Sample records for broadsides

  1. Modeling and Simulation on the Underwater Trajectory of Non-Powered Vehicle Discharged from the Broadside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Ye; Hao Zhou; Xinye Wang


    In order to study the underwater trajectory of the non⁃powered vehicle discharged from the broadside of the underwater platform, the simulation on the ascent process of non⁃powered vehicle was realized based on the mathematical model including the movement of the vehicle on the slope plate and in the seawater, the air chamber underwater working process etc. The simulation results show that the outlet speed and attitude of the vehicle meet the requirements of missile launching, the non⁃powered vehicle discharged from the broadside of the underwater platform is feasible. The simulation results with varying parameters show that the negative buoyancy of the vehicle imposes great impacts on the security of its discharge and the floating process, and the vehicle discharge depth is proportional to the floating time. The models and simulation result can be used in further research on the broadside discharging technology of the underwater platform.

  2. Wideband bandpass filters employing broadside-coupled microstrip lines for MIC and MMIC applications (United States)

    Tran, M.; Nguyen, C.


    Wideband bandpass filters employing half-wavelength broadside-coupled microstrip lines suitable for microwave and mm-wave integrated monolithic integrated circuits (MIC and MMIC) are presented. Several filters have been developed at X-band (8 to 12 GHz) with 1 dB insertion loss. Fair agreement between the measured and calculated results has been observed. The analysis of the broadside-coupled microstrip lines used in the filters, based on the quasi-static spectral domain technique, is also described.

  3. Decoupling crossover in asymmetric broadside coupled split-ring resonators at terahertz frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiser, G. R.; Strikwerda, Andrew; Fan, K.;


    We investigate the electromagnetic response of asymmetric broadside coupled split-ring resonators (ABC-SRRs) as a function of the relative in-plane displacement between the two component SRRs. The asymmetry is defined as the difference in the capacitive gap widths (Δg) between the two resonators ...

  4. A Reconfigurable WiMAX Antenna for Directional and Broadside Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jusoh


    Full Text Available A novel reconfigurable compact patch array antenna for directional and broadside application is proposed. The presented antenna has successfully been able to function for directional beam at 320° or 35° and divisive broadside beam at 43° and 330°. This is realized in the unique form of aperture coupled spiral feeding technique and positioning of the radiating elements at 0°, 90,° and 180°. The switchable feature is effectively performed by the configuration of three PIN diodes. All PIN diodes are positioned at the specific location of the aperture coupled structure. It is discovered in simulation that the switches can be represented with a copper strip line or touchstone (TS block . The proposed antenna design operates at 2.37 GHz to 2.41 GHz and has a maximum gain of 6.4 dB and efficiency of 85.97%. Such antenna produces a broadside HPBW with a wider bandwidth covering from −90° to 90° compared to the normal microstrip antenna which could only provide HPBW of −50° to 50°. Moreover, the proposed antenna has small physical dimension of 100 mm by 100 mm. The simulation and measurement results have successfully exhibited the idea of the presented antenna performance. Therefore, the antenna is sufficiently competent in the smart WiMAX antenna application.

  5. Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. (United States)

    Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W


    We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation.

  6. Design of C Band LTCC Broadside-coupled Multilayer Filter%C波段LTCC宽边耦合叠层滤波器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程书博; 赵祖军


      C波段LTCC带通滤波器的设计,由于其谐振器采取集中LC元件,其Q值偏低,且LTCC厚膜集中元件大小在C波段相对偏大,为此在设计方面主要考虑利用传输线结构的分布参数谐振单元。分布参数宽边耦合谐振单元耦合系数大,特别适合中宽带滤波器设计。文章根据滤波器指标要求,通过电路综合出滤波器的耦合系数及外部Q值。然后利用LTCC多层优势,实现宽边叠层耦合谐振单元的C波段滤波器。%In the design of C band LTCC band-pass filter, since the resonator uses integrated IC and lumped elements use LTCC thick film, its Q value is low and size is relatively large in C band, so in the designing aspect, distribution parameters resonance unit with transmission line structure is the main consideration. Distributed parameter broadside coupled resonator unit, since its coupling coefficient is high, is particularly suitable to designing broadband filter. According to the requirements of filter, we synthesize the coupling coefficient and external Q value of filter through circuit and then realize C band filter with broadside coupled resonator unit using LTCC multilayer technology.

  7. Analysis on Crashworthiness of FPSO Broadside Based on Sandwich Plate System (SPS)%基于钢夹层板(SPS)的FPSO舷侧耐撞性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严锋; 李艳贞


    Steel sandwich plate system (SPS) possesses the advantages of light weight, high strength and can effectively improve the crashworthiness of ship. By using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA software and composite materials model , this paper simulates and calculates the dynamic process of a FPSO hit by a 5000DWT work ship in the lateral direction, studies the influence of SPS parameters on the crashworthiness of the FPSO broadside. Calculation results show that the crashworthiness of the FPSO broadside is improved by using sandwich plate system.%钢夹层板系统(SPS)具有质量轻、强度高的优点,能有效提高船舶的耐撞性能。本文使用ANSYS/LS-DYNA软件,采用复合材料模型,对于一艘5000吨工作船撞击30万吨级FPSO舷侧的动态过程进行了数值计算,并研究了SPS系统参数对耐撞性能的影响。计算结果表明,SPS结构能有效提高船舶的耐撞性能。

  8. Broadside Ballads: Social Consciousness in Song (United States)

    Junda, Mary Ellen


    This article highlights a group ballad project which is a part of student experiences in Sing and Shout!, a course that integrates academic study with singing and song writing to develop a deeper understanding of problems in society. Students explore the intricacies of song composition and social consciousness drawn from past events that reflect…

  9. Russia coordinates new broadside against OSCE / Liz Fuller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fuller, Liz


    SRÜ maade poolt 8. juulil 2004 Viinis tehtud avaldusest, mille kohaselt sekkub Euroopa Julgeoleku- ja Koostööorganisatsioon (OSCE) riikide siseasjadesse ning rakendab topeltstandardeid. Avaldusega ei ühinenud Gruusia ja Aserbaidžaan

  10. Direct identification of early synthetic dyes: FT-Raman study of the illustrated broadside prints of José Gaudalupe Posada (1852-1913) (United States)

    Casadio, F.; Mauck, K.; Chefitz, M.; Freeman, R.


    Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy was used for the non-invasive, direct identification of colorants used to dye historical printed papers, overcoming obstacles such as low concentration of the dye, faded colors and fluorescence interference of the aged paper substrate. Based on a newly created FT-Raman reference database of 20 widely used dyes in the 19th century paper industry, the detectability of these dyes on aged biomaterials was determined by studying dyed paper samples from contemporary dye manuals, and identifying diagnostic peaks detectable on those substrates. Lastly, the method was applied to analyze the colorants used to dye the papers of a group of prints illustrated by the influential Mexico City artist José Guadalupe Posada, active 1876-1913. Unambiguous identification of the synthetic organic colorants Malachite Green (a triarylmethane dye), Orange II and Metanil Yellow (two acid monoazo dyes), Cotton Scarlet (an acid diazo dye), Phloxine (a xanthene dye) and Victoria Blue (a triarylmethane dye) in several of Posada’s prints challenged previous art-historical assumptions that these artworks were colored with natural dyes. The acquired knowledge has important conservation implications given that aniline dyes are sensitive to light and to aqueous treatments otherwise commonly carried out on works of art on paper.

  11. In-flight measurements and RCS-predictions: A comparison on broad-side radar range profiles of a Boeing 737

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiden, R. van der; Ewijk, L.J. van; Groen, F.C.A.


    The validation of Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction techniques against real measurements is crucial to acquire confidence in predictions when measurements are not available. In this paper we present the first results of a comparison on one dimensional images, i.e., radar range profiles. The profi

  12. LTCC宽边耦合交指型超宽带滤波器设计%Design of an Ultra-Wideband LTCC filter based on broadside-coupled interdigital structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠力; 唐高弟; 李中云


    To achieve miniaturization of Ultra-Wideband(UWB) bandpass filters, a novel interdigital filter and its design method are proposed. The filter realizes large coupling coefficient using broadsidecoupled structure, and unnecessary cross coupling is reduced by widening the width of stripline resonator. It simplifies the design method of the filter. A six-pole interdigital bandpass filter is designed using the proposed structure, which is centered at fo GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 58%, and the size of the filter is 8 mm X 11 mm. The simulation results show that the filter keeps the advantages of the traditional interdigital filter with good stopband characteristics and spurious response.%提出用交指型结构实现超宽带(UWB)带通滤波器的小型化,并给出了设计方法.该结构通过宽边耦合实现超宽带滤波器需要的较大耦合系数,并通过加宽带状线谐振器的宽度减少不必要的交叉耦合,简化了滤波器的设计.最终设计了一个中心频率为f0,相对带宽为58%的六阶交指带通滤波器,滤波器尺寸仅为8 mm×11 mm.从仿真结果看,该滤波器保持了传统交指型滤波器阻带特性好,寄生通带远的优点.

  13. 37 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - “Best Edition” of Published Copyrighted Works for the Collections of the Library of Congress (United States)


    ... rather than without (for broadsides). 11. Rolled rather than folded (for broadsides). 12. With protective... rather than less-permanent paper stock or printing process. III. Motion Pictures Film medium is... have different binding, apply the criteria in I.A.2-I.A.7, above. 3. Rolled rather than folded. 4....

  14. Worst-case tolerance optimization of antenna systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans


    The application of recently developed algorithms to antenna systems design is demonstrated by the worst-case tolerance optimization of linear broadside arrays, using both spacings and excitation coefficients as design parameters. The resulting arrays are optimally immunized against deviations...

  15. Metamaterial-inspired SRR-based Small Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A self-resonant miniaturized antenna composed of a broadside-coupled split ring resonator (SRR) and an excitation truncated loop is presented. Being λ0/17 in size the antenna is tuned to 50 Ohms without any matching network.......A self-resonant miniaturized antenna composed of a broadside-coupled split ring resonator (SRR) and an excitation truncated loop is presented. Being λ0/17 in size the antenna is tuned to 50 Ohms without any matching network....

  16. Rolling With Simplified Stream Function Velocity and Strain Rate Vector Inner Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The dual-stream function velocity field is reduced in order to analyze two-dimensional plate broadside roll- ing in roughing. The strain rate vector inner product and integral mean value theorem, as well as coqine vector inner product are used respectively in plastic deformation power, friction losses and shear power. A theoretical solution of roll torque and separating force for the rolling is obtained and the calculated results by the solution are compared with those measured in broadside rolling on-line. It shows that both the force and torque calculated are higher than those of measured, but the maximum relative error between them is no more than 11%.

  17. Continuous leaky-wave scanning using periodically modulated spoof plasmonic waveguide. (United States)

    Kong, Gu Sheng; Ma, Hui Feng; Cai, Ben Geng; Cui, Tie Jun


    The plasmonic waveguide made of uniform corrugated metallic strip can support and guide spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) with high confinements. Here, we propose periodically-modulated plasmonic waveguide composed of non-uniform corrugated metallic strip to convert SSPPs to radiating waves, in which the main beam of radiations can steer continuously as the frequency changes. To increase the radiation efficiency of the periodically-modulated plasmonic waveguide at the broadside, an asymmetrical plasmonic waveguide is further presented to reduce the reflections and realize continuous leaky-wave scanning. Both numerical simulations and experimental results show that the radiation efficiency can be improved greatly and the main beam of leaky-wave radiations can steer from the backward quadrant to the forward quadrant, passing through the broadside direction, which generally is difficult to be realized by the common leaky-wave antennas.

  18. Reconfigurable time-steered array-antenna beam former. (United States)

    Frankel, M Y; Esman, R D


    We present and analyze a hardware-optimized technique that provides true-time-delay steering for broadband two-dimensional array-antenna applications. The technique improves on previous approaches by the reduction of the two-dimensional beam-former architecture complexity, by the provision of flexibility in time-delay unit selection, and by the potential reduction of optical loss. The technique relies on a one-dimensional bank of time-delay units to form the required time-delay gradient for proper off-broadside angle steering. A reconfigurable optical interconnection fabric is used to reassign dynamically the connections between the time-delay units and individual array elements of a two-dimensional array to effect the proper steering angle along the off-broadside cone.

  19. Performance Enhancement of the NPS Transient Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory (United States)


    00 ... .... 00 O-4ub Fiue1.4 hnWr rasd eovlto pcrmwt 25. cm. Dea Ln S3 IW i" I (tU/AtU) 0 )9 Figure 20. 4ŕ Thin Wire Broadside Deconvolved Field with...Minimum Delay Line 38 z 0 0 CdA) 0 Fiur 21 41 ThnWr rasd -ecnodFedwt 25.5 m Dely Lin I 1 39 The first attempt at elimination of the oscillation was

  20. Improvement of 5.8 GHz Band Patch Antenna with Metamaterial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nam-ki LEE; Seung-in YANG


    A patch antenna,a metamaterial patch antenna and a proposed metamaterial patch antenna,are simulated and compared.Simulation results show that the proposed antenna can concentrate so well radiation energy into broadside direction that the antenna gain is increased and the side lobe level is decreased.Therefore,the gain of the proposed metamaterial patch antenna is improved by 2 dB than that of the ordinary metamaterial patch anterma.

