WorldWideScience

Sample records for broadly conserved crustacean

  1. Limited potential for adaptation to climate change in a broadly distributed marine crustacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Morgan W; Sanford, Eric; Grosberg, Richard K

    2012-01-22

    The extent to which acclimation and genetic adaptation might buffer natural populations against climate change is largely unknown. Most models predicting biological responses to environmental change assume that species' climatic envelopes are homogeneous both in space and time. Although recent discussions have questioned this assumption, few empirical studies have characterized intraspecific patterns of genetic variation in traits directly related to environmental tolerance limits. We test the extent of such variation in the broadly distributed tidepool copepod Tigriopus californicus using laboratory rearing and selection experiments to quantify thermal tolerance and scope for adaptation in eight populations spanning more than 17° of latitude. Tigriopus californicus exhibit striking local adaptation to temperature, with less than 1 per cent of the total quantitative variance for thermal tolerance partitioned within populations. Moreover, heat-tolerant phenotypes observed in low-latitude populations cannot be achieved in high-latitude populations, either through acclimation or 10 generations of strong selection. Finally, in four populations there was no increase in thermal tolerance between generations 5 and 10 of selection, suggesting that standing variation had already been depleted. Thus, plasticity and adaptation appear to have limited capacity to buffer these isolated populations against further increases in temperature. Our results suggest that models assuming a uniform climatic envelope may greatly underestimate extinction risk in species with strong local adaptation.

  2. First report of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in crustaceans: conservation of its functions as growth promoting factor and immunomodulator in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Juana María; Carpio, Yamila; Morales, Reynold; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tania; Ramos, Laida; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The high conservation of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) sequence indicates that this peptide fulfills important biological functions in a broad spectrum of organisms. However, in invertebrates, little is known about its presence and its functions remain unclear. Up to now, in non-mammalian vertebrates, the majority of studies on PACAP have focused mainly on the localization, cloning and structural evolution of this peptide. As yet, little is known about its biological functions as growth factor and immunomodulator in lower vertebrates. Recently, we have shown that PACAP, apart from its neuroendocrine role, influences immune functions in larval and juvenile fish. In this work, we isolated for the first time the cDNA encoding the mature PACAP from a crustacean species, the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, corroborating its high degree of sequence conservation, when compared to sequences reported from tunicates to mammalian vertebrates. Based on this, we have evaluated the effects of purified recombinant Clarias gariepinus PACAP administrated by immersion baths on white shrimp growth and immunity. We demonstrated that PACAP improves hemocyte count, superoxide dismutase, lectins and nitric oxide synthase derived metabolites in treated shrimp related with an increase in total protein concentration and growth performance. From our results, PACAP acts as a regulator of shrimp growth and immunity, suggesting that in crustaceans, as in vertebrate organisms, PACAP is an important molecule shared by both the endocrine and the immune systems.

  3. First Insights into the Subterranean Crustacean Bathynellacea Transcriptome: Transcriptionally Reduced Opsin Repertoire and Evidence of Conserved Homeostasis Regulatory Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Kang, Seunghyun; Ahn, Do-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Ahn, Inhye; Lee, Chi-Woo; Cho, Joo-Lae; Min, Gi-Sik; Park, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida, Parabathynellidae) are subterranean aquatic crustaceans that typically inhabit freshwater interstitial spaces (e.g., groundwater) and are occasionally found in caves and even hot springs. In this study, we sequenced the whole transcriptome of Allobathynella bangokensis using RNA-seq. De novo sequence assembly produced 74,866 contigs including 28,934 BLAST hits. Overall, the gene sequences were most similar to those of the waterflea Daphnia pulex. In the A. bangokensis transcriptome, no opsin or related sequences were identified, and no contig aligned to the crustacean visual opsins and non-visual opsins (i.e. arthropsins, peropsins, and melaopsins), suggesting potential regressive adaptation to the dark environment. However, A. bangokensis expressed conserved gene family sets, such as heat shock proteins and those related to key innate immunity pathways and antioxidant defense systems, at the transcriptional level, suggesting that this species has evolved adaptations involving molecular mechanisms of homeostasis. The transcriptomic information of A. bangokensis will be useful for investigating molecular adaptations and response mechanisms to subterranean environmental conditions. PMID:28107438

  4. Influenza A HA's conserved epitopes and broadly neutralizing antibodies: a prediction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Ellis, John; Li, Jinyan

    2014-10-01

    A conserved epitope is an epitope retained by multiple strains of influenza as the key target of a broadly neutralizing antibody. Identification of conserved epitopes is of strong interest to help design broad-spectrum vaccines against influenza. Conservation score measures the evolutionary conservation of an amino acid position in a protein based on the phylogenetic relationships observed amongst homologous sequences. Here, Average Amino Acid Conservation Score (AAACS) is proposed as a method to identify HA's conserved epitopes. Our analysis shows that there is a clear distinction between conserved epitopes and nonconserved epitopes in terms of AAACS. This method also provides an excellent classification performance on an independent dataset. In contrast, alignment-based comparison methods do not work well for this problem, because conserved epitopes to the same broadly neutralizing antibody are usually not identical or similar. Location-based methods are not successful either, because conserved epitopes are located at both the less-conserved globular head (HA1) and the more-conserved stem (HA2). As a case study, two conserved epitopes on HA are predicted for the influenza A virus H7N9: One should match the broadly neutralizing antibodies CR9114 or FI6v3, while the other is new and requires validation by wet-lab experiments.

  5. Successes and challenges from formation to implementation of eleven broad-extent conservation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Bradford, John B.; Germino, Matthew J.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Post van der Burg, Max; Brunson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Integration of conservation partnerships across geographic, biological, and administrative boundaries is increasingly relevant because drivers of change, such as climate shifts, transcend these boundaries. We explored successes and challenges of established conservation programs that span multiple watersheds and consider both social and ecological concerns. We asked representatives from a diverse set of 11 broadextent conservation partnerships in 29 countries 17 questions that pertained to launching and maintaining partnerships for broad-extent conservation, specifying ultimate management objectives, and implementation and learning. Partnerships invested more funds in implementing conservation actions than any other aspect of conservation, and a program’s context (geographic extent, United States vs. other countries, developed vs. developing nation) appeared to substantially affect program approach. Despite early successes of these organizations and benefits of broad-extent conservation, specific challenges related to uncertainties in scaling up information and to coordination in the face of diverse partner governance structures, conflicting objectives, and vast uncertainties regarding future system dynamics hindered long-term success, as demonstrated by the focal organizations. Engaging stakeholders, developing conservation measures, and implementing adaptive management were dominant challenges. To inform future research on broad-extent conservation, we considered several challenges when we developed detailed questions, such as what qualities of broad-extent partnerships ensure they complement, integrate, and strengthen, rather than replace, local conservation efforts and which adaptive management processes yield actionable conservation strategies that account explicitly for dynamics and uncertainties regarding multiscale governance, environmental conditions, and knowledge of the system?

  6. How a low tissue O2 strategy could be conserved in early crustaceans: the example of the podocopid ostracods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Laure; Carbonel, Pierre; Massabuau, Jean-Charles

    2004-12-01

    An adaptation strategy whereby O(2) partial pressure, P(O(2)), in the tissues is maintained within a low, narrow range of 1-3 kPa, largely independent of the inspired P(O(2)), has been reported in water- and air-breathing poikilotherms and in homeotherms. Based on the postulate that this basic cellular mechanism has been established since the early stages of evolution, it has been hypothesized that it could be the consequence of an early adaptation strategy to maintain cellular oxygenation within the same low and primitive range. To test this hypothesis we studied the basic mechanisms of oxygen regulation in podocopid ostracods, minute crustaceans that have existed on earth for at least 500 million years. Podocopids lack any regulatory mechanism for adapting their ventilation to cope with changes in water oxygenation, and instead adjust their tissue oxygenation status by migrating through the O(2) gradient to sediment layers where the P(O(2)) of the water is 3-5 kPa. Experimental manipulation of the O(2) profile induced their vertical migration to follow this precise water P(O(2)) and demonstrates the existence of a regulation strategy. This strategy must be associated with the lower P(O(2)) values within the animal's carapace valves, showing that podocopids can actively regulate their tissue P(O(2)) at constant but even lower values than the water. In conclusion, the low tissue P(O(2)) strategy could have existed in early crustaceans and, by extension, in early animals.

