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Sample records for broccoli brassica oleracea

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandini Ravikumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli is an edible green plant that is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. They are rich in vitamin C, dietary fiber and also contain glucoraphin, sulforaphane, selenium and isothiocyanates. Broccoli is also an excellent source of indole-3-carbinol. These constituents present in broccoli are known to be very popular since they possess several anti-cancer properties and benefits. These anti-carcinogenic compounds have a wide variety of uses and benefits for the treatment of various diseases and disorders. Broccoli is widely used in the treatment of several forms of cancer and also treats other neural disorders. The therapeutic potential of broccoli has been explained under its role in cancer, diabetes and other diseases. In the treatment of cancer, most of the constituents or the phytochemicals of broccoli such as brassinin, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol etc. have been proved to be effectively beneficial. Even selenium plays a very important role in cancer prevention. The antioxidant activity of broccoli is induced by other phytochemicals such as glucosinolates, glucoraphin and sulforaphane. Sulforaphane in broccoli sprouts also has the potential to cure neural disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. It is also used to bring about cure in asthma and diabetic patients. Flavonoids have the effect of reducing the risk of diabetes. Therefore sulforaphane is widely used to treat various diseases and disorders.

  2. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  3. Compositional and Proteomic Analyses of Genetically Modified Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Harboring an Agrobacterial Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Mao-Sen Liu; Miau-Hwa Ko; Hui-Chun Li; Shwu-Jene Tsai; Ying-Mi Lai; You-Ming Chang; Min-Tze Wu; Chen, Long-Fang O.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also prelim...

  4. Compositional and Proteomic Analyses of Genetically Modified Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Harboring an Agrobacterial Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also prelimin...

  5. Effect of Different Growth State of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) on Low Temperature Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xin-mei; LI Yue-fang; YU Xi-hong

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the responding of different growth state on low temperature in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), we took prematurity broccoli hybrid as the objects. It was found that growth state was varied under different sowing time , moreover, stem became wider with the increasing of light density at the same leaf age.Seedling age of responding to low temperature vernalization only when they grew five leaves above and with over 3.03± 0.07 centimeter stalk width in "Qingfeng Broccoli 103". The older leaf age was and the stronger plant was, the more sensitive and the shorter demanded duration time on low temperature was, and the shorter time required when the plants entered into critical period of floral bud differentiation.

  6. Compositional and proteomic analyses of genetically modified broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) harboring an agrobacterial gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, "Green King". Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined. PMID:25170807

  7. Compositional and Proteomic Analyses of Genetically Modified Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Harboring an Agrobacterial Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Sen Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica, with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, “Green King”. Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined.

  8. Biotechnological advancement in genetic improvement of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of molecular biotechnology, plant genetic engineering techniques have opened an avenue for the genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has significantly contributed to the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop, of the family Brassicaceae; however, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during the commercial cultivation of broccoli. Thus, genetic engineering can be used as a tool to add specific characteristics to existing cultivars. However, a pre-requisite for transferring genes into plants is the availability of efficient regeneration and transformation techniques. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering provide an opportunity to improve broccoli in many aspects. The goal of this review is to summarize genetic transformation studies on broccoli to draw the attention of researchers and scientists for its further genetic advancement. PMID:26971329

  9. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica head initiation under field conditions

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    Alina Kałużewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A two–year study on the influence of temperature on broccoli head initiation was carried out at the ''Marcelin'' experimental station of the Poznań University of Life Sciences. In each year of the study, plants were planted in the field at four dates. The evaluation of the developmental phase of the broccoli shoot apex was based on the analysis of microscope slides. The date of head initiation was assumed as the day on which the first of the examined apices were found to be at the early generative phase. The plant characteristics (number of leaves, leaf area and stem diameter on the date of initiation were also determined. Variation in length of the period from planting to head initiation was found both between dates of planting and between experimental years. The shortest period from planting to initiation was when the plants were planted in April and June (17-18 days in the first year and the longest one for planting in April in the first year of the study (29 days. The length of the period from planting to head initiation depended on mean daily air temperature. The higher the temperature was, the shorter was the period.

  10. The transfer of 'Polima' cytoplasmic male sterility from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to broccoli (B. oleracea) by protoplast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, S A; Burnett, L A; Wildeman, R P; Kemble, R J

    1990-08-01

    Protoplast fusion was utilised to transfer Polima type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) from Brassica napus, canola cv. Polima Karat (Pol-Karat) to B. oleracea, broccoli, var. "Green Comet". Southern and RFLP analysis confirmed that four cybrids possessed nuclear genomes of broccoli with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts. A fifth cybrid was a nuclear hybrid between broccoli and Pol-Karat, with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts of broccoli. The broccoli type cybrids were morphologically similar to "Green Comet", while the hybrid type was an intermediate of the two fusion parents. Flowers on the cybrids were distinctive in that although they possessed a morphology typical of Polima, they had very reduced petals. The broccoli type cybrids exhibited some female fertility, albeit low, establishing potential for F1 hybrid production. PMID:24226699

  11. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  12. Assessing the anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates in Se-biofortified broccoli (brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts and florets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se ...

  13. Reproductive fitness of outcrossed hybrids between transgenic broccoli (brassica oleracea) carrying the ipt transgene and conventional varieties of kale, broccoli and cauliflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollens are potential carriers for genetically modified crops to transfer genetic materials horizontally to other plants. For phanerogams, pollen viability and cross-compatibility are critical factors for successful outcross hybridization. To evaluate this possibility, this project investigated pollen viability and pod setting rate by comparing broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Planck) and broccoli transformed with the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene. Both served as pollen donors and four other varieties as pollen receptors to determine outcross rates. For pollen viability, F1 progeny was higher (p?0.05) for the cross of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue significantly by FDA (fluorescein diacetate) assay. Higher successful hybrids were observed for transgenic ipt broccoli with Fu Yue, Li Syue and Green King. As pollen properties, number and grain diameter were significantly larger (p?0.05) in hybrid combinations of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue and Green King significantly (p?0.05). The pod setting rates were higher while transgenic ipt broccoli served as donor plant. These results analyzing pollen properties between transgenic crops with possible outcross candidates would serve as one of those critical strategies for evaluating environmental biosafety issues for transgenic crops. (author)

  14. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli. PMID:27446156

  15. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli. PMID:27446156

  16. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants. PMID:26721234

  17. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) acting as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruthiviraj, Prakash; Margret, Anita; Krishnamurthy, Poornima Priyadharsani

    2016-04-01

    Production of antimicrobial agents through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using green technology has been extensively made consistent by various researchers; yet, this study uses the flower bud's aqueous extracts of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) as a reducing agent for chloroauric acid (1 mM). After 30 min of incubation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was observed by a change in extract color from pale yellow to purple color. Synthesis of AuNps was confirmed in UV-visible spectroscopy at the range of approximately 560 nm. The SEM analysis showed the average nanoparticles size of 12-22 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AuNps was analyzed by subjecting it to human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The broccoli-synthesized AuNps showed the efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of above-mentioned microbes. It was confirmed that AuNps have the best antimicrobial agent compared to the standard antibiotics (Gentamicin and Fluconazole). When the concentrations of AuNps were increased (10, 25, and 50 µg/ml), the sensitivity zone also increased for all the tested microbes. The synthesized AuNps are capable of rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and, hence, have a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against major bacterial and fungal diseases in humans.

  18. Differential Responses of Two Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica Cultivars to Salinity and Nutritional Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokri Zaghdoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na+ and Cl− ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots—that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration—and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψπ, root hydraulic conductance (L0, and stomatal conductance (Gs. The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  19. Changes in SeMSC, Glucosinolates and Sulforaphane Levels, and in Proteome Profile in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica Fertilized with Sodium Selenate

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    Alejandra Moenne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC, total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica. Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 mmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  20. The effect of mulch and fertilizers on broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Italica oxidants and antioxidants

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    Ali Husain Jasim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Factorial field experiments was conducted during 2012/2013 growth season to study the effect of soil mulch (mulch and without mulch and some fertilizers (control, sulfur, organic and high potash fertilizer on H2O2 content and the activity of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione (GSH oxidative enzymes of broccoli leaves and flowers. The results showed that using mulch, fertilizer treatment and the interaction between mulch and high potash treatment led to a significant increase in CAT and SOD activity. Furthermore, high potash and sulfur supplementation caused a significant increase in broccoli antioxidants both in leaves and flowers respectively. We conclude that mulch and high potash treatment led to increase plant tolerance to salt stress by increasing antioxidant mechanisms.

  1. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF A NUMBER OF INTRODUCED BROCCOLI CULTIVARS (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. IN BATUR VILLAGE, KINTAMANI DISTRICT, BANGLI REGENCY, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Kadek Raleni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. is a vegetable crop belongs to Brassicaceae family. Broccoli has high nutrition, high in fiber and contains isotiacyanate that has anticancer activity. Broccoli market in Indonesia, particularly in modern supermarkets, increases 15-20% per year, however, productivity was still low, therefore effort to increase broccoli production in Indonesia need to be investigated. Field trial was conducted at Batur Village, Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, Bali, to find out cultivars that were adapted in tropical region. Introduced cultivars being trialed were ‘Alborada’, ‘Belstar’, ‘Fiesta’, ‘Sarasota’, ‘Bay Meadows’, ‘Castle Dome’, ‘Liutenant’, ‘Iron Man’, ‘Marathon’, ‘Green Gold’, ‘Imperial’, ‘Green Magic’ and ‘Lucky’ as control. Variable observed were vegetative growth, curding period, and productivity of each cultivar. This study employed Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replicates (plots and 8 plants each plot. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of variance on Costat program, followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT on 1% level. Results show that each cultivar varied in adaptability in tropical region. ‘Castle Dome’ has the highest productivity, while ‘Fiesta’ was the lowest.

  2. Changes in proximate composition, biochemical and antioxidant attributes broccoli (brassica oleracea l.) in relation to foliar application of selected plant growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of foliar application of selected plant growth regulators (PGRs) on the proximate composition, biochemical and antioxidants attributes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) leaves. Different concentrations of exogenously applied PGRs such as humic acid (HA), cytokinin (CK), gibberellic acid (GA3) and GA3+CK exhibited variable effect on the tested parameters. The foliar spray with HA (0.6 percentage), GA3+CK (20+20 ppm), GA3 (20 ppm) and CK (40 ppm) increased the contents of moisture, ash, crude fiber and crude protein in broccoli leaves. With few exceptions, the antioxidant capacity of broccoli leaves, in terms of estimation of total phenolics content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity, was also improved due to foliar spray of PGRs. The results showed that maximum contents of total chlorophyll (1.98 mg/g FW), protein (7.09 mg/g FW), and proline (0.62 μg/g FW) were exhibited by GA3+CK (10+10 ppm), GA3 (20 ppm) and GA3+CK (20+20 ppm) treated samples, respectively. Meanwhile, GA3+CK (10+10 ppm) was found to be the most effective growth promoter in lowering melondialdehyde (MDA) content (0.89 micro M/g FW) of broccoli leaves. In conclusion, it can be revealed that optimized foliar spray of selected PGRs, and especially of HA and mixture of GA3 and CK, is practically applicable towards improving biochemical and antioxidant attributes of broccoli leaves with potential nutritional benefits. (author)

  3. Effects of the 3D-clinorotation on endogenous substances of broccoli sprout (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, K.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Miyagawa, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges in this century We are studying on space agriculture to provide foods for space living people However careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances and food safety of plants cultivated in space Broccoli sprout Brassica oleracea var italica is known to produce sulforaphane 4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate which is effective to function as an antioxidant and enhance immunity Because of such substance it is recognized to be good food materials Broccoli sprouts were then cultivated for 3 days under the 3D-clinorotation The amount of sulforaphane produced by this treatment showed no significant difference compared to the ground control Secondly we examined population of microorganisms adhered on the surface of sprout cultivated under the 3D-clinorotation Number of the microorganisms colony formed was statistically higher than the control Mold species was identified to penicillium sp based on the microscopic observation Poor construction of plant cell wall elements cellulose lignin etc is well known effects of microgravity Defense function of the broccoli plant cells might be weakened against microorganism We also speculate other possible causes for the high rate of contamination such as photosynthetic activity of the plant or microclimate air flow heat transport and humidity around the seedling affected by pseudo-microgravity or the 3D-clinorotation Those factors may relate to the difference in proliferation

  4. Antiamnesic Effect of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Leaves on Amyloid Beta (Aβ)1-42-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon Kyeong; Ha, Jeong Su; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Jin Yong; Lee, Du Sang; Guo, Tian Jiao; Lee, Uk; Kim, Dae-Ok; Heo, Ho Jin

    2016-05-01

    To examine the antiamnesic effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) leaves, we performed in vitro and in vivo tests on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity. The chloroform fraction from broccoli leaves (CBL) showed a remarkable neuronal cell-protective effect and an inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The ameliorating effect of CBL on Aβ1-42-induced learning and memory impairment was evaluated by Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. The results indicated improving cognitive function in the CBL group. After the behavioral tests, antioxidant effects were detected by superoxide dismutase (SOD), oxidized glutathione (GSH)/total GSH, and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays, and inhibition against AChE was also presented in the brain. Finally, oxo-dihydroxy-octadecenoic acid (oxo-DHODE) and trihydroxy-octadecenoic acid (THODE) as main compounds were identified by quadrupole time-of-flight ultraperformance liquid chromatography (Q-TOF UPLC-MS) analysis. Therefore, our studies suggest that CBL could be used as a natural resource for ameliorating Aβ1-42-induced learning and memory impairment. PMID:27079470

  5. Database derived microsatellite markers (SSRs) for cultivar differentiation in Brassica oleracea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, S; Torp, A M; Holme, Inger;

    2007-01-01

     Fifty-nine Brassica oleracea cultivars, belonging to five botanical varieties, were evaluated for microsatellite (SSR) polymorphisms using 11 database sequence derived primer pairs. The cultivars represented 12 broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), ten Brussels sprouts (B. o. var. gemmifera...... vegetable brassicas....

  6. The Genetics of Brassica oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. oleracea crops encompass a family of vegetables that are among the most important in the world. The most commonly grown vegetables in this family include common cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli. Cabbage is the most widely produced of the three, cauliflower is less than cabbage, and broccoli i...

  7. ADAPTABILITY, FERTILIZER EFFECT AND NUTRITION CONTENT OF VARIOUS BROCCOLI CULTIVAR (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica INTRODUCED IN KOPANG, CENTRAL LOMBOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenul Gafari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to determine adaptability of eight introduced broccoli cultivars in the tropical climate, the effect of fertilizers, as well as determine the content of vitamin A, C and fiber owned by the cultivar. This research was using randomized complete block design ( RCBD with two factors. The first factorsare different broccoli cultivars namely Broccoli 'Lucky', Broccoli 'B - 106', Broccoli 'B-116', Broccoli 'B-112', Broccoli 'Green 2109' F1, Broccoli 'Green calabrase' and Broccoli 'Green Magic 'and Broccoli' Mujur'as a control. The second factors fertilizer of ZA, manure and urea. This research was performed in Kopang, Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, for seven months from December 2014 to Juni 2015.Analysis of the nutrient content was done at the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, University of Mataram, Lombok. Parameters observed in this research were plant height, number and weight of leaves, and quality of curd. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA if significantly different then tested further by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5% level. The results showed all the cultivars able to adapt. Broccoli 'B-106' is a cultivar that has the quality and quantity of curd most excellent and able to adapt to high temperatures. ZA fertilizer application will produce curd weight and diameter greater than that ofmanure or urea. The research also showed that cultivar B-112 has the highest content of vitamin A, B-116 has the highest vitamin C and Green 2109F1 has the highest fibers.

  8. Yield and Quality Components of Broccoli Cultivars (Brassica oleracea L. convar. botrytis (L. Alef. var. italica Plenck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Toth

    1998-12-01

    According to total yield in the three investigation years it was not possible to point out any cultivar. The highest yield and average weight of top inflorescences was achieved with cultivars Fiesta, Bolivia, Platini and Viking (6.3, 6.2, 6.2 and 6.0 t×ha -1 , resp. 169, 168, 168 and 162 g. Evaluation of the compactness of these inflorescences suggest an exceptional strength. Cultivars Citation and Cruiser excel as regards the production and yield of side inflorescences (2.2 and 2.4 t×ha -1 . For the broccoli production in north-west Croatia during the summer-autumn period recommended cultivars for fresh consumption are Bolivia, Fiesta, Platini and Viking and for processing industries Citation and Cruser.

  9. Effect of devernalization on the transition from vegetative to prefloral phase of the broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. 'Fiesta' shoot meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Zenkteler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and histological changes which occur in the cold-induced apical meristem of broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica cv. ‘Fiesta’ during transition from the vegetative to the generative phase have been demonstrated in our previous investigations. Now, a light microscopic study on the micromorphological parameters of the tunica and corpus of the meristem was undertaken to ascertain their association with devernalisation. Changes in the apex of broccoli seedlings grown for 26 days at 24oC, succeeded by 35 days of cold treatment (16oC - vernalization followed by 14 days of warm treatment (24oC - devernalization, were studied and described. Microscopic analysis according to the new method of slide preparation showed cytohistological zonation and the spatial distribution of cells in the central and peripheral zones of the broccoli shoot meristem more precisely than possible hitherto. Comparison between subsequent stages of meristem reorganization after devernalization revealed variation in the structure of the apex during its transition to the evocation phase of flowering. The results of measurements show that the tunica width changes irregularly, increasing from its minimum value (112.39±5.78 μm through the medium one to the maximum values (260.32±2.50, to decrease again, while its height increased and decreased sinusoidally from its minimum value (21.52±4.30μm to the maximum one (76.98±7.44μm and then decreasing again to the minimum value (21.52±4.30. The stratification of the tunica as well as its width and height revealed relatively low variation within the analyzed time. These structural traits correlated with cold/warm treatments may be further utilized in the broccoli breeding programme against developmental disturbances.

  10. EFFECTS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF BROCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Kandil; Nadia Gal

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in research and production station, El- Nubaria location, National Research Centre, Egypt during winter season, 2008, to study the effect of different solution fertilizers formula and organic manure on vegetative growth, heads yield quantity and quality as well as nutrient composition of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).The obtained results showed that all mineral solution fertilizers gave a significant synergistic effect for broccoli growth, yield qu...

  11. Biofumigation using a wild Brassica oleracea accession with high glucosinolate content affects beneficial soil

    OpenAIRE

    Zuluaga, D.L.; Ommen Kloeke van, A.E.E.; Verkerk, R.; Röling, W.F.M.; Ellers, J.; Roelofs, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study explores the biofumigation effects of glucosinolate (GSL) containing Brassica oleracea plant material on beneficial, non-target soil organisms, and aims to relate those effects to differences in GSL profiles. Methods Leaf material of purple sprouting broccoli ‘Santee’, Savoy cabbage ‘Wintessa’, and the wild B. oleracea accession Winspit was analysed for GSL production and used for biofumigation experiments on the beneficial soil invertebrates, Folsomia candida (springtail) and...

  12. Comparative sequence analysis for Brassica oleracea with similar sequences in B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Dan; Gao, Muqiang; Li, Genyi; Quiros, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    We sequenced five BAC clones of Brassica oleracea doubled haploid ‘Early Big' broccoli containing major genes in the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway, and comparatively analyzed them with similar sequences in A. thaliana and B. rapa. Additionally, we included in the analysis published sequences from three other B. oleracea BAC clones and a contig of this species corresponding to segments in A. thaliana chromosomes IV and V. A total of 2,946 kb of B. oleracea, 1,069 kb of B. rapa sequence and 2...

  13. Soil pH and nutrient uptake in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) in Northern Sweden. Multielement studies by means of plant and soil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Margareta [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden

    2000-07-01

    To reveal nutrient element deficiencies or imbalances limiting vegetable production in northern Sweden, multielement soil and plant analyses were performed in cauliflower and broccoli during the period 1989 to 1996. The pH range of the soils was 4.4-8. 1. The results were evaluated with the multivariate statistical methods PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and PLS (Partial Least Squares Projection to Latent Structures). The major yield-limiting elements were Mg, B, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu. This was a result of high soil pH and large content of Ca in the soil. The reason for B deficiency was also low B content in the soil. Applications of green mulch increased yield on soils with a pH below 6.0. It also increased the uptake and concentration in the plants of B, Ba, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, N, P, Se and Zn, and decreased the uptake and concentration of Al, Cs and Tl. The mineral fertilizer applied, NPK 11-5-18 micro, decreased soil pH. This has resulted in larger uptake and higher concentrations in the plants of Co and Mn, in comparison to where cattle manure was applied. This fertilizer strongly decreased uptake of Mo, as a result of both the acidifying effect and the large S content. Repeated applications of nitrate of lime in combination with the NPK 11-5-18 strongly increased the uptake of Cs by the plants. The results in this investigation, together with the literature reviews, strongly indicate that a relatively low soil pH (5.0-5.5) is favourable when organic fertilizers are used and that harmful effects of very low soil pH (<5.0), are ameliorated by organic materials but aggravated by mineral fertilizers. The main purpose of lime is to counteract the acidity and increased leaching created by mineral fertilizers. Because of the historical context in which the lime requirements were established, the dangers of acid soils appear to have been strongly overestimated.

  14. Effects of Organic and Waste-Derived Fertilizers on Yield, Nitrogen and Glucosinolate Contents, and Sensory Quality of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvsthus, Ingunn; Breland, Tor Arvid; Hagen, Sidsel Fiskaa; Brandt, Kirsten; Wold, Anne-Berit; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Seljåsen, Randi

    2015-12-23

    Organic vegetable production attempts to pursue multiple goals concerning influence on environment, production resources, and human health. In areas with limited availability of animal manure, there is a need for considering various off-farm nutrient resources for such production. Different organic and waste-derived fertilizer materials were used for broccoli production at two latitudes (58° and 67°) in Norway during two years. The fertilizer materials were applied at two rates of total N (80 and 170 kg ha(-1)) and compared with mineral fertilizer (170 kg ha(-1)) and no fertilizer. Broccoli yield was strongly influenced by fertilizer materials (algae meal fertilizer). Yield, but not glucosinolate content, was linearly correlated with estimated potentially plant-available N. However, extruded shrimp shell and mineral NPK fertilizer gave higher glucosinolate contents than sheep manure and no fertilizer. Sensory attributes were less affected by fertilizer material and plant-available N. PMID:26553169

  15. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Ekstrak Etanol Bunga Brokoli (Brassica oleracea L.) Terhadap Nilai Sun Protection Factor Krim Tabir Surya Kombinasi Avobenzone dan Oktil Metoksisinamat Secara in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmatulliza, Nova

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sunscreen is a cosmetic preparation, that is used on the surface of skin that works by absorbing, scattering or reflecting UV light. Broccoli flowers contain flavonoids which can absorb UV rays and have a high antioxidant activity. Purpose: To determine the formulation of ethanol extract of broccoli flowers, physical stability, the effect of ethanol extract concentration of broccoli flowers (Brassica oleracea L.) on sun protection factor (SPF) value of avobenzone and octyl methoxy...

  16. EFFECTS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF BROCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kandil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in research and production station, El- Nubaria location, National Research Centre, Egypt during winter season, 2008, to study the effect of different solution fertilizers formula and organic manure on vegetative growth, heads yield quantity and quality as well as nutrient composition of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica.The obtained results showed that all mineral solution fertilizers gave a significant synergistic effect for broccoli growth, yield quantity and quality as well as nutrients composition compared the control (mineral N, P, K recommended fertilizers. The mineral formula 19: 19: 19 recorded the highest growth heads, yield and quality along with mineral content in broccoli. Using farmyard manure plus inorganic fertilizers enhanced all growth and yield parameters. Applying farmyard manure plus the mineral solution fertilizer formula 19: 19: 19 caused the superior and optimum figures of broccoli growth, mineral composition as well as heads yield quantity and quality. Organic manure alone recorded the lowest one.

  17. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction of phenolics from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) inflorescences and evaluation of antioxidant activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhu, Junxiang; Yang, Long; Wang, Ran; Wang, Chengrong

    2015-06-01

    An efficient ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction technique was applied to extracting phenolics from broccoli inflorescences without organic solvents. The synergistic model of enzymolysis and ultrasonication simultaneously was selected, and the enzyme combination was optimized by orthogonal test: cellulase 7.5 mg/g FW (fresh weight), pectinase 10 mg/g FW, and papain 1.0 mg/g FW. The operating parameters in ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction were optimized with response surface methodology using Box-Behnken design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic power, 440 W; liquid to material ratio, 7.0:1 mL/g; pH value of 6.0 at 54.5 ℃ for 10 min. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of phenolics achieved 1.816 ± 0.0187 mg gallic acid equivalents/gram FW. The free radical scavenging activity of ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction extracts was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl·assay with EC50 values of 0.25, and total antioxidant activity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay with ferric reducing antioxidant power value of 0.998 mmol FeSO4/g compared with the referential ascorbic acid of 1.184 mmol FeSO4/g. PMID:24837595

  18. Plant Male Sterility Induced by Anti-Gene CYP86MFin Brassica oleracea var. Italica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An anti-gene CYP86MF was introduced into hypocotyls of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.var. italica Plenck) with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the transgenic plants were obtained by kanamycin selection. The results of PCR, Southern blot and Northern blot indicated that the anti-CYP86MF has been integrated into chromosome of the transgenic plant.And also, plants with hypogenetic stamina or ungerminated pollen were observed. The transgenic male sterility plant could fructify via artificial pollination with normal pollen. Thus it was proved that the pistil of male sterility plant was normally developed, and the sterility originated from anti-CYP86MF.

  19. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  20. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O. T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, S. DOĞANCA, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  1. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  2. Meristem identity gene expression during curd proliferation and flower initiation in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Denise V; Björkman, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The regulation of reproductive development in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis DC) and broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. italica Plenck) is unusual in that most enlargement occurs while development is arrested at a distinct stage. Cauliflower and broccoli curds are composed of inflorescence meristems and flower buds, respectively. To determine whether this arrest is maintained by altered expression of the genes that specify these steps in Arabidopsis, the expression of each copy of their homologues (MADS-box genes BoAP1-a, BoAP1-c, BoCAL, BoFUL-a, BoFUL-b, BoFUL-c, and BoFUL-d; and non-MADS-box genes BoLFY, AP2, UFO, and BoTFL1) and the cauliflower curd-specific genes CCE1 and BoREM1 were measured simultaneously in heads that were arrested at different developmental stages by varying temperature, but had a common genotype. Transcript abundance of BoFUL paralogues and BoLFY was highest at the cauliflower stage of arrest, consistent with these genes initiating inflorescence meristems. The expression of other genes was the same regardless of the developmental stage of arrest. The expected models can therefore be excluded, wherein maintenance of arrest at the inflorescence meristem is a consequence of suppression of BoCAL, BoAP1-a, or BoLFY, or failure to suppress BoTFL1. Floral primordia and floral buds were normal in boap1-a boap1-c bocal triple mutants; therefore, other meristem identity genes can specify floral initiation (A-function) in B. oleracea. BoTFL1, a strong repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis, did not suppress the formation of the floral primordium in B. oleracea. Initiation of floral primordia and enlargement of floral buds in broccoli and cauliflower is not controlled solely by homologues of the genes that do so in Arabidopsis. PMID:18332227

  3. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of stems of

  4. Reduction of duplication in a Brassica oleracea germplasm collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintum, van Th.J.L.; Boukema, I.W.; Visser, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    To reduce the number of accessions in the Brassica oleracea collection of the Centre for Genetic Resources The Netherlands (CGN) groups of accessions were bulked. Accessions in a group were selections from the same landrace or old variety, and were chosen, with the help of crop experts, on the basis

  5. Effects of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai over Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin in broccoli, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Mérida State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Labrador Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Trichoderma harzianum in suppressing clubroot of brassicas, which is caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was tested on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck, in field conditions, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Merida State, Venezuela. The experiment showed that the applications of a biopesticide based on this antagonist had a significant effect on the percentage of health plants and the crop yields, in dependence of the dose used. In addition, the relation benefits/cost was also favorable. These results showed that, for these particular conditions, P. brassicae is an adequate biological alternative to control the clubroot of brassicas, no aggressive to environment and human beings, useful for the transition phase toward a sustainable agriculture, without chemical pesticides.

  6. 光照处理提高鲜切西兰花贮藏品质%Quality Improvement of Fresh-Cut BroccoliBrassica Oleracea L.) during Storage by Light Illumination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹丽娟; 魏国强; 乔明武; 王慧荣

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of continuous light illumination at 2000 lx on the quality of fresh-cut broccoli during 7 days of cold storage was investigated by spectrophotometry. The results indicated that light illumination significantly alleviated chlorophyll degradation and yellowing occurrence during storage, and meanwhile could maintain carotenoids, total soluble solid and vitamin C contents as well as antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut broccoli during storage. However, light illumination also induced more weight loss of fresh-cut broccoli during the whole storage compared with dark storage.%为减缓鲜切西兰花贮藏期间品质下降,延长贮藏期,运用分光光度法研究连续光照处理(2000ix)对鲜切西兰花低温贮藏期间品质变化的影响。结果表明,和黑暗对照相比,光照处理显著减缓鲜切西兰花贮藏期间叶绿素降解和黄化发生率,维持类胡萝卜素、可溶性固形物和抗坏血酸含量,从而使其保持较高的抗氧化力。然而,光照处理显著促进鲜切西兰花鲜质量损失。

  7. Pengaruh pemupukan terhadap akumulasi timbal pada kubis (Brassica oleracea L.) dan sawi putih (Brassica rapa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silviana, Ernita

    2016-01-01

    Toxic metals accumulation in growing plant is influenced by the soil composition, water, air and planting sites, fertilization and crop types. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) are plants that is able to absorb toxic metals. This study aimed to determine the effect of dosage of NPK fertilizer and organic fertilizer on metal lead accumulation in cabbage and chinese cabbage. This research was carried out in plastic house in Simpang Tiga Redelong highlands...

  8. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Acephala).

    OpenAIRE

    F. Fernandes; Ferreres, F.; Oliveira, J; Valentão, P.; Pereira, J. A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P. B.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetables of the Brassica group are the most commonly grown and consumed worldwide. Food plants with apparent cancer and cardiovascular di sease-preventing properties include several varieties of Brassica oleraceae. The majority of the herbivorous insect species are specialized feeders, for which the behavioral decision to accept a plant as food or oviposition substrate is mainly related with sensory information. Pieris insects (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) are specialist herbivores...

  9. Efeito residual da adubação verde no rendimento de brócolo (Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica cultivado em sucessão ao milho (Zea mays L. Residual effect of the green manures in broccoli (Brassica oleraceae var. Italica yield cultivated in succession to corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Perin

    2004-12-01

    residual effects of the single and intercropped sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea and millet (Pennisetum americanum as green manures on nitrogen transfer and yield of broccoli crop in succession to corn in absence and presence of fertilization of 150kg ha-1 of N. The experiment is a randomized block in split plot design and four replicates. The plot treatments were the previous cultivation of sunnhemp, millet, sunnhemp + millet and spontaneous vegetation. On subplots, the treatments were 150kg ha-1 of N and control (absence of N-fertilizer on broccoli. The succession involved the cultivation of the green manures (September, 26th, 2001 to December, 03th, 2001, followed by corn crop (December, 04th, 2001 to May, 28th, 2002 and broccoli hybrid Big Sur (June, 05th, 2002 to August, 10th, 2002 in zero tillage on the corn residues. It was not detected residual effect of the green manures on the diameter, dry weight of flower buds and dry mass yield of broccoli, either in the absence or presence of N-fertilizer. The presence of the single sunnhemp on crop rotation elevated the content and accumulation of N in the leaves and flower buds of broccoli, either in the absence or presence of 150kg ha-1 of N. In the intercrop sunnhemp and millet, the presence of the leguminous elevated the content and accumulation of N in inflorescences, comparatively to the single millet. In the plots without N-fertilizer and cultivated with sunnhemp the diameter of broccoli buds was similar to spontaneous vegetation + 150kg ha-1 of N. However, the yield of broccoli and the content and accumulation of N in buds were greater after spontaneous vegetation + 150kg ha-1 of N than after green manures without N-fertilizer. The utilization the N from biological fixation by broccoli inflorescences was 9.15% when single and 8.48% when intercropped.

  10. 细胞分裂素类生长调节剂对青花菜采后衰老的影响%Effects of Cytokinin Growth Regulators on Senescence of Harvested Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) Florets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云莉; 王成荣; 王然; 杨绍兰; 刘宪路

    2009-01-01

    Application of cytokinin growth regulators, KT (Kinetin), 6-BA (Benzyladenine), and CPPU [N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-pheuylurea] on delaying senescence of harvested broccoli florets was studied. The results showed that use of KT, 6-BA or CPPU on harvested broccoli delayed floret yellowing and chlorophyll degradation, decreased respiration and ethylene production rate, postponed climacteric time, and retarded membrane permeability loss. The content of endogenous ABA was lower and the levels of IAA and GA were higher in the broccoli treated with 6-BA and CPPU than those in the control during 12-84 h. The treated effects enhanced with increasing concentration in the study. The CPPU treatment (40 mg·L~(-1)) was most effective in delaying the broccoli yellowing, followed by 6-BA and KT.%以青花菜'绿皇后'品种为试材,研究了25℃条件下细胞分裂素类生长调节剂KT、6-BA和CPPU对延缓青花菜采后衰老的效果.结果表明:3种细胞分裂素类生长调节剂处理均在不同程度上延缓了青花菜花蕾黄化和叶绿素分解,推迟了呼吸和乙烯跃变峰出现的时间,降低了峰值,并维持了细胞膜稳定性.内源激素测定结果表明,6-BA和CPPU处理使青花菜花蕾在试验的前期阶段(12~84 h)一直保持相对较高的内源IAA和GA水平,相对较低的内源ABA水平.3种细胞分裂素类生长调节剂以CPPU延缓青花菜衰老效果最为明显,其次是6-BA,KT效果最弱.延缓青花菜采后衰老效果随着处理的浓度增加而增加,以40 mg·L~(-1)CPPU延缓青花菜衰老效果最佳.

  11. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for gene balance control, gene expression and regulation, and may affect the plant’s phenotype. Moreover, chromosome changes, in particular polyploidy, inversions and translocations play a signif...

  12. 不同干燥方式对西兰花蔬菜粉品质的影响%Effect of Different Drying Methods on Vegetable Powder Quality of the Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 杨性民; 孙金才

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the broccoli vegetable powder was as the research object.The changes of the main components and product quality of the broccoli vegetable powder by spray drying or vacuum freeze-drying (FD) treatment were studied in this paper.The results showed that:the main components after drying got enrichment,moisture content was greatly reduced.The moisture content of the broccoli powder by spray drying treatment was lower than vacuum FD's;But protein and vitamin C,the spray drying treatment was below the FD's.The colour,rehydration rate,dispersion,solubility,etc were analysised.The results showed that:in the colour,the spray drying powder was emerald green,but the FD's powder was thick green; In rehydration rate,FD's powder being the more effective; In dispersion,FD's powder was little better than the spray drying's; But in the solubility,powder,aroma,delicate degree,etc,the spray drying powder was better than the FD's broccoli vegetable powder.After the studying,found that the quality of the broccoli powder produced by vacuum freeze-drying treatmengt was better than by spray drying's.%以西兰花蔬菜粉为研究对象,研究西兰花蔬菜粉真空冷冻干燥、喷雾干燥前后产品的主要成分和品质变化.结果表明:干燥后主要成分得到浓缩,水分含量大大降低,其中喷雾干燥的西兰花粉的水分含量低于真空冷冻干燥的;在蛋白质和维生素C含量方面,喷雾干燥的低于冻干的西兰花粉.不同干燥方式对色泽、复水比、分散性、溶解度等品质的影响:在色差上,喷雾干燥的粉末为鲜绿色,而冻干的为浓绿色;在复水比上,冻干的蔬菜粉明显较喷雾干燥的优越;在分散性方面,冻干的粉末略好于喷雾干燥的;而在溶解度、粉性、香气、细腻度等方面,喷雾干燥的优于冻干的西兰花蔬菜粉.真空冷冻干燥方式制得的西兰花粉品质比喷雾干燥的好.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of

  14. Genotype and Environment Effects on Carotenoid Content of Broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are secondary plant metabolites in vegetables reported to confer various positive health-promoting effects when consumed. Brassica oleracea L. vegetables are recognized as excellent sources of dietary carotenoids. Broccoli has emerged as the most important B. oleracea crop in the US an...

  15. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale. PMID:27045759

  16. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) populations to Mamestra brassicae (L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Lema Márquez, Margarita; Vilar, Marta; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops are severely damaged by different insect pests. Larvae of lepidopterous pests feed on foliage, creating large holes in leaves. Cabbage plants can tolerate some feeding damage before head formation. However, as larvae grow, they move to the center of the plant, boring into the cabbage head and resulting in head deformation, which reduce product marketability (Shelton et al., 1982). Feeding damage also increases the plants’ susceptibility to dise...

  17. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases. PMID:27171821

  18. Direct-Seeded Broccoli Responses to Reduced Nitrogen Application at Shoot-Tip Straightened Stage

    OpenAIRE

    LI Hong; Li, Tingxian; Robert J. Gordon; Asiedu, Samuel K.

    2009-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important high-nutritional-value vegetable yet broccoli plant and nitrogen nutrition relations are not well understood. We conducted a study of broccoli plant response to nitrogen nutrient treatments in a commercial production field in Nova Scotia. The objectives were to quantify the effects of nitrogen nutrition on direct-seeded broccoli development and plant nitrogen uptake in different soils. The nitrogen treatments consisted of the rates of ...

  19. Neglected Landraces of Collard (Brassica oleracea L.) from the Carolinas (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common garden crop grown in the coastal plain region of North and South Carolina (United States) is the non-heading, leafy green type of Brassica oleracea L. known as collard (B. oleracea Acephala Group). Predominantly a fall and winter vegetable in this region, collard is often the only green pl...

  20. Breeding Vegetables Adapted to High Temperatures: A Case Study with Broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Italica Group) has emerged in the last few decades as one of the most economically important vegetables grown in the United States. Evidence indicates that head development of most broccoli varieties is arrested by temperatures exceeding 30 C, temperatures that are ne...

  1. NOTICE OF RESEASE OF DOWNY MILDEW RESISTANT GREEN SPROUTING BROCCOLI INBRED LINE USVL089

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy mildew is one of the most destructive diseases of broccoli and other Brassica oleracea L. crops. This fungal disease, caused by the biotrophic parasite Peronospora parasitica (Pers. Fr.), is a problem worldwide. Fungicide application can provide some control of downy mildew in broccoli. How...

  2. Glucosinolate variation among six cultigens of broccoli grown in five diverse east coast locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) consumption has increased in the United States, driven at least partially by recognition that it is highly nutritious and contains high concentrations of glucosinolates (GS). Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites in broccoli that when digested have a det...

  3. Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea ge...

  4. The effect of seedling chilling on glutathione content, catalase and peroxidase activity in Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the possible relationship between Brassica oleracea var. italica seedlings stored at 2°C in the dark for seven and fourteen days, respectively, and the level of certain antioxidant parameters in particular organs. A parallel objective of the experiment was to determine if the reaction of seedlings to low temperature might be persistent in fully developed plants until harvest time. After 14 days of chilling a significant increase in the glutathione content was observed in the seedling leaves in comparison to the non-chilled plants. During vegetation in field conditions this effect was maintained in leaves up to the stage of formation of flower buds. At harvest the highest content of glutathione was demonstrated in broccoli heads, obtained from plants, which were previously chilled in the seedling phase for two weeks. Peroxidase activity in broccoli seedlings increased each year of the three-year study due to the duration of the cooling time, whereas in the case of catalase the changes were not so distinct. At harvest time the activity of both enzymes in the leaves and flower buds fluctuated according to the particular year of study.

  5. Application of in vitro pollination of opened ovaries to obtain Brassica oleracea L. × B. rapa L. hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of experiments concerning: (1) interspecific hybridization of Brassica oleracea × Brassica rapa via application of in vitro placental pollination and (2) embryological analysis of the process of resynthesis of Brassica napus. In order to overcome certain stigma/style barriers, B. rapa pollen was placed in vitro on an opened B. oleracea ovary (with style removed). Pollinated ovaries were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. After 24-d culture, the develo...

  6. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez; Helber Enrique Balaguera-López; Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.); mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, tre...

  7. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum. PMID:22224911

  8. Perennial kales: collection rationalization and genetic relatedness to other Brassica oleracea crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Bas, N.

    2008-01-01

    Perennial kale is a rare leafy vegetable and forage crop that is mainly vegetatively propagated and therefore expensive to conserve ex situ. A genebank collection of 47 perennial kales and 34 reference samples from the main Brassica oleracea crop types were characterized with seven microsatellite ma

  9. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (A

  10. Seed and leaf treatments with natural compounds to induce resistance against Peronospora parasitica in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Michta, A.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Boer, de W.J.; Davelaar, E.; Stevens, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Seed and leaf treatments with natural compounds having a low risk profile (LRP) were evaluated for their potential to induce resistance in cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea) against Peronospora parasitica, causal organism of downy mildew. The selection of 34 LRP compounds comprised micronutrients, o

  11. Interaction between atmospheric hydrogen sulfide deposition and pedospheric sulfate nutrition in Brassica oleracea L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, LJ; Westerman, S; Stuiver, CEE; Weidner, W; Stulen, I.; Grill, D

    2002-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. is able to utilize H2S as sulfur source for growth and it can replace pedospheric sulfate as sulfur source. The foliage forms an active sink for atmospheric H2S, which is directly metabolized into cysteine and subsequently into other organic sulfur compounds. H2S exposure result

  12. Response of yield and quality of cauliflower varieties (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs to some vegetables such as cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) can be large. One approach to decreasing the input of N may be to select for cultivars efficient in the use of nitrogen. The objective of this investigation was to identify a cultivar which wa

  13. Gene expression programs during Brassica oleracea seed maturation, osmopriming and germination process and the stress tolerance level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeda, Y.; Konings, M.C.J.M.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Stoopen, G.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Kodde, J.; Bino, R.J.; Groot, S.P.C.; Geest, van der A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    During seed maturation and germination, major changes in physiological status, gene expression, and metabolic events take place. Using chlorophyll sorting, osmopriming, and different drying regimes, Brassica oleracea seed lots of different maturity, stress tolerance, and germination behavior were cr

  14. No de novo sulforaphane biosynthesis in broccoli seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Antonie; Kraut, Nicolai U.; de Visser, Ries; de Vries, Marcel; Roelofsen, Han; Vonk, Roel J.

    2011-01-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane, present in significant amounts in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) seedlings in the form of its precursor glucoraphanin, has been identified as an inducer of quinine reductase, a phase-II detoxification enzyme known for its anticarcinogenic properties. Its concentrati

  15. The Effect of Steaming on the Glucosinolate Content in Broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Knol, J.J.; Dekker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Total and individual glucosinolates were measured after different duration of steaming broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica). During steaming, the temperature profile, cell lysis and inactivation of myrosinase were assessed as well. Steaming resulted in high retention of total aliphatic and i

  16. Comparative analysis of disease-linked single nucleotide polymorphic markers from Brassica rapa for their applicability to Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Cho

    Full Text Available Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes, biological process (96 genes, and cellular component (96 genes. A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH--developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP--based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea, and 123 new SNP markers (BRS--derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis, were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome, selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%, 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%, and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9% showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species.

  17. A homolog of the RPS2 disease resistance gene is constitutively expressed in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvas Celia C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified disease resistance gene homologs in Brassica oleracea and assessed their expression in lines resistant and susceptible to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. Two DNA fragments of approximately 2.5 kb (BI-16/RPS2 and Lc201/RPS2 were amplified by PCR from two Brassica lines using primers based on an RPS2 homologous sequence previously described in the Brassica oleracea ecotype B117. The sequences of these fragments shared high similarity (95-98% with RPS2 homologs from various Brassica species. The digestion of these fragments with restriction enzymes revealed polymorphisms at the Xba I restriction sites. The length polymorphisms were used as a co-dominant marker in an F2 population developed to segregate for resistance to Xcc, the causal agent of black rot. Linkage analysis showed no significant association between the marker and quantitative trait loci for black rot. RT-PCR with specific primers yielded an expected 453 bp fragment that corresponded to the RPS2 homologs in both resistant and susceptible lines inoculated with the pathogen, as well as in non-inoculated control plants. These results suggest that these homologs are constitutively expressed in B. oleracea.

  18. Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we describe public immortal mapping populations of self-compatible lines, molecular markers, and linkage maps for Brassica rapa and B. oleracea. We propose that these resources are valuable reference tools for the Brassica community. The B. rapa population consists of 150 recombinant...

  19. Functional alleles of the flowering time regulator FRIGIDA in the Brassica oleracea genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Judith A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants adopt different reproductive strategies as an adaptation to growth in a range of climates. In Arabidopsis thaliana FRIGIDA (FRI confers a vernalization requirement and thus winter annual habit by increasing the expression of the MADS box transcriptional repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC. Variation at FRI plays a major role in A. thaliana life history strategy, as independent loss-of-function alleles that result in a rapid-cycling habit in different accessions, appear to have evolved many times. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize orthologues of FRI in Brassica oleracea. Results We describe the characterization of FRI from Brassica oleracea and identify the two B. oleracea FRI orthologues (BolC.FRI.a and BolC.FRI.b. These show extensive amino acid conservation in the central and C-terminal regions to FRI from other Brassicaceae, including A. thaliana, but have a diverged N-terminus. The genes map to two of the three regions of B. oleracea chromosomes syntenic to part of A. thaliana chromosome 5 suggesting that one of the FRI copies has been lost since the ancient triplication event that formed the B. oleracea genome. This genomic position is not syntenic with FRI in A. thaliana and comparative analysis revealed a recombination event within the A. thaliana FRI promoter. This relocated A. thaliana FRI to chromosome 4, very close to the nucleolar organizer region, leaving a fragment of FRI in the syntenic location on A. thaliana chromosome 5. Our data show this rearrangement occurred after the divergence from A. lyrata. We explored the allelic variation at BolC.FRI.a within cultivated B. oleracea germplasm and identified two major alleles, which appear equally functional both to each other and A. thaliana FRI, when expressed as fusions in A. thaliana. Conclusions We identify the two Brassica oleracea FRI genes, one of which we show through A. thaliana complementation experiments is functional, and show

  20. Eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibition of Pipeline Steel Using Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    N. C. Ngobiri; E.E. Oguzie; Y. Li; L. Liu; Oforka, N. C.; O. Akaranta

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition capacity of Brassica oleracea (BO) extract on the corrosion of pipeline steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 was evaluated using electrochemical techniques. The results showed an excellent inhibition efficiency which increased with initial increase in extract concentration and temperature to a point and decreased with further increase in BO extract concentration and temperature. Mixed inhibition behaviour was proposed for the action of BO. The unique behaviour of BO was attributed to the organ...

  1. Analysis of protein transport in the Brassica oleracea vasculature reveals protein-specific destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Chenxing; Anstead, James; Verchot, Jeanmarie

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the vascular transport properties of exogenously applied proteins to Brassica oleracea plants and compared their delivery to various aerial parts of the plant with carboxy fluorescein (CF) dye. We identified unique properties for each protein. Alexafluor-tagged bovine serum albumin (Alexa-BSA) and Alexafluor-tagged Histone H1 (Alexa-Histone) moved slower than CF dye throughout the plant. Interestingly, Alexa-Histone was retained in the phloem and phloem parenchyma while Alexa-...

  2. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ...

  3. Differential resistance to Peronospora parasitica and Albugo candida in Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Leckie, D.; Cogan, N.; Astley, D.; Crute, I.R.; Boukema, I.W.; Santos, M.; Bahcevandziev, K.; Silva-Dias, J.; Monteiro, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    A sample of 22 accessions of Brassica oleracea were screened for their responses at the seedling stage to twelve isolates of the fungal pathogen Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew), and 14 accessions were screened for their responses at the seedling stage to nine isolates of Albugo candida (white blister). The results suggested that classic gene-for-gene interactions operate in the P. parasitica pathosystem whereas in the A. candida pathosystem the results could be explained either by a gen...

  4. Identification of genomic regions involved in resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from wild Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jiaqin; Ding, Yijuan; Lu, Kun; Wei, Dayong; Liu, Yao; Disi, Joseph Onwusemu; Li, Jiana; Liu, Liezhao; Liu, Shengyi; McKay, John; Qian, Wei

    2013-02-01

    The lack of resistant source has greatly restrained resistance breeding of rapeseed (Brassica napus, AACC) against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum which causes severe yield losses in rapeseed production all over the world. Recently, several wild Brassica oleracea accessions (CC) with high level of resistance have been identified (Mei et al. in Euphytica 177:393-400, 2011), bringing a new hope to improve Sclerotinia resistance of rapeseed. To map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Sclerotinia resistance from wild B. oleracea, an F2 population consisting of 149 genotypes, with several clones of each genotypes, was developed from one F1 individual derived from the cross between a resistant accession of wild B. oleracea (B. incana) and a susceptible accession of cultivated B. oleracea var. alboglabra. The F2 population was evaluated for Sclerotinia reaction in 2009 and 2010 under controlled condition. Significant differences among genotypes and high heritability for leaf and stem reaction indicated that genetic components accounted for a large portion of the phenotypic variance. A total of 12 QTL for leaf resistance and six QTL for stem resistance were identified in 2 years, each explaining 2.2-28.4 % of the phenotypic variation. The combined effect of alleles from wild B. oleracea reduced the relative susceptibility by 22.5 % in leaves and 15 % in stems on average over 2 years. A 12.8-cM genetic region on chromosome C09 of B. oleracea consisting of two major QTL intervals for both leaf and stem resistance was assigned into a 2.7-Mb genomic region on chromosome A09 of B. rapa, harboring about 30 putative resistance-related genes. Significant negative corrections were found between flowering time and relative susceptibility of leaf and stem. The association of flowering time with Sclerotinia resistance is discussed. PMID:23096003

  5. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  6. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Zhang; Tongjin Liu; Xixiang Li; Mengmeng Duan; Jinglei Wang; Yang Qiu; Haiping Wang; Jiangping Song; Di Shen

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization...

  7. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Arvid Diehn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and B. rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins.In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of A. thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re- name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  8. Atmospheric NH3 as plant nutrient: A case study with Brassica oleracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutrient-sufficient and nitrate- or sulfate-deprived plants of Brassica oleracea L. were exposed to 4 μl l-1 NH3 (2.8 mg m-3), and effects on biomass production and allocation, N-compounds and root morphology investigated. Nitrate-deprived plants were able to transfer to atmospheric NH3 as nitrogen source, but biomass allocation in favor of the root was not changed by exposure to NH3. NH3 reduced the difference in total root length between nitrate-sufficient and nitrate-deprived plants, and increased the specific root length in the latter. The internal N status, therefore, might be involved in controlling root length in B. oleracea. Root surface area, volume and diameter were unaffected by both nitrate deprivation and NH3 exposure. In sulfate-deprived plants an inhibitory effect of NH3 on root morphological parameters was observed. These plants, therefore, might be more susceptible to atmospheric NH3 than nitrate-deprived plants. The relevance of the present data under field conditions is discussed. - Atmospheric NH3 can serve as sole N source for Brassica oleracea, but does not change root biomass allocation in nitrate-deprived plants

  9. Importance of Genotype on Carotenoid and Chlorophyll Levels in Broccoli Heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are secondary plant metabolites in vegetables known to be essential in the human diet and reported to confer various positive health-promoting effects when consumed. Brassica oleracea L. vegetables like kale, cabbage, and broccoli are recognized as excellent sources of dietary carotenoi...