  1. Research in Antenna Technology, Radar Technology and Electromagnetic Scattering Phenomena (United States)


    array of infinitely long wires carrying impressed currents with period and phase increments to form a scanned beam in one plane and broadside in the...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1...other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a

  2. Design of Square Shaped Miniaturized Split Ring Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najuka Hadkar,


    Full Text Available Microwaves are constantly experiencing changes for many years. Microwave circuits use microstrip lines because it allows easy integration of active and passive surface mount components and it is less costly. In addition to a large number of benefits, microstrip lines have some disadvantages such as narrow-band loss, interference and low efficiency. To overcome the disadvantages, metamaterials are introduced. The proposed work shows various concentric U-shaped multi-split ring resonators(SRRs metamaterial structures with & without broadside coupling. As compared to the conventional split ring resonators , broadside coupled resonators shows decrease in the LC resonance frequency and provide an electrically small and easy-tofabricate alternative to the present multi-band metamaterial structures. The multi-band magnetic resonator topologies are simulated using CST Microwave Studio (MWS to compute and compare their electrical sizes. Different types of U-shaped structures with inner and outer rings of SRR are used to realize transmission spectra, resonant frequencies and electrical sizes. This topology has the flexibility of adjusting the resonance frequencies by changing the design parameters such as the gap width, metal width and inter-ring distances. The broadside-coupled multiple U-Shaped magnetic resonator topology is considered to be a useful contribution to multi-band metamaterial research applications.

  3. Maximum Constrained Directivity of Oversteered End-Fire Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Trucco


    Full Text Available For linear arrays with fixed steering and an inter-element spacing smaller than one half of the wavelength, end-fire steering of a data-independent beamformer offers better directivity than broadside steering. The introduction of a lower bound on the white noise gain ensures the necessary robustness against random array errors and sensor mismatches. However, the optimum broadside performance can be obtained using a simple processing architecture, whereas the optimum end-fire performance requires a more complicated system (because complex weight coefficients are needed. In this paper, we reconsider the oversteering technique as a possible way to simplify the processing architecture of equally spaced end-fire arrays. We propose a method for computing the amount of oversteering and the related real-valued weight vector that allows the constrained directivity to be maximized for a given inter-element spacing. Moreover, we verify that the maximized oversteering performance is very close to the optimum end-fire performance. We conclude that optimized oversteering is a viable method for designing end-fire arrays that have better constrained directivity than broadside arrays but with a similar implementation complexity. A numerical simulation is used to perform a statistical analysis, which confirms that the maximized oversteering performance is robust against sensor mismatches.

  4. Maximum Constrained Directivity of Oversteered End-Fire Sensor Arrays. (United States)

    Trucco, Andrea; Traverso, Federico; Crocco, Marco


    For linear arrays with fixed steering and an inter-element spacing smaller than one half of the wavelength, end-fire steering of a data-independent beamformer offers better directivity than broadside steering. The introduction of a lower bound on the white noise gain ensures the necessary robustness against random array errors and sensor mismatches. However, the optimum broadside performance can be obtained using a simple processing architecture, whereas the optimum end-fire performance requires a more complicated system (because complex weight coefficients are needed). In this paper, we reconsider the oversteering technique as a possible way to simplify the processing architecture of equally spaced end-fire arrays. We propose a method for computing the amount of oversteering and the related real-valued weight vector that allows the constrained directivity to be maximized for a given inter-element spacing. Moreover, we verify that the maximized oversteering performance is very close to the optimum end-fire performance. We conclude that optimized oversteering is a viable method for designing end-fire arrays that have better constrained directivity than broadside arrays but with a similar implementation complexity. A numerical simulation is used to perform a statistical analysis, which confirms that the maximized oversteering performance is robust against sensor mismatches.

  5. Numerical and experimental studies of resonators with reduced resonant frequencies and small electrical sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, T; Edwards, D J; Stevens, C J


    Methods on reducing resonant frequencies and electrical sizes of resonators are reported in this paper. Theoreti-cal and numerical analysis has been used and the results for the broadside-coupled resonators from both studies exhibit good agreement. Initial fabrication techniques are proposed and measurement results are compared with simulations. Further high resolution techniques have been envisaged to enhance the performance of the resona-tors. This class of small resonators with low resonant frequencies indicates a variety of applications in the design of microwave devices.

  6. Reducing losses and dispersion effects in multilayer metamaterial tunnelling devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baena, Juan D [Department of Electronics and Electromagnetism, Faculty of Physics, University of Seville, Avenida Reina Mercedes, 41012 Seville (Spain); Jelinek, Lukas [Department of Electromagnetic Field, Czech Technical University, Technicka 2, 16627-Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Marques, Ricardo [Department of Electronics and Electromagnetism, Faculty of Physics, University of Seville, Avenida Reina Mercedes, 41012 Seville (Spain)


    This paper focuses on reduction of losses and dispersion effects on tunnelling through waveguides filled with metamaterial. It will be shown that these unwanted effects could be reduced by dividing the metamaterial into several regions separated by air slabs. In the first part, these effects will be studied for isotropic left-handed media (LHM). Later this will be substituted by an anisotropic magnetic medium which will lead to a practical realization with broadside coupled split ring resonators (BC-SRRs). Finally, it is shown that quasi-perfect tunnelling is possible, even in the presence of unavoidable losses and dispersion in the metamaterial.

  7. Metal-Grid Spatial Filter. Volume I. (United States)


    onactngCrose Stip it DilcrcNa6 rasd 95 -Vt- Figure 4-21 Round Hole Samples for Near-Broadside Simulator 96 FREQUENCY C6HZ) FREQUENCY (GHz) 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6...4.8 5.0 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6 4 9 5.0 -2- -2rO 00 0 HOLES :0:00w% HOLES 0 DATA 0-6~ - DATA -1 -14 Fiue42 aa o on oesNa rasd z 97 computed curve is given. No

  8. Microstrip and printed antenna design

    CERN Document Server

    Bancroft, Randy


    The approach in this book is historical and practical. It covers abasic designsa in more detail than other microstrip antenna books that tend to skip important electrical properties and implementation aspects of these types of antennas. Examples include: quarter-wave patch, quarter by quarter patch, detailed design method for rectangular circularly polarized patch, the use of the TM11 (linear and broadside CP), TM21 (monopole CP pattern) and TM02 (monopole linear) circular patch modes in designs, dual-band antenna designs which allow for independent dual-band frequencies. Limits on broadband m

  9. Análisis y diseño de antena Leaky-Wave CRLH y de superficie selectiva en frecuencia para el control de los campos radiados


    Pereira Sánchez, Salvadora


    En este proyecto se balanceará una antena LW basada en las celdas unitarias microstrip CRLH idénticas desarrolladas en [14] para su radiación en broadside a 10GHz, y se analizarán sus características de radiación. El objetivo fundamental será la reducción de los lóbulos laterales del diagrama de radiación de la antena mencionada, mediante el diseño no uniforme de la longitud y periodicidades de los slots que componen una superficie selectiva en frecuencia localizada sobre la antena, que ju...

  10. Miniaturised self-resonant split-ring resonator antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A self-resonant miniaturized antenna composed of a broadside-coupled split-ring resonator (SRR) and an excitation arc-shaped monopole is presented. The size of the antenna and its resonance frequency is essentially defined by the SRR dimensions and geometry, while the input resistance...... at the resonance is governed by the arc length of the monopole. Numerical and experimental results are presented for an antenna configuration of 1/23.4 wavelength in diameter (ka~0.134). The antenna is tuned to 50 ohms without any matching network, and its efficiency is measured to be 17.5%....

  11. Chapter 3 – Phenomenology of Tsunamis: Statistical Properties from Generation to Runup (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.


    Observations related to tsunami generation, propagation, and runup are reviewed and described in a phenomenological framework. In the three coastal regimes considered (near-field broadside, near-field oblique, and far field), the observed maximum wave amplitude is associated with different parts of the tsunami wavefield. The maximum amplitude in the near-field broadside regime is most often associated with the direct arrival from the source, whereas in the near-field oblique regime, the maximum amplitude is most often associated with the propagation of edge waves. In the far field, the maximum amplitude is most often caused by the interaction of the tsunami coda that develops during basin-wide propagation and the nearshore response, including the excitation of edge waves, shelf modes, and resonance. Statistical distributions that describe tsunami observations are also reviewed, both in terms of spatial distributions, such as coseismic slip on the fault plane and near-field runup, and temporal distributions, such as wave amplitudes in the far field. In each case, fundamental theories of tsunami physics are heuristically used to explain the observations.

  12. Theory of a Directive Optical Leaky Wave Antenna Integrated into a Resonator and Enhancement of Radiation Control

    CERN Document Server

    Guclu, Caner; Boyraz, Ozdal; Capolino, Filippo


    We provide for the first time the detailed study of the radiation performance of an optical leaky wave antenna (OLWA) integrated into a Fabry-P\\'erot resonator. We show that the radiation pattern can be expressed as the one generated by the interference of two leaky waves counter-propagating in the resonator leading to a design procedure for achieving optimized broadside radiation, i.e., normal to the waveguide axis. We thus report a realizable implementation of the OLWA made of semiconductor and dielectric regions. The theoretical modeling is supported by full-wave simulation results, which are found to be in good agreement. We aim to control the radiation intensity in the broadside direction via excess carrier generation in the semiconductor regions. We show that the presence of the resonator can provide an effective way of enhancing the radiation level modulation, which reaches values as high as 13.5 dB, paving the way for novel promising control capabilities that might allow the generation of very fast op...

  13. Entrance Channel Stereospecificity of Photoinitiated H-Atom Reactions in Weakly Bonded Complexes (United States)

    Shin, Seung Koo; Chen, Y.; Oh, D.; Wittig, C.


    Hot H-atom reactions photoinitiated in T-shaped CO2-HBr and nearly-linear CO2-HCl complexes show remarkably different reaction probabilities. Broadside H-atom approaches in CO2-HBr complexes are greatly favoured over the relatively endon approaches of CO2-HCl complexes, a striking steric effect. Photoinitiated hot H-atom reactions with N2O result in a much lower [NH]/[OH] ratio with N2O-HI complexes than under single-collision conditions at the same photolysis wavelength. In addition, OH rotational distributions differ markedly between bulk and complexed conditions, while NH rotational distributions are similar. These results can be interpreted in terms of entrance channel stereospecificity influencing chemically distinct product channels.

  14. Photoinitiated H+CO/sub 2/ yields OH+CO reactions: OH distributions and three-body interactions in CO/sub 2/H/sub 2/S complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J.; Hoffmann, G.; Wittig, C.


    In previous publications, the authors reported using weakly bonded complexes as precursors in studies involving oriented and aligned reactants. This method provides a unique environment wherein the V, R wave functions and equilibrium geometry determine the initial positions and momenta of the nuclei in the reaction which follows photoexcitation, thereby allowing geometrically constrained entrance channels to be explored. In these studies of precursor geometry-limited (PGL) reactions, initial excitation was to a repulsive HBr curve and the H-atom reacted with the nearby moiety in the binary complex. In all cases CO/sub 2/, OCS, and H(D) reactants, reactions proceeded from predominantly end-on rather than broadside approaches. It was pointed out that different complexes could provide different entrance channel approaches and that all of the nearby species should be taken into account in data analyses. In this Letter, results obtained with CO/sub 2/H/sub 2/S complexes are reported.

  15. Micromachined On-Chip Dielectric Resonator Antenna Operating at 60 GHz

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, Mai


    This paper presents a novel cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA) suitable for millimeter-wave on-chip systems. The antenna was fabricated from a single high resistivity silicon wafer via micromachining technology. The new antenna was characterized using HFSS and experimentally with good agreement been found between the simulations and experiment. The proposed DRA has good radiation characteristics, where its gain and radiation efficiency are 7 dBi and 79.35%, respectively. These properties are reasonably constant over the working frequency bandwidth of the antenna. The return loss bandwidth was 2.23 GHz, which corresponds to 3.78% around 60 GHz. The antenna was primarily a broadside radiator with -15 dB cross polarization level.

  16. Antenna optimization using Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Ružica M.


    Full Text Available We present the results for two different antenna optimization problems that are found using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. The first problem is finding the maximal forward gain of a Yagi antenna. The second problem is finding the optimal feeding of a broadside antenna array. The optimization problems have 6 and 20 optimization variables, respectively. The preferred values of the parameters of the PSO algorithm are found for presented problems. The results show that the preferred parameters of PSO are somewhat different for optimization problems with different number of dimensions of the optimization space. The results that are found using the PSO algorithm are compared with the results that are found using other optimization algorithms, in order to estimate the efficiency of the PSO.

  17. Wideband Array for C, X, and Ku-Band Applications with 5.3:1 Bandwidth (United States)

    Novak, Markus H.; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix A.


    Planar arrays that exploit strong intentional coupling between elements have allowed for very wide bandwidths in low-profile configurations. However, such designs also require complex impedance matching networks that must also be very compact. For many space applications, typically occurring at C-, X-, Ku-, and most recently at Ka-band, such designs require specialized and expensive fabrication techniques. To address this issue, a novel ultra-wideband array is presented, using a simplified feed network to reduce fabrication cost. The array operates from 3.5-18.5 GHz with VSWR less than 2.4 at broadside, and is of very low profile, having a total height of lambda/10 at the lowest frequency of operation. Validation is provided using a 64-element prototype array, fabricated using common Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology. The low size, weight, and cost of this array make it attractive for space-borne applications.

  18. Circulation of images and graphic practices in Renaissance natural history: the example of Conrad Gessner. (United States)

    Egmond, Florike; Kusukawa, Sachiko


    Conrad Gessner's Historia animalium is a compilation of information from a variety of sources: friends, correspondents, books, broadsides, drawings, as well as his own experience. The recent discovery of a cache of drawings at Amsterdam originally belonging to Gessner has added a new dimension for research into the role of images in Gessner's study of nature. In this paper, we examine the drawings that were the basis of the images in the volume of fishes. We uncovered several cases where there were multiple copies of the same drawing of a fish (rather than multiple drawings of the samefish), which problematizes the notion of unique "original" copies and their copies. While we still know very little about the actual mechanism of, or people involved in, commissioning or generating copies of drawings, their very existence suggests that the images functioned as an important medium in the circulation of knowledge in the early modern period.

