi were less susceptible to greening, but all the others in the second reading, 10 days after light exposition, showed the skin green or very green. Jetta, Broca, Wiebke, Palma, Lux, Rubin and Salvia, 5 days after light exposition also showed similar results. The varieties that showed early sprout growth were Omega, Jaerla and Bintje, being the latter slower in relation to development. Geelbling, Salvia and Spunta are late sprout growth varieties.

  4. Extraction and properties of pigment from violet broccoli%紫椰色素的提取工艺及性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴定; 温吉华; 姚明兰; 赵婧; 刘东亚

    2004-01-01

    对紫椰菜中提取紫色素的方法、条件及该色素的稳定性进行了研究,结果表明,最佳的提取工艺为料液比1:3(g/mL),提取温度80℃,提取时间6min;紫椰色素的最大吸收峰557.5nm;在室外太阳光、室内自然光照射下,耐光性较差;在pH 4~6的范围内变化不敏感;在40~100℃温度范围内不稳定;1%~3%的Na+、1%~3%的Ca2+、1%~3%的Mg2+对色素呈色均无影响,1%~3%的Fe3+会对色素产生降解作用,1%~3%的Cu2+会对色素产生增色效应;1%~3%的Na2SO3、1%~3%的H2O2、1%~3%的苯甲酸钠均对色素有一定的破坏作用,在1%~3%的Vc存在的情况下,色素较稳定.

  5. Active packaging for fresh-cut broccoli using 1-methylcyclopropene in biodegradable sachet/ Embalagem ativa para brócolis minimamente processado utilizando 1-metilciclopropeno em sachê biodegradável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Toledo Benassi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut broccoli florets were packed in polypropylene pots containing a sachet with 1- methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and sealed with biodegradable starch-based film. Broccoli was stored for 8 days at 12oC and after this time the color and the texture of the product were similar of the fresh broccoli, with no off-flavor development or decay. Active packaging with 1-MCP in a sachet was efficient to extent shelf life of broccoli florets retarding yellowing and vitamin C losses. It is an alternative of 1-MCP treatment for fresh-cut products and besides, the sachet can absorbs condensed water reducing spoilage and off-odor development.Brócolis minimamente processados foram embalados em bandejas de polipropileno com sachê contendo 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP e selado com filme biodegradável de amido. Os brócolis foram armazenados por 8 dias a 12oC e após este tempo a cor e a textura mantiveram-se similares às do produto fresco, sem desenvolvimento de odor não característico ou podridão. A embalagem ativa contendo 1-MCP na forma de sachê foi eficiente no aumento da vida de prateleira de brócolis, retardando o amarelecimento e a perda de vitamina C. Esta é uma alternativa para o tratamento com 1-MCP para produtos minimamente processados e além disso, o sachê pode absorver a água condensada, reduzindo a deterioração e o desenvolvimento de odor não característico.

  6. UV-C对西兰花抗氧化活性及相关品质的影响%Changes of Antioxidant Activity, Compounds and Quality of Broccoli Florets During Different Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡; 关文强; 张娜; 刘莉莉; 阎瑞香; 孙德岭

    2014-01-01

    在0℃条件下,采用不同剂量UV-C(1、4、7 kJ/m2)照射处理西兰花后冷藏并测定相关品质指标。结果表明4 kJ/m2 UV-C照射处理增加了西兰花抗氧化活性,可以更好地延缓西兰花的衰老。在21天以后,4 kJ/m2 UV-C处理增高西兰花的叶绿素、类胡萝卜素和花青素的含量,延缓其降解。UV-C照射能很好地保持西兰花的感官品质,减慢黄化过程,其中4 kJ/m2 UV-C照射的综合感官效果最好。%At 0℃condition, the processing broccoli by different doses of UV-C (1, 4, 7 kJ/m2)irradiation were chilled and determined related quality indicators.The result showed that:4 kJ/m2 UV-C irradiation increased antioxidant activity of broccoli and resisted senility better. After 21 days, 4 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment can heighten the content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and anthocyanins of broccoli and resisted degradation. UV-C irradiation remain well organoleptic quality of broccoli, delayed the yellowing process. 4 kJ/m 2 UV-C irradiation of synthesis organoleptic effect is the best.

  7. Effect of Different Drying Methods on the Sulforaphane Content of Broccoli%不同干燥方法对西兰花中萝卜硫素含量影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢述琼; 何珺; 杨佳年; 陈震

    2013-01-01

    Drying Broccoli's flower,stalk and leaf with three usual drying methods which were drying in the shade,50 ℃-90 ℃drying and drying in the sun,indentifying sulforaphane content with HPLC. Sulforaphane content in broccoli's different parts was seed>flower>stalk>leaf,with different drying methods,drying was the best and drying in the shade was the worst,with the five drying temperature it was 90 ℃ that there were the highest sulforaphane content of broccoli. with the different parts the sulforaphane content of broccoli's seed was the highest,it had 10.48 mg/g;the best drying methods was 90℃drying.%  采用阴干、50℃~90℃烘干及晒干三种常用干燥方式干燥西兰花的花、茎、叶,采用HPLC测定萝卜硫素含量。西兰花不同部位中萝卜硫素含量是种子>花>茎>叶;而不同干燥方法中烘干最好,阴干最差,5种烘干温度中以90℃烘干时萝卜硫素含量最高。西兰花不同部位中种子萝卜硫素含量最高,有10.48 mg/g;而干燥方式采用90℃烘干最佳。

  8. 高温多雨条件下不同品种青花菜生育期变化规律研究%Change Rules of Growth Period of Different Broccoli Cultivars under High Temperature and Rainy Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏英京

    2012-01-01

      2011年是气候条件十分特殊的一年,在主要播种期播种的临海青花菜生育期严重提前,基地青花菜上市期严重偏离正常季节。研究发现,青花菜生育期变化存在环境敏感性,不同品种生育期变化敏感性不同,高温和多雨是其生育期变化的2个主导因素。%  The weather of 2011 was abnormal, which made the growth period and the time to the markets of broccoli advanced seriously. The results showed that the growth period of broccoli was sensitive to environment factors, and high temperature and rainy conditions were the two key factors for the changes of growth period of broccoli.