  10. Doubled haploid inbred lines USVL048 and USVL131 of heading broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two inbred lines of heading broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), designated USVL048 and USVL131, were released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2012. Both of the released lines are doubled haploids originally derived from another culture. As do...

  11. LETTUCE AND BROCCOLI RESPONSE AND SOIL PROPERTIES RESULTING FROM TANNERY WASTE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown on Willamette sil (Pachic Ultic Argixerolls) amended 1 and 2 yr earlier with chrome tannery wastes at rates up to 192 Mg ha to determine nutrient and trace element availability. Soils were sam...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF SEQUENCE CHARACTERIZED AMPLIFIED REGION (SCAR) MARKERS LINKED TO DOWNY MILDEW RESISTANCE IN BROCCOLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy mildew, caused by the fungal parasite Peronospora parasitica (Pers.:Fr.) Fr., is one of the most destructive diseases of Brassica oleracea L. crops, including broccoli. As environmental concerns regarding pesticide usage increase, the development and deployment of downy mildew resistant brocc...

  13. 闽东南沿海中部地区青花菜田间害虫发生动态及其可持续控制技术研究%Dynamics of Insect Pests in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var.italica) Field in Middle Southeast Coastal Region of Fujian Province and Its Sustainable Control Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王再兴; 官德义; 刘志钦; 陈桂信; 何水林

    2011-01-01

    青花菜是近年闽东南沿海地区发展迅速的一种出口蔬菜,但其病虫害发生过重,农残超标已严重制约了该地区青花菜的可持续发展,因此,建立并推广应用可持续病虫控制技术已势在必行.本研究以福建省惠安县青花菜生产田块为研究对象,在跟踪监测种植季节(9月份到翌年3月份)主要虫害发生动态并确立重点防治对象及其关键时期的基础上,研究了灯诱、性诱和高效低毒农药对其主要虫害的防治效果,从而建立起一套青花菜田间虫害的可持续控制技术.这一研究成果对闽东南沿海青花菜及类似十字花科蔬菜生产的可持续发展具有一定的指导意义.%Broccoli is one of the most important vegetables for export that have expanded rapidly in the past decades in the southeast costal region of Fujian Province. Excessive pesticide residues due to the inappropriate usage of pesticides has become a big problem for the sustainable development of broccoli in this area, and the development of sustainable pests and diseases control techniques is currently an urgent task. In this project, study on the dynamics of insect pests in the field of broccoli and its control were carried out in Huian County, which located in the middle part of southeast costal region of Fujian Province. The dynamics of pests in broccoli fields from September to March of next year was monitored, the main insect pests and the key period for their control were determined. The effect of light trap and sexual attraction as well as the effect of environment friendly pesticides on the main pests of broccoli were determined, and a sustainable control technique was consequently established. The results of this study are important for the pollution free production of broccoli as well as other brassicaceous vegetables in southeast coastal region of Fujian.

  14. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien addition lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai xia Gu; Shu Xing Shen; Yan Hua Wang; Jian Jun Zhao; Shu Xin Xuan; Xue Ping Chen; Xiao Feng Li; Shuang Xia Luo; Yu Jing Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage group-specific markers as B. oleracea linkage groups C2, C3, C6, C7 and C8. Based on the chromosomal karyotype of root tip cells, these five MAALs added individual chromosomes from B. oleracea var. capitata: chr 1 (the longest), chr 2 or 3, chr 5 (small locus of 25S rDNA), chr 7 (satellite-carrying) and chr 9 (the shortest). Five disomic alien addition lines were then generated by selfing their corresponding MAALs.

  15. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giattina Emily

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account

  16. MALDI-TOF characterization of hGH1 produced by hairy root cultures of Brassica oleracea var. italica grown in an airlift with mesh bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Edgar García; Ramírez, Emma Gloria Ramos; Gúzman, Octavio Gómez; Calva, Graciano Calva; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Pérez-Vargas, Josefina; Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Expression systems based on plant cells, tissue, and organ cultures have been investigated as an alternative for production of human therapeutic proteins in bioreactors. In this work, hairy root cultures of Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli) were established in an airlift with mesh bioreactor to produce isoform 1 of the human growth hormone (hGH1) as a model therapeutic protein. The hGH1 cDNA was cloned into the pCAMBIA1105.1 binary vector to induce hairy roots in hypocotyls of broccoli plantlets via Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Most of the infected plantlets (90%) developed hairy roots when inoculated before the appearance of true leaves, and keeping the emerging roots attached to hypocotyl explants during transfer to solid Schenk and Hildebrandt medium. The incorporation of the cDNA into the hairy root genome was confirmed by PCR amplification from genomic DNA. The expression and structure of the transgenic hGH1 was assessed by ELISA, western blot, and MALDITOF-MS analysis of the purified protein extracted from the biomass of hairy roots cultivated in bioreactor for 24 days. Production of hGH1 was 5.1 ± 0.42 µg/g dry weight (DW) for flask cultures, and 7.8 ± 0.3 µg/g DW for bioreactor, with productivity of 0.68 ± 0.05 and 1.5 ± 0.06 µg/g DW*days, respectively, indicating that the production of hGH1 was not affected by the growth rate, but might be affected by the culture system. These results demonstrate that hairy root cultures of broccoli have potential as an alternative expression system for production of hGH1, and might also be useful for production of other therapeutic proteins. PMID:24124083

  17. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  18. Effect of Botanical Insecticide of Macleya cordata on Physiology and Biochemistry of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the effect of Cyhalothrin and botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata in the Brassica oleracea L. investigated, the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein were determined. The results showed that under the stress of botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata at the same concentration, the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein were significantly lower than those with Cyhalothrin (p<0.05 except the proline content has not significant differences between Cyhalothrin and botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata with a dosage of 50×. The degree of damage with Cyhalothrin is greater than that of botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata.

  19. Identification and Expression Analysis of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes and Estimation of Glucosinolate Contents in Edible Organs of Brassica oleracea Subspecies

    OpenAIRE

    Go-Eun Yi; Arif Hasan Khan Robin; Kiwoung Yang; Jong-In Park; Jong-Goo Kang; Tae-Jin Yang; Ill-Sup Nou

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among t...

  20. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions. PMID:26870056

  1. Changes in the proteome of xylem sap in Brassica oleracea in response to Fusarium oxysporum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing ePu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conlutinans (Foc is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change >=2 fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and ten of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  2. Phenolic acid contents of kale (Brassica oleraceae L. var. acephala DC.) extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ayaz, F. A.; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, S.; Karaoglu, S.A.; Grúz, Jiří; Valentová, K.; Ulrichová, J.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2008), s. 19-25. ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Black cabbage * Kale * Brassica oleraceae var. acephala Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.696, year: 2008

  3. The suppressive effect of a commercial extract from Durvillaea potatorum and Ascophyllum nodosum on infection of broccoli by Plasmodiophora brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Wite, D.; Mattner, S. W.; Porter, I. J.; Arioli, T.

    2015-01-01

    A sand solution technique demonstrated the capacity for a commercial seaweed extract from Durvillaea potatorum and Ascophyllum nodosum (Seasol Commercial®) to significantly suppress infection of broccoli by Plasmodiophora brassicae. In the primary stages of infection, the extract reduced the number of plasmodia formed in the root hairs by 55 %. Later, in the secondary stages of infection, the extract reduced plasmodia in the root cortical cells by up to 84 %. The suppression of infection was ...

  4. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants. PMID:27543253

  5. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Kim, HyeRan; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, understanding of their function(s) during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST) and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible) under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants. PMID:27472324

  6. Interspecific Hybridization of Brassica campestris x B.Oleracea Through Ovary Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-qing; SONG Wen-jian; TANG Gui-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun

    2004-01-01

    Using three varieties of Brassica campestris, Hauarad (708), Maoshan-3 (714) and Youbai (715),as the maternal plants and one variety of Brassica oleracea Jingfeng-1 (6012) as paternal plants, crosses were made to produce interspecific hybrids through ovary culture techniques.The ovaries from the cross between B. campestris × B.oleracea (708 × 6012 and 714 × 6012) were cultured and ovary culture was more effective in terms of obtained seeds when ovaries were cultured in vitro at 9 d after pollination (DAP). While for the cross of 715 × 6012, it was better when ovaries in vitro cultured at 12 DAP. Among three cross combinations, the cross of 714 × 6012 showed the best response and 43 seeds per ovary were obtained. Among the media studied, the ovaries from the cross of 708 × 6012 cultured on MS media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA × 0.1 mg L-1 NAA showed better response, and its rate of seeds per ovary reached 44.0%.While the ovaries from the other two crosses (714 × 6012 and 715 × 6012) showed the best response when cultured on B5 media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.2 mg L-1 NAA, and the rates of seeds per ovary reached 72.0 and 60.0%, respectively. All seeds obtained from the three cross combinations were cultured on the MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.05 mg L-1 NAA,and the seeds from the cross of 715 × 6012 showed the best germination response and the percentage of germinations reached 66.7%. The regenerated plantlets were obtained from these seedlings after cultured on the MS media supplemented with 0.05 mg L-1 NAA. Cytological study showed that these regenerated plants were all true hybrids of B.campestris × B.oleracea.

  7. Genotyping-by-sequencing map permits identification of clubroot resistance QTLs and revision of the reference genome assembly in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonghoon; Izzah, Nur Kholilatul; Choi, Beom-Soon; Joh, Ho Jun; Lee, Sang-Choon; Perumal, Sampath; Seo, Joodeok; Ahn, Kyounggu; Jo, Eun Ju; Choi, Gyung Ja; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yu, Yeisoo; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Clubroot is a devastating disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae and results in severe losses of yield and quality in Brassica crops. Many clubroot resistance genes and markers are available in Brassica rapa but less is known in Brassica oleracea. Here, we applied the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to construct a high-resolution genetic map and identify clubroot resistance (CR) genes. A total of 43,821 SNPs were identified using GBS data for two parental lines, one resistant and...

  8. Variation of five major glucosinolate genes in Brassica rapa in relation to Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Qiu, D.; Quiros, F.

    2010-07-01

    Glucosinolates and their derivatives isothiocyanates are important secondary metabolites in the Brassica cea that has biological activity, such as cancer protecting and bio fumigant properties. The putative ortho logs of five major genes in the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway, Bra.GSELONG.a, Bra.GSALK.a, Bra.CYP83B1, Bra.SUR1.a and Bra.ST5.a, were cloned from both cDNA and genomic DNA from different subspecies of Brassica rapa. Inter species comparative analysis disclosed high conservation of exon number and size for GS-Elong, GS-Alk, GS-CYP83B1 and GS-ST5a among B. rapa, B. oleracea and A. thaliana. Splice site mutations caused the differences observed for exon numbers and sizes in GS-SUR1 among the three species. However, the exonic sequences were highly conserved for this gene. There were not major differences of intronic sizes among the three species for these genes, except for intron 1 for GS-Elong in two subspecies of B. rapa. The cloning of the putative ortho logs of all these major genes involved in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway of B. rapa and sequence analysis provide a useful base for their genetic manipulation and functional analysis. (Author) 31 refs.

  9. High-throughput multiplex cpDNA resequencing clarifies the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiangwei; Cai, Mengxian; Yan, Guixin; Wang, Nian; Li, Feng; Chen, Binyun; Gao, Guizhen; Xu, Kun; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus (rapeseed) is a recent allotetraploid plant and the second most important oilseed crop worldwide. The origin of B. napus and the genetic relationships with its diploid ancestor species remain largely unresolved. Here, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from 488 B. napus accessions of global origin, 139 B. rapa accessions and 49 B. oleracea accessions were populationally resequenced using Illumina Solexa sequencing technologies. The intraspecific cpDNA variants and their allelic frequencies were called genomewide and further validated via EcoTILLING analyses of the rpo region. The cpDNA of the current global B. napus population comprises more than 400 variants (SNPs and short InDels) and maintains one predominant haplotype (Bncp1). Whole-genome resequencing of the cpDNA of Bncp1 haplotype eliminated its direct inheritance from any accession of the B. rapa or B. oleracea species. The distribution of the polymorphism information content (PIC) values for each variant demonstrated that B. napus has much lower cpDNA diversity than B. rapa; however, a vast majority of the wild and cultivated B. oleracea specimens appeared to share one same distinct cpDNA haplotype, in contrast to its wild C-genome relatives. This finding suggests that the cpDNA of the three Brassica species is well differentiated. The predominant B. napus cpDNA haplotype may have originated from uninvestigated relatives or from interactions between cpDNA mutations and natural/artificial selection during speciation and evolution. These exhaustive data on variation in cpDNA would provide fundamental data for research on cpDNA and chloroplasts. PMID:26031705

  10. Polymer coating, germination and vigor of broccoli seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Celina de; Rocha Sandra Cristina dos Santos; Razera Luiz Fernandes

    2005-01-01

    Brassica oleracea var italica occupies a special place in the internal and external market of vegetables seeds. Vegetables producers demand seeds with high degree of purity, germination and vigor, since seeds' quality is the basis for the success of the production. In this work, broccoli seeds were coated in a spouted bed, by an aqueous suspension of hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose. Effects of the operating variables: spouting air temperature, atomizing air pressure and coating suspension flow rate o...

  11. Genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 miniature inverted-repeat transposable element families in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Sampath

    Full Text Available Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs are ubiquitous, non-autonomous class II transposable elements. Here, we conducted genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 MITE families in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. A total of 5894 and 6026 MITE members belonging to the 20 families were found in the whole genome pseudo-chromosome sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. Meanwhile, only four of the 20 families, comprising 573 members, were identified in the Arabidopsis genome, indicating that most of the families were activated in the Brassica genus after divergence from Arabidopsis. Copy numbers varied from 4 to 1459 for each MITE family, and there was up to 6-fold variation between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In particular, analysis of intact members showed that whereas eleven families were present in similar copy numbers in B. rapa and B. oleracea, nine families showed copy number variation ranging from 2- to 16-fold. Four of those families (BraSto-3, BraTo-3, 4, 5 were more abundant in B. rapa, and the other five (BraSto-1, BraSto-4, BraTo-1, 7 and BraHAT-1 were more abundant in B. oleracea. Overall, 54% and 51% of the MITEs resided in or within 2 kb of a gene in the B. rapa and B. oleracea genomes, respectively. Notably, 92 MITEs were found within the CDS of annotated genes, suggesting that MITEs might play roles in diversification of genes in the recently triplicated Brassica genome. MITE insertion polymorphism (MIP analysis of 289 MITE members showed that 52% and 23% were polymorphic at the inter- and intra-species levels, respectively, indicating that there has been recent MITE activity in the Brassica genome. These recently activated MITE families with abundant MIP will provide useful resources for molecular breeding and identification of novel functional genes arising from MITE insertion.

  12. Effect of Deinococcus radiodurans on uptake of 134Cs by Brassica oleracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deinococcus radiodurans was inoculated into the soil which was spiked with 134Cs to investigate its effect on chemical speciation of 134Cs. The relationship between chemical speciation of 134Cs and its absorbtion capacity by cabbage (Brassica oleracea) in the presence of D. radiodurans was also investigated. The results showed that an increase of 28.64%-38.17 % in content of 134Cs in residual phase was observed with presence of D. radiodurans in comparison with the aseptic control. The amounts of radiocesium uptaken by cabbage were about 12100Bq/g under aseptic conditions, however, which were about 8500Bq/g with the presence of D. radiodurans. The proportion of 134Cs taken up by cabbage decreased about 29% in comparison with the aseptic control. The chemical speciation could be influenced by D. radiodurans so that its uptake by plants could be reduced. (authors)

  13. Bemisia tabaci, Brevicoryne brassicae and Thrips tabaci abundance on Brassica oleracea var. acephala Abundância de Bemisia tabaci, Brevicoryne brassicae e Thrips tabaci em Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Kale Brassica oleracea var. acephala is attacked by whitefly Bemisia tabaci, aphid Brevicoryne brassicae and Thrips tabaci. One of the main reasons for extensive insecticide application is the lack of information about factors that control insect population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationships between predators and parasitoids, organic compound leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, total rainfall, relative humidity, sunlight and median temperature on the abundance of whitefly, aphid, and thrips in kale genotype "Talo Roxo". The beating tray method, direct counting and magnifying lens were used to estimate the number of these pests, predators and parasitoids. Median temperature, sunlight and relative humidity correlated to the amount of leaf nonacosane, which in turn was associated with aphids population increase. A tendency in the reduction of aphids and thrips populations with increase in total rainfall was observed. The whitefly can be a harmful pest in kale producing regions of higher temperature and smaller rainfall. In regions which present moderate temperature, where there is a high incidence of aphids, genotype with low leaf wax content should be chosen. Natural enemies, especially the parasitoid Adialytus spp., can control agents of the aphids population in kale.A couve, Brassica oleracea var. acephala, é atacada por mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci, pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae e tripes Thrips tabaci. Uma das principais razões para o uso intensivo de inseticidas é a falta de informação sobre os fatores que controlam a população de insetos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as relações entre predadores e parasitóides, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, pluviosidade total, umidade relativa, insolação e temperatura média na abundância da mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes em couve genótipo Talo Roxo. Foi usado o método da batida em bandeja

  14. Identification of a novel MLPK homologous gene MLPKn1 and its expression analysis in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiguo; Shi, Songmei; Liu, Yudong; Pu, Quanming; Liu, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Liquan

    2016-09-01

    M locus protein kinase, one of the SRK-interacting proteins, is a necessary positive regulator for the self-incompatibility response in Brassica. In B. rapa, MLPK is expressed as two different transcripts, MLPKf1 and MLPKf2, and either isoform can complement the mlpk/mlpk mutation. The AtAPK1B gene has been considered to be the ortholog of BrMLPK, and AtAPK1B has no role in self-incompatibility (SI) response in A. thaliana SRK-SCR plants. Until now, what causes the MLPK and APK1B function difference during SI response in Brassica and A. thaliana SRKb-SCRb plants has remained unknown. Here, in addition to the reported MLPKf1/2, we identified the new MLPKf1 homologous gene MLPKn1 from B. oleracea. BoMLPKn1 and BoMLPKf1 shared nucleotide sequence identity as high as 84.3 %, and the most striking difference consisted in two fragment insertions in BoMLPKn1. BoMLPKn1 and BoMLPKf1 had a similar gene structure; both their deduced amino acid sequences contained a typical plant myristoylation consensus sequence and a Ser/Thr protein kinase domain. BoMLPKn1 was widely expressed in petal, sepal, anther, stigma and leaf. Genome-wide survey revealed that the B. oleracea genome contained three MLPK homologous genes: BoMLPKf1/2, BoMLPKn1 and Bol008343n. The B. rapa genome also contained three MLPK homologous genes, BrMLPKf1/2, BraMLPKn1 and Bra040929. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BoMLPKf1/2 and BrMLPKf1/2 were phylogenetically more distant from AtAPK1A than Bol008343n, Bra040929, BraMLPKn1 and BoMLPKn1, Synteny analysis revealed that the B. oleracea chromosomal region containing BoMLPKn1 displayed high synteny with the A. thaliana chromosomal region containing APK1B, whereas the B. rapa chromosomal region containing BraMLPKn1 showed high synteny with the A. thaliana chromosomal region containing APK1B. Together, these results revealed that BoMLPKn1/BraMLPKn1, and not the formerly reported BoMLPKf1/2 (BrMLPKf1/2), was the orthologous genes of AtAPK1B, and no ortholog of Bo

  15. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83. ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  16. Kinetics of Changes in Glucosinolate Concentrations during Long-Term Cooking of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volden, J.; Wicklund, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. s

  17. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  18. Evaluation on physical properties of irradiated cabbage (Brassica oleracea l. var. acephala)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brassica family is well known all over the world, and among their species, the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) is the most consumed in Brazil, as an ingredient of salads and also usual in preparation of a typical Brazilian dish called feijoada. Food irradiation is a world wide spread technology used to improve the quality of vegetables extending the shelf-life and reducing microorganisms present in leafs. Color is the first sensorial aspect realized by consumers, being an important factor of refuse. The objective of this paper was to analyze the color of irradiated cabbage treated by electron beam from a linear accelerator at different radiation doses. The cabbage samples were irradiated at IPEN-CNEN/SP in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics Inc. USA, 1.5 MeV, 25 mA) at doses of 1.0 - 1.5 kGy and also a control sample. Statistical analysis was done to compare the efficacy of different radiation doses. Slight differences in color measurement were observed in the irradiated samples, although the quality of cabbage was maintained until the 7th day of storage. (author)

  19. Chlorophyll fluorescence of the testa of Brassica oleracea seeds as an indicator of seed maturity and seed quality

    OpenAIRE

    Jalink H.; Frandas A.; Schoor R. van der; Bino J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence of the testa of seeds is proposed as a non-invasive method for the determination of maturity and quality of seeds. In this study cabbage seeds (Brassica oleracea) were sorted individually based on the chlorophyll fluorescence signals into four subsamples labeled with respect to their chlorophyll fluorescence signal (low, medium, high and very high). The results show that the magnitude of the chlorophyll fluorescence signal was inversely related to the quality of the s...

  20. Bottom-up and top-down herbivore regulation mediated by glucosinolates in Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    OpenAIRE

    Santolamazza Carbone, Serena; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Cartea González, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative differences in plant defence metabolites, such as glucosinolates, may directly affect herbivore preference and performance, and indirectly affect natural enemy pressure. By assessing insect abundance and leaf damage rate, we studied the responses of insect herbivores to six genotypes of Brassica oleracea var. acephala, selected from the same cultivar for having high or low foliar content of sinigrin, glucoiberin and glucobrassicin. We also investigated whether the natural parasit...

  1. Penetration, Development, and Reproduction of Heterodera schachtii on Fagopyrum esculentum, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, J.; Caswell-Chen, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    The penetration, development, and reproduction of a California population of the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, was observed on cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), and white mustard (Sinapis alba). With the exception of the nonhost, phacelia, all were readily penetrated by second-stage juveniles of H. schachtii. After 38 days at 25 C, no cysts were observed on phacelia...

  2. Phenolic Component Profiles of Mustard Greens, Yu Choy, and 15 Other Brassica Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2010-01-01

    A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip, bok choy, bok choy tip, baby bok choy, bok choy sum, Taiwan bok choy, Shanghai bok choy, baby Shanghai bok choy, rapini broccoli, turnip green, napa, and baby napa. This work led to the tentative ...

  3. An enzymatic activity isolated from Brassica oleracea specific for UV-irradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of a breakdown in the ozone layer, an increase in the amount of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation can be expected. Organisms have evolved mechanisms to repair numerous types of DNA damages. While these DNA repair systems have been well characterized in bacteria and to a lesser extent in mammalian cells, surprisingly little is known about repair of potentially harmful DNA lesions in plants. An enzyme that recognizes and incises UV irradiated DNA has been partially purified from the leaf tissue of Brassica oleracea. Glycosylase-produced base loss sites were detected by a nitrocellulose filter-binding assay using UV-irradiated PM2 viral DNA as the substrate. The optimal temperature for maximal enzyme activity is 47C with a pH optimum between 7.0 and 7.5. In addition, the endonuclease is active in both Tris and phosphate buffers, although it is stimulated by phosphate concentrations up to 25 mM. Currently, a number of synthetic polynucleotides as well as DNAs of defined sequence are being employed as substrates to determine the nature of the UV-induced lesion and the precise mechanism of action of the enzyme

  4. Living mulch strategy for organic cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. production in central and southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Canali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In sustainable agricultural systems, intercropping using living mulches (LM provides many beneficial ecosystem services. The objective of these two-year field experiments was to study the suitability of different LM options of burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. var. anglona for organic cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. cultivation in two sites under Mediterranean conditions. In central Italy (Experiment 1 contemporary and delayed (to crop sowings of LM were compared with a no-cover crop treatment, contrasting two local cauliflower cultivars and a F1 Hybrid. In southern Italy (Experiment 2 the sustainability of systems combining LM (anticipated and contemporary sowing compared with no-cover and organic fertilisation strategies was assessed. The aboveground biomasses dry weights of cauliflower crop (heads and residues, burr medic and weeds were separately determined. Results suggested that in Experiment 1 the LM was not able to smother weeds establishment and growth, as a consequence of early sowing, while cauliflower yield was reduced. Moreover, the genotypes behaviour was greatly influenced by the LM sowing times. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the agronomic practices applied, climatic conditions notably influenced cauliflower cultivation and also reduced the mean yield. Therefore, the recorded differences between the two experimental sites highlighted the need to tailor the LM strategies to the different environmental conditions.

  5. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  6. In vivo examination of the anticoagulant effect of the Brassica oleracea methanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rafeeq Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticoagulant effect of the methanol extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (MEB was examined in rabbits. The animals were divided into five groups, each comprising seven animals. Three groups were administered increasing doses of MEB (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg, respectively; one group received warfarin (0.54 mg/kg; animals in the control group received saline (1 ml/day equivalent to the volume of doses applied to the treated and standard animals. Biochemical tests were performed on the 16th and 31st days of dosing. Animals that were administered MEB (500 mg MEB/kg 30 days displayed increases of 24.07 s, 28.79 s and 4.08 s in activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT, fibrinogen (Fg and thrombin time (TT. Compared to the control, the increase in aPTT and Fg was highly significant and the increase in TT was significant. The anticoagulant effect exhibited by MEB in rabbits may be due to inactivation or inhibition of factors affecting coagulation.

  7. 青花菜主要农艺性状的相关分析%Correlation Analysis of Main Agronomic Characters of Broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆信娟; 杨峰; 樊继德

    2011-01-01

    The 21 agronomic characters of 29 cultivars of broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. italica Planch. ) were evaluated, and the correlations among these agronomic characters were analyzed. The correlation analysis indicated that there were significant correlations (P < 0. 05 ) between 23 pairs of characters and very significant correlations (P < 0. 01 ) between 14 pairs of characters.%对29个青花菜品种的21个农艺性状进行了评价和相关分析.相关分析结果表明: 23对性状之间相关性达到显著水平,14对性状之间相关性达到极显著水平.

  8. Composition and antioxidant activity of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala raw and cooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Bodziarczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Cabbage vegetables, like Brassica group, are perceived as very valuable food products. They have a very good nutritive value, high antioxidant activity and pro-healthy potential. Especially, kale (Brassica oleraceaL. var.acephala is characterized by good nutritional and pro-healthy properties, but this vegetable is not popular in Poland. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of kale variety Winterbor F1 and investigation of cooking process on selected characteristics. Material and methods. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity were determined in leaves of kale Winterbor F1 variety after three subsequent years of growing. In one season, analyses were performed on raw and cooked leaves. Results. The investigated kale was characterized by high average contents of: β-carotene (6.40 mg/100 g f.m., vitamin C (62.27 mg/100 g f.m., alimentary fiber (8.39 g/100 g f.m. and ash (2.11 g/100 g f.m.. The average amounts of nitrites (III and (V were 3.36 mg NaNO2/kg f.m. and 1206.4 mg NaNO3/kg f.m., respectively. The investigated kale contained polyphenolic compounds at average level of 574.9 mg of chlorogenic acid/100 g f.m., and its antioxidant activity measured as ABTS radical scavenging ability was 33.22 μM Trolox/g of fresh vegetable. It was observed a significant lowering of antioxidant compounds as a result of cooking. The losses of vitamin C were at about 89%, polyphenols at the level of 56%, in calculation on dry mass of the product. The highest stability was shown in the case of beta-carotene, for which the losses were at about 5%. Antioxidant activity of cooked vegetable lowered and reached the level of 38%. There were also some losses observed in macro-components from 13% for zinc to 47% for sodium. The contents of harmful nitrites and nitrates in calculation on dry mass were significantly lower as a result of cooking, by 67% and 78%, respectively. Conclusion. Winterbor F1

  9. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  10. PENERAPAN PANJANG TALANG DAN JARAK TANAM DENGAN SISTEM HIDROPONIK NFT (Nutrient Film Technique PADA TANAMAN KAILAN (Brassica oleraceae var. alboglabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daviv Zali Vidianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kailan vegetables is one kind of high economic value that can be grown in hydroponic NFT (Nutrient Film Technique. The purpose of this study to determine the effect of chamfer length and spacing of the system hydroponic NFT (Nutrient Film Technique on the growth and yield kailan (Brassica oleraceae var. Alboglabra. The research has been done in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture, University Department Agroekoteknologi Trunojoyo Madura District Kamal village Telang Bangkalan. Tat is was conducted in February-May 2012. Research using methods completely randomized design (CRD with non factorial treatment chamfer length 2 m with spacing of 15 cm (P1J1, chamfer length 2 m with spacing of 20 cm (P1J2, chamfer length of 4 m with spacing of 15 cm (P2J1 and chamfer length of 4 m with spacing of 20 cm (P2J2. The materials used are kailan seeds, fertilizers and hydroponics Goodplant acetic acid (CH3COOH. Observations were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan continued Test Distance (UJD level of 5%. P1J1 (chamfer length of 2 meters and 15 cm plant spacing gives the best effect on the variable root length, number of leaves and plant canopy wet weight. The treatment does’n effect to variable leaf area, root wet weight, dry weight, and root dry weight of the plant canopyKeyword : Brassica oleraceae var. Alboglabra, hydroponik NFT, chamfer length and spacing

  11. Karyotyping of Brassica oleracea L.based on rDNA and Cot-1 DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Taixia; WU Chunhong; HUANG Jinyong; WEI Wenhui

    2007-01-01

    To explore an effective and reliable karyotyping method in Brassica crop plants,Cot-1 DNA was isolated from Brassica oleracea genome,labeled as probe with Biotin-Nick Translation Mix kit,in situ hybridized to mitotic spreads,and where specific fluorescent bands showed on each chromosome pair.25S and 5S rDNA were labeled as probes with DIG-Nick Translation Mix kit and Biotin-Nick Translation Mix kit,respectively,in situ hybridized to mitotic preparations,where 25S rDNA could be detected on two chromosome pairs and 5S rDNA on only one.Cot-1 DNA contains rDNA and chromosome sites identity between Cot-1 DNA and 25S rDNA was determined by dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization.All these showed that the karyotyping technique based on a combination of rDNA and Cot-1 DNA chromosome landmarks is superior to all but one.A more exact karyotype ofB.oleracea has been analyzed based on a combination of rDNA sites,Cot-1 DNA fluorescent bands,chromosome lengths and arm ratios.

  12. Impact of atmospheric sulfur deposition on sulfur metabolism in plants : H2S as sulfur source for sulfur deprived Brassica oleracea L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, L.J.; Stuiver, C.E.E.; Rubinigg, M.; Westerman, S.; Grill, D.

    1997-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. was rather insensitive to atmospheric H2S: growth was only negatively affected at greater than or equal to 0.4 mu l l(-1). Shoots formed a sink for H2S and the uptake rate showed saturation kinetics with respect to the atmospheric concentration. The H2S uptake rate was high in c

  13. Interaction between metabolism of atmospheric H2S in the shoot and sulfate uptake by the roots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, S; De Kok, LJ; Stulen, I.; Stuiver, C.Elisabeth E.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L.,) to gaseous H2S resulted in a decreased sulfate uptake by the roots. At 0.2 mu l l(-1) H2S, a level sufficient to meet the sulfur need of plants for growth, the sulfate uptake was maximally decreased by 50% after 3 or 4 days of exposure. Higher levels up

  14. 西兰花CYP83A1基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of CYP83A1 Gene from Brassica oleracea var. italica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳理惠; 李勇; 孔稳稳; 李晶

    2015-01-01

    To further research the related genes involved in 4-methylsulfinybutyl-glucosinolate biosynthesis in Brassica oleracea var. italica, the key synthetase CYP83A1gene was cloned and analyzed by bioinformatics. The sequence of CYP83A1 from the previous data of broccoli transcriptome sequencing and the sequences of CYP83A1 in seven other plants(Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica napus and the Brassica rapa subsp. Pekinesis et.al)which obtained from GenBank were alignmented with each other using NCBI blaster, and we confirmed that the homologically conserved region of CYP83A1 gene in Brassica oleracea var. italica(BoCYP83A1). Using RT-PCR method, the CDS region of BoCYP83A1 was obtained. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the CDS region of BoCYP83A1 was 1 509 bp long which encoded a predicated a protein contains 502 amino acids. Protein analysis showed that BoCYP83A1 molecular weight was 57.47 kD, theoretical pI was 7.1 and contained two span membrane structures, and the BoCYP83A1 does not have signal peptide sequences, while possessed a P450 functional domains. Homology analysis of the deduced amino acids indicated that BoCYP83A1 had 98%similarity with Brassica napus and the Brassica rapa subsp. Pekinesis. The gene registration number of Brassica oleracea var. italica CYP83A1 gene is KM111290.%为深入研究西兰花4-甲基亚磺酰丁基芥子油苷的合成代谢途径,对关键合成酶基因CYP83A1进行了克隆与生物信息学分析。根据前期西兰花转录组测序工作中获得的序列数据,同时参照GenBank数据库中拟南芥、小白菜和油菜等7种植物的CYP83A1基因CDS序列与西兰花进行比对,确定西兰花CYP83A1基因(BoCYP83A1)的CDS序列。采用RT-PCR技术对其进行了克隆,获得BoCYP83A1基因的CDS区序列,其全长为1509 bp,编码502个氨基酸。预测该蛋白质的分子量为57.47 kD,理论等电点为7.1,包含2个跨膜结构域,且整个序列中不含信号

  15. Evaluation of the effects of homeopathic medicines on the seed germination of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monteiro Siqueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aiming to increase the productivity and achieve production levels that meet the market demands, agriculture makes use of pesticides and fertilizers. Fertilizers are natural or artificial substances that contain chemical elements and physical proprieties that enhance plant growth and productivity [1]. However, the addition of fertilizers has generated environmental impacts that jeopardize the sustainability of agricultural ecosystems in the medium and long term [2]. Fertilizers are associated with eutrophication of rivers and lakes [2], soil erosion [3], among others. The organic agriculture is an alternative for the use of additives, which aims to enhance the efficient use of nonrenewable natural resources, and utilization of renewable natural resources and biological processes aligned to biodiversity, the environment, economic development and quality of human life [4]. The use of homeopathy for the cultivation of plants is into the organic agriculture. Homeopathic medicines can lead to greater plant growth, the elimination of pests and soil enrichment, without presenting environmental impacts, or damage to the consumer or for the handler. Aim: The objective of this study is to find on the homeopathic medicine an alternative method for the use of fertilizers in order to increase the germination of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica. Methodology: Seeds of broccoli will be treated with homeopathic medicines for phosphorus and gibberelic acid in the following method and scale 6cH, 30cH and 200cH, according with the 3rd edition of the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. These seeds will be cultured on Petri dishes in a MS medium. The dilution and the agitation water on the same high dilutions above, are used as a growth control, in the same way, gibberelic acid, a hormone, widely used commercially as a fertilizer, is also used as control. The applications will be made six days a week. It will be conducted a seedlings count

  16. Fall and spring broccoli yields and weed control under no-till and conventional tillage with overseeded legume living mulches

    OpenAIRE

    Infante, Michelle Louise

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with 'BigSur' broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) at two sites in fall of 1993 and at two sites in the spring of 1994 on a Hayter loam in southwestern Virginia. Objectives were to determine the tillage main-plot (CT = conventional tillage, and NT = no-tillage) and weed-control subplot (C = no overseeding or preemergent herbicide; HB = oxyfluorfen; RC = red clover (Trifolium pratense L.); WC = Dutch white clover (Trifolium repens L.); and ...

  17. Identification of Resistance to Blackrot in Broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The screening for Black rot(Xanthomonas campestris PV.campestris)resistance in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.Var.italica Planch) lines plays an important role in breeding for Black rot resistance and is of great value to practical utilization.The broccoli in bred line"91-9318-4"was used as the experimental material in the trial.X0-2 strain of Xanthomonas campestris PV.campestris was and purified from the infected broccoli plants in the field.The spraying method was adopted in the inoculation.The trial was designed as the randomized blocks of two factors with three replications.Factor A was the foliar age and factor B was the concetrations of inoculum.Factor A had three levels A1,A2 and A3 (the 2nd 4th and 6th true-leaf stage),factor B had three levels B1,B2 and B3(106 counts/mL,107 counts/mL and 108 counts/mL).26 breeding materials of broccoli were identified for resistance to Black rot by means of the acquired method.One resistant breeding material was obtained,the identifying results showed that this screening method is practical.

  18. Analysis of F1 hybrid and BC1 monosomic alien addition line plants from Brassica oleracea × Sinapis alba by GISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wenhui; ZHANG Sufeng; LI Jun; WANG Lijun; CHEN Bo; FANG Xiaoping; WANG Zhuan; LUO Lixia

    2006-01-01

    Sterile and semi-fertile F1 plants were obtained by intergeneric sexual hybridization between paternal Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra (genome CC, 2n=18) and maternal Sinapis alba (genome SS, 2n=24), BC1 plants were obtained by backcrossing between paternal B. oleracea and maternal semi-fertile F1 plants. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) combined with dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (dcFISH) showed that sterile F1 plants contained 21 chromosomes consisting of one B. oleracea chromosome set and one S.alba chromosome set, belonging to expected hybrids,and semi-fertile F1 plants contained 30 chromosomes consisting of two B. oleracea chromosome sets and one S. alba chromosome set. It is obvious that the semi-fertile F1 plants belong to unexpected hybrids.1 -3 trivalents were detected at meiotic metaphase I of semi-fertile F1 pollen mother cells (PMCs). Different separation ratios of S chromosomes were detected at anaphase I. A monosomic alien addition line(MAAL) was identified by GISH-dcFISH from BC1plants; it contained 19 chromosomes consisting of 18 C chromosomes and 1 S chromosome. At meiotic metaphase I, 9 divalents from B. oleracea and one univalent from S. alba could be detected. Sometimes,one putative C-S trivalent could also be detected.The achievement of B. oleracea-S, alba monosomic alien addition lines lays a foundation for gene introgression, location and cloning.

  19. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  20. Cloning and sequence analysis of a mutation-type cinnamate 4-hydroxylase gene from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anhe CHEN; Jiana LI; Yourong CHAI; Rui WANG; Jun LU

    2008-01-01

    A 2431-bp full-length cinnamate 4-hydroxylase gene, BoC4H, was cloned from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.. It contains 2 introns. Its mRNA is 1715 bp, encoding a deduced 481-amino-acid polypeptide with wide homologies to C4Hs from other plants. It possesses cytochrome P450 conserved domains and motifs such as the haem-iron binding motif, the E-R-R triad, the T-con-taining binding pocket motif and the hinge motif neces-sary for optimal orientation of the enzyme. It also has most of the canonical C4H/CYP73A5-featured sub-strate-recognition sites (SRSs) and active site residues. However, owing to a single-base deletion at C2242 and subsequent frame shift within the 3' coding region as com-pared with C4H genes from Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants, BoC4H shows a 36-aa deletion/variation at its C-terminus and the SRS6 motif together with active site residues therein are absent. Thus BoC4H may be of no function or low activity. BoC4H is a membrane protein and is probably associated with the endoplasmic reticu-lure. Its secondary structure is dominated by alpha helices and random coils. The Swiss-Model could not predict its tertiary structure. B. oleracea contains a C4H gene family with at least 5 members.

  1. Overcoming interspecific incompatibility in the cross Brassica campestris ssp. japonica x Brassica oleracea var. botrytis using irradiated mentor pollen page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross B. campestris ssp. japonica x B. oleracea var. botrytis fails due to incompatibility barrier at the stigma. To realize this cross, irradiated compatible pollen (mentor pollen) was used before the incompatible pollination. The presence of mentor pollen stimulated the incompatible pollen to germinate and effect fertilization and seed set. One hybrid was thus obtained. Most of the seeds were inviable. Of the 5 plants raised one was a hybrid and 4 resembled the female parent. 1 tab., 7 refs

  2. Isolation of a Second S-Locus-Related Cdna from Brassica Oleracea: Genetic Relationships between the S Locus and Two Related Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Boyes, D. C.; Chen, C. H.; Tantikanjana, T.; Esch, J. J.; Nasrallah, J B

    1991-01-01

    Self-incompatibility in Brassica oleracea is controlled by the highly polymorphic S locus. Isolation and subsequent characterization of the S-locus-glycoprotein (SLG) gene, which encodes the S-locus-specific glycoprotein (SLSG), has revealed the presence of a self-incompatibility multigene family. One of these S-locus-related genes, SLR1, has been shown to be expressed. In this study we present the isolation and preliminary characterization of a second expressed S-locus-related sequence, SLR2...

  3. Respon Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Kailan (Brassica oleraceae L.) Pada Pemberian Pupuk Anorganik Dan Berbagai Dosis Pupuk Organik Cair Paitan (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) Gray)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Posma

    2015-01-01

    POSMA SINAGA :The Application of anorganic fertilizer and some dossages of Liquid Organic Fertilizer of paitan (Tithonia diversifolia) on the Growth and Yield of Mustard (Brassica oleraceae L.), supervised by dan MEIRIANI and YAYA HASANAH. Generally, paitan is not used, known as weeds and just used as animal feed and it rest just become waste. Paitan has potential as the nutrition adder for plant. Therefore, the application of liquid organic fertilizer from paitan is hoped can increase t...

  4. Origin,Classification and Evolution of Brassica oleracea L%简述甘蓝类植物的起源及分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 王超

    2006-01-01

    甘蓝起源于地中海沿岸的一种一年生杂草(Brassica oleracea var.oleracea),也有人认为它起源于地中海地区的4种野生近缘种的复合体.甘蓝种可分为6个变种,也有人认为甘蓝种可分为7个变种.野生甘蓝变种(Brassica oleracea var.oleracea)首先进化成4个羽衣甘蓝类型,其中"不分枝类型"又进一步进化成结球甘蓝和孢子甘蓝."分枝类型"又进一步进化成花椰菜和青花菜."髓状茎类型"进化成球茎甘蓝.而"高茎类型"进化成现在栽培的牧草.

  5. Histological Evaluation of Radioprotection by Silymarin and Brassica Oleracea Extract on Eye of Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of two different antioxidant agents (an ethanolic seed extract of cabbage Brassica oleraceaand silymarin) on irradiated rat eye tissues. Silymarin, known for its potent antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. Rats were divided into 6 groups; group I contained control rats, group II rats received gamma radiation (6 Gy) in three fractionated doses for 3 consecutive days, group III rats received silymarin orally through the experiment , group IV rats received ethanolic extract of brassica seeds orally through the experiment, group V rats received silymarin one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation, and group VI rats received brassica extract one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation . The histological study revealed that ethanolic extract of brassica seeds alleviated the manifestations of radiation injury in the eye tissues as compared with the untreated animals and also with those who received the silymarin.

  6. Impact of Vermicompost on Growth and Development of Cabbage, Brassica oleracea Linn. and their Sucking Pest, Brevicoryne brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulusew Getnet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to produce vermicompost from organic solid wastes by using red earth worm, Eisenia fetida and to check growth promoting and pest suppression properties on cabbage, Brassica oleracea. The mass of 100 kg of various organic waste sources were collected from Gondar and used to prepare vermicompost. The vermicompost was prepared in the month of June-August 2011 and tested on cabbage, B. oleracea from October 2011 to February 2012. Vermicompost was applied at the rate of 25, 50, 100 and 200 gm/plant individually. Each application 10 plants were selected and vermicompost application was continued on bimonthly basis. Totally 40 plants were used for control group in which 10 plants were selected randomly. Total number of leaves per plant; leaf length and width; plant stand height and root length; cabbage head round distance and weight and aphid population built-up were the parameters studied in experimental and control cabbage plants. Significant differences (p<0.05; LSD were observed in the growth and development and pest infestation level between vermicompost applied and control plants. The number of plant stand height, cabbage head, leaves of cabbage were also significantly different (p<0.05; LSD in experimental cabbage compared to control. Maximum number of cabbage plant was infested by aphid in control than experimental groups. In conclusion vermicompost have significant impact on cabbage growth promotion and reduce the aphid infestation. In future using vermicompost to all kinds of crops and adopting it as commercial fertilizer may create job opportunity to small scale farming society. Also, in this ever escalating cost of chemical fertilizers, the use of vermicompost seems to be quite reasonable in agro-management and should be inclusive as one of the elements of poverty alleviation strategies in such as Ethiopian context.

  7. Alterations in Chlorophyll a Fluorescence and Pigments Concentration in the Leaves of Cauliflower and Broccoli Transplants Subjected to Chilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata WOJCIECHOWSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and photosynthetic pigments content in leaves of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. ‘Monaco’ F1 and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis cv. ‘Bruce’ F1 transplants were analyzed to investigate the effects of chilling temperatures (6 and 10 °C and the exposure length (1 or 2 weeks on the photosynthetic apparatus condition in 3-year experiment. Data were compared to control plants exposed to 14 °C for 1 and 2 weeks. The lowest values of maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm and the performance index (PI were observed in cauliflower chilled at 6 °C for 2 weeks. This was not accompanied by any substantial reduction in chlorophylls concentration, however, significant correlations between Fv/Fm or PI and chlorophylls content in cauliflower leaves were found. There was no negative effects of chilling on photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll content in broccoli leaves, the amount of carotenoids significantly increased in the broccoli chilled for 2 weeks in 6 °C. The chlorophyll a fluorescence indices and accelerated carotenoids synthesis showed that broccoli had less vulnerable photosynthetic apparatus to stress-induced temperatures and more efficient protection mechanisms in comparison to cauliflower transplants.

  8. Identification and Expression Analysis of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes and Estimation of Glucosinolate Contents in Edible Organs of Brassica oleracea Subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Yi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28 and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51, were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs.

  9. Identification and expression analysis of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes and estimation of glucosinolate contents in edible organs of Brassica oleracea subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Go-Eun; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Kang, Jong-Goo; Yang, Tae-Jin; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28) and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51), were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs. PMID:26205053

  10. Interaction between non-homologous portuguese isolates of Albugo candida and Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Lurdes; Dias, João Silva

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of five non-homologous portuguese isolates of A. candida (four isolated from B. rapa – Ac506, Ac508, Ac509 and Ac510, and one from Raphanus sativus) in forty B. oleracea accessions from different geographic origins was evaluated at the cotyledonar stage. Some accessions presented susceptibility to the non-homologous isolates of B. rapa, mainly head cabbage ‘Large Blood Red’ and savoy cabbage ‘Brusselse Winter’. These accessions exhibited mean levels of infection higher than 20...

  11. Molecular Cloning, Expression Pattern and Genotypic Effects on Glucoraphanin Biosynthetic Related Genes in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucoraphanin is a plant secondary metabolite that is involved in plant defense and imparts health-promoting properties to cruciferous vegetables. In this study, three genes involved in glucoraphanin metabolism, branched-chain aminotransferase 4 (BCAT4, methylthioalkylmalate synthase 1 (MAM1 and dihomomethionine N-hydroxylase (CYP79F1, were cloned from Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis identified these genes and confirmed the evolutionary status of Chinese kale. The transcript levels of BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were higher in cotyledon, leaf and stem compared with flower and silique. BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were expressed throughout leaf development with lower transcript levels during the younger stages. Glucoraphanin content varied extensively among different varieties, which ranged from 0.25 to 2.73 µmol·g−1 DW (dry weight. Expression levels of BCAT4 and MAM1 were high at vegetative–reproductive transition phase, while CYP79F1 was expressed high at reproductive phase. BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were expressed significantly high in genotypes with high glucoraphanin content. All the results provided a better understanding of the roles of BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 in the glucoraphanin biosynthesis of Chinese kale.

  12. Chemical characterisation of old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) seed oil by liquid chromatography and different spectroscopic detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Francesco; Beccaria, Marco; Oteri, Marianna; Utczas, Margita; Giuffrida, Daniele; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    We report an extensive chemical characterisation of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, tocopherols, carotenoids and polyphenols contained in the oil extracted from old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) by cold-pressing of the seeds. Analyses were performed by GC-FID combined with mass spectrometry, HPLC with photodiode array, fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection. The 94% of the total fatty acids were unsaturated, rappresented by erucic acid (more than 50%) followed by linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids accounting for approximately 10% each. The most abundant triacylglycerols (>13%) were represented by erucic-gadolenic-linoleic, erucic-eruci-linoleic and erucic-erucic-oleic. Among tocopherols, γ-tocopherol accounted for over 70% of the total content. Thirteen carotenoids and 11 polyphenols were identified and measured. In particular, the total content in carotenoids was 10.9 ppm and all-E-lutein was the main component (7.7 ppm); among polyphenols, six hydroxycinnamic acids and five flavonoids, were identified by combining information from retention times, PDA and MS data. PMID:27314571

  13. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of bZIP Transcription Factors in Brassica oleracea under Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Indeok; Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Kang, Jong-Goo; Chung, Mi-Young; Kim, Young-Wook; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.) are an important vegetable crop around world, and cold temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses causing agricultural losses, especially in cabbage crops. Plant bZIP transcription factors play diverse roles in biotic/abiotic stress responses. In this study, 119 putative BolbZIP transcription factors were identified using amino acid sequences from several bZIP domain consensus sequences. The BolbZIP members were classified into 63 categories based on amino acid sequence similarity and were also compared with BrbZIP and AtbZIP transcription factors. Based on this BolbZIP identification and classification, cold stress-responsive BolbZIP genes were screened in inbred lines, BN106 and BN107, using RNA sequencing data and qRT-PCR. The expression level of the 3 genes, Bol008071, Bol033132, and Bol042729, was significantly increased in BN107 under cold conditions and was unchanged in BN106. The upregulation of these genes in BN107, a cold-susceptible inbred line, suggests that they might be significant components in the cold response. Among three identified genes, Bol033132 has 97% sequence similarity to Bra020735, which was identified in a screen for cold-related genes in B. rapa and a protein containing N-rich regions in LCRs. The results obtained in this study provide valuable information for understanding the potential function of BolbZIP transcription factors in cold stress responses. PMID:27314020

  14. Spent Mushroom Waste as a Media Replacement for Peat Moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peat moss (PM is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra production replacing peat moss (PM in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control, 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100% and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan.

  15. In-depth analysis of internal control genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Brassica oleracea var. botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, X G; Zhao, Z Q; Yu, H F; Wang, J S; Zheng, C F; Gu, H H

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a versatile technique for the analysis of gene expression. The selection of stable reference genes is essential for the application of this technique. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) is a commonly consumed vegetable that is rich in vitamin, calcium, and iron. Thus far, to our knowledge, there have been no reports on the validation of suitable reference genes for the data normalization of qRT-PCR in cauliflower. In the present study, we analyzed 12 candidate housekeeping genes in cauliflower subjected to different abiotic stresses, hormone treatment conditions, and accessions. geNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to assess the expression stability of these genes. ACT2 and TIP41 were selected as suitable reference genes across all experimental samples in this study. When different accessions were compared, ACT2 and UNK3 were found to be the most suitable reference genes. In the hormone and abiotic stress treatments, ACT2, TIP41, and UNK2 were the most stably expressed. Our study also provided guidelines for selecting the best reference genes under various experimental conditions. PMID:27525844

  16. Plants know where it hurts: root and shoot jasmonic acid induction elicit differential responses in Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom O G Tytgat

    Full Text Available Plants respond to herbivore attack by rapidly inducing defenses that are mainly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA. Due to the systemic nature of induced defenses, attack by root herbivores can also result in a shoot response and vice versa, causing interactions between above- and belowground herbivores. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions. We investigated whether plants respond differently when roots or shoots are induced. We mimicked herbivore attack by applying JA to the roots or shoots of Brassica oleracea and analyzed molecular and chemical responses in both organs. In shoots, an immediate and massive change in primary and secondary metabolism was observed. In roots, the JA-induced response was less extensive and qualitatively different from that in the shoots. Strikingly, in both roots and shoots we also observed differential responses in primary metabolism, development as well as defense specific traits depending on whether the JA induction had been below- or aboveground. We conclude that the JA response is not only tissue-specific but also dependent on the organ that was induced. Already very early in the JA signaling pathway the differential response was observed. This indicates that both organs have a different JA signaling cascade, and that the signal eliciting systemic responses contains information about the site of induction, thus providing plants with a mechanism to tailor their responses specifically to the organ that is damaged.