  19. A Simplified Theory of Coupled Oscillator Array Phase Control (United States)

    Pogorzelski, R. J.; York, R. A.


    Linear and planar arrays of coupled oscillators have been proposed as means of achieving high power rf sources through coherent spatial power combining. In such - applications, a uniform phase distribution over the aperture is desired. However, it has been shown that by detuning some of the oscillators away from the oscillation frequency of the ensemble of oscillators, one may achieve other useful aperture phase distributions. Notable among these are linear phase distributions resulting in steering of the output rf beam away from the broadside direction. The theory describing the operation of such arrays of coupled oscillators is quite complicated since the phenomena involved are inherently nonlinear. This has made it difficult to develop an intuitive understanding of the impact of oscillator tuning on phase control and has thus impeded practical application. In this work a simpl!fied theory is developed which facilitates intuitive understanding by establishing an analog of the phase control problem in terms of electrostatics.

  20. Dual-Band Operation of a Circularly Polarized Four-Arm Curl Antenna with Asymmetric Arm Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Xuat Ta


    Full Text Available This paper presents dual-band operation of a single-feed composite cavity-backed four-arm curl antenna. Dual-band operation is achieved with the presence of the asymmetrical arm structure. A pair of vacant-quarter printed rings is used in the feed structure to produce a good circular polarization (CP at both bands. The cavity-backed reflector is employed to improve the CP radiation characteristics in terms of the 3-dB axial ratio beamwidth and broadside gain. The proposed antenna is widely applicable in dual-band communication systems that have a small frequency ratio. Examples of such a system are global positioning systems.

  1. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva


    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  2. Low profile conformal antenna arrays on high impedance substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan


    This book presents electromagnetic (EM) design and analysis of dipole antenna array over high impedance substrate (HIS). HIS is a preferred substrate for low-profile antenna design, owing to its unique boundary conditions. Such substrates permit radiating elements to be printed on them without any disturbance in the radiation characteristics. Moreover HIS provides improved impedance matching, enhanced bandwidth, and increased broadside directivity owing to total reflection from the reactive surface and high input impedance. This book considers different configurations of HIS for array design on planar and non-planar high-impedance surfaces. Results are presented for cylindrical dipole, printed dipole, and folded dipole over single- and double-layered square-patch-based HIS and dogbone-based HIS. The performance of antenna arrays is analyzed in terms of performance parameters such as return loss and radiation pattern. The design presented shows acceptable return loss and mainlobe gain of radiation pattern. Thi...

  3. “A most detestable crime”. Representations of Rape in the Popular Press of Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Pallotti


    Full Text Available In early modern England the legal definition of rape underwent an important revision and gradually, from crime against property, rape became a crime against the person. While reflecting the classical, medieval and biblical assumptions, the period brought about new concerns. The purpose of this article is to explore representations of rape in a variety of popular texts of the English early modern period, by focussing attention on broadside ballads, cheap pamphlets as well as accounts of trials that took place at the Old Bailey. These texts constitute valuable sources of information about people’s attitudes and beliefs and help us construct the views of rape circulating in early modern English culture.

  4. Bandwidth and Gain Enhancement of Patch Antenna with Stacked Parasitic Strips Based on LTCC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li


    Full Text Available A compact patch antenna with stacked parasitic strips (SPSs based on low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC technology is presented. By adding three pairs of SPSs above the traditional patch antenna, multiple resonant modes are excited to broaden the bandwidth. At the same time, the SPSs act as directors to guide the antenna radiation toward broadside direction to enhance the gain. The measured results show that the prototype antenna achieves an impedance bandwidth of 16% for S11<-10 dB (32.1–37.9 GHz and a maximum gain of about 8 dBi at 35 GHz. Furthermore, the radiation patterns and gain are relatively stable within the operating bandwidth. The total volume of the antenna is only 8 × 8 × 1.1 mm3.

  5. Single- and double-sided sensor applications of metamaterials based on square-ring and diamond resonators for terahertz region (United States)

    Shawky, Najlaa; Adnan Taha, Salah Al-Deen; Altan, Hakan; Sabah, Cumali


    This study investigates the sensing applications of metamaterial (MTM) structures in the terahertz (THz) region and is based on a broadside-coupled diamond and square-ring resonator (DSRR) structures. The resonators are designed and simulated as sensors in detail. Compared with single-sided sensors, the sensing capability of double-sided sensors provide an enhancement with respect to the sensitivity. To analyze the structure as sensor, the changes in the transmission resonance are investigated as a function of the permittivity and thickness of overlayer for the single- and double-sided MTM. The results demonstrate that this design can provide good sensitivity when sensing the chemical or biological agents that are resonant in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. These types of designs can be employed in the many sensing applications that are of interest in the THz region.

  6. A Novel Wideband Magneto-Electric Dipole Antenna with Improved Feeding Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marwah


    Full Text Available A novel feeding structure in magneto-electric dipole antenna is proposed and analyzed, which is simpler and better in performance than previous designs, involving differential feeding.  Due to this improved feeding structure, the antenna has achieved an impedance bandwidth of 133.3% ( 0.5 GHz – 2.5 GHz, resulting into an ultra-wide band antenna. The maximum broadside gain 7.5dBi with unidirectional radiation pattern has also been reported for the entire the range of operation. Symmetry in E-plane and H-plane radiation patterns has been observed due to the symmetry in structure and excitation of antenna. The antenna has also been able to achieve cross polarization levels.

  7. Miniaturized Planar Split-Ring Resonator Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A miniaturized planar antenna based on a broadside-coupled split ring resonator excited by an arc-shaped dipole is presented. The excitation dipole acts as a small tuning capacitor in series with a parallel RLC circuit represented by the SRR. The antenna resonance frequency and dimensions...... a essentially determined by the SRR, while by varying the dipole arm length the input resistance is changed in a wide range, thus matching the antenna to a feed line and compensating for simulation and manufacturing inaccuracies. No additional matching network is required. Theoretically, there is no limit...... on how small this antenna can be. In practice, the lower bound is set by losses in utilized materials and manufacturing inaccuracies. As an example, an antenna of ka=0.09 was designed, fabricated and tested. Although the initially fabricated antenna prototype had the input impedance of 43 ohms...

  8. Proximity fed gap-coupled half E-shaped microstrip antenna array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit A Deshmukh; K P Ray


    Broadband gap-coupled array configuration of proximity fed rectangular microstrip antenna with half E-shaped microstrip antennas are proposed. The rectangular slot in half E-shaped patch reduces the orthogonal TM01 mode resonance frequency of equivalent rectangular patch and along with TM10 modes of fed and parasitic rectangular patches, yields broader bandwidth of more than 470 MHz (> 45%). An improvement in radiation pattern and gain characteristics over the bandwidth is obtained by gap-coupling half E-shaped patches along all the edges of proximity fed rectangular patch, which yields bandwidth of nearly 510 MHz (∼49%). Further to enhance the gain, a gap-coupled 3 × 3 array configuration of half E-shaped patches with proximity fed rectangular microstrip antenna is proposed. The gap-coupled array configuration yields bandwidth of more than 530 MHz (>50%) with broadside radiation pattern and peak gain of 11 dBi.

  9. Pattern Reconfigurable Wideband Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna for 60 GHz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bondarik


    Full Text Available A beam shift method is presented for an aperture coupled stacked microstrip antenna with a gridded parasitic patch. The gridded parasitic patch is formed by nine close coupled identical rectangular microstrip patches. Each of these patches is resonant at the antenna central frequency. Using four switches connecting adjacent parasitic patches in the grid, it is possible to realize a pattern reconfigurable antenna with nine different beam directions in broadside, H-plane, E-plane, and diagonal planes. The switches are modeled by metal strips and different locations for strips are studied. As a result an increase in the antenna coverage is achieved. Measurement results for fabricated prototypes correspond very well to simulation results. The antenna is designed for 60 GHz central frequency and can be used in high speed wireless communication systems.

  10. High efficiency on-chip Dielectric Resonator Antennna using micromachining technology

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, Mai O.


    In this paper, a novel cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA) operating at 60 GHz is introduced. The antenna is fabricated using a high-resistivity silicon wafer. The DR is defined in the wafer using micromachining technology. The feeding network is located at the other side of the wafer. The proposed antenna is simulated using HFSS and the results are verified by measurements. The antenna radiation is mainly along the broadside direction. The measured gain, radiation efficiency, and bandwidth are 7 dBi, 74.65%, and 2.23 GHz respectively. The antenna is characterized by high polarization purity where the maximum cross-polarization is -15 dB. © 2015 IEEE.

  11. Corporate array of micromachined dipoles on silicon wafer for 60 GHz communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, M. O.


    In this paper, an antenna array operating at 60 GHz and realized on 0.675 mm thick silicon substrate is presented. The array is constructed using four micromachined half-wavelength dipoles fed by a corporate feeding network. Isolation between the antenna array and its feeding network is achieved via a ground plane. This arrangement leads to maximizing the broadside radiation with relatively high front-to-back ratio. Simulations have been carried out using both HFSS and CST, which showed very good agreement. Results reveal that the proposed antenna array has good radiation characteristics, where the directivity, gain, and radiation efficiency are around 10.5 dBi, 9.5 dBi, and 79%, respectively. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Target Strength of Southern Resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca): Measurement and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Moore, Brian


    A major criterion for tidal power licensing in Washington’s Puget Sound is the management of the risk of injury to killer whales due to collision with moving turbine blades. An active monitoring system is being proposed for killer whale detection, tracking, and alerting that links to and triggers temporary turbine shutdown when there is risk of collision. Target strength (TS) modeling of the killer whale is critical to the design and application of any active monitoring system. A 1996 study performed a high-resolution measurement of acoustic reflectivity as a function of frequency of a female bottlenose dolphin (2.2 m length) at broadside aspect and TS as a function of incident angle at 67 kHz frequency. Assuming that killer whales share similar morphology structure with the bottlenose dolphin, we extrapolated the TS of an adult killer whale 7.5 m in length at 67 kHz frequency with -8 dB at broadside aspect and -28 dB at tail side. The backscattering data from three Southern Resident killer whales were analyzed to obtain the TS measurement. These data were collected at Lime Kiln State Park using a split-beam system deployed from a boat. The TS of the killer whale at higher frequency (200 kHz) was estimated based on a three-layer model for plane wave reflection from the lung of the whale. The TS data of killer whales were in good agreement with our model. In this paper, we also discuss and explain possible causes for measurement estimation error.

  13. H+ClCN→HCl+CN: Product excitations and reaction mechanism at Ec.m. ≂21.6 kcal mol-1 (United States)

    de Juan, J.; Callister, S.; Reisler, H.; Segal, G. A.; Wittig, C.


    Nascent CN(X 2Σ) rovibrational and kinetic energy distributions have been obtained for the title reaction using laser induced fluorescence, and regions of the HClCN potential energy surface appropriate to the observed HCl+CN channel, as well as the HCN+Cl and HNC+Cl channels, have been calculated ab initio at the MP4/3-21G* level. The CN spectator has low internal excitation; the average fractions of the available energy deposited in CN vibration and rotation are ˜0 and =0.06, respectively, with the rotational distribution corresponding to a temperature of ˜950 K. Sub-Doppler resolution spectroscopy on several CN B 2Σ←X 2Σ transitions provides an average value for the fraction of the available energy appearing as center-of-mass kinetic energy, =0.33, as well as approximate kinetic energy distributions for specific CN V,R levels. Since the kinetic energy distributions are for specific CN levels, the corresponding HCl internal energy distributions are obtained by energy conservation, and the experimental results indicate a vibrational population inversion in HCl. Product energy disposal is similar to that of many ``light+heavy-heavy'' systems which exhibit repulsive energy release and which prefer end-on rather than broadside entrance channels. The dominant reaction pathways are probably HCN+Cl and HNC+Cl, with HCl+CN being minor. Because of the competitiveness between the chemically distinct product channels, the entrance channel associated with the observed products is more stereospecifically constrained than for a similar reaction which has a single set of products. The ab initio calculations suggest that end-on encounters can be reactive, thus accounting for the observed channel. A local minimum exists for a three-center structure involving hydrogen, chlorine, and carbon, and the barrier from here to HCN+Cl is small. Broadside approaches give rise to HCN+Cl, and we therefore surmise that the observed products derive predominantly from encounters in which

  14. Space-Variant Post-Filtering for Wavefront Curvature Correction in Polar-Formatted Spotlight-Mode SAR Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Wavefront curvature defocus effects occur in spotlight-mode SAR imagery when reconstructed via the well-known polar-formatting algorithm (PFA) under certain imaging scenarios. These include imaging at close range, using a very low radar center frequency, utilizing high resolution, and/or imaging very large scenes. Wavefront curvature effects arise from the unrealistic assumption of strictly planar wavefronts illuminating the imaged scene. This dissertation presents a method for the correction of wavefront curvature defocus effects under these scenarios, concentrating on the generalized: squint-mode imaging scenario and its computational aspects. This correction is accomplished through an efficient one-dimensional, image domain filter applied as a post-processing step to PF.4. This post-filter, referred to as SVPF, is precalculated from a theoretical derivation of the wavefront curvature effect and varies as a function of scene location. Prior to SVPF, severe restrictions were placed on the imaged scene size in order to avoid defocus effects under these scenarios when using PFA. The SVPF algorithm eliminates the need for scene size restrictions when wavefront curvature effects are present, correcting for wavefront curvature in broadside as well as squinted collection modes while imposing little additional computational penalty for squinted images. This dissertation covers the theoretical development, implementation and analysis of the generalized, squint-mode SVPF algorithm (of which broadside-mode is a special case) and provides examples of its capabilities and limitations as well as offering guidelines for maximizing its computational efficiency. Tradeoffs between the PFA/SVPF combination and other spotlight-mode SAR image formation techniques are discussed with regard to computational burden, image quality, and imaging geometry constraints. It is demonstrated that other methods fail to exhibit a clear computational advantage over polar-formatting in conjunction

  15. Pencil-Beam Single-point-fed Dirac Leaky-Wave Antenna on a Transmission-Line Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Dorrah, Ayman H


    Leaky-wave antennas (LWAs) are widely used as single-point-fed linear antenna arrays. The extension of LWAs to 2D implies that they can be used as single-point-fed 2D antenna arrays without requiring a complex feeding network. However, generating a pencil beam from 2D LWAs is not straightforward and due care has to be taken for the design of the LWA. On the other hand, transmission-line (TL) grids have demonstrated interesting behaviors, such as an effective negative refractive index and growing of evanescent waves. In this paper, a singlepoint-fed TL-grid 2D Dirac leaky-wave antenna (DLWA) design is proposed that generates a pencil beam at both broadside and slightly tilted angles. The TL-grid unit cell is analytically treated in light of its scattering and impedance matrices. The optimized TL-grid unit cell is shown to exhibit a closed bandgap in the dispersion relation which is also linearly varying with frequency (hence it is a DLWA). The proposed 2D DLWA design is fabricated and the experimental results ...