  9. 光照处理提高鲜切西兰花贮藏品质%Quality Improvement of Fresh-Cut Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea L.) during Storage by Light Illumination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹丽娟; 魏国强; 乔明武; 王慧荣

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of continuous light illumination at 2000 lx on the quality of fresh-cut broccoli during 7 days of cold storage was investigated by spectrophotometry. The results indicated that light illumination significantly alleviated chlorophyll degradation and yellowing occurrence during storage, and meanwhile could maintain carotenoids, total soluble solid and vitamin C contents as well as antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut broccoli during storage. However, light illumination also induced more weight loss of fresh-cut broccoli during the whole storage compared with dark storage.%为减缓鲜切西兰花贮藏期间品质下降,延长贮藏期,运用分光光度法研究连续光照处理(2000ix)对鲜切西兰花低温贮藏期间品质变化的影响。结果表明,和黑暗对照相比,光照处理显著减缓鲜切西兰花贮藏期间叶绿素降解和黄化发生率,维持类胡萝卜素、可溶性固形物和抗坏血酸含量,从而使其保持较高的抗氧化力。然而,光照处理显著促进鲜切西兰花鲜质量损失。

  10. 危害分析和关键环节控制点在西兰花冷链物流中的应用研究%The Application of HACCP in Cold-chain Logistics of Broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳艳; 刘斌

    2013-01-01

    Cold-chain logistics protects harvest quality and reduce loss of broccoli in circulation field.In this paper,the application of HACCP system in cold-chain logistics of broccoli was studied.Hazard analysis was analyzed and four critical control points including pre-cool,package,cold storage and transportation were determined.The corresponding HACCP program was made,so as to keep original quality and improve shelf life of broccoli in circulation field.%全程冷链是减少西兰花流通环节的损耗、保持采收时质量的重要条件.将危害分析和关键环节控制点(HACCP)管理体系的预防性思维应用于西兰花的冷链物流,通过危害分析,确定了预冷、包装、冷藏、运输4个关键控制点并制定了HACCP计划表,以最大限度地保持西兰花的原有品质、延长货架期.

  11. Research of Controling Freezing Point of Broccoli by Using Freezing Point Regulators%冰点调节剂对西兰花冰点的控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林本芳; 鲁晓翔; 李江阔

    2012-01-01

    本文研究不同冰点调节剂对西兰花冰点的影响.实验选取葡萄糖、维生素C、氯化钙和山梨醇四种冰点调节剂,利用单因素比较实验法,系统研究了冰点调节剂种类及其使用条件对西兰花冰点的影响.结果表明,氯化钙是较好的冰点调节剂;3%氯化钙浸泡30min对西兰花的冰点调节效果较好,使西兰花冰点从-0.8℃降到-1℃.%In this research, the effects of different freezing point regulators on broccoli freezing point were investigated. Four kinds of freezing point regulators, including glucose, vitamin C, calcium chloride and sorbitol, were used for research on the influence of freezing point of broccoli by the single factor comparison experiment method. The results indicated that calcium chloride and glucose were the better freezing point regulators. When broccoli was soaked for 30 minutes with calcium chloride content being of 3%, its' freezing point was decreased from -0.8℃to-1 ℃.

  12. Sulforaphane composition, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of crucifer vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur compounds in sulphur rich food have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of cancer development. One such compound is sulforaphane (SF, a cancer chemopreventive agent identified in broccoli (F. cruciferae. In this study, SF content was assessed in extracts of several crucifer vegetables including broccoli, brussels sprout, green cabbage, red cabbage, Chinese kale and turnip, in parallel with anticancer and antioxidant activity. Among tested crucifers, cabbage demonstrated a pronounced anticancer effect against A-549 lung cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 38 μg mL−1, and correlated with high SF levels at 540 μg g−1. Except for red cabbage and kale, crucifer extracts displayed moderate to weak activity in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH free radicals relative to vitamin E standard.

  13. 豆芽立枯病诊断与防治试验%Diagnosis and Control of Bean Sprouts Rhizoctonia solani

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 张力群; 段会梅; 康玉凡; 吕玉兰

    2011-01-01

    模拟工厂化生产豆芽工艺培育黄豆芽,对培育过程中出现的烂芽病样进行病原菌的分离、纯化及鉴定,确定病原菌为立枯丝核菌(Rhizoctonia solani);并测定了立枯丝核菌不同菌量对绿豆芽的致病性,结果显示:不同接种量引起绿豆芽的发病时间、发病率及生物产量均存在明显差异.接种量为2块菌饼配制5 mL和2块菌饼配制10 mL的菌丝悬浮液造成严重的烂芽,第5天发病率分别达46%和25%.不同处理防治豆芽立枯病的试验表明:40℃热力消毒、1%石灰水和1/5 000高锰酸钾均有一定的防治作用,相对防治效果分别为91.30%、54_35%和50.00%.%Simulating factory production process of sproutsing to cultivate bean sprouts, taking spoilage sprouts samples during the process of cultivating, then separating, purifying and identification were carried out to determine the pathogen. Finalized for the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani was finalized. Observing the pathogenicity of inoculation volume of different Rhizoctonia mycelial suspensions on bean sprouts was tested. The results showed that different inoculums leaded to the differencest of disease occurring the time of incidence, the incidence rate and bean sprouts biological production. Using inoculums at 2 pieces bacteria per 5 milliliter and 2 pieces bacteria per 10 milliliter of mycelial suspensions to treat bean sprouts,the spoilage of bean sprouts was serious. The incidence rate at the 5th day were 46 %, 25 %, respectively.The results of using different treatments to protect Rhizoctonia solani showed that 40 ℃ hot-water disinfection, 1% lime water, 1/5 000 potassium permanganate might control the occurrence of Rhizoctonia to some extent, the relative control efficiencies were 91.30 %, 54.35 %, 50.00 %, respectively.