  17. RESIDU PESTISIDA PADA SAYURAN KUBIS (Brassica oleracea L. DAN KACANG PANJANG ( Vigna sinensis L. YANG DIPASARKAN DI PASAR BADUNG DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Agung Sudewa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides residue of organophosphate and carbamate i.e. diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril and BPMC were tested on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. and long bean (Vigna sinensis L.. The purpose of this study was to know the level of pesticides residue remaining on cabbage and long bean marketed in Badung Market, Denpasar.The samples were determined proportionally based on purposive sampling method. The proportion of sample was 10% of the total cabbage and snake bean sold in Badung market.Result of present study showed that residue of insecticides such as diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril, and BPMC remaining on the head of cabbage and snake bean marketed in Badung market was affected by the frequencies of their use in the field, in which chlorpyriphos was used by 60-65% of the farmers and carbaril by 40% of the farmers. Their residues on cabbage anf snake bean were 0.525 ppm and 1.296 ppm for chlorpyriphos (organophosphate; 0.303 ppm and 0.471 ppm for carbaril (carbamate. These result suggested that residue of chlorpyriphos on cabbage and snake bean were higher than MRL (Maximum Residue Limit for vegetable crops, i.e. 0.5 ppm.

  18. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica oleracea var. acephala show enhanced tolerance to water stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dongqin Tang; Hongmei Qian; Lingxia Zhao; Danfeng Huang; Kexuan Tang

    2005-12-01

    Water stress is by far the leading environmental stress limiting crop yields worldwide. Genetic engineering techniques hold great promise for developing crop cultivars with high tolerance to water stress. In this study, the Brassica oleracea var. acephala BoRS1 gene was transferred into tobacco through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. The transgenic status and transgene expression of the transgenic plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, Southern hybridization and semi-quantitative one step RT-PCR analysis respectively. Subsequently, the growth status under water stress, and physiological responses to water stress of transgenic tobacco were studied. The results showed that the transgenic plants exhibited better growth status under water stress condition compared to the untransformed control plants. In physiological assessment of water tolerance, transgenic plants showed more dry matter accumulation and maintained significantly higher levels of leaf chlorophyll content along with increasing levels of water stress than the untransformed control plants. This study shows that BoRS1 is a candidate gene in the engineering of crops for enhanced water stress tolerance.

  19. Effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on glucosinolates and antioxidant attributes in broccoli florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Congxi; Miao, Huiying; Qian, Hongmei; Yao, Leishuan; Wang, Bingliang; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-11-01

    The effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on the contents of glucosinolates and antioxidants (vitamin C, polyphenols, carotenoid and chlorophyll), as well as the antioxidant capacity in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets were investigated in the present study. Our results showed that the glucosinolate accumulations were significantly decreased after pre-freezing processing, whereas elevated levels of phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll, and also antioxidant capacity were observed in frozen broccoli florets. The contents of vitamin C remained constant during above mentioned processing. In conclusion, the current industrial freezing processing method is a good practice for the preservation of main antioxidant nutrients in broccoli florets, although some improvements in pre-freezing processing, such as steam blanching and ice-water cooling, are needed to attenuate the decrease in glucosinolate content. PMID:27211670

  20. Genotyping-by-sequencing map permits identification of clubroot resistance QTLs and revision of the reference genome assembly in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Izzah, Nur Kholilatul; Choi, Beom-Soon; Joh, Ho Jun; Lee, Sang-Choon; Perumal, Sampath; Seo, Joodeok; Ahn, Kyounggu; Jo, Eun Ju; Choi, Gyung Ja; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yu, Yeisoo; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-02-01

    Clubroot is a devastating disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae and results in severe losses of yield and quality in Brassica crops. Many clubroot resistance genes and markers are available in Brassica rapa but less is known in Brassica oleracea. Here, we applied the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to construct a high-resolution genetic map and identify clubroot resistance (CR) genes. A total of 43,821 SNPs were identified using GBS data for two parental lines, one resistant and one susceptible lines to clubroot, and 18,187 of them showed >5× coverage in the GBS data. Among those, 4,103 were credibly genotyped for all 78 F2 individual plants. These markers were clustered into nine linkage groups spanning 879.9 cM with an average interval of 1.15 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) survey based on three rounds of clubroot resistance tests using F2 : 3 progenies revealed two and single major QTLs for Race 2 and Race 9 of P. brassicae, respectively. The QTLs show similar locations to the previously reported CR loci for Race 4 in B. oleracea but are in different positions from any of the CR loci found in B. rapa. We utilized two reference genome sequences in this study. The high-resolution genetic map developed herein allowed us to reposition 37 and 2 misanchored scaffolds in the 02-12 and TO1000DH genome sequences, respectively. Our data also support additional positioning of two unanchored 3.3 Mb scaffolds into the 02-12 genome sequence. PMID:26622061

  1. Genotyping-by-sequencing map permits identification of clubroot resistance QTLs and revision of the reference genome assembly in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Izzah, Nur Kholilatul; Choi, Beom-Soon; Joh, Ho Jun; Lee, Sang-Choon; Perumal, Sampath; Seo, Joodeok; Ahn, Kyounggu; Jo, Eun Ju; Choi, Gyung Ja; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yu, Yeisoo; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot is a devastating disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae and results in severe losses of yield and quality in Brassica crops. Many clubroot resistance genes and markers are available in Brassica rapa but less is known in Brassica oleracea. Here, we applied the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to construct a high-resolution genetic map and identify clubroot resistance (CR) genes. A total of 43,821 SNPs were identified using GBS data for two parental lines, one resistant and one susceptible lines to clubroot, and 18,187 of them showed >5× coverage in the GBS data. Among those, 4,103 were credibly genotyped for all 78 F2 individual plants. These markers were clustered into nine linkage groups spanning 879.9 cM with an average interval of 1.15 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) survey based on three rounds of clubroot resistance tests using F2 : 3 progenies revealed two and single major QTLs for Race 2 and Race 9 of P. brassicae, respectively. The QTLs show similar locations to the previously reported CR loci for Race 4 in B. oleracea but are in different positions from any of the CR loci found in B. rapa. We utilized two reference genome sequences in this study. The high-resolution genetic map developed herein allowed us to reposition 37 and 2 misanchored scaffolds in the 02–12 and TO1000DH genome sequences, respectively. Our data also support additional positioning of two unanchored 3.3 Mb scaffolds into the 02–12 genome sequence. PMID:26622061

  2. Use of cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) in the stabilization of bone mass after menopause Uso do suco das folhas da couve (Brassica oleracea var acephala), na estabilização da massa óssea pós-menopausa

    OpenAIRE

    João V. Pereira; Hosana B. Santos; Maria F. Agra; Diego N. Guedes; João Modesto-Filho

    2006-01-01

    This work evaluates the use of cabbage leaves, Brassica oleracea var acephala (Cruciferae family) to stabilize bone mass in 13 menopausal women. The mature leaves were used after removal of the midrib and petiole and taken as a juice and given to the patient once a day for 24 months. Densitometric exams were performed every six months. The measurement points were the Trocanter and Ward's triangle. According to the results found, the use of cabbage leaf juice results in bone mass stabilization...

  3. A comparison of two stomatal conductance models for ozone flux modelling using data from two Brassica species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we tested and compared a multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model in their ability to predict stomatal conductance to ozone (gst) using leaf-level data from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck). For oilseed rape, the multiplicative model and the coupled model were able to explain 72% and 73% of the observed gst variance, respectively. For broccoli, the models were able to explain 53% and 51% of the observed gst variance, respectively. These results support the coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model as a valid alternative to the multiplicative stomatal model for O3 flux modelling, in terms of predictive performance. - A multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model performed equally well when tested against leaf-level data for oilseed rape and broccoli.

  4. A comparison of two stomatal conductance models for ozone flux modelling using data from two Brassica species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Op de Beeck, M., E-mail: maarten.opdebeeck@ua.ac.b [Research Group of Plant and Vegetation Ecology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, 2160 Wilrijk (Belgium); De Bock, M., E-mail: maarten.debock@ua.ac.b [Research Group of Molecular Plant Physiology and Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Campus Groenenborger, Department of Biology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Vandermeiren, K., E-mail: kavan@var.fgov.b [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR), Leuvensesteenweg 17, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Temmerman, L. de, E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.b [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR), Leuvensesteenweg 17, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Ceulemans, R., E-mail: reinhart.ceulemans@ua.ac.b [Research Group of Plant and Vegetation Ecology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, 2160 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    In this study we tested and compared a multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model in their ability to predict stomatal conductance to ozone (g{sub st}) using leaf-level data from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck). For oilseed rape, the multiplicative model and the coupled model were able to explain 72% and 73% of the observed g{sub st} variance, respectively. For broccoli, the models were able to explain 53% and 51% of the observed g{sub st} variance, respectively. These results support the coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model as a valid alternative to the multiplicative stomatal model for O{sub 3} flux modelling, in terms of predictive performance. - A multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model performed equally well when tested against leaf-level data for oilseed rape and broccoli.

  5. Optimisation of the Method for the Quantitative Determination of Sulforaphane in Broccoli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumption of vegetables, especially crucifers, reduces the risk of developing cancer. Sulforaphane [l-isothiocyanato-4- (methylsulfinyl)-butane], a compound with the ability to inhibit carcinogenesis, is one of the degradation products of glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables. Among available extraction methods, autolysis at room temperature is the most effective for Sulforaphane extraction (relatively higher purity and better yield). The research work undertaken at Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Institute of Biology and Chemistry, Karlsruhe, Germany was isolation of Sulforaphane based on cruciferous vegetables like Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Cv. italica) employing autolysis - the yield being higher. The extracted Sulforaphane compound's purity and yield were accordingly examined with gas chromatography. (author)

  6. Fibrillarin methylates H2A in RNA polymerase I trans-active promoters in Brassica oleracea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loza-Muller, L.; Rodriguez-Corona, U.; Sobol, Margaryta; Rodriguez-Zapata, L.C.; Hozák, Pavel; Castano, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov 6 (2015). ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/11/2232; GA ČR GA15-08738S; GA MPO FR-TI3/588; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : histones * methylation * RNA polymerase I * Brassica * phosphoinositide Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2014

  7. Interacção entre isolamentos portugueses não homólogos de Albugo candida e de Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Lurdes; Dias, João Silva

    2000-01-01

    Avaliou-se o nível cotiledonar o potencia l de infecção de cinco isolamentos portugueses de A. candida (quatro colhidos em Brassica rapa - Ac50G, Ac508, Ae509 e Ac5 1 O, e um em Raphanus sativus - Ac513) em 40 amostras de B. oleracea de diferentes proveniências geográficas. Algumas amostras mostraram-se susceptíveis aos isolamentos não homólogos de B. rapa, nomeadamente a Couve repolho (Large Blood Red) e a Couve lombarda "Brusselse Winter". Estas amostras apresentaram nívei...

  8. Gene conversion as a mechanism for divergence of a chloroplast tRNA gene inserted in the mitochondrial genome of Brassica oleracea.

    OpenAIRE

    Dron, M; Hartmann, C; Rode, A.; Sevignac, M

    1985-01-01

    We have characterized a 1.7 kb sequence, containing a tRNA Leu2 gene shared by the ct and mt genomes of Brassica oleracea. The two sequences are completely homologous except in two short regions where two distinct gene conversion events have occurred between two sets of direct repeats leading to the insertion of 5 bp in the T loop of the mt copy of the ct gene. This is the first evidence that gene conversion represents the initial evolutionary step in inactivation of transferred ct genes in t...

  9. Effect of depth of placement and levels of fertilizer phosphorus on its utilization in two genotypes of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of depth of placement and levels of applied P fertilizer on its utilization by two genotypes of cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata was studied using 32P labelled superphosphate. In both the genotypes, phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff %) increased with increasing level of P application. Placement of P fertilizer at 5 cm depth resulted in higher Pdff and utilization efficiency decreased with increasing level of applied P. Mahyco hybrid 413 utilized fertilizer P more efficiently than Pride of India. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  10. Optical properties of the epidermis of leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) after enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical properties of the epidermis of two crops grown in Nordic countries, leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), were investigated after exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation in a glasshouse. Enhanced UV-B radiation was given to cabbage and leek during the growth period. A significant increase in extractable UV-absorbing pigments was found in the epidermis of UV-irradiated leek compared to control plants, whereas no such difference was found in the epidermis of cabbage. The pigments produced had absorption maxima at approximately 340 nm and were most likely flavonoids

  11. Crossability among Variant Types of Brassica oleracea%不同类型甘蓝的可交配性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁一娟; 魏大勇; 刘瑶; 梅家琴; 钱伟

    2013-01-01

    Brassica oleracea includes variant wild type, which is important resources for improving cultivated types of B. oleracea. During the long evolution, reproductive isolations were formed among variant type of B. oleracea at certain degree. In the present study,35 lines from seven wild and eight cultivated types were randomly crossed with others in order to investigate the crossability in B. oleracea. Significant differences for crossability were detected among crosses, and biological type, cross direction, and genetic difference which were found to affect the crossability significance. The results suggested that the crossability of combinations with wild type as female was higher than those with wild type as male in the crosses between wild and cultivated types of B. oleracea.%野生甘蓝是改良栽培甘蓝的重要资源,在漫长进化中,部分野生甘蓝类型间,以及与栽培甘蓝间杂交存在一定的生殖障碍.本研究选用8个栽培变种和7个野生类型品种,共35份甘蓝材料进行随机杂交,不同类型甘蓝的可交配性存在显著差异,甘蓝间的遗传差异、杂交方向以及生活习性等因素对甘蓝类植物可交配性存在显著影响.研究数据表明,以野生甘蓝为母本可以显著提高与栽培甘蓝杂交的效率.

  12. Inter-cultivar variation in soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrose, B; Johnson Née Payne, K A; Arkhipov, A; Maksimenko, A; Gaschak, S; Meacham, M C; Crout, N J M; White, P J; Beresford, N A; Broadley, M R

    2016-05-01

    Radiocaesium and radiostrontium enter the human food chain primarily via soil-plant transfer. However, uptake of these radionuclides can differ significantly within species (between cultivars). The aim of this study was to assess inter-cultivar variation in soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in a leafy crop species, Brassica oleracea. This study comprised four independent experiments: two pot experiments in a controlled environment artificially contaminated with radiocaesium, and two field experiments in an area contaminated with radiocaesium and radiostrontium in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Radiocaesium concentration ratios varied 35-fold among 27 cultivars grown in pots in a controlled environment. These 27 cultivars were then grown with a further 44 and 43 other cultivars in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In the field-grown cultivars radiocaesium concentration ratios varied by up to 35-fold and radiostrontium concentration ratios varied by up to 23-fold. In three of these experiments (one pot experiment, two field experiments) one out of the 27 cultivars was found to have a consistently lower radiocaesium concentration ratio than the other cultivars. The two field experiments showed that, five out of the 66 cultivars common to both experiments had consistently lower radiocaesium concentration ratios, and two cultivars had consistently lower radiostrontium concentration ratios. One cultivar had consistently lower radiocaesium and radiostrontium concentration ratios. The identification of cultivars that have consistently lower radiocaesium and/or radiostrontium concentration ratios suggests that cultivar selection or substitution may be an effective remediation strategy in radiologically contaminated areas. Future research should focus on plant species that are known to be the largest contributors to human dose. PMID:26945429

  13. Modification of Leaf Glucosinolate Contents in Brassica oleracea by Divergent Selection and Effect on Expression of Genes Controlling Glucosinolate Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Tamara; Velasco, Pablo; Soengas, Pilar; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Cartea, María E

    2016-01-01

    Modification of the content of secondary metabolites opens the possibility of obtaining vegetables enriched in these compounds related to plant defense and human health. We report the first results of a divergent selection for glucosinolate (GSL) content of the three major GSL in leaves: sinigrin (SIN), glucoiberin (GIB), and glucobrassicin (GBS) in order to develop six kale genotypes (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) with high (HSIN, HIGIB, HGBS) and low (LSIN, LGIB, LGBS) content. The aims were to determine if the three divergent selections were successful in leaves, how each divergent selection affected the content of the same GSLs in flower buds and seeds and to determine which genes would be involved in the modification of the content of the three GSL studied. The content of SIN and GIB after three cycles of divergent selection increased 52.5% and 77.68%, and decreased 51.9% and 45.33%, respectively. The divergent selection for GBS content was only successful and significant for decreasing the concentration, with a reduction of 39.04%. Mass selection is an efficient way of modifying the concentration of individual GSLs. Divergent selections realized in leaves had a side effect in the GSL contents of flower buds and seeds due to the novo synthesis in these organs and/or translocation from leaves. The results obtained suggest that modification in the SIN and GIB concentration by selection is related to the GSL-ALK locus. We suggest that this locus could be related with the indirect response found in the GBS concentration. Meantime, variations in the CYP81F2 gene expression could be the responsible of the variations in GBS content. The genotypes obtained in this study can be used as valuable materials for undertaking basic studies about the biological effects of the major GSLs present in kales. PMID:27471510

  14. The role of BoFLC2 in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.) reproductive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Stephen; Brown, Philip H; Hecht, Valérie; Driessen, Ronald G; Weller, James L

    2015-01-01

    In agricultural species that are sexually propagated or whose marketable organ is a reproductive structure, management of the flowering process is critical. Inflorescence development in cauliflower is particularly complex, presenting unique challenges for those seeking to predict and manage flowering time. In this study, an integrated physiological and molecular approach was used to clarify the environmental control of cauliflower reproductive development at the molecular level. A functional allele of BoFLC2 was identified for the first time in an annual brassica, along with an allele disrupted by a frameshift mutation (boflc2). In a segregating F₂ population derived from a cross between late-flowering (BoFLC2) and early-flowering (boflc2) lines, this gene behaved in a dosage-dependent manner and accounted for up to 65% of flowering time variation. Transcription of BoFLC genes was reduced by vernalization, with the floral integrator BoFT responding inversely. Overall expression of BoFT was significantly higher in early-flowering boflc2 lines, supporting the idea that BoFLC2 plays a key role in maintaining the vegetative state. A homologue of Arabidopsis VIN3 was isolated for the first time in a brassica crop species and was up-regulated by two days of vernalization, in contrast to findings in Arabidopsis where prolonged exposure to cold was required to elicit up-regulation. The correlations observed between gene expression and flowering time in controlled-environment experiments were validated with gene expression analyses of cauliflowers grown outdoors under 'natural' vernalizing conditions, indicating potential for transcript levels of flowering genes to form the basis of predictive assays for curd initiation and flowering time. PMID:25355864

  15. Comparative study of the effects of laser photobiomodulation and extract of Brassica oleracea on skin wounds in wistar rats: A histomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela; Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Pinto, Marcus Vinicius de Mello

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a photobiomodulation laser and Brassica oleracea on tissue morphology in skin wounds. The parameters analyzed were type I and III collagen fibers, and thickness and surface density of the epithelial tissue, as well as how quickly the wound closed. Five skin wounds 12mm in diameter were made on the backs of the animals, which were randomized into four groups (8 animals each). Saline Group: 0.9% saline solution; Ointment Group (extract of Cabbage, B. oleracea, 10% lanolin); Balsam Group (10% glycolic extract of B. oleracea emulsion oil); L60 Group (laser GaAsAl 60J/cm(2)). The applications were made daily during a 20-day treatment, and every 4 days tissue from different wounds was removed. The reduction in the size of the wounds on the 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th days was significantly greater in the treated groups compared to the control group. At all the time points analyzed, there was a greater proportion of collagen in the Balsam and L60 groups (p<0.05). There was also a greater proliferation of epithelial cells in the L60 and Balsam groups after 20 days of treatment (p<0.05). The healing extract and laser 60j/cm(2) exerted a great effect on collagen proliferation in stimulating scar tissue maturation. PMID:23968696

  16. 甘蓝LFY基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of LFYZQ from Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤青林; 王志敏; 任雪松; 宋明; 王小佳

    2011-01-01

    DNA and RNA were extracted from bolting stem apex of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L.var. capitata L. ) cultivar ZQ and LFYzQ gene fragments were cloned by RT-PCR respectively with 2 pairs of primers. LFYzQ of DNA and cDNA sequence fragments assembly were respectively 2 560 bp and 1 239 bp. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence by BLAST on line indicated that homology of LFYzQ was up to 91% between Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. and Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L., up to 87 % between it and Arabidopsis thaliana, up to 86 % between it and Brassicajuncea Coss., and up to 87 % between it and Raphanus sativus L. Analysis of gene structure by DNAstar indicated that LFYzQ including 3 extrons ( 452, 394, 393 bp )which totally coded 412 amino acids and 2 introns ( 514, 807 bp )which were unanimous with nucleotide splicing rules of GT-AG. Analysis of amino acids among LFYzQ and other 12 kinds of Brassicaceae LFY on line were divided into 2 classes: class Ⅰ with 3 plants ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Brassica oleracea var. capitata L., Jonopsidium acaule ) and class Ⅱ with other 10 plants. Molecular relativity quality of LFYzQ was 46 kD. LFYzQ was an unstable and hydrophobic protein with 4 kinds of active sites: N-myristoylation site, protein kinase C phosphorylation site, Casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation site and Amidation site.%以甘蓝ZQ启动抽薹的茎尖为材料,分别提取DNA和RNA,以两对引物扩增并序列拼接得到甘蓝LFYZQ基因DNA序列和cDNA完整编码区,长度分别为2 560、1 239 bp,与花椰菜、拟南芥、芥菜和萝卜同源性分别达到91%、87%、86%、87%.该基因含有3个外显子(452、394、393 bp)和2个内含子(514、807 bp),共编码412个氨基酸,内含子剪接位点均符合经典GT-AG法则.将LFYZQ与网上公布的12种十字花科植物LFY氨基酸序列按分子进化分成两类:甘蓝LFYZQ与花椰菜以及Jonopsidium属植物Jonopsidium acaule这3个分为一类;其余10种植物分

  17. Seasonal Effects on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Six Economically Important Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.S. Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L. as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  18. Ozone effects on yield quality of spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeiren, Karine; De Bock, Maarten; Horemans, Nele; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2012-02-01

    The impact of elevated tropospheric ozone (O 3) on the quality of spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv Ability) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv Italic cv Monaco) was assessed during a three year Open - Top Chamber (OTC) experiment. Current ambient O 3 levels were compared to an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day over the entire growing season. The qualitative responses were expressed as a function of the accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic O 3 dose above a threshold of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area (POD 6). Our results provide clear evidence that O 3 has an influence on the qualitative attributes of the harvested products of these Brassica species. The responses were comparable whether they were expressed as a function of the accumulated O 3 concentrations or of the modelled O 3 uptake. The protein concentration of oilseed rape seeds and broccoli heads was significantly increased in response to O 3. There was also a shift in the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil derived from seeds of oilseed rape. Oleic acid (18:1) declined significantly ( p rape seeds. In broccoli an important shift occurred from indolic to aliphatic GSLs although the total GSL concentration was not changed. The increase in the aliphatic/indolic GSL ratio ( p < 0.001) may be important in relation to the anticarcinogenic properties of these vegetables. The vitamin C (ascorbate - ASC) and α-TOC concentrations of broccoli were not influenced by O 3; glutathione (GSH) was slightly increased in response to a higher O 3 uptake ( p < 0.05). The consequences of these changes with regard to food and feed quality and human health are discussed.

  19. Transformation of Broccoli with KTI Gene and the Bioassay for Diamondback Moth Resistance%抗虫相关基因KTI对青花菜的转化及其对小菜蛾抗性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江汉民; 宋文芹; 刘莉莉; 文正华; 姚星伟; 单晓政; 孙德岭

    2013-01-01

    KTI gene was transformed into broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica) genome via Agrobacterium mediated transformation method using broccoli lines '09LR-11' as explants. Thirteen kanamycin resistant broccoli plants were obtained. PCR analysis with primers specific to KTI gene identified 8 KTI positive plants. Southern blotting analysis with KTI gene as probes showed that the KTI gene was integrated into broccoli genome. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the KTI gene was expressed in transgenic broccoli. Both laboratory and field tests proved that the transgenic broccoli plants were resistant to diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella larvae) .%以青花菜(Brassica oleraceaL.ssp.italica)下胚轴为外植体,通过农杆菌介导的遗传转化方法将来源于杨树的Kunitz型丝氨酸胰蛋白酶抑制剂(KTI)基因导入青花菜品系‘09LR-11’中,获得13株卡那霉素抗性植株.以KTI特异引物对转基因植株进行PCR检测,其中8株为KTI阳性植株.Southernblot分析进一步表明,基因KTI已成功整合到青花菜基因组中.RT-PCR检测表明,KTI在转基因青花菜中已成功表达.通过室内叶片离体试验和田间观察,初步证明转KTI青花菜对小菜蛾幼虫具有一定抗性.

  20. ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF Portulaca oleracea L. SEED EXTRACTS ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF Cichorium endivia L., Lactua sativa L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., AND Brassica tournefortii Gouan

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaa Fahmy Shehata

    2014-01-01

    Present study was formulated to find out the phytotoxic effects of different concentrations of water, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea seeds on germination, germination index and seedlings growth of Cichorium endivia, Lactuca sativa Echinochoa crus-galli, and Brassica tournefortii. Also the total phenolics and flavonoids were determined. Results indicated that the responses of allelopathic effects were depends on extract type and conce...

  1. A comparative study on the polyphenolic content, antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity of different solvent extracts of Brassica oleracea vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Amit; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Gupta, Shilpi

    2011-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates. Investigation was undertaken to optimise the best solvents among 60% ethanol, acetone and methanol for the extraction of polyphenols from Brassica vegetables. Furthermore, different properties such as antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity were also investigated. Results showed that a 60% methanolic extract showed the highest total phenolic content which was 23.6, 20.4 and 18.7 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE...

  2. Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO sub 2 in five C sub 3 species. [Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Brassica oleracea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, R.F. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Sharkey, T.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Seemann, J.R. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The effect of long-term (weeks to months) CO{sub 2} enhancement on (a) the gas-exchange characteristics, (b) the content and activation state of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco), and (c) leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll, and dry weight per area were studied in five C{sub 3} species (Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, and Brassica oleracea) grown at CO{sub 2} partial pressures of 300 or 900 to 1000 microbars. Long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} affected the CO{sub 2} response of photosynthesis in one of three ways: (a) the initial slope of the CO{sub 2} response was unaffected, but the photosynthetic rate at high CO{sub 2} increased (S. tuberosum); (b) the initial slope decreased but the CO{sub 2}-saturated rate of photosynthesis decreased (B. oleracea, S. melongena). In all five species, growth at high CO{sub 2} increased the extent to which photosynthesis was stimulated following a decrease in the partial pressure of O{sub 2} or an increase in measurement CO{sub 2} above 600 microbars. This stimulation indicates that a limitation on photosynthesis by the capacity to regenerate orthophosphate was reduced or absent after acclimation to high CO{sub 2}. Leaf nitrogen per area either increased (S. tuberosum, S. melongena) or was little changed by CO{sub 2} enhancement. The content of rubisco was lower in only two of the fives species, yet its activation state was 19% to 48% lower in all five species following long-term exposure to high CO{sub 2}. These results indicate that during growth in CO{sub 2}-enriched air, leaf rubisco content remains in excess of that required to support the observed photosynthetic rates.

  3. Occurrence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel, 1895 Dowson 1939, on Brassicas in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Radunović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas form the most important group of vegetable crops in Montenegro. The cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata is most commonly grown, although other brassicas,particularly kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and broccoli, have been increasingly producedsince recently. One of the specialties of vegetable production in Montenegro is growing ofcollard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, which is the simplest variety of the Brassica oleraceaspecies and in the nearest relation with their wild ancestor – the sylvestris variety.Diseases are the main restrictive factors for successful production of these vegetables.Susceptibility of the cultivars and inadequate control often result in more or less damagedcrops in some plots.Causal agents of brassica diseases, especially bacterial, have not been investigated inMontenegro until 2009. Since the symptoms observed in 2009 were „V” shaped leaf edgenecrosis and black rot of vascular tissue, it was assumed that they were caused by plantpathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.Samples of the infected plants were collected from different localities in Montenegro.Isolation and identification of the bacterium were performed using laboratory methodsaccording to Schaad (1980, Lelliott and Stead (1987 and Arsenijević (1997. Examinationof chosen bacterial isolates was conducted using both, classical bacteriological methods(examination of their pathogenic, morphological, cultivation and biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics, and ELISA test.The obtained results confirmed the presence of X.campestris pv. campestris (Pammel,1895 Dowson 1939, on cabbage, kale, broccoli and collard in Montenegro. This is the firstexperimental evidence that collard is the host of X. campestris pv. campestris in Montenegro.

  4. Changes in Some Chemical Components During Germination of Broccoli Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė TARASEVIČIENĖ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeds germination to obtain sprouts is a technological method used for many years. During this biological process metabolic enzymes are activated and utilization or synthesis of wide range of chemical compounds occurs in seeds. Cruciferous plants seeds are especially valuable for this purpose because of glucosinolates abundance, the amount of which during germination even increases. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of germination process of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis Plenck seeds on their chemical composition related to nutritional value, including amino acids content. The seeds were germinated for 24, 72 and 120 h in the dark, at temperature of 25°C. The biggest changes in chemical composition were observed after 72 h of germination. During this process the amount of crude proteins increased, as well as amino acids content. Total amount of conjugated amino acids in non-germinated broccoli seeds was on the level of 181 g kg-1 dm and increased after 72 h of germination to 217 g kg-1 dm, while sudden decrease was observed after 120 h of germination, to the level of 177 g kg-1 dm. Prevailing essential amino acids in non-germinated and germinated seeds were leucine and arginine, while non-essential – glutamic acid.

  5. Polymer coating, germination and vigor of broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Celina de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica oleracea var italica occupies a special place in the internal and external market of vegetables seeds. Vegetables producers demand seeds with high degree of purity, germination and vigor, since seeds' quality is the basis for the success of the production. In this work, broccoli seeds were coated in a spouted bed, by an aqueous suspension of hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose. Effects of the operating variables: spouting air temperature, atomizing air pressure and coating suspension flow rate over the dependent variables: seeds germination, seeds accelerated aging and the speed of seeds germination in soil, were investigated in a factorial scheme trial. The maximum processing time was 120 min. A totally randomized experiment evaluated and compared seeds germination and vigor of the coated and non-coated seeds. There was no identifiable, pronounced difference on germination of coated and non-coated seeds, accelerated aging of seeds, and speed of seeds germination in the soil. Coating with hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose in the spouted bed did not alter broccoli seeds physiologic quality. The surface of coated seeds presented satisfactory distribution and spreading of the polymer film, uniform and individual coating and homogeneous aspect.

  6. KAJIAN SAAT PEMBERIAN PUPUK DASAR NITROGEN DAN UMUR BIBIT PADA TANAMAN BROKOLI (Brassica oleraceae var. Italica Planck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Wasonowati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research to know the influence of nitrogen base fertilizer timing and right age of seedling after transplanting to growth and harvest of broccoli. The research was done Sumber Brantas Batu. It is a factorial experiment using plot design. There are two factor with three times replications. Factor I (main terrace is nitrogen base fertilizer timing consist of N0, N1 and N2 where nitrogen  fertilizer given at 0, 7th and  14th day after plant. Factor II  is broccoli seed age consist of  B1, B2, B3 and B4 where seed age are 3, 4, 5 and 6 week. The result of this experiment shows that nitrogen base fertilizer timing and right age of seed can increase growth and harvest of broccoli.  Seed age  5 and 6 give plant height, leave quantity and stem diameter higher  than other age observation. Seed age 3 and 4 week give fresh weight of flower plant 414.53 g/plant. Combination treatment nitrogen base fertilizer timing at 7th day after planting and seed age at 5th  week give leave width, leave width index, total dry weight and harvest higher than other observation. Combination treatment nitrogen base fertilizer timing and seed age at 5th  week cause plant quick flowering (52th day and harvest (72th day. While  combination treatment  nitrogen base fertilizer timing 14th after flowering  and seed age at 4th week give the highest fresh weight flower that is 2855 g/m2.

  7. Bedeutung von Ackerbohnendichtsaat und Horngries für den Ertrag bei Brokkoli (Brassica oleracea convar. Botrytis var. italica)

    OpenAIRE

    Veh, Christine; Graeff-Hönninger, Simone; Claupein, Wilhelm; Zikeli, Sabine; Ziehm, Nele

    2013-01-01

    Close seeding of field beans (Vicia faba) has been regarded for several years as an option in organic agriculture for the short-term introduction of nitrogen into production systems. At the same time faba bean potentially supplies nitrogen (N) to crops and soil by N2 fixation and nitrogen release when crop biomass is finally mulched. The main objective of this project was to investigate and develop a method of N-supply to meet the demand of broccoli using organic N-sources. Based on the resul...

  8. Flower infection of Brassica oleracea with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris results in high levels of seed infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Heijden, van der L.

    2013-01-01

    During seed production, Brassica seed may become infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris after systemic colonization of plants upon leaf infection, or alternatively, after flower infection. Polytunnel experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to study the relative importance of these c

  9. Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale and Raphanus sativus L. (radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppe Fernanda Borja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala and radish (Raphanus sativus. The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist clones occurred as an after-effect of the highly plastic determinants. Significant morphological plasticity in host used was observed, but no variation in the plastic responses (GxE interaction was detected. Strong selection for a larger size occurred among individuals reared on radish, the most unfavorable host. Morphological plasticity in general body size (in a multivariate sense was not linear related to fitness plasticity. These observations suggest that a high potential for the evolution of host divergence favors host race formation.

  10. The Effect of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertiliser on Growth and Yield of Brassica Oleraceae var. Acephala D.C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale (Brassica oleraceae var. Acephala D.C.) cultivar, collard green was planted in the field between October 1997 and March 1998 in the experimental plots at Maseno University college in Western Kenya. The experiment was set up to study the effect of organic and inorganic sources of fertiliser on growth and yield of kale. The kale seedlings were first raised in a nursery and transplanted 8 weeks after sowing. The treatments included farm yard manure (150 kg N.ha-1, 8kgP.ha-1), Tithonia Diversifolia (Tithonia) Leaf biomass incorporated in combination with Diammonium phosphate (DAP) (150kgN.ha-1 and 30kgP.ha-1), TSithonia leaf biomass incorporated, DAP in combination with Urea, DAP in combination with calcium Ammonium nitrate (CAN) at the rate of 150kgP.ha-1 and the control. Non-destructive measurements on plant height, leaf number and stem thickness were taken regularly commencing 6 weeks after transplanting. Leaf yield was assessed by both cumulative leaf weight per given area and leaf number per plant. Both organic and inorganic sources of fertiliser significantly increased growth and leaf yield of kale. In all parameters measured farm yard manure gave the best response. Tithonia leaf biomass incorporated in the soil either on its own or in combination with DAP gave leaf yields comparable increasing, organic sources which are locally available to the farmer can be alternative sources of fertiliser without compromising the yields

  11. Jasmonic acid-induced volatiles of Brassica oleracea attract parasitoids: effects of time and dose, and comparison with induction by herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Maaike; Posthumus, Maarten A; Mumm, Roland; Mueller, Martin J; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Caterpillar feeding induces direct and indirect defences in brassicaceous plants. This study focused on the role of the octadecanoid pathway in induced indirect defence in Brassica oleracea. The effect of induction by exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) on the responses of Brussels sprouts plants and on host-location behaviour of associated parasitoid wasps was studied. Feeding by the biting-chewing herbivores Pieris rapae and Plutella xylostella resulted in significantly increased endogenous levels of JA, a central component in the octadecanoid signalling pathway that mediates induced plant defence. The levels of the intermediate 12-oxophyto-dienoic acid (OPDA) were significantly induced only after P. rapae feeding. Three species of parasitoid wasps, Cotesia glomerata, C. rubecula, and Diadegma semiclausum, differing in host range and host specificity, were tested for their behavioural responses to volatiles from herbivore-induced, JA-induced, and non-induced plants. All three species were attracted to volatiles from JA-induced plants compared with control plants; however, they preferred volatiles from herbivore-induced plants over volatiles from JA-induced plants. Attraction of C. glomerata depended on both timing and dose of JA application. JA-induced plants produced larger quantities of volatiles than herbivore-induced and control plants, indicating that not only quantity, but also quality of the volatile blend is important in the host-location behaviour of the wasps. PMID:19451186

  12. A Co-Dominant Marker BoE332 Applied to Marker-Assisted Selection of Homozygous Male-Sterile Plants in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHUANG Mu; FANG Zhi-yuan; WANG Qing-biao; ZHANG Yang-yong; LIU Yu-mei; YANG Li-mei; CHENG Fei

    2013-01-01

    The dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) gene CDMs399-3 derived from a spontaneous mutation in the line 79-399-3 of spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), has been successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several cabbage cultivars in China. During the development of dominant male sterility lines in cabbage, the conventional identification of homozygous male-sterile plants (CDMs399-3/CDMs399-3) is a laborious and time-consuming process. For marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the gene CDMs399-3 transferred into key spring cabbage line 397, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and SSR technology were used to identify markers that were linked to CDMs399-3 based on method of bulked segregant analysis (BSA). By screening a set of 978 EST-SSRs and 395 SSRs, a marker BoE332 linked to the CDMs399-3 at a distance of 3.6 cM in the genetic background of cabbage line 397 were identified. 7 homozygous male-sterile plants in population P1170 with 20 plants were obtained finally via MAS of BoE332. Thus, BoE332 will greatly facilitate the transferring of the gene CDMs399-3 into the key spring cabbage line 397 and improve the application of DGMS in cabbage hybrid breeding.

  13. Xylem-to-phloem transfer of boron in broccoli and lupin during early reproductive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that newly-acquired boron (B) undergoes rapid xylem-to-phloem transfer in plants with restricted mobility. Analysis of the element accumulation and water usage by shoots of intact broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck cv. Commander) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants provided with a non-deficient supply of B, revealed that the concentration of various mineral elements (K, P, Mg, Ca, B, Fe, Zn, Mo, Cu, Mn) in xylem sap of intact plants ranged from 0.3 μM to 3.5 mM, with B being present at 2.9-3.5 μM. For each element assayed, the concentration was higher in phloem exudate (1.6 μM to 91 mM) than in xylem sap; B was present at about 0.4 mM. Intact broccoli and lupin plants or detached transpiring broccoli shoots were supplied simultaneously with enriched 10B, strontium (a xylem marker) and rubidium (a xylem/phloem marker) during early reproductive growth. The contents of these three compounds were determined in foliage and florets or fruits as a function of time (i.e. up to 12 h and 4 days for broccoli and lupin plants, respectively), and the content in florets or fruits was expressed as a percent of the total recovered. In general, the percent recovery of both 10B and rubidium in florets or fruits was similar and markedly greater than that for strontium, even at the earliest harvest times (within 2 h for broccoli and 1 day for lupin). The data indicate that in plants with restricted B mobility, B is supplied to sink tissues in the phloem, and the extent of B xylem-to-phloem transfer is closely determined by current uptake. (au)

  14. Growth and Yield of Broccoli Planted Year Round in Songkhla Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karistsapol Nooprom

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Four broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica varieties were evaluated in year round of Songkhla province, Thailand, from January, 2011 to January, 2012. The results shown that broccoli planting in all months provided high survival rate of seedling (78.90-98.24%. They had higher plant height than other months when planting in January, February, March, July and December (49.58-51.71 cm. Broccoli planting in January, February and March had the early time to 50% flowering and harvest of 33-36 and 43-45 Days after Transplanting (DAT, respectively. The Yok Kheo could respond to the best seedling survival rate and plant height while the Green Queen had the early time to 50% flowering and harvest. The Yok Kheo planted in January had the highest total yield (12.31 t/ha, followed by the Yok Kheo planted in March (10.65 t/ha and the Top Green planted in January (10.50 t/ha, respectively. The Yok Kheo is a new interesting hybrid variety because it had higher total yield than the Top Green that is the popular variety of farmers in southern Thailand.

  15. Bioactive glucosinolates and antioxidant properties of broccoli seeds cultivated in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarunya Chuanphongpanich

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant health concerns of cruciferous vegetables is the presence of biologically active compounds, glucosinolates. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica is a nutritionally important crop grown all over the world. Glucosinolates have been found to have anti-cancer properties. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate glucosinolate content and antioxidant property in the seeds of broccoli cultivars widely grown in Thailand. Glucosinolates were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Total and individual glucosinolate levels varied significantly among cultivars. In all broccoli seeds, 4-methylsulfinylbutylglucosinolate (glucoraphanin was the predominant glucosinolate. The highest total glucosinolates was 65.5 µmol/g DW in ‘Top Green #067’ cultivar, followed by ‘Packman’ (58.6, ‘Green Queen’ (51.2, ‘Pak Ging’ (25.5 and ‘Rod Fai’ (20.3. The antioxidant capacities, including ABTS radical scavenging activity and ferrous ion chelating ability in the methanol and water extracts, were found to be high.

  16. ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF Portulaca oleracea L. SEED EXTRACTS ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF Cichorium endivia L., Lactua sativa L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., AND Brassica tournefortii Gouan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Fahmy Shehata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Present study was formulated to find out the phytotoxic effects of different concentrations of water, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea seeds on germination, germination index and seedlings growth of Cichorium endivia, Lactuca sativa Echinochoa crus-galli, and Brassica tournefortii. Also the total phenolics and flavonoids were determined. Results indicated that the responses of allelopathic effects were depends on extract type and concentration. Furthermore, the higher concentration had a stronger inhibitory effect on seed germination whereas in some cases the lower concentration showed a stimulatory effect. Hence, it is suggested that Portulaca oleracea seeds has strong allelopathic potential and might be use for biological control of weeds.

  17. Clonación del cDNA del gen de la insulina humana en raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var italica (brócoli)

    OpenAIRE

    Berenice García Reyes; María del Carmen Montes Horcasitas; Emma Gloria Ramos Ramírez; Armando Ariza Castolo; Josefina Pérez Vargas; Octavio Gómez Guzmán; Graciano Calva Calva

    2010-01-01

    La insulina humana es una proteína de actividad hormonal que regula los niveles de glucosa en sangre. Cuando la insulina falla se desarrolla el padecimiento conocido como diabetes. La insulina se ha expresado en bacterias, levaduras, hongos, células animales y sistemas vegetales por biotecnología vegetal. En este trabajo presentamos los resultados del uso de raíces transformadas de Brassica oleracea var italica (Brocoli) para producir insulina humana. Materiales y Métodos: El cDNA del corresp...

  18. Especificidade de hospedeiro nas interações Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - brássicas Host specificity in interaction Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - brassicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulândula Silva Miguel-Wruck

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Face às escassas informações acerca da variabilidade patogênica de isolados brasileiros de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, realizou-se um estudo para avaliar a especificidade patogênica de trinta e três isolados do patógeno, provenientes de várias regiões do Brasil e do exterior, a oito espécies de brássicas, através de inoculação por meio de injeção da suspensão bacteriana nas folhas. Desse total, 12 isolados foram obtidos de couve-comum (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, nove de repolho (B. oleracea var. capitata, cinco de couve-flor (B. oleracea var. botrytis, dois de canola (B. napus, um de brócolos (B. oleracea var. italica, um de couve-chinesa (B. chinensis, um de couve-rábano (B. oleracea var. gongylodes e dois de rabanete (Raphanus sativus. A avaliação da patogenicidade dos isolados da bactéria, frente aos hospedeiros em estudo, demonstrou que 14 deles não apresentaram especificidade, originando sintomas em todas as diferentes plantas inoculadas. Os 19 isolados restantes, entretanto, apresentaram relativo grau de especificidade, não causando doença em uma ou mais das plantas inoculadas.Considering the lack of information in literature about the pathogenic variability of Brazilian isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a study was carried out to determine the pathogenic specificity of 33 isolates of this bacterium originated from several regions of Brazil and overseas to eight different Brassica species, through inoculation by means of injection of the bacterial suspension in leaves. From these isolates, 12 were obtained from collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, nine from cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata, five from cauliflower (B. oleracea var. botrytis, two from canola (B. napus, one from broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica, one from Chinese cabbage (B. chinensis, one from kohlrabi (B. oleracea var. gongylodes and two from radish (Raphanus sativus. The pathogenicity of the bacterium

  19. Neuroprotective Effect of Brassica oleracea Sprouts Crude Juice in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Masci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ aberrant production and aggregation are major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, causing neuronal death via oxidative stress. Several studies have highlighted the importance of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds in the treatment of AD, but complex food matrices, characterized by a different relative content of these phytochemicals, have been neglected. In the present study, we analyzed the protective effect on SH-SY5Y cells treated with the fragment Aβ25–35 by two crude juices of broccoli sprouts containing different amounts of phenolic compounds as a result of different growth conditions. Both juices protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death as evidenced by cell viability, nuclear chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation measurements. These effects were mediated by the modulation of the mitochondrial function and of the HSP70 gene transcription and expression. Furthermore, the juices upregulated the intracellular glutathione content and mRNA levels or activity of antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. Although the effects of the two juices were similar, the juice enriched in phenolic compounds showed a greater efficacy in inducing the activation of the Nrf2 signalling pathway.

  20. Immobilization of Brassica oleracea Chlorophyllase 1 (BoCLH1 and Candida rugosa Lipase (CRL in Magnetic Alginate Beads: An Enzymatic Evaluation in the Corresponding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hui Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes have a wide variety of applications in diverse biotechnological fields, and the immobilization of enzymes plays a key role in academic research or industrialization due to the stabilization and recyclability it confers. In this study, we immobilized the Brassica oleracea chlorophyllase 1 (BoCLH1 or Candida rugosa lipase (CRL in magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles-loaded alginate composite beads. The catalytic activity and specific activity of the BoCLH1 and CRL entrapped in magnetic alginate composite beads were evaluated. Results show that the activity of immobilized BoCLH1 in magnetic alginate composite beads (3.36 ± 0.469 U/g gel was higher than that of immobilized BoCLH1 in alginate beads (2.96 ± 0.264 U/g gel. In addition, the specific activity of BoCLH1 beads (10.90 ± 1.521 U/mg protein was higher than that immobilized BoCLH1 in alginate beads (8.52 ± 0.758 U/mg protein. In contrast, the immobilized CRL in magnetic alginate composite beads exhibited a lower enzyme activity (11.81 ± 0.618 than CRL immobilized in alginate beads (94.83 ± 7.929, and the specific activity of immobilized CRL entrapped in magnetic alginate composite beads (1.99 ± 0.104 was lower than immobilized lipase in alginate beads (15.01 ± 1.255. A study of the degradation of magnetic alginate composite beads immersed in acidic solution (pH 3 shows that the magnetic alginate composite beads remain intact in acidic solution for at least 6 h, indicating the maintenance of the enzyme catalytic effect in low-pH environment. Finally, the enzyme immobilized magnetic alginate composite beads could be collected by an external magnet and reused for at least six cycles.

  1. Expresión de la hormona de crecimiento humano en cultivos de raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar García López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido al crecimiento de la población humana mundial, las compañías farmacéuticas enfrentan una creciente demanda de proteínas terapéuticas, como anticuerpos, enzimas y hormonas; no obstante, las instalaciones y tecnologías existentes, como los cultivos de células animales y bacterianos pueden no resultar suficientes para cubrir esa demanda. Una alternativa es la utilización de la biotecnología vegetal para producir proteínas heterólogas. En este trabajo se presentan resultados del estudio de cultivos de raíces transformadas de Brassica oleracea var. italica (Brócoli para producir la hormona de crecimiento humano (hGH1. Doce cepas de raíces transformadas fueron comparadas por sus productividades de hGH1. La proteína hGH1 se determinó por inmunoensayo. La productividad entre las cepas fue variable, resultados atribuidos a la transformación genética del tejido. Dos cepas, BRGHE18 (0.514 ± 0.015 ¿g hGH/g*d y BRGH17 (0.443 ± 0.011 ¿g hGH/g*d, mostraron la más alta productividad y estadísticamente diferentes de las demás cepas. La expresión de la proteína hGH1 en cultivos de raíces transformadas de Brócoli fue exitosa. Además, la variabilidad en la producción de hGH1 entre las diferentes cepas ofrece la posibilidad de seleccionar cepas con alta productividad y evaluar esta técnica de la biotecnología vegetal como una alternativa de producción de esta proteína humana.

  2. Organelle Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Help to Distinguish Carpelloid Stamen and Normal Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sources in Broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2015-01-01

    We previously discovered carpelloid stamens when breeding cytoplasmic male sterile lines in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). In this study, hybrids and multiple backcrosses were produced from different cytoplasmic male sterile carpelloid stamen sources and maintainer lines. Carpelloid stamens caused dysplasia of the flower structure and led to hooked or coiled siliques with poor seed setting, which were inherited in a maternal fashion. Using four distinct carpelloid stamens and twelve distinct normal stamens from cytoplasmic male sterile sources and one maintainer, we used 21 mitochondrial simple sequence repeat (mtSSR) primers and 32 chloroplast SSR primers to identify a mitochondrial marker, mtSSR2, that can differentiate between the cytoplasm of carpelloid and normal stamens. Thereafter, mtSSR2 was used to identify another 34 broccoli accessions, with an accuracy rate of 100%. Analysis of the polymorphic sequences revealed that the mtSSR2 open reading frame of carpelloid stamen sterile sources had a deletion of 51 bases (encoding 18 amino acids) compared with normal stamen materials. The open reading frame is located in the coding region of orf125 and orf108 of the mitochondrial genomes in Brassica crops and had the highest similarity with Raphanus sativus and Brassica carinata. The current study has not only identified a useful molecular marker to detect the cytoplasm of carpelloid stamens during broccoli breeding, but it also provides evidence that the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited and provides a basis for studying the effect of the cytoplasm on flower organ development in plants. PMID:26407159

  3. Dark-chilling of Seedlings Affects Initiation and Morphology of Broccoli Inflorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta GRABOWSKA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The constant supply of broccoli heads for a vegetable market can be kept by the differentiation of sowing time and the age of seedlings. Dark-chilling of young seedlings can also modify the time of transplanting, subsequent plant development, yield and inflorescence quality. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of seedling dark-chilling on the inflorescence initiation and the morphological quality of broccoli heads. The experiment was carried out at the University of Agriculture in Krakow (South Poland in the years 2009 and 2010, with broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck medium late cultivar ‘Monaco’ F1. The examined factors were the age of seedlings (4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-week-old and dark-chilling (2°C/2 weeks and non-chilled control. Microscopic analysis of the apex sections was performed to determine the time of the inflorescence differentiation in chilled and non-chilled seedlings of different age. Chosen morphological features of the mature heads were also described as depended on age and chilling of seedlings. The inflorescence initiation was observed between 4 and 6 week of the plant ontogeny. Especially 4-week-old seedlings, chilled by two weeks, were more advanced in the generative development in comparison to non-chilled control. Low temperature applied in the seedling stage did not cause the head buttoning. Inflorescences developed by broccoli planted from 4 and 6-week-old seedlings, both chilled and control, were characterized by the best visual quality, determined by a convex head shape, tight branching angle, small and uniform size and regular form of flower buds. Chilling of oldest, 8- and 10-week-old seedlings negatively affected the inflorescence quality, through planed and spread shape of heads and non-uniform shape of flower buds.