  16. Aircraft-skin Infrared Radiation Characteristics Modeling and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jianwei; Wang Qiang


    One of the most important problems of stealth technology is to evaluate the infrared radiation (IR) level received by IR sensors from fighters to be detected. This article presents a synthetic method for calculating the IR emitted from aircraft-skin. By reckoning the aerodynamic heating and hot engine casing to be the main heat sources of the exposed aircraft-skin, a numerical model of skin temperature distribution is established through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. Based on it, an infrared signature model for solving the complex geometry and structure of a fighter is proposed with the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method. Finally, by way of determining the IR intensity from aircraft-skin, the aircraft components that emit the most IR can be identified; and the cooling effects of the main aircraft components on IR intensity are investigated. It is found that reduction by 10 K in the skin temperature of head, vertical stabilizers and wings could lead to decline of more than 8% of the IR intensity on the aircraft-skin in front view while at the broadside of the aircraft, the drops in IR intensity could attain under 8%. The results provide useful reference in designing stealthy aircraft.

  17. A Multiband Proximity-Coupled-Fed Flexible Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Andrea Casula


    Full Text Available A multiband printed microstrip antenna for wireless communications is presented. The antenna is fed by a proximity-coupled microstrip line, and it is printed on a flexible substrate. The antenna has been designed using a general-purpose 3D computer-aided design software (CAD, CST Microwave Studio, and then realized. The comparison between simulated and measured results shows that the proposed antenna can be used for wireless communications for WLAN systems, covering both the WLAN S-band (2.45 GHz and C-band (5.2 GHz, and the Wi-Max 3.5 GHz band, with satisfactory input matching and broadside radiation pattern. Moreover, it has a compact size, is very easy to realize, and presents a discrete out-of-band rejection, without requiring the use of stop-band filters. The proposed structure can be used also as a conformal antenna, and its frequency response and radiated field are satisfactory for curvatures up to 65°.

  18. Hilbert-Curve Fractal Antenna With Radiation- Pattern Diversity (United States)

    Nessel, James A.; Miranda, Felix A.; Zaman, Afroz


    A printed, folded, Hilbert-curve fractal microwave antenna has been designed and built to offer advantages of compactness and low mass, relative to other antennas designed for the same operating frequencies. The primary feature of the antenna is that it offers the advantage of radiation-pattern diversity without need for electrical or mechanical switching: it can radiate simultaneously in an end-fire pattern at a frequency of 2.3 GHz (which is in the S-band) and in a broadside pattern at a frequency of 16.8 GHz (which is in the Ku-band). This radiation-pattern diversity could be utilized, for example, in applications in which there were requirements for both S-band ground-to-ground communications and Ku-band ground-to-aircraft or ground-to-spacecraft communications. The lack of switching mechanisms or circuitry makes this antenna more reliable, easier, and less expensive to fabricate than it otherwise would be.

  19. A Compact Dielectric Resonator Antenna Excited by a Planar Monopole Patch for Wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuping Li


    Full Text Available A compact dielectric resonator antenna (DRA suitable for wideband applications is presented in this paper. The proposed antenna is mainly composed by a notched cylindrical dielectric resonator (DR coated with a metal surface on the top and a finite ground plane where the presented DR is placed. This antenna is very simple in structure and has a very low overall height of 0.14λmin at its lowest operation frequency. A comprehensive parametric study is carried out based on Ansoft HFSS to optimize the bandwidth. The proposed antenna has been successfully simulated, optimized, fabricated, and measured. The measurement results demonstrate that the proposed design produces an impedance bandwidth of more than 75%, ranging from 2.9 GHz to 6.7 GHz for the reflection coefficient less than −10 dB. In particular, consistent broadside radiation patterns, stable gain, and high radiation efficiency are also obtained within the operation frequency band.

  20. Multi-damage detection with embedded ultrasonic structural radar algorithm using piezoelectric wafer active sensors through advanced signal processing (United States)

    Yu, Lingyu; Giurgiutiu, Victor


    The embedded ultrasonic structural radar (EUSR) algorithm was developed by using piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) array to detect defects within a large area of a thin-plate specimen. EUSR has been verified to be effective for detecting a single crack either at a broadside or at an offside position. In this research, advanced signal processing techniques were included to enhance inspection image quality and detect multiple damage. The signal processing methods include discrete wavelet transform for signal denoising, short-time Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform for time-frequency analysis, continuous wavelet transform for frequency filtering, and Hilbert transform for envelope extraction. All these signal processing modules were implemented by developing a graphical user-friendly interface program in LabVIEW. The paper starts with an introduction of embedded ultrasonic structural radar algorithm, followed with the theoretical aspect of the phased array signal processing method. Then, the mathematical algorithms for advanced signal processing are introduced. In the end, laboratory experimental results are presented to show how efficiently the improved EUSR works. The results are analyzed and EUSR is concluded to have been improved by using the advanced signal processing techniques. The improvements include: 1) EUSR is able to provide better image of the specimen under monitoring; 2) it is able to detect multi-damage such as several cracks; 3) it is able to identify different damage types.

  1. The Dynamics of Coupled Oscillator Phase Control (United States)

    Pogorzelski, R. J.; Maccarini, P. F.; York, R. A.


    Arrays of coupled oscillators have been proposed as means of realizing high power rf sources via coherent spatial power combining. In such applications, a uniform phase distribution over the aperture is usually desired. However, it has been shown that by detuning some of the oscillators away from the oscillation frequency of the ensemble of oscillators, one may achieve other useful aperture phase distributions. Of particular interest among those achievable are linear phase distributions because these result in steering of the output rf beam away from the broadside direction. The theory describing the behavior of such arrays of coupled oscillators is quite complicated since the phenomena involved are inherently nonlinear. However, a simplified theory has been developed which facilitates intuitive understanding. This simplified theory is based on a "continuum model" in which the aperture phase is represented by a continuous function of the aperture coordinates. A challenging aspect of the development of this theory is the derivation of appropriate boundary conditions at the edges or ends of the array.

  2. Parametric Study of Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna (CDRA Feeder with Symmetric Parabolic Reflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Ali


    Full Text Available In this study a parabolic reflector antenna is designed and fabricated for IEEE 802.11a WLAN application. Initially, a single element circular tuning slot coupled Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna (CDRA feeder is designed and fabricated for a symmetric parabolic reflector. Subsequently, the designed feeder is integrated at the focal point of the parabolic reflector to provide unidirectional radiation pattern with improved gain and sidelobe levels. The measured fractional impedance bandwidth achieved for the proposed antenna is 1.8% for S11<-10 dB from 5.32 to 5.52 GHz. A radiation pattern with broadside radiation and low back radiation has been obtained. A good measurement gain of approximately 13 dB is achieved over the bandwidth by placing CDRA feeder at the focal point of the parabolic reflector. In addition, a comprehensive parametric study has been conducted to realize the effect of slot size and position on the resonance frequency of the designed feeder. Furthermore, a parametric study of various reflector parameters has also been performed to study the effect of size, depth and focal point of the parabolic reflector on gain of the antenna. Important design factors have been identified from the parametric study of the antenna. The experimental and measured results show that the designed antenna is suitable for IEEE WLAN 802.11a wireless application.

  3. Broadband frequency and angular response of a sinusoidal bull’s eye antenna (United States)

    Beaskoetxea, U.; Navarro-Cía, M.; Beruete, M.


    A thorough experimental study of the frequency and beaming angle response of a metallic leaky-wave bull’s eye antenna working at 77 GHz with a sinusoidally corrugated profile is presented. The beam scanning property of these antennas as frequency is varied is experimentally demonstrated and corroborated through theoretical and numerical results. From the experimental results the dispersion diagram of the n  =  -1 and n  =  -2 space harmonics is extracted, and the operation at different frequency regimes is identified and discussed. In order to show the contribution of each half of the antenna, numerical examples of the near-field behavior are also displayed. Overall, experimental results are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with theoretical and numerical calculations. Finally, an analysis of the beamwidth as a function of frequency is performed, showing that it can achieve values below 1.5° in a fractional bandwidth of 4% around the operation frequency, which is an interesting frequency-stable broadside radiation.

  4. Dynamics of two disks settling in a two-dimensional narrow channel: From periodic motion to vertical chain in Oldroyd-B fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Tsorng-Whay


    In this article we present a numerical study of the dynamics of two disks settling in a narrow vertical channel filled with Oldroyd-B fluid. Two kinds of particle dynamics are obtained: (i) periodic interaction between two disks and (ii) the chain formation of two disks. For the periodic interaction of two disks, two different motions are obtained: (a) two disks stay far apart and interact periodically and (b) two disks interact closely and then far apart in a periodic way, like the drafting, kissing and tumbling of two disks sedimenting in Newtonian fluid, due to the lack of strong enough elastic force. For the formation of two disk chain occurred at higher values of the elasticity number, it is either a tilted chain or a vertical chain. The tilted chain can be obtained for either that the elasticity number is less than the critical value for having the vertical chain or that the Mach number is greater than the critical value for a long body to fall broadside-on. Hence the values of the elasticity number and...

  5. The interaction of a magnetohydrodynamical shock with a filament

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, K J A


    We present 3D magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of the adiabatic interaction of a shock with a dense, filamentary cloud. We investigate the effects of various filament lengths and orientations on the interaction using different orientations of the magnetic field, and vary the Mach number of the shock, the density contrast of the filament, and the plasma beta, in order to determine their effect on the evolution and lifetime of the filament. We find that in a parallel magnetic field filaments have longer lifetimes if they are orientated more 'broadside' to the shock front, and that an increase in the density contrast hastens the destruction of the cloud, in terms of the modified cloud-crushing time-scale, tcs. The combination of a mild shock and a perpendicular or oblique field provides the best condition for extending the life of the filament, with some filaments able to survive almost indefinitely since they are cocooned by the magnetic field. A high value for the density contrast does not initiate la...

  6. Bandwidth Enhancement of Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna Using Thin Dielectric Layer Fed by Resonating Slot (United States)

    Mishra, Nipun K.; Das, Soma; Vishwakarma, Dinesh K.


    In this paper Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna (CDRA) has been designed for X-band frequency range applications with slot feeding. Bandwidth of designed cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna has been enhanced by making the slot to be resonating and inserting very thin low permittivity dielectric layer between the slot and CDRA. Resonating slot excites the closely spaced HEM11δ and HEM21δ mode inside the antenna as well as provides the resonance at the upper side of desired X-band. Low profile low permittivity layer provides the excellent matching of these modes and shift the HEM21δ mode to higher frequency side at 11.25 GHz with better impedance matching. By combining all of three resonances, nearly 85 % increment in impedance Bandwidth has been obtained with reference to non resonating slot excited CDRA. Fractional impedance bandwidth for proposed design is 48 % and average Gain of 6 dB with more than 92 % radiation efficiency has been shown by the antenna throughout the desired band with broadside pattern.

  7. Conformal and Spectrally Agile Ultra Wideband Phased Array Antenna for Communication and Sensing (United States)

    Novak, M.; Alwan, Elias; Miranda, Felix; Volakis, John


    There is a continuing need for reducing size and weight of satellite systems, and is also strong interest to increase the functional role of small- and nano-satellites (for instance SmallSats and CubeSats). To this end, a family of arrays is presented, demonstrating ultra-wideband operation across the numerous satellite communications and sensing frequencies up to the Ku-, Ka-, and Millimeter-Wave bands. An example design is demonstrated to operate from 3.5-18.5 GHz with VSWR2 at broadside, and validated through fabrication of an 8 x 8 prototype. This design is optimized for low cost, using Printed Circuit Board (PCB) fabrication. With the same fabrication technology, scaling is shown to be feasible up to a 9-49 GHz band. Further designs are discussed, which extend this wideband operation beyond the Ka-band, for instance from 20-80 GHz. Finally we will discuss recent efforts in the direct integration of such arrays with digital beamforming back-ends. It will be shown that using a novel on-site coding architecture, orders of magnitude reduction in hardware size, power, and cost is accomplished in this transceiver.

  8. Analysis of PBG Structures and Its Application in Cylindrical Conformal Microstrip Antenna%PBG结构分析及其在柱面共形微带天线中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    利用光学Bragg反射条件,设计了两种曲面光子带隙结构,并将其应用于柱面共形微带贴片天线中,分析了光子带隙结构的结构参数对微带贴片天线性能的影响.计算仿真表明,利用合适的PBG结构可以增强微带贴片天线的前向增益,抑制高次谐波,减小旁瓣,减小表面波损耗.%According to the reflection condition of optics Bragg, the two-dimensional curved PBG structures are designed and applied to the cylindrical conformal microstrip antenna, and the parameter of PBG structures influenced on the performance of microstrip patch antenna is analyzed. The simulation results indicate that using the appropriate PBG structures can get higher gain, suppress higher harmonics, reduce broadside radiation and surface wave dissipation of the microstrip patch antenna.