  14. Effect of Cold Acclimation Combined with Ice-Temperature Storage on the Quality of Broccolis%低温驯化结合冰温贮藏对西兰花品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林本芳; 鲁晓翔; 李江阔; 陈绍慧

    2012-01-01

    研究低温驯化结合冰温贮藏对西兰花保鲜品质的影响。贮藏期间每14d测定西兰花理化指标及营养成分。结果表明:与直接冰温贮藏或冷藏相比,低温驯化结合冰温贮藏处理对延缓西兰花VC含量和叶绿素含量的下降均有明显效果,且可降低呼吸强度和乙烯生成速率,提高西兰花过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性,降低多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,延缓相对电导率的升高。研究表明西兰花经低温驯化结合冰温贮藏的效果优于直接冰温贮藏的效果。%This study was conducted to investigate the effect of cold acclimation combined with ice-temperature storage(CACITS) on the quality of broccolis.Physicochemical indexes and nutritional components of broccolis were detected every 14 days during storage.The results show that the contents of VC and chlorophyll in broccoli were decreased more significantly by cold acclimation combined with ice-temperature storage than ice-temperature storage alone and ordinary cold storage;moreover,cold acclimation combined with ice-temperature storage could reduce respiratory intensity and ethylene generation rate in broccolis,increase peroxidase(POD) and catalase(CAT) activities,inhibit polyphenol oxidase(PPO) activity and delay the increase of relative electric conductivity.As a result,it can be concluded that cold acclimation combined with ice-temperature storage is better for the quality of of broccolis than ice-temperature storage alone.

  15. 不同出库方式对西兰花货架期品质的影响%Effect of different out-store tests on storage quality of broccolis during shelf-life period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林本芳; 鲁晓翔; 李江阔; 陈绍慧

    2012-01-01

    The effect of broccolis by different out-store tests after cold storage which temperature was -1 -1℃ was detected by analyzing physicochemical indexes and nutrition components. The research results showed that broccoli's Vc and chlorophyll content and firmness by low-temperature chain storage condition decreased less than that of progressively warming and control. Low-temperature chain storage increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and slowed down polyphenol oxidase (PPO)activity, also decreased MDA content. Mildew spot index of broccolis was zero by low-temperature chain storage after 10d of out-store,whereas the values of progressively warming and control were 88.89% and 100% after 8d of out-store. Therefore,the effect of broccolis' shelf-life by different out-store tests was significant,the storage effect of broccolis by low- temperature chain storage was better than that of by progressively warming and control.%通过对西兰花在货架期间理化指标及营养成分变化规律的分析,探讨不同出库方式对冷藏(-1~1℃)后西兰花的保鲜效果。实验结果表明:与缓慢升温出库和直接出库(对照组)相比,低温冷链出库处理对延缓西兰花黄化以及Vc含量、叶绿素含量和硬度的下降均有明显效果,提高了西兰花超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性,降低其多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,延缓了丙二醛(MDA)含量的升高;该模式下货架期10d的西兰花仍没有生霉,而缓慢升温出库和直接出库的货架期8d时霉斑指数分别为88.89%和100%。这说明不同出库方式对西兰花的货架期有显著影响,低温冷链出库的西兰花保鲜效果更好。

  16. Application of Tissue Culture, Molecular Marker and QTL Analysis in Broccoli Breeding%组织培养、分子标记和QT L技术在青花菜育种中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志仙; 朱长志; 檀国印; 王峰; 何道根

    2015-01-01

    育种是优异种质资源基因的重组。除传统新种质产生的方法外,通过组织培养、分子标记等技术来扩大物种的遗传基础已成为新种质资源形成的重要手段。青花菜,芸薹属甘蓝中以绿色花球为食用器官的一个变种,近年来在中国的种植面积越来越大,利用现代生物技术手段进行青花菜育种研究工作也越来越受到关注和重视。本文综述了游离小孢子培养、原生质体融合和转基因技术在青花菜种质资源创制中的应用,分析了各种方法存在的问题,并对青花菜遗传图谱构建、花球相关农艺性状及抗病性QTL/基因定位研究进行了探讨,并对其未来研究方向做了展望。%Breeding is kind of the genomic combination of excellent germplasms. Apart from conventional breeding methods generating new germplasms, approaches based on tissue culture and the molecular marker assisted breeding have become very popular biotechnologies to create the new breeding materials. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck), is an important vegetable worldwilde. In recent decades, broccoli production and consumption has risen significantly and the usage of biotechnologies on broccoli breeding has made great progress in China. This paper reviewed the uses of microspore culture, protoplast culture and fusion, transgenic technologies in improvement breeding of broccoli, and the limitation in those researches was mentioned as well. Moreover, construction of linkage maps, QTLs/genes for agronomically important broccoli traits including head morphologies and diseases resistance were analyzed in this review.

  17. Effect of sprouting on processing quality of wheat flour products%生芽对小麦食品加工品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙辉; 段晓亮; 常柳; 陈瑶; 方秀利

    2015-01-01

    Sprouting will degrade the harvested wheat caused by higher unsounded kernels as well as de-fect the end -use quality of wheat.The effects of sprouting wheat in different sprouting stages on process-ing quality of steamed bread and noodle were studied.The sprouting wheat were divided into two classes, shooting wheat and germinating wheat,according to whether the plumule or radicle was visible or not.The result showed that germinating wheat and shooting wheat had different influence on the quality of wheat flour and its products.Germination in a certain degree benefited the milling quality.Sprouting had a little effect on gluten quality but relatively high effect on starch quality,for specific performance,falling number value and RVA viscosity values decreased significantly along with the sprouting rate increased.The steamed bread quality was affected significantly by obviously sprouting wheat,while a little on noodle quality.Ger-minating wheat had a little effect on either steamed bread or noodle quality.Falling number of wheat seeds might be a good factor to measure the effect of sprouting on the quality of steaming and boiling food,with-out obvious impact until the falling number lower than 131 s for noodles and 175 s for steamed bread.%小麦生芽不仅会造成不完善粒比例偏高、等级下降,还可能会影响食品加工品质。研究了不同萌发阶段的生芽粒对小麦馒头和面条加工品质的影响。结果表明:以胚芽或胚根是否突破表皮为划分依据的“发芽粒”和“萌动粒”对小麦粉和食品的影响各不同;一定程度的萌动会提高制粉品质,生芽对面筋品质影响相对较小,对淀粉品质影响较大,表现为生芽率高则降落数值和 RVA 黏度显著降低;明显出芽的小麦对馒头品质影响显著,对面条品质影响较小;萌动小麦对馒头和面条品质的影响均较小;通过测定小麦籽粒降落数值可以初步判断生芽对蒸

  18. 我国发芽粮食及食品应用研究最新进展%Research progress on sprouted grain and food application in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马先红; 刘景圣; 陈翔宇; 李艳红; 李侠东; 谢忠民

    2015-01-01

    综述了我国糙米、玉米、大豆、黑豆、绿豆、豇豆、黑米、大麦、荞麦、燕麦、小麦及薏米等粮食发芽后营养成分与生物活性成分的变化,以及发芽粮食在食品中的应用,以期为粮食深加工提供一些理论参考。%The research of sprouted grain with thechanges of nutritionalcompositions and some functioncomponents in brown rice,corn,soybean,black bean,mung bean,cowpea,black rice, barley,buckwheat,oats,wheat and adlay were reviewed. In the study,a review wasmade on food application of sprouted grain and it will provide a basis for the depth using of grain.