  4. Broccoli and watercress suppress matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and invasiveness of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with a reduction in numerous human pathologies particularly cancer. In the current study, we examined the inhibitory effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and watercress (Rorripa nasturtium aquaticum) extracts on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cancer cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity using human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Aberrant overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases, including metalloproteinase-9, is associated with increased invasive potential in cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrate that extracts of broccoli and Rorripa suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 activity and invasiveness in a concentration dependant manner as determined by zymographic analysis. Furthermore, fractionation of individual extracts followed by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis (LC-MS) revealed that the inhibitory effects of each vegetable were associated with the presence of 4-methysulfinylbutyl (sulforaphane) and 7-methylsulphinylheptyl isothiocyanates. Taken together, our data indicate that isothiocyanates derived form broccoli and Rorripa inhibit metalloproteinase 9 activities and also suppress the invasive potential of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. The inhibitory effects observed in the current study may contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in cruciferous vegetables

  5. Enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani in transgenic broccoli with a Trichoderma viride endochitinase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ya; REN Shu-xin; GUO Yang-dong; ZHANG Lei; LIAN Wei-ran; XU Feng-feng; LI Shuang-tao; XIANG Juan; ZHANG Guo-zhen; HU Zan-min; ZHAO Bing

    2015-01-01

    A endochitinase gene (Tch ) from the fungus Trichoderma viride was introduced into broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Sixty-eight putative transformants were obtained and the presence of the Tch gene was conifrmed by both PCR and Southern blot analysis. RT-PCR analysis showed an accumulation of the transcript encoding the endochitinase protein in the transgenic plants. Using real-time quantitative PCR, the expression proifling of endochitinase gene was analyzed. Primary transformants and selfed progeny were examined for expression of the endo-chitinase using a lfuorometric assay and for their resistance to the pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani. The endochitinase activities in T0 in vitro plants, T0 mature plants and T1 mature plants were correlated with leaf lesions, and the transgenic line T618 had high endochitinse activities of 102.68, 114.53 and 120.27 nmol L–1 MU min–1 mg–1 protein in the three kinds of plants, respectively. The endochitinase activity showed a positive correlation with the resistance to the pathogens. Most transgenic T0 broccoli had increased resistance to the pathogens of B. cinerea and R. solani in leaf assays and this resistance was conifrmed to be inheritable. These ifndings suggested that expression of the Tch gene from T. viride could enhance resistance to pathogenic fungi in Brassica species.

  6. 盐碱胁迫对西兰花种子萌发的影响%Effect of Salt and Alkaline Stress on Seed Germination of Broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芬芬

    2012-01-01

    The germination and protection enzyme activities of Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L. embryo under the different concentration of NaCl and Na2CO3 stress were examined in this experiment. The results showed that the germination of broccoli was promoted under the low concentration of NaCl (≤20 mmol/L). Germination of broccoli was inhibited under the Na2CO3 stress when concentration of Na+ was the same. SOD and POD activities of embryo under the Na2CO3 stress were lower than the NaCl stress, and MDA content was higher than the NaCl stress. Comprehensive analysis showed that the threshold values of broccoli tolerance to NaCl and Na2CO3 were 445.5 mmol/L and 64.1 mmol/L.%本试验通过采用不同浓度的NaCl和Na2CO3胁迫萌发期的西兰花(Brassica oleracea L.var.botrytis L.)种子,调查了其发芽和胚保护酶活性等指标.研究结果表明,低浓度(≤20 mmol/L)的NaCl胁迫对西兰花各发芽指标有促进作用,在等Na+浓度胁迫下,各Na2CO3胁迫对各发芽指标均表现出抑制作用.Na2CO3胁迫处理胚的SOD和POD活性低于NaCl胁迫处理,MDA含量高于NaCl胁迫处理.综合分析表明,西兰花耐盐阈值和耐碱阈值分别为445.5 mmol/L和64.1 mmol/L.

  7. Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guoqing Zhang; Weijun Zhou

    2006-04-01

    The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits—plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, length of pod, seed weight per plant and 1000-seed weight—had heritabilities of 0.927, 0.215, 0.172, 0.381, 0.360, 0.972, 0.952, 0.516 and 0.987 respectively, while the mean numbers of controlling genes for these characters were 7.4, 10.4, 9.9, 12.9, 11.5, 21.7, 20.5, 19.8 and 6.4 respectively. According to estimated coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the traits tested, no significant gene interaction was found for plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. Seed yield per plant is an important target for oilseed production. In partial correlation analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight were positively correlated with seed yield per plant. On the other hand, length of pod was negatively correlated ($r = -0.69$) with seed yield per plant. Other agronomic characters had no significant correlation to seed yield per plant. In this experiment, the linear regressions of seed yield per plant and other agronomic traits were also analysed. The linear regression equation was $y = 0.074x_{8} + 1.819x_{9} + 6.72x_{12} - 60.78 (R^{2} = 0.993)$, where $x_{8}$, $x_{9}$ and $x_{12}$ represent number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight respectively. The experiment also showed that erucic acid and oil contents of seeds from F2 plants were lower than those of their maternal parents. However, glucosinolate content was higher than that of the maternal plants. As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and

  8. Reactions to cadmium stress in a cadmium-tolerant variety of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.): is cadmium tolerance necessarily desirable in food crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, Neel; Collins, Damian; Holford, Paul; Milham, Paul J; Conroy, Jann P

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium is a cumulative, chronic toxicant in humans for which the main exposure pathway is via plant foods. Cadmium-tolerant plants may be used to create healthier food products, provided that the tolerance is associated with the exclusion of Cd from the edible portion of the plant. An earlier study identified the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) variety, Pluto, as relatively Cd tolerant. We exposed the roots of intact, 4-week-old seedlings of Pluto to Cd (control ∼1 mg L(-1) treatment 500 μg L(-1)) for 4 weeks in flowing nutrient solutions and observed plant responses. Exposure began when leaf 3 started to emerge, plants were harvested after 4 weeks of Cd exposure and the high Cd treatment affected all measured parameters. The elongation rate of leaves 4-8, but not the duration of elongation was reduced; consequently, individual leaf area was also reduced (P stems and leaves were unaffected (P > 0.1). Phytochelatins (PCs) and glutathione (GSH) were present in the roots even at the lowest Cd concentration in the nutrient medium, i.e. ∼1 μg Cd L(-1), which would not be considered contaminated if it were a soil solution. The Cd concentration in these roots was unexpectedly high (5 mg kg(-1) DW) and the molar ratio of -SH (in PCs plus GSH) to Cd was large (>100:1). In these control plants, the Cd concentration in the leaves was 1.1 mg kg(-1) DW, and PCs were undetectable. For the high Cd treatment, the concentration of Cd in roots exceeded 680 mg kg(-1) DW and the molar -SH to Cd ratio fell to ∼1.5:1. For these plants, Cd flooded into the leaves (107 mg kg(-1) DW) where it probably induced synthesis of PCs, and the molar -SH to Cd ratio was ∼3:1. Nonetheless, this was insufficient to sequester all the Cd, as evidenced by the toxic effects on photosynthesis and growth noted above. Lastly, Cd accumulation in the leaves was associated with lowered concentrations of some trace elements, such as Zn, a combination of traits that is highly undesirable in food

  9. Stingless bees damage broccoli inflorescences when collecting fibers for nest building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Jorge Nunes dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (Hymenoptera: Apidae is an important pollinator for various crops, but constitutes an occasional pest of other plant species since it causes injury to leaves, stems, flowers and fruits while collecting nest materials. The aim of the present study was to determine the damage caused by T. spinipes to a broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica, Brassicaceae growing on an organic farm. A significant number of plants (72.5 % presented damaged inflorescences, while 39% of all of the inflorescences suffered some degree of injury. The activities of T. spinipes caused scarifications on the stems of the inflorescences, and these typically evolved to epidermal cicatrices up to 10 mm wide. In some cases, the lesions were sufficiently deep to cause partial destruction of the vascular tissues, and this lead to thinner (< 5 mm diameter floral stems that may collapse. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the attack of broccoli plants by T. spinipes. The results obtained should serve to highlight the possibility that stingless bees could be responsible for direct and/or indirect damage to vegetable crops, and to stimulate the development of control strategies for these incidental pests.

  10. Influência de genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. na biologia de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae Influence of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on the biology of Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência de alguns genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. no desenvolvimento de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Os genótipos avaliados foram: Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I-919, Manteiga de São José, Manteiga de Monte Alegre, Pires 2 de Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 1. Lagartas recém-eclodidas foram mantida em discos foliares de 8 cm de diâmetro para cada genótipo. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, longevidade e fecundidade de adultos, utilizando análises paramétricas e de agrupamentos para interpretação dos dados. Observou-se um prolongamento em dias no ciclo de P. xylostella, aumento no peso de pupa e maiores valores de viabilidade e fecundidade, durante a segunda geração. O genótipo Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2 foi menos favorável ao desenvolvimento de P. xylostella nas duas gerações, e Couve Comum demonstrou maior influência negativa ao inseto na segunda geração. Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620 foi o mais suscetível nas duas gerações, agrupando com este na segunda geração Pires 2 de Campinas e Manteiga de São José.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on growth of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. The genotypes evaluated were: Manteiga of Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I919, Manteiga of São José, Manteiga of Monte Alegre, Pires 2 of Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 1. Neonate larvae were reared in 8 cm leaf discs of each genotype. The parameters evaluated were: period and viability of the larval and pupal stages, sex ratio, longevity and fecundity of adults. Parametric and Cluster analyses were used for data analysis. Overall, it was observed a developmental delay in the P

  11. Selenium enrichment of broccoli sprout extract increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Kazuhiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Broccoli is a Brassica vegetable that is believed to possess chemopreventive properties. Selenium also shows promise as an anticancer agent. Thus, selenium enrichment of broccoli has the potential to enhance the anticancer properties of broccoli sprouts. Method Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were prepared using a sodium selenite solution. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in human prostate cancer cell lines and compared with those of a control broccoli sprout extract. Results Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were superior to normal broccoli sprouts in inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing prostate-specific antigen secretion, and inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts but, not normal broccoli sprouts, induced a downregulation of the survival Akt/mTOR pathway. Conclusion Our results suggest that selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts could potentially be used as an alternative selenium source for prostate cancer prevention and therapy.

  12. 榨菜和紫甘蓝种间周缘嵌合体有性生殖特性研究%Reproductive Characteristics of Periclinal Chimera of Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪云; 王海燕; 韩晓红; 陈利萍

    2011-01-01

    对榨菜(Brassica juncea)和紫甘蓝(Brassica oleracea)种间周缘嵌合体TCC(LⅠ -LⅡ-LⅢ=T-C-C,LⅠ为茎尖分生组织层最外层;LⅡ为中间层;LⅢ为最内层.T表示榨菜,C表示紫甘蓝)的有性发育、生殖器官和生殖特性等进行研究.结果发现,TCC嵌合体的花蕾和花瓣的大小介于榨菜和紫甘蓝之间,而花序形态,雄蕊、雌蕊的长度以及花粉粒的大小等性状在很大程度上与紫甘蓝接近,花瓣的颜色和香气则与榨菜相同.这些研究结果说明花器官的有些性状由茎尖分生组织的LⅠ决定(花色、香气),而有些性状很大程度上决定于内部细胞层LⅡ和/或LⅢ(雌雄蕊大小、花粉粒),还有些性状则是由LⅠ和LⅡ共同决定(花瓣大小).此外,对TCC嵌合体进行蕾期自交、杂交的结果显示TCC嵌合体可以产生果实且坐果率正常,但角果发育到一定大小即停止生长且不能产生种子.产生这一结果的原因可能是TCC嵌合体的花粉粒(来自LⅡ)与雌蕊的的柱头表皮(来自LⅠ)相互识别有障碍,亦或是受精卵发育受阻导致.%The characteristics of TCC (LⅠ-LⅡ-LⅢ , LⅠ -the outmost layer of shoot apical meristem; LⅡ-the middle layer; LⅢ -the innermost layer. T=Tuber mustard, C=Red cabbage) chimera reproductive organs and crossing were determined. It was noted that the length and width of flower buds and petals of TCC chimeras were intermediate between those of red cabbage and tuber mustard, and that the inflorescence and the size of pistils, stamens and pollens were more similar with red cabbage, while the pedal color and flavor were same with tuber mustard. This result indicated that some characters were determined by both LⅠ and L Ⅱ layers, while other characters were determined by LⅠ or LⅡ layer. In addition, TCC chimeras were artificially pollinated with the pollens of TCC chimera, red cabbage and tuber mustard. The capsule setting frequency of TCC chimera was close

  13. Antioxidant properties of Brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Sotelo Pérez, Tamara; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Cartea González, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    Brassica vegetables include some economically interesting crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale and turnip, which are consumed all over the world. A high intake of Brassica vegetables reduces the risk of age-related chronic illness such as cardiovascular health and other degenerative diseases and reduces the risk of several types of cancer, thanks in part to the antioxidant properties of different compounds. Compared to other vegetables, Brassica vegetables have...

  14. The influence of NO3- and NH4+ on the sites of nitrogen assimilation of F1 hybrid cauliflower (Brassica oleracea. L. botrytis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sites of Nitrogen assimilation of Fl hybrid cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) grown in vermiculite: pearlite on either NO3 or NH4 nutrition was investigated using 15 N techniques. Labelling studies using 15NO3 Or 15NH4 alone to follow a time course of 15 NO3 or 15NH4 incorporated into amino compounds in Fl hybrid cauliflower was conducted over periods of up to 24 hours. The 15N enrichment of amino compounds in various plant parts was measured using GC-MS and isotopic abundance mass spectrometry techniques. In roots of 15NH4-N fed plant, the 15N label rapidly appears in glutamate at high enrichment within 30 minutes and increased substantially up to 6 hours after feeding. The labelled glutamate appears to decrease slowly after 6 hours. In leaves, the glutamate shows much lower labelling within 30 minutes than in the roots and became slowly enriched 6 hours after feeding. Labelled glutamate was only detected in the curd 6 hours later. This may indicate that in NH4-N fed plants, most NH4 is assimilated in the roots and translocated as amino acids to the leaves and curd. In contrast to 15NO3-N fed plant, both the roots and leaves showed significant label in glutamate within 30 minutes and subsequently increased in labelled enrichment over the time period of 6 hours. The leaves contained higher labelled glutamate than the roots. The labelled glutamate in the leaves decreased significantly at 24 hours after feeding. Label was incorporated in glutamate at low level in the curd after 2 hours and became highly enriched at 6 and 24 hours after feeding. Thus in NO3-N fed plants, NO3 reduction and assimilation occurred both in root and leaf which mainly occur in the leaf. Therefore differences in the response of plant growth to NO3- and NH4+ nutrition observed in other studies could be due to the fact that NO3 is primarily assimilated in the leaf whereas NH4 is root based. No significant labelling was found in serine in both roots of 15NH4-N and 15NO3 -fed plants after 30

  15. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p rape. The reduction of oilseed rape yield showed the highest correlation with the ozone uptake during the vegetative growth stage: when only the first 47 days after emergence were used to calculate POD 6, R2 values increased up to 0.476 or even 0.545 when the first 23 days were excluded. The highest ozone treatments, corresponding to the future ambient level by 2100 (IPCC, Meehl et al., 2007), led to a reduction of approximately 30% in oilseed rape seed yield in comparison to the current ozone concentrations. Oil percentage was also significantly reduced in response to ozone ( p < 0.001). As a consequence oil yield was even more severely affected by elevated ozone exposure compared to seed yield: critical levels for oil yield dropped to 3.2 ppm h and 3.9 mmol m -2. For broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  16. Pengaruh Waktu Aplikasi Dan Pemberian Berbagai Dosis Kompos Azolla (Azolla spp.) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Kailan (Brassica oleraceae Var. Acephala DC.)

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Andi Pasaribu

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh waktu aplikasi dan pemberian berbagai dosis kompos Azolla (Azolla spp.) terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman kailan (Brasisca oleraceae Var. Acephala DC.). Penelitian dilaksanakan di lahan/areal percobaan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumatera Utara Medan, dari bulan Juli 2008 sampai September 2008. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) faktorial dengan dua faktor perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Fa...

  17. Innovative minimal processing of mini broccoli for keeping quality and safety and enhancing bioactive compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Hernández, Ginés Benito

    2012-01-01

    [ENG] Broccoli has been described as the ‘super–vegetable’ in the media after a great number of epidemiological and laboratory studies on this Brassica specie. These studies have shown numerous health–promoting properties of broccoli such as chemopreventive, antioxidant, antitumor, antimutagenicity, anti–inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral and reduction of coronary heart disease risk. These properties are related to the high content of broccoli in phenolic compounds, glucosinolates (isothi...

  18. The wild and the grown – remarks on Brassica

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer K. et al.

    2013-01-01

    Brassica is a genus of the Cruciferae (Brassicaceae). The wild races are concentrated in the Mediterranean area with one species in CE Africa (Brassica somaliensis Hedge et A. Miller) and several weedy races reaching E Asia. Amphidiploid evolution is characteristic for the genus. The diploid species Brassica nigra (L.) Koch (n = 8), Brassica rapa L. emend. Metzg. (n = 10, syn.: B. campestris L.) and Brassica oleracea L. (n = 9) all show a rich variation under domestication. From the natura...

  19. Study on the Relationship Between the Ploidy Level of Microspore-Derived Plants and the Number of Chloroplast in Stomatal Guard Cells in Brassica oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Su-xia; LIU Yu-mei; FANG Zhi-yuan; YANG Li-mei; ZHUANG Mu; ZHANG Yang-yong; SUN Pei-tian

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between the ploidy level of microspore-derived plants and chloroplast number in stomatal guard cells was studied in cabbage, broccoli, and Chinese kale. In the experiment, distribution statistics analysis and t-test were used to perform statistical analysis on chloroplast number of different ploidy level in those stomatal guard cells mentioned above, and morphology identifying and chromosome counting were used to test accuracy of counting chloroplast number in stomatal guard cells. The chloroplast average number in stomatal guard cells was very similar among the different leaf positions on the same plant and among the different locations in the same leaf, while the chloroplast number varied significantly among the different ploidy stoma in the same variety. All the distributions of the chloroplast number in different ploidy stoma were normal distribution fitted. A correlation has been established between ploidy and chloroplast number in the stomatal guard cells. In every single stoma of microspore-derived plants, the chloroplast number for a haploid should not be more than 10, diploids 11 to 15, and polyploids more than 15. The accuracy of this method for identification of different ploidy plants was 93.93%. Furthermore, the accuracy of this method was reliable and did not vary with the plants growth conditions. Therefore, the chromosome ploidy of plants derived from microspore culture in cabbage, broccoli, and Chinese kale can be identified by simply counting the chloroplast number in stomatal guard cells.

  20. Clonación del cDNA del gen de la insulina humana en raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var italica (brócoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice García Reyes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La insulina humana es una proteína de actividad hormonal que regula los niveles de glucosa en sangre. Cuando la insulina falla se desarrolla el padecimiento conocido como diabetes. La insulina se ha expresado en bacterias, levaduras, hongos, células animales y sistemas vegetales por biotecnología vegetal. En este trabajo presentamos los resultados del uso de raíces transformadas de Brassica oleracea var italica (Brocoli para producir insulina humana. Materiales y Métodos: El cDNA del correspondiente gen humano fue transfectado a Brocoli via Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA9402 con el vector pCAMBIA1105.1. La transformación del tejido de raíces fue confirmada por PCR, reacciones de restricción y ensayos de B-glucuronidasa. Resultados y Discusión: La presencia del cDNA correspondiente a preproinsulina y proinsulina fue B-glucuronidasa positiva para varias de las líneas. Aunque el rendimiento fue variable, cinco líneas mostraron valores apropiados con potencial para ser usadas como modelo de estudio en la producción en biorreactores.

  1. Predictive modelling of moisture loss of broccoli on different storage conditions%不同温湿度条件下青花菜失水率预测模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婧; 李媚; 侯军; 杨佩; 石英

    2011-01-01

    The changes of the moisture loss of broccoli(Brassica oleracea lvxiu)on different storage conditions(e. g. temperature and relative humidity)were investigated,the prediction model of the moisture loss of broccoli by chemical kinetics and Arrhenius law were obtained.%以"绿秀"青花菜为试材,研究了不同温湿度下青花菜的失水率随时间的变化规律,并以此为基础,运用化学反应动力学和阿伦方程(Arrhenius equation)得到青花菜失水率的预测模型(R2〉0.91)。

  2. EFFECTS OF PHYTOPHTHORA ROOT ROT AND METALAXYL TREATMENT ON THE YIELD OF SOME FORAGE BRASSICA SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Karakaya, Aziz; KOCH, D.W.; Gray, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    Three forage Brassica species were evaluated for their growth and adaptability to the Rocky Mountain region. Brassicas were grown in fields infested with a Phytophthora disease previoıısly observed on kale (Brassica oleracea var. Acephala) Metalaxyl treatmıent did not affect Brassica yields signifıcantly. Although pest problems were detected, Brassica crops tolerated low temperatures and produced excellent yields ( up to 9.90 Mg/ha). The Phytophthora isolates from Brassica, which were identif...

  3. EFFECTS OF PLANTING DATES AND VARIETIES ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BROCCOLI DURING RAINY SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karistsapol Nooprom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica is one of the most popular vegetable crops in many countries of the world as its nutritional importance. It has the most exacting climatic and cultural requirements, which limit its commercial production to a few favored locations. In Thailand, broccoli has been expending in recent years and amount of increasing production. It is best planted in the North where the weather is cool or in the Northeast during winter season. The South has tropical climates and raining all year round, but farmers can produce broccoli during early summer by using the heat-tolerant varieties. Although the broccoli is highly priced and still wanted by consumers in the rainy season, the farmers might not choose to grow as the problems with low productivity. Thus, the selection of suitable planting dates and varieties is crucial for successful cultivation during rainy season in the South. The experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of planting dates and broccoli varieties on their growth and yield responses during rainy season. Four broccoli varieties: ‘Top Green’, ‘Green Queen’, ‘Yok Kheo’ and ‘Special’ were plated for six planting dates: July, August, September, October, November and December at Prince of Songkla University, Thailand, between July, 2011 and January, 2012. Split-plot in a randomized complete block design was used in this experiment with four replications. This study showed that four broccoli varieties had highly seedling survival rates of 70.31-99.22% when planting in July-December except ‘Special’ of 54.68% when planting in August. ‘Yok Kheo’ had plant diameter of 67.54-75.24 cm when planting in July and December, not significantly different from ‘Top Green’ planting in July, August and November of 69.15-71.24 cm and ‘Green Queen’ in July and September of 68.69-68.88 cm. The highest total yield was obtained by ‘Yok Kheo

  4. Re-translocation of boron in broccoli and lupin during early reproductive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to determine if boron (B) re-translocation depends on plant-B status and external-B supply. The stable 10B isotope was supplied to the root system of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck cv. Commander) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants to provide a quantitative picture of B distribution during early reproductive development. Regardless of the B regime (i.e. continuous supply with luxury, sufficient or deficient B; transfer at influorescence emergence from either a luxury- or sufficient-B supply to a deficient one) and whether 10B was acquired before or during influorescence development, a significant proportion of the B recovered in broccoli florest and lupin fruit was 10B enriched. B acquired during inflorescence development was an important source of B for reproductive structures, but the relative importance of B acquired before and after inflorescence emergence appeared to be species dependent. The occurrence of B re-translocation was not dependent upon the induction of B deficiency. The concentrations of B in phloem exsudates (0.38 to 0.03 mM) were 4- to 23-fold those in xylem sap, and more similar to the concentrations in the reproductive structures (0.86 to 0.07 mM) than those in source leaves (2.4 to 0.19 mM). The decreasing acropetal gradient of tissue-B concentrations with luxury-B supply declined dramatically or was reversed in plants grown with sufficient or deficient B. The data are consistent with B being a phloem-mobile element, and suggest that newly acquired B is particularly important during the early reproductive growth of plants. (au) 36 refs

  5. INFLUÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES TIPOS DE EMBALAGENS NAS CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS E COMPOSIÇÃO GASOSA DE BRÓCOLIS (Brassica oleracea L. var Itálica) ORGÂNICOS MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADOS E ARMAZENADOS SOB REFRIGERAÇÃO

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. PADULA; B. A. M. CARCIOFI; C. E. DANNENHAUER; G. B. STRINGARI; Monteiro, A R

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos dos diferentes tipos de embalagens na vida útil de brócolis (Brassica oleracea) orgânicos minimamente processados e armazenados sob refrigeração. As amostras foram selecionadas e higienizadas, centrifugadas e acondicionados em embalagens de polipropileno (PP), câmara de acrílico hermeticamente selada e com canais ab...

  6. Construction of eSRK Chimeras and Interaction between eSRK Chimeras and SCRs from Brassica oleracea L.%甘蓝eSRK重组体的构建及其与SCR的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦静宜; 高启国; 任雪松; 王小佳; 李成琼; 宋明

    2012-01-01

    SRK与SCR是甘蓝自交不亲和雌雄性决定因子,两者间相互作具有单倍型特异性.为了探讨HVⅠ/Ⅱ区域在SRK单倍型特异性及其与SCR互作中的作用,采用重组技术构建甘蓝不同单倍型eSRK (SRKE与SRKF)间的重组体eSRKE-1、eSRKE-2和eSRKE-3,用酵母双杂交系统3检测各eSRK重组体与SCR之间的相互作用.结果表明:SCRE能与eSRKE作用,而不能与eSRKF作用,说明eSRKE、eSRKF属于不同单倍型;SCRE与重组体eSRKE-1、eSRKE-2、eSRKE-3均不发生作用,HVⅠ和HVⅡ区域内差异的氨基酸位点共同参与了与SCR的作用;SCRF不能与eSRKE-1、eSRKE-2、eSRKE-3作用,替换HVⅠ/Ⅱ区域后并不能改变SRK的单倍型.%Self-incompatibility in Brassica is mediated by allele-specific interactions between stigma-expressed 5-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and pollen coat-localized 5-locus cysteinerich (SCR) ligands encoded by the 5-locus haplotype. To identify amino acid fragments within the SRK extracellular domain (eSRK) that are required for ligand-selective activation, we constructed chi-meric eSRK between two 5-locus haplotypes in Brassica oleracea, and identified the interaction between eSRK chimeras and SCRs by yeast two-hybrid system. The results showed that SRKE (not chimera) could interact with SCRE, and SRKF could interact with SCRF. All of eSRK chimeras could not interact with SCRs. The hypervariable regions, HVI and HVII, were essential for specificity in the SRK-SCR interaction. However, eSRK chimeras could not interact with SCRp, although they contained hypervariable regions come from eSRKp, which should be related with the overall sequence or 3D conformation of the segments determining SI specificity.

  7. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on yield and quality of kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea, L. Efeito da adubagem com o nitrogénio e enxofre ao rédito e à qualidade das couves-rábanos (Brassica oleracea, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Losák

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse pot experiment with kohlrabi, variety Luna, we explored the joint effect of N (0.6 g N per pot = 6 kg of soil and S in the soil (25-35-45 mg kg-1 of S on yields, on N, S and NO3- content in tubers and leaves, and on alterations in the amino acids concentration in the tubers. S fertilisation had no effect on tuber yields. The ranges of N content in tubers and leaves were narrow (between 1.42-1.48 % N and 1.21-1.35 % N, respectively and the effect of S fertilisation was insignificant. S concentration in the tubers ranged between 0.59 and 0.64 % S. S fertilisation had a more pronounced effect on the S concentration in leaf tissues where it increased from 0.50 to 0.58 or to 0.76 % S under the applied dose. The NO3- content was higher in tubers than in leaves. Increasing the S level in the soil significantly reduced NO3- concentrations in the tubers by 42.2-53.6 % and in the leaves by 8.8-21.7 %. Increasing the S content in the soil reduced the concentration of cysteine + methionine by 16-28 %. The values of valine, tyrosine, aspartic acid and serine were constant. In the S0, S1, and S2 treatments the levels of threonine, isoleucine, leucine, arginine, the sum of essential amino acids and alanine decreased from 37 to 9 %. The histidine concentration increased with increasing S fertilisation. S fertilisation of kohlrabi can be recommended to stabilize the yield and reduce the undesirable NO3- contained in the parts used for consumption.Deficiência aguda de S no solo tem sido observada na Europa desde os anos 1980. O couve-rábano é uma das plantas com maior exigência nesse nutriente e sua interação com o N é frequentemente relatada na literatura. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação visando testar o efeito da aplicação de S, na presença de N, na produção e qualidade de couve-rábano (Brassica oleracea, L., variedade Lua. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos contendo 6 kg de solo, aos quais foram aplicados 0

  8. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  9. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Poppel, G. van

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms by which brassica vegetables might decrease the risk of cancer are reviewed in this paper. Brassicas, including all types of cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, may be protective against cancer due to their relatively high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are us

  10. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of glucosinolat

  11. Genome-Wide Microsatellite Characterization and Marker Development in the Sequenced Brassica Crop Species

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of the...

  12. 不同贮藏性青花菜花球的抗氧化特性%Antioxidative Properties of Broccoli Florets of Cultivars with Different Storability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进才; 赵习姮

    2011-01-01

    为研究青花菜(Brassica oleracea L.Var.italica)花球的抗氧化特性与贮藏性的关系,选取贮藏性不同的春季2个品种(“绿颜”和“城堡”)和秋季2个品种(“爱国者”和“高地”),将采后花球贮藏于20℃条件下,在贮藏开始时和4d后,测定了花球呼吸速率、衰老生理指标(叶绿素、蛋白质和丙二醛(MDA)含量)和抗氧化特性指标(活性氧超氧阴离子和过氧化氢含量,抗氧化酶超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)和抗坏血酸过氧化氢酶(APX)活性,抗氧化物质抗坏血酸(AsA)和β-胡萝卜素(β-Car)含量).“绿颜”和“爱国者”贮藏开始时,呼吸速率低,活性氧含量少,抗氧化酶活性低;贮藏4d后,叶绿素和蛋白质含量高,MDA含量少,SOD、CAT和POD活性上升幅度大,APX活性和AsA、β-Car含量下降幅度小.结果表明:“绿颜”比“城堡”、“爱国者”比“高地”衰老慢,耐贮藏;耐贮藏青花菜品种的花球具有采收时抗氧化酶活性低,贮藏期间SOD、CAT和POD活性上升幅度大,APX活性和抗氧化物质含量下降幅度小的抗氧化特性.%In this work, relationship between the storability of broccoli {Brassica oleracea L. Var. Italica) florets and their antioxidative properties was investigated. Broccoli florets of four cultivars from the spring "Green face" and "Castle" and autumn "Patriot" and "Heights" with different storage properties were harvested and stored at 20 ℃ until use. Respiratory rate of broccoli florets and senescence physiological indicators (chlorophyll, protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents) and antioxidative properties indicators (reactive oxygen species contents of super-oxide and hydrogen peroxide, antioxidative enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), anti-oxidative substances contents of ascorbic acid (AsA) and β-carotene (β-Car)) of broccoli flower buds

  13. Impact of selenium supply on se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates accumulation in selenium-biofortified brassica sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, ...

  14. The effect of soil mulching with organic mulches, on weed infestation in broccoli and tomato cultivated under polypropylene fibre, and without a cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosterna Edyta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was done on the effect of different types of organic mulches that were applied in form of straw to the soil mulching process, on the weed infestation, number, and fresh mass of weeds in broccoli cv. Milady F1 (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck and tomato cv. Polfast F1 (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. grown under polypropylene fibre as a covering, or grown without a covering. The different types of organic straw mulches were: rye (Secale cereale L., corn (Zea mays L., rape (Brassica napus L. subsp. napus, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.. All the organic mulches were applied at a dose of 10 t/ha. The effect of the mulches was compared to a control plot which had no mulch. The type of organic mulch applied to the soil mulching process influenced species composition, number, and fresh mass of weeds. This effect could be the result of the properties of the mulch (colour, structure, etc. or the allelopathic effect on the germination and growth of individual weeds species. Irrespective of the investigated factors, 24 and 25 weeds species, respectively, were observed immediately after cover removal and before broccoli and tomato harvest. In the first date of estimation Chenopodium album L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv., Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve, Stellaria media (L. Vill., and Viola tricolor L. dominated, however, before the vegetables were harvested Ch. album, V. tricolor, Veronica arvensis L., and E. crus-galli dominated. An application of polypropylene fibre contributed to an increase in the number and fresh mass of weeds in both vegetables in the first date of estimation (after cover removal. During this period, vegetables cannot compete with weeds. It is important to note, though, that before the vegetables were harvested, a decrease was found in the number and fresh mass of weeds in the covered plots. The most efficient weed limiter, both after cover removal and also before the broccoli and

  15. Identification and evolutionary genomics of novel LTR retrotransposons in Brassica

    OpenAIRE

    NOUROZ, FAISAL; NOREEN, SHUMAILA; HESLOP-HARRISON, JOHN SEYMOUR

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Retrotransposons (REs) are the most abundant and diverse elements identified from eukaryotic genomes. Using computational and molecular methods, 262 intact LTR retrotransposons were identified from Brassica genomes by dot plot analysis and data mining. The Copia superfamily was dominant (206 elements) over Gypsy (56), with estimated intact copies of ~1596 Copia and 540 Gypsy and ~7540 Copia and 780 Gypsy from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea whole genomes, respectively. Canonical...

  16. Diseases affecting Brassica crops in Northwestern of Spain.

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Márquez, Margarita; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Francisco Candeira, Marta; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Three Brassica species (Brassica napus L., B. oleracea L. and B. rapa L.) are grown in Galicia, (Northwestern of Spain). This area presents especially suitable climatic and soil conditions (cool-weather, deep, well drained, fertile, and sandy loam soils) for cruciferous crops growing and is by far the larger producer and consumer of brassica crops in Spain. They are utilized mainly as leaf or root vegetable crops (turnip, turnip greens, cabbage, kale, and leaf rape). Diseases caused by bac...

  17. 羽衣甘蓝DH群体遗传多样性分析%Genetic Diversity Analysis of Doubled Haploid Population in Ornamental Kale (Brassica oleracea var.acephala)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴希刚; 包满珠

    2013-01-01

    46 DH lines and 41 DH lines from two DH (doubled haploid) populations derived from micro-spore culture of ' Red Nagoya' and P3 genotype (F1 of Q2704 × Q4606) in Brassica oleracea var. acephala were selected for genetic diversity analysis by ISSR with nine polymorphic primers. The 81. 73% and 79. 31% of total amplified loci, for 104 and 87 polymorphic loci whose length ranged from 100 to 2 000 bp, were detected among two DH populations respectively. The effective numbers of alleles per amplified locus of the two DH populations were 1.225 3 and 1.468 9, respectively. The average values of the allelic polymorphism information content of the two DH populations were 0.258 9 and 0.409 4, respectively. Cluster analysis based on the ISSR showed that the ranges of the similar coefficients among 46 DH lines derived from ' Red Nagoya' and 41 DH lines derived from P3 were 0. 61 -0. 97 and 0. 56 -0. 91 respectively. The former population could be classified into five groups at 0. 78 , and the latter population could be classified into five groups at 0. 75. These results indicated that the genetic diversity of the DH populations derived from microspore culture was very diverse , the genetic diversity of the DH populations from different genotypes showed distinct difference.%由羽衣甘蓝基因型“名古屋-红”和基因型P3(Q2704×Q4606的F1代)通过小孢子培养获得的2个DH群体中分别抽取46个DH系和41个DH系作为试验材料,利用ISSR标记分别对2个DH群体进行遗传多样性分析.9个ISSR引物分别扩增出104和87个多态性位点,其中多态性位点各占总扩增位点的81.73%和79.31%,大小在100 ~2 000 bp;每个位点的有效等位基因数分别为1.225 3和1.468 9;平均多样性指数PIC分别为0.258 9和0.4094.对ISSR结果进行聚类分析,2个DH群体各DH系间相似系数范围分别为0.61 ~0.97和0.56 ~0.91,在相似性系数为0.78处可将46个“名古屋-红”的DH系分成5组,在相似性系数0.75

  18. Application of Tissue Culture, Molecular Marker and QTL Analysis in Broccoli Breeding%组织培养、分子标记和QT L技术在青花菜育种中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志仙; 朱长志; 檀国印; 王峰; 何道根

    2015-01-01

    育种是优异种质资源基因的重组。除传统新种质产生的方法外,通过组织培养、分子标记等技术来扩大物种的遗传基础已成为新种质资源形成的重要手段。青花菜,芸薹属甘蓝中以绿色花球为食用器官的一个变种,近年来在中国的种植面积越来越大,利用现代生物技术手段进行青花菜育种研究工作也越来越受到关注和重视。本文综述了游离小孢子培养、原生质体融合和转基因技术在青花菜种质资源创制中的应用,分析了各种方法存在的问题,并对青花菜遗传图谱构建、花球相关农艺性状及抗病性QTL/基因定位研究进行了探讨,并对其未来研究方向做了展望。%Breeding is kind of the genomic combination of excellent germplasms. Apart from conventional breeding methods generating new germplasms, approaches based on tissue culture and the molecular marker assisted breeding have become very popular biotechnologies to create the new breeding materials. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck), is an important vegetable worldwilde. In recent decades, broccoli production and consumption has risen significantly and the usage of biotechnologies on broccoli breeding has made great progress in China. This paper reviewed the uses of microspore culture, protoplast culture and fusion, transgenic technologies in improvement breeding of broccoli, and the limitation in those researches was mentioned as well. Moreover, construction of linkage maps, QTLs/genes for agronomically important broccoli traits including head morphologies and diseases resistance were analyzed in this review.

  19. Growth of lowland broccoli coconut coir dust and peat based growing media using fertigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out inside the greenhouse to determine the response of lowland broccoli (Brassica oleracea) plants grown in five mixtures of coconut coir dust and peat as the growing media. The growing mixes were prepared in the following ratios (% by vol): 100% coconut coir dust, 75% coconut coir dust + 25% peat, 50% coconut coir dust + 50% peat, 25% coconut coir dust + 75% peat and 100% peat. The plants were supplied with 200 mg 1-1 nitrogen using a computerized fertigation system developed at MINT Plants grown on 100% peat exhibited reduced plant growth and yield compared to plants grown on mixes containing coconut coir dust. Plants growth and yield were increased on growing media contained > 50% coconut coir dust; however, the highest total plant dry weight, plant height and yield were obtained from plants grown on 100% coconut coir dust. Total nitrogen concentration in the leaves and stems was not significantly different in all mixture of the growing media regardless of whether coconut coir dust or peat was used. In general, nitrate -nitrogen concentrations were lowest in the floret than in the leaves and stem tissues of plants grown on all growing media used in the study. However, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the leaves, stems and florets were lowest in the plants grown on 100% peat compared to the plants grown on growing media containing coconut coir dust. The concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the florets, which ranged from 290 to 450 mg N kg-l/dry weight, are considered to be under permissible levels by European standards. (Author)

  20. Vigor de sementes de brócolos submetidas a coberturas biodegradáveis e micronutrientes Vigor of broccoli seeds submitted to biodegradable coatings and micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana A. Batista

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento e a aplicação de filmes ou coberturas biodegradáveis na horticultura são técnicas praticadas há vários anos, que visam promover melhoria na qualidade do produto. no presente trabalho desenvolveu-se e caracterizou-se biofilmes de pectina, gelatina e ácidos graxos e verificou-se sua eficiência como cobertura para sementes de brócolos (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica. Os filmes foram caracterizados quanto à solubilidade em água. A contagem e a observação de plantas de brócolos, a partir da germinação de sementes cobertas e não cobertas foi realizada em média a cada três dias, aos 27 dias fêz-se a quantificação da matéria fresca e seca. Os filmes de pectina e ácido esteárico foram 100% solúveis em água, enquanto os elaborados com pectina e gelatina (1/1 foram apenas 18%. A aplicação das coberturas filmogênicas nas sementes de brócolos não afetou a emergência das plantas, demonstrando assim sua potencialidade para uso comercial. Os fertilizantes molibdato de sódio (0,2 mg L-1 e ácido bórico (1mg L-1, aplicados juntamente com os biofilmes, também não afetaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento das plantas.The development and application of biodegradable coatings and films have been used for many years in order to improve quality of the coated or packed product. The development and characterization of pectin and pectin/gelatin-based biofilms with fatty acids was evaluated and verified their efficiency as coatings to broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica. The solubility in water of the films was determined. The counting and visual observations of the germinated broccoli seeds were done each three days and fresh and dried weight of the plants were determined at the end of the experiment. Pectin-based films with stearic acid were 100% soluble in water and composite films of pectin and gelatin were 18%. The application of the biodegradable coatings on broccoli seeds had no effect on the

  1. Broccoli glucosinolate degradation is reduced performing thermal treatment in binary systems with other food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giambanelli, E.; Verkerk, R.; Fogliano, V.; Capuano, E.; Antuono, D' L.F.; Oliviero, T.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolate (GL) stability has been widely studied in different Brassica species. However, the matrix effect determined by the presence of other ingredients occurred in many broccoli-based traditional recipes may affect GL thermal degradation. In this study, the matrix effect on GL thermal degrada

  2. Identification and EST Sequence Analysis of Polymorphic EST-SSRs Between Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa) and Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)%大白菜与结球甘蓝多态性EST-SSRs标记筛选及其EST序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丽娟; 许愿超; 秦艳梅; 顾爱侠; 赵建军; 申书兴; 王彦华; 王玉海

    2015-01-01

    为了实现大白菜遗传背景下结球甘蓝染色体、染色体片段的准确鉴定,探索结球甘蓝遗传物质的添加对大白菜的影响,本研究以不同类型大白菜(Brassica rapa,AA)和结球甘蓝(Brassica oleracea,CC)为材料,对来自结球甘蓝的797个表达序列标签简单序列重复(expressed sequence tag SSR,EST-SSRs)标记进行筛选,获得了269个结球甘蓝相对于大白菜具有多态性的标记.选取其中扩增产物清晰稳定和多态性差异明显的176个EST-SSRs,对其对应的EST序列进行BLAST分析,将EST序列与基因本体(Gene Ontology,GO)、京都基因与基因组百科全书(Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes,KEGG)数据库比对,获得EST序列的注释信息,其中属于细胞组件C有124条,占总数的12.29%,属于分子功能F有184条,占总数的18.24%,属于生物学途径P有688条占总数的68.19%,未知功能N有13条,占总数的1.29%.EST序列参与的生物学过程方面的功能主要集中在细胞过程、代谢过程、生物调节和刺激应答、系统形态构成、信号转导与信号传递系统、免疫系统等方面.结球甘蓝相对于大白菜多态性的EST-SSRs标记的获得,为大白菜-结球甘蓝异附加系、易位系中附加的结球甘蓝染色体及染色体片段的鉴定奠定了基础.本研究建立了EST-SSRs标记靶向基因的功能注释,为进一步推断结球甘蓝遗传物质的添加对大白菜性状的影响提供参考.

  3. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  4. Qualidade física e fisiológica de sementes de brócolos biológicos e convencionais Physical and physiological quality of biologycal and conventional broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Lopes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade física e fisiológica de sementes de brócolos biológicos e convencionais. Foram utilizados quatro lotes de sementes de brócolos (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenk, cultivar Ramoso Piracicaba; dois de origem biológica (Lote 1 e Lote 2 e dois de convencional (Lote 3 e Lote 4. Foram avaliados pureza física, peso de mil sementes, teor de água, germinação e vigor (primeira contagem de germinação, emergência, velocidade de emergência em casa de vegetação, envelhecimento acelerado (41, 43 e 45 °C por períodos de 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. As sementes apresentaram comportamento germinativo similar, entretanto, maior vigor foi verificado nas sementes do Lote 3 e do Lote 4 (convencionais; o teste de envelhecimento acelerado pode ser realizado na temperatura de 41 ºC por 48 horas e 72 horas para sementes de brócolos biológicos e convencionais, respectivamente; e 43 ºC por 48 horas para os quatro lotes de sementes.The objective this work was evaluate the physical and physiological quality in organic and conventional seed of broccoli. Four lots of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenk, cv. Ramoso Piracicaba were used. Two of organic origin (Lot 1 and Lot 2 and two conventional origin (Lot 3 and Lot 4. The lots were evaluated by the following tests: physical purity, weight of a thousand seeds, water content, standard germination and vigor (first germination count, emergence, emergence speed index in greenhouse and accelerated aging (41, 43 and 45 °C, during 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. According to the results organic and conventional seed presented similar quality in relation to seed germination. However higher vigor was observed in conventional seed lot. The accelerated aging with temperature of 41 ºC for 48 hours and 72 hours for organic and conventional seeds respectively can be used to evaluate the seed quality. The temperature of 43 ºC for 48 hours is efficient to

  5. Modelling Vegetable Fractals by means of Fractional-order Equations

    OpenAIRE

    António M. Lopes; Machado, J. A. Tenreiro

    2015-01-01

    This paper characterizes four ‘fractal vegetables’: (i) cauliflower (brassica oleracea var. Botrytis); (ii) broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italica); (iii) round cabbage (brassica oleracea var. capitata) and (iv) Brussels sprout (brassica oleracea var. gemmifera), by means of electrical impedance spectroscopy and fractional calculus tools. Experimental data is approximated using fractional-order models and the corresponding parameters are determined with a genetic algorithm. The Havriliak-Ne...

  6. Survey and prevalence of species causing Alternaria leaf spots on brassica species in Pernambuco Levantamento e prevalência de espécies causadoras da alternariose em brássicas em Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami J Michereff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassicaceae family comprises plant species that are very important as vegetable crops, such as the species complex Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae are among the most important pathogens of Brassicaceae causing Alternaria leaf spot disease. The occurrence and prevalence of Alternaria species causing leaf spots in brassica crops in Pernambuco was acessed, as well as the existence of a possible preference by vegetable host for these pathogens. Twenty-eight fields were surveyed in the Agreste region of Pernambuco state, in the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. In each year, 10 Chinese cabbage, six cabbage, six cauliflower and six broccoli fields were visited. In each field, 50 leaves showing at least five lesions were randomly collected. Species identification was performed taking into account morphology of the conidia that was compared with literature data. Among the two Alternaria species found, A. brassicae was found in all Chinese cabbage fields while A. brassicicola was found in all fields of cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli. Overall, A. brassicicola was more prevalent than A. brassicae. In Chinese cabbage there was predominance of A. brassicae, with mean prevalence of 91.0% and 96.5% in 2005 and 2006. On the other hand, in broccoli and cabbage there was high predominance of A. brassicicola, with mean prevalence between 95.1% and 99.8%. In cauliflower, although the prevalence has been of A. brassicicola, high frequency of A. brassicae was noted. The frequency of co-occurrence of both Alternaria species was very low. The results of this study reinforce the hypothesis of existence of host preference within species of Alternaria that cause leaf spots in brassica crops, especially when Chinese cabbage, broccoli and cabbage are considered. This information is critical to developing strategies for managing Alternaria leaf spots in Brassicaceae species.A família Brassicaceae possui espécies importantes

  7. Construction of Brassica A and C genome-based ordered pan-transcriptomes for use in rapeseed genomic research

    OpenAIRE

    Zhesi He; Feng Cheng; Yi Li,; Xiaowu Wang; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Boulos Chalhoub; Shengyi Liu; Ian Bancroft

    2015-01-01

    This data article reports the establishment of the first pan-transcriptome resources for the Brassica A and C genomes. These were developed using existing coding DNA sequence (CDS) gene models from the now-published Brassica oleracea TO1000 and Brassica napus Darmor-bzh genome sequence assemblies representing the chromosomes of these species, along with preliminary CDS models from an updated Brassica rapa Chiifu genome sequence assembly. The B. rapa genome sequence scaffolds required splittin...

  8. Phenolic component profiles of mustard greens, yu choy and 15 other Brassica vegatables

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip...

  9. Salinity’s influence on boron toxicity in broccoli: II. Impacts on boron uptake, uptake mechanisms and tissue ion relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited research has been conducted on the interactive effects of salinity and boron stresses on plants despite their common occurrence in natural systems. The purpose of this research was to determine and quantify the interactive effects of salinity, salt composition and boron on broccoli (Brassica...

  10. Effect of foliar application of a protein hydrolysate in the productivity of broccoli cultivars. = Efeito da aplicação foliar de hidrolisado protéico sob a produtividade de cultivares de brócolis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Michelotti Bettoni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available - The broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica is a Brassica vegetable grown in various regions of the world and is characteristic of small properties with potential for organic crops. However, surveys that provide products that meet organic legislation, biofertilizers as the basis of protein hydrolysates are necessary for legal purposes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein hydrolysate containing amino acids on the production of two cultivars of broccoli grown in organic cropping system. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized factorial 2 x 4 with four replicates, two cultivars (Belstar and Fiesta and four treatments: control and foliar application of solutions with the following concentrations of protein hydrolysate: 2 mL L -1, 4 mL L-1, 8 mL L-1. The applications were made weekly beginning and ending at 7 to 63 days after transplant (DAT and evaluated the following characteristics at harvest (75 DAT: fresh mass per head (FMH, dry mass per head (DMH, head diameter (HD and estimated average production (EAP. The use of hydrolyzed in 8 mL L-1dose resulted in higher fresh and dry mass, head diameter and yield of broccoli in organic cropping system. = - O brócolis (Brassica oleracea var. italica é uma hortaliça da família das Brássicas cultivado em diversas regiões do mundo, característico de pequenas propriedades, com potencial para cultivos orgânicos, porém é necessário que sejam realizadas pesquisas que disponibilizem produtos que atendam a legislação orgânica, como biofertilizantes a base de hidrolisados protéicos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da aplicação de hidrolisado protéico contendo aminoácidos na produção de duas cultivares de brócolis, em sistema de cultivo orgânico. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com quatro repetições, sendo duas cultivares (Belstar e Fiesta e quatro tratamentos

  11. Ring spot disease of brassica crops: resistance and epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Ende, van den, A.

    1998-01-01

    Ring spot disease of brassica crops is caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella brassicicola . The disease can cause severe qualitative and quantitative losses, depending on the initial inoculum, the environmental conditions during the growing season and the susceptibility of the cultivar.A greenhouse screening method for resistance to ring spot in Brassica oleracea was developed. Young plants were screened by using mycelial inoculum enriched with 3% sucrose. Resistance was expressed both in cotyl...

  12. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Amoah Stephen; Perez Amandine; Girin Thomas; Baker David; Stephenson Pauline; King Graham J; Østergaard Lars

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa) and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea). Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for c...

  13. Genome-wide comparative analysis of NBS-encoding genes between Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jingyin; Tehrim, Sadia; Zhang, Fengqi; Tong, Chaobo; Huang, Junyan; Cheng, Xiaohui; Dong, Caihua; Zhou, Yanqiu; Qin, Rui; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant disease resistance (R) genes with the nucleotide binding site (NBS) play an important role in offering resistance to pathogens. The availability of complete genome sequences of Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa provides an important opportunity for researchers to identify and characterize NBS-encoding R genes in Brassica species and to compare with analogues in Arabidopsis thaliana based on a comparative genomics approach. However, little is known about the evolutionary fat...