  9. Performance characteristics of a conformal ultra-wideband multilayer applicator (CUMLA) for hyperthermia in veterinary patients: a pilot evaluation of its use in the adjuvant treatment of non-resectable tumours. (United States)

    Smrkovski, O A; Koo, Y; Kazemi, R; Lembcke, L M; Fathy, A; Liu, Q; Phillips, J C


    Performance and clinical characteristics of a novel hyperthermia antenna operating at 434 MHz were evaluated for the adjuvant treatment of locally advanced superficial tumours in cats, dogs and horses. Electromagnetic simulations were performed to determine electric field characteristics and compared to simulations for a flat microwave antenna with similar dimensions. Simulation results show a reduced skin surface and backfield irradiation and improved directional irradiation (at broadside) compared to a flat antenna. Radiated power and penetration is notably increased with a penetration depth of 4.59 cm compared to 2.74 cm for the flat antenna. Clinical use of the antenna was then evaluated in six animals with locoregionally advanced solid tumours receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. During clinical applications, therapeutic temperatures were achieved at depths ≥4 cm. Objective responses were seen in all patients; tissue toxicity in one case limited further therapy. This antenna provides compact, efficient, focused and deep-penetrating clinical hyperthermia for the treatment of solid tumours in veterinary patients.

  10. Utilisation of Symmetry Properites for the Pattern Analysis of Mutually Coupled Patch Radiators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gimersky


    Full Text Available The influence of mutual coupling effects on the radiation pattern of microstrip antennas is investigated by introducing symmetry properties in the surface current distributions. The standard method of moments is used, which requires only the upper half of three x— and y— direction offset patch radiators to be solved, while the symmetric lower half is incorporated after the determination of the current distribution. Furthermore, the Toeplitz symmetry of the impedance matrix is taken into account, and the singular value decomposition is used to invert the resulting non-square matrix in a numerically stable way. Both the symmetry property and the Toeplitz symmetry procedures reduce storage and CPU-time requirements in the analysis of broadside microstrip arrays. The pattern characteristics calculated with and without mutual coupling interactions are found to differ up to 10 dB in sideloge levels which clearly demonstrates that the pattern can be as severely affected by mutual coupling as the commonly investigated input impedance. The predicted results are in good agreement with measured data on single patches.

  11. Array gain for a cylindrical array with baffle scatter effects. (United States)

    Bertilone, Derek C; Killeen, Damien S; Bao, Chaoying


    Cylindrical arrays used in sonar for passive underwater surveillance often have sensors surrounding a cylindrical metal baffle. In some operational sonars, the phones in each stave (i.e., each line of phones aligned with the cylinder axis) are hardwired together so that the array is equivalent to a baffled circular array of directional elements, where each element corresponds to a line array of omnidirectional phones steered to broadside. In this paper a model is introduced for computing the array gain of such an array at high frequencies, which incorporates baffle scatter using infinite, rigid cylinder scattering theory, and with ambient noise described by an angular spectral density function. In practice the phones are often offset from the baffle surface, and the acoustic field sampled by the staves is distorted at high frequencies due to interference between the incident and scattered fields. Examples are given to illustrate the resulting array gain degradation, using three noise distributions that are frequently used in sonar performance modeling: three-dimensional isotropic, two-dimensional isotropic, and surface dipole noise.

  12. Cylindrical sound wave generated by shock-vortex interaction (United States)

    Ribner, H. S.


    The passage of a columnar vortex broadside through a shock is investigated. This has been suggested as a crude, but deterministic, model of the generation of 'shock noise' by the turbulence in supersonic jets. The vortex is decomposed by Fourier transform into plane sinusoidal shear waves disposed with radial symmetry. The plane sound waves produced by each shear wave/shock interaction are recombined in the Fourier integral. The waves possess an envelope that is essentially a growing cylindrical sound wave centered at the transmitted vortex. The pressure jump across the nominal radius R = ct attenuates with time as 1/(square root of R) and varies around the arc in an antisymmetric fashion resembling a quadrupole field. Very good agreement, except near the shock, is found with the antisymmetric component of reported interferometric measurements in a shock tube. Beyond the front r approximately equals R is a precursor of opposite sign, that decays like 1/R, generated by the 1/r potential flow around the vortex core. The present work is essentially an extension and update of an early approximate study at M = 1.25. It covers the range (R/core radius) = 10, 100, 1000, and 10,000 for M = 1.25 and (in part) for M = 1.29 and, for fixed (R/core radius) = 1000, the range M = 1.01 to infinity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banani Basu


    Full Text Available A method based on constricted Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO algorithm to design a non-uniformly spaced collinear array of thin dipole antennas of unequal height is proposed. This paper presents a method for computing the appropriate excitation and geometry of individual array elements to generate a pencil beam in the vertical plane with minimum Standing Wave Ratio (SWR and fixed Side Lobe Level (SLL. Coupling effect between any two collinear center-fed thin dipole antennas having sinusoidal current distributions is analyzed using induced EMF method and minimized in terms of SWR. DRR of excitation distribution is fixed at a lower value for further mitigation of the coupling effect. Phase distribution for all the elements is kept at zero degree for broadside array. Optimization results show the effectiveness of the algorithm for the design of the array. Moreover method seems very conducive for estimating the mutual impedance between any two collinear center-fed thin dipole antennas having sinusoidal current distributions.

  14. Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A Potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Davila, J. M.; St Cyr, O. C.; Sittler, E. C.; Auchere, F.; Duvall, Jr. T. L.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Maksimovic, M.; MacDowall, R. J.; Szabo, A.; Collier, M. R.


    This paper describes the scientific rationale for an L5 mission and a partial list of key scientific instruments the mission should carry. The L5 vantage point provides an unprecedented view of the solar disturbances and their solar sources that can greatly advance the science behind space weather. A coronagraph and a heliospheric imager at L5 will be able to view CMEs broadsided, so space speed of the Earth-directed CMEs can be measured accurately and their radial structure discerned. In addition, an inner coronal imager and a magnetograph from L5 can give advance information on active regions and coronal holes that will soon rotate on to the solar disk. Radio remote sensing at low frequencies can provide information on shock-driving CMEs, the most dangerous of all CMEs. Coordinated helioseismic measurements from the Sun Earth line and L5 provide information on the physical conditions at the base of the convection zone, where solar magnetism originates. Finally, in situ measurements at L5 can provide information on the large-scale solar wind structures (corotating interaction regions (CIRs)) heading towards Earth that potentially result in adverse space weather.

  15. Directionality and maneuvering effects on a surface ship underwater acoustic signature. (United States)

    Trevorrow, Mark V; Vasiliev, Boris; Vagle, Svein


    This work examines underwater source spectra of a small (560 tons, 40 m length), single-screw oceanographic vessel, focusing on directionality and effects of maneuvers. The measurements utilized a set of four, self-contained buoys with GPS positioning, each recording two calibrated hydrophones with effective acoustic bandwidth from 150 Hz to 5 kHz. In straight, constant-speed runs at speeds up to 6.2 m s(-1), the ship source spectra showed spectral levels in reasonable agreement with reference spectra. The broadband source level was observed to increase as approximately speed to the fourth power over the range of 2.6-6.1 m s(-1), partially biased at low speeds by nonpropulsion machinery signals. Source directionality patterns were extracted from variations in source spectra while the ship transited past the buoy field. The observed spectral source levels exhibited a broadside maximum, with bow and stern aspect reduced by approximately 12-9 dB, respectively, independent of frequency. An empirical model is proposed assuming that spectral source levels exhibit simultaneous variations in aspect angle, speed, and turn rate. After correction for source directionality and speed during turning maneuvers, an excess of up to 18 dB in one-third octave source levels was observed.

  16. A 220 GHz reflection-type phased array concept study (United States)

    Hedden, Abigail S.; Dietlein, Charles R.; Wikner, David A.


    The goal of this project is to enable light-weight, durable, and portable systems capable of performing standoff detection of person-borne improvised explosive devices (PB-IEDs) through the development of millimeter-wave reflection-type phased arrays. Electronic beam steering eliminates the need for complex mechanical scanners that are commonly implemented with millimeter-wave imaging systems and would reduce overall system size and weight. We present a concept study of a 220 GHz reflection-type phased array for the purpose of performing beam scanning of a confocal reflector system. Requirements for effective imaging of the desired target region are established, including spatial resolution, total scan angle, and number of image pixels achievable. We examine the effects of array architecture on beam characteristics as it is scanned off broadside, including Gaussicity and encircled energy. Benchmark requirements are determined and compared with the capabilities of several potential phase shifter technologies, including MEMS-based variable capacitor phase shifters, switches, and varactor diode-based phase shifters.

  17. Massively-parallel electrical-conductivity imaging of hydrocarbonsusing the Blue Gene/L supercomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commer, M.; Newman, G.A.; Carazzone, J.J.; Dickens, T.A.; Green,K.E.; Wahrmund, L.A.; Willen, D.E.; Shiu, J.


    Large-scale controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM)three-dimensional (3D) geophysical imaging is now receiving considerableattention for electrical conductivity mapping of potential offshore oiland gas reservoirs. To cope with the typically large computationalrequirements of the 3D CSEM imaging problem, our strategies exploitcomputational parallelism and optimized finite-difference meshing. Wereport on an imaging experiment, utilizing 32,768 tasks/processors on theIBM Watson Research Blue Gene/L (BG/L) supercomputer. Over a 24-hourperiod, we were able to image a large scale marine CSEM field data setthat previously required over four months of computing time ondistributed clusters utilizing 1024 tasks on an Infiniband fabric. Thetotal initial data misfit could be decreased by 67 percent within 72completed inversion iterations, indicating an electrically resistiveregion in the southern survey area below a depth of 1500 m below theseafloor. The major part of the residual misfit stems from transmitterparallel receiver components that have an offset from the transmittersail line (broadside configuration). Modeling confirms that improvedbroadside data fits can be achieved by considering anisotropic electricalconductivities. While delivering a satisfactory gross scale image for thedepths of interest, the experiment provides important evidence for thenecessity of discriminating between horizontal and verticalconductivities for maximally consistent 3D CSEM inversions.

  18. Low overhead design-for-testability for scan-based delay fault testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Decai; Chen Guangju; Xie Yongle


    An efficient design-for-testability (DFT) technique is proposed to achieve low overhead for scan-based delay fault testing. Existing techniques for delay test such as skewed-load or broadside make the test generation process complex and produce lower coverage for scan-based designs as compared with non-scan designs, whereas techniques such as enhanced-scan test can make the test easy but need an extra holding latch to add substantial hardware overhead. A new tri-state holding logic is presented to replace the common holding latch in enhanced-scan test to get a substantial low hardware overhead. This scheme can achieve low delay overhead by avoiding the holding latch on the critical timing scan path. What's more, this method can also keep the state and signal activity in the combinational circuit from the scan during data scan-in operation to reduce the power dissipation. Experiment results on a set of ISCAS89 benchmarks show the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  19. Observations of CMEs and Models of the Eruptive Corona (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Nat


    It is now realized that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomenon in the heliosphere. Although early observations (in the 1970s and 19805) revealed most of the properties of CMEs, it is the extended and uniform data set from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission that helped us consolidate our knowledge on CMEs. The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission has provided direct confirmation of the three-dimensional structure of CMEs. The broadside view provided by the STEREO coronagraphs helped us estimate the width of the halo CMEs and hence validate CME cone models. Current theoretical ideas on the internal structure of CMEs suggest that a flux rope is central to the CME structure, which has considerable observational support both from remote-sensing and in-situ observations. The flux-rope nature is also consistent with the post-eruption arcades with high-temperature plasma and the charge states observed within CMEs arriving at Earth. The quadrature observations also helped us understand the relation between the radial and expansion speeds of CMEs, which were only known from empirical relations in the past. This paper highlights some of these results obtained during solar cycle 23 and 24 and discusses implications for CME models.

  20. Radar Imaging of Spheres in 3D using MUSIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D H; Berryman, J G


    We have shown that multiple spheres can be imaged by linear and planar EM arrays using only one component of polarization. The imaging approach involves calculating the SVD of the scattering response matrix, selecting a subset of singular values that represents noise, and evaluating the MUSIC functional. The noise threshold applied to the spectrum of singular values for optimal performance is typically around 1%. The resulting signal subspace includes more than one singular value per sphere. The presence of reflections from the ground improves height localization, even for a linear array parallel to the ground. However, the interference between direct and reflected energy modulates the field, creating periodic nulls that can obscure targets in typical images. These nulls are largely eliminated by normalizing the MUSIC functional with the broadside beam pattern of the array. The resulting images show excellent localization for 1 and 2 spheres. The performance for the 3 sphere configurations are complicated by shadowing effects and the greater range of the 3rd sphere in case 2. Two of the three spheres are easily located by MUSIC but the third is difficult to distinguish from other local maxima of the complex imaging functional. Improvement is seen when the linear array is replace with a planar array, which increases the effective aperture height. Further analysis of the singular values and their relationship to modes of scattering from the spheres, as well as better ways to exploit polarization, should improve performance. Work along these lines is currently being pursued by the authors.