  19. Neuroprotective Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures by Modulating Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Sprouting, Neuron Survival, Astrocyte Proliferation, and S100B Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR, which is a traditional Chinese medicine, has anticonvulsive effect in our previous studies, and the cellular mechanisms behind this are still little known. Because of this, we wanted to determine the importance of the role of UR on kainic acid- (KA- induced epilepsy. Oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate the onset of epileptic seizure in animal tests. Hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting dramatically decreased, while neuronal survival increased with UR treatment in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas. Furthermore, oral UR for 6 weeks significantly attenuated the overexpression of astrocyte proliferation and S100B proteins but not γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA receptors. These results indicate that oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate mossy fiber sprouting, astrocyte proliferation, and S100B protein overexpression and increase neuronal survival in KA-induced epileptic rat hippocampus

  20. Study on the Process Conditions of Sichuan Sprouts Meat Sauce%四川芽菜肉酱 v艺条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周航; 顾思远; 孙俊秀; 范文教; 王郁; 罗素琴

    2016-01-01

    四川芽菜肉酱是以四川特产芽菜为主要辅料,通过烹饪炒制而成的全熟猪肉馅心,可以广泛用于面臊、佐餐等各个领域。文章结合传统工艺和现代食品加工技术,根据消费者对四川特色芽菜肉酱的实际需求,研究设计了四川特色芽菜肉酱的制作工艺,并利用正交试验对工艺条件进行优化,同时具体明确了产品的质量标准。研究结果将为芽菜肉酱的市场化生产提供参数借鉴。%Sichuan sprouts meat sauce is cooked with well-done pork sandwiches and Sichuan sprouts, it is widely used in various dining fields,such as Saozi noodles with minced meat and other food accompaniments.In order to meet consumers'demands for Sichuan special sprouts meat sauce,its cooking process is designed by combining the traditional processing technology with the modern one. Meanwhile,the optimal process conditions are optimized by orthogonal experiment.The results will provide parameters reference for the market production of Sichuan sprouts meat sauce.

  1. Direct antioxidant activity of purified glucoerucin, the dietary secondary metabolite contained in rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.) seeds and sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillari, Jessica; Canistro, Donatella; Paolini, Moreno; Ferroni, Fiammetta; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca

    2005-04-01

    Rocket (Eruca sativa Mill. or Eruca vesicaria L.) is widely distributed all over the world and is usually consumed fresh (leafs or sprouts) for its typical spicy taste. Nevertheless, it is mentioned in traditional pharmacopoeia and ancient literature for several therapeutic properties, and it does contain a number of health promoting agents including carotenoids, vitamin C, fibers, flavonoids, and glucosinolates (GLs). The latter phytochemicals have recently gained attention as being the precursors of isothiocyanates (ITCs), which are released by myrosinase hydrolysis during cutting, chewing, or processing of the vegetable. ITCs are recognized as potent inducers of phase II enzymes (e.g., glutathione transferases, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, epoxide hydrolase, etc.), which are important in the detoxification of electrophiles and protection against oxidative stress. The major GL found in rocket seeds is glucoerucin, GER (108 +/- 5 micromol g(-)(1) d.w.) that represents 95% of total GLs. The content is largely conserved in sprouts (79% of total GLs), and GER is still present to some extent in adult leaves. Unlike other GLs (e.g., glucoraphanin, the bio-precursor of sulforaphane), GER possesses good direct as well as indirect antioxidant activity. GER (and its metabolite erucin, ERN) effectively decomposes hydrogen peroxide and alkyl hydroperoxides with second-order rate constants of k(2) = 6.9 +/- 0.1 x 10(-)(2) M(-)(1) s(-)(1) and 4.5 +/- 0.2 x 10(-)(3) M(-)(1) s(-) , respectively, in water at 37 degrees C, thereby acting as a peroxide-scavenging preventive antioxidant. Interestingly, upon removal of H(2)O(2) or hydroperoxides, ERN is converted into sulforaphane, the most effective inducer of phase II enzymes among ITCs. On the other hand, ERN (and conceivably GER), like other ITCs, does not possess any chain-breaking antioxidant activity, being unable to protect styrene from its thermally (37 degrees C) initiated autoxidation in the presence of AMVN. The mechanism

  2. Enrichment of caffeic acid in peanut sprouts and evaluation of its in vitro effectiveness against oxidative stress-induced erythrocyte hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Lei, Zhuogui; Zhong, Qing; Wu, Wenjia; Zhang, Hong; Min, Tian; Wu, Hui; Lai, Furao

    2017-02-15

    The profile of caffeic acid in tissues of peanut sprouts and its antioxidant activity in erythrocyte-based assays were investigated. Caffeic acid was found to accumulate in the epicotyl-plumule (reached 2097.13±96μg/g DW on day 10 after peanut germination). It was purified by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The purified caffeic acid showed noticeable protective effects on human erythrocytes against 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced hemolysis. It also contributed to maintenance of normal morphological features and inhibited malondialdehyde formation and the lactate dehydrogenase release in erythrocytes under oxidative stress. Further analysis revealed that caffeic acid effectively inhibited AAPH-induced free-radical production and maintained the normal metabolism of the erythrocytic redox system, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione. Our work showed that caffeic acid, which is greatly enriched in peanut sprout, can effectively protect erythrocytes from oxidative damage. These results provide valuable information for the use of peanut sprouts as a functional food. PMID:27664642

  3. 我国芽苗菜生产现状及发展对策研究%The Production Status and Development Strategies of Sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗哲; 李德远; 苏丹; 葛政委

    2015-01-01

    介绍芽苗菜的生产现状,指出我国芽苗菜在发展过程中存在食品安全风险较高、能耗大、货架期短等问题,提出了相应的发展对策,包括改善生产环境,规范市场管理,研发新型栽培技术和品种等,并展望了芽苗菜的应用前景.%The production status of sprouts is introduced in this article , the problems existed in the process of developing the sprouts are pointed out in china , including high food safety risk , large energy consumption , short shelf life and so on. Corresponding development strategies are put forward , including improving the production environment, standardizing the market management, developing new cultivation technology and varieties and so on. The application prospect of sprouts is looked forward.