  7. Sequence Conservation and Sexually Dimorphic Expression of the Ftz-F1 Gene in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

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    Nur Syafiqah Mohamad Ishak

    Full Text Available Identifying the genes required for environmental sex determination is important for understanding the evolution of diverse sex determination mechanisms in animals. Orthologs of Drosophila orphan receptor Fushi tarazu factor-1 (Ftz-F1 are known to function in genetic sex determination. In contrast, their roles in environmental sex determination remain unknown. In this study, we have cloned and characterized the Ftz-F1 ortholog in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. Similar to that observed in Drosophila, D. magna Ftz-F1 (DapmaFtz-F1 produces two splicing variants, αFtz-F1 and βFtz-F1, which encode 699 and 777 amino acids, respectively. Both isoforms share a DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain, and an AF-2 activation domain and differ only at the A/B domain. The phylogenetic position and genomic structure of DapmaFtz-F1 suggested that this gene has diverged from an ancestral gene common to branchiopod crustacean and insect Ftz-F1 genes. qRT-PCR showed that at the one cell and gastrulation stages, both DapmaFtz-F1 isoforms are two-fold more abundant in males than in females. In addition, in later stages, their sexual dimorphic expressions were maintained in spite of reduced expression. Time-lapse imaging of DapmaFtz-F1 RNAi embryos was performed in H2B-GFP expressing transgenic Daphnia, demonstrating that development of the RNAi embryos slowed down after the gastrulation stage and stopped at 30-48 h after ovulation. DapmaFtz-F1 shows high homology to insect Ftz-F1 orthologs based on its amino acid sequence and exon-intron organization. The sexually dimorphic expression of DapmaFtz-F1 suggests that it plays a role in environmental sex determination of D. magna.

  8. Desert bird associations with broad-scale boundary length: Applications in avian conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, K.J.; Barrow, W.C.

    2008-01-01

    1. Current understanding regarding the effects of boundaries on bird communities has originated largely from studies of forest-non-forest boundaries in mesic systems. To assess whether broad-scale boundary length can affect bird community structure in deserts, and to identify patterns and predictors of species' associations useful in avian conservation, we studied relations between birds and boundary-length variables in Chihuahuan Desert landscapes. Operationally, a boundary was the border between two adjoining land covers, and broad-scale boundary length was the total length of such borders in a large area. 2. Within 2-km radius areas, we measured six boundary-length variables. We analysed bird-boundary relations for 26 species, tested for assemblage-level patterns in species' associations with boundary-length variables, and assessed whether body size, dispersal ability and cowbird-host status were correlates of these associations. 3. The abundances or occurrences of a significant majority of species were associated with boundary-length variables, and similar numbers of species were related positively and negatively to boundary-length variables. 4. Disproportionately small numbers of species were correlated with total boundary length, land-cover boundary length and shrubland-grassland boundary length (variables responsible for large proportions of boundary length). Disproportionately large numbers of species were correlated with roadside boundary length and riparian vegetation-grassland boundary length (variables responsible for small proportions of boundary length). Roadside boundary length was associated (positively and negatively) with the most species. 5. Species' associations with boundary-length variables were not correlated with body size, dispersal ability or cowbird-host status. 6. Synthesis and applications. For the species we studied, conservationists can use the regressions we report as working models to anticipate influences of boundary-length changes

  9. Identification of protective and broadly conserved vaccine antigens from the genome of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, Danilo Gomes; Bertoldi, Isabella; Spagnuolo, Angela; Marchi, Sara; Rosini, Roberto; Nesta, Barbara; Pastorello, Ilaria; Corea, Vanja A Mariani; Torricelli, Giulia; Cartocci, Elena; Savino, Silvana; Scarselli, Maria; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hacker, Jörg; Tettelin, Hervé; Tallon, Luke J; Sullivan, Steven; Wieler, Lothar H; Ewers, Christa; Pickard, Derek; Dougan, Gordon; Fontana, Maria Rita; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Serino, Laura

    2010-05-18

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are a common cause of disease in both mammals and birds. A vaccine to prevent such infections would be desirable given the increasing antibiotic resistance of these bacteria. We have determined the genome sequence of ExPEC IHE3034 (ST95) isolated from a case of neonatal meningitis and compared this to available genome sequences of other ExPEC strains and a few nonpathogenic E. coli. We found 19 genomic islands present in the genome of IHE3034, which are absent in the nonpathogenic E. coli isolates. By using subtractive reverse vaccinology we identified 230 antigens present in ExPEC but absent (or present with low similarity) in nonpathogenic strains. Nine antigens were protective in a mouse challenge model. Some of them were also present in other pathogenic non-ExPEC strains, suggesting that a broadly protective E. coli vaccine may be possible. The gene encoding the most protective antigen was detected in most of the E. coli isolates, highly conserved in sequence and found to be exported by a type II secretion system which seems to be nonfunctional in nonpathogenic strains.

  10. Applications of a broad-spectrum tool for conservation and fisheries analysis: aquatic gap analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Steen, Paul J.; Lyons, John; Stewart, Jana S.

    2009-01-01

    . Aquatic gap analysis naturally focuses on aquatic habitats. The analytical tools are largely based on specification of the species-habitat relations for the system and organism group of interest (Morrison et al. 2003; McKenna et al. 2006; Steen et al. 2006; Sowa et al. 2007). The Great Lakes Regional Aquatic Gap Analysis (GLGap) project focuses primarily on lotic habitat of the U.S. Great Lakes drainage basin and associated states and has been developed to address fish and fisheries issues. These tools are unique because they allow us to address problems at a range of scales from the region to the stream segment and include the ability to predict species specific occurrence or abundance for most of the fish species in the study area. The results and types of questions that can be addressed provide better global understanding of the ecological context within which specific natural resources fit (e.g., neighboring environments and resources, and large and small scale processes). The geographic analysis platform consists of broad and flexible geospatial tools (and associated data) with many potential applications. The objectives of this article are to provide a brief overview of GLGap methods and analysis tools, and demonstrate conservation and planning applications of those data and tools. Although there are many potential applications, we will highlight just three: (1) support for the Eastern Brook Trout Joint Venture (EBTJV), (2) Aquatic Life classification in Wisconsin, and (3) an educational tool that makes use of Google Earth (use of trade or product names does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government) and Internet accessibility.

  11. Exploring Conservation Options in the Broad-Leaved Korean Pine Mixed Forest of the Changbai Mountain Region

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    Lin Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis mixed forest (BKPF is one of the most biodiverse zonal communities in the northern temperate zone. Changbai Mountain in northeastern China contains one of the largest BKPFs in the region. The government of China has established a network of 23 nature reserves to protect the BKPF and the species that depend on it for habitat, including the endangered Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica. This study used the conservation planning software C-Plan to calculate the irreplaceability value of each unit to assess how efficiently and comprehensively the existing conservation network supports biodiversity and to identify gap areas that, if integrated into the network, would expand its protection capability. Results show a number of high-conservation-value planning units concentrated along certain ridges. The existing conservation network is structured such that the habitats of only 24 species (out of a total of 75 achieve established conservation targets. Of the other 51 species, 20 achieve less than 50% of their conservation targets. However, expanding the network to include high-conservation-value gap areas could achieve conservation targets for 64 species and could provide different degrees of protection to the other 11 species. Using C-Plan software can guide decision-making to expand the conservation network in this most precious of mountainous ecological zones.

  12. Antimicrobial peptides in crustaceans

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    RD Rosa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans are a large and diverse invertebrate animal group that mounts a complex and efficient innate immune response against a variety of microorganisms. The crustacean immune system is primarily related to cellular responses and the production and release of important immune effectors into the hemolymph. Antimicrobial proteins and/or peptides (AMPs are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, 15 distinct AMP families are currently recognized, although the great majority (14 families comes from members of the order Decapoda. Crustacean AMPs are generally cationic, gene-encoded molecules that are mainly produced by circulating immune-competent cells (hemocytes or are derived from unrelated proteins primarily involved in other biological functions. In this review, we tentatively classified the crustacean AMPs into four main groups based on their amino acid composition, structural features and multi-functionality. We also attempted to summarize the current knowledge on their implication both in an efficient response to microbial infections and in crustacean survival.