  14. Seasonal effects on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of six economically important brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Eduardo A.S.; Saavedra, Maria J; Alfredo Aires; Rosa Carvalho; Conceição Fernandes; Bennett, Richard N

    2011-01-01

    Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L.) as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total fla...

  15. Cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the sexual intergeneric hybrids between the cultivated Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus, both complete separation and partial separation of the parental genomes were found to occur during mitosis and meiosis under genetic control. The cytogenetics of these hybrids was species-specific for Brassica parents. The different chromosome behavior of hybrids with three Brassica diploids ( B. campestris , B. nigra and B. oleracea ) might contribute to the different cytogenetics of hybrids with three tetraploids ( B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata). Owing to the parental genome separation, Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with various chromosome constitutions were identifiable in the progenies of these hybrids, which were valuable for the study of the structure and evolution of Brassica genome and for the breeding of Brassica crops.

  16. Improvement of the nutraceutical quality of broccoli sprouts by elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natella, Fausta; Maldini, Mariateresa; Nardini, Mirella; Azzini, Elena; Foddai, Maria Stella; Giusti, Anna Maria; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina

    2016-06-15

    Epidemiological studies show an inverse association between Brassica consumption and chronic diseases. Phytochemicals are thought to be beneficial for human health and therefore responsible for this protective effect. Increasing their levels into Brassica food is considered an expedient nutritional strategy that can be achieved through the manipulation of growth conditions by elicitors. In this work we systematically evaluated the influence of treatment with different elicitors (sucrose, mannitol, NaCl, 1-aminocyclopropane-L-carboxylic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate) on the phytochemical composition of broccoli sprouts. The content of total and single glucosinolates, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, vitamin C and E and β-carotene was assessed. The exposure to different elicitors produced concentration- and elicitor-dependent specific changes in the content of all the phytochemicals considered. Sucrose, identified as the most effective elicitor by principal component analysis, induced a significant increase of total and specific glucosinolates, vitamin C, total anthocyanins and polyphenols. Sucrose is likely to represent an effective tool to increase the nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. PMID:26868554

  17. Feeding preference of Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae by broccoli leaves from natural, organic and conventional farming systems/ Preferência alimentar de Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae por folhas de brócolos cultivado em sistema natural, orgânico e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel O. J. Neves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-choice laboratory tests were achieved to compare feeding preference of Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. to leaves of broccoli (Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica from natural, conventional and organic farming systems. Natural farming systems included incorporation of the elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. Napier (50 ton/ha, Bokashi compost (1.5 ton/ha and spray of EM 4 (Natural 1, or the incorporation of the Bokashi compost (1.5 ton /ha and spray of EM 4 (Natural 2, and in the conventional, NPK + borax were incorporated in the planting + dressing N and organic compost (1 kg/ plant was incorporated in the organic system. Organic compost was prepared using crop residues of corn (Zea mays L., soybean [Glycine max (L. Mer.], and cattle manure. Leaf discs were collected and placed in cages in multiple-choice tests. Beetles preferred mostly broccoli leaves from conventional farming system than leaves from Natural (1 and 2 and Organic farming systems. Feeding on leaves from Natural 1, Natural 2 and Organic farming system were 68, 67 and 57% of the feeding on leaves from Conventional farming system.Testes de múltipla escola foram realizados para comparar a preferência alimentar de Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. por folhas de brócolos (Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica cultivado em sistema natural, convencional e orgânico. No sistema natural de cultivo houve a incorporação de capim elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. Napier (50 ton/ha, composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ha e pulverização de EM 4 (Natural 1, ou a incorporação do composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ha e pulverização do EM 4 (Natural 2, no sistema convencional houve a incorporação do NPK + borax + N em cobertura, e no sistema orgânico incorporouse composto orgânico (1 kg/planta. O composto orgânico foi preparado utilizando-se resíduos de milho (Zea mays L. e soja [Glycine max (L. Mer.] e esterco de gado. Folhas foram retiradas das plantas das quais foram separados

  18. Substitution of Vermicompost for Peat as Brassica oleracea L. and Cu-curbita pepo L. Seedling Substrates%蚯蚓堆肥替代草炭作为甘蓝和西葫芦育苗基质研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 孙向阳; 龚小强; 魏乐

    2015-01-01

    为减少无土栽培对草炭资源的依赖和提高有机废弃物的再利用率,以草炭、绿化废弃物、蘑菇渣为原材料,通过使用品氏草炭( ck)、绿化废弃物蚯蚓堆肥( T1)、蘑菇渣蚯蚓堆肥( T2)、草炭+绿化废弃物蚯蚓堆肥(T3)、草炭+蘑菇渣蚯蚓堆肥(T4)、草炭+绿化废弃物蚯蚓堆肥+蘑菇渣蚯蚓堆肥(T5)6种基质来培育甘蓝和西葫芦幼苗,探讨有机废弃物蚯蚓堆肥替代草炭作为甘蓝和西葫芦育苗基质的可行性。通过对甘蓝和西葫芦株高、根长、叶片数、鲜重、干重、茎直径6项生长指标进行测定与分析,得出结论:处理T1、T3、T4、T5均可替代草炭作为甘蓝育苗基质,处理T1和T3可替代草炭作为西葫芦育苗基质。%In order to reduce dependence of soilless culture of flowers on peat and increase recycling rate of organic waste, we made a study to assess the feasibility of replacing peat with organic waste vermicompost as seedling growing media. By using peat, green waste and mushroom residue as raw materials, we utilized six kinds of seedling growing media, including peat (ck), vermicompost of green waste (T1), vermicompost of mushroom residue (T2), peat + vermicompost of green waste ( T3) , peat +vermicompost of mushroom residue ( T4) , peat +vermicompost of green waste +ver⁃micompost of mushroom residue ( T5 ) to cultivate Brassica oleracea L. and Cucurbita pepo L.. Through measuring and analyzing six growth indexes including plant height, root length, leaf num⁃ber, total fresh weight, total dry weight and stem diameter, we conclude that T1, T3, T4 and T5 can replace peat as seedling growing substrates for Brassica oleracea L., and that T1 and T3 can re⁃place peat as seedling growing substrates for Cucurbita pepo L.

  19. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Partial cDNA of Male Determinant Factor of Self-incompatibility from Six Brassica oleracea L.%六种甘蓝自交不亲和雄性决定因子部分cDNA的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗兵; 朱利泉; 薛丽琰; 孙海燕; 张贺翠; 余浩; 杨昆; 王小佳

    2012-01-01

    Many flowering plants possess a self-incompatibility system to prevent inbreeding. In Brassica oleracea, self-incompatibility is genetically controlled by S-locus cysteine rich protein (SCR) and S-locus receptor kinase (SRK). The SCR is the determinant of pollen S-haplotype specificity. In order to compare the structure of the gene and molecular characterization of the protein among the allelic SCRs, the nested PCR primers were designed on the basis of the conserved amino acids in the signal peptide's cleavage site and the ploy A of mRNA. Here we cloned partial cDNA sequence of SCR from six Brassica oleracea L. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of SCR in D3, El, 240, Al, Nl and Gl were 319, 311, 290, 288, 385 and 377 bp, respectively, which all encompassed 3'UTR. Their coding regions predicted a protein of 58, 58, 58, 58, 58 and 55 amino acids, respectively. The protein sequences were identical between SCR-D3 and SCR3. SCR-El, SCR-240, SCR-Al and SCR-El also had the same sequences, and they were all identical to the SCR7. The SCR of Gl was a new S haplotype gene. Although SCR -El, SCR-240, SCR-Al and SCR-El were the same S haplotype, their 3'UTR were different. For example, the length, the polyadenylation signal and the adenine nucleotide's content were different among them. Sequencing and bioinformatic analysis indicated that there were some differences in the secondary structure and the 3-dimentional structure of the six SCRs, suggesting that the interactions of SCR with SRK required strict complementary space. All SCRs had potential phosphorylation sites, but no glycosylation sites. It showed that the phosphorylation of SCR might play roles in signal transduction of self-incompatibility. Furthermore, the amino acid residues interacting with SRK were situated on the surface of the SCR molecule, and most of these amino acid residues were basic amino acid. So, we suggested that the process of SCR interacting with SRK required the participation of the

  20. Composto orgânico na produção e qualidade de sementes de brócolis Organic compost in broccoli seed yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Oliveira Magro

    2010-06-01

    from high physiological potential seeds. Although there are studies about nutrition and recommendation of fertilization to broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenk, rarely it finds out works that approach the nutrients effects in seed yield and quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the organic compost influence in broccoli seed quality and yield. The experiment was lead at São Manuel Experimental Farm and the evaluations at Horticulture Sector in Agronomic Science School (FCA/UNESP in Botucatu. The treatments were four organic compost levels (30, 60, 90 and 120 t ha-1, and control without organic compost. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications. The characteristics evaluated were seed yield and number of seed per plant further the characteristics related with seed quality: one thousand seed mass, germination test, first germination counting, index of germination speed and electrical conductivity. The regression showed a linear response in function of organic compost levels, where larger levels resulted higher yield despite the seed quality is not affected.

  1. 采后青花菜花球抗氧化水平变化与衰老的关系%Correlation Between Antioxidative Level and Senescence of Broccoli Florets During Postharvest Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵习姮; 李进才

    2011-01-01

    为研究采后青花菜花球抗氧化水平变化与衰老的关系,将采后青花菜花球贮藏于20℃条件下,连续4 d测定了花蕾衰老生理指标(叶绿素、蛋白质、丙二醛(MDA)含量)及抗氧化水平指标(抗坏血酸(AsA)和β-胡萝卜素(β-Car)含量、超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)和抗坏血酸过氧化氢酶(APX)活性).结果表明:贮藏过程中,叶绿素和蛋白质含量逐渐减少,MDA含量逐渐增多;AsA和β-Car含量逐渐减少,SOD、CAT和POD活性逐渐升高,APX活性逐渐降低;这些抗氧化水平指标与衰老生理指标的线性相关性均在1%水平显著.说明采后青花菜花球的抗氧化水平变化与衰老密切相关.%In this work, relationship between the senescence of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Var. italica) florets and their changes in antioxidative level was investigated. Postharvest broccoli florets were stored at 20℃, and its indicators of senescence (chlorophyll, protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents) and antioxidative level (ascorbic acid and β-carotene contents, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities) of flower buds were analyzed in continuous 4 days during the storage. With increasing of the storage time, chlorophyll and protein contents decreased, MDA content increased, ascorbic acid and β-carotene contents decreased, SOD, CAT and POD activities increased and APX activity decreased. These antioxidative level indicators showed linear correlation to senescence indicators at P = 0.01. These results showed that senescence of postharvest broccoli florets is closely correlated to antioxidative level.

  2. BrassicaTED - a public database for utilization of miniature transposable elements in Brassica species

    OpenAIRE

    Murukarthick, Jayakodi; Sampath, Perumal; Lee, Sang Choon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Senthil, Natesan; Liu, Shengyi; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background MITE, TRIM and SINEs are miniature form transposable elements (mTEs) that are ubiquitous and dispersed throughout entire plant genomes. Tens of thousands of members cause insertion polymorphism at both the inter- and intra- species level. Therefore, mTEs are valuable targets and resources for development of markers that can be utilized for breeding, genetic diversity and genome evolution studies. Taking advantage of the completely sequenced genomes of Brassica rapa and B. oleracea,...

  3. Regulation of the major vacuolar Ca²⁺ transporter genes, by intercellular Ca²⁺ concentration and abiotic stresses, in tip-burn resistant Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Inkyu; Lee, Zee-Won; Kim, Suk Weon; Baek, Namkwon; Park, Hong-Seok; Park, Sang Un; Kwon, Seokyoon; Kim, Hyeran

    2013-01-01

    Calcium is an essential plant macronutrient that has unique structural and signaling roles related to tip-burn disorder in Brassica spp. crops. For two types of cabbage inbred lines, tip-burn susceptible and resistant, we measured and compared major macronutrient cations, including Ca(2+), in leaves. In both lines, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+), accumulated more in leaf base than in leaf apex. Ca(2+) and K(+) were >2 times more abundant in the tip-burn resistant line, while Na(+) was higher in the susceptible line. Ca(2+) differences between the two lines resulted from differential accumulation of calcium into cell vacuoles. We profiled major vacuolar Ca(2+) transporters, in both cabbage lines, by growth time and intercellular Ca(2+) concentration. Expression pattern of several Ca(2+) transporter genes differed between tip-burn susceptible and resistant lines by growth time points. We also identified promoter regions of the major Ca(2+) vacuole transporter genes, CAX1, ACA4, and ACA11, which displayed hormonal, light and defense-related cis-acting regulatory elements. Finally, transporter genes in the two cabbage lines responded differently to abiotic stresses, demonstrating diversity in gene regulation among orthologous genes. PMID:23138186

  4. Sobrevivência saprofítica de Alternaria brassicicola e manejo de restos foliares de brócolos Saprophytic survival of Alternaria brassicicola and management of broccoli leaf debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Martins Peruch

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A sobrevivência saprofítica do fungo Alternaria brassicicola foi investigada em restos foliares de brócolos (Brassica oleracea var. italica, em diferentes profundidades de incorporação no solo, períodos do ano e sistemas de manejo do solo. Os restos foliares infectados pelo patógeno foram distribuídos em parcelas no campo, na superfície do solo e nas profundidades de 5 e 10cm. Periodicamente, os restos foliares foram coletados e a concentração de conídios quantificada, sendo obtida a longevidade da esporulação e a taxa de extinção da esporulação. Foi verificada maior longevidade da esporulação nos restos foliares no período com temperaturas amenas, maior umidade relativa do ar e menor precipitação pluvial. Menor esporulação ocorreu quando os restos culturais foram incorporados a 10cm de profundidade. Quando comparados os sistemas de manejo convencional e orgânico, houve diferença na taxa de extinção da esporulação do patógeno quando a fonte de inóculo foi depositada nas profundidades de 5 e 10cm, sendo superior no solo sob manejo convencional, enquanto na superfície do solo não houve diferença. O manejo da alternariose em brócolos na região do estudo pode ser realizado pela incorporação dos restos foliares infectados no solo, à profundidade mínima de 10cm, visando a um intervalo mínimo de 60 dias entre cultivos de brássicas.The saprophytic survival of the fungus Alternaria brassicicola was investigated in leaf debris of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica, at different depths of soil incorporation, periods of the year, and systems of soil management. Infected leaf debris were distributed in field plots, at the soil surface and at depths of 5 and 10cm. Periodically, the debris in the bags were collected and conidia concentrations were quantified for longevity of spore production and extinction rate. Higher spore production longevity was observed on leaf debris in the period with lower temperatures

  5. The wild and the grown – remarks on Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer K. et al.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassica is a genus of the Cruciferae (Brassicaceae. The wild races are concentrated in the Mediterranean area with one species in CE Africa (Brassica somaliensis Hedge et A. Miller and several weedy races reaching E Asia. Amphidiploid evolution is characteristic for the genus. The diploid species Brassica nigra (L. Koch (n = 8, Brassica rapa L. emend. Metzg. (n = 10, syn.: B. campestris L. and Brassica oleracea L. (n = 9 all show a rich variation under domestication. From the naturally occurring amphidiploids Brassica juncea (L. Czern. (n = 18, Brassica napus L. emend. Metzg. (n = 19 and the rare Brassica carinata A. Braun (n = 17 also some vegetable races have developed. The man-made Brassica ×harmsiana O.E. Schulz (Brassica oleracea × Brassica rapa, n = 29, n = 39, or similar hybrids, serve also for the development of new vegetables. Brassica tournefortii Gouan (n = 10 from another Brassica-cytodeme, different from the Brassica rapa group, is occasionally grown as a vegetable in India. Brassica has developed two hotspots under cultivation, in the Mediterranean area and in E Asia. Cultivation by man has changed the different Brassica species in a characteristic way. The large amount of morphologic variation, which exceeded in many cases variations occurring in distinct wild species, has been observed by the classical botanists by adding these variations to their natural species by using Greek letters. Later taxonomists used the category botanical variety (var.. In this way impressive systems have been established, e.g. for Brassica oleracea. Later on, the other species followed. The variation from E Asia, particularly in the species Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea, was much later included into the investigations, simply because of lacking information. However, this material was included, in the last one hundred years, in classifications according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN (McNeill et al. 2006. An overview is

  6. Effects of stir-fry cooking with different edible oils on the phytochemical composition of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Diego A; López-Berenguer, Carmen; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that Brassica vegetables in general and broccoli in particular protect humans against cancer; they are rich sources of glucosinolates and possess a high content on flavonoids, vitamins, and mineral nutrients. The contents of total intact glucosinolates, total phenolics, vitamin C, and minerals (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and copper) in the edible portions of freshly harvested broccoli (florets), which was subjected to stir-frying treatments, were evaluated. In the present work, the stir-fry cooking experiments were carried out using different edible oils from plant origin (refined olive oil, extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, soyabean oil, and safflower oil) known and used worldwide. Results showed that during stir-frying, phenolics and vitamin C were more affected than glucosinolates and minerals. Stir-fry cooking with extra virgin olive, soybean, peanut, or safflower oil did not reduce the total glucosinolate content of the cooked broccoli compared with that of the uncooked sample. The vitamin C content of broccoli stir-fried with extra virgin olive or sunflower oil was similar to that of the uncooked sample, but greater than those samples stir-fried with other oils. PMID:17995900

  7. The use of biodegradable mulch for tomato and broccoli production: Crop yield and quality, mulch deterioration, and growers' perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jeremy Scott

    Biodegradable mulch may offer the benefits of polyethylene mulch for crop production with the added benefit of biodegradability. Four studies were carried out in Mount Vernon, WA to evaluate biodegradable mulch for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) production. The first study compared four biodegradable mulch treatments: BioAgri, BioTelo, WeedGuardPlus (cellulose product), and SB-PLA-10/11/12 (experimental, non-woven fabric), to polyethylene mulch and bare ground in high tunnels and in the open field for tomato yield and fruit quality over three growing seasons. Biodegradable plastic films produced yields and fruit quality comparable to polyethylene. Moreover, high tunnels increased total and marketable fruit weight five and eight times, respectively, compared to the open field. The second study quantified relationships among visual assessment parameters and mulch mechanical properties. Visual assessments and mechanical property tests of polyethylene, BioAgri, BioTelo, WeedGuardPlus, and SB-PLA-10/11/12, were made over three growing seasons. Regression analyses found the strongest relationship overall (r2 = 0.41) to be between the percent of initial breaking force in the machine direction and log 10 of percent visual deterioration. However, evaluating mulch products individually and increasing sample frequency are recommended for future research. The third study evaluated three biodegradable mulch products, BioAgri, Crown 1, and SB-PLA-11, after soil-incorporation. The average area of recovered mulch fragments decreased for all mulch products over time. The number of mulch fragments initially increased for all mulch products, with the greatest number of Crown 1 and BioAgri fragments recovered 132 and 299 days after incorporation, respectively. At 397 days after soil-incorporation, the total area of recovered fragments of Crown 1 and BioAgri was 0% and 34% of the theoretical maximum area, respectively. The fourth study

  8. Screening for bioactive metabolites in plant extracts modulating glucose uptake and fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Houri, Rime B; Kotowska, Dorota; Olsen, Louise C B;

    2014-01-01

    while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes but...

  9. Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables: The influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Schreiner, M.; Krumbein, A.; Ciska, E.; Holst, B.; Rowland, I.; Schrijver, de R.; Hansen, M.; Gerhäuser, C.; Mithen, R.; Dekker, M.

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GLSs) are found in Brassica vegetables. Examples of these sources include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and various root vegetables (e.g. radish and turnip). A number of epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between consumption of these veg

  10. Effect of Different Storage Temperature on Transplant Quality of Broccoli Plug Seeding%不同贮藏温度对青花菜穴盘苗质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘小兵; 田永强; 李娟起; 杨天; 高丽红

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of different storage temperatures on broccoli (Brassica oleraceaL.var. italica Plenck)seedling quality,growth and development after fix planting,this paper screened the related morphological indexes of seedling new heart leaf growth rate after planting,taking‘good’as test material to evaluate the quality of broccoli seedlings under temperature 11,16,21 ℃ and stored for 0,2,4,6 days,respectively.The results showed that in the storage temperature of 11 ℃,seedling’s morphanological index maintained in good shape,the chlorophyll content per unit area was relatively higher,and the seedling new heart leaf grew rapidly.The correlation analysis results showed that the sound seedling index and plant recovery ability after fix planting during storage period had the highest correlation coefficient.The sound seedling index could be an indicator for evaluating the storage quality of the broccoli seedling.The path analysis results showed that composite indexes of chlorophyll content per unit area,sound seedling index,specific leaf weight could well reflect the growth recovery ability of broccoli seedling after short-term storage.%为了研究不同贮藏温度对青花菜贮藏期间幼苗质量以及定植后幼苗生长发育的影响,以优秀为试材,分别在11、16、21℃条件下贮藏0、2、4、6 d,筛选出与定植后幼苗心叶生长速度相关的形态指标。结果表明:贮藏温度为11℃的处理幼苗形态指标保持良好,第1片真叶单位面积叶绿素含量相对较高,定植后幼苗心叶生长速度较快。相关性分析结果表明,贮藏期幼苗壮苗指数与定植后植株生长恢复能力的相关系数最高,可作为评价青花菜幼苗贮藏质量的一项指标;通径分析结果表明,复合指标“第1片真叶单位面积叶绿素含量、壮苗指数、比叶重”能够很好地反映青花菜幼苗短期贮藏后的生长恢复能力。

  11. BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CABBAGE (BRASSICA OLERACEA AFTER INFECTION OF PEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeplata Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Brassicaceae family include worldwide commercially grown crops. Experiments on this crop were conducted during the year 2011 in Vidhania and Jaisinghpura of Jaipur district Rajasthan, India. The aim of this study is to find out primary metabolites like chlorophyll, sugar starch protein total phenol of cauliflower. Levels of plant metabolites are strongly affected by genetic and environmental factors. Growth factors such as light, temperature, humidity, type of soil, application of fertilizers, damage caused by microorganisms and insects, stress induced by UV radiation, heavy metals and pesticides all alter metabolite composition of plants. Different types of pests’ cause changes in plant metabolite production. The results revealed the evidence of different infestation of cabbage by common herbivores. In this review we report primary metabolites of the cabbage along with the quantification after the pests’ effect.

  12. Genetic diversity analysis of Brassica oleracea L.by SSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SSR analysis on genetic diversity of 30 samples was carried out. Five primers selected from 36 primers were used to amplify 30 samples in this experiment, PCR products were separated by 6% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, silver staining and photographed. The results of SSR were analyzed by UPGMA clustering. The results showed that a total of 21 gene alleles were detected by 5 SSR primers. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 5 with an average of 4.2.PIC range was 0.257-0.921, with an average of 0.543. The average coefficient of genetic similarity of SSR markers among materials was 0.432. Some of cabbage cultivars in the experiment were divided into four groups except cultivars which come from Japan.

  13. Comparative study of Zn deficiency in L. sativa and B. oleracea plants: NH4(+) assimilation and nitrogen derived protective compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem in agricultural crops of many world regions. N metabolism plays an essential role in plants and changes in their availability and their metabolism could seriously affect crop productivity. The main objective of the present work was to perform a comparative analysis of different strategies against Zn deficiency between two plant species of great agronomic interest such as Lactuca sativa cv. Phillipus and Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco. For this, both species were grown in hydroponic culture with different Zn doses: 10μM Zn as control and 0.01μM Zn as deficiency treatment. Zn deficiency treatment decreased foliar Zn concentration, although in greater extent in B. oleracea plants, and caused similar biomass reduction in both species. Zn deficiency negatively affected NO3(-) reduction and NH4(+) assimilation and enhanced photorespiration in both species. Pro and GB concentrations were reduced in L. sativa but they were increased in B. oleracea. Finally, the AAs profile changed in both species, highlighting a great increase in glycine (Gly) concentration in L. sativa plants. We conclude that L. sativa would be more suitable than B. oleracea for growing in soils with low availability of Zn since it is able to accumulate a higher Zn concentration in leaves with similar biomass reduction. However, B. oleracea is able to accumulate N derived protective compounds to cope with Zn deficiency stress. PMID:27181942

  14. Conservation of the microstructure of genome segments in Brassica napus and its diploid relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Debashis; van den Boogaart, Tom; O'Neill, Carmel M; Hynes, Llewelyn; Bent, Elisabeth; Macpherson, Lee; Park, Jee Young; Lim, Yong Pyo; Bancroft, Ian

    2004-12-01

    The cultivated Brassica species are the group of crops most closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). They represent models for the application in crops of genomic information gained in Arabidopsis and provide an opportunity for the investigation of polyploid genome formation and evolution. The scientific literature contains contradictory evidence for the dynamics of the evolution of polyploid genomes. We aimed at overcoming the inherent complexity of Brassica genomes and clarify the effects of polyploidy on the evolution of genome microstructure in specific segments of the genome. To do this, we have constructed bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries from genomic DNA of B. rapa subspecies trilocularis (JBr) and B. napus var Tapidor (JBnB) to supplement an existing BAC library from B. oleracea. These allowed us to analyse both recent polyploidization (under 10,000 years in B. napus) and more ancient polyploidization events (ca. 20 Myr for B. rapa and B. oleracea relative to Arabidopsis), with an analysis of the events occurring on an intermediate time scale (over the ca. 4 Myr since the divergence of the B. rapa and B. oleracea lineages). Using the Arabidopsis genome sequence and clones from the JBr library, we have analysed aspects of gene conservation and microsynteny between six regions of the genome of B. rapa with the homoeologous regions of the genomes of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis. Extensive divergence of gene content was observed between the B. rapa paralogous segments and their homoeologous segments within the genome of Arabidopsis. A pattern of interspersed gene loss was identified that is similar, but not identical, to that observed in B. oleracea. The conserved genes show highly conserved collinearity with their orthologues across genomes, but a small number of species-specific rearrangements were identified. Thus the evolution of genome microstructure is an ongoing process. Brassica napus is a recently formed polyploid resulting

  15. Detecção, transmissão e efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis Detection, transmission and effect of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanira Donizete Tebaldi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A detecção, a transmissão e o efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis (Brassica oleracea var. italica foram avaliadas, a partir de sementes obtidas de plantas ("Baron, Flórida, Hana Midori Sakata, Precoce Piracicaba de Verão, Ramoso Santana e Sabre" inoculadas com a bactéria, em condições de campo. Para a detecção do patógeno nas sementes foram utilizados os meios de cultura semi-seletivos: SX ágar, NSCAA e BSCAA; a taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes às plântulas foi avaliada usando semeadura em areia e meio de cultura contido em tubo de ensaio. Para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes foram realizados o teste padrão de germinação e os testes de vigor: envelhecimento acelerado, índice de velocidade de emergência, crescimento das plântulas e massa seca. De acordo com os resultados, o meio de cultura semi-seletivo NSCAA foi mais eficaz para detectar Xcc em sementes de brócolis; não houve diferença significativa entre os genótipos na taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes e Xcc não afetou a germinação e o vigor das sementes.The detection, transmission and the effect of Xanthomomas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds were evaluated. The seeds were obtained from inoculated field plants ('Baron', 'Flórida', 'Hana Midori Sakata', 'Precoce Piracicaba de Verão', 'Ramoso Santana' and 'Sabre' genotypes with the bacterium. For the seed pathogen detection the semi-selective medium were used: starch for xanthomonads (SX agar, nutrient starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (NSCAA and basal starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (BSCAA; the bacteria seeds transmission percentage was evaluated using sand and test tube. The physiological seed quality was evaluated by the standard germination and vigor tests: the accelerated aging, speed of emergence, seedling growth and seedling dry weight

  16. Detecção, transmissão e efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis Detection, transmission and effect of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanira Donizeti Tebaldi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A detecção, a transmissão e o efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis (Brassica oleracea var. italica foram avaliados, a partir de sementes obtidas de plantas ("Baron, Flórida, Hana Midori Sakata, Precoce Piracicaba de Verão, Ramoso Santana e Sabre" inoculadas com a bactéria, em condições de campo. Para a detecção do patógeno nas sementes foram utilizados os meios de cultura semi-seletivos: SX ágar, NSCAA e BSCAA; a taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes às plântulas foi avaliada usando semeadura em areia e meio de cultura contido em tubo de ensaio. Para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes foram realizados o teste padrão de germinação e os testes de vigor: envelhecimento acelerado, índice de velocidade de emergência, crescimento de plântulas e massa seca. De acordo com os resultados, o meio de cultura semi-seletivo NSCAA foi mais eficaz para detectar Xcc em sementes de brócolis; não houve diferença significativa entre os genótipos na taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes e Xcc não afetou a germinação e o vigor das sementes.The detection, transmission and the effect of Xanthomomas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds were evaluated. The seeds were obtained from inoculated field plants (`Baron', `Flórida', `Hana Midori Sakata', `Precoce Piracicaba de Verão', `Ramoso Santana' and `Sabre' genotypes with the bacterium. For the seed pathogen detection the semi-selective medium were used: starch for xanthomonads (SX agar, nutrient starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (NSCAA and basal starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (BSCAA; the bacteria seeds transmission percentage was evaluated using sand and test tube. The physiological seed quality was evaluated by the standard germination and vigor tests: the accelerated aging, speed of emergence, seedling growth and seedling dry weight. The

  17. Transgene directionally integrated into C-genome of Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiaoping; WANG Zhuan; LI Jun; LUO Lixia; HU Qiong

    2006-01-01

    Integration of a transgene into a C-genome chromosome plays an important role in reducing ecological risk of transgenic Brassica napus.To obtain C-genome transgenic B. napus, herbicide-resistant bar gene was firstly transferred into B.oleracea var. a/bog/abra mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Then using the transgenic B. oleracea as paternal plants and 8 nontransgenic varieties of B. rapa as maternal plants, Cgenome transgenic B. napus with bar gene was artificially resynthesized by means of ovary culture and chromosome doubling. Among 67 lines of the resynthesized B. napus, 31 were positive, and 36 were negative according to PCR test for bar gene. At least 2 plants from each line were kept for PPT spray confirmation. The result was in consistence with the PCR test. Genomic Southern blotting of three randomly chosen lines also showed that bar gene had been integrated into the genome of resynthesized B. napus lines.

  18. Fluidodinâmica de sementes de brócolos em leito fluizado e leito de jorro Fluid-dynamics of broccoli seeds in fluized and spouted beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina de Almeida

    2002-12-01

    fluidized and spouted beds when broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica seeds are used and also to verify the influence on seed germination after 60 min of seed exposition to spouting or fluidization, at room temperature. The fluid-dynamics was defined by the measurements of the bed pressure drop as a function of the air flow rate for different seeds loads. The experimental conditions were based on the physical properties of the seeds and were limited by the apparatus dimensions. The cone-cylindrical bed was constructed in plexyglass to permit flow visualization. The values of the parameters: maximum pressure drop, minimum spouting flow rate and pressure drop, and stable spout pressure drop were experimentally obtained from the fluid-dynamic analysis and were compared with the values calculated by empirical equations found in the literature. The same procedure was carried out with the fluidized bed and the important parameters for this regime were the air velocity and the bed pressure drop at minimum fluidization. The analysis of seed germination indicated that no damage was caused to the seeds by the spout or fluidization processes.

  19. Physiological changes during postharvest senescence of broccoli Alterações fisiológicas da senescência pós-colheita de brócolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Finger

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the early physiological changes throughout shelf life of fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Piracicaba Precoce at 25ºC and relative humidity of 96% in the dark until complete senescence. Head inflorescences showed lack of turgidity and commercial value when weight loss reached up to 5%, coinciding with 48 hour after harvest. Chlorophyll content was stable until 24 hours after harvesting; afterwards, an intense degradation phase took place. At 72 hours, total head yellowing was observed when chlorophyll content dropped to 30% of its initial content. Peroxidase activity increased by 1.4 fold during the first six hours, dropping to its lowest level approximately 24 hours after harvesting. However, from this time on, an increment of activity was observed until 72 hours. At 24 hours after harvesting, respiration was reduced by 50%. At later stages of senescence, respiration of florets was stable, but in a lower level than that determined at harvest. Sharp reduction of starch and reducing sugars was observed within 24 hours after harvesting, followed by continuous period of decline in starch and non-reducing sugars.Alterações fisiológicas ocorridas durante a vida de prateleira em inflorescências de brócolis (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Piracicaba Precoce foram avaliadas durante armazenamento a 25ºC e umidade relativa de 96%. A perda de turgidez e de valor comercial das inflorescências ocorreu 48 horas após a colheita, totalizando 5% de perda da matéria fresca. O conteúdo de clorofila permaneceu inalterado até 24 horas após a colheita, seguindo-se um período de intensa degradação. As inflorescências estavam completamente amarelas 72 horas após a colheita, quando apresentavam 30% do teor inicial de clorofila. A atividade peroxidativa elevou-se em 1,4 vezes nas seis horas subseqüentes à colheita, diminuindo até 24 horas, seguido de aumento da atividade até 72

  20. QTL Mapping of Leafy Heads by Genome Resequencing in the RIL Population of Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiang; Wang, Han; ZHONG, WEILI; Bai, Jinjuan; Liu, Pinglin; He, Yuke

    2013-01-01

    Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using...

  1. Genome-wide prediction of agronomic traits in hybrid spring-type canola (Brassica napus) using single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Habib Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus L., (AACC, 2n=38) is one of the world’s most important oilseed crops and is used as human food, i.e. cooking oil and as animal feed. In Europe, winter-type canola is also used as a sustainable source of bioenergy. Canola was naturally formed ~7500 years ago from spontaneous inter-specific hybridisations between cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa). Recently, the reference genome of the B. napus ‘Darmor-bzh’ cultivar was sequenced and publ...

  2. Comparative mitochondrial genome analysis reveals the evolutionary rearrangement mechanism in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Liu, G; Zhao, N; Chen, S; Liu, D; Ma, W; Hu, Z; Zhang, M

    2016-05-01

    The genus Brassica has many species that are important for oil, vegetable and other food products. Three mitochondrial genome types (mitotype) originated from its common ancestor. In this paper, a B. nigra mitochondrial main circle genome with 232,407 bp was generated through de novo assembly. Synteny analysis showed that the mitochondrial genomes of B. rapa and B. oleracea had a better syntenic relationship than B. nigra. Principal components analysis and development of a phylogenetic tree indicated maternal ancestors of three allotetraploid species in Us triangle of Brassica. Diversified mitotypes were found in allotetraploid B. napus, in which napus-type B. napus was derived from B. oleracea, while polima-type B. napus was inherited from B. rapa. In addition, the mitochondrial genome of napus-type B. napus was closer to botrytis-type than capitata-type B. oleracea. The sub-stoichiometric shifting of several mitochondrial genes suggested that mitochondrial genome rearrangement underwent evolutionary selection during domestication and/or plant breeding. Our findings clarify the role of diploid species in the maternal origin of allotetraploid species in Brassica and suggest the possibility of breeding selection of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:27079962

  3. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel P. Mourato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  4. 青花菜C3H型锌指蛋白基因 BoCCCH2的克隆与表达%Cloning and expression of a C3H-type zinc finger protein gene BoCCCH2 from Brassica oleracea var . italica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明; 刘青娥; 章燕如; 祝琦; 龚秀; 俞可可; 周秀倩

    2016-01-01

    以青花菜为材料,在克隆C3 H型锌指蛋白基因 BoCCC H2的基础上,研究该基因在不同器官及霜霉菌和灰葡萄孢菌侵染叶片中的表达模式。测序结果表明,BoCCC H2没有内含子,编码区全长为1740 bp ,编码579个氨基酸,推导的蛋白质具2个 ANK结构域和2种CCCH 锌指结构,锌指结构的类型分别为C—X8—C—X5—C—X3—H和C—X5—C—X4—C—X3—H 。反转录聚合酶链反应表明:BoCCC H2在根、叶、花茎、嫩角果、花蕾和花中均有表达,其中在根中的表达量最高;经霜霉菌和灰葡萄孢菌侵染后,该基因表达量均有不同程度的增加,其中在霜霉菌侵染下,表达量在24 h后开始增加,72 h时下降,而在灰葡萄孢菌侵染下,6 h时的表达量最大,12 h时开始缓慢下降。聚类结果表明,BoCCCH2与其他十字花科植物的同源序列聚为一类,支持率达100%,而与豆科、大戟科和蔷薇科等植物的序列处于不同分支。对 BoCCC H2基因的克隆和表达分析为该基因功能研究奠定了基础。%Summary Brassicaoleraceavar.italicaisanimportantvegetablecropworldwide,andinChina,TaizhouCity of Zhejiang Province is one of the major broccoli production areas . Downy mildew and grey mold rot are two common fungal diseases caused by Hyaloperonospora parasitica and Botrytis cinerea , respectively . In recent years , broccoli production in Taizhou was frequently affected by these two fungal diseases , resulting in yield and quality loss . Broccoli germplasm resources resistance to disease is scarce; therefore , molecular breeding is regarded as an effective solution to solve the problem . This is critically important to isolate genes associated with disease resistance , which will act as potential target genes for broccoli breeding . Zinc finger proteins are kinds of important transcription factors in eukaryotic organisms , which involve in various biological activities , such as replication , transcription

  5. Beslenme ve Halk Sağlığı Yönünden Önemli Bazı Sebzeler I: Sarımsak (Allium sativum L.), Enginar (Cynara scolymus L.), Kereviz (Apium graveolens L.) ve Lahana (Brassica oleraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Altıniğne, Nejat; Gönül, Meral

    1988-01-01

    Karbonhidrat, mineral madde ve vitamin gibi önemli bazı besin ögelerini çok miktarda içeren sebzeler, beslenme amacıyla kullanıldıkları gibi, içerdikleri bazı ilaç etken maddeleri nedeniyle halk sağlığında tedavi amacıylada kullanılmaktadırlar. Bu makalede genel özellikleri, besin içerikleri ve halk sağlığında kullanılma amaçları yönünden sarımsak (A. sativum), enginar (C. scolymus), kereviz (A. graveolens) ve lahana (B. oleraceae) sebzeleri ele alınarak incelenmiştir.   ...

  6. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  7. Flutuação populacional e distribuição vertical de Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em couve Populational fluctuation and vertical (within-plant) distribution of Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on kale

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Cividanes; Durvalina M. Mathias dos Santos

    2003-01-01

    O conhecimento da dinâmica populacional e da distribuição vertical de insetos pragas em plantas hospedeiras é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo integrado de pragas. No presente trabalho efetuou-se um levantamento populacional de formas ápteras do pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), visando determinar a época de maior densidade populacional e a distribuição vertical em plantas de couve, (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.), cultivadas em Jaboticabal, SP. O estudo foi...

  8. 青花菜转录因子基因 BoWRKY2的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of a transcription factor gene BoWRKY2 from broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明; 陈贝贝; 管铭; 李金枝; 黄笑梅; 顾云吉

    2015-01-01

    Summary Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var . italica) , which belongs to Cruciferae family , is a cash crop widely cultivated in China , and it is regarded as one of the most consumed vegetables in the world . The flower head of broccoli is rich in minerals , vitamins , fibers as well as anti‐oxidants , so it is recognized as a healthy vegetable with anti‐cancer properties . As a major broccoli production center in China , the average plantation areas reach to 8 000 hm2 in Taizhou of Zhejiang Province . However , broccoli cultivation suffered from plant diseases of downy mildew and stalk break which were caused by Hyaloperonospora parasitica and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , respectively , resulting in yield and quality loss . WRKY transcription factors played important roles in plant stress responses , and WRKY domains were defined as an approximately 60‐amino acid motif named WRKYGQK as well as a zinc finger structure of C‐X4‐5‐C‐X2223‐H‐X1‐HattheirC‐terminus.TheWRKYdomainbindsspecificallytoDNAsequenceof(T)(T)TGAC(C/T) known as the W‐box which exists in defense‐related promoters . Enhanced disease resistance by overexpression of WRKY genes in different crop plants has been reported in recent years . Inthisstudy,aWRKYgenedesignatedasBoWRKY2,wasisolatedfromB.oleraceavar.italica.Basedon sequence analysis , expression patterns of BoWRKY2 were detected using reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction(RT‐PCR) methodwhilechallengedby H.parasiticaand S.sclerotiorum,respectively. The results showed that the genome DNA sequence was 1 507 bp in length with two introns and a complete coding sequence of 987 bp , and the length of two introns were 425 and 95 bp , respectively ; BoWRKY2 encoded 328 amino acids with a WRKYGQK residue and a zinc finger structure of C‐X5‐C‐X23‐H‐X1‐H . The WRKY domain located between 247 and 313 residues , and several DNA binding sites were found at sites of 66 , 67 , 69 , 71 , 74 , 281 , 282 , 283 and 317

  9. Mitochondrial genome sequencing helps show the evolutionary mechanism of mitochondrial genome formation in Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiyong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiosperm mitochondrial genomes are more complex than those of other organisms. Analyses of the mitochondrial genome sequences of at least 11 angiosperm species have showed several common properties; these cannot easily explain, however, how the diverse mitotypes evolved within each genus or species. We analyzed the evolutionary relationships of Brassica mitotypes by sequencing. Results We sequenced the mitotypes of cam (Brassica rapa, ole (B. oleracea, jun (B. juncea, and car (B. carinata and analyzed them together with two previously sequenced mitotypes of B. napus (pol and nap. The sizes of whole single circular genomes of cam, jun, ole, and car are 219,747 bp, 219,766 bp, 360,271 bp, and 232,241 bp, respectively. The mitochondrial genome of ole is largest as a resulting of the duplication of a 141.8 kb segment. The jun mitotype is the result of an inherited cam mitotype, and pol is also derived from the cam mitotype with evolutionary modifications. Genes with known functions are conserved in all mitotypes, but clear variation in open reading frames (ORFs with unknown functions among the six mitotypes was observed. Sequence relationship analysis showed that there has been genome compaction and inheritance in the course of Brassica mitotype evolution. Conclusions We have sequenced four Brassica mitotypes, compared six Brassica mitotypes and suggested a mechanism for mitochondrial genome formation in Brassica, including evolutionary events such as inheritance, duplication, rearrangement, genome compaction, and mutation.

  10. Cloning and Molecular Identification of A Fatty Acid Desaturase 2 Gene in a and C Genome of Brassica Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei CHEN; Sang SHUANG; Song CHEN; Feng CHEN; Qi PENG

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid desaturase 2 (fad2) gene was proven to be a major locus for high oleic acid (C18:1). Brassica napus is an amphidiploid species originating from a spontaneous hybridization of Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. B. napus contains multiple copies in genome for most of the genes, including fad2 genes. The research cloned nine fad2 genes from 3 varieties of B. rapa and 3 varieties of B. oleracea, respectively. Alignment of the nine fad2 sequences from B. rapa and B. oleracea detect-ed 6 single nucleotide polymorphic sites, which resulted in 6 amino-acid substitutions. The nucleotide substitutions at position 743 bp in the fad2-A gene and position 947 bp in the fad2-C gene were used as 3’ end of al ele-specific primers. In use of the al-lele-specific primers to amplify fad2 gene, we could identify if the fad2 gene originated from A genome or C genome. Besides, the research found that fad2 genes in C genome are more conserved in evolutionary process than those in A genome. The fad2 expression data reported in this study revealed that fad2-A from B. rapa was not only expressed in siliques same as fad2-C from B. oleracea, but also expressed in a high level in stems. Not even the less, fad2 gene from B. napus was expressed higher in roots and flowers. Al these results provided evidences that fad2, though it was expressed differently in B. rapa and B. oleracea, but it was regulated by the same approach in B. napus.

  11. A complex recombination pattern in the genome of allotetraploid Brassica napus as revealed by a high-density genetic map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqin Cai

    Full Text Available Polyploidy plays a crucial role in plant evolution. Brassica napus (2n = 38, AACC, the most important oil crop in the Brassica genus, is an allotetraploid that originated through natural doubling of chromosomes after the hybridization of its progenitor species, B. rapa (2n = 20, AA and B. oleracea (2n = 18, CC. A better understanding of the evolutionary relationship between B. napus and B. rapa, B. oleracea, as well as Arabidopsis, which has a common ancestor with these three species, will provide valuable information about the generation and evolution of allopolyploidy. Based on a high-density genetic map with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of B. napus with Arabidopsis and its progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea. Based on the collinear relationship of B. rapa and B. oleracea in the B. napus genetic map, the B. napus genome was found to consist of 70.1% of the skeleton components of the chromosomes of B. rapa and B. oleracea, with 17.7% of sequences derived from reciprocal translocation between homoeologous chromosomes between the A- and C-genome and 3.6% of sequences derived from reciprocal translocation between non-homologous chromosomes at both intra- and inter-genomic levels. The current study thus provides insights into the formation and evolution of the allotetraploid B. napus genome, which will allow for more accurate transfer of genomic information from B. rapa, B. oleracea and Arabidopsis to B. napus.

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: cabbage [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cabbage Brassica oleracea Brassica_oleracea_L.png Brassica_oleracea_NL.png Brassica_oleracea_S.png Brassica..._oleracea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&...t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica...+oleracea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NS ...

  13. Comparative mapping of Brassica juncea and Arabidopsis thaliana using Intron Polymorphism (IP markers: homoeologous relationships, diversification and evolution of the A, B and C Brassica genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vibha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive mapping efforts are currently underway for the establishment of comparative genomics between the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana and various Brassica species. Most of these studies have deployed RFLP markers, the use of which is a laborious and time-consuming process. We therefore tested the efficacy of PCR-based Intron Polymorphism (IP markers to analyze genome-wide synteny between the oilseed crop, Brassica juncea (AABB genome and A. thaliana and analyzed the arrangement of 24 (previously described genomic block segments in the A, B and C Brassica genomes to study the evolutionary events contributing to karyotype variations in the three diploid Brassica genomes. Results IP markers were highly efficient and generated easily discernable polymorphisms on agarose gels. Comparative analysis of the segmental organization of the A and B genomes of B. juncea (present study with the A and B genomes of B. napus and B. nigra respectively (described earlier, revealed a high degree of colinearity suggesting minimal macro-level changes after polyploidization. The ancestral block arrangements that remained unaltered during evolution and the karyotype rearrangements that originated in the Oleracea lineage after its divergence from Rapa lineage were identified. Genomic rearrangements leading to the gain or loss of one chromosome each between the A-B and A-C lineages were deciphered. Complete homoeology in terms of block organization was found between three linkage groups (LG each for the A-B and A-C genomes. Based on the homoeology shared between the A, B and C genomes, a new nomenclature for the B genome LGs was assigned to establish uniformity in the international Brassica LG nomenclature code. Conclusion IP markers were highly effective in generating comparative relationships between Arabidopsis and various Brassica species. Comparative genomics between the three Brassica lineages established the major rearrangements

  14. Impact of single-gene and dual-gene Bt broccoli on the herbivore Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and its pupal endoparasitoid Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao; Zhao, Jian-zhou; Shelton, Anthony M; Cao, Jun; Earle, Elizabeth D

    2008-08-01

    Transgenic brassica crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are being investigated as candidates for field release to control lepidopteran pests. Information on the potential impact of Bt brassica crops on pests and non-target natural enemies is needed as part of an environmental risk assessment prior to the commercial release. This first tier study provides insight into the tritrophic interactions among Bt broccoli plants, the herbivore Pieris rapae and its parasitoid Pteromalus puparum. We first evaluated the efficacy of three types of Bt broccoli plants, cry1Ac, cry1C and cry1Ac + cry1C, on different instars of P. rapae. Bt broccoli effectively controlled P. rapae larvae, although later instars were more tolerant. The efficacy of different Bt broccoli plants on P. rapae larvae was consistently cry1Ac > cry1Ac + cry1C > cry1C. When the parasitoid P. puparum developed in a P. rapae pupa (host) that had developed from Bt plant-fed older larvae, developmental time, total number and longevity of the P. puparum generated from the Bt plant-fed host were significantly affected compared with those generated from the non-Bt control plant-fed host. Simultaneously, negative effects on P. rapae pupae were found, i.e. pupal length, width and weight were significantly reduced after older P. rapae larvae fed on different Bt plants for 1 or 2 days. Cry1C toxin was detected using ELISA in P. rapae pupae after older larvae fed on cry1C broccoli. However, no Cry1C toxin was detected in newly emerged P. puparum adults developing in Bt-fed hosts. Only a trace amount of toxin was detected from entire P. puparum pupae dissected from the Bt plant-fed host. Moreover, no negative effect was found on the progeny of P. puparum developing from the Bt plant-fed host when subsequently supplied with a healthy host, P. rapae pupae. The reduced quality of the host appears to be the only reason for the observed deleterious effects on P. puparum. Our data suggest that

  15. A novel detection system for the genetically modified canola (Brassica rapa) line RT73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-12-01

    The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Roundup Ready canola (Brassica napus) line RT73 has been approved worldwide for use in animal feed and human food. However, RT73 Brassica rapa lines derived from interspecific crosses with RT73 B. napus have not been approved in Japan. Here, we report on a novel system using individual kernel analyses for the qualitative detection of RT73 B. rapa in canola grain samples. We developed a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to discriminate B. napus and B. rapa DNA using scatter plots of the end-point analyses; this method was able to discriminate a group comprising B. rapa and Brassica juncea from a group comprising B. napus, Brassica carinata, and Brassica oleracea. We also developed a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of an RT73-specific sequence and an endogenous FatA gene. Additionally, a DNA-extraction method using 96-well silica-membrane plates was developed and optimized for use with individual canola kernels. Our detection system could identify RT73 B. rapa kernels in canola grain samples enabling the accurate and reliable monitoring of RT73 B. rapa contamination in canola, thus playing a role in its governmental regulation in Japan. PMID:21049930

  16. Brassica database (BRAD) version 2.0: integrating and mining Brassicaceae species genomic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Wu, Jian; Liang, Jianli; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica database (BRAD) was built initially to assist users apply Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomic data efficiently to their research. However, many Brassicaceae genomes have been sequenced and released after its construction. These genomes are rich resources for comparative genomics, gene annotation and functional evolutionary studies of Brassica crops. Therefore, we have updated BRAD to version 2.0 (V2.0). In BRAD V2.0, 11 more Brassicaceae genomes have been integrated into the database, namely those of Arabidopsis lyrata, Aethionema arabicum, Brassica oleracea, Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, Capsella rubella, Leavenworthia alabamica, Sisymbrium irio and three extremophiles Schrenkiella parvula, Thellungiella halophila and Thellungiella salsuginea. BRAD V2.0 provides plots of syntenic genomic fragments between pairs of Brassicaceae species, from the level of chromosomes to genomic blocks. The Generic Synteny Browser (GBrowse_syn), a module of the Genome Browser (GBrowse), is used to show syntenic relationships between multiple genomes. Search functions for retrieving syntenic and non-syntenic orthologs, as well as their annotation and sequences are also provided. Furthermore, genome and annotation information have been imported into GBrowse so that all functional elements can be visualized in one frame. We plan to continually update BRAD by integrating more Brassicaceae genomes into the database. Database URL: http://brassicadb.org/brad/. PMID:26589635

  17. Broccoli curves and the tropical invariance of Welschinger numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Gathmann, Andreas; Schroeter, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce broccoli curves, certain plane tropical curves of genus zero related to real algebraic curves. The numbers of these broccoli curves through given points are independent of the chosen points - for arbitrary choices of the directions of the ends of the curves, possibly with higher weights, and also if some of the ends are fixed. In the toric Del Pezzo case we show that these broccoli invariants are equal to the Welschinger invariants (with real and complex conjugate point conditions), thus providing a proof of the independence of Welschinger invariants of the point conditions within tropical geometry. The general case gives rise to a tropical Caporaso-Harris formula for broccoli curves which suffices to compute all Welschinger invariants of the plane.