  4. Sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa L.) by gamma irradiation. Part of a coordinated programme on pre-commercial scale radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of verifying the possibilities and circumstances of sprout inhibition and storage life extension of onion and garlic by gamma irradiation, onion bulbs of variety Valenciana Sintetica 14 and garlic bulbs of a coloured locally grown variety were subjected to irradiation with 3 Krad of 60Co gamma rays. The dose rate was 2440 rad/min; the irradiation conditions warranted a Dsub(max)/Dsub(min) ratio of 1.25. The irradiated bulbs and control samples of non-irradiated bulbs were investigated for a period of 270 to 330 days. Weight loss, external and internal sprouting, signs of decay, and the percentage of commercial bulbs were observed with the following results. Weight loss was found to be less in irradiated bulbs than in controls - 22% against 40% for onion and 33% against 65% for garlic. The dose of gamma radiation employed was proved to be sufficient for sprout inhibition in both species and for partial inhibition of decay and softening. The aroma of garlic was not impaired by irradiation. For both products, gamma irradiation was found to prolong the period of commercial utilizability

  5. Glucoraphanin, the bioprecursor of the widely extolled chemopreventive agent sulforaphane found in broccoli, induces Phase-I xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and increases free radical generation in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perocco, Paolo [Department of Experimental Pathology, Cancerology Section, viale Filopanti 22, I-40126, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Bronzetti, Giorgio [Institute of Biology and Agricultural Biotechnology - CNR Research Area, via Moruzzi, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Canistro, Donatella; Sapone, Andrea; Affatato, Alessandra; Pozzetti, Laura; Broccoli, Massimiliano [Department of Pharmacology, Molecular Toxicology Unit, via Irnerio 48, I-40126, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Valgimigli, Luca [Department of Organic Chemistry ' A. Mangini' , Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40127, Alma-Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Pedulli, Gian Franco [Department of Organic Chemistry ' A. Mangini' , Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40127, Alma-Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Iori, Renato [C.R.A - Research Institute for Industrial Crops, via di Corticella 133, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Barillari, Jessica [Institute of Biology and Agricultural Biotechnology - CNR Research Area, via Moruzzi, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)]|[C.R.A - Research Institute for Industrial Crops, via di Corticella 133, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Sblendorio, Valeriana [Department of Pharmacology, Molecular Toxicology Unit, via Irnerio 48, I-40126, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Legator, Marvin S. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Division of Environmental Toxicology, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, 700 Harborside Drive, Galveston, TX 77555-1110 (United States); Paolini, Moreno [Department of Pharmacology, Molecular Toxicology Unit, via Irnerio 48, I-40126, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Division of Environmental Toxicology, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, 700 Harborside Drive, Galveston, TX 77555-1110 (United States)]. E-mail: sabdelra@utmb.edu

    2006-03-20

    Epidemiological and animal studies linking high fruit and vegetable consumption to lower cancer risk have strengthened the belief that long-term administration of isolated naturally occurring dietary constituents could reduce the risk of cancer. In recent years, metabolites derived from phytoalexins, such as glucoraphanin found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae), have gained much attention as potential cancer chemopreventive agents. The protective effect of these micronutrients is assumed to be due to the inhibition of Phase-I carcinogen-bioactivating enzymes and/or induction of Phase-II detoxifying enzymes, an assumption that still remains uncertain. The protective effect of glucoraphanin is thought to be due to sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate metabolite produced from glucoraphanin by myrosinase. Here we show, in rat liver, that while glucoraphanin slightly induces Phase-II enzymes, it powerfully boosts Phase-I enzymes, including activators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrosamines and olefins. Induction of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms CYP1A1/2, CYP3A1/2 and CYP2E1 was confirmed by Western immunoblotting. CYP induction was paralleled by an increase in the corresponding mRNA levels. Concomitant with this Phase-I induction, we also found that glucoraphanin generated large amount of various reactive radical species, as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry coupled to a radical-probe technique. This suggests that long-term uncontrolled administration of glucoraphanin could actually pose a potential health hazard.

  6. Nutritional quality changes throughout shelf-life of fresh-cut kailan-hybrid and 'Parthenon' broccoli as affected by temperature and atmosphere composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Gómez, Perla A; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional quality changes of the fresh-cut kailan-hybrid broccoli were compared with those of the 'Parthenon' cv. throughout 15 days at 2 ℃, 5 ℃ and 8 ℃ under air and modified atmosphere packaging. Florets showed higher dietary fiber content than stems. The total protein content of kailan-hybrid florets was 2.2-fold higher than that of 'Parthenon' cv. and higher amounts of S, Ca, Mg, Fe, Sr, Mn, Zn and Cu were found. However, 'Parthenon' florets registered higher initial total phenolics content than the kailan-hybrid edible part, followed by an increase throughout shelf-life favored at 5 ℃ and 8 ℃ under modified atmosphere packaging (5-7 kPa O2 + 14-15 kPa CO2). Modified atmosphere packaging stored samples at 8 ℃ showed higher individual phenolics content than modified atmosphere packaging stored samples at 2 ℃. The initial total antioxidant capacity of the kailan-hybrid edible part was higher than that of 'Parthenon' cv. florets. In conclusion, the kailan-hybrid florets generally showed healthier properties on the analyzed bioactive compounds, except total phenolic content, compared to the conventional 'Parthenon' cv.