  13. Current models broadly neglect specific needs of biodiversity conservation in protected areas under climate change

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    Moloney Kirk A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protected areas are the most common and important instrument for the conservation of biological diversity and are called for under the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity. Growing human population densities, intensified land-use, invasive species and increasing habitat fragmentation threaten ecosystems worldwide and protected areas are often the only refuge for endangered species. Climate change is posing an additional threat that may also impact ecosystems currently under protection. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to include the potential impact of climate change when designing future nature conservation strategies and implementing protected area management. This approach would go beyond reactive crisis management and, by necessity, would include anticipatory risk assessments. One avenue for doing so is being provided by simulation models that take advantage of the increase in computing capacity and performance that has occurred over the last two decades. Here we review the literature to determine the state-of-the-art in modeling terrestrial protected areas under climate change, with the aim of evaluating and detecting trends and gaps in the current approaches being employed, as well as to provide a useful overview and guidelines for future research. Results Most studies apply statistical, bioclimatic envelope models and focus primarily on plant species as compared to other taxa. Very few studies utilize a mechanistic, process-based approach and none examine biotic interactions like predation and competition. Important factors like land-use, habitat fragmentation, invasion and dispersal are rarely incorporated, restricting the informative value of the resulting predictions considerably. Conclusion The general impression that emerges is that biodiversity conservation in protected areas could benefit from the application of modern modeling approaches to a greater extent than is currently reflected in the

  14. Hox genes and study of Hox genes in crustacean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lin; CHEN Zhijuan; XU Mingyu; LIN Shengguo; WANG Lu

    2004-01-01

    Homeobox genes have been discovered in many species. These genes are known to play a major role in specifying regional identity along the anterior-posterior axis of animals from a wide range of phyla.The products of the homeotic genes are a set of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that control elaborate developmental processes and specify cell fates in metazoans. Crustacean, presenting a variety of body plans not encountered in any other class or phylum of the Metazoa, has been shown to possess a single set of homologous Hox genes like insect. The ancestral crustacean Hox gene complex comprised ten genes: eight homologous to the hometic Hox genes and two related to nonhomeotic genes presented within the insect Hox complexes. The crustacean in particular exhibits an abundant diversity segment specialization and tagmosis. This morphological diversity relates to the Hox genes. In crustacean body plan, different Hox genes control different segments and tagmosis.

  15. Identification of nicotinamide mononucleotide deamidase of the bacterial pyridine nucleotide cycle reveals a novel broadly conserved amidohydrolase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Luca; Bocci, Paola; Amici, Adolfo; Brunetti, Lucia; Ruggieri, Silverio; Romine, Margaret; Reed, Samantha; Osterman, Andrei L; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Sorci, Leonardo; Raffaelli, Nadia

    2011-11-18

    The pyridine nucleotide cycle is a network of salvage and recycling routes maintaining homeostasis of NAD(P) cofactor pool in the cell. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) deamidase (EC 3.5.1.42), one of the key enzymes of the bacterial pyridine nucleotide cycle, was originally described in Enterobacteria, but the corresponding gene eluded identification for over 30 years. A genomics-based reconstruction of NAD metabolism across hundreds of bacterial species suggested that NMN deamidase reaction is the only possible way of nicotinamide salvage in the marine bacterium Shewanella oneidensis. This prediction was verified via purification of native NMN deamidase from S. oneidensis followed by the identification of the respective gene, termed pncC. Enzymatic characterization of the PncC protein, as well as phenotype analysis of deletion mutants, confirmed its proposed biochemical and physiological function in S. oneidensis. Of the three PncC homologs present in Escherichia coli, NMN deamidase activity was confirmed only for the recombinant purified product of the ygaD gene. A comparative analysis at the level of sequence and three-dimensional structure, which is available for one of the PncC family member, shows no homology with any previously described amidohydrolases. Multiple alignment analysis of functional and nonfunctional PncC homologs, together with NMN docking experiments, allowed us to tentatively identify the active site area and conserved residues therein. An observed broad phylogenomic distribution of predicted functional PncCs in the bacterial kingdom is consistent with a possible role in detoxification of NMN, resulting from NAD utilization by DNA ligase.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF NICOTINAMIDE MONONUCLEOTIDE DEAMIDASE OF THE BACTERIAL PYRIDINE NUCLEOTIDE CYCLE REVEALS A NOVEL BROADLY CONSERVED AMIDOHYDROLASE FAMILY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeazzi, Luca; Bocci, Paolo; Amici, Adolfo; Brunetti, Lucia; Ruggieri, Silverio; Romine, Margaret F.; Reed, Samantha B.; Osterman, Andrei; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Sorci, Leonardo; Raffaelli, Nadia

    2011-09-27

    The pyridine nucleotide cycle (PNC) is a network of salvage and recycling routes maintaining homeostasis of NAD(P) cofactor pool in the cell. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) deamidase (EC 3.5.1.42), one of the key enzymes of the bacterial PNC was originally described in Enterobacteria, but the corresponding gene eluded identification for over 30 years. A genomics-based reconstruction of NAD metabolism across hundreds bacterial species suggested that NMN deamidase reaction is the only possible way of nicotinamide salvage in the marine bacterium Shewanella oneidensis. This prediction was verified via purification of native NMN deamidase from S. oneidensis followed by the identification of the respective gene, termed pncC. Enzymatic characterization of the PncC protein, as well as phenotype analysis of deletion mutants, confirmed its proposed biochemical and physiological function in S. oneidensis. Of the three PncC homologs present in E. coli, NMN deamidase activity was confirmed only for the recombinant purified product of the ygaD gene. A comparative analysis at the level of sequence and three dimensional structure, which is available for one of the PncC family member, shows no homology with any previously described amidohydrolases. Multiple alignment analysis of functional and non functional PncC homologs, together with NMN docking experiments, allowed us to tentatively identify the active site area and conserved residues therein. An observed broad phylogenomic distribution of predicted functional PncCs in bacterial kingdom is consistent with a possible role in detoxification of NMN, resulting from NAD utilization by DNA ligase.

  17. 50 CFR 665.140 - American Samoa Crustacean Fisheries. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Samoa Crustacean Fisheries. 665.140 Section 665.140 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American...

  18. 50 CFR 665.640 - PRIA crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PRIA crustacean fisheries. 665.640 Section 665.640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Pacific Remote Island...

  19. 50 CFR 665.240 - Hawaii crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hawaii crustacean fisheries. 665.240 Section 665.240 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  20. 50 CFR 665.440 - Mariana crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mariana crustacean fisheries. 665.440 Section 665.440 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  1. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

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    Elizabeth A Corey

    Full Text Available The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs, the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  2. Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Activity of Small Interfering RNA Targeting the Conserved RNA Termini of Lassa Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Stefanie; Günther, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs targeting the conserved RNA termini upstream of NP and L gene were found to reduce reporter gene expression from Lassa virus replicon and Lassa virus mRNA expression construct and to inhibit replication of different Lassa virus strains, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and Mopeia virus in cell culture.

  3. Targeting N-Glycan Cryptic Sugar Moieties for Broad-Spectrum Virus Neutralization: Progress in Identifying Conserved Molecular Targets in Viruses of Distinct Phylogenetic Origins

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    Denong Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular targets for eliciting broadly virus-neutralizing antibodies is one of the key steps toward development of vaccines against emerging viral pathogens. Owing to genomic and somatic diversities among viral species, identifying protein targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization is highly challenging even for the same virus, such as HIV-1. However, viruses rely on host glycosylation machineries to synthesize and express glycans and, thereby, may display common carbohydrate moieties. Thus, exploring glycan-binding profiles of broad-spectrum virus-neutralizing agents may provide key information to uncover the carbohydrate-based virus-neutralizing epitopes. In this study, we characterized two broadly HIV-neutralizing agents, human monoclonal antibody 2G12 and Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNA, for their viral targeting activities. Although these agents were known to be specific for oligomannosyl antigens, they differ strikingly in virus-binding activities. The former is HIV-1 specific; the latter is broadly reactive and is able to neutralize viruses of distinct phylogenetic origins, such as HIV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV, and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV. In carbohydrate microarray analyses, we explored the molecular basis underlying the striking differences in the spectrum of anti-virus activities of the two probes. Unlike 2G12, which is strictly specific for the high-density Man9GlcNAc2Asn (Man9-clusters, GNA recognizes a number of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties. These include not only the known oligomannosyl antigens but also previously unrecognized tri-antennary or multi-valent GlcNAc-terminating N-glycan epitopes (Tri/m-Gn. These findings highlight the potential of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties as conserved targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization and suggest the GNA-model of glycan-binding warrants focused investigation.