  18. Brassicas limited in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Mr P

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the limitations of using brassica cover crops for weed control. A brief overview of the role of cover crops is provided, followed by a short review of research looking at brassica cover crops.

  19. Plant characters of broccoli determinants of head production

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Daniela Brandelero; Betania Brum; Lindolfo Storck; Jessica Cardoso; Talita Slota Kutz; Thiago de Oliveira Vargas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The increasing consumption of single-head broccoli is due to several factors, among them there are food production in minimally processing form and the existence of hybrids that adapt to various climates, in addition to the simple harvesting of this typical architecture.This study aimed to identify the most relevant plant characters of broccoli, represented by growth characters, which are determinant in the production and canopy area. The study was conducted in an experimental area ...

  20. Realizing the potential of rapid-cycling Brassica as a model system for use in plant biology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid-cycling Brassica populations were initially developed as a model for probing the genetic basis of plant disease. Paul Williams and co-workers selected accessions of the six main species for short time to flower and rapid seed maturation. Over multiple generations of breeding and selection, rapid-cycling populations of each of the six species were developed. Because of their close relationship with economically important Brassica species, rapid-cycling Brassica populations, especially those of B. rapa (RCBr) and B. oleracea, have seen wide application in plant and crop physiology investigations. Adding to the popularity of these small, short-lived plants for research applications is their extensive use in K-12 education and outreach.

  1. Boro, nitrogenio concentraçao de inóculo de pH na expressao da doença causada por Plasmodiophora brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Schuta, Lucimeris Ruaro

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A hérnia das cruciferas (Plasmodiophora brassicae Woron.) é a mais importante doença que incide sobre as variedades de Brassica oleracea L. representadas pelo repolho, couve-flor, brócolis, mostarda, couve-chinesa e rúcula. A calagem para elevar o pH dos solos é a medida recomendada mais aceita pelos produtores, contudo, nem sempre esta medida, é suficiente para impedir ou reduzir o ataque do patógeno nos solos da região metropolitana de Curitiba. O que sugere, que outros fatores poss...

  2. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants. PMID:27493652

  3. Inheritance and expression patterns of BN28, a low temperature induced gene in Brassica napus, throughout the Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, G P; Nykiforuk, C L; Johnson-Flanagan, A M; Boothe, J G

    1996-08-01

    Molecular genetics is becoming an important tool in the breeding and selection of agronomically important traits. BN28 is a low temperature induced gene in Brassicaceae species. PCR and Southern blot analysis indicate that BN28 is polymorphic in the three diploid genomes: Brassica rapa (AA), Brassica nigra (BB), and Brassica oleracea (CC). Of the allotetraploids, Brassica napus (AACC) is the only species to have inherited homologous genes from both parental genomes. Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) have inherited homologues from the AA and CC genomes, respectively, while Sinapsis arvensis (SS) contains a single homologue from the BB genome and Sinapsis alba (dd) appears to be different from all the diploid parents. All species show message induction when exposed to low temperature. However, differences in expression were noticed at the protein level, with silencing occurring in the BB genome at the level of translation. Results suggest that silencing is occurring in diploid species where duplication may not have occurred. Molecular characterization and inheritance of BN28 homologues in the Brassicaceae may play an important role in determining their quantitative function during exposure to low temperature. Key words : Brassicaceae, BN28, inheritance, polymorphism. PMID:18469930

  4. Effects of gamma radiation in cauliflower (Brassica spp) minimally processed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumers demand for health interests and the latest diet trends. The consumption of vegetables worldwide has increased every year over the past decade, consequently, less extreme treatments or additives are being required. Minimally processed foods have fresh-like characteristics and satisfy the new consumer demand. Food irradiation is an exposure process of the product to controlled sources of gamma radiation with the intention to destroy pathogens and to extend the shelf life. Minimally processed cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae) exposed to low dose of gamma radiation does not show any change in sensory attributes. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the low doses of gamma radiation on sensorial aspects like appearance, texture and flavor of minimally processed cauliflower. (author)

  5. Extracting RNA from Leaves of Mustard Brassica Juncea and Measurement and Analysis of Myrosinase Gene%榨菜叶中 RNA 提取及硫苷酶基因序列测定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 侯坤兰

    2015-01-01

    采用 Trizol 试剂法从榨菜叶中提取 RNA,采用 RT-PCR 技术扩增得到硫苷酶基因保守序列,利用 DNAman7生物信息分析软件对测得的保守序列与菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列进行比对,翻译核苷酸和蛋白质序列与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝、芥菜等序列进行相应的比对。结果表明,采用 Trizol 试剂法能获得320 bp 的基因保守序列;与甘蓝、菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列比对结果的 Identity 为97.12%;与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝等进行相应的翻译核苷酸和翻译成蛋白质序列比对分析,发现序列的覆盖度与相似度均达到较高的水平。%This purposes of this research is to lay the foundation for prokaryotic expression and to improve the content and activity of myrosinase in mustard brassica juncea at the same time. The research material was taken from myrosinase gene in mustard brassica juncea. This topic get conserved sequence of myrosinase gene taken from leaves for the method used, for extraction of RNA from mustard brassica juncea leaves that Trizol reagent step separation method of total RNA, according to the conserved nucleotide sequences of different plants and conservative sequence obtained by RT -PCR, conserved sequence alignment between the obtained and Brassica rape on the DNAman7 bioinformatics analysis software, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence alignment analysis online combined the NCBI and main with Brassica napue, Brassica rape, Brassica oleracea, Brassica Juncea, etc. The results shows that under identical conditions: 320bp gene conserved sequence was obtained by method of Trizol reagent step separation, bioinformatics analysis suggested that conserved sequence showed 97.12% identity to M Y B. oleracea-M, M Y 49 B. parachinensis-M, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence of Mustard brassica juncea has a higher query cover and identity with Brassica napue, Brassica

  6. Extracting RNA from Leaves of Mustard Brassica Juncea and Measurement and Analysis of Myrosinase Gene%榨菜叶中 RNA 提取及硫苷酶基因序列测定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 侯坤兰

    2015-01-01

    This purposes of this research is to lay the foundation for prokaryotic expression and to improve the content and activity of myrosinase in mustard brassica juncea at the same time. The research material was taken from myrosinase gene in mustard brassica juncea. This topic get conserved sequence of myrosinase gene taken from leaves for the method used, for extraction of RNA from mustard brassica juncea leaves that Trizol reagent step separation method of total RNA, according to the conserved nucleotide sequences of different plants and conservative sequence obtained by RT -PCR, conserved sequence alignment between the obtained and Brassica rape on the DNAman7 bioinformatics analysis software, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence alignment analysis online combined the NCBI and main with Brassica napue, Brassica rape, Brassica oleracea, Brassica Juncea, etc. The results shows that under identical conditions: 320bp gene conserved sequence was obtained by method of Trizol reagent step separation, bioinformatics analysis suggested that conserved sequence showed 97.12% identity to M Y B. oleracea-M, M Y 49 B. parachinensis-M, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence of Mustard brassica juncea has a higher query cover and identity with Brassica napue, Brassica rape, Brassica oleracea, etc. It found that the similarity of sequence coverage have reached a higher level.%采用 Trizol 试剂法从榨菜叶中提取 RNA,采用 RT-PCR 技术扩增得到硫苷酶基因保守序列,利用 DNAman7生物信息分析软件对测得的保守序列与菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列进行比对,翻译核苷酸和蛋白质序列与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝、芥菜等序列进行相应的比对。结果表明,采用 Trizol 试剂法能获得320 bp 的基因保守序列;与甘蓝、菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列比对结果的 Identity 为97.12%;与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝等进行相应的翻译核苷

  7. Variation of glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin: anticancer components in Brassica during processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Me-Hea Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of cold storage and three common cooking practices, blanching, sauteing, and microwave cooking at different time intervals, on the content of glucosinolate (GSL anticancer components in six Brassica vegetables were investigated. Eleven GSLs including progoitrin, glucoraphanin, sinigrin, glucoalyssin, gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin were quantified using LC-MS and HPLC. Storage at 4 ºC indicated no significant loss of GSLs in broccoli, kohlrabi, and cabbage, and approximately 90-100% of the total concentration of aliphatic and indolyl GSLs were detected. Interestingly, glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin, known as a cancer prevention agents, increased approximately above 50% in broccoli, kohlrabi, and cabbage, while the amount of glucobrassicin decreased by 5% in cauliflower for 5 days at 4 ºC. Blanching of broccoli at 120 sec significantly (36% decreased total GSLs; however, sautéing and microwaving decreased by13-26%. Individual GSLs have different response at blanching. These findings suggest that different processing methods for each vegetable would be preferred to preserve the nutritional qualities.

  8. Flutuação populacional e distribuição vertical de Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae em couve Populational fluctuation and vertical (within-plant distribution of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae on kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Cividanes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da dinâmica populacional e da distribuição vertical de insetos pragas em plantas hospedeiras é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo integrado de pragas. No presente trabalho efetuou-se um levantamento populacional de formas ápteras do pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae (L., visando determinar a época de maior densidade populacional e a distribuição vertical em plantas de couve, (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivadas em Jaboticabal, SP. O estudo foi realizado durante as safras de brássicas de 1998 e 1999, efetuando-se correção da acidez do solo por meio de aplicação de calcário apenas no campo utilizado em 1998. A amostragem dos pulgões foi feita visualmente em folhas classificadas em três categorias: apical, mediana e basal. Nas duas safras estudadas, a infestação de B. brassicae na couve atingiu a maior densidade populacional em setembro, diminuindo rapidamente a seguir. Nos dois campos não se observou a mesma distribuição de B. brassicae em folhas apicais, medianas e basais. Os fatores que podem ter contribuído para as diferenças observadas no padrão de distribuição do pulgão devem estar relacionados com a precipitação pluvial e o calcário magnesiano.The knowledge of the population dynamics and vertical distribution of insect pests in host plants are fundamental for the development of programs of integrated pest management. In the present work, a population survey of apterous cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L., was carried out aiming to determine the period when this aphid reachs the highest population density and the within-plant distributions on its common host, kale, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivated in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo. The study took place during the 1998 and 1999 Brassica seasons, and limestone treatment was only made in the field cultivated in 1998. The cabbage aphid was sampled by visual search on leaves classified in three

  9. Phylogenetic Analysis on SLG and SRK Genes in Brassica and Raphanus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yu-tang; MA Chao-zhi; FU Ting-dong; TU Jin-xing

    2005-01-01

    S-locus genes were cloned from three Brassica napus and three B. campestris lines by using PCR walking and homologue sequence methods. A phylogenetic gene tree was constructed based on the six cloned genes and fifty-one previously reported SLG/SRK genes of Brassica and Raphanus. The SLGs from R. sativus were dispersed in the phylogenetic tree intermingling with SLG/SRKs from B. oleracea, B. napus and B. campestris. The SLG/SRK genes of class Ⅱ clustered independently in one group. The SLG/SRK genes of class Ⅰ showed to be more divergent than class Ⅱ genes. These results suggested that the divergence of class Ⅰ and class Ⅱ should have occurred before the differentiation of the genera Brassica and Raphanus. In addition, SLG and SRK of the same S haplotypes belonged to the same class. It suggested that class-Ⅰ and class-Ⅱ group divergence occurred first, and then SLG and SRK diverged. The three SC SRK genes from B. napus and B. campestris were grouped into one cluster, displaying difference from the SC SLG of B.oleracea. These three SC SRK genes were close to SI SRK of SI1300, SI271 and guanyou in phylogenetic relationships.These results indicated that SC and SI genes diverged more recently. It is not clear yet whether the differentiation of SC and SI genes was earlier than the differentiation of Brassica and Raphanus. Studies based on more genes are necessary for a comprehensive elucidation of the phylogenetic relationships in Brassicaceae.

  10. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  11. Regulatory network of secondary metabolism in Brassica rapa: insight into the glucosinolate pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Pino Del Carpio

    Full Text Available Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical genomics approach to identify regulatory genes for six biosynthetic pathways of health-related phytochemicals, i.e carotenoids, tocopherols, folates, glucosinolates, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Leaves from six weeks-old plants of a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population, consisting of 92 genotypes, were profiled for their secondary metabolite composition, using both targeted and LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics approaches. Furthermore, the same population was profiled for transcript variation using a microarray containing EST sequences mainly derived from three Brassica species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The biochemical pathway analysis was based on the network analyses of both metabolite QTLs (mQTLs and transcript QTLs (eQTLs. Co-localization of mQTLs and eQTLs lead to the identification of candidate regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols and glucosinolates. We subsequently focused on the well-characterized glucosinolate pathway and revealed two hotspots of co-localization of eQTLs with mQTLs in linkage groups A03 and A09. Our results indicate that such a large-scale genetical genomics approach combining transcriptomics and metabolomics data can provide new insights into the genetic regulation of metabolite composition of Brassica vegetables.

  12. Dielectric properties of tantalum powder with broccoli-like morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic tantalum powder with broccoli-like morphology, consisting of spherical fine particles and of long rods or thin plates, was prepared in a hundred gram scale by calcium reduction of Ta2O5 in molten CaCl2. The properties as electrolytic capacitor were evaluated in comparison with commercial powder obtained by Na reduction and with powder consisting of only fine particles obtained by Ca reduction. The capacitance was larger than that of conventional powder with the same surface area, because the broccoli-like powder showed a strong resistance against shrinkage during high temperature annealing due to the framework of branches. The powder with new broccoli-like morphology can circumvent the conventional treatments for grain size control and gas removal

  13. Evolutionary genomics of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2015-12-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in most eukaryotic genomes. We aimed to characterize various MITEs families in Brassica in terms of their presence, sequence characteristics and evolutionary activity. Dot plot analyses involving comparison of homoeologous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences allowed identification of 15 novel families of mobile MITEs. Of which, 5 were Stowaway-like with TA Target Site Duplications (TSDs), 4 Tourist-like with TAA/TTA TSDs, 5 Mutator-like with 9-10 bp TSDs and 1 novel MITE (BoXMITE1) flanked by 3 bp TSDs. Our data suggested that there are about 30,000 MITE-related sequences in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes. In situ hybridization showed one abundant family was dispersed in the A-genome, while another was located near 45S rDNA sites. PCR analysis using primers flanking sequences of MITE elements detected MITE insertion polymorphisms between and within the three Brassica (AA, BB, CC) genomes, with many insertions being specific to single genomes and others showing evidence of more recent evolutionary insertions. Our BAC sequence comparison strategy enables identification of evolutionarily active MITEs with no prior knowledge of MITE sequences. The details of MITE families reported in Brassica enable their identification, characterization and annotation. Insertion polymorphisms of MITEs and their transposition activity indicated important mechanism of genome evolution and diversification. MITE families derived from known Mariner, Harbinger and Mutator DNA transposons were discovered, as well as some novel structures. The identification of Brassica MITEs will have broad applications in Brassica genomics, breeding, hybridization and phylogeny through their use as DNA markers. PMID:26129767

  14. Microarray expression analysis of the main inflorescence in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    Full Text Available The effect of the number of pods on the main inflorescence (NPMI on seed yield in Brassica napus plants grown at high density is a topic of great economic and scientific interest. Here, we sought to identify patterns of gene expression that determine the NPMI during inflorescence differentiation. We monitored gene expression profiles in the main inflorescence of two B. napus F6 RIL pools, each composed of nine lines with a low or high NPMI, and their parental lines, Zhongshuang 11 (ZS11 and 73290, using a Brassica 90K elements oligonucleotide array. We identified 4,805 genes that were differentially expressed (≥1.5 fold-change between the low- and high-NPMI samples. Of these, 82.8% had been annotated and 17.2% shared no significant homology with any known genes. About 31 enriched GO clusters were identified amongst the differentially expressed genes (DEGs, including those involved in hormone responses, development regulation, carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction, and transcription regulation. Furthermore, 92.8% of the DEGs mapped to chromosomes that originated from B. rapa and B. oleracea, and 1.6% of the DEGs co-localized with two QTL intervals (PMI10 and PMI11 known to be associated with the NPMI. Overexpression of BnTPI, which co-localized with PMI10, in Arabidopsis suggested that this gene increases the NPMI. This study provides insight into the molecular factors underlying inflorescence architecture, NPMI determination and, consequently, seed yield in B. napus.

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHJ502 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHJ502 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11803-1 CHJ502P (Link to Original ... 0.026 2 AC152123 |AC152123.1 Genomic sequence for broccoli ... [Brassica oleracea L. (Italica group)] BAC clone B ...

  16. A newly-developed community microarray resource for transcriptome profiling in Brassica species enables the confirmation of Brassica-specific expressed sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurban Patrick

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassica species include an important group of crops and provide opportunities for studying the evolutionary consequences of polyploidy. They are related to Arabidopsis thaliana, for which the first complete plant genome sequence was obtained and their genomes show extensive, although imperfect, conserved synteny with that of A. thaliana. A large number of EST sequences, derived from a range of different Brassica species, are available in the public database, but no public microarray resource has so far been developed for these species. Results We assembled unigenes using ~800,000 EST sequences, mainly from three species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The assembly was conducted with the aim of co-assembling ESTs of orthologous genes (including homoeologous pairs of genes in B. napus from each of the A and C genomes, but resolving assemblies of paralogous, or paleo-homoeologous, genes (i.e. the genes related by the ancestral genome triplication observed in diploid Brassica species. 90,864 unique sequence assemblies were developed. These were incorporated into the BAC sequence annotation for the Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project, enabling the identification of cognate genomic sequences for a proportion of them. A 60-mer oligo microarray comprising 94,558 probes was developed using the unigene sequences. Gene expression was analysed in reciprocal resynthesised B. napus lines and the B. oleracea and B. rapa lines used to produce them. The analysis showed that significant expression could consistently be detected in leaf tissue for 35,386 unigenes. Expression was detected across all four genotypes for 27,355 unigenes, genome-specific expression patterns were observed for 7,851 unigenes and 180 unigenes displayed other classes of expression pattern. Principal component analysis (PCA clearly resolved the individual microarray datasets for B. rapa, B. oleracea and resynthesised B. napus. Quantitative differences in

  17. Comparison of five major trichome regulatory genes in Brassica villosa with orthologues within the Brassicaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghabushana K Nayidu

    Full Text Available Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1, GLABRA 2 (GL2, ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3, and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1 and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY, were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae.

  18. The Broccoli Syndrome: Higher Education's Pubdown Of The Minority Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Penfield; Delworth, Ursula

    1973-01-01

    The assumption underlying the broccoli syndrome is that minority group students are not familiar with a whole range of Anglo goodies''. This article points out how, as the minority student is enlightened time and again to such facts'', he perceives inherent racism in his enlightener.'' (JC)

  19. A transdisciplinary approach to developing an eastern broccoli industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current economic, social and scientific situations have made it attractive to establish a substantial and profitable broccoli industry in the eastern US, where several obstacles have prevented that from happening previously. Because many barriers must be overcome simultaneously, we assembled a tran...

  20. SOIL MULCHING WITH STRAW IN BROCCOLI CULTIVATION FOR EARLY HARVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kosterna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All treatments which protect soil from degradation and use of plant protection methods, other than chemicals are of great importance in the cultivation. This effect is attributed, among others, to organic mulches. By limiting the growth of weeds, maintaining proper moisture and reducing daily temperature fluctuations, mulch improves soil conditions for plant growth and development. The experiment was carried out between 2010 and 2012 at the Experimental Farm in Zawady as a split-block design with three replicates. The effect of the kind of straw (rye, corn, rape, buckwheat and its dose (10 and 20 t∙ha-1 applied as a mulch on the yield and quality of broccoli ‘Milady F1’ cultivated for early harvest was investigated. The effect of straw was compared to a control plot without mulch. Weather conditions in the successive years of the study had a significant influence on the yield and quality of broccoli. The highest yields with the best parameters were obtained in 2010 and 2012, which were characterized by sufficient rainfall for broccoli. It was not found significant differences in the yield level and weight of head between particular kinds of straw, however, all kinds of straw investigated in the experiment, irrespective of dose, contributed to a significant increase in the yield and favourably influenced the biometric features of broccoli compared to that achieved from cultivation without straw. Soil mulching with corn straw was most favourable to yield and its parameters.

  1. Fluidodinâmica de sementes de brócolos em leito fluizado e leito de jorro Fluid-dynamics of broccoli seeds in fluized and spouted beds

    OpenAIRE

    Celina de Almeida; Sandra Cristina dos Santos Rocha

    2002-01-01

    Os processos em leito fluidizado e de jorro são comumente empregados para secagem, recobrimento e granulação de sistemas particulados nas indústrias química e farmacêutica, enquanto na área agronômica estão limitados a tratamento de algumas espécies de sementes. Este trabalho objetivou apresentar a análise fluidodinâmica dos leitos fluidizado e de jorro, quando são utilizadas sementes de brócolos (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) e verificar a influência na germinação das sementes, submetid...

  2. A novel method for efficient and abundant production of Phytophthora brassicae zoospores on Brussels sprout leaf discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govers Francine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora species are notorious oomycete pathogens that cause diseases on a wide range of plants. Our understanding how these pathogens are able to infect their host plants will benefit greatly from information obtained from model systems representative for plant-Phytophthora interactions. One attractive model system is the interaction between Arabidopsis and Phytophthora brassicae. Under laboratory conditions, Arabidopsis can be easily infected with mycelial plugs as inoculum. In the disease cycle, however, sporangia or zoospores are the infectious propagules. Since the current P. brassicae zoospore isolation methods are generally regarded as inefficient, we aimed at developing an alternative method for obtaining high concentrations of P. brassicae zoospores. Results P. brassicae isolates were tested for pathogenicity on Brussels sprout plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera. Microscopic examination of leaves, stems and roots infected with a GFP-tagged transformant of P. brassicae clearly demonstrated the susceptibility of the various tissues. Leaf discs were cut from infected Brussels sprout leaves, transferred to microwell plates and submerged in small amounts of water. In the leaf discs the hyphae proliferated and abundant formation of zoosporangia was observed. Upon maturation the zoosporangia released zoospores in high amounts and zoospore production continued during a period of at least four weeks. The zoospores were shown to be infectious on Brussels sprouts and Arabidopsis. Conclusion The in vitro leaf disc method established from P. brassicae infected Brussels sprout leaves facilitates convenient and high-throughput production of infectious zoospores and is thus suitable to drive small and large scale inoculation experiments. The system has the advantage that zoospores are produced continuously over a period of at least one month.

  3. Nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracae var. capitata seedlings affected by the different nitrogen fertilizer forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Turan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, urea and farmyard manure on nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seedlings were studied. pH of the plant growth niedia was higher in the nitrate fertilizer treatment than the ammonium and other fertilizer forms. NO3--N application increased NRA in plant, but NH4+-N decreased NRA in plant. Harvesting date and different fertilizer doses increased NRA while NH4+-N decreased plant nitrate uptake. There was a significant relationship between NRA and fertilizer types.

  4. TRANSPARENT TESTA 12 genes from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, evolution, and differential involvement in yellow seed trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, You-Rong; Lei, Bo; Huang, Hua-Lei; Li, Jia-Na; Yin, Jia-Ming; Tang, Zhang-Lin; Wang, Rui; Chen, Li

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dissection of the Brassica yellow seed trait has been the subject of intense investigation. Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA 12 (AtTT12) encodes a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporter involved in seed coat pigmentation. Two, one, and one full-length TT12 genes were isolated from B. napus, B. oleracea, and B. rapa, respectively, and Southern hybridization confirmed these gene numbers, implying loss of some of the triplicated TT12 genes in Brassica. BnTT12-1, BnTT12-2, BoTT12, and BrTT12 are 2,714, 3,062, 4,760, and 2,716 bp, with the longest mRNAs of 1,749, 1,711, 1,739, and 1,752 bp, respectively. All genes contained alternative transcriptional start and polyadenylation sites. BrTT12 and BoTT12 are the progenitors of BnTT12-1 and BnTT12-2, respectively, validating B. napus as an amphidiploid. All Brassica TT12 proteins displayed high levels of identity (>99%) to each other and to AtTT12 (>92%). Brassica TT12 genes resembled AtTT12 in such basic features as MatE/NorM CDs, subcellular localization, transmembrane helices, and phosphorylation sites. Plant TT12 orthologs differ from other MATE proteins by two specific motifs. Like AtTT12, all Brassica TT12 genes are most highly expressed in developing seeds. However, a range of organ specificity was observed with BnTT12 genes being less organ-specific. TT12 expression is absent in B. rapa yellow-seeded line 06K124, but not downregulated in B. oleracea yellow-seeded line 06K165. In B. napus yellow-seeded line L2, BnTT12-2 expression is absent, whereas BnTT12-1 is expressed normally. Among Brassica species, TT12 genes are differentially related to the yellow seed trait. The molecular basis for the yellow seed trait, in Brassica, and the theoretical and practical implications of the highly variable intron 1 of these TT12 genes are discussed. PMID:19018571

  5. A Market-Window Analysis for Crown-Cut Broccoli Produced in Southwest Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Dillard, John; Kmak, Heather; Russ, M.J.; Coale, Charles W., Jr.; Bratsch, Tony; Reaves, Dixie Watts

    2006-01-01

    This research determines the profitability for farmers of marketing film-wrapped Crown-Cut broccoli in Southwest Virginia. Historical price data was collected in three eastern terminal markets (Atlanta, Baltimore, and Philadelphia) for Crown-Cut and bunched broccoli from October 1998 to January 2005. Cost-of-production budgets were estimated for Crown-Cut broccoli. The economic data was entered into a market window analysis and the profitability of each market was evaluated. The profitability...

  6. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and ...

  7. Red cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ) as a new source of high-thermostable peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortea, M I; Pellicer, J A; Serrano-Martínez, A; López-Miranda, S; Lucas-Abellán, C; Núñez-Delicado, E

    2012-10-24

    Soluble and membrane-bound peroxidases (PODs) were extracted from red cabbage using Triton X-114. Optimum activity was obtained at pH 4.0 for both enzymes, and both were inactivated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The K(M) and V(m) values for H(2)O(2) were found to be 0.98 mM and 8.1 μM/min, respectively, for soluble POD and 0.82 mM and 6.1 μM/min, respectively, for membrane-bound POD. When the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolinesulfonic acid (ABTS) concentration was increased, maintaining a steady concentration of H(2)O(2), the activity was inhibited at the highest ABTS concentrations in soluble POD. Ascorbic acid was found to be the most active modulator of POD activity. The effect of cyclodextrins was also studied, and the complexation constant between ABTS and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins (HP-β-CDs) was calculated (K(c) = 312 M(-1)). Membrane-bound POD is more thermostable than soluble POD, losing >90% of relative activity after 5 min of incubation at 76.6 and 30.2 °C, respectively. PMID:23013444

  8. Rooting pattern and nitrogen uptake of three cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) F1-hbrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a two-year field trial at the sites Ruthe (Germany, loess soil, Orthic Luvisol) and Schermer (The Netherlands, marine clay soil, Eutric Fluvisol) the cauliflower F1-hybrids Marine, Lindurian and Linford were compared in their efficiency of N use from limiting and optimum supplies of N. Limiting N

  9. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campetris affecting Brassica oleracea in northwestern Spain: race identification and search for resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Márquez, Margarita; Francisco Candeira, Marta; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Cartea González, María Elena

    2010-01-01

    Trabajo presentado al 9th Conference of the European Foundation for Plant Pathology y al 6th Congress of the Sociedad Portuguesa de Fitopatologia celebrados en Evora (Portugal) del 15 al 18 de Noviembre de 2010.

  10. Variance components and correlations of agronomic traits among cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. maturity groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervenski Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the variability and correlation of cabbage traits in different maturity groups. The study included early spring cabbages (planted in early spring, harvested in early summer and autumn cabbages (planted in mid-summer, harvested in late autumn. Using coefficients of variation and correlation coefficients, we analyzed 17 cabbage traits in 35 commercially grown cultivars, F1 hybrids, and experimental F1 hybrids. The traits were analyzed separately for each maturity group. In the early cabbages, the coefficients of variation ranged from 4.8 to 44.2%. The calculated correlation coefficients differed between the two maturity groups. The early cabbages had 26 significant positive correlations. The positive correlations calculated among different traits of early cabbages defined this group fully and made it distinct from the late-maturing genotypes. Plant height and rosette diameter in the early genotypes were highly positively correlated with rosette weight, whole plant weight, head weight, usable portion of head, head height, and head diameter. Plant height and rosette diameter participate in the formation of active photosynthetic area in early cabbages. Rosette width in these genotypes provides a greater influx of light and heat, which results in greater head weight. Also, in early cabbages that have greater plant height, the leaf rosette will not lie on the cold surface of the ground in the spring. The activity of the cabbage plant is thus more focused towards the formation of larger head weight. Head volume in the late genotypes was highly positively correlated with rosette diameter, whole plant weight, head weight, usable portion of head, inner stem length, and head height. In late cabbages plant activity is directed towards the formation of head volume due to the longer duration of the growth period, larger leaves, and differences in climatic conditions.

  11. Comportamiento al impacto de gotas sobre hojas de repollo morado (brassica oleracea l. var. capitata)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Pizarro, Ricardo; Skurtys, Olivier; Osorio Lira, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Debido a su importancia en varias aplicaciones industriales, el impacto de gotas sobre superficies sólidas ha sido bastante estudiado. Sin embargo, las investigaciones en impactos de gotas sobre superficies de vegetales son muy escasas. En este trabajo se determina el comportamiento del impacto de gotas en superficies de repollo morado y se evalúa la influencia de la viscosidad y la tensión superficial. El comportamiento frente al impacto de los fluidos evaluados sobre la superficie de repoll...

  12. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  13. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria improved growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Turan, Metin; EKİNCİ, Melek; YILDIRIM, Ertan; GÜNEŞ, Adem; Karagöz, Kenan; KOTAN, Recep; Dursun, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to observe the effects of Bacillus megaterium strain TV-91C, Pantoea agglomerans strain RK-92, and B. subtilis strain TV-17C inoculation on the growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage seedlings. The seeds of cabbage were incubated in flasks by shaking at 80 rpm for 2 h at 28 °C to coat the seeds with the rhizobacteria. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments increased fresh and dry shoot and root weight, stem diameter, seedling hei...

  14. Growth and Blood Parameters of Weaned Crossbred Beef Calves Fed Forage Kale (Brassica oleracea spp. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chorfi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty lightweight calves (206.4±3.2 kg were randomly distributed to four treatments: (Control low nutritive value pasture and hay plus 1 kg d−1 of rolled barley; (Pasture management intensive pasture; (Haylage timothy haylage; and (Kale 50% timothy haylage −50% kale pasture. Blood samples were analysed for thyroid hormones, liver enzymes, glucose, cholesterol, total proteins (TP, albumin, globulins, and urea-N. At the end of the trial, the Pasture group was the heaviest with 323.6±4.2 kg BW and 1.54 kg ADG. Final BW and ADG were similar for the Kale and Haylage groups. Blood T3 was higher for Kale than for the other groups. The T3/T4 ratio was greater for Control at the end of the experiment. There were no treatment differences for T4, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH, cholesterol, and glucose. Blood urea-N was lower for Kale and higher for Pasture; however albumin concentrations were greater for Pasture and similar for other treatments. Except for the Control group, calves had a lower concentration of circulating globulins at the end than at the beginning of the experiment. This study showed that Kale could be fed to backgrounding calves without detrimental effects on performance.

  15. Plant traits associated with resistance to Thrips tabaci in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    OpenAIRE

    Voorrips, R. E.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    Thrips tabaci is a major problem in the cultivation of cabbage for storage, as this pest causes symptoms that necessitate the removal of affected leaves from the product. Between cabbage varieties large differences in susceptibility occur. This study aimed to identify plant traits associated with these differences, in field experiments with natural infestation in 2005 and 2006. One factor affecting the amount of thrips damage was the timing of the development of the head. In an experiment wit...

  16. The utilization of Vallisneria aethiopica, Brassica oleracea and Pennisetum clandestinum by Tilapia rendalli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlophe, S. N.; Moyo, N. A. G.

    A common lawn grass; kikuyu grass, an abundant vegetable; cabbage and vallisneria a common macrophyte were tested for utilisation by two size classes of a herbivorous fish, Tilapia rendalli held in glass aquarium tanks. The test feeds were given to sub-adult T. rendalli for 133 days at 8% body weight and juvenile fish for 84 days at 15% body weight. Sub-adult and juvenile fish fed kikuyu grass attained a higher specific growth rate, higher protein efficiency ratio and better food conversion ratio than those fed cabbage and vallisneria. This is explained by the differences in the protein content, higher levels of lysine and the sulphur-containing amino acid, methionine in kikuyu grass. Palatability studies of the juveniles also showed that kikuyu was most preferred. However, sub-adults preferred vallisneria, kikuyu and cabbage respectively. The possible reasons for the selection are discussed.

  17. Radiation preservation of cut cabbage (Brassica oleracea): a case study in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low fruit and vegetable intake is estimated to cause about 31% of ischaemic heart disease and 11% of stroke worldwide. It is estimated that up to 2.7 million lives could potentially be saved each year if fresh fruits and vegetables such as cabbage consumption was sufficiently increased. However, fresh or ready-to-eat vegetables have been found to be a potential cause of foodborne diseases due to their association with human pathogens. More so, some of these pathogens are resident in the vegetables. The application of ionizing irradiation has been identified as a promising technology that may be used to control spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms in order to increase shelf life, improve the safety of ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables and as a substitute for the use of chemical sterilants. The main objective of this research was to assess impact of gamma radiation in reducing microbial load on cut cabbage and how it helps to extend shelf life. Standard plate count method was used in the determination of total viable and coliform counts (TVC and TCC). Redox titration with iodine method was used in determining the total ascorbic acid content while antioxidant activity, total flavonoid and phenolic content were determined by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method respectively. Nine-point Hedonic scale was also used for the sensory evaluation. The studies revealed that microbial numbers of E.coli, total viable and coliform counts on 'ready-to-eat' cut cabbage in most supermarkets in the Accra metropolitan area were beyond the acceptable national food legislations. Total viable and coliform counts record showed a combination treatment of irradiation doses (1 to 3kGy) and refrigeration temperature (8 ± 2degrees Celcius) reduced microbial growth by 3 to 5 log cycles. Fungal species like Mucor spp, Penicillium digitatum, and Rhizopus spp. Which are spoilage organisms were isolated from all unirradiated control samples but not irradiated (1-3kGy). Even though irradiation affected microbial load, it showed no significant differences (p≤0.05) in phytochemical content such as ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity in the irradiated cut cabbage. Panelists' scores for colour, texture and aroma from sensory evaluation showed significant differences (p>0.05) in irradiated cut cabbage samples. (au)

  18. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiangjun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and the regulatory control of chloroplast biogenesis and development remain to be elucidated. Results Green cauliflower mutant causes ectopic development of chloroplasts in the curd tissue of the plant, turning the otherwise white curd green. To investigate the transcriptional control of chloroplast development, we compared gene expression between green and white curds using the RNA-seq approach. Deep sequencing produced over 15 million reads with lengths of 86 base pairs from each cDNA library. A total of 7,155 genes were found to exhibit at least 3-fold changes in expression between green and white curds. These included light-regulated genes, genes encoding chloroplast constituents, and genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Moreover, we discovered that the cauliflower ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (BoHY5 was expressed higher in green curds than white curds and that 2616 HY5-targeted genes, including 1600 up-regulated genes and 1016 down-regulated genes, were differently expressed in green in comparison to white curd tissue. All these 1600 up-regulated genes were HY5-targeted genes in the light. Conclusions The genome-wide profiling of gene expression by RNA-seq in green curds led to the identification of large numbers of genes associated with chloroplast development, and suggested the role of regulatory genes in the high hierarchy of light signaling pathways in mediating the ectopic chloroplast development in the green curd cauliflower mutant.

  19. Identification, evolution, and expression partitioning of miRNAs in allopolyploid Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Enhui; Zou, Jun; Hubertus Behrens, Falk; Chen, Li; Ye, Chuyu; Dai, Shutao; Li, Ruiyan; Ni, Meng; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Qiu, Jie; Liu, Yang; Wang, Weidi; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Chalhoub, Boulos; Bancroft, Ian; Meng, Jinling; Cai, Daguang; Fan, Longjiang

    2015-12-01

    The recently published genome of Brassica napus offers for the first time the opportunity to gain insights into the genomic organization and the evolution of miRNAs in oilseed rape. In this study, 12 small RNA libraries from two B. napus cultivars (Tapidor and Ningyou7) and their four double-haploid lines were sequenced, employing the newly sequenced B. napus genome, together with genomes of its progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. A total of 645 miRNAs including 280 conserved and 365 novel miRNAs were identified. Comparative analysis revealed a high level of genomic conservation of MIRNAs (75.9%) between the subgenomes of B. napus and its two progenitors' genomes, and MIRNA lost/gain events (133) occurred in B. napus after its speciation. Furthermore, significant partitioning of miRNA expressions between the two subgenomes in B. napus was detected. The data of degradome sequencing, miRNA-mediated cleavage, and expression analyses support specific interactions between miRNAs and their targets in the modulation of diverse physiological processes in roots and leaves, as well as in biosynthesis of, for example, glucosinolates and lipids in oilseed rape. These data provide a first genome-wide view on the origin, evolution, and genomic organization of B. napus MIRNAs. PMID:26357884

  20. High-throughput polymorphism detection and genotyping in Brassica napus using next-generation RAD sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bus Anja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex genome of rapeseed (Brassica napus is not well understood despite the economic importance of the species. Good knowledge of sequence variation is needed for genetics approaches and breeding purposes. We used a diversity set of B. napus representing eight different germplasm types to sequence genome-wide distributed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD fragments for polymorphism detection and genotyping. Results More than 113,000 RAD clusters with more than 20,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 125 insertions/deletions were detected and characterized. About one third of the RAD clusters and polymorphisms mapped to the Brassica rapa reference sequence. An even distribution of RAD clusters and polymorphisms was observed across the B. rapa chromosomes, which suggests that there might be an equal distribution over the Brassica oleracea chromosomes, too. The representation of Gene Ontology (GO terms for unigenes with RAD clusters and polymorphisms revealed no signature of selection with respect to the distribution of polymorphisms within genes belonging to a specific GO category. Conclusions Considering the decreasing costs for next-generation sequencing, the results of our study suggest that RAD sequencing is not only a simple and cost-effective method for high-density polymorphism detection but also an alternative to SNP genotyping from transcriptome sequencing or SNP arrays, even for species with complex genomes such as B. napus.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION ON THE MAIN PRODUCTION OF BROCCOLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Doltu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was realized in the unheated greenhouse of Horting Institute Bucharest, in 2012 year. It have aimed the influence of one phase of fertilization with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 on inflorescences of broccoli, at a hybrid F1 - Ironman. The fertilizer was used before the formation of main inflorescences, in different doses (100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha, without fertilizer. Harvesting was done in 4 stages. A phase of fertilization with ammonium nitrate has influenced the main production of broccoli: the variant with fertilization 150 kg/ha has obtained the highest percentage of inflorescences formed, the average weight/inflorescence largest and superior production compared with other variants. Were obtained direct linear correlations between the doses of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 and the production aspects followed (percentage of main inflorescences harvested, average weight/inflorescence, total production, significances of the correlations very high.

  2. Broccoli, PTEN deletion and prostate cancer: where is the link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardelli Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept that vegetables and fruits are relevant sources of cancer-preventive substances is strongly supported by population studies. Among others, cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts are thought to affect the development of various types of cancers and especially prostate tumors. Yet, the identification of the molecular mechanisms by which the 'active' compounds contained in these vegetables mediate their anticancer activity has historically lagged behind. Accordingly, direct laboratory evidence of how individual nutrients affect cancer genes and the pathways they control remains the major obstacle to progress in this research field. Here we review a recent report investigating the interaction between sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, and expression of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in pre malignant prostate tissue.

  3. Remote sensing of water and nitrogen stress in broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Diael-Deen Mohamed

    Remote sensing is being used in agriculture for crop management. Ground based remote sensing data acquisition system was used for collection of high spatial and temporal resolution data for irrigated broccoli crop. The system was composed of a small cart that ran back and forth on a rail system that was mounted on a linear move irrigation system. The cart was equipped with a sensor that had 4 discrete wavelengths; 550 nm, 660 nm, 720 nm, and 810 nm, and an infrared thermometer, all had 10 nm bandwidth. A global positioning system was used to indicate the cart position. The study consisted of two parts; the first was to evaluate remotely sensed reflectance and indices in broccoli during the growing season, and determine whether remotely sensed indices or standard deviation of indices can distinguish between nitrogen and water stress in broccoli, and the second part of the study was to evaluate remotely sensed indices and standard deviation of remotely sensed indices in broccoli during daily changes in solar zenith angle. Results indicated that nitrogen was detected using Ratio Vegetation index, RVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, Canopy Chlorophyll Concentration Index, CCCI, and also using the reflectance in the Near-Infrared, NIR, bands. The Red reflectance band capability of showing stress was not as clear as the previous indices and bands reflectance. The Canopy Chlorophyll Concentration Index, CCCI, was the most successful index. The Crop Water Stress Index was able to detect water stress but it was highly affected by the solar zenith angle change along the day.

  4. Formation of broccoli-like morphology of tantalum powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Broccoli'-like morphology of Ta powder was found when Ca reduces Ta2O5 in the molten CaCl2. It consisted of fine particles and branches, and it was different from the conventional spherical particles. The formation of this morphology depended on the stacking methods of the starting materials. Eight types of filling methods proved that the branch was formed when the CaO-enriched region was locally produced near the oxide

  5. Transcriptome and Metabolome Analyses of Glucosinolates in Two Broccoli Cultivars Following Jasmonate Treatment for the Induction of Glucosinolate Defense to Trichoplusia ni (Hübner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Becker, Talon M; Juvik, John A

    2016-01-01

    significantly increased in Green Magic (statistically significant in most cases at 400 µM) while UGT74B1 and MYB122 were significantly increased in VI-158. Therefore, these metabolite and transcript biomarker results indicate that transcriptome profiling can identify genes associated with the formation of two different indole GS and their hydrolysis products. Therefore, these metabolite and transcript biomarkers could be useful in an effective marker-assisted breeding strategy for resistance to generalist lepidopteran pests in broccoli and potentially other Brassica vegetables. PMID:27428958

  6. Hypolipidemic Activity of Spinacia Oleracea L. in Atherogenic Diet Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Kumar Giri

    2012-01-01

    Spinacia oleracea (spinach) of family Amaranthaceae is an important plant used traditionally for medicinal purposes. Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with atherogenic diet. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving Spinacia oleracea powder showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Spinacia oleracea was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The resu...

  7. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from Brassica kaber to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa through embryo rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Mithila, J.; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides are widely used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Prolonged use of auxinic herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to these herbicides in some biotypes of Brassica kaber (wild mustard), a common weed in agricultural crops. In this study, auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber was transferred to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa, two commercially important Brassica crops, by traditional breeding coupled with in vitro embryo rescue. A h...

  8. Acaricide activity in vitro of Acmella oleracea against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, K N C; Lima, D F; Vasconcelos, L C; Leite, J R S A; Santos, R C; Paz Neto, A A; Costa-Júnior, L M

    2014-10-01

    Cattle tick control has been limited by the resistance of these parasites to synthetic acaricides. Natural products are a possible alternative as they have different mechanisms of action. Acmella oleracea is a native plant with a large cultivated area in the Amazon region and could be easily used for large-scale preparation of a commercial product. This study evaluated the in vitro action of the hexane extract of the aerial parts of A. oleracea on larvae and engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Spilanthol was the major constituent with a content of 14.8% in the extract. The hexane extract of A. oleracea was highly effective against larvae of R. microplus with an LC50 of 0.8 mg mL(-1). Against engorged females, hexane extract of A. oleracea reduced oviposition and hatchability of eggs with an LC50 of 79.7 mg mL(-1). Larvae and engorged females were killed by the hexane extract with high efficiency (>95%) at concentrations of 3.1 and 150.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate that the hexane extract of A. oleracea has significant activity against R. microplus and has potential to be developed into formulations for tick control. PMID:25033813

  9. SPECIATION OF SELENIUM COMPOUNDS FROM HIGH SELENIUM BROCCOLI IS AFFECTED BY THE EXTRACTING SOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The speciation of selenium compounds from high selenium broccoli (876 ¿g/g) depends on the extraction conditions. Twenty-seven extraction conditions were explored involving nine different buffering systems between pH 1 and pH 9. In non-buffered extractions of broccoli, more than 40% of the spiked ...

  10. BIOAVAILABILITY OF SELENIUM FROM MEAT AND BROCCOLI AS DETERMINED BY RETENTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF SE75

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meat is the single greatest source of selenium (Se) in the North American diet. Although not naturally enriched in Se, broccoli will accumulate Se when grown on high Se soils. Previous reports have demonstrated that Se from meat is highly bioavailable whereas Se from broccoli has poor bioavailabil...

  11. Bioavailability and kinetics of sulforaphane in humans after consumption of cooked versus raw broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.W.A.A.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the bioavailability and kinetics of the supposed anticarcinogen sulforaphane, the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, from raw and cooked broccoli. Eight men consumed 200 g of crushed broccoli, raw or cooked, with a warm meal in a randomized, free-living, open

  12. A research approach for quality based design of healthy foods: Dried broccoli as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2013-01-01

    An approach for process design based on optimization of product quality attributes is presented. Adsorption drying of broccoli with retention of its health benefits is taken as an example to illustrate the approach. Related to its content of glucosinolates, broccoli has a high potential to reduce th

  13. Effect of Hot Water Treatment on Postharvest Shelf Life and Quality of Broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ping; LI Wu

    2003-01-01

    Broccoli was stored at 0, 10, or 20℃ after immersion in hot water (38 -52℃ ) for 10 or 30min. Yellowing of broccoli was significantly slowed and shelf life significantly increased when broccoli wastreated with hot water at 42 -46℃ and then stored at 10 or 20℃. Heat injury occurred when treatment washigher than 46℃ in some varieties. Broccoli lasted 2 -3 days longer when stored at 10℃ and 1 -2 days longerwhen stored at 20℃ after hot water treatment at 46℃. There was no significant effect of treatment on shelflife after long time storage at 0℃. Weight loss was reduced by hot water treatment and the respiration behav-ior of the broccoli was also changed.

  14. Identification, duplication, evolution and expression analyses of caleosins in Brassica plants and Arabidopsis subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Liu, Mingzhe; Wang, Lili; Li, Zhuowei; Taylor, David C; Li, Zhixi; Zhang, Meng

    2016-04-01

    Caleosins are a class of Ca(2+) binding proteins that appear to be ubiquitous in plants. Some of the main proteins embedded in the lipid monolayer of lipid droplets, caleosins, play critical roles in the degradation of storage lipids during germination and in lipid trafficking. Some of them have been shown to have histidine-dependent peroxygenase activity, which is believed to participate in stress responses in Arabidopsis. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, caleosins have been examined extensively. However, little is known on a genome-wide scale about these proteins in other members of the Brassicaceae. In this study, 51 caleosins in Brassica plants and Arabidopsis lyrata were investigated and analyzed in silico. Among them, 31 caleosins, including 7 in A. lyrata, 11 in Brassica oleracea and 13 in Brassica napus, are herein identified for the first time. Segmental duplication was the main form of gene expansion. Alignment, motif and phylogenetic analyses showed that Brassica caleosins belong to either the H-family or the L-family with different motif structures and physicochemical properties. Our findings strongly suggest that L-caleosins are evolved from H-caleosins. Predicted phosphorylation sites were differentially conserved in H-caleosin and L-caleosins, respectively. 'RY-repeat' elements and phytohormone-related cis-elements were identified in different caleosins, which suggest diverse physiological functions. Gene structure analysis indicated that most caleosins (38 out of 44) contained six exons and five introns and their intron phases were highly conserved. Structurally integrated caleosins, such as BrCLO3-3 and BrCLO4-2, showed high expression levels and may have important roles. Some caleosins, such as BrCLO2 and BoCLO8-2, lost motifs of the calcium binding domain, proline knot, potential phosphorylation sites and haem-binding sites. Combined with their low expression, it is suggested that these caleosins may have lost function. PMID:26786939

  15. Plant genetics. Early allopolyploid evolution in the post-Neolithic Brassica napus oilseed genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub, Boulos; Denoeud, France; Liu, Shengyi; Parkin, Isobel A P; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Xiyin; Chiquet, Julien; Belcram, Harry; Tong, Chaobo; Samans, Birgit; Corréa, Margot; Da Silva, Corinne; Just, Jérémy; Falentin, Cyril; Koh, Chu Shin; Le Clainche, Isabelle; Bernard, Maria; Bento, Pascal; Noel, Benjamin; Labadie, Karine; Alberti, Adriana; Charles, Mathieu; Arnaud, Dominique; Guo, Hui; Daviaud, Christian; Alamery, Salman; Jabbari, Kamel; Zhao, Meixia; Edger, Patrick P; Chelaifa, Houda; Tack, David; Lassalle, Gilles; Mestiri, Imen; Schnel, Nicolas; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Fan, Guangyi; Renault, Victor; Bayer, Philippe E; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Manoli, Sahana; Lee, Tae-Ho; Thi, Vinh Ha Dinh; Chalabi, Smahane; Hu, Qiong; Fan, Chuchuan; Tollenaere, Reece; Lu, Yunhai; Battail, Christophe; Shen, Jinxiong; Sidebottom, Christine H D; Wang, Xinfa; Canaguier, Aurélie; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bérard, Aurélie; Deniot, Gwenaëlle; Guan, Mei; Liu, Zhongsong; Sun, Fengming; Lim, Yong Pyo; Lyons, Eric; Town, Christopher D; Bancroft, Ian; Wang, Xiaowu; Meng, Jinling; Ma, Jianxin; Pires, J Chris; King, Graham J; Brunel, Dominique; Delourme, Régine; Renard, Michel; Aury, Jean-Marc; Adams, Keith L; Batley, Jacqueline; Snowdon, Rod J; Tost, Jorg; Edwards, David; Zhou, Yongming; Hua, Wei; Sharpe, Andrew G; Paterson, Andrew H; Guan, Chunyun; Wincker, Patrick

    2014-08-22

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement. PMID:25146293

  16. Monosomic Addition Lines of Flowering Chinese Cabbage (B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis L. H. Bailey)-Chinese Kale (B. oleracea L. var. alboglabra L. H. Bailey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-ne; ZHANG Cheng-he; XUAN Shu-xin; MAN Hong; LIU Hai-he; SHEN Shu-xing

    2008-01-01

    Interspecific alien addition lines have played significant roles in gene mapping, intergenomic gene transfer and chromosomal homoeological identification between closely related species. Selection of alien addition lines was conducted by karyotype analysis and morphological observation with the reference of parents. Triploid interspecies hybrid (AAC, 2n=3x=29) was obtained from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis Qinglu 9601 (tetraploid, AAAA, 2n=4x=40)×B. oleracea vat. alboglabra Baihua 9705 (diploid, CC, 2n=2x=18) by immature hybrid embryo culture in vitro. Five different alien monosomic addition lines (AA+C2, AA+C3, AA+C4, AA+C6, AA+C7) were obtained from the backcross progenies of AAC×AA. Each alien monosomic addition line has some specific morphological characters. It is feasible to obtain alien addition lines from the progenies of AAC×AA by karyotype analysis and morphological observation based on the reference of parents.