  7. Glucoraphanin, the bioprecursor of the widely extolled chemopreventive agent sulforaphane found in broccoli, induces Phase-I xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and increases free radical generation in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological and animal studies linking high fruit and vegetable consumption to lower cancer risk have strengthened the belief that long-term administration of isolated naturally occurring dietary constituents could reduce the risk of cancer. In recent years, metabolites derived from phytoalexins, such as glucoraphanin found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae), have gained much attention as potential cancer chemopreventive agents. The protective effect of these micronutrients is assumed to be due to the inhibition of Phase-I carcinogen-bioactivating enzymes and/or induction of Phase-II detoxifying enzymes, an assumption that still remains uncertain. The protective effect of glucoraphanin is thought to be due to sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate metabolite produced from glucoraphanin by myrosinase. Here we show, in rat liver, that while glucoraphanin slightly induces Phase-II enzymes, it powerfully boosts Phase-I enzymes, including activators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrosamines and olefins. Induction of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms CYP1A1/2, CYP3A1/2 and CYP2E1 was confirmed by Western immunoblotting. CYP induction was paralleled by an increase in the corresponding mRNA levels. Concomitant with this Phase-I induction, we also found that glucoraphanin generated large amount of various reactive radical species, as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry coupled to a radical-probe technique. This suggests that long-term uncontrolled administration of glucoraphanin could actually pose a potential health hazard

  8. Determination of Lutein from Fruit and Vegetables Through an Alkaline Hydrolysis Extraction Method and HPLC Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Mignogna, Rossella; Niro, Serena; Panfili, Gianfranco

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of lutein content, successfully used for cereal matrices, was evaluated in fruit and vegetables. The method involved the determination of lutein after an alkaline hydrolysis of the sample matrix, followed by extraction with solvents and analysis by normal phase HPLC. The optimized method was simple, precise, and accurate and it was characterized by few steps that could prevent loss of lutein and its degradation. The optimized method was used to evaluate the lutein amounts in several fruit and vegetables. Rich sources of lutein were confirmed to be green vegetables such as parsley, spinach, chicory, chard, broccoli, courgette, and peas, even if in a range of variability. Taking into account the suggested reference values these vegetables can be stated as good sources of lutein. PMID:26540023

  9. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  10. Intracellular biosynthesis of Au and Ag nanoparticles using ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea L. and studies on their physicochemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Ichwan, Solachuddin J A; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2015-03-01

    In this present study, we reported broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) as a potential candidate for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) in green chemistry method. The synthesized metal nanoparticles are evaluated their antimicrobial efficacy against different human pathogenic organisms. The physico-chemical properties of gold nanoparticles were analyzed using different analytical techniques such as a UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometer. In addition, gold and silver NP antimicrobial efficacy was checked by disc diffusion assay. UV-Vis color intensity of the nanoparticles was shown at 540 and 450 nm for gold and silver nanoparticles respectively. Higher magnification of the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy image shows the variable morphology of the gold nanoparticles such as spherical, rod and triangular shapes and silver nanoparticles were seen in spherical shapes. The average spherical size of the particles was observed in 24-38 nm for gold and 30-45 nm for silver NPs. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles which were crystalline in nature. Additionally, the functional metabolites were identified by the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. IR spectra revealed phenols, alcohols, aldehydes (sugar moieties), vitamins and proteins are present in the broccoli extract which are accountable to synthesize the nanoparticles. The synthesized gold and silver NPs inhibited the growth of the tested bacterial and fungal pathogens at the concentration of 50 μg/mL respectively. In addition, broccoli mediated gold and silver nanoparticles have shown potent antimicrobial activity against human pathogens.

  11. Green synthesis of soya bean sprouts-mediated superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Shen Yuhua, E-mail: s_yuhua@163.co [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xie Anjian, E-mail: anjx@163.co [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li Shikuo; Wang Xiufang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were first synthesized via soya bean sprouts (SBS) templates under ambient temperature and normal atmosphere. The reaction process was simple, eco-friendly, and convenient to handle. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The effect of SBS template on the formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that spherical Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm simultaneously formed on the epidermal surface and the interior stem wall of SBS. The SBS are responsible for size and morphology control during the whole formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. In addition, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) results indicate the products are superparamagnetic at room temperature, with blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of 150 K and saturation magnetization of 37.1 emu/g.

  12. Administration of a tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitor attenuates sarcoma-induced nerve sprouting, neuroma formation and bone cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloom Aaron P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pain often accompanies cancer and most current therapies for treating cancer pain have significant unwanted side effects. Targeting nerve growth factor (NGF or its cognate receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA has become an attractive target for attenuating chronic pain. In the present report, we use a mouse model of bone cancer pain and examine whether oral administration of a selective small molecule Trk inhibitor (ARRY-470, which blocks TrkA, TrkB and TrkC kinase activity at low nm concentrations has a significant effect on cancer-induced pain behaviors, tumor-induced remodeling of sensory nerve fibers, tumor growth and tumor-induced bone remodeling. Early/sustained (initiated day 6 post cancer cell injection, but not late/acute (initiated day 18 post cancer cell injection administration of ARRY-470 markedly attenuated bone cancer pain and significantly blocked the ectopic sprouting of sensory nerve fibers and the formation of neuroma-like structures in the tumor bearing bone, but did not have a significant effect on tumor growth or bone remodeling. These data suggest that, like therapies that target the cancer itself, the earlier that the blockade of TrkA occurs, the more effective the control of cancer pain and the tumor-induced remodeling of sensory nerve fibers. Developing targeted therapies that relieve cancer pain without the side effects of current analgesics has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life and functional status of cancer patients.

  13. Evaluation of the toxicity of selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Borisuth, Lalita; Chinrasri, Orawan; Saenthaweesuk, Nattanan; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Thosaikham, Witphon; Sriart, Noppong; Chantiratikul, Piyanete

    2016-05-01

    Hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprouts (HPSeKS) are studied for their use as an alternative dietary Se supplement for poultry. The study experimented with different levels and sources of Se to determine toxicity and how the toxicity may affect productive performance, Se concentration in egg and tissues, and physiological responses of laying hens. One-hundred and twenty hens, 59 weeks of age, were divided into 5 groups. Each group consisted of 4 replicates and each replicate had 6 birds according to a 2×2+1 Augmented Factorial Experiment in a Completely Randomized Design. The experiment was conducted over a 4 week period, and 5 dietary treatments (T) were used: T1 basal diet, T2 and T3 basal diet plus 5 and 10mg Se/kg from sodium selenite (SS), T4 and T5 basal diet plus 5 and 10mg Se/kg from HPSeKS, respectively. The results make clear that Se from HPSeKS, at 5-10mg/kg, did not affect (P>0.05) feed intake and egg production; however, Se bioavailability decreased (Phens fed Se from SS were lower (Phens fed Se from HPSeKS. The findings demonstrate that dietary Se from HPSeKS at 5-10mg/kg is not considered a toxic level for laying hens. The toxicity of Se from HPSeKS was less than the toxicity of Se from SS. PMID:26964695