  4. Hemolymph proteins in marine crustaceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W Sylvester Fredrick; S Ravichandran

    2012-01-01

    This study is done with the aim to bring together the various antimicrobial peptides that are present in the crustacean hemolymph and their sources along with its characteristics. Invertebrates lack immune systems that involve antigen-antibody reactions and do not have an immune memory, therefore most invertebrate species show no evidence of acquired immunity. Crustaceans possess an open circulatory system, where nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and cells are distributed in the hemolymph. They lack adaptive immune system and rely exclusively on their innate immune mechanisms that include both cellular and humoral responses. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins form an important means of host defense in eukaryotes. In addition to their role as endogenous antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides have functions in inflammation, wound repair and regulation of the adaptive immune system. Over the past several years, many antimicrobial peptides have been found and characterized in crabs.

  5. Hemolymph proteins in marine crustaceans

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    W Sylvester Fredrick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is done with the aim to bring together the various antimicrobial peptides that are present in the crustacean hemolymph and their sources along with its characteristics. Invertebrates lack immune systems that involve antigen-antibody reactions and do not have an immune memory, therefore most invertebrate species show no evidence of acquired immunity. Crustaceans possess an open circulatory system, where nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and cells are distributed in the hemolymph. They lack adaptive immune system and rely exclusively on their innate immune mechanisms that include both cellular and humoral responses. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins form an important means of host defense in eukaryotes. In addition to their role as endogenous antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides have functions in inflammation, wound repair and regulation of the adaptive immune system. Over the past several years, many antimicrobial peptides have been found and characterized in crabs.

  6. A vaccine encoding conserved promiscuous HIV CD4 epitopes induces broad T cell responses in mice transgenic to multiple common HLA class II molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Pereira Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Current HIV vaccine approaches are focused on immunogens encoding whole HIV antigenic proteins that mainly elicit cytotoxic CD8+ responses. Mounting evidence points toward a critical role for CD4+ T cells in the control of immunodeficiency virus replication, probably due to cognate help. Vaccine-induced CD4+ T cell responses might, therefore, have a protective effect in HIV replication. In addition, successful vaccines may have to elicit responses to multiple epitopes in a high proportion of vaccinees, to match the highly variable circulating strains of HIV. Using rational vaccine design, we developed a DNA vaccine encoding 18 algorithm-selected conserved, "promiscuous" (multiple HLA-DR-binding B-subtype HIV CD4 epitopes - previously found to be frequently recognized by HIV-infected patients. We assessed the ability of the vaccine to induce broad T cell responses in the context of multiple HLA class II molecules using different strains of HLA class II- transgenic mice (-DR2, -DR4, -DQ6 and -DQ8. Mice displayed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses of significant breadth and magnitude, and 16 out of the 18 encoded epitopes were recognized. By virtue of inducing broad responses against conserved CD4+ T cell epitopes that can be recognized in the context of widely diverse, common HLA class II alleles, this vaccine concept may cope both with HIV genetic variability and increased population coverage. The vaccine may thus be a source of cognate help for HIV-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by conventional immunogens, in a wide proportion of vaccinees.

  7. Decapod crustacean chelipeds: an overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pitchaimuthu Mariappan; Chellam Balasundaram; Barbara Schmitz

    2000-09-01

    The structure, growth, differentiation and function of crustacean chelipeds are reviewed. In many decapod crustaceans growth of chelae is isometric with allometry level reaching unity till the puberty moult. Afterwards the same trend continues in females, while in males there is a marked spurt in the level of allometry accompanied by a sudden increase in the relative size of chelae. Subsequently they are differentiated morphologically into crusher and cutter making them heterochelous and sexually dimorphic. Of the two, the major chela is used during agonistic encounters while the minor is used for prey capture and grooming. Various biotic and abiotic factors exert a negative effect on cheliped growth. The dimorphic growth pattern of chelae can be adversely affected by factors such as parasitic infection and substrate conditions. Display patterns of chelipeds have an important role in agonistic and aggressive interactions. Of the five pairs of pereiopods, the chelae are versatile organs of offence and defence which also make them the most vulnerable for autotomy. Regeneration of the autotomized chelipeds imposes an additional energy demand called “regeneration load” on the incumbent, altering energy allocation for somatic and/or reproductive processes. Partial withdrawal of chelae leading to incomplete exuviation is reported for the first time in the laboratory and field in Macrobrachium species.

  8. Distribution pattern of crustacean ectoparasites of freshwater fish from Brazil

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to use the informations relating to parasite crustaceans species that was published over the course of one century (1913 to 2013, in order to search for infestation and distribution patterns among these ectoparasites in Brazilian freshwater fish species. This search was carried out on 445 samples of 119 host fish of 27 families within the orders Characiformes, Perciformes, Clupeiformes, Mugiliformes, Osteoglossiformes, Symbranchiformes, Tetraodontiformes and Siluriformes from various regions of Brazil. We organized different host-parasite systems into matrices grouping species at different taxonomic and infestation levels and according to host parameters. Five families of parasites (Ergasilidae, Argulidae, Lernaeidae, Lernaeopodidae and Cymothoidae distributed into 76 species of 27 genera were analyzed in the host samples, which presented dominance of Ergasilidae species, mainly from the genus Ergasilus. Some crustaceans are host and site-specific, especially in relation to fish in particular habitats and lifestyles (e.g. Perulernaea gamitanae, Anphira branchialis and Riggia paranensis, while other parasites frequently have no preference (e.g. Lernaea cyprinacea and Braga patagonica. We found broadly similar distribution patterns for some crustacean species among the different localities, whereas other species showed well-defined geographical patterns, and these findings were discussed.

  9. Conserved synthetic peptides from the hemagglutinin of influenza viruses induce broad humoral and T-cell responses in a pig model.

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    Júlia Vergara-Alert

    Full Text Available Outbreaks involving either H5N1 or H1N1 influenza viruses (IV have recently become an increasing threat to cause potential pandemics. Pigs have an important role in this aspect. As reflected in the 2009 human H1N1 pandemia, they may act as a vehicle for mixing and generating new assortments of viruses potentially pathogenic to animals and humans. Lack of universal vaccines against the highly variable influenza virus forces scientists to continuously design vaccines à la carte, which is an expensive and risky practice overall when dealing with virulent strains. Therefore, we focused our efforts on developing a broadly protective influenza vaccine based on the Informational Spectrum Method (ISM. This theoretical prediction allows the selection of highly conserved peptide sequences from within the hemagglutinin subunit 1 protein (HA1 from either H5 or H1 viruses which are located in the flanking region of the HA binding site and with the potential to elicit broader immune responses than conventional vaccines. Confirming the theoretical predictions, immunization of conventional farm pigs with the synthetic peptides induced humoral responses in every single pig. The fact that the induced antibodies were able to recognize in vitro heterologous influenza viruses such as the pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1, two swine influenza field isolates (SwH1N1 and SwH3N2 and a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian virus, confirm the broad recognition of the antibodies induced. Unexpectedly, all pigs also showed T-cell responses that not only recognized the specific peptides, but also the pH1N1 virus. Finally, a partial effect on the kinetics of virus clearance was observed after the intranasal infection with the pH1N1 virus, setting forth the groundwork for the design of peptide-based vaccines against influenza viruses. Further insights into the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the protection afforded will be necessary to optimize future vaccine formulations.

  10. Biomineralizations: insights and prospects from crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Luquet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For growing, crustaceans have to molt cyclically because of the presence of a rigid exoskeleton. Most of the crustaceans harden their cuticle not only by sclerotization, like all the arthropods, but also by calcification. All the physiology of crustaceans, including the calcification process, is then linked to molting cycles. This means for these animals to find regularly a source of calcium ions quickly available just after ecdysis. The sources of calcium used are diverse, ranging from the environment where the animals live to endogenous calcium deposits cyclically elaborated by some of them. As a result, crustaceans are submitted to an important and energetically demanding calcium turnover throughout their life. The mineralization process occurs by precipitation of calcium carbonate within an organic matrix network of chitin-proteins fibers. Both crystalline and stabilized amorphous polymorphs of calcium carbonate are found in crustacean biominerals. Furthermore, Crustacea is the only phylum of animals able to elaborate and resorb periodically calcified structures. Notably for these two previous reasons, crustaceans are more and more extensively studied and considered as models of choice in the biomineralization research area.