  1. Un testimonio temprano de la lira popular chilena: «Dos poetas de poncho» de Zorobabel Rodríguez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornejo C., Tomás


    Full Text Available In 1873 the journalist, academic and Chilean writer Zorobabel Rodríguez published an article about a striking and novel cultural event in the country: the broadside poetry. His text provides substantial information on the distribution of these, the most common themes of the poems, their preferred public and the creative process of the poets, particularly the famous Bernardino Guajardo. In addition, the position taken by Rodriguez highlights the distance between the nineteenth-century men of letters and the culture of the urban poor.En 1873 el periodista, académico y escritor chileno Zorobabel Rodríguez publicó un artículo acerca de una manifestación cultural llamativa y novedosa en el país: los pliegos sueltos de poesía. Su texto aporta cuantiosa información sobre la distribución de estos, los temas más comunes de las poesías, su público preferente y el proceso creativo de los poetas, particularmente el célebre Bernardino Guajardo. Además, la posición adoptada por Rodríguez resalta la distancia entre el mundo letrado decimonónico y las formas culturales de los sectores populares urbanos.

  2. Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) resulting from Chelyabinsk Meteor Blast (United States)

    Sheeks, B. J.; Warren, N.; Coster, A. J.


    A global network of GPS receivers continuously make line-of-sight (LOS) measurements of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere. This TEC measurement data can be analyzed to 'persistently monitor' natural and man-made activity in the atmosphere (such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, rocket launches, etc) which propagate into the ionosphere to produce TIDs (Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances). As an example we have analyzed in detail the TIDs resulting from the 15 Feb 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor blast as observed by the Artu GPS receiver site in Arti, Russia close to the event. Seven of the GPS satellite measurements with LOS pierce points within 1000 km of the blast show disturbances. Four of these clearly show VTEC oscillations with ~12 minute periods. The other three show much weaker responses, but their LOS pierce points are far from the blast and their aspects between the geomagnetic field & blast propagation vector are unfavorable (near broadside). By fitting all seven measurements we estimate a propagation speed of ~380 m/s for these medium-scale TIDs. As future 'persistent surveillance' efforts we intend to investigate the observability of man-made activities such as static rocket engine firings in TEC measurements. Analysis of MSTIDs resulting from the Chelyabinsk meteor blast

  3. Antennas Designed for Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Robert J.


    The goal of the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is to enable a communications infrastructure that provides the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize a mature free-flight environment. The technical thrust of the AC/ATM Project is targeted at the design, development, integration, test, and demonstration of enabling technologies for global broadband aeronautical communications. Since Ku-band facilities and equipment are readily available, one of the near-term demonstrations involves a link through a Kuband communications satellite. Two conformally mounted antennas will support the initial AC/ATM communications links. Both of these are steered electronically through monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers and phase shifters. This link will be asymmetrical with the downlink to the aircraft (mobile vehicle) at a throughput rate of greater than 1.5 megabits per second (Mbps), whereas the throughput rate of the uplink from the aircraft will be greater than 100 kilobits per second (kbps). The data on the downlink can be narrow-band, wide-band, or a combination of both, depending on the requirements of the experiment. The AC/ATM project is purchasing a phased-array Ku-band transmitting antenna for the uplink from the test vehicle. Many Ku-band receiving antennas have been built, and one will be borrowed for a short time to perform the initial experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The Ku-band transmitting antenna is a 254-element MMIC phased-array antenna being built by Boeing Phantom Works. Each element can radiate 100 mW. The antenna is approximately 43-cm high by 24-cm wide by 3.3-cm thick. It can be steered beyond 60 from broadside. The beamwidth varies from 6 at broadside to 12 degrees at 60 degrees, which is typical of phased-array antennas. When the antenna is steered to 60 degrees, the beamwidth will illuminate

  4. Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. IV. Receiving antennas and reciprocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, R. L., E-mail:; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)


    Antenna radiation patterns are an important property of antennas. Reciprocity holds in free space and the radiation patterns for exciting and receiving antennas are the same. In anisotropic plasmas, radiation patterns are complicated by the fact that group and phase velocities differ and certain wave properties like helicity depend on the direction of wave propagation with respect to the background magnetic field B{sub 0}. Interference and wave focusing effects are different than in free space. Reciprocity does not necessarily hold in a magnetized plasma. The present work considers the properties of various magnetic antennas used for receiving whistler modes. It is based on experimental data from exciting low frequency whistler modes in a large uniform laboratory plasma. By superposition of linear waves from different antennas, the radiation patterns of antenna arrays are derived. Plane waves are generated and used to determine receiving radiation patterns of different receiving antennas. Antenna arrays have radiation patterns with narrow lobes, whose angular position can be varied by physical rotation or electronic phase shifting. Reciprocity applies to broadside antenna arrays but not to end fire arrays which can have asymmetric lobes with respect to B{sub 0}. The effect of a relative motion between an antenna and the plasma has been modeled by the propagation of a short wave packet moving along a linear antenna array. An antenna moving across B{sub 0} has a radiation pattern characterized by an oscillatory “whistler wing.” A receiving antenna in motion can detect any plane wave within the group velocity resonance cone. The radiation pattern also depends on loop size relative to the wavelength. Motional effects prevent reciprocity. The concept of the radiation pattern loses its significance for wave packets since the received signal does not only depend on the antenna but also on the properties of the wave packet. The present results are of fundamental

  5. Acoustic radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane (quasi)standing waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitri, F. G., E-mail: [Chevron, Area 52 Technology–ETC, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87508 (United States)


    The acoustic radiation force on a 2D elliptical (non-circular) cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of plane quasi-standing and standing waves is derived, based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates. A non-dimensional acoustic radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, is defined in terms of the scattering coefficients that are determined by applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface. A system of linear equations involving a single numerical integration procedure is solved by matrix inversion. Numerical simulations showing the transition from the quasi-standing to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behaviour are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the ellipse semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb (where k is the wavenumber), without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. It is found that at high kb values > 1, the radiation force per length with broadside incidence is larger, whereas the opposite situation occurs in the long-wavelength limit (i.e., kb < 1). The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation of elliptical cylinders, the acoustic stabilization of liquid columns in a host medium, acousto-fluidics devices, and other particle dynamics applications to name a few. Moreover, the formalism presented here may be effectively applied to compute the acoustic radiation force on other 2D surfaces of arbitrary shape such as super-ellipses, Chebyshev cylindrical particles, or other non-circular geometries.

  6. Response Of A Sonar Array To Turbulent Boundary Layer Noise On A Cylinder (United States)

    Dhanak, M. R.


    The response of an array of finite transducers, flush-mounted on the surface of a rigid cylinder, to flow noise induced by a low Mach number statistically stationary turbulent boundary layer on the surface is examined. It is found that for an array of uniformly responding transducers of dimensions and array spacing of O ( l) to a frequency ω = O ( c/l) ( c being the sound speed), the response is such that the ratio of the contribution to the response from the high, convective, wavenumber elements of the power spectrum to that from the low, sonic, wavenumber elements is O ( M-1 sin ø/log ((ω a/c) sin ø)) away from endfire (ø = 0 or π) and O(( MN1 log (ω a/cN1)) -1(ω a/c)) in the vicinity of endfire; here M is the Mach number, a is the radius of the cylinder and N1 is the number of axial elements of the array, and the number of transverse elements is taken to be O(1). It is believed that a choice of transducers the sensitivity of which is tapered at the edge would considerably reduce this ratio. The sonic wavenumber contribution to the power spectrum of the array response varies as (ω d x/c ) -1 log (ω a/c) for a broadside beam angle and as (ω a/c) -1 log (ω a/c) in the vicinity of endfire, where d x is the array spacing. Assuming that the high wavenumber contribution can be suitably suppressed, it is shown that for a given frequency and a given angle of steer and with transducer dimensions and array spacing of O ( c/ω), the ratio of the power spectrum of the response of an array to that of the response of a single transducer decreases with increase in the radius of the cylinder.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ying-san; WANG Yong-sheng; CHANG Shu-ping; FU Jian


    A mesh-less Refined Integral Algorithm (RIA) of Boundary Element Method (BEM) is proposed to accurately solve the Helmholtz Integral Equation (HIE).The convergence behavior and the practicability of the method are validated.Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD),Finite Element Method (FEM) and RIA are used to predict the propeller excited underwater noise of the submarine hull structure.Firstly the propeller and submarine's flows are independently validated,then the self propulsion of the “submarine+propeller” system is simulated via CFD and the balanced point of the system is determined as well as the self propulsion factors.Secondly,the transient response of the “submarine + propeller” system is analyzed at the balanced point,and the propeller thrust and torque excitations are calculated.Thirdly the thrust and the torque excitations of the propeller are loaded on the submarine,respectively,to calculate the acoustic response,and the sound pover and the main peak frequencies are obtained.Results show that:(1) the thrust mainly excites the submarine axial mode and the high frequency area appears at the two conical-type ends,while the torque mainly excites the circumferential mode and the high frequency area appears at the broadside of the cylindrical section,but with rather smaller sound power and radiation efficiency than the former,(2) the main sound source appears at BPF and 2BPF and comes from the harmonic propeller excitations.So,the main attention should be paid on the thrust excitation control for the sound reduction of the propeller excited submarine structure.

  8. Comparison of Multivariate Poisson lognormal spatial and temporal crash models to identify hot spots of intersections based on crash types. (United States)

    Cheng, Wen; Gill, Gurdiljot Singh; Dasu, Ravi; Xie, Meiquan; Jia, Xudong; Zhou, Jiao


    Most of the studies are focused on the general crashes or total crash counts with considerably less research dedicated to different crash types. This study employs the Systemic approach for detection of hotspots and comprehensively cross-validates five multivariate models of crash type-based HSID methods which incorporate spatial and temporal random effects. It is anticipated that comparison of the crash estimation results of the five models would identify the impact of varied random effects on the HSID. The data over a ten year time period (2003-2012) were selected for analysis of a total 137 intersections in the City of Corona, California. The crash types collected in this study include: Rear-end, Head-on, Side-swipe, Broad-side, Hit object, and Others. Statistically significant correlations among crash outcomes for the heterogeneity error term were observed which clearly demonstrated their multivariate nature. Additionally, the spatial random effects revealed the correlations among neighboring intersections across crash types. Five cross-validation criteria which contains, Residual Sum of Squares, Kappa, Mean Absolute Deviation, Method Consistency Test, and Total Rank Difference, were applied to assess the performance of the five HSID methods at crash estimation. In terms of accumulated results which combined all crash types, the model with spatial random effects consistently outperformed the other competing models with a significant margin. However, the inclusion of spatial random effect in temporal models fell short of attaining the expected results. The overall observation from the model fitness and validation results failed to highlight any correlation among better model fitness and superior crash estimation.

  9. Impedance-matching analysis in IR leaky-wave antennas (United States)

    Premkumar, Navaneeth; Xu, Yuancheng; Lail, Brian A.


    Planar leaky-wave antennas (LWA) that are capable of full-space scanning have long since been the pursuit for applications including, but not limited to, integration onto vehicles and into cameras for wide-angle of view beam-steering. Such a leaky-wave surface (LWS) was designed for long-wave infrared frequencies with frequency scanning capability. The LWS is based on a microstrip patch array design of a leaky-wave impedance surface and is made up of gold microstrip patches on a grounded zinc sulphide substrate. A 1D composite right/left-handed (CRLH) metamaterial made by periodically stacking a unit cell of the LWS in the longitudinal direction to form a LWA was designed. This paper deals with loading the LWA with a nickel bolometer to collect leaky-wave signals. The LWA radiates a backward leaking wave at 30 degrees at 28.3THz and scans through broadside for frequencies 20THz through 40THz. The paper deals with effectively placing the bolometer in order for the collected signal to exhibit the designed frequency regime. An effective way to maximize the power coupling into the load from the antenna is also explored. The benefit of such a metamaterial/holographic antennacoupled detector is its ability to provide appreciable capture cross-sections while delivering smart signals to subwavelength sized detectors. Due to their high-gain, low-profile, fast response time of the detector and ease of fabrication, this IR LWA-coupled bolometer harbors great potential in the areas of high resolution, uncooled, infrared imaging.

  10. Vessel Weapon System Baseline Deviation Analysis Based on ANSYS%基于ANSYS的舰船武器装备基准变化分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 王安国; 李辉


    Vessel weapon system baseline deviation caused by external condition affects attack accuracy. The finite element model is constructed by ANSYS. 3D wave loads calculation method is used to simulate the wave force in sailing condition. Vessel weapon system baseline deviation in the case of two limit sea conditions is researched. The simulation result indicates that vessel weapon system baseline deviation of certain vessel structure of this text is remarkable in the rolling condition and the weapon baseline near stem and broadside has a tremendous influence. Therefore this certain vessel should be sailing a-gainst wave while it carries out combat duty in order to decrease the influence of rolling.%舰船武器装备基准在外界因素作用下产生变化,从而影响武器系统的打击精度.应用ANSYS平台建立舰船有限元模型,利用三维波浪载荷的计算方法模拟航行条件下舰船所受载荷,研究了舰船甲板面武器装备基准在两种极限海况下的变化情况.仿真结果表明:针对所选取的某型舰船主体结构而言,舰船横摇使武器装备基准产生较大的变化,并且靠近船体尾部和两舷位置处装备的基准变化较为显著,所以该型舰船在执行作战任务中,应尽量采取顶浪航行,减小舰船横摇对武器装备基准的影响.