  17. Nutraceutical Improvement Increases the Protective Activity of Broccoli Sprout Juice in a Human Intestinal Cell Model of Gut Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzza, Simonetta; Natella, Fausta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Murgia, Chiara; Rossi, Carlotta; Trošt, Kajetan; Mattivi, Fulvio; Nardini, Mirella; Maldini, Mariateresa; Giusti, Anna Maria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Scaccini, Cristina; Sambuy, Yula; Morelli, Giorgio; Baima, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Benefits to health from a high consumption of fruits and vegetables are well established and have been attributed to bioactive secondary metabolites present in edible plants. However, the effects of specific health-related phytochemicals within a complex food matrix are difficult to assess. In an attempt to address this problem, we have used elicitation to improve the nutraceutical content of seedlings of Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions. Analysis, by LC-MS, of the glucosinolate, isothiocyanate and phenolic compound content of juices obtained from sprouts indicated that elicitation induces an enrichment of several phenolics, particularly of the anthocyanin fraction. To test the biological activity of basal and enriched juices we took advantage of a recently developed in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium. Both sprouts' juices protected intestinal barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor α under marginal zinc deprivation, with the enriched juice showing higher protection. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the extent of rescue from stress-induced epithelial dysfunction correlated with the composition in bioactive molecules of the juices and, in particular, with a group of phenolic compounds, including several anthocyanins, quercetin-3-Glc, cryptochlorogenic, neochlorogenic and cinnamic acids. PMID:27529258

  18. Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables: the influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Ruud; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Ciska, Ewa; Holst, Birgit; Rowland, Ian; De Schrijver, Remi; Hansen, Magnor; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Mithen, Richard; Dekker, Matthijs

    2009-09-01

    Glucosinolates (GLSs) are found in Brassica vegetables. Examples of these sources include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and various root vegetables (e.g. radish and turnip). A number of epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between consumption of these vegetables and the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Animal studies have shown changes in enzyme activities and DNA damage resulting from consumption of Brassica vegetables or isothiocyanates, the breakdown products (BDP) of GLSs in the body. Mechanistic studies have begun to identify the ways in which the compounds may exert their protective action but the relevance of these studies to protective effects in the human alimentary tract is as yet unproven. In vitro studies with a number of specific isothiocyanates have suggested mechanisms that might be the basis of their chemoprotective effects. The concentration and composition of the GLSs in different plants, but also within a plant (e.g. in the seeds, roots or leaves), can vary greatly and also changes during plant development. Furthermore, the effects of various factors in the supply chain of Brassica vegetables including breeding, cultivation, storage and processing on intake and bioavailability of GLSs are extensively discussed in this paper. PMID:19035553

  19. Cloning of fatty acid elongase1 gene and molecular identification of A and C genome in Brassica species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YuHua; XIAO Ling; WU Gang; LU ChangMing

    2007-01-01

    The fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) genes of Brassic napus were cloned from two cultivars, i.e. Zhongshuan No. 9 with Iow erucic acid content, and Zhongyou 821 with high erucic acid content, using the degenerate PCR primers. The sequence analysis showed that there was no intron within the FAE1genes. The FAE1 genes from Zhongyou 821 contained a coding sequence of 1521 nucleotides, and those cloned from Zhongshuan No. 9 contained a 1517 bp coding sequence. Alignment of the FAE1sequences from Brassica rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus detected 31 single nucleotide polymorphic sites (2.03%), which resulted in 7 amino-acid substitutions. Further analysis indicated that 19 SNPs were genome-specific, of which, 95% were synonymous mutations. The nucleotide substitution at position 1217 in the FAE1 genes led to a specific site of restricted cleavage. An Avrll cleavage site was present only in the C genome genes and absent in the A genome FAE1 genes. Digestion profile of the FAE1 sequences from B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus produced with Avrll confirmed that the FAE1genes of B. oleracea origin was recognized and digested, while that of B. rapa origin could not. The results indicated that by Avrll cleavage it was possible to distinguish B. rapa from B. oleracea and between the A and C genome of B. napus. In addition, the FAE1 genes could be used as marker genes to detect the pollen flow of B. napus, thus providing an alternative method for risk assessment of gene flow.

  20. Cloning of fatty acid elongase1 gene and molecular identification of A and C genome in Brassica species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) genes of Brassic napus were cloned from two cultivars, i.e. Zhong- shuan No. 9 with low erucic acid content, and Zhongyou 821 with high erucic acid content, using the degenerate PCR primers. The sequence analysis showed that there was no intron within the FAE1 genes. The FAE1 genes from Zhongyou 821 contained a coding sequence of 1521 nucleotides, and those cloned from Zhongshuan No. 9 contained a 1517 bp coding sequence. Alignment of the FAE1 sequences from Brassica rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus detected 31 single nucleotide polymorphic sites (2.03%), which resulted in 7 amino-acid substitutions. Further analysis indicated that 19 SNPs were genome-specific, of which, 95% were synonymous mutations. The nucleotide substitution at po- sition 1217 in the FAE1 genes led to a specific site of restricted cleavage. An AvrII cleavage site was present only in the C genome genes and absent in the A genome FAE1 genes. Digestion profile of the FAE1 sequences from B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus produced with AvrII confirmed that the FAE1 genes of B. oleracea origin was recognized and digested, while that of B. rapa origin could not. The results indicated that by AvrII cleavage it was possible to distinguish B. rapa from B. oleracea and be- tween the A and C genome of B. napus. In addition, the FAE1 genes could be used as marker genes to detect the pollen flow of B. napus, thus providing an alternative method for risk assessment of gene flow.

  1. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  2. Survival of embryo irradiated with gamma rays by embryo culture in Brassica pekinensis Rupr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation on the survival rates and embryonic development of Brassica pekinensis RUPR. (Varieties; Kashin, Kohai 65 nichi and kairyochitose) was investigated. The purpose of this study was to seek ways of increasing the survival rates of embryos such as B.oleracea obtained through embryo culture techniques after irradiation doses affecting seed fertility and germination, for the purpose of increasing mutation rates. Embryos at different developmental stages ranging from the globular to the early heart stages were irradiated with 20 KR of gamma rays at the daily rate 0L 20 KR or 10 KR (Fig.1 and Table 1). The embryos were excised from ovules 4 to 10 days after irradiation and cultured on White's medium. The shooting and rooting rates on the 34th day of culture were higher at the dose of 10 KR/day than 20 KR/day and were lower when the materials were irradiated at the young embryonic stage (Table 3). Varietal differences in the shooting and rooting rates were also observed. The irradiated embryos survived mainly in the state of callus. It was concluded that the embryo culture technique was successful when applied to irradiated embryos excised at the young embryonic stage and that the technique affected B.pekinensis less than B.oleracea

  3. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-fang GUO; Gao-feng YUAN; Qiao-mei WANG

    2013-01-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts,the germination rate,fresh weight,contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane,as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0,20,40,60,80,and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment.The results showed that glucoerucin,glucobrassicin,and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl.However,the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations(20,40,and 60 mmol/L).NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity.A relatively high level of NaCl treatment(100 mmol/L)significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control.These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition.

  4. Broccoli consumption and chronic atrophic gastritis among Japanese males: an epidemiological investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato K

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous in vitro and animal experiments have shown that sulforaphane, which is abundant in broccoli, inhibits Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and blocks gastric tumor formation. This suggests that broccoli consumption prevents chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG introduced by H. pylori infection and, therefore, gastric cancer. For an epidemiological investigation of the relationship between the broccoli consumption and CAG, a cross-sectional study of 438 male employees, aged 39 to 60 years, of a Japanese steel company was conducted. CAG was serologically determined with serum cut-off values set at pepsinogen I < or = 70 ng/ml and a ratio of serum pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II < or = 3.0. Broccoli consumption (weekly frequency and diet were monitored by using a 31-item food frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of CAG among men who ate broccoli once or more weekly was twice as high as that among men who consumed a negligible amount (P < 0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that broccoli consumption once or more weekly significantly increased the risk for CAG (odds ratio, 3.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-8.38; P < 0.05, after controlling for age, education, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. The present study failed to show an expected association between frequent broccoli consumption and a low prevalence of CAG.

  5. Ornithine carbamoyltransferase from Spinacea oleracea: purification and characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bellocco, E.; Di Salvo, C.; Lagana, G.; Galtieri, A.; Ficarra, S.; Kotyk, Arnošt; Leuzzi, U.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2002), s. 533-538. ISSN 0006-3134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : ornithine carbomoyltransferase * Spinacea oleracea Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2002

  6. Genes encoding the alpha-carboxyltransferase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, expression patterns, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Yin, Wei-Bo; Guo, Huan; Song, Li-Ying; Chen, Yu-Hong; Guan, Rong-Zhan; Wang, Jing-Qiao; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2010-05-01

    Heteromeric acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase), a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis in dicots, is a multi-enzyme complex consisting of biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and carboxyltransferase (alpha-CT and beta-CT). In the present study, four genes encoding alpha-CT were cloned from Brassica napus, and two were cloned from each of the two parental species, B. rapa and B. oleracea. Comparative and cluster analyses indicated that these genes were divided into two major groups. The major divergence between group-1 and group-2 occurred in the second intron. Group-2 alpha-CT genes represented the ancestral form in the genus Brassica. The divergence of group-1 and group-2 genes occurred in their common ancestor 12.96-17.78 million years ago (MYA), soon after the divergence of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica (15-20 MYA). This time of divergence is identical to that reported for the paralogous subgenomes of diploid Brassica species (13-17 MYA). Real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed that the expression patterns of the two groups of genes were similar in different organs, except in leaves. To better understand the regulation and evolution of alpha-CT genes, promoter regions from two sets of orthologous gene copies from B. napus, B. rapa, and B. oleracea were cloned and compared. The function of the promoter of gene Bnalpha-CT-1-1 in group-1 and gene Bnalpha-CT-2-1 in group-2 was examined by assaying beta-glucuronidase activity in transgenic A. thaliana. Our results will be helpful in elucidating the evolution and regulation of ACCase in oilseed rape. PMID:20616867

  7. Broccoli/weed/soil discrimination by optical reflectance using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Federico

    1995-04-01

    Broccoli is grown extensively in Scotland, and has become one of the main vegetables cropped, due to its high yields and profits. Broccoli, weed and soil samples from 6 different farms were collected and their spectra obtained and analyzed using discriminant analysis. High crop/weed/soil discrimination success rates were encountered in each farm, but the selected wavelengths varied in each farm due to differences in broccoli variety, weed species incidence and soil type. In order to use only three wavelengths, neural networks were introduced and high crop/weed/soil discrimination accuracies for each farm were achieved.

  8. Detecção, transmissão e efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis Detection, transmission and effect of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nilvanira Donizeti Tebaldi; Rita de Cássia Panizzi; Rubens Sader

    2007-01-01

    A detecção, a transmissão e o efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis (Brassica oleracea var. italica) foram avaliados, a partir de sementes obtidas de plantas ("Baron, Flórida, Hana Midori Sakata, Precoce Piracicaba de Verão, Ramoso Santana e Sabre") inoculadas com a bactéria, em condições de campo. Para a detecção do patógeno nas sementes foram utilizados os meios de cultura semi-seletivos: SX ágar, NSCAA e BSCAA; a taxa de tran...

  9. Detecção, transmissão e efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis Detection, transmission and effect of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nilvanira Donizete Tebaldi; Rita de Cássia Panizzi; Rubens Sader

    2007-01-01

    A detecção, a transmissão e o efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis (Brassica oleracea var. italica) foram avaliadas, a partir de sementes obtidas de plantas ("Baron, Flórida, Hana Midori Sakata, Precoce Piracicaba de Verão, Ramoso Santana e Sabre") inoculadas com a bactéria, em condições de campo. Para a detecção do patógeno nas sementes foram utilizados os meios de cultura semi-seletivos: SX ágar, NSCAA e BSCAA; a taxa de tran...

  10. Genome triplication drove the diversification of Brassica plants

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Cheng; Jian Wu; Xiaowu Wang

    2014-01-01

    The genus Brassica belongs to the plant family Brassicaceae, which includes many important crop species that are used as oilseed, condiments, or vegetables throughout the world. Brassica plants comprise many diverse species, and each species contains rich morphotypes showing extreme traits. Brassica species experienced an extra whole genome triplication (WGT) event compared with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Whole genome sequencing of the Brassica species Brassica rapa, Brassica olera...

  11. Disruption of a CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 4 gene converts flower colour from white to yellow in Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yaqin; Yao, Xuan; Wang, Fang; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J; Liu, Kede

    2015-06-01

    In Brassica napus, yellow petals had a much higher content of carotenoids than white petals present in a small number of lines, with violaxanthin identified as the major carotenoid compound in yellow petals of rapeseed lines. Using positional cloning we identified a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 gene, BnaC3.CCD4, responsible for the formation of flower colour, with preferential expression in petals of white-flowered B. napus lines. Insertion of a CACTA-like transposable element 1 (TE1) into the coding region of BnaC3.CCD4 had disrupted its expression in yellow-flowered rapeseed lines. α-Ionone was identified as the major volatile apocarotenoid released from white petals but not from yellow petals. We speculate that BnaC3.CCD4 may use δ- and/or α-carotene as substrates. Four variations, including two CACTA-like TEs (alleles M1 and M4) and two insertion/deletions (INDELs, alleles M2 and M3), were identified in yellow-flowered Brassica oleracea lines. The two CACTA-like TEs were also identified in the coding region of BcaC3.CCD4 in Brassica carinata. However, the two INDELs were not detected in B. napus and B. carinata. We demonstrate that the insertions of TEs in BolC3.CCD4 predated the formation of the two allotetraploids. PMID:25690717

  12. Assessment of FAE1 polymorphisms in three Brassica species using EcoTILLING and their association with differences in seed erucic acid contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiaoming

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background FAE1 (fatty acid elongase1 is the key gene in the control of erucic acid synthesis in seeds of Brassica species. Due to oil with low erucic acid (LEA content is essential for human health and not enough LEA resource could be available, thus new LEA genetic resources are being sought for Brassica breeding. EcoTILLING, a powerful genotyping method, can readily be used to identify polymorphisms in Brassica. Results Seven B. rapa, nine B. oleracea and 101 B. napus accessions were collected for identification of FAE1 polymorphisms. Three polymorphisms were detected in the two FAE1 paralogues of B. napus using EcoTILLING and were found to be strongly associated with differences in the erucic acid contents of seeds. In genomic FAE1 sequences obtained from seven B. rapa accessions, one SNP in the coding region was deduced to cause loss of gene function. Molecular evolution analysis of FAE1 homologues showed that the relationship between the Brassica A and C genomes is closer than that between the A/C genomes and Arabidopsis genome. Alignment of the coding sequences of these FAE1 homologues indicated that 18 SNPs differed between the A and C genomes and could be used as genome-specific markers in Brassica. Conclusion This study showed the applicability of EcoTILLING for detecting gene polymorphisms in Brassica. The association between B. napus FAE1 polymorphisms and the erucic acid contents of seeds may provide useful guidance for LEA breeding. The discovery of the LEA resource in B. rapa can be exploited in Brasscia cultivation.

  13. User Guidelines for the Brassica Database: BRAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequence of Brassica rapa was first released in 2011. Since then, further Brassica genomes have been sequenced or are undergoing sequencing. It is therefore necessary to develop tools that help users to mine information from genomic data efficiently. This will greatly aid scientific exploration and breeding application, especially for those with low levels of bioinformatic training. Therefore, the Brassica database (BRAD) was built to collect, integrate, illustrate, and visualize Brassica genomic datasets. BRAD provides useful searching and data mining tools, and facilitates the search of gene annotation datasets, syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and flanking regions of functional genomic elements. It also includes genome-analysis tools such as BLAST and GBrowse. One of the important aims of BRAD is to build a bridge between Brassica crop genomes with the genome of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, thus transferring the bulk of A. thaliana gene study information for use with newly sequenced Brassica crops. PMID:26519408

  14. DNA damage and repair activity after broccoli intake in young healthy smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riso, Patrizia; Martini, Daniela; Møller, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    compounds, including smokers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of broccoli intake on biomarkers of DNA damage and repair. Twenty-seven young healthy smokers consumed a portion of steamed broccoli (250 g/day) or a control diet for 10 days each within a crossover design with a washout period...... mRNA expression levels of repair and defence enzymes: 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X-type motif 1 (NUDT1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). After broccoli consumption, the level of oxidised DNA lesions decreased by 41% (95% confidence interval: 10%, 72%) and...... the resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced DNA strand breaks increased by 23% (95% CI: 13%, 34%). Following broccoli intake, a higher protection was observed in subjects with glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1-null genotype. The expression level and activity of repair enzymes was unaltered. In conclusion...

  15. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoah Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea. Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for crop improvement. Moreover, certain aspects of plant development are sufficiently different between Brassica and Arabidopsis to warrant studies to be carried out directly in the crop species. However, mutating individual genes in the amphidiploid Brassicas such as B. napus and B. juncea may, on the other hand, not give rise to expected phenotypes as the genomes of these species can contain up to six orthologues per single-copy Arabidopsis gene. In order to elucidate and possibly exploit the function of redundant genes for oilseed rape crop improvement, it may therefore be more efficient to study the effects in one of the diploid Brassica species such as B. rapa. Moreover, the ongoing sequencing of the B. rapa genome makes this species a highly attractive model for Brassica research and genetic resource development. Results Seeds from the diploid Brassica A genome species, B. rapa were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS to produce a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes population for reverse genetics studies. We used the B. rapa genotype, R-o-18, which has a similar developmental ontogeny to an oilseed rape crop. Hence this resource is expected to be well suited for studying traits with relevance to yield and quality of oilseed rape. DNA was isolated from a total of 9,216 M2 plants and pooled to form the basis of the TILLING platform. Analysis of six genes revealed a high level of mutations with a density of about one per 60 kb. This

  16. A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PORTULACA OLERACEA LINN. (PURSLANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherukuri Vidyullatha Chowdhary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Portulaca oleracea belongs to the family of Portulacaceae in the traditional system of medicine and consists of large number of various medicinal and pharmacological importances hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Portulaca oleracea consists of number of pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuronal, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. This review helps to create an interest in Portulaca oleracea in developing new formulations with more therapeutic and economic value.

  17. A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PORTULACA OLERACEA LINN. (PURSLANE

    OpenAIRE

    Cherukuri Vidyullatha Chowdhary; Anusha Meruva; Naresh K; Ranjith Kumar A. Elumalai

    2013-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea belongs to the family of Portulacaceae in the traditional system of medicine and consists of large number of various medicinal and pharmacological importances hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Portulaca oleracea consists of number of pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuronal, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. This review helps to create an interest in Portulaca oleracea in developing new form...

  18. Unleashing the Genome of Brassica Rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation ...

  19. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts

    OpenAIRE

    Mariateresa Maldini; Fausta Natella; Simona Baima; Giorgio Morelli; Cristina Scaccini; James Langridge; Giuseppe Astarita

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird’s-eye view of the overall metabolic response af...

  20. Broccoli yield in response to top-dressing fertilization with green manure and biofertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Bernardo de Freitas; Márcio Sousa Rocha; Ricardo Henrique Silva Santos; Letícia Monteiro da Silva Freitas; Leandro de Almeida Resende

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the productive performance of broccoli under different top-dressing organic fertilizations. The experiment was conducted under protected cultivation, in a completely randomized design with four replications, with two plants per experimental unit. Broccoli seedlings were produced in a commercial substrate in styrofoam trays. The seedlings were transplanted to plastic pots containing 10.0 L of substrate made up of subsoil and organic compost at the rat...

  1. Investigation on the influence of pre-treatments on drying behaviour of broccoli by MRI experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der, R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van, H.; Straten, van, FE; Boom, R.M.; Boxtel, van, C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) allows the monitoring of internal moisture content of food products during drying non-destructively. In an experimental set-up with continuous and controlled hot air supply, the internal moisture distribution of broccoli with different pre-treatments are measured during drying. Moisture distribution, drying rate and shrinkage are compared and analyzed quantitatively. MRI results indicated that for fresh broccoli stalks the moisture content in the cor...

  2. Hypolipidemic Activity of Spinacia Oleracea L. in Atherogenic Diet Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Giri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinacia oleracea (spinach of family Amaranthaceae is an important plant used traditionally for medicinal purposes. Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with atherogenic diet. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving Spinacia oleracea powder showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Spinacia oleracea was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The results also suggest that Spinacia oleracea powder at 200mg and 400 mg/kg b.wt. concentrations are an excellent lipid-lowering agent.

  3. Cultivation conditions and selenium fertilization alter the phenolic profile, glucosinolate, and sulforaphane content of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca J; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Banuelos, Gary; Finley, John W

    2005-01-01

    Broccoli is a food often consumed for its potential health-promoting properties. The health benefits of broccoli are partly associated with secondary plant compounds that have bioactivity; glucosinolates and phenolic acids are two of the most abundant and important in broccoli. In an effort to determine how variety, stress, and production conditions affect the production of these bioactive components broccoli was grown in the greenhouse with and without selenium (Se) fertilization, and in the field under conventional or organic farming procedures and with or without water stress. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify 12 primary phenolic compounds. Variety had a major effect: There was a preponderance of flavonoids in the Majestic variety, but hydroxycinnamic esters were relatively more abundant in the Legacy variety. Organic farming and water stress decreased the overall production of phenolics. Se fertilization increased glucosinolates in general, and sulforaphane in particular, up to a point; above that Se fertilization decreased glucosinolate production. Organic farming and water stress also decreased glucosinolate production. These data show environmental and genetic variation in phenolics and glucosinolates in broccoli, and warn that not all broccoli may contain all health-promoting bioactive components. They further show that selection for one bioactive component (Se) may decrease the content of other bioactive components such as phenolics and glucosinolates. PMID:16117613

  4. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Portulaca oleracea L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbazi Nafeseh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To evaluate the influences of aqueous extracts of plant parts (stem, leaves, and root of Portulaca oleracea L. on bioformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs.   Materials and Methods: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by different plant part extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. was carried out and formation of nanoparticles were confirmed and evaluated using UV-Visible spectroscopy and AFM. Results: The plant extracts exposed with silver nitrate showed gradual change in color of the extract from yellow to dark brown. Different silver nanoperticles were formed using extracts of different plant parts. Conclusion: It seems that the plant parts differ in their ability to act as a reducing and capping agent.

  5. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gssat) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  6. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  7. Sample (S): SE25_S02 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S02 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Satsuki Jouou Leaf Brassica oleracea var. ...capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  8. Sample (S): SE25_S06 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S06 Brassica oleracea var. capitata K7-705 Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  9. Sample (S): SE25_S07 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S07 Brassica oleracea var. capitata T-767 Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brass...ica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  10. Sample (S): SE25_S03 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S03 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Satsukiou Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  11. Sample (S): SE27_S02 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27_S02 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata plants are grown at agricultural field under normal film. ...

  12. Sample (S): SE25_S05 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S05 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Hatukoi Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Bra...ssica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  13. Sample (S): SE25_S10 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S10 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Kanpachi Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capit...ata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  14. Sample (S): SE25_S01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S01 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Kanroku Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Bra...ssica oleracea var. capitata plants are grown at agricultural field. ...

  15. Sample (S): SE27_S01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27_S01 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata plants are grown at agricultural field. ...

  16. Sample (S): SE25_S09 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S09 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Teruyoshi Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  17. Sample (S): SE27_S03 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27_S03 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata plants are grown at agricultural field under UV film. ...

  18. Sample (S): SE25_S08 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S08 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capi...tata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  19. Sample (S): SE26_S01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE26_S01 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Seisyun Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions with 0t compost treatment. ...

  20. Sample (S): SE25_S04 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S04 Brassica oleracea var. capitata Kinkei201gou Leaf Brassica oleracea var. c...apitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  1. Sample (S): SE26_S02 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE26_S02 Brassica oleracea var. capitata YR Seisyun Leaf Brassica oleracea var. cap...itata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brassica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions with 6t compost treatment. ...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PORTULACA OLERACEA

    OpenAIRE

    DHAVAL PATEL; N R Sheth; S.D.SANJA; BIRAJU PATEL

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the anti-oxidant activity of the methanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea. The methanolic extract was evaluated by TLC and HPTLC fingerprint method. Anti-oxidant activity of methanolic extract was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power by FeCl3, nitric oxide free radical scavenging activity, super oxide scavenging activity by alkaline DMSO method.

  3. Incidence of Bacterial Disease and Yield of Broccoli as Influenced by Different Rain Protectors and Varieties during the Rainy Season in Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Karistsapol Nooprom; Quanchit Santipracha

    2014-01-01

    This study is mainly focused on evaluating the effects of different rain protectors and broccoli varieties to find out whether rain protector and variety is suitable or not for broccoli production during rainy season. Broccoli was experimented at Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, southern Thailand. Study revealed that broccoli growing under plastic sheet and green shade net had lower incidence of soft rot disease (1.62 and 3.75%, respectively) than those grown in open field (13...

  4. 青花菜脂质转移蛋白基因的克隆与表达特征分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Lipid Transfer Protein Gene from Broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴徐梨; 荆赞革; 唐征; 王岩; 王镇; 陈忠文; 刘高峰; 吕善武

    2015-01-01

    脂质转移蛋白是植物生命活动中重要的活性蛋白质,在花粉发育中起着重要作用。本研究以青花菜保持系‘WN12-95B’为试验材料,采用RT-PCR技术获得脂质转移蛋白(LTP)基因cDNA序列。通过生物信息学分析,结果表明:该基因含有一个360 bp的开放阅读框,推导编码119个氨基酸,预测蛋白分子量12.47 kD, pI值7.48,属疏水性蛋白。青花菜LTP蛋白氨基酸序列含有24个氨基酸长度的信号肽,α-螺旋和不规则卷曲是其二级结构的主要成分,三级结构则具有典型的LTP蛋白结构特征。分子进化分析表明该基因与油菜亲缘关系最近,相似性最高,其次为芥菜和芜菁。时空表达特性分析显示,青花菜LTP基因特异表达于花蕾中,且表达丰度较高。保持系和Ogu不育系不同发育阶段花蕾LTP基因的表达丰度差异明显,表达量随花蕾发育呈下降趋势。本研究可为深入研究LTP基因在青花菜绒毡层和小孢子发育过程中的作用提供一定的理论基础。%Lipid transfer proteins are important active proteins in plants, which has a vital function during pollen development. In this study, we used reverse transcript PCR (RT-PCR) technology to get the cDNA sequences of Lipid Transfer Protein (LTP) from a broccoli maintenance line‘WN12-95B’. Through bioinformatics analysis, the results showed that LTP gene contained a 360 bp open reading frame and encoded 119 amino acid residues. Its relative molecular mass was 12.47 kD, and pI was 7.48. Meanwhile, the lipid transfer protein was a hydrophobic protein. The LTP protein contained a signal peptide of 24 amino acids in length.α-helixs and random coils was the main components of the two-dimension structure of LTP protein. Meanwhile, its three-dimension structure had the typical structure characteristics of LTP. During molecular evolution, the LTP from broccoli had a highest homology with the LTP from Brassica

  5. Homoeologous GSL-ELONG gene replacement for manipulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa L. by marker assisted selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind H. Hirani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic glucosinolates are the predominant sulphur-rich plant secondary metabolites in economically important Brassica crops. Glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products are involved in plant-microbe, plant-insect, plant-animal and plant-human interactions. It is, therefore, important to manipulate glucosinolate profiles and contents in Brassica species. In this study, aliphatic glucosinolates were genetically manipulated through homoeologous recombination in backcross lines followed by marker assisted selection in B. rapa. A resynthesized B. napus line, from a cross between B. rapa and B. oleracea, was backcrossed with Chinese cabbage doubled haploid line, RI16. Marker assisted selection for non-functional gene was performed in each backcross generations. Advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2 were developed to identify homoeologous gene replacement and/or introgression. Reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates (gluconapoleiferin, glucoalyssin and glucobrassicanapin was observed in BC3F2 progenies of the recurrent parent that carried the GSL-ELONG gene. The GSL-ELONG positive backcross progenies were also screened by the A-genome and BraGSL-ELONG gene specific marker, which linked with 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The A-genome specific marker was absent in the plants of advanced backcross progenies which showed reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The results suggest that the functional allele had been replaced by the non-functional GSL-ELONG allele from B. oleracea. Some advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2 positive for the GSL-ELONG allele and the A-genome specific SCAR marker BraMAM1-1 did not show reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates, suggesting that GSL-ELONG allele is recessive. Replacement of the functional locus in the A genome by non-functional counterpart in the C genome reduced the content of 5C aliphatic glucosinolates in B. rapa seeds with 20 micromoles per gram.

  6. Using weighted trait indices to select the best performing broccoli hybrids in multi-site and multi-year trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding and implementing evaluation data from vegetable trials conducted across multiple years and environments by multiple raters presents numerous challenges. In order to select new broccoli hybrids suitable for eastern production, the SCRI East Coast Broccoli Project has conducted over 32 p...

  7. Growth and yield of broccoli fertilized with doses of velvet bean in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Rúbia Diniz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dose effects of green manure in vegetable crops production are still poorly understood. There are few scientific studies indicate that increasing the dose may influence plants characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of doses of velvet bean green manure on growth and yield, the partitioning of dry matter and nitrogen (N in plants of broccoli, as well as determine the apparent recovery and physiological efficiency of use N. We established four treatments plus a control. The treatments consisted of four levels of green manure: 0, 3, 6, 9 t ha-1 on a dry matter basis, with the addition of 12 t ha-1 of compost. Doses of green manure applied influenced the growth and yield of broccoli. The distribution of dry matter between plant parts of broccoli is not influenced by the doses of green manure. Doses of green manure influenced the amount of N accumulated in the inflorescence and whole plant of broccoli. The apparent recovery of N from green manure and efficiency of N use by plants of broccoli are positively associated with the applied doses.

  8. Gene silencing of BnTT10 family genes causes retarded pigmentation and lignin reduction in the seed coat of Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    Full Text Available Yellow-seed (i.e., yellow seed coat is one of the most important agronomic traits of Brassica plants, which is correlated with seed oil and meal qualities. Previous studies on the Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis and Brassica species, proposed that the seed-color trait is correlative to flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis, at the molecular level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the oxidative polymerization of flavonoid and biosynthesis of lignin has been demonstrated to be catalyzed by laccase 15, a functional enzyme encoded by the AtTT10 gene. In this study, eight Brassica TT10 genes (three from B. napus, three from B. rapa and two from B. oleracea were isolated and their roles in flavonoid oxidation/polymerization and lignin biosynthesis were investigated. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, these genes could be divided into two groups with obvious structural and functional differentiation. Expression studies showed that Brassica TT10 genes are active in developing seeds, but with differential expression patterns in yellow- and black-seeded near-isogenic lines. For functional analyses, three black-seeded B. napus cultivars were chosen for transgenic studies. Transgenic B. napus plants expressing antisense TT10 constructs exhibited retarded pigmentation in the seed coat. Chemical composition analysis revealed increased levels of soluble proanthocyanidins, and decreased extractable lignin in the seed coats of these transgenic plants compared with that of the controls. These findings indicate a role for the Brassica TT10 genes in proanthocyanidin polymerization and lignin biosynthesis, as well as seed coat pigmentation in B. napus.

  9. Gene silencing of BnTT10 family genes causes retarded pigmentation and lignin reduction in the seed coat of Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Lu, Kun; Qu, Cunmin; Liang, Ying; Wang, Rui; Chai, Yourong; Li, Jiana

    2013-01-01

    Yellow-seed (i.e., yellow seed coat) is one of the most important agronomic traits of Brassica plants, which is correlated with seed oil and meal qualities. Previous studies on the Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis and Brassica species, proposed that the seed-color trait is correlative to flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis, at the molecular level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the oxidative polymerization of flavonoid and biosynthesis of lignin has been demonstrated to be catalyzed by laccase 15, a functional enzyme encoded by the AtTT10 gene. In this study, eight Brassica TT10 genes (three from B. napus, three from B. rapa and two from B. oleracea) were isolated and their roles in flavonoid oxidation/polymerization and lignin biosynthesis were investigated. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, these genes could be divided into two groups with obvious structural and functional differentiation. Expression studies showed that Brassica TT10 genes are active in developing seeds, but with differential expression patterns in yellow- and black-seeded near-isogenic lines. For functional analyses, three black-seeded B. napus cultivars were chosen for transgenic studies. Transgenic B. napus plants expressing antisense TT10 constructs exhibited retarded pigmentation in the seed coat. Chemical composition analysis revealed increased levels of soluble proanthocyanidins, and decreased extractable lignin in the seed coats of these transgenic plants compared with that of the controls. These findings indicate a role for the Brassica TT10 genes in proanthocyanidin polymerization and lignin biosynthesis, as well as seed coat pigmentation in B. napus. PMID:23613820

  10. Free proline accumulation in leaves of cultivated plant species under water deficit conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Bandurska

    2013-01-01

    The effect of water deficit caused by soil drought on the content of free proline as well as the degree of cell membrane damages in the leaves of three cultivated plant species having different farm usefulness and water requirements have been studied. The used pIants were: poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., 'Regina' and 'Cortez') grown for decorative purposes, a green vegetable of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, subvar. cymosa, 'Colonel' and 'Marathon') and a cereal plant o...

  11. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities; however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention.

  12. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Dulcelena Ferreira; Vidal, Flávia Castello Branco; Santos, Debora; Costa, Maria Célia Pires; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; do Desterro Soares Brandão Nascimento, Maria; de Moura, Roberto Soares

    2014-01-01

    Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malig...

  13. Somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos of Euterpe oleracea Mart.

    OpenAIRE

    Ledo Ana da Silva; Lameira Osmar Alves; Benbadis Abdellatif Kemaleddine; Menezes Ilmarina Campos de; Oliveira Maria do Socorro Padilha de; Medeiros Filho Sebastião

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the morphogenetic responses of zygotic embryos of açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) submitted to several conditions of in vitro culture. Several research experiments were conducted, in laboratory, using vegetable material collected from açai palm plants at Embrapa Amazon Oriental, Belém-PA, Brazil. It was possible to verify the expression of a direct, repetitive and no-synchronized model of somatic embryogenesis in mature zygotic embryos cultivated in primar...

  14. Separation and Purification of Sulforaphane from Broccoli by Solid Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Row

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple solid-phase extraction (SPE method for the determination of sulforaphane in broccoli has been developed. The optimal conditions were found to be use of a silica SPE cartridge, and ethyl acetate and dichloromethane as washing and eluting solvents, respectively, which could eliminate interferences originating from the broccoli matrix. The extracts were sufficiently clean to be directly injected into high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.05 to 200 μg/mL (r = 0.998 for sulforaphane with the relative standard deviations less than 3.6%. The mean recoveries of sulforaphane from broccoli were more than 90.8% and the detection limit (S/N = 3:1 was 0.02 μg/mL. The SPE method provides a higher yield of sulforaphane from crude extracts compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction.

  15. Atividade antimicrobiana dos frutos de Syagrus oleracea e Mauritia vinifera Antimicrobial activity of Syagrus oleracea and Mauritia vinifera fruits

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. SILVEIRA; C.M. Pessanha; M.C.S. Lourenço; I. Neves Junior; F.S. Menezes; M.A.C. Kaplan

    2005-01-01

    As espécies pertencentes à família Palmae são muito interessantes do ponto de vista químico e farmacológico. Neste trabalho, foram estudados os frutos de duas espécies da família Palmae, Syagrus oleracea e Mauritia vinifera. Essas palmeiras foram escolhidas por serem espécies brasileiras, abundantes em nosso país, utilizadas popularmente no tratamento de algumas doenças e ainda pouco estudadas. Foram realizados ensaios farmacológicos para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos dos...

  16. Growth and yield responses of broccoli cultivars to different rates of nitrogen at western Chitwan, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Raj Kumar; Sharma, Moha Datta; Shakya, Santa Man;

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted with the objective to determine the optimum rate of nitrogen (N) fertilizer for effective growth and yield of two varieties of broccoli in southern plain of Nepal. The experiment was laid out with two-factorial completely random block design (RCBD) comprising two...... varieties of broccoli (Calabrese and Green Sprouting) and five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) with three replication in each treatment combinations. The effects of variety and N rate on total curd yield were significant but the interaction effect was non-significant. Green Sprouting produced 11...

  17. Ingestion of broccoli sprouts does not improve endothelial function in humans with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Buris; Bellostas Muguerza, Natalia; Petersen, Atheline Major;

    2010-01-01

    be the case in humans suffering from essential hypertension. METHODS: 40 hypertensive individuals without diabetes and with normal levels of cholesterol were examined. The participants were randomized either to ingest 10 g dried broccoli sprouts, a natural donor of glucosinolates with high in vitro...... groups. Diastolic blood pressure stayed essentially unchanged in both groups, while the systolic blood pressure showed a small non significant decrease (9 mm Hg) in the interventional group from a value of 153 mm Hg at start. CONCLUSION: Daily ingestion of 10 g dried broccoli sprouts does not improve...

  18. Response of oilseed Brassica cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucl, P.; Beversdorf, W.D

    1993-10-01

    Research was conducted to determine the sensitivity of four Brassica oilseed crops to ozone under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivars of four Brassica oilseed species were exposed to acute levels of ozone (0.31 or 0.47 [mu]l/l) at the seedling stage. Brassica hirta BHL-926 was the most sensitive to ozone, followed by B. juncea (Newton) and B. rapa (Torch). Injury symptoms ranged from a slight stippling in insensitive species to large bifacial necrotic patches in the most sensitive species. Brassica napus (canola) seedlings exhibited very little foliar injury (0-4% after 24 h exposure to 0.31 [mu]l/l ozone). In Ontario, where a vast majority of canola acreage is seeded to B. napus cultivars, it is unlikely that canola yields are being affected by exposure to ozone. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Plant extracts in the control of aphids Brevicoryne brassicae (L. and Myzus persicae (SulzerExtratos vegetais no controle dos afídeos Brevicoryne brassicae (L. e Myzus persicae (Sulzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Reginato Ávila

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Were accomplished the effect of plant extracts of clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., horsetail (Equisetum hyemale L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. on Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 and Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 aphids in cabbage Brassica oleracea (L.. The treatments consisted of plant extracts prepared fresh and dry (concentrations of 2.5; 5.0; and 10% and the controls insecticide acephate and water. These solutions were sprayed on cabbage discs placed on agar in Petri dishes, containing twenty adult aphids. In sequence, the Petri dishes were sealed with plastic film and this procedure was repeated for the two aphid species studied. The assessment of the number of live nymphs and adults occurred at 1, 12, 24, and 72 hours after installation. The extracts of coriander and tobacco prepared in a concentration of 10% showed toxic effects similar to the organophosphate insecticide acephate, on adults and nymphs of the aphids Brevicoryne brassicae and Myzus persicae. Coriander revealed a promising alternative that deserves detailed studies regarding the performance of its active ingredients and dosage determination in order to provide a safe herbal product to control insects.Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos vegetais de alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L., cavalinha (Equisetum hyemale L., coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. e fumo (Nicotiana tabacum L. sobre os pulgões Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 e Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 em couve Brassica oleracea (L.. Os tratamentos consistiram de extratos vegetais preparados a fresco e seco (nas concentrações de 2,5; 5,0 e 10%, do padrão inseticida acefato e de água. As soluções assim obtidas foram pulverizadas em discos de couve colocados sobre agar em placas de Petri, contendo vinte pulgões adultos. Na sequência, as placas de Petri foram vedadas com filme plástico transparente, sendo este procedimento repetido para as duas espécies de afídeos. A avalia

  20. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    OpenAIRE

    King Graham J; Østergaard Lars

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae) is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left ...

  1. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Jed W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increased interest in consuming green vegetable sprouts has been tempered by the fact that fresh sprouts can in some cases be vehicles for food-borne illnesses. They must be grown according to proper conditions of sanitation and handled as a food product rather than as an agricultural commodity. When sprouts are grown in accordance with the criteria proposed from within the sprout industry, developed by regulatory agencies, and adhered to by many sprouters, green sprouts can be produced with very low risk. Contamination may occur when these guidelines are not followed. Methods A one year program of microbial hold-and-release testing, conducted in concert with strict seed and facility cleaning procedures by 13 U.S. broccoli sprout growers was evaluated. Microbial contamination tests were performed on 6839 drums of sprouts, equivalent to about 5 million consumer packages of fresh green sprouts. Results Only 24 (0.75% of the 3191 sprout samples gave an initial positive test for Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp., and when re-tested, 3 drums again tested positive. Composite testing (e.g., pooling up to 7 drums for pathogen testing was equally sensitive to single drum testing. Conclusion By using a "test-and-re-test" protocol, growers were able to minimize crop destruction. By pooling drums for testing, they were also able to reduce testing costs which now represent a substantial portion of the costs associated with sprout growing. The test-and-hold scheme described herein allowed those few batches of contaminated sprouts to be found prior to packaging and shipping. These events were isolated, and only safe sprouts entered the food supply.

  2. Effect of Heavy Metal Ions and Carbohydrates on the Activity of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea Var. botrytis Myrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash, Om

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myrosinase is an enzyme of cruciferous vegetables, hydrolyse glucosinolates. The breakdown products are involved in plant defence against insect and also have anti-fungal property. Myrosinase has been purified to apparent homogeneity from 5 days old germinated cauliflower seedlings having a specific activity of 12.71 units/mg proteins with 54.6 % recovery, using ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100. Effect of some metal ions and carbohydrates on the activity of partially purified cauliflower myrosinase was studied. Sr+2 at 4 mM concentration exhibited marked activating effect on the activity up to 2.7 fold while Fe+2 significantly inhibited. However, Sn+2 and Ba+2 increased the activity to a certain extent and then suppressed. On the other hand, some metal ions [Fe+2, Fe+3, Cu+2 and Zn+2] strongly inhibited the activity even at lower concentrations. Several carbohydrates viz., glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose and sorbitol even at comparatively higher concentrations had little detectable inhibitory effects. Activation kinetics of myrosinase in presence of Sn+2 and Sr+2 were studied between 0- 20min. The rate of reaction was almost constant till 15 min and then slight deactivation was recorded at various concentrations used.

  3. Radiation processing for enhancing shelf life and quality characteristics of minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cauliflower samples were irradiated, stored at 4℃ for 21 days. The samples were analyzed for nutritional, physiochemical and sensory quality periodically at intervals of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. An irradiation dose of 0.5 kGy enhanced the microbial quality and extended shelf life by 7 days without significant losses in quality attributes. Non irradiated control samples showed the highest total bacterial counts (TBC) and yeast - mold count (YMC), around 5 log cfu g-1 respectively over the period of 21 days of storage, while in all irradiated samples TBC and YMC were maintained in the range of 1-2 log cfu g-1 till 21st days. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) were significantly increased on irradiation (0.5 kGy) while no significant effect was noted in texture, total ascorbate content and flavonoid content. (author)

  4. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yi, Go-Eun; Laila, Rawnak; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Kim, Hye Ran; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA). The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062) and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total glucosinolates detected compared to the other three cabbage lines. The reason for the genotypic variation in gene expression and glucosinolate accumulation is a subject of further investigation. PMID:27322230

  5. Whole-Genome Mapping Reveals Novel QTL Clusters Associated with Main Agronomic Traits of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 24 main agronomic traits of cabbage. Field experiments were performed using a 196-line double haploid population in three seasons in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate important agronomic traits related to plant type, leaf, and head traits. In total, 144 QTLs with LOD threshold >3.0 were detected for the 24 agronomic traits: 25 for four plant-type-related traits, 64 for 10 leaf-related traits, and 55 for 10 head-related traits; each QTL explained 6.0–55.7% of phenotype variation. Of the QTLs, 95 had contribution rates higher than 10%, and 51 could be detected in more than one season. Major QTLs included Ph 3.1 (max R2 = 55.7, max LOD = 28.2) for plant height, Ll 3.2 (max R2 = 31.7, max LOD = 13.95) for leaf length, and Htd 3.2 (max R2 = 28.5, max LOD = 9.49) for head transverse diameter; these could all be detected in more than one season. Twelve QTL clusters were detected on eight chromosomes, and the most significant four included Indel481–scaffold18376 (3.20 Mb), with five QTLs for five traits; Indel64–scaffold35418 (2.22 Mb), six QTLs for six traits; scaffold39782–Indel84 (1.78 Mb), 11 QTLs for 11 traits; and Indel353–Indel245 (9.89 Mb), seven QTLs for six traits. Besides, most traits clustered within the same region were significantly correlated with each other. The candidate genes at these regions were also discussed. Robust QTLs and their clusters obtained in this study should prove useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cabbage breeding and in furthering our understanding of the genetic control of these traits.

  6. Heritability and Reversibility of DNA Methylation Induced by in vitro Grafting between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liwen; Yu, Ningning; Li, Junxing; Qi, Zhenyu; Wang, Dan; Chen, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Grafting between tuber mustard and red cabbage produced a chimeric shoot apical meristem (SAM) of TTC, consisting of Layers I and II from Tuber mustard and Layer III from red Cabbage. Phenotypic variations, which mainly showed in leaf shape and SAM, were observed in selfed progenies GSn (GS = grafting-selfing, n = generations) of TTC. Here the heritability of phenotypic variation and its association with DNA methylation changes in GSn were investigated. Variation in leaf shape was found to be stably inherited to GS5, but SAM variation reverted over generations. Subsequent measurement of DNA methylation in GS1 revealed 5.29-6.59% methylation changes compared with tuber mustard (TTT), and 31.58% of these changes were stably transmitted to GS5, but the remainder reverted to the original status over generations, suggesting grafting-induced DNA methylation changes could be both heritable and reversible. Sequence analysis of differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) revealed methylation mainly changed within transposons and exon regions, which further affected the expression of genes, including flowering time- and gibberellin response-related genes. Interestingly, DMFs could match differentially expressed siRNA of GS1, GS3 and GS5, indicating that grafting-induced DNA methylation could be directed by siRNA changes. These results suggest grafting-induced DNA methylation may contribute to phenotypic variations induced by grafting. PMID:27257143

  7. Efecto de la aplicación de cachaza fresca al cultivo de repollo (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Esteban Plata-Mujica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La  cachaza  fresca  de  trapiche  panelero  es  un subproducto de la producción de panela. En la Hoya del Río Suárez este material es arrojado al medio ambiente,  lo cual causa contaminación. La  cachaza  presenta  alto  potencial  como enmienda orgánica y fuente de nutrientes. Con el objetivo de evaluar su efecto sobre el cultivo de repollo,  se aplicaron 5 dosis de cachaza fresca al suelo (0, 5, 10, 15 ý 20 t·ha-1, la mezcla de 10 t·ha-1  cachaza  y  50%  del  requerimiento  de fertilización  química,  y  la  totalidad  de  la fertilización  química.  Se  utilizó  un  diseño completamente al azar. La cachaza fue aplicada 20 días antes del  trasplante y en  la cosecha se evaluó el rendimiento, área foliar, masa fresca y masa seca. Con diferencias estadísticas, el mejor tratamiento fue la mezcla de 10 t·ha-1 cachaza y 50% del requerimiento de fertilización química, el cual  fue  responsable del mayor  rendimiento del cultivo, área  foliar, masa  fresca de cabeza, raíz y total, masa seca de cabeza, hojas y total. Con 0 ý 20 t·ha-1 de cachaza no hubo formación de  cabeza  en  las  plantas,  por  deficiencias  y excesos nutricionales,  respectivamente. Así,  la cachaza  fresca  en mezcla  con  el  fertilizante químico se convierte en una buena alternativa de fertilización del cultivo de repollo, lo cual, a la  vez,  permite darle  un  uso  adecuado  a  este material orgánico.

  8. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC-MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. PMID:26093223

  9. Evaluation of the effects of homeopathic medicines on the seed germination of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Monteiro Siqueira; Adriana Menezes Salgueiro; Tayná Sequeira Valério; Marina das Neves Gomes; Isadora Simões Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aiming to increase the productivity and achieve production levels that meet the market demands, agriculture makes use of pesticides and fertilizers. Fertilizers are natural or artificial substances that contain chemical elements and physical proprieties that enhance plant growth and productivity [1]. However, the addition of fertilizers has generated environmental impacts that jeopardize the sustainability of agricultural ecosystems in the medium and long term [2]. Fertilizers are...

  10. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide residues significantly. • To be safe, washing vegetables before consumption is advisable

  11. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide residues significantly. • To be safe, washing vegetables before consumption is advisable.

  12. Formulasi Sediaan Lipstik Dengan Ekstrak Kubis Merah (Brassica oleraceae var capitata L.f. rubra (L) Thell) Sebagai Pewarna

    OpenAIRE

    Unirah, Uni

    2011-01-01

    Red cabbage has the potential to be used as an alternative to natural dyes because it has an attractive colour. The red colour of the cabbage is caused by anthocyanin pigments which are flavonoid compounds. Anthocyanins have with various benefits, one of them as a natural dye that can replace synthetic dyes, especially for dyes in lipstick preparations. Lipstick formulation comprised of several components such as cera alba, lanolin, petroleum jelly alba, cetyl alcohol, oleum ricini, cetace...

  13. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA. The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062 and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total glucosinolates detected compared to the other three cabbage lines. The reason for the genotypic variation in gene expression and glucosinolate accumulation is a subject of further investigation.

  14. Whole-Genome Mapping Reveals Novel QTL Clusters Associated with Main Agronomic Traits of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 24 main agronomic traits of cabbage. Field experiments were performed using a 196-line double haploid population in three seasons in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate important agronomic traits related to plant type, leaf, and head traits. In total, 144 QTLs with LOD threshold >3.0 were detected for the 24 agronomic traits: 25 for four plant-type-related traits, 64 for 10 leaf-related traits, and 55 for 10 head-related traits; each QTL explained 6.0-55.7% of phenotype variation. Of the QTLs, 95 had contribution rates higher than 10%, and 51 could be detected in more than one season. Major QTLs included Ph 3.1 (max R (2) = 55.7, max LOD = 28.2) for plant height, Ll 3.2 (max R (2) = 31.7, max LOD = 13.95) for leaf length, and Htd 3.2 (max R (2) = 28.5, max LOD = 9.49) for head transverse diameter; these could all be detected in more than one season. Twelve QTL clusters were detected on eight chromosomes, and the most significant four included Indel481-scaffold18376 (3.20 Mb), with five QTLs for five traits; Indel64-scaffold35418 (2.22 Mb), six QTLs for six traits; scaffold39782-Indel84 (1.78 Mb), 11 QTLs for 11 traits; and Indel353-Indel245 (9.89 Mb), seven QTLs for six traits. Besides, most traits clustered within the same region were significantly correlated with each other. The candidate genes at these regions were also discussed. Robust QTLs and their clusters obtained in this study should prove useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cabbage breeding and in furthering our understanding of the genetic control of these traits. PMID:27458471

  15. Screening and Identifying Two Specific Molecular Markers in Maintainer Line of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var.botrytis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.G. Wang; J.M. Gao; H. Li; Y. Gu; X.Q. Chen; W.Q. Song

    2007-01-01

    @@ Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait that prevents the production of function pollen, but maintains female fertility. It has been widely used in breeding programs to product F1 hybrid seed in some crops (Hanson, 1991).

  16. Identification of Resistance to Peppery Leaf Spot among Brassica Juncea and Brassica Rapa Plant Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica leafy greens (Brassica juncea L. and B. rapa L.) represent one of the most economically important vegetable crop groups in the southeastern United States. In the last 10 years, numerous occurrences of a leaf spot disease on these leafy vegetables have been reported in several states. This...