  11. Genetic conservation of hlyA determinants and serological conservation of HlyA: basis for developing a broadly cross-reactive subunit Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanley, P; Marcus, R; Baek, K H; Denich, K; Ji, G E

    1993-03-01

    The HlyA determinant among Escherichia coli isolates from patients with symptomatic urinary tract infection was compared in this report with a prototype HlyA encoded by pSF4000 by DNA-DNA hybridization tests with 20-base synthetic oligonucleotides and monoclonal antibody binding and neutralization assays. Hybridization results demonstrated that 349 (98%) of 357 definitive reactions among 54 hemolytic strains shared homology with seven DNA probes spanning many HlyA regions corresponding to residues (R) 41 to 47, 55 to 61, 248 to 254, 306 to 312, 336 to 343, 402 to 408, and 929 to 935. Genetic divergence was identified by lack of hybridization signals among 17 to 76% of the hemolytic strains within the distal portion of a predicted hydrophobic region corresponding to R491 to 319 and within a predicted hydrophilic region corresponding to R491 to 497 and R532 to 538. Serological studies demonstrated that 26 (81%) culture supernatants of 32 hemolytic strains were bound by all 12 monoclonal anti-HlyA antibodies. Among five of six remaining strains, the culture supernatants were bound by 3 to 11 monoclonal antibody preparations. There was only one hemolytic culture supernatant that failed to be bound by any monoclonal antibody, although the strain hybridized with nine hemolysin DNA probes. In addition, hemolytic activity of all 24 different culture supernatants tested was reduced by at least twofold by one monoclonal antibody specific for R2-161. These data extend and support previous views that the HlyA determinant is conserved among E. coli strains and suggest that a broadly cross-reactive HlyA subunit vaccine can be developed.

  12. Straightforward selection of broadly neutralizing single-domain antibodies targeting the conserved CD4 and coreceptor binding sites of HIV-1 gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Julie; Kessler, Pascal; Bouchet, Jérôme; Combes, Olivier; Ramos, Oscar Henrique Pereira; Barin, Francis; Baty, Daniel; Martin, Loïc; Benichou, Serge; Chames, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Few broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting determinants of the HIV-1 surface envelope glycoprotein (gp120) involved in sequential binding to host CD4 and chemokine receptors have been characterized. While these epitopes show low diversity among various isolates, HIV-1 employs many strategies to evade humoral immune response toward these sensitive sites, including a carbohydrate shield, low accessibility to these buried cavities, and conformational masking. Using trimeric gp140, free or bound to a CD4 mimic, as immunogens in llamas, we selected a panel of broadly neutralizing single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) that bind to either the CD4 or the coreceptor binding site (CD4BS and CoRBS, respectively). When analyzed as monomers or as homo- or heteromultimers, the best sdAb candidates could not only neutralize viruses carrying subtype B envelopes, corresponding to the Env molecule used for immunization and selection, but were also efficient in neutralizing a broad panel of envelopes from subtypes A, C, G, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG, including tier 3 viruses. Interestingly, sdAb multimers exhibited a broader neutralizing activity spectrum than the parental sdAb monomers. The extreme stability and high recombinant production yield combined with their broad neutralization capacity make these sdAbs new potential microbicide candidates for HIV-1 transmission prevention.

  13. Intersite epibiosis characterization on dominant mangrove crustacean species from Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Leborans, G.; Hanamura, Y.; Siow, R.; Chee, P.-E.

    2009-01-01

    Epibiosis was studied in dominant mangrove crustacean species in several areas in Malaysia. The observed basibionts were the crustaceans Mesopodopsis orientalis, Acetes japonicus, Acetes sibogae, Acetes indicus and Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and the epibionts found were the protozoan ciliates Acinet

  14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Solution Structures of Lacticin Q and Aureocin A53 Reveal a Structural Motif Conserved among Leaderless Bacteriocins with Broad-Spectrum Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, Jeella Z; van Belkum, Marco J; Lohans, Christopher T; Towle, Kaitlyn M; Miskolzie, Mark; Vederas, John C

    2016-02-02

    Lacticin Q (LnqQ) and aureocin A53 (AucA) are leaderless bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis QU5 and Staphylococcus aureus A53, respectively. These bacteriocins are characterized by the absence of an N-terminal leader sequence and are active against a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria. LnqQ and AucA consist of 53 and 51 amino acids, respectively, and have 47% identical sequences. In this study, their three-dimensional structures were elucidated using solution nuclear magnetic resonance and were shown to consist of four α-helices that assume a very similar compact, globular overall fold (root-mean-square deviation of 1.7 Å) with a highly cationic surface and a hydrophobic core. The structures of LnqQ and AucA resemble the shorter two-component leaderless bacteriocins, enterocins 7A and 7B, despite having low levels of sequence identity. Homology modeling revealed that the observed structural motif may be shared among leaderless bacteriocins with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive organisms. The elucidated structures of LnqQ and AucA also exhibit some resemblance to circular bacteriocins. Despite their similar overall fold, inhibition studies showed that LnqQ and AucA have different antimicrobial potency against the Gram-positive strains tested, suggesting that sequence disparities play a crucial role in their mechanisms of action.

  15. Carotenoids in Aquaculture: Fish and Crustaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeng, Bjorn

    This Chapter deals with selected topics on the use of carotenoids for colouration in aquaculture and incudes examples from ecological studies which support our understanding of functions and actions of carotenoids and colouration in fishes and crustaceans. Animal colours may be physical or structural in origin [1], e.g. Tyndall blues and iridescent diffraction colours, or they may be due to pigments, including carotenoids (Chapter 10).

  16. De novo assembly and characterization of a maternal and developmental transcriptome for the emerging model crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Victor

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropods are the most diverse animal phylum, but their genomic resources are relatively few. While the genome of the branchiopod Daphnia pulex is now available, no other large-scale crustacean genomic resources are available for comparison. In particular, genomic resources are lacking for the most tractable laboratory model of crustacean development, the amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis. Insight into shared and divergent characters of crustacean genomes will facilitate interpretation of future developmental, biomedical, and ecological research using crustacean models. Results To generate a transcriptome enriched for maternally provided and zygotically transcribed developmental genes, we created cDNA from ovaries and embryos of P. hawaiensis. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we sequenced over 1.1 billion bases of this cDNA, and assembled them de novo to create, to our knowledge, the second largest crustacean genomic resource to date. We found an unusually high proportion of C2H2 zinc finger-containing transcripts, as has also been reported for the genome of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Consistent with previous reports, we detected trans-spliced transcripts, but found that they did not noticeably impact transcriptome assembly. Our assembly products yielded 19,067 unique BLAST hits against nr (E-value cutoff e-10. These included over 400 predicted transcripts with significant similarity to D. pulex sequences but not to sequences of any other animal. Annotation of several hundred genes revealed P. hawaiensis homologues of genes involved in development, gametogenesis, and a majority of the members of six major conserved metazoan signaling pathways. Conclusions The amphipod P. hawaiensis has higher transcript complexity than known insect transcriptomes, and trans-splicing does not appear to be a major contributor to this complexity. We discuss the importance of a reliable comparative genomic framework within which to consider findings

  17. [Diversity and distribution of crustaceans and echinoderms and their relation with sedimentation levels in coral reefs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella

    2003-03-01

    Seven reef formations were studied in South Caicos, Turks & Caicos, to determine the species richness, patterns of diversity and patterns of distribution of crustaceans and echinoderms, and to evaluate the relationship between these parameters and the degree of sedimentation of the different sites. The reefs showed a gradient from a high sedimentation level, almost totally covered by algae, to places with no sediment particles deposited over the corals. Sites were classified as with high, low or null sedimentation, and species richness, abundance, diversity, spatial distribution of species and similarity among sites were estimated. No unique pattern was found: for crustaceans as well as for echinoderms, the site with the highest diversity value and high equitability, presumably associated to the environmental heterogeneity of this reef formation, showed null sedimentation and an uniform and random pattern of distribution, crustaceans and echinoderms respectively. The two sites with the lowest diversity for both animal groups, although with different sedimentation levels, showed the lowest equitability value and were the only sites with an aggregated pattern of distribution. The next sites in diversity for crustaceans were those with high sedimentation, probably because most species present inhabit empty conchs, in the sediment, or among seagrass. For the echinoderms, on the contrary, the intermediate sites in diversity had low sedimentation; the habitat requirements for these species (inside sponges, over the corals or among rocks) may have determined this result. The sites with lowest diversity had high sedimentation levels. In these, crustaceans showed the lowest equitability values and an aggregated spatial distribution, while the community of echinoderms was dominated by one single species. Although only general descriptions can be elucidated with the present results, knowledge about the basic population characteristics and natural history of these reef