  11. Multi-Polarization Reconfigurable Antenna for Wireless Biomedical System. (United States)

    Wong, Hang; Lin, Wei; Huitema, Laure; Arnaud, Eric


    This paper presents a multi-polarization reconfigurable antenna with four dipole radiators for biomedical applications in body-centric wireless communication system (BWCS). The proposed multi-dipole antenna with switchable 0°, +45°, 90° and -45° linear polarizations is able to overcome the polarization mismatching and multi-path distortion in complex wireless channels as in BWCS. To realize this reconfigurable feature for the first time among all the reported antenna designs, we assembled four dipoles together with 45° rotated sequential arrangements. These dipoles are excited by the same feeding source provided by a ground tapered Balun. A metallic reflector is placed below the dipoles to generate a broadside radiation. By introducing eight PIN diodes as RF switches between the excitation source and the four dipoles, we can control a specific dipole to operate. As the results, 0°, +45°, 90° and -45° linear polarizations can be switched correspondingly to different operating dipoles. Experimental results agree with the simulation and show that the proposed antenna well works in all polarization modes with desirable electrical characteristics. The antenna has a wide impedance bandwidth of 34% from 2.2 to 3.1 GHz (for the reflection coefficient ≤ -10 dB) and exhibits a stable cardioid-shaped radiation pattern across the operating bandwidth with a peak gain of 5.2 dBi. To validate the effectiveness of the multi-dipole antenna for biomedical applications, we also designed a meandered PIFA as the implantable antenna. Finally, the communication link measurement shows that our proposed antenna is able to minimize the polarization mismatching and maintains the optimal communication link thanks to its polarization reconfigurability.

  12. Reconfigurable Antennas for High Data Rate Multi-beam Communication Systems (United States)

    Bernhard, Jennifer T.; Michielssen, Eric


    High-speed (2-100 Mb/sec) wireless data communication - whether land- or satellite-based - faces a major challenge: high error rates caused by interference and unpredictable environments. A planar antenna system that can be reconfigured to respond to changing conditions has the potential to dramatically improve data throughput and system reliability. Moreover, new planar antenna designs that reduce array size, weight, and cost can have a significant impact on terrestrial and satellite communication system performance. This research developed new individually-reconfigurable planar antenna array elements that can be adjusted to provide multiple beams while providing increased scan angles and higher aperture efficiency than traditional diffraction-limited arrays. These new elements are microstrip spiral antennas with specialized tuning mechanisms that provide adjustable radiation patterns. We anticipate that these new elements can be used in both large and small arrays for inter-satellite communication as well as tracking of multiple mobile surface-based units. Our work has developed both theoretical descriptions as well as experimental prototypes of the antennas in both single element and array embodiments. The technical summary of the results of this work is divided into six sections: A. Cavity model for analysis and design of pattern reconfigurable antennas; B. Performance of antenna in array configurations for broadside and endfire operation; C. Performance of antenna in array configurations for beam scanning operation; D. Simulation of antennas in infinite phased arrays; E. Demonstration of antenna with commercially-available RF MEMS switches; F. Design of antenna MEMS switch combinations for direct simultaneous fabrication.

  13. Self-diffusion in the non-Newtonian regime of shearing liquid crystal model systems based on the Gay-Berne potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarman, Sten, E-mail:; Wang, Yong-Lei; Laaksonen, Aatto [Arrhenius Laboratory, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)


    The self-diffusion coefficients of nematic phases of various model systems consisting of regular convex calamitic and discotic ellipsoids and non-convex bodies such as bent-core molecules and soft ellipsoid strings have been obtained as functions of the shear rate in a shear flow. Then the self-diffusion coefficient is a second rank tensor with three different diagonal components and two off-diagonal components. These coefficients were found to be determined by a combination of two mechanisms, which previously have been found to govern the self-diffusion of shearing isotropic liquids, namely, (i) shear alignment enhancing the diffusion in the direction parallel to the streamlines and hindering the diffusion in the perpendicular directions and (ii) the distortion of the shell structure in the liquid whereby a molecule more readily can escape from a surrounding shell of nearest neighbors, so that the mobility increases in every direction. Thus, the diffusion parallel to the streamlines always increases with the shear rate since these mechanisms cooperate in this direction. In the perpendicular directions, these mechanisms counteract each other so that the behaviour becomes less regular. In the case of the nematic phases of the calamitic and discotic ellipsoids and of the bent core molecules, mechanism (ii) prevails so that the diffusion coefficients increase. However, the diffusion coefficients of the soft ellipsoid strings decrease in the direction of the velocity gradient because the broadsides of these molecules are oriented perpendicularly to this direction due the shear alignment (i). The cross coupling coefficient relating a gradient of tracer particles in the direction of the velocity gradient and their flow in the direction of the streamlines is negative and rather large, whereas the other coupling coefficient relating a gradient in the direction of the streamlines and a flow in the direction of the velocity gradient is very small.

  14. Evaluation of motorcycle safety strategies using the severity of injuries. (United States)

    Jung, Soyoung; Xiao, Qin; Yoon, Yoonjin


    The growth of motorcycle fatalities in California has been especially prominent, specifically with regard to the 24 and under age group and those aged 45-54. This research quantitatively examined factors associated with motorcyclist fatalities and assessed strategies that could improve motorcyclist safety, specifically focusing on the two age groups mentioned above. Severity of injury was estimated separately for both age groups with multinomial logit models and pseudo-elasticity using motorcycle-related collision data that was collected between 2005 and 2009. The results were compared with motorcyclists aged 35-44, a group that shows a consistent trend of fatalities. This research found that lack or improper use of helmets, victim ejection, alcohol/drug effects, collisions (head-on, broadside, hit-object), and truck involvement were more likely to result in fatal injuries regardless of age group. Weekend and non-peak hour activity was found to have a strong effect in both the younger and older age groups. Two factors, movement of running off the road preceding a collision and multi-vehicle involvement, were found to be statistically significant factors in increasing older motorcyclist fatalities. Use of street lights in the dark was found to decrease the probability of severe injury for older motorcyclists. Driver type of victim, at-fault driver, local road, and speed violation were significant factors in increasing the fatalities of younger motorcyclists. Road conditions and collision location factors were not found to be statistically significant to motorcyclist fatalities. Based on the statistically significant factors identified in this research, the following safety strategies appear to be effective methods of reducing motorcyclist fatalities: public education of alcohol use, promoting helmet use, enforcing heavy vehicle and speed violations, improving roadway facilities, clearer roadway guidance and street lighting systems, and motorcyclist training.

  15. A Design of Experiments Investigation of Offset Streams for Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda; Papamoschou, Dimitri


    An experimental investigation into the noise characteristics of a dual-stream jet with four airfoils inserted in the fan nozzle was conducted. The intent of the airfoils was to deflect the fan stream relative to the core stream and, therefore, impact the development of the secondary potential core and noise radiated in the peak jet-noise direction. The experiments used a full-factorial Design of Experiments (DoE) approach to identify parameters and parameter interactions impacting noise radiation at two azimuthal microphone array locations, one of which represented a sideline viewing angle. The parameters studied included airfoil angle-of-attack, airfoil azimuthal location within the fan nozzle, and airfoil axial location relative to the fan-nozzle trailing edge. Jet conditions included subsonic and supersonic fan-stream Mach numbers. Heated jets conditions were simulated with a mixture of helium and air to replicate the exhaust velocity and density of the hot jets. The introduction of the airfoils was shown to impact noise radiated at polar angles in peak-jet noise direction and to have no impact on noise radiated at small and broadside polar angles and to have no impact on broadband-shock-associated noise. The DoE analysis showed the main effects impacting noise radiation at sideline-azimuthal-viewing angles included airfoil azimuthal angle for the airfoils on the lower side of the jet near the sideline array and airfoil trailing edge distance (with airfoils located at the nozzle trailing edge produced the lowest sound pressure levels). For an array located directly beneath the jet (and on the side of the jet from which the fan stream was deflected), the main effects impacting noise radiation included airfoil angle-of-attack and airfoil azimuthal angle for the airfoils located on the observation side of the jet as well and trailing edge distance. Interaction terms between multiple configuration parameters were shown to have significant impact on the radiated

  16. Scanning and Defocusing Properties of Microstrip Reflectarray Antennas (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam


    A symmetric reflectarray, consisting of variable-size square patch elements with a commonly used mathematical model for the horn in the form of a cosine function, has been designed using the transmit mode technique for different f/D ratios with 10 dB edge taper. Subsequently, the antennas were analyzed for the radiation pattern and gain. The infinite array model was used to determine the reflection phase of each patch element in the design and analysis codes. By displacing the feed laterally, the scan characteristics were obtained, such as the beam deviation factor, gain loss, and pattern degradation. The properties of reflect arrays were compared to those of the conventional paraboloidal reflectors. The same procedure was used to study the scan properties of offset reflectarrays. There is no cross-polarized radiation in the principal planes for a symmetric system. Cross-polarized radiation exists in non-principal planes off broadside in symmetric systems, with greater levels for larger values of subtended angles. Such cross-polarized radiation level increases with subtended angle just as cross-polarization level increases with decreasing values of f/D ratios for symmetric paraboloids in non-principal planes. Pattern distortions and gain loss were found to be more severe in the case of a microstrip reflectarray compared to the conventional parabolic reflector. The scan performance of the reflect arrays was found to improve with f/D ratios as is true for paraboloids. In general, scanning by means of displaced feed is limited to a few beam - widths in reflectarrays. Feed displacement in the axial direction of a symmetric reflectarray was investigated and compared to that of paraboloids. The gain loss due to the defocused feed of a reflectarray was found to be nearly the same as that of a paraboloid of the same subtended angle for larger values of f/D, and for displacements away from the antenna. The gain loss of an axially defocused reflectarray was found to be

  17. Low Average Sidelobe Slot Array Antennas for Radiometer Applications (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam; Zawardzki, Mark S.; Hodges, Richard E.


    In radiometer applications, it is required to design antennas that meet low average sidelobe levels and low average return loss over a specified frequency bandwidth. It is a challenge to meet such specifications over a frequency range when one uses resonant elements such as waveguide feed slots. In addition to their inherent narrow frequency band performance, the problem is exacerbated due to modeling errors and manufacturing tolerances. There was a need to develop a design methodology to solve the problem. An iterative design procedure was developed by starting with an array architecture, lattice spacing, aperture distribution, waveguide dimensions, etc. The array was designed using Elliott s technique with appropriate values of the total slot conductance in each radiating waveguide, and the total resistance in each feed waveguide. Subsequently, the array performance was analyzed by the full wave method of moments solution to the pertinent integral equations. Monte Carlo simulations were also carried out to account for amplitude and phase errors introduced for the aperture distribution due to modeling errors as well as manufacturing tolerances. If the design margins for the average sidelobe level and the average return loss were not adequate, array architecture, lattice spacing, aperture distribution, and waveguide dimensions were varied in subsequent iterations. Once the design margins were found to be adequate, the iteration was stopped and a good design was achieved. A symmetric array architecture was found to meet the design specification with adequate margin. The specifications were near 40 dB for angular regions beyond 30 degrees from broadside. Separable Taylor distribution with nbar=4 and 35 dB sidelobe specification was chosen for each principal plane. A non-separable distribution obtained by the genetic algorithm was found to have similar characteristics. The element spacing was obtained to provide the required beamwidth and close to a null in the E

  18. Neuropsychiatry at the Courtroom Gates: Selective Entry or Anything Goes? (United States)

    Brakel; Gonzalez; Cavanaugh


    that PET scan data concerning the defendant could come in, despite the lack of a scientifically established connection between such data and the criminal behavior at issue. This particular result is probably a bad one. Does that mean PET scan evidence in the courts is an example of general forensic misuse of neurotechnology? Are the new admissibility rules hopelessly out of whack? There is no need for such broadsides. The better conclusion is that neuropsychiatrists should continue to work together with lawyers and lawmakers to ensure, as much as possible, the appropriate application of this technology to legal proceedings.

  19. Radiation forces and torque on a rigid elliptical cylinder in acoustical plane progressive and (quasi)standing waves with arbitrary incidence (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.


    This paper presents two key contributions; the first concerns the development of analytical expressions for the axial and transverse acoustic radiation forces exerted on a 2D rigid elliptical cylinder placed in the field of plane progressive, quasi-standing, or standing waves with arbitrary incidence. The second emphasis is on the acoustic radiation torque per length. The rigid elliptical cylinder case is important to be considered as a first-order approximation of the behavior of a cylindrical fluid column trapped in air because of the significant acoustic impedance mismatch at the particle boundary. Based on the rigorous partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates, non-dimensional acoustic radiation force and torque functions are derived and defined in terms of the scattering coefficients of the elliptic cylinder. A coupled system of linear equations is obtained after applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface in a non-viscous fluid and solved numerically by matrix inversion after performing a single numerical integration procedure. Computational results for the non-dimensional force components and torque, showing the transition from the progressive to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behavior, are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the semi-axes of the ellipse, the dimensionless size parameter, as well as the angle of incidence ranging from end-on to broadside incidence. The results show that the elliptical geometry has a direct influence on the radiation force and torque, so that the standard theory for circular cylinders (at normal incidence) leads to significant miscalculations when the cylinder cross section becomes non-circular. Moreover, the elliptical cylinder experiences, in addition to the acoustic radiation force, a radiation torque that vanishes for the circular cylinder case. The application of the formalism presented here may be extended to other 2D surfaces of

  20. 一种微带线到带状线宽带垂直耦合过渡结构%Broadband vertical microstrip to stripline transition via electromagnetic coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国忠; 李伟


    Aiming at microstrip to stripline transition in multi-layer designs,a broadband vertical microstrip to stripline transition via electromagnetic coupling is proposed.In this designs,microstrip to stripline transition is formed by two elliptically patches,which are broadside coupled and matched through circular slots,and then realizes the transmission of microwave signal in different layers.The proposed structure is designed by software and the back-to-back transition is simulated,fabricated and tested.The measurements of the designed devices exhibit that the return loss in the order of 12 dB or better and the best insert loss is 1.48 dB.The results show that this proposed structure has a good performance,and the structure is simple and the processing is convenient and so on.All this indicates the structure has a good applicable worthiness in microwave circuit designs.%针对基于微波多层介质板的微带线到带状线过渡问题,提出了一种微带线到带状线宽带垂直耦合过渡结构,通过地层的圆形开孔完成微带线与带状线椭圆形贴片间的电磁耦合与匹配设计,实现了微波信号在微波多层介质板内跨层传输。将微带线到带状线宽带垂直耦合过渡结构在三维电磁场仿真软件中进行了建模,并对背对背结构进行了仿真、加工与测试。测试结果表明,在7~13 GHz 的频带范围内输入输出回波损耗小于-12 dB,插入损耗最小为1.48 dB。该微带线到带状线宽带垂直耦合过渡结构具备了良好的性能,同时具有电路结构简单、加工方便等特点,在微波电路设计方面具有较高的实用价值。