  17. Chitinase-mediated inhibitory activity of Brassica transgenic on growth of Alternaria brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Kalyan K; Chatterjee, Subhas Chandra; Viswakarma, Navin; Bhattacharya, Ram Charan; Grover, Anita

    2003-09-01

    Chitinase, capable of degrading the cell walls of invading phytopathogenic fungi, plays an important role in plant defense response, particularly when this enzyme is overexpressed through genetic engineering. In the present study, Brassica plant (Brassica juncea L.) was transformed with chitinase gene tagged with an overexpressing promoter 35 S CaMV. The putative transgenics were assayed for their inhibitory activity against Alternaria brassicae, the inducer of Alternaria leaf spot of Brassica both in vitro and under polyhouse conditions. In in vitro fungal growth inhibition assays, chitinase inhibited the fungal colony size by 12-56% over the non-trangenic control. The bioassay under artificial epiphytotic conditions revealed the delay in the onset of disease as well as reduced lesion number and size in 35S-chitinase Brassica as compared to the untransformed control plants. PMID:14570264

  18. Circulating plant miRNAs can regulate human gene expression in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrello, Chiara; Tsay, Mike; McQuaid, Rosanne; Abovsky, Mark; Pasini, Elisa; Shirdel, Elize; Angeli, Marc; Tokar, Tomas; Jamnik, Joseph; Kotlyar, Max; Jurisicova, Andrea; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Jurisica, Igor

    2016-01-01

    While Brassica oleracea vegetables have been linked to cancer prevention, the exact mechanism remains unknown. Regulation of gene expression by cross-species microRNAs has been previously reported; however, its link to cancer suppression remains unexplored. In this study we address both issues. We confirm plant microRNAs in human blood in a large nutrigenomics study cohort and in a randomized dose-controlled trial, finding a significant positive correlation between the daily amount of broccoli consumed and the amount of microRNA in the blood. We also demonstrate that Brassica microRNAs regulate expression of human genes and proteins in vitro, and that microRNAs cooperate with other Brassica-specific compounds in a possible cancer-preventive mechanism. Combined, we provide strong evidence and a possible multimodal mechanism for broccoli in cancer prevention. PMID:27604570

  19. Conservation and expression patterns divergence of ascorbic acid D-mannose/L-galactose pathway genes in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weike eDuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AsA participates in diverse biological processes, is regulated by multiple factors and is a potent antioxidant and cellular reductant. The D-mannose/L-galactose pathway is a major plant AsA biosynthetic pathway that is highly connected within biosynthetic networks, and generally conserved across plants. Previous work has shown that, although most genes of this pathway are expressed under standard growth conditions in Brassica rapa, some paralogs of these genes are not. We hypothesize that regulatory evolution in duplicate AsA pathway genes has occurred as an adaptation to environmental stressors, and that gene retention has been influenced by polyploidation events in Brassicas. To test these hypotheses, we explored the conservation of these genes in Brassicas and their expression patterns divergence in B. rapa. Similar retention and a high degree of gene sequence similarity were identified in B. rapa (A genome, Brassica oleracea (C genome and Brassica napus (AC genome. However, the number of genes that encode the same type of enzymes varied among the three plant species. With the exception of GMP, which has nine genes, there were one to four genes that encoded the other enzymes. Moreover, we found that expression patterns divergence widely exists among these genes. i VTC2 and VTC5 are paralogous genes, but only VTC5 is influenced by FLC. ii Under light treatment, PMI1 co-regulates the AsA pool size with other D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes, whereas PMI2 is regulated only by darkness. iii Under NaCl, Cu2+, MeJA and wounding stresses, most of the paralogs exhibit different expression patterns. Additionally, GME and GPP are the key regulatory enzymes that limit AsA biosynthesis in response to these treatments. In conclusion, our data support that the conservative and divergent expression patterns of D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes not only avoid AsA biosynthesis network instability but also allow B. rapa to better adapt to complex environments.

  20. The effects of Selenocysteine Se-Methyltransferase on Selenium metabolism in Broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) plays an indispensable role in human nutrition and has suggested to have important health benefits, including as a cancer preventative agent. Se-methylselenocysteine, a monomethylated form of Se, has been shown to be one of the most effective chemopreventative compounds. Broccoli is ...

  1. SPECIFIC SELENIUM SPECIES FROM BROCCOLI ARE TRANSPORTED DIFFERENTLY ACROSS A CACO-2 CELL MONOLAYER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological actions of selenium (Se) depend in part on its specific chemical form. Reverse-phase HPLC coupled to an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (HPLC-ICP-MS) with known Se standards was used to characterize chemical forms of Se in biological matrices. High-Se broccoli contained mul...

  2. Koeling van bloemkool en broccoli op de veiling "De Tuinbouw" te Grootebroek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, P.M.M.; Hendriks, A.G.M.

    1980-01-01

    In een proef op de veiling "De Tuinbouw" in Grootebroek is zowel bloemkool als broccoli opgeslagen gedurende respectievelijk een en drie dagen bij 2 graden C en 95% r.v. Na koeling zijn de kolen geplaatst in een donkere ruimte met een temperatuur van 18 graden C en een r.v. van 90%. Beoordeeld is op

  3. Informatieblad Mineralen en Milieukwaliteit : nitraatuitspoeling uit gewasresten van broccoli, prei en suikerbiet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Om nitraatuitspoeling terug te dringen is het nodig om het N-overschot te verlagen. Bij sommige gewassen (bijv. broccoli en suikerbieten) zit het N-overschot grotendeels in de gewasresten. De vraag is in welke mate het N-overschot in de vorm van gewasresten bijdraagt aan nitraatuitspoeling, en in ho

  4. Portulaca oleracea inhibit vincristine induced peripheral neuropathy: involvement of ATP-sensitive K+ channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mohana Rupa

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present study reveal the antinociceptive effect of P. oleracea in vincristine induced peripheral neuropathy and involving ATP-sensitive potassium channels pathway. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 474-478

  5. Effects of Portulaca Oleracea on Insulin Resistance in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岚; 陆付耳

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of Portulaca oleracea, a Chinese medicinal herb, on insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Experimental model of T2DM was established by injection of streptozotocin (25mg/kg) and feeding with high calorie forage. The effects of Portulaca oleracea on oral glucose tolerance, serum levels of insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol and free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity index were all observed. Results: Portulaca oleracea could reduce the body weight, improve the impaired glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism, decrease serum free fatty acids, attenuate hyperinsulinemia and elevate insulin sensitivity. Conclusion: Portulaca oleracea could improve insulin resistance in rats with T2DM, and the mechanism might be related to its actions in improving lipid metabolism and decreasing free fatty acids.

  6. Broccoli consumption interacts with GSTM1 to perturb oncogenic signalling pathways in the prostate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Traka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that people who consume more than one portion of cruciferous vegetables per week are at lower risk of both the incidence of prostate cancer and of developing aggressive prostate cancer but there is little understanding of the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we quantify and interpret changes in global gene expression patterns in the human prostate gland before, during and after a 12 month broccoli-rich diet. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Volunteers were randomly assigned to either a broccoli-rich or a pea-rich diet. After six months there were no differences in gene expression between glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1 positive and null individuals on the pea-rich diet but significant differences between GSTM1 genotypes on the broccoli-rich diet, associated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFbeta1 and epidermal growth factor (EGF signalling pathways. Comparison of biopsies obtained pre and post intervention revealed more changes in gene expression occurred in individuals on a broccoli-rich diet than in those on a pea-rich diet. While there were changes in androgen signalling, regardless of diet, men on the broccoli diet had additional changes to mRNA processing, and TGFbeta1, EGF and insulin signalling. We also provide evidence that sulforaphane (the isothiocyanate derived from 4-methylsuphinylbutyl glucosinolate that accumulates in broccoli chemically interacts with TGFbeta1, EGF and insulin peptides to form thioureas, and enhances TGFbeta1/Smad-mediated transcription. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that consuming broccoli interacts with GSTM1 genotype to result in complex changes to signalling pathways associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis in the prostate. We propose that these changes may be mediated through the chemical interaction of isothiocyanates with signalling peptides in the plasma. This study provides, for the first time, experimental evidence obtained in humans to

  7. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Kumar Nayak; Dilipkumar Pal; Dipti Ranjan Pany; Biswaranjan Mohanty

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared w...

  8. Mutations in cauliflower and sprout broccoli grown from seeds flown in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Huang, Congli; Zhang, Keping; Sun, Yeqing

    2010-11-01

    Cauliflower and sprout broccoli are widely planted vegetables particularly in Fujian Province, China. To study the mutation in these two types of vegetables induced from spaceflight, we flew the seeds on the 20th Chinese recoverable satellite which orbited the Earth for 18 days. After returning to the Earth, the cauliflower seeds were planted for two generations and the sprout broccoli seeds for one generation at the Xiamen Agriculture Research Institute. Of the 12 cauliflowers planted for the first generation, two showed significant phenotypical changes in both the size of the plant and the weight of the flower head. In addition, most of the space flown plants were found to be resistant to the black rot attack in the field. Cauliflowers planted for the second generation from the seeds in one of the two plants that displayed phenotypical changes in the first generation showed similar mutations. For the first generation of sprout broccoli, the rate of emergence from the flown seeds was lower than that of the control by 30%. No significant changes in the phenotype between the sprout broccolis planted from the flown seeds and the control were observed except one of the mutated sprout broccolis showed a change in the appearance in the lesser bud of the chief flower head. Results of the study demonstrated that DNA damages in some of the genes may have occurred in the seeds flown in space, and some of the changes in the genes may have inherited from the first to the second generation. The improved resistance to the black rot attack and increased size of the flower head are apparently beneficial.

  9. BROCCOLI: Software for Fast fMRI Analysis on Many-Core CPUs and GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eEklund

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data is becoming ever more computationally demanding as temporal and spatial resolutions improve, and large, publicly available data sets proliferate. Moreover, methodological improvements in the neuroimaging pipeline, such as non-linear spatial normalization, non-parametric permutation tests and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches, can dramatically increase the computational burden. Despite these challenges, there do not yet exist any fMRI software packages which leverage inexpensive and powerful graphics processing units (GPUs to perform these analyses. Here, we therefore present BROCCOLI, a free software package written in OpenCL (Open Computing Language that can be used for parallel analysis of fMRI data on a large variety of hardware configurations. BROCCOLI has, for example, been tested with an Intel CPU, an Nvidia GPU and an AMD GPU. These tests show that parallel processing of fMRI data can lead to significantly faster analysis pipelines. This speedup can be achieved on relatively standard hardware, but further, dramatic speed improvements require only a modest investment in GPU hardware. BROCCOLI (running on a GPU can perform non-linear spatial normalization to a 1 mm3 brain template in 4-6 seconds, and run a second level permutation test with 10,000 permutations in about a minute. These non-parametric tests are generally more robust than their parametric counterparts, and can also enable more sophisticated analyses by estimating complicated null distributions. Additionally, BROCCOLI includes support for Bayesian first-level fMRI analysis using a Gibbs sampler. The new software is freely available under GNU GPL3 and can be downloaded from github (https://github.com/wanderine/BROCCOLI/.

  10. BROCCOLI: Software for fast fMRI analysis on many-core CPUs and GPUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Anders; Dufort, Paul; Villani, Mattias; Laconte, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is becoming ever more computationally demanding as temporal and spatial resolutions improve, and large, publicly available data sets proliferate. Moreover, methodological improvements in the neuroimaging pipeline, such as non-linear spatial normalization, non-parametric permutation tests and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches, can dramatically increase the computational burden. Despite these challenges, there do not yet exist any fMRI software packages which leverage inexpensive and powerful graphics processing units (GPUs) to perform these analyses. Here, we therefore present BROCCOLI, a free software package written in OpenCL (Open Computing Language) that can be used for parallel analysis of fMRI data on a large variety of hardware configurations. BROCCOLI has, for example, been tested with an Intel CPU, an Nvidia GPU, and an AMD GPU. These tests show that parallel processing of fMRI data can lead to significantly faster analysis pipelines. This speedup can be achieved on relatively standard hardware, but further, dramatic speed improvements require only a modest investment in GPU hardware. BROCCOLI (running on a GPU) can perform non-linear spatial normalization to a 1 mm(3) brain template in 4-6 s, and run a second level permutation test with 10,000 permutations in about a minute. These non-parametric tests are generally more robust than their parametric counterparts, and can also enable more sophisticated analyses by estimating complicated null distributions. Additionally, BROCCOLI includes support for Bayesian first-level fMRI analysis using a Gibbs sampler. The new software is freely available under GNU GPL3 and can be downloaded from github (https://github.com/wanderine/BROCCOLI/). PMID:24672471

  11. Photoacoustic Study of Fungal Disease of Acai ( Euterpe oleracea) Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Denise V.; Nunes, O. A. C.; Oliveira, A. C.

    2009-10-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy is introduced as a promising experimental technique to investigate fungus infected Acai ( Euterpe oleracea) seeds. Photoacoustic spectra of healthy and infected Acai seeds with the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were recorded firstly in the modulation frequency range of 5Hz to 700 Hz, while keeping the wavelength of excitation radiation of a Xe arc-lamp constant, to ascertain the depth of penetration of infection within the seed and secondly, at variable wavelength (wavelength scanning) in the interval 250nm to 1,000 nm, while keeping the modulation frequency constant. In the former, the photoacoustic signal strength from the infected seed was found higher than that of the healthy one, and has been associated with the appearance of new biomolecules associated with the pathogen infection. In the latter, characteristics peaks and bands were observed in the range from 650 nm to 900 nm ascribed to organic compounds with carboxylates and amines (functional groups) forming the typical metabolic structures of the fungus.

  12. The risks of introduction of the Amazonian palm Euterpe oleracea in the Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberio, F C S; Sampaio-E-Silva, T A; Matos, D M S; Antunes, A Z

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of a species may alter ecological processes of native populations, such as pollination and dispersal patterns, leading to changes in population structure. When the introduced and the native species are congeners, interference in pollination can also lead to hybridization. We aimed to understand the ecological aspects of Euterpe oleracea introduction in the Atlantic forest and the possible consequences for the conservation of the native congener Euterpe edulis. We analysed the population structure of palm populations, including hybrids, and observed the interaction with frugivorous birds of both palm species after E. oleracea introduction. We observed that E. edulis had significantly lower density and a smaller number of seedlings when occurring with E. oleracea. Native and introduced Euterpe species shared nine frugivorous bird species. E. oleracea and hybrids had dispersed outside the original planting area. Consequently, the risks of introduction of E. oleracea may mostly be related to the disruption of interactions between E. edulis and frugivorous birds and the spontaneous production of hybrids. Finally, the cultivation of E. oleracea and hybrids in Atlantic rainforest could affect the conservation of the already endangered E. edulis. PMID:26909625

  13. Antibacterial Attributes of Apigenin, Isolated from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumantappa B. Nayaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid apigenin was isolated from aerial part of P. oleracea L. The dried sample of plant was powdered and subjected to soxhlet extractor by adding 80 mL of ethanol : water (70 : 30. The extract was centrifuged at 11000 rpm for 30 min; supernatant was taken for further use. The fraction was concentrated and subjected to PTLC. The Rf value of isolated apigenin was calculated (0.82. Purified material was also subjected to its IR spectra, LC-MS, NMR, and HPLC for structural elucidation. The apigenin so-obtained was subjected to antibacterial activity on five pathogenic bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes; among all the bacterial strains, Salmonella typhimurium (17.36 ± 0.18 and Proteus mirabilis (19.12 ±  0.01 have shown maximum diameter of inhibition zone for flavonoid and remaining bacterial strains have shown moderate diameter of inhibition zone when compared with control values 14.56 ±  0.21 and 11.68 ± 0.13, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the flavonoid isolated from P. oleracea L. was tested at the concentration ranging from undiluted sample to 10 mg per mL of concentration. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC for the flavonoid for all tested bacterial strains was found to be >4 mg per mL. Hence, the apigenin has antibacterial property and can be used to develop antibacterial drugs.

  14. Genetics and Molecular Mapping of Black Rot Resistance Locus Xca1bc on Chromosome B-7 in Ethiopian Mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij Bihari; Kalia, Pritam; Yadava, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2016-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pam.) Dowson is the most destructive disease of cauliflower causing huge loss to the farmers throughout the world. Since there are limited sources of resistance to black rot in B. oleracea (C genome Brassica), exploration of A and B genomes of Brassica was planned as these were thought to be potential reservoirs of black rot resistance gene(s). In our search for new gene(s) for black rot resistance, F2 mapping population was developed in Brassica carinata (BBCC) by crossing NPC-17, a susceptible genotype with NPC-9, a resistant genotype. Out of 364 Intron length polymorphic markers and microsatellite primers used in this study, 41 distinguished the parental lines. However, resistant and susceptible bulks could be distinguished by three markers At1g70610, SSR Na14-G02 and At1g71865 which were used for genotyping of F2 mapping population. These markers were placed along the resistance gene, according to order, covering a distance of 36.30 cM. Intron length polymorphic markers At1g70610 and At1g71865 were found to be linked to black rot resistance locus (Xca1bc) at 6.2 and 12.8 cM distance, respectively. This is the first report of identification of markers linked to Xca1bc locus in Brassica carinata on B-7 linkage group. Intron length polymorphic markers provided a novel and attractive option for marker assisted selection due to high cross transferability and cost effectiveness for marker assisted alien gene introgression into cauliflower. PMID:27023128

  15. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of ozone on Pieris brassicae performance and preference. • We studied ozone and herbivore induced changes in the metabolome of Brassica nigra. • The performance of P. brassicae did not correlate with preference of ozonated plants. • Ozone and herbivore-feeding stress changes the phytochemical pools of B. nigra. - Ozone indirectly reduces herbivore performance, which is associated with change in phytochemical pools, but does not correlate with host plant preference

  16. Genetic differentiation among sexually compatible relatives of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipan Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene flow between Brassica napus L. and its sexually compatible relatives that could be found in the wild in Slovenia was performed by microsatellite analysis using fifteen selected primer pairs. Genotypes included in the study were obtained from the field survey of sexually compatible relatives of B. napus in natural habitats around Slovenia and from reference collections. Two different wild species of all the presented sexually compatible relatives of B. napus were found in Slovenia, B. rapa and Sinapis arvensis. The reference genotypes included varieties and wild forms from internal collections as marketable seeds or from gene banks. Reference genotypes were represented by the following species and subspecies: B. napus ssp. napobrassica, B. napus ssp. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa ssp. oleifera, Diplotaxis muralis; D. tenuifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, R. sativus var. oleiformis, Rapistrum rugosum, S. alba and S. arvensis. Estimation of gene flow described by average number of migrants was 0.72 followed by 0.20 migrants. Due to the observed gene migrations, genetic drift and selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not met. The mean number of alleles over all loci was 16.9, the average polymorphic information content was 0.43. We found four highly divergent and polymorphic loci (Na12-C08, Na10-A08, Ni3-G04b and BRMS-050 at statistically significant level (p<0.05 of gene flow detected. Over all gene diversity intra-individual among populations (0.55 was lower than inter-individual among population (0.77. The results of genetic linkages based standard genetic distance and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering method, generally divided the genotypes in three divergent groups. Similar results were obtained by principal coordinate analysis where three main groups were constructed according to three factors. A real number of genetic clusters demonstrated a clear separation between populations

  17. QTL mapping of leafy heads by genome resequencing in the RIL population of Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Wang, Han; Zhong, Weili; Bai, Jinjuan; Liu, Pinglin; He, Yuke

    2013-01-01

    Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between heading and non-heading Chinese cabbage. The resequenced genomes of the parents uncovered more than 1 million SNPs. Genotyping of RILs using the high-quality SNPs assisted by Hidden Markov Model (HMM) generated a recombination map. The raw genetic map revealed some physical assembly error and missing fragments in the reference genome that reduced the quality of SNP genotyping. By deletion of the genetic markers in which recombination rates higher than 20%, we have obtained a high-quality genetic map with 2209 markers and detected 18 QTLs for 6 head traits, from which 3 candidate genes were selected. These QTLs provide the foundation for study of genetic basis of leafy heads and the other complex traits. PMID:24204591

  18. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea. PMID:27173323

  19. Analysis of cytosine methylation in early generations of resynthesized Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Li-ping; FANG Ting-ting; RONG Hao; JIANG Jin-jin; FANG Yu-jie; WANG You-ping

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation, an important epigenetic modiifcation, serves as a key function in the polyploidization of numerous crops. In this study, early generations of resynthesizedBrassica napus (F1, S1–S3), ancestral parentsB. rapaandB. oleracea were analyzed to characterize their DNA methylation status during polyploidization, applying DNA methylation-sensitive ampliifca-tion polymorphism (MSAP) and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. InF1, 53.4% fragments were inherited from both A- and C-genomes. Besides, 5.04 and 8.87% fragments inF1 were inherited from A- and C- genome, respectively. 5.85 and 0.8% fragments were newly appeared and disappeared in resynthesizedB. napus, respectively. 13.1% of these gene sites were identiifed with methylation changes inF1, namely, hypermethylation (7.86%) and hypomethylation (5.24%). The lowest methylation status was detected inF1 (38.7%) compared with in S1–S3. In S3, 40.32% genes were methylated according to MSAP analysis. Sequencing of methylated fragments indicated that genes involved in multiple biological processes were modiifed, including transcription factors, protein modiifcation, and transporters. Expression ananlysis of DNA methyltransferase 1 andDNA methyltransferase chromomethylase 3 in different materials was consistent to the DNA methylation status. These results can generaly facilitate dissection of how DNA methylation contributes to genetic stability and improvement ofB. napus during polyploidization.

  20. Synthetic Brassica napus L.: Development and Studies on Morphological Characters, Yield Attributes, and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Malek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus was synthesized by hybridization between its diploid progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea followed by chromosome doubling. Cross with B. rapa as a female parent was only successful. Among three colchicine treatments (0.10, 0.15, and 0.20%, 0.15% gave the highest success (86% of chromosome doubling in the hybrids (AC; 2=19. Synthetic B. napus (AACC, 2=38 was identified with bigger petals, fertile pollens and seed setting. Synthetic B. napus had increased growth over parents and exhibited wider ranges with higher coefficients of variations than parents for morphological and yield contributing characters, and yield per plant. Siliqua length as well as beak length in synthetic B. napus was longer than those of the parents. Number of seeds per siliqua, 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant in synthetic B. napus were higher than those of the parents. Although flowering time in synthetic B. napus was earlier than both parents, however the days to maturity was little higher over early maturing B. rapa parent. The synthesized B. napus has great potential to produce higher seed yield. Further screening and evaluation is needed for selection of desirable genotypes having improved yield contributing characters and higher seed yield.

  1. Unleashing the genome of Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao eTang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation of homeologous gene content and genetic regulatory binding sites, Brassica’s genome is well placed to use comparative genomic techniques to identify syntenic regions, homeologous gene duplications, and putative regulatory sequences. Here, we use the comparative genomics platform CoGe to perform several different genomic analyses with which to study structural changes of its genome and dynamics of various genetic elements. Starting with whole genome comparisons, the Brassica paleohexaploidy is characterized, syntenic regions with Arabidopsis thaliana are identified, and the TOC1 gene in the circadian rhythm pathway from Arabidopsis thaliana is used to find duplicated orthologs in Brassica rapa. These TOC1 genes are further analyzed to identify conserved noncoding sequences that contain cis-acting regulatory elements and promoter sequences previously implicated in circadian rhythmicity. Each 'cookbook style' analysis includes a step-by-step walkthrough with links to CoGe to quickly reproduce each step of the analytical process.

  2. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  3. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... markers could be assigned to six linkage groups, most probably reflecting six B. napus C-chromosomes. The presence of backcross plants with recombinant genotypes suggests that complex genetic processes can take place during the interspecific hybridisation and backcrossing in these Brassica species. The...

  4. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) in winter oilseed rape

    OpenAIRE

    Draga Graora; Ivan Sivčev; Lazar Sivčev; Wolfgang Büchs; Vladimir Tomić; Boris Dudić; Tanja Gotlin-Čuljak

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.). It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction....

  5. Neural networks using broadband spectral discriminators reduces illumination required for broccoli identification in weedy fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Federico

    1996-03-01

    Statistical discriminative analysis and neural networks were used to prove that crop/weed/soil discrimination by optical reflectance was feasible. The wavelengths selected as inputs on those neural networks were ten nanometers width, reducing the total collected radiation for the sensor. Spectral data collected from several farms having different weed populations were introduced to discriminant analysis. The best discriminant wavelengths were used to build a wavelength histogram which selected the three best spectral broadbands for broccoli/weed/soil discrimination. The broadbands were analyzed using a new single broadband discriminator index named the discriminative integration index, DII, and the DII values obtained were used to train a neural network. This paper introduces the index concept, its results and its use for minimizing artificial lightning requirements with broadband spectral measurements for broccoli/weed/soil discrimination.

  6. Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao-feng YUAN; Bo SUN; Jing YUAN; Qiao-mei WANG

    2009-01-01

    The effects of five domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwaving, boiling, stir-frying, and stir-frying followed by boiling (stir-frying/boiling), on the nutrients and health-promoting compounds of broccoli were investigated. The results show that all cooking treatments, except steaming, caused significant losses of chlorophyll and vitamin C and significant decreases of total soluble proteins and soluble sugars. Total aliphatic and indole glucosinolates were significantly modified by all cooking treatments but not by steaming. In general, the steaming led to the lowest loss of total glucosinolates, while stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling presented the highest loss. Stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling, the two most popular methods for most homemade dishes in China, cause great losses of chlorophyll, soluble protein, soluble sugar, vitamin C, and glucosinolates, but the steaming method appears the best in retention of the nutrients in cooking broccoli.

  7. 出版业经济惨淡,Broccoli Books关门

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    据出版动画、漫画、游戏类图书的Broccoli Books有限公司总裁Kaname Tezuka披露,Broccoli国际出版美国公司,包括旗下的Broccoli Books出版社和Boysen berry出版社将于今年底关门。他表示,这是日本母公司的决定,“根据美国漫画图书市场和美国经济的整体状况,公司领导层决定最好暂时将力量集中在日本市场。”

  8. Effect of Nitrogen and Boron in Seed Yield and Yield Attributing Characters of Broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khanal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant nutrient is one of the limiting factors affecting crop production. Nitrogen and boron are major nutrients in case of broccoli. So, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and boron in seed yield and yield attributing characters of broccoli in Rampur, Chitwan during winter season. The experiment was laid out in factorial RCBD design with four levels of nitrogen and two levels of boron. Each plot consists of 25 plants which were separated by 60 * 60 cm spacing. There are altogether eight treatments replicates thrice. Local variety Calabrese was used. Significant effect of different dose of nitrogen and boron on yield attributing characters was found. Also interactive effect of nitrogen and boron in number of pods, pod length, seed yield and number of seeds per pod was found significantly different.

  9. Protective Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Portulaca Oleracea Against Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Karimi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPortulaca oleracea L. is a herbaceous weed from portulacaceae family. It can be found in many parts of the world. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that P. oleracea have antioxidant effects. The protective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. oleracea against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity was studied in rats.Materials and MethodsSingle intraperitoneal injection of 4 mg/kg cisplatin was administrated to rats. After 5 days, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine (Scr concentration were determined. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts, before and after cisplatin injection on BUN and Scr, as well as morphological renal damage, was evaluated. ResultsIt was indicated that treatment with aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. oleracea in the highest dose (0.8 and 2 g/ kg, 6 and 12 hr before cisplatin injection reduced BUN and Scr. Tubular necrotic damage was not observed either. ConclusionResults suggest that P. oleracea extract may protect against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity and might serve as a novel combination agent with cisplan to limit renal injury.

  10. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes enter broccoli cells enhancing growth and water uptake of plants exposed to salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Ballesta, Mª Carmen; Zapata, Lavinia; Chalbi, Najla; Carvajal, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Background Carbon nanotubes have been shown to improve the germination and growth of some plant species, extending the applicability of the emerging nano-biotechnology field to crop science. Results In this work, exploitation of commercial multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in control and 100 mM NaCl-treated broccoli was performed. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that MWCNTs can enter the cells in adult plants with higher accumulation under salt stress. Positive effect of MWC...

  11. Belowground induction by delia radicum or phytohormones affect aboveground herbivore communities on field-grown broccoli

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre, S.P.; Dugravot, S.; Hervé, M. R.; Hassan, H M; Dam, N.M. van; Cortesero, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Induced plant defence in response to phytophagous insects is a well described phenomenon. However, so far little is known about the effect of induced plant responses on subsequently colonizing herbivores in the field. Broccoli plants were induced in the belowground compartment using (i) infestation by the root-herbivore Delia radicum, (ii) root application of jasmonic acid (JA) or (iii) root application of salicylic acid (SA). The abundance of D. radicum and six aboveground herbivores display...

  12. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum – the causal agent of broccoli soft rot in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Gašić; Veljko Gavrilović; Nenad Dolovac; Nenad Trkulja; Svetlana Živković; Danijela Ristić; Aleksa Obradović

    2014-01-01

    Soft rot symptoms were observed on broccoli plants in several commercial fields in the western part of Serbia. Six strains of bacteria were isolated from diseased tissues and identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum using conventional bacteriological and molecular methods. All strains were non-fluorescent, gram-negative, facultative anaerobes, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive, causing soft rot on potato and carrot slices and did not...

  13. Post Harvest Treatment Effects on Crown-Cut Broccoli Shelf Life

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Reddy Yettella Venkata

    2004-01-01

    The effects of packaging treatments, post harvest cooling delay and storage duration on color, texture, ascorbic acid content, weight loss and glucosinolate retention in crown-cut heads of broccoli were studied. Oxygen and CO2 levels inside shrink wrap packages were also monitored. Shrink wrap packaging had a significant positive effect on hue angle (p<0.05). Packaging and post harvest cooling delay had no effect on hue difference and total color difference. While post harvest cooling dela...

  14. Organic broccoli production on transition soils: Comparing cover crops, tillage and sidedress N

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg, D.L.; Morse, R.D.; Welbaum, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Little information is available about how farmers in transition to organic practices should manage short- and long-term N fertility. The objectives of this research were (1) to evaluate the leguminous cover crops lablab (Dolichos lablab L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and a mixture of sunn hemp and cowpea (Vigna sinensis Endl.) as N sources; (2) to compare N availability and broccoli yield when cover crops were incorporated with conventi...

  15. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Maldini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird’s-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle. We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant’s developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the

  16. Broccoli yield in response to top-dressing fertilization with green manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Bernardo de Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the productive performance of broccoli under different top-dressing organic fertilizations. The experiment was conducted under protected cultivation, in a completely randomized design with four replications, with two plants per experimental unit. Broccoli seedlings were produced in a commercial substrate in styrofoam trays. The seedlings were transplanted to plastic pots containing 10.0 L of substrate made up of subsoil and organic compost at the ratio of 3:1 (v/v, respectively, which is equivalent to about 20.0 t ha-1 of organic compost at planting. After seedling establishment, the top-dressing fertilization treatments were applied: gliricidia biomass associated or not with liquid biofertilizer of cattle manure to the soil and bokashi. Two control treatments were established: one with mineral fertilization recommended for the crop and the other without top-dressing fertilization. The broccoli production was evaluated (commercial standard. Plants that received mineral fertilizer were more productive, however, they were not significantly different (p>0.05, by Dunnet test, from the plants fertilized with 2.5 t ha-1 gliricidiabiomass (dry mass associated with liquid biofertilizer (2.0 L m-2 applied to soil. Top-dressing fertilizations with only gliricidia, at 2.5 and 5.0 t ha-1 of biomass (dry mass, resulted in no significant increase in production of broccoli inflorescence. The use of bokashi in addition to gliricidia biomass and liquid biofertilizer reduced the efficiency of the fertilization compared with plants that received only gliricidia and liquid biofertilizer.

  17. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea Mart

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as “açai” found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has rece...

  18. Anaerobic metabolism in Brassica seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Germination typically depends on oxidative respiration. The lack of convection under space conditions may create hypoxic or conditions during seed germination. We investigated the effect of reduced oxygen on seed germination and metabolism to understand how metabolic constraints affect seed growth and responsiveness to reorientation. Germination was completely inhibited when seeds were imbibed in the absence of oxygen; germination occurred at 5% oxygen and higher levels. Adding oxygen after 72 h resulted in immediate germination (protrusion of the radicle). Hypoxia typically activates alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) which produce ethanol and/or L-lactate, respectively. We report on the expression of ADH1 and LDH1, and changes in total soluble sugars, starch, pH, and L-lactate in seedlings grown at 28°C in 0, 2.5, 5, 10% and ambient (21%) oxygen conditions as controls. The highest consumption (lowest level) of sugars was seen at 0% oxygen but the lowest level of starch occurred 24 h after imbibition under ambient condition. Expression levels of ADH1 in ambient oxygen condition increased within 24 h but increased threefold under hypoxic conditions; LDH1 increased up to 8-fold under hypoxia compared to controls but ADH1 and LDH1 were less expressed as the oxygen levels increased. The intracellular pH of seeds decreased as the content of L-lactate increased for all oxygen concentrations. These results indicate that germination of Brassica is sensitive to oxygen levels and that oxygen availability during germination is an important factor for metabolic activities. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  19. BROCCOLI Spears Yield Affected By GAMMA Rays Irradiated Seeds And Foliar Application Of Some Growth Regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two field experiments were carried out during 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 winter growing seasons at the experimental farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt.The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre-sowing broccoli seeds (cv. F1 175) irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (2, 3 and 4 Gy). The plants were sprayed with GA3 at rate of 50 ml/liter/fed and 20 ml/liter/fed for NAA. Main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spears fresh and dry weight per plant, total spears yield, ascorbic acid, TSS, carbohydrates, total chlorophyll, NPK and total protein content of spears were evaluated. The results showed that broccoli seeds irradiated with gamma rays up to 4 Gy pre-sowing increased the abovementioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants except spears N, P and protein contents showed decrease in their values comparing with un-treated plants.It could be concluded that the foliar application of GA3 and NAA on broccoli spears increased all the abovementioned parameters, except spears N, P and protein contents showed decrease in their values.

  20. Utility of the broccoli sign in the distinction of prolapsed uterine tumor from cervical tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the utility, histopathological basis, and clinical correlates of the broccoli sign. Methods: The committee on human research approved this HIPAA compliant study and waived written informed consent. Based on the records of the senior author and our multidisciplinary Gynecologic Oncology Tumor Board, we retrospectively identified thirteen women (mean age of 48.8 years; range, 34–74) with a cervical mass seen at MR imaging (n = 13) or CT (n = 5) that demonstrated the previously reported broccoli sign (i.e., a soft tissue stalk connecting the cervical mass to the uterine cavity) on one or other modality. All available clinical, imaging, and histopathological records were reviewed, with particular emphasis on initially suspected diagnosis, final proven diagnosis, and outcome. Results: Cervical cancer was the initial clinically suspected diagnosis in 6 of 13 patients. Surgical resection demonstrated prolapsed uterine tumor in all patients, consisting of endometrioid adenocarcinoma (n = 7), carcinosarcoma (n = 2), adenosarcoma (n = 1), and leiomyoma (n = 3). Excluding the three patients with leiomyomas, currently, 7 patients with malignant tumors are disease free after a mean interval of 15 months (range, 3–45) and 3 patients have been lost to follow-up. Conclusion: A stalk connecting an apparent cervical mass seen at CT or MR imaging to the endometrial cavity (“broccoli sign”) favors the diagnosis of a prolapsed uterine tumor; these prolapsed uterine tumors can often be malignant but appear to have a good prognosis.

  1. Effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution and labeling blood components with 99mTc-GH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: people consume vegetables without the knowledge of the side effects of the biological and chemical contents and interactions between radiopharmaceuticals and herbal extract. To this end, current study is focused on the effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucoheptonate (99mTc-GH) and radiolabeling of blood components. Methods: GH was labeled with 99mTc. Quality control studies were done utilizing TLC method. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with either broccoli extract or SF as control group for 15 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from rats' heart. Radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with GH, SnCl2 and 99m Tc. Results: radiochemical yield of 99mTc-GH is 98.46±1.48 % (n=8). Biodistribution studies have shown that according to the control, the treated group with broccoli has approximately 10 times less uptake in kidney. The percentage of the radioactivity ratios of the blood components is found to be same in both groups. Conclusions: although there is no considerable effect on the radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially on kidneys. The knowledge of this change on kidney uptake may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  2. Exergetic performance analyses of drying of broccoli florets in a tray drier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, the drying process is one of the major procedures of food preservation and an important unit operation in a wide variety of food industries. Recently, drying of vegetables is of a particular interest because it is added to various ready-to-eat meals in order to improve their nutritional quality due to health benefit compounds present in vegetables (vitamins, phytochemicals, dietary fibers). Broccoli has been described as a vegetable with a high nutritional value due to its important content of vitamins, antioxidants and anti-carcinogenic compounds. Broccoli dehydration has not been investigated to a great extent and a few data are available in the open literature. In this study, broccoli florets were dried in a tray drier at a temperature range of 50-70 deg C with an air velocity range of 0.5-1.5 m/s. The performance of the process and system was evaluated using the exergy analysis method. Based on the experimental data, effects of the drying air temperature and the velocity on the performance of the drying process were discussed. It was obtained that the exergy evaporation rate and the exergetic efficiency of the process were obtained to vary between 0.0006-0.0029 kW and 0.27-1.16%, respectively. They increased as the drying air temperature increased, while the exergetic efficiency decreased with the rise in the drying air velocity. (author)

  3. Validation of the Analytical Method for the Determination of Flavonoids in Broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuszyńska Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, accurate and selective HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of quercetin and kaempferol, which are the main flavonols in broccoli. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column using a mobile phase composed of methanol/water (60/40 and phosphoric acid 0.2% at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min-1. The detection was carried out on a DAD detector at 370 nm. This method was validated according to the requirements for new methods, which include selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. The current method demonstrates good linearity, with R2 > 0.99. The recovery is within 98.07-102.15% and 97.92-101.83% for quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. The method is selective, in that quercetin and kaempferol are well separated from other compounds of broccoli with good resolution. The low limit of detection and limit of quantitation of quercetin and kaempferol enable the detection and quantitation of these flavonoids in broccoli at low con–centrations.

  4. Utility of the broccoli sign in the distinction of prolapsed uterine tumor from cervical tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Priyanka; Chang, Stephanie T. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Rabban, Joseph T. [Department of Anatomic Pathology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Chen, Lee-may [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Yeh, Benjamin M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Coakley, Fergus V., E-mail: Fergus.Coakley@radiology.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: To describe the utility, histopathological basis, and clinical correlates of the broccoli sign. Methods: The committee on human research approved this HIPAA compliant study and waived written informed consent. Based on the records of the senior author and our multidisciplinary Gynecologic Oncology Tumor Board, we retrospectively identified thirteen women (mean age of 48.8 years; range, 34-74) with a cervical mass seen at MR imaging (n = 13) or CT (n = 5) that demonstrated the previously reported broccoli sign (i.e., a soft tissue stalk connecting the cervical mass to the uterine cavity) on one or other modality. All available clinical, imaging, and histopathological records were reviewed, with particular emphasis on initially suspected diagnosis, final proven diagnosis, and outcome. Results: Cervical cancer was the initial clinically suspected diagnosis in 6 of 13 patients. Surgical resection demonstrated prolapsed uterine tumor in all patients, consisting of endometrioid adenocarcinoma (n = 7), carcinosarcoma (n = 2), adenosarcoma (n = 1), and leiomyoma (n = 3). Excluding the three patients with leiomyomas, currently, 7 patients with malignant tumors are disease free after a mean interval of 15 months (range, 3-45) and 3 patients have been lost to follow-up. Conclusion: A stalk connecting an apparent cervical mass seen at CT or MR imaging to the endometrial cavity ('broccoli sign') favors the diagnosis of a prolapsed uterine tumor; these prolapsed uterine tumors can often be malignant but appear to have a good prognosis.

  5. Two Year Field Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Mamestra brassicae Nucleopolyhedrovirus Combined with Proteins Derived from Xestia c-nigrum Granulovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Goto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Japan has only three registered baculovirus biopesticides despite its long history of studies on insect viruses. High production cost is one of the main hindrances for practical use of baculoviruses. Enhancement of insecticidal effect is one possible way to overcome this problem, so there have been many attempts to develop additives for baculoviruses. We found that alkaline soluble proteins of capsules (GVPs of Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus can increase infectivity of some viruses including Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus (MabrNPV, and previously reported that MabrNPV mixed with GVPs was highly infectious to three important noctuid pests of vegetables in the following order, Helicoverpa armigera, M. brassicae, and Autographa nigrisigna. In this study, small-plot experiments were performed to assess concentrations of MabrNPV and GVPs at three cabbage fields and a broccoli field for the control of M. brassicae. In the first experiment, addition of GVPs (10 µg/mL to MabrNPV at 106 OBs/mL resulted in a significant increase in NPV infection (from 53% to 66%. In the second experiment, the enhancing effect of GVP on NPV infection was confirmed at 10-times lower concentrations of MabrNPV. In the third and fourth experiments, a 50% reduction in GVPs (from 10 µg/mL to 5 µg/mL did not result in a lowering of infectivity of the formulations containing MabrNPV at 105 OBs/mL. These results indicate that GVPs are promising additives for virus insecticides.

  6. The nomenclature of two fungi parasitizing Brassica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, G.H.; Kesteren, van H.A.

    1964-01-01

    The nomenclature of the perfect and imperfect stages of Mycosphaerella brassicicola (Duby) Lind. and Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. & De Not. is discussed. The imperfect stages of these two parasites of Brassica spp. are often confused. Mycosphaerella brassicicola has a spermagonial stage with

  7. Dietary chemoprevention of PhIP induced carcinogenesis in male Fischer 344 rats with tomato and broccoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstie Canene-Adams

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP, found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 45 were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet, PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study, or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks. Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers.

  8. Dietary chemoprevention of PhIP induced carcinogenesis in male Fischer 344 rats with tomato and broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Sfanos, Karen S; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G; Brayton, Cory; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2013-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP), found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 45) were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet), PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study), or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks). Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS) lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers. PMID:24312188

  9. Functional properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) phytochemicals and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph L; Moreau, Régis

    2016-08-10

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against common chronic diseases, such as cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Leafy green vegetables, in particular, are recognized as having substantial health-promoting activities that are attributed to the functional properties of their nutrients and non-essential chemical compounds. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely regarded as a functional food due to its diverse nutritional composition, which includes vitamins and minerals, and to its phytochemicals and bioactives that promote health beyond basic nutrition. Spinach-derived phytochemicals and bioactives are able to (i) scavenge reactive oxygen species and prevent macromolecular oxidative damage, (ii) modulate expression and activity of genes involved in metabolism, proliferation, inflammation, and antioxidant defence, and (iii) curb food intake by inducing secretion of satiety hormones. These biological activities contribute to the anti-cancer, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic properties of spinach. Despite these valuable attributes, spinach consumption remains low in comparison to other leafy green vegetables. This review examines the functional properties of spinach in cell culture, animals and humans with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which spinach-derived non-essential phytochemicals and bioactives, such as glycolipids and thylakoids, impart their health benefits. PMID:27353735

  10. Different myrosinase and idioblast distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Höglund, Anna-Stina;

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry......Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry...

  11. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite.

  12. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Pany, Dipti Ranjan; Mohanty, Biswaranjan

    2010-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite. PMID:22247868

  13. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pingxia; Liu Bo; Sun Silong; Fang Lu; Wu Jian; Liu Shengyi; Cheng Feng; Hua Wei; Wang Xiaowu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. D...

  14. Contamination of Chinese Cabbage Soil with Plasmodiophora brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Woo Soh; Kyung-Sook Han; Seong-Chan Lee; Jung-Sup Lee

    2013-01-01

    This research was performed to establish basic technology for Chinese cabbage clubroot chemical control by investigating the soil contamination of Plasmodiophora brassicae in major producing regions of fall Chinese cabbage. PCR primers were developed to detect P. brassicae, a causal agent of Chinese cabbage club-root that generally occurs in Cruciferae family. A primer set, PbbtgF761 and PbbtgR961, specifically amplified a 245 bp fragment from P. brassicae only. At places well kno...

  15. Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the hybrid between novel restorer line NR1 and Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of young floral buds, we performed a genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Results In this study, equal amounts of total RNAs taken from young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. After filtered out low quality data, a total of 2,760,574 and 2,714,441 clean tags were remained in the two libraries, from which 242,163 (Ste and 253,507 (Fer distinct tags were obtained. All distinct sequencing tags were annotated using all possible CATG+17-nt sequences of the genome and transcriptome of Brassica rapa and those of Brassica oleracea as the reference sequences, respectively. In total, 3231 genes of B. rapa and 3371 genes of B. oleracea were detected with significant differential expression levels. GO and pathway-based analyses were performed to determine and further to understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs. In addition, there were 1089 specially expressed unknown tags in Fer, which were neither mapped to B. oleracea nor to B. rapa, and these unique tags were presumed to arise basically from the added alien chromosome of S. arvensis. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and fourteen of them showed consistent expression patterns with the digital gene expression (DGE data. Conclusions A number of genes were differentially expressed between the young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Some of these genes may be candidates for future research on CMS in

  16. MicroRNA319a-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TCP genes modulate head shape in chinese cabbage by differential cell division arrest in leaf regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanfei; Wu, Feijie; Yu, Xiang; Bai, Jinjuan; Zhong, Weili; He, Yuke

    2014-02-01

    Leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are composed of extremely incurved leaves. The shape of these heads often dictates the quality, and thus the commercial value, of these crops. Using quantitative trait locus mapping of head traits within a population of 150 recombinant inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, we investigated the relationship between expression levels of microRNA-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, cycloidea, and PCF transcription factor4 (BrpTCP4) genes and head shape. Here, we demonstrate that a cylindrical head shape is associated with relatively low BrpTCP4-1 expression, whereas a round head shape is associated with high BrpTCP4-1 expression. In the round-type Chinese cabbage, microRNA319 (miR319) accumulation and BrpTCP4-1 expression decrease from the apical to central regions of leaves. Overexpression of BrpMIR319a2 reduced the expression levels of BrpTCP4 and resulted in an even distribution of BrpTCP4 transcripts within all leaf regions. Changes in temporal and spatial patterns of BrpTCP4 expression appear to be associated with excess growth of both apical and interveinal regions, straightened leaf tips, and a transition from the round to the cylindrical head shape. These results suggest that the miR319a-targeted BrpTCP gene regulates the round shape of leafy heads via differential cell division arrest in leaf regions. Therefore, the manipulation of miR319a and BrpTCP4 genes is a potentially important tool for use in the genetic improvement of head shape in these crops. PMID:24351684

  17. Multiple NUCLEAR FACTOR Y transcription factors respond to abiotic stress in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    Full Text Available Members of the plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y family are composed of the NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC subunits. In Brassica napus (canola, each of these subunits forms a multimember subfamily. Plant NF-Ys were reported to be involved in several abiotic stresses. In this study, we demonstrated that multiple members of thirty three BnNF-Ys responded rapidly to salinity, drought, or ABA treatments. Transcripts of five BnNF-YAs, seven BnNF-YBs, and two BnNF-YCs were up-regulated by salinity stress, whereas the expression of thirteen BnNF-YAs, ten BnNF-YBs, and four BnNF-YCs were induced by drought stress. Under NaCl treatments, the expression of one BnNF-YA10 and four NF-YBs (BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, and BnNF-YB14 were greatly increased. Under PEG treatments, the expression levels of four NF-YAs (BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, BnNF-YA11, and BnNF-YA12 and five NF-YBs (BnNF-YB1, BnNF-YB8, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14 were greatly induced. The expression profiles of 20 of the 27 salinity- or drought-induced BnNF-Ys were also affected by ABA treatment. The expression levels of six NF-YAs (BnNF-YA1, BnNF-YA7, BnNF-YA8, BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, and BnNF-YA12 and seven BnNF-YB members (BnNF-YB2, BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB11, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14 and two NF-YC members (BnNF-YC2 and BnNF-YC3 were greatly up-regulated by ABA treatments. Only a few BnNF-Ys were inhibited by the above three treatments. Several NF-Y subfamily members exhibited collinear expression patterns. The promoters of all stress-responsive BnNF-Ys harbored at least two types of stress-related cis-elements, such as ABRE, DRE, MYB, or MYC. The cis-element organization of BnNF-Ys was similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, and the promoter regions exhibited higher levels of nucleotide sequence identity with Brassica rapa than with Brassica oleracea. This work represents an entry point for investigating the roles of canola NF-Y proteins during abiotic stress responses and provides

  18. The evolution of Brassica napus FLOWERING LOCUST paralogues in the context of inverted chromosomal duplication blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jianwei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT and its orthologues play a central role in the integration of flowering signals within Arabidopsis and other diverse species. Multiple copies of FT, with different cis-intronic sequence, exist and appear to operate harmoniously within polyploid crop species such as Brassica napus (AACC, a member of the same plant family as Arabidopsis. Results We have identified six BnFT paralogues from the genome of B. napus and mapped them to six distinct regions, each of which is homologous to a common ancestral block (E of Arabidopsis chromosome 1. Four of the six regions were present within inverted duplicated regions of chromosomes A7 and C6. The coding sequences of BnFT paralogues showed 92-99% identities to each other and 85-87% identity with that of Arabidopsis. However, two of the paralogues on chromosomes A2 and C2, BnA2.FT and BnC2.FT, were found to lack the distinctive CArG box that is located within intron 1 that has been shown in Arabidopsis to be the binding site for theFLC protein. Three BnFT paralogues (BnA2.FT, BnC6.FT.a and BnC6.FT.b were associated with two major QTL clusters for flowering time. One of the QTLs encompassing two BnFT paralogues (BnC6.FT.a and BnC6.FT.b on chromosome C6 was resolved further using near isogenic lines, specific alleles of which were both shown to promote flowering. Association analysis of the three BnFT paralogues across 55 cultivars of B. napus showed that the alleles detected in the original parents of the mapping population used to detect QTL (NY7 and Tapidor were ubiquitous amongst spring and winter type cultivars of rapeseed. It was inferred that the ancestral FT homologues in Brassica evolved from two distinct copies, one of which was duplicated along with inversion of the associated chromosomal segment prior to the divergence of B. rapa (AA and B. oleracea (CC. At least ten such inverted duplicated blocks (IDBs were identified covering a quarter of the

  19. Sulforaphane formation and bioaccessibility are more affected by steaming time than meal composition during in vitro digestion of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvan, I; Kramer, E; Bouwmeester, H; Dekker, M; Verkerk, R

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli is a rich source of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin (GR). After hydrolysis of GR by the endogenous enzyme myrosinase, sulforaphane (SF) or sulforaphane nitrile (SFN) are produced, depending on environmental conditions. How the conversion of GR and bioaccessibility of released breakdown products are affected by steaming (raw, 1min, 2min and 3min steamed) and meal composition (protein or lipid addition) was studied with an in vitro digestion model (mouth, stomach, intestine, but not colonic digestion). The main formation of SF and SFN occurred during in vitro chewing. The contents of GR, SF and SFN did not change after further digestion, as the irreversible inactivated myrosinase under gastric conditions caused no further GR hydrolysis. SF concentrations were up to 10 times higher in raw and 1min steamed broccoli samples after digestion compared to longer-steamed broccoli. Protein or lipid addition had no influence on the formation and bioaccessibility of SF or SFN. PMID:27507513

  20. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.. It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction. Pod damage amounted to 11.6%. The emergence of the second generation adults was detected at the end of May and in the first ten days of June. D. brassicae was found to lay eggs in healthy pods and no correlation was found with the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis Paykull.