  18. Analysis of snail genes in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis: insight into snail gene family evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Roberta L; Price, Alivia L; Parchem, Ronald J; Patel, Nipam H

    2012-05-01

    The transcriptional repressor snail was first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, where it initially plays a role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation, and later plays a role in neurogenesis. Among arthropods, this role of snail appears to be conserved in the insects Tribolium and Anopheles gambiae, but not in the chelicerates Cupiennius salei and Achaearanea tepidariorum, the myriapod Glomeris marginata, or the Branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna. These data imply that within arthropoda, snail acquired its role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation in the insect lineage. However, crustaceans are a diverse group with several major taxa, making analysis of more crustaceans necessary to potentially understand the ancestral role of snail in Pancrustacea (crustaceans + insects) and thus in the ancestor of insects as well. To address these questions, we examined the snail family in the Malacostracan crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We found three snail homologs, Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2 and Ph-snail3, and one scratch homolog, Ph-scratch. Parhyale snail genes are expressed after gastrulation, during germband formation and elongation. Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2, and Ph-snail3 are expressed in distinct patterns in the neuroectoderm. Ph-snail1 is the only Parhyale snail gene expressed in the mesoderm, where its expression cycles in the mesodermal stem cells, called mesoteloblasts. The mesoteloblasts go through a series of cycles, where each cycle is composed of a migration phase and a division phase. Ph-snail1 is expressed during the migration phase, but not during the division phase. We found that as each mesoteloblast division produces one segment's worth of mesoderm, Ph-snail1 expression is linked to both the cell cycle and the segmental production of mesoderm.

  19. The eyes have it: A brief history of crustacean neuroendocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Penny M

    2012-02-01

    To help celebrate the 50th anniversary of General and Comparative Endocrinology, the history of only a small portion of crustacean endocrinology is presented here. The field of crustacean endocrinology dates back to the decades prior to the establishment of General and Comparative Endocrinology and the first article about crustacean endocrinology published in this journal was concerned with the anatomy of neurosecretory and neurohemal structures in brachyuran crabs. This review looks at the history of neuroendocrinology in crustaceans during that time and tries to put perspective on the future of this field.

  20. Sampling Daphnia's expressed genes: preservation, expansion and invention of crustacean genes with reference to insect genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Darren J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and comparative studies of insect genomes have shed light on the complement of genes, which in part, account for shared morphologies, developmental programs and life-histories. Contrasting the gene inventories of insects to those of the nematodes provides insight into the genomic changes responsible for their diversification. However, nematodes have weak relationships to insects, as each belongs to separate animal phyla. A better outgroup to distinguish lineage specific novelties would include other members of Arthropoda. For example, crustaceans are close allies to the insects (together forming Pancrustacea and their fascinating aquatic lifestyle provides an important comparison for understanding the genetic basis of adaptations to life on land versus life in water. Results This study reports on the first characterization of cDNA libraries and sequences for the model crustacean Daphnia pulex. We analyzed 1,546 ESTs of which 1,414 represent approximately 787 nuclear genes, by measuring their sequence similarities with insect and nematode proteomes. The provisional annotation of genes is supported by expression data from microarray studies described in companion papers. Loci expected to be shared between crustaceans and insects because of their mutual biological features are identified, including genes for reproduction, regulation and cellular processes. We identify genes that are likely derived within Pancrustacea or lost within the nematodes. Moreover, lineage specific gene family expansions are identified, which suggest certain biological demands associated with their ecological setting. In particular, up to seven distinct ferritin loci are found in Daphnia compared to three in most insects. Finally, a substantial fraction of the sampled gene transcripts shares no sequence similarity with those from other arthropods. Genes functioning during development and reproduction are comparatively well conserved between

  1. Annotated checklist of marine Algerian Crustacean Decapods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. GRIMES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sampling surveys (1976-2013 of soft-bottom communities and some hard bottom communities along the Algerian coast (1,180 km have allowed the collection of 114 species of crustacean decapods of which of 37 were reported for the first time for the Algerian decapods fauna; for these species additional comments concerning their ecological and geographical patterns are given. The inventory of all benthic and pelagic decapods recorded along the Algerian coast reaches 253 species. Three families on a total of 57 families were highly diversified: Paguridae (17 species, Polybiidae (16 species and Processidae (13 species. The presence of the 253 recorded species along the Algerian coast has been compared with eight other areas from the Mediterranean Sea. The decapods fauna of the Algerian coast is among the most richest of the Mediterranean Sea and comparable of that of Italy.

  2. Checklist of the freshwater decapod crustaceans from the Orontes River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Ozcan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provided an annoted list of decapod crustacean fauna of Orontes River, mainly based on previous study works. It included 6 species (3 Natantia, 3 Brachyura belonging 3 families.

  3. The sensory dorsal organs of crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Meyer, Roland

    2013-05-01

    The cuticle of crustaceans bears numerous organs, of which the functions of many are unknown. One of these, the sensory dorsal organ (SDO), is present in a wide diversity of taxa. Here we critically review the variability, ultrastructure, distribution, and possible function of this enigmatic cuticular organ. Previous data are complemented by new observations on larvae and adults of various malacostracans. The SDO is composed of four sensors arranged as the corners of a square, the centre of which is occupied by a gland. Pores or pegs surrounding this central complex may also form part of the organ. The arrangement and the external aspect of the five main elements varies greatly, but this apparently has little impact on their ultrastructural organisation. The sensors and the gland are associated with a particularly thin cuticle. Each sensor contains four outer dendritic segments and the central gland is made of a single large cell. It is not yet known what this large cell secretes. The SDO is innervated from the tritocerebrum and therefore belongs to the third cephalic segment. A similar organ, here called the posterior SDO, has been repeatedly observed more posteriorly on the carapace. It resembles the SDO but has a greater number of sensors (usually six, but up to ten) apparently associated with only two outer dendritic segments. The SDO and the posterior SDO are known in the Eumalacostraca, the Hoplocarida, and the Phyllocarida. Some branchiopods also possess a 'dorsal organ' resembling both the SDO and the ion-transporting organ more typical of this group. This may indicate a common origin for these two functionally distinct groups of organs. New observations on the posterior SDO support the hypothesis that the SDO and the posterior SDO are homologous to the lattice organ complexes of the costracans. However, the relationship between the SDO and the dorsal cephalic hump of calanoid copepods remains unclear. No correlation can be demonstrated between the presence

  4. Structure-activity relationship of crustacean peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    In crustaceans, various physiological events, such as molting, vitellogenesis, and sex differentiation, are regulated by peptide hormones. To understanding the functional sites of these hormones, many structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have been published. In this review, the author focuses the SAR of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone-family peptides and androgenic gland hormone and describes the detailed results of our and other research groups. The future perspectives will be also discussed.