  1. A Study on Space-Borne SAR Mosaic Mode for an Agile Satellite%基于敏捷卫星平台的星载SAR Mosaic模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓磊; 李世强; 王宇; 韩晓东; 禹卫东


    Mosaic模式是聚束和ScanSAR的混合模式,能同时实现高分辨率、大场景成像.提出了一种易实现的Mosaic模式,它的距离向波束切换通过电扫描完成,方位向波束扫描通过机械扫描实现.敏捷卫星能通过控制俯仰机动,方便地实现方位向机械扫描,适于实施这种Mosaic模式.针对这种Mosaic模式的特点,提出了一种新的系统设计方法.该方法从零斜视角位置开始,递推求解一系列关于Burst斜视角和驻留时间的非线性方程组,得到系统参数和时间分配方案.此外,还提出了一种基于等效展宽天线方向图的Mosaic模式性能参数近似计算方法,它能直观、便利地得到Mosaic模式各种性能参数.%The Mosaic mode is a hybrid mode of spotlight and ScanSAR,and it can image a large coverage at a high resolution.In the paper,an easily realized Mosaic mode is proposed.In the mode,the beam switching in range is realized by electrical beam steering,whereas the beam steering in azimuth is realized by mechanical beam steering.The agile satellite can realize the mechanical beam steering by pitching maneuver expediently.Thus,it is fit for the implementation of the Mosaic mode.In this paper,a new system design method is presented for the Mosaic mode.Beginning with the broadside position,the nonlinear system in the unknown squint angle and dwell time of the burst is iteratively solved.In this way,the system parameters and timeline of the Mosaic mode are obtained.Moreover,a new approximate computation method for the performance parameters is obtained based on the equivalent stretch of the azimuth antenna pattern.It can achieve the performance parameters of the Mosaic mode visually and expediently.

  2. A Geometric Analysis to Protect Manned Assets from Newly Launched Objects - COLA Gap Analysis (United States)

    Hametz, Mark E.; Beaver, Brian A.


    period is also not practical due to the limiting effects of these large orbit state uncertainties. An estimated upper bound for Pc for a typical spent upper stage if nominally aligned for a direct broadside collision with the ISS is only on the order of 10-6. For a smaller manned object such as a Soyuz capsule, the risk level decreases to an order of 10'8 . In comparison, the Air Force Range policy (AFI 91-217) for launch COLAs would only eliminate launch opportunities when conjunctions with objects exceed a Pc of 10'5 This paper demonstrates a conservative geometry-based methodology that may be used to determine if launch opportunities pose a threat to the ISS during the COLA gap period. The NASA Launch Services Program at Kennedy Space Center has developed this COLA gap analysis method and employed it fQr three NASA missions to identify potential ISS conjunctions and corresponding launch window closures during the 56-hour at-risk period. In the analysis, for each launch opportunity, the nominal trajectory of the spent upper stage and the orbit state of the ISS are propagated over the 56 hour period. Each time the upper stage crosses the orbit plane of the ISS, the relative radial and argument of latitude separations are calculated. A window cutout is identified if these separation differences fall within a mission-specific violation box, which is determined from the evaluation of a Monte Carlo dispersions analysis that quantifies the potential variation in the upper stage radial and argument of latitude differences. This paper details the results of these analyses and their impacts to each mission.

  3. Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Transmission-Line Metamaterials (United States)

    Tavallaee, Amir Ali

    Terahertz quantum-cascade (QC) lasers operating at 0.6 - 5 THz (λ ˜ 60 - 500 µm) are poised to become the dominant solid-state sources of continuous-wave (cw) far-infrared radiation enabling applications in terahertz spectroscopy, imaging, and sensing. QC-lasers are the longest wavelength semiconductor laser sources in which terahertz gain is obtained from electronic intersubband radiative transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure quantum wells. Since their invention in 2001, rapid development has enabled demonstration of cw powers greater than 100 mW. However, challenges still remain in the areas of operating temperature, laser efficiency and power, and beam quality to name a few. The highest-temperature operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (200 K pulsed, 117 K cw) depends on the use of a low-loss "metal-metal" waveguide where the active gain material is sandwiched between two metal cladding layers; a technique similar, in concept, to microstrip transmission line technology at microwave frequencies. Due to the subwavelength transverse dimensions of the metal-metal waveguide, however, obtaining a directive beam pattern and efficient out-coupling of THz power is non-trivial. This thesis reports the demonstration of a one-dimensional waveguide for terahertz quantum-cascade lasers that acts as a leaky-wave antenna and tailors laser radiation in one dimension to a directional beam. This scheme adapts microwave transmission-line metamaterial concepts to a planar structure realized in terahertz metal-metal waveguide technology and is fundamentally different from distributed feedback/photonic crystal structures that work based on Bragg scattering of propagating modes. The leaky-wave metamaterial antenna operates based on a propagating mode with an effective phase index smaller than unity such that it radiates in the surface direction via a leaky-wave mechanism. Surface emission (˜ 40° from broadside) with a single directive beam (FWHM ˜ 15°) at 2.74 THz

  4. Stitch and hem and line and flight (United States)

    Thorp, John Daniel

    Stitch and hem and line and flight appears in four formats. There is this present one, which adheres to the manuscript design requirements as outlined by The Graduate School at The University of Utah; there is another which is a book six inches high by nine inches wide, printed in three colors, with text aligned to its gutter; and there is a broadside printed from the same forms of standing metal type on a single twelve-inch-high by nineteen-inch-wide page, where all spreads are registered to the same points so that all lines of all sections overlap exactly, excluding the last lines of the longest section, which are left immediately readable. The second and the third formats were produced in editions of fifty each, and copies are available to the reader through the Special Collections Library at the J. Willard Marriott Library. The text in the book you're holding is built from scans taken from the original letterpress pages, and so honors typos not caught before production during proofreading, but does not honor the final runs of production which overprint eight typos and overprint one duplicated "no." The text here stands as an uncorrected and reformatted transcript of the letterpress-printed pages, since all "characters must be clear and sharp. Smudged, indistinct, or blurred letters are not acceptable." The present format cannot ask (at least not in the same way) if the techniques and repetitive labor of hand printing can be read just as one might read any of the other more familiar small crises in a work: the line break, the influence of a culture or history on that work, anagnorisis, exegesis, etc. The present format doesn't seem to ask questions like: what happens to a love song when you can't read it or hear it? How does a line or letter make itself mean when cast in metal, stood up and pressed onto paper? Still, the present format is concerned with how a line sits on a page and how a line is like love is like highs is like sand. The text all these formats

  5. Theory of a Traveling Wave Feed for a Planar Slot Array Antenna (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam


    Planar arrays of waveguide-fed slots have been employed in many radar and remote sensing applications. Such arrays are designed in the standing wave configuration because of high efficiency. Traveling wave arrays can produce greater bandwidth at the expense of efficiency due to power loss in the load or loads. Traveling wave planar slot arrays may be designed with a long feed waveguide consisting of centered-inclined coupling slots. The feed waveguide is terminated in a matched load, and the element spacing in the feed waveguide is chosen to produce a beam squinted from the broadside. The traveling wave planar slot array consists of a long feed waveguide containing resonant-centered inclined coupling slots in the broad wall, coupling power into an array of stacked radiating waveguides orthogonal to it. The radiating waveguides consist of longitudinal offset radiating slots in a standing wave configuration. For the traveling wave feed of a planar slot array, one has to design the tilt angle and length of each coupling slot such that the amplitude and phase of excitation of each radiating waveguide are close to the desired values. The coupling slot spacing is chosen for an appropriate beam squint. Scattering matrix parameters of resonant coupling slots are used in the design process to produce appropriate excitations of radiating waveguides with constraints placed only on amplitudes. Since the radiating slots in each radiating waveguide are designed to produce a certain total admittance, the scattering (S) matrix of each coupling slot is reduced to a 2x2 matrix. Elements of each 2x2 S-matrix and the amount of coupling into the corresponding radiating waveguide are expressed in terms of the element S11. S matrices are converted into transmission (T) matrices, and the T matrices are multiplied to cascade the coupling slots and waveguide sections, starting from the load end and proceeding towards the source. While the use of non-resonant coupling slots may provide an

  6. Traffic accidents with motorcycles and their relationship to mortality Ocurrencias de tránsito con motocicleta y su relación con la mortalidad Ocorrências de trânsito com motocicleta e sua relação com a mortalidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Luiz Batista de Oliveira


    Full Text Available This study characterizes traffic accidents involving motorcycles according to local conditions, data concerning the type of accident, date and time, and identifies among these variables those associated with the death of victims. This retrospective study uses data from traffic collision reports from 2004 and death records from the institute of forensic medicine. A total of 99.4% of the events occurred in urban areas, where illumination (87.4%, weather conditions (80.6%; and traffic signs (70.6% were satisfactory. Collisions between motorcycles and cars or pickup trucks prevailed (55.5%, followed by motorcycle falls (18.0%. In relation to the type of collision, the highest percentage was observed in broadside collision category (35.2%. There were differences between the groups of fatalities and survivors in relation to the area and illumination in the collision’s site, in addition to the types of collision and impact. The conclusion is that local conditions and types of collision and impact stand out among the multiple variables defining the severity of accidents involving motorcycles.Se tuvo por objetivo caracterizar las ocurrencias de tránsito con motocicleta, según condiciones locales, datos relacionados al tipo de accidente, fecha y hora, además de identificar entre esas variables las que se asociaron con la muerte de las víctimas. Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo utilizando datos de los Boletines de Ocurrencia de Tránsito referentes al año de 2.004 y los registros de muerte del Instituto Médico Legal. El 99,4% de las ocurrencias sucedieron en área urbana, en locales donde las condiciones de luminosidad (87,4%, condición meteorológica (80,6% y señalización (70,6% eran satisfactorias. Predominó la colisión de motocicleta con automóvil o camioneta (55,5% y las caídas de motocicleta fueron las más frecuentes (18,0%. En el tipo de impacto, el mayor porcentaje fue observado en la categoría colisión transversal (35,2%. El

  7. Hybrid integration of synthesized dielectric image waveguides in substrate integrated circuit technology and its millimeter wave applications (United States)

    Patrovsky, Andreas

    -band (75 GHz to 110 GHz), a transition from rectangular waveguide to SIIG was developed. Another transition to either microstrip or CPW is essential to enable coplanar probe measurements and to achieve compatibility with monolithic millimeter wave integrated circuits (MMICs). Microstrip and image guide have very different requirements for the substrate thickness, for which reason efforts were concentrated on a wideband transition between the SIIG and CPW. The designed transition shows good broadband performance and minimal radiation loss. Other transitions from the SIIG to the Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) are also presented in the context of substrate integrated circuits (SICs). The latter technology combines planar transmission lines and originally non-planar waveguide structures that are synthesized in planar form on a common substrate. High alignment precision is a direct consequence, which eliminates the necessity for additional tuning. As an open dielectric waveguide technology with very small transmission loss, the SIIG is particularly suitable for antennas and corresponding feed lines. The similarity of the SIIG with other dielectric waveguides and especially with the image guide suggests a knowledge transfer from known dielectric antennas. A planar SIIG rod antenna was designed and fabricated, as a derivative of the established polyrod antenna. The structural shape is simple and compact, and it provides a medium gain in the range of 10 dBi to 15 dBi. A second developed type, an SIIG traveling-wave linear array antenna, is frequency-steerable through broadside due to special radiation elements. The novel design of a slab-mode antenna forms an endfire beam by a planar lens configuration. In addition, all of those dielectric-based antennas are highly efficient. Being synthesized on a planar substrate, the SIIG can be combined in a hybrid way with other waveguide structures on the same substrate in so-called substrate integrated circuits (SICs). It joins the

  8. Laser optogalvanic spectroscopy of neon in a discharge plasma and modeling and analysis of rocket plume RF-line emissions (United States)

    Ogungbemi, Kayode I.

    databases (e.g. JPL/NASA and Cologne), together with other appropriate spectroscopic data. Hydrazine fuel was selected as the rocket propellant of choice and the plume codes were run by the JHU-APL research group. A representative monopropellant hydrazine plume has been determined to provide exhaust temperature, pressure, velocity, and species number density inputs for model development. A MATLAB code has been developed for computing broadside line-of-sight (LOS) intensities due to line emissions involving ammonia and other plume species. Initially, we assumed Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) and included self-absorption contributions due to plume opacity, together with collisional and Doppler broadening, as well as the Doppler shift due to the plume radial velocity towards and away from a stationary detector. The recorded code output was MATLAB coded and an assortment of plume parameters computed, such as the volume emission rate, the absorption coefficient, optical depth and species radiance line-by-line. These parameters were computed both manually utilizing a spread sheet and then automated using the Matlab code. The volume emissions, along with other plume properties, were plotted as a function of the axial distance in the plume for several Radio Frequency (RF) transitions involving various significant plume species. Plume properties, such as the temperature, pressure, number density, and plume particulate speed emanating from the nozzle where analyzed and modeled as the plume drifts away from the rocket nozzle. Both the axial and radial distance dependences were investigated with respect to the various plume properties and parameters. Population distribution of the species (number density) dependence on the plume temperature was investigated and modeled line-by-line for each of the plume species studied at the nozzle exit plane and beyond. In addition, volume emission and absorption coefficients have been analyzed and modeled and solutions to the Radiative