  14. 花生芽低温乳化肠的研究开发%Research and development of peanut sprout low temperature emulsion sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴广辉; 毕韬韬; 张学全

    2016-01-01

    花生芽中不仅含有丰富的蛋白质、脂肪、维生素、矿物质等营养成分,还含有丰富的白藜芦醇,把花生芽添加到低温乳化肠中开发出新的产品,有利于扩大花生芽豆的应用范围,丰富我国肠类制品的种类。本实验对低温乳化肠中添加花生芽进行了研究,经单因素和正交试验确定花生低温乳化肠的最佳配方为:猪肉55%,花生芽8%,大豆蛋白5%、玉米淀粉6%、卡拉胶0.5%、复合磷酸盐0.5%、食盐2.5%、香辛料1%、味精0.3%、白糖2%、红曲红色素0.05%、冰水19%。%Peanut sprout not only contained abundant nutritional components of protein, fat, vita-mins and minerals, but also had abundant resveratrol.The peanut sprout was added to low temperature e-mulsion sausage to develop new products, which was beneficial to enlarge the application range of peanut sprout bean, and enrich species of sausage products in our country.The low temperature emulsion sau-sage which peanut sprout was added in was studied.Through the single factor and orthogonal experiment, the optimum formula of low temperature peanut emulsion sausage was determined.The formula was:pork 55%, peanut sprout 8%, soybean protein 5%, corn starch 8%, carrageenan0 .5%, compound phos-phate 0.5%, salt 2.5%, spices 1%, monosodium glutamate 0.3%, sugar 2%, monascus red pigment 0 .05%and ice water 19%.

  15. The wheat Phs-A1 pre-harvest sprouting resistance locus delays the rate of seed dormancy loss and maps 0.3 cM distal to the PM19 genes in UK germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorinola, Oluwaseyi; Bird, Nicholas; Simmonds, James; Berry, Simon; Henriksson, Tina; Jack, Peter; Werner, Peter; Gerjets, Tanja; Scholefield, Duncan; Balcárková, Barbara; Valárik, Miroslav; Holdsworth, M J; Flintham, John; Uauy, Cristobal

    2016-07-01

    The precocious germination of cereal grains before harvest, also known as pre-harvest sprouting, is an important source of yield and quality loss in cereal production. Pre-harvest sprouting is a complex grain defect and is becoming an increasing challenge due to changing climate patterns. Resistance to sprouting is multi-genic, although a significant proportion of the sprouting variation in modern wheat cultivars is controlled by a few major quantitative trait loci, including Phs-A1 in chromosome arm 4AL. Despite its importance, little is known about the physiological basis and the gene(s) underlying this important locus. In this study, we characterized Phs-A1 and show that it confers resistance to sprouting damage by affecting the rate of dormancy loss during dry seed after-ripening. We show Phs-A1 to be effective even when seeds develop at low temperature (13 °C). Comparative analysis of syntenic Phs-A1 intervals in wheat and Brachypodium uncovered ten orthologous genes, including the Plasma Membrane 19 genes (PM19-A1 and PM19-A2) previously proposed as the main candidates for this locus. However, high-resolution fine-mapping in two bi-parental UK mapping populations delimited Phs-A1 to an interval 0.3 cM distal to the PM19 genes. This study suggests the possibility that more than one causal gene underlies this major pre-harvest sprouting locus. The information and resources reported in this study will help test this hypothesis across a wider set of germplasm and will be of importance for breeding more sprouting resilient wheat varieties. PMID:27217549

  16. 1-MCP处理结合冷藏对西兰花品质的影响%Effect of 1-MCP treatment on the quality of broccolis in cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林本芳; 鲁晓翔; 李江阔; 陈绍慧

    2012-01-01

    This paper was conducted to investigated the effect of different concentrations (1.5, 2.5 μL/L) of 1-MCP on the quality of broccolis during 0℃ storage conditions. The physical and chemical indexes of broccolis were detected every 10 days. The results showed that: after treatment used 1-MCP, broccoli's soluble solids, Vc and chlorophyll content decreased less than ordinary storage. 1-MCP inhibited the increase of respiratory intensity, increased peroxidase(POD), superoxide dismutase(SOD) activities and slowed down polyphenol oxidase(PPO) activity. Additionally, treatment of 1-MCP also decreased the MDA content and cell membrane permeability, so delayed ripening of broccoli. 1-MCP treatment could delay ripening of broccoli, but 2.5 μL/L 1-MCP treatment is better than 1.5 μL/L treatment. Therefore, the storage effect of broccolis with 1-MCP treatment is superior to that of with only ordinary storage. 1-MCP still played normal function at low temperature.%研究了1—MCP处理对西兰花冷藏保鲜品质的影响。1-MCP处理浓度为1.5、2.5μL/L,冷藏期间每隔10d取样测定西兰花理化指标及营养成分。试验结果表明:与对照相比,1-MCP处理对于延缓西兰花可溶性固形物含量(TSS)、Vc含量及叶绿素含量的下降均有明显效果,并可抑制西兰花贮藏期间的呼吸强度。1-MCP处理提高西兰花过氧化物酶(POD)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性,降低多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,延缓了丙二醛(MDA)含量和细胞膜相对透性的升高,延缓了西兰花的衰老。1.5、2.5μL/L的1-MCP处理对西兰花的成熟衰老均有抑制作用,其中经2.5μL/L处理的西兰花的品质表现更好。这说明了冷藏结合1—MCP处理不仅较之普通冷藏更好地保持了西兰花的营养品质,同时也证明1—MCP在低温条件下仍可发挥正常作用。

  17. 不同质量浓度臭氧化水对鲜切西兰花贮藏品质的影响%Effect of Ozonated Water with Various Concentrations on Storage Quality of Fresh-cut Broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏延; 曾凯芳; 贾凝; 陈存坤; 王文生

    2012-01-01

    采用不同质量浓度臭氧化水处理鲜切西兰花。结果表明:质量浓度2.0mg/L的臭氧化水处理组保鲜效果最优,在贮藏12d时与对照组相比,质量损失率降低24.37%,VC含量提高40.7%,多酚氧化酶酶活降低23.5%,过氧化物酶酶活降低25.6%;在4℃的条件下,质量浓度2.0mg/L的臭氧化水处理组鲜切西兰花贮藏期可达到15d。%Ozonated water can be used for disinfection,sterilization,deodorization and preservation with multiple advantages such as rapid sterilization rate,simple operation and without residues.It can be used directly for the sterilization of fresh-cut vegetables so that it is a potential technology of cold sterilization and green sterilization.The results showed that the best preservation effect on fresh-cut broccoli was observed at the condition of 2 mg/L ozonated water.Compared with the control,ozonated water-treated fresh-cut broccoli after storage for 12 days revealed a reduction by 24.37% for weight loss rate,an improvement by 40.7% for vitamin C,a decline by 23.5% for polyphenol oxidase activity and a decrease by 25.6% for peroxidase activity.The storage life of fresh-cut broccoli subjected to treatment with 2 mg/L ozonated water can be extended to 15 days at the storage temperature of 4 ℃.