  5. Non-random escape pathways from a broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody map to a highly conserved region on the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein encompassing amino acids 412-423.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-yong Keck

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A challenge for hepatitis C virus (HCV vaccine development is to define epitopes that are able to elicit protective antibodies against this highly diverse virus. The E2 glycoprotein region located at residues 412-423 is conserved and antibodies to 412-423 have broadly neutralizing activities. However, an adaptive mutation, N417S, is associated with a glycan shift in a variant that cannot be neutralized by a murine but by human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs against 412-423. To determine whether HCV escapes from these antibodies, we analyzed variants that emerged when cell culture infectious HCV virions (HCVcc were passaged under increasing concentrations of a specific HMAb, HC33.1. Multiple nonrandom escape pathways were identified. Two pathways occurred in the context of an N-glycan shift mutation at N417T. At low antibody concentrations, substitutions of two residues outside of the epitope, N434D and K610R, led to variants having improved in vitro viral fitness and reduced sensitivity to HC33.1 binding and neutralization. At moderate concentrations, a S419N mutation occurred within 412-423 in escape variants that have greatly reduced sensitivity to HC33.1 but compromised viral fitness. Importantly, the variants generated from these pathways differed in their stability. N434D and K610R-associated variants were stable and became dominant as the virions were passaged. The S419N mutation reverted back to N419S when immune pressure was reduced by removing HC33.1. At high antibody concentrations, a mutation at L413I was observed in variants that were resistant to HC33.1 neutralization. Collectively, the combination of multiple escape pathways enabled the virus to persist under a wide range of antibody concentrations. Moreover, these findings pose a different challenge to vaccine development beyond the identification of highly conserved epitopes. It will be necessary for a vaccine to induce high potency antibodies that prevent the formation of escape

  6. Behavioural indicators of pain in crustacean decapods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gherardi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether invertebrates are able or not to experience pain is a highly controversial issue. An operative way to solve such a controversy might be to investigate their responses to potentially noxious stimuli and to collect evidence of their behavioural complexities as proxies of cognitive capacities. The principle of argument-by-analogy can be then applied to these data: the behaviour displayed by invertebrates is compared with that of "higher" animals, its similarity denoting the former's capacity to have analogous experiences. Here, the author discusses some examples, extracted from the literature on crustacean decapods, that pinpoint their nature of "sentient" animals. This review, however, also shows that research is still scanty in the field. The studies that examine the potential links between stress responses and pain experience are few, and the several papers that help elucidate cognitive abilities in decapods have been limited to a few taxa and are not specifically directed to the question of "sentience". On the contrary, also in the light of the expected revision of the current EU legislation in the matter, more scientific efforts should be expended on exploring the issue of pain experience in invertebrates.

  7. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (cHH as a modulator of aggression in crustacean decapods.

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    Laura Aquiloni

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines, particularly serotonin, are recognised to play an important role in controlling the aggression of invertebrates, whereas the effect of neurohormones is still underexplored. The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH is a multifunctional member of the eyestalk neuropeptide family. We expect that this neuropeptide influences aggression either directly, by controlling its expression, or indirectly, by mobilizing the energetic stores needed for the increased activity of an animal. Our study aims at testing such an influence and the possible reversion of hierarchies in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, as a model organism. Three types of pairs of similarly sized males were formed: (1 'control pairs' (CP, n = 8: both individuals were injected with a phosphate saline solution (PBS; (2 'reinforced pairs' (RP, n = 9: the alpha alone was injected with native cHH, and the beta with PBS; (3 'inverted pairs' (IP, n = 9: the opposite of (2. We found that, independently of the crayfish's prior social experience, cHH injections induced (i the expression of dominance behaviour, (ii higher glycemic levels, and (iii lower time spent motionless. In CP and RP, fight intensity decreased with the establishment of dominance. On the contrary, in IP, betas became increasingly likely to initiate and escalate fights and, consequently, increased their dominance till a temporary reversal of the hierarchy. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that, similarly to serotonin, cHH enhances individual aggression, up to reverse, although transitorily, the hierarchical rank. New research perspectives are thus opened in our intriguing effort of understanding the role of cHH in the modulation of agonistic behaviour in crustaceans.

  8. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Chabot, Denis; Couturier, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    prey species per prey category. The model offers a simple way for estimating evacuation rates from stomach content data in order to obtain food consumption rates of wild fishes, provided that information about digestion stage of crustacean prey is available. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British......A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer......) and the evacuation rate of both stages decreased (by a half) with increasing level of the crustacean armament in terms of chitin and ash. A common, interspecific parameterization of the model within each of the categories krill, shrimp and crab can probably be used if the contents of chitin and ash are similar among...

  9. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Chabot, Denis; Couturier, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer...... parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod...... and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h...

  10. Crustaceans from the groundwaters of Vratchanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVAN PANDOURSKI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one Crustacean species from 21 localities are reported from groundwaters of Vratchanska Planina Mountain. The list of species is completed on the basis of available bibliographic sources and original data of authors. Faunal samples are collected at the natural access to underground ecosystem, caves and springs. Eight species are stygobionts: three cyclopoids, one harpacticoid, three isopods and one amphipod, or 6.6 % of all the Bulgarian stygobiont Crustacean fauna. Elaphoidella balkanica Apostolov and Protelsonia lakatnicensis (Buresch & Gueorguiev are local endemic species of the Vratchanska planina Mountains.

  11. Isolation and amino acid sequence of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tensen, C P; Verhoeven, A H; Gaus, G; Janssen, K P; Keller, R; Van Herp, F

    1991-01-01

    The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is synthesized as part of a larger preprohormone in which the sequence of CHH is N-terminally flanked by a peptide for which the name CPRP (CHH precursor-related peptide) is proposed. Both CHH and CPRP are present in the sinus gland, the neurohemal organ of neurosecretory cells located in the eyestalk of decapod crustaceans. This paper describes the isolation and sequence analysis of CPRPs isolated from sinus glands of the crab Carcinus maenas, the crayfish Orconectes limosus and the lobster Homarus americanus. The published sequence of "peptide H" isolated from the land crab, Cardisoma carnifex, has now been recognized as a CPRP in this species. Sequence comparison reveals a high level of identity for the N-terminal region (residues 1-13) between all four peptides, while identity in the C-terminal domain is high between lobster and crayfish CPRP on the one hand, and between both crab species on the other. Conserved N-terminal residues include a putative monobasic processing site at position 11, which suggests that CPRP may be a biosynthetic intermediate from which a potentially bioactive decapeptide can be derived.

  12. Use of plant protein sources in crustacean diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    World production of crustaceans has experienced a steady expansion that is expected to continue as world population increases and demand for quality sea food continues to rise. Paralleling the growth of industry has been an expansion in feed production, which has been primarily dominated by marine s...

  13. Endocrine disruption in crustaceans due to pollutants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Enrique M; Medesani, Daniel A; Fingerman, Milton

    2007-04-01

    The main endocrine-regulated processes of crustaceans have been reviewed in relation to the effects of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Molting has been shown to be inhibited by several organic pollutants, such as xenoestrogens and related compounds, as well as by some pesticides. Most of these disrupters are thought to interfere with ecdysone at target tissues, although only for a few has this action been demonstrated in vitro. The heavy metal cadmium appears to inhibit some ecdysone secretion. Juvenoid compounds have also been shown to inhibit molting, likely by interfering with the stimulatory effect of methyl farnesoate. A molt-promoting effect of emamectin benzoate, a pesticide, has also been reported. As for reproduction, a variety of organic compounds, including xenoestrogens, juvenoids and ecdysteroids, has produced abnormal development of male and female secondary sexual characters, as well as alteration of the sex ratio. Cadmium and copper have been shown to interfere with hormones that stimulate reproduction, such as methyl farnesoate, as well as with secretion of the gonad inhibiting hormone, therefore affecting, for example, ovarian growth. Several heavy metals were able to produce hyperglycemia in crustaceans during short times of exposure; while a hypoglycemic response was noted after longer exposures, due to inhibition of secretion of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone. The ecological relevance of EDCs on crustaceans is discussed, mainly in relation to the identification of useful biomarkers and sentinel species. New experimental approaches are also proposed.

  14. Interpreting ecology and physiology of fossil decapod crustaceans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmann, Rodney M.

    2003-01-01

    Decapods are the most diverse and complex group of crustaceans, adapted for life in all parts of the marine environment, many aquatic habitats, and some terrestrial niches. With this diversity of life styles, a vast range of morphotypes of decapods has evolved, exploiting almost every imaginable var

  15. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, N G; Chabot, D; Couturier, C S

    2016-05-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod Gadus morhua or whiting Merlangius merlangus and recovered from the stomachs at different post-prandial times. The prey species were krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica; shrimps and prawns Crangon crangon, Pandalus borealis, Pandalus montagui and Eualus macilentus; crabs Liocarcinus depurator and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h) and the evacuation rate of both stages decreased (by a half) with increasing level of the crustacean armament in terms of chitin and ash. A common, interspecific parameterization of the model within each of the categories krill, shrimp and crab can probably be used if the contents of chitin and ash are similar among prey species per prey category. The model offers a simple way for estimating evacuation rates from stomach content data in order to obtain food consumption rates of wild fishes, provided that information about digestion stage of crustacean prey is available.