  18. 西兰花多肽对大鼠C6胶质瘤细胞生长的影响%The effect of broccoli polypeptide on C6 glioma cells of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俊杰; 于洪泉; 国巍; 赵伟; 金宏; 温娜; 齐玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究西兰花多肽对大鼠C6胶质瘤细胞生长的影响.方法 培养C6胶质瘤细胞,用西兰花多肽(0、0.01、0.1、1、10μ/ml)作用细胞72h,MTT法检测胶质瘤细胞的生长情况.结果 西兰花多肽作用C6胶质瘤细胞72h时,各药物浓度组都表现为对细胞的抑制作用,1μl/ml组(0.58 ±0.08 vs 0.75 ±0.02)和10μl/ml组(0.07 ±0.01 vs 0.75 ±0.02)表现出显著的抑制生长作用(P<0.01).结论 西兰花多肽可抑制C6胶质瘤细胞的生长,并且随着药物浓度升高药物作用增强,说明西兰花多肽具有抑制肿瘤细胞生长的作用.%Objective To study the effects of broccoli polypeptide on the proliferation of C6 glioma cells. Method Cultured C6 glioma cells were treated with different dose of broccoli polypeptide(0,0. 01 ,0. 1 ,1 , 10μl/ml)for 72h. The level of cell growth was detected by MTT assay. Results After 72h,all dosed of polypeptide inhibited the growth of cells, especially in 1(0,1/μml group(0. 58 ±0.08 vs 0.75 ±0.02) and 10(1,1/μml group(0.07 ±0.01 vs 0.75 ±0.02) when compared with respective control group(P <0. 01). Conclusion Broccoli polypeptide may inhibit the proliferation of C6 glioma cells, and the effect is increased with dose, which suggests that broccoli polypeptide can inhibit the growth of tumor cells.

  19. 细胞分裂素类生长调节剂对青花菜采后衰老的影响%Effects of Cytokinin Growth Regulators on Senescence of Harvested Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) Florets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云莉; 王成荣; 王然; 杨绍兰; 刘宪路

    2009-01-01

    Application of cytokinin growth regulators, KT (Kinetin), 6-BA (Benzyladenine), and CPPU [N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-pheuylurea] on delaying senescence of harvested broccoli florets was studied. The results showed that use of KT, 6-BA or CPPU on harvested broccoli delayed floret yellowing and chlorophyll degradation, decreased respiration and ethylene production rate, postponed climacteric time, and retarded membrane permeability loss. The content of endogenous ABA was lower and the levels of IAA and GA were higher in the broccoli treated with 6-BA and CPPU than those in the control during 12-84 h. The treated effects enhanced with increasing concentration in the study. The CPPU treatment (40 mg·L~(-1)) was most effective in delaying the broccoli yellowing, followed by 6-BA and KT.%以青花菜'绿皇后'品种为试材,研究了25℃条件下细胞分裂素类生长调节剂KT、6-BA和CPPU对延缓青花菜采后衰老的效果.结果表明:3种细胞分裂素类生长调节剂处理均在不同程度上延缓了青花菜花蕾黄化和叶绿素分解,推迟了呼吸和乙烯跃变峰出现的时间,降低了峰值,并维持了细胞膜稳定性.内源激素测定结果表明,6-BA和CPPU处理使青花菜花蕾在试验的前期阶段(12~84 h)一直保持相对较高的内源IAA和GA水平,相对较低的内源ABA水平.3种细胞分裂素类生长调节剂以CPPU延缓青花菜衰老效果最为明显,其次是6-BA,KT效果最弱.延缓青花菜采后衰老效果随着处理的浓度增加而增加,以40 mg·L~(-1)CPPU延缓青花菜衰老效果最佳.

  20. 不同西兰花品种中硫代葡萄糖苷的组分与含量分析%Glucosinolate Component and Content Analysis of Different Broccoli Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁云花; 何洪巨; 宋曙辉; 简元才; 赵学志; 王文琪

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates component and content of 29 broccoli varieties were analyzed by HPLC method. As a result, a total of eight kinds of glucosinolates in broccoli bud-head were detected. Four kinds of them were aliphatic glucosino-lates, such as glucoiberin(IBE), progoitrin(PRO), glucoraphanin(RAA) and gluconapin(NAP), and the others were indolic glucosinolates, such as 4-Hydroxyglucobrassicin(4OH), glucobrassicin(GBC), 4-Methoxyglucobrassicin(4ME) and Neoglu-cobrassicin (NEO). The content of total glucosinolates was 11.27μmol·g-1 DW. RAA, GBC and NEO were the predomi-nant component of glucosinolates in broccoli bud-head, with a proportion of 34.78%, 25.02% and 23.25% respectively. The content of total glucosinolates in different variety of broccoli varied from 5.60 μmol·g-1 DW to 17.04 μmol·g-1 DW.%采用 HPLC 法测定分析了29个西兰花品种的硫代葡萄糖苷组分与含量,结果检测到8种硫代葡萄糖苷,包括4种脂肪族硫苷:3-甲基硫氧烯丙基硫苷、2-羟基-3-丁烯基硫苷、4-甲基硫氧丁基硫苷和3-丁烯基硫苷;4种吲哚族硫苷:4-羟基吲哚基-3-甲基硫苷、3-甲基吲哚基硫苷、4-甲氧基吲哚基-3-甲基硫苷和1-甲氧基吲哚基-3-甲基硫苷。总硫苷含量平均为11.27μmol/g,RAA、GBC 和 NEO 是西兰花三种主要的硫苷成分,分别占总硫苷含量的34.78%、25.02%和23.25%。不同西兰花品种的总硫苷含量变异范围5.60~17.04μmol/g,存在较大差异。