  16. High sequence variability among hemocyte-specific Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors in decapod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerenius, Lage; Liu, Haipeng; Zhang, Yanjiao; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Gunnar Andersson, M; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Crustacean hemocytes were found to produce a large number of transcripts coding for Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). A detailed study performed with the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and the shrimp Penaeus monodon revealed the presence of at least 26 and 20 different Kazal domains from the hemocyte KPIs, respectively. Comparisons with KPIs from other taxa indicate that the sequences of these domains evolve rapidly. A few conserved positions, e.g. six invariant cysteines were present in all domain sequences whereas the position of P1 amino acid, a determinant for substrate specificity, varied highly. A study with a single crayfish animal suggested that even at the individual level considerable sequence variability among hemocyte KPIs produced exist. Expression analysis of four crayfish KPI transcripts in hematopoietic tissue cells and different hemocyte types suggest that some of these KPIs are likely to be involved in hematopoiesis or hemocyte release as they were produced in particular hemocyte types or maturation stages only.

  17. Astakine 2--the dark knight linking melatonin to circadian regulation in crustaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiruck Watthanasurorot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily, circadian rhythms influence essentially all living organisms and affect many physiological processes from sleep and nutrition to immunity. This ability to respond to environmental daily rhythms has been conserved along evolution, and it is found among species from bacteria to mammals. The hematopoietic process of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus is under circadian control and is tightly regulated by astakines, a new family of cytokines sharing a prokineticin (PROK domain. The expression of AST1 and AST2 are light-dependent, and this suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for PROK domain proteins in mediating circadian rhythms. Vertebrate PROKs are transmitters of circadian rhythms of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN in the brain of mammals, but the mechanism by which they function is unknown. Here we demonstrate that high AST2 expression is induced by melatonin in the brain. We identify RACK1 as a binding protein of AST2 and further provide evidence that a complex between AST2 and RACK1 functions as a negative-feedback regulator of the circadian clock. By DNA mobility shift assay, we showed that the AST2-RACK1 complex will interfere with the binding between BMAL1 and CLK and inhibit the E-box binding activity of the complex BMAL1-CLK. Finally, we demonstrate by gene knockdown that AST2 is necessary for melatonin-induced inhibition of the complex formation between BMAL1 and CLK during the dark period. In summary, we provide evidence that melatonin regulates AST2 expression and thereby affects the core clock of the crustacean brain. This process may be very important in all animals that have AST2 molecules, i.e. spiders, ticks, crustaceans, scorpions, several insect groups such as Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Blattodea, but not Diptera and Coleoptera. Our findings further reveal an ancient evolutionary role for the prokineticin superfamily protein that links melatonin to direct regulation of the core clock gene feedback loops.

  18. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  19. The role of lysosomal cysteine proteases in crustacean immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FL Garcia-Carreño

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the long course of evolution and under the selective pressure exerted by pathogens and parasites, animals have selectively fixed a number of defense mechanisms against the constant attack of intruders. The immune response represents a key component to optimize the biological fitness of individuals. Two decades ago, prevention and control of diseases in crustacean aquaculture systems were considered priorities in most shrimp-producing countries, but knowledge was scarce and various pathogens have severely affected aquaculture development around the world. Scientific contributions have improved our understanding of the crustacean immune response. Several studies confirm the central role played by proteases in the immune response of animals, and the cooperative interaction of these enzymes in a wide variety of organisms is well known. This review summarizes the current information regarding the role of cysteine proteases in the immune system of Crustacea and points to aspects that are needed to provide a better integration of our knowledge.

  20. Decapod crustaceans of the Sinu River Basin, Cordoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alexander Quirós Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To review the composition, abundance and distribution of decapod crustaceans in the Sinu river basin, Department of Cordoba (Colombia eight locations were studied: four on the Sinu River and four in the Low Complex Swampy Sinu. For that, six samplings between April 2005 and May 2006 were made. In total 458 decapod crustaceans were recorded distributed into three families, six genus and eight species. The family best represented was Trichodactylidae with four genus and four species, followed by Palaemonidae with one genus and three species, while family Atyidae recorded only one species. Species such as Macrobrachium carcinus and M. acanthurus presented the wider range of distribution for both the Sinu River as the  Low Complex Swampy Sinu.  Among the identified species Atya crassa in the Sinu River and Trichodactylus quinquedentatus in the Low Complex Swampy Sinu are new records for the Department of Cordoba.

  1. Detection of tropomyosin and determination of proteins in crustacean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Birthe; Mæhre, Hanne K; Jensen, Ida-J; Olsen, Ragnar L

    2013-11-01

    Tropomyosin is known to be the main allergen in crustaceans and the objective of this study was to investigate if this protein could be detected in commercial crustacean oils from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and the zooplankton Calanus finmarchicus. We also examined the possibility of determining the protein content in the oils by direct amino acid analysis. Western blotting showed that a commercial antibody against shrimp tropomyosin cross-reacted with a protein of similar size in Antarctic krill and C. finmarchicus. The protein tentatively identified as tropomyosin, was also detected in krill oil products, but not in oils from C. finmarchicus. The acetone-heptane method used for extracting proteins in the oils is however not optimal. Other extraction methods should therefore be considered when investigating the presence of allergenic proteins in oils. Direct amino acid analysis on oils should be further explored as a method for determining the total amount of proteins present.

  2. Phylogenetic position of the pentastomida and [pan]crustacean relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-31

    Pentastomids are a small group of vermiform animals with unique morphology and parasitic lifestyle. They are generally recognized as being related to the Arthropoda, however the nature of this relationship is controversial. We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus and complete, or nearly complete, mtDNA sequences from representatives of four previously unsampled groups of Crustacea: Remipedia (Speleonectes tulumensis), Cephalocarida (Hutchinsoniella macracantha), Cirripedia (Pollicipes polymerus), and Branchiura (Argulus americanus). Analyses of the mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences determined in this study indicate unambiguously that pentastomids are a group of modified crustaceans likely related to branchiurans. In addition, gene arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacos tracans and insects.

  3. Phylogenetic position of the Pentastomida and (pan)crustacean relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    Pentastomids are a small group of vermiform animals with unique morphology and parasitic lifestyle. They are generally recognized as being related to the Arthropoda; however, the nature of this relationship is controversial. We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus and complete or nearly complete mtDNA sequences from representatives of four previously unsampled groups of Crustacea: Remipedia (Speleonectes tulumensis), Cephalocarida (Hutchinsoniella macracantha), Cirripedia (Pollicipes polymerus) and Branchiura (Argulus americanus). Analyses of the mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences determined in this study indicate unambiguously that pentastomids are a group of modified crustaceans probably related to branchiurans. In addition, gene arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacostracans and hexapods. PMID:15129965

  4. SHELF LIFE OF THAWED CRUSTACEANS TREATED WITH SULPHITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Smaldone

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of fish and fish products is closely related to their freshness. Aim of this research was to evaluate the shelf life of thawed crustaceans (Aristeomorpha foliacea and Nefrops norvegicus which had been treated with sulphites and frozen on board. Organoleptic characteristics and microbiological and chemical parameters were judged favourably up to day 6 and 7 for the shrimps and Norway lobsters, respectively.

  5. Toxicity of five anilines to crustaceans, protozoa and bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARILIIS SIHTMÄE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic amines (anilines and related derivates are an important class of environmental pollutants that can be released to the aquatic environment as industrial effluents or as breakdown products of pesticides and dyes. The toxicity of aniline, 2-chloroaniline, 3-chloroaniline, 4-chloroaniline and 3,5-dichloroaniline towards a multitrophic test battery comprised of bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri (formerly Vibrio fischeri, a ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila and two crustaceans (Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus were investigated. Under the applied test conditions, the toxicity of the anilines notably varied among the test species. The bacteria and protozoa were much less sensitive towards the anilines than the crustaceans: EC50 values 13–403 mg L-1 versus 0.13–15.2 mg L-1. No general tendency between toxicity and the chemical structure of the anilines (the degree of chloro-substitution and the position of the chloro-substituents was found in the case of all the tested aquatic species. The replacement of the artificial test medium (ATM by the river water remarkably decreased the toxicity of anilines to crustaceans but not to protozoa. This research is part of the EU 6th Framework Integrated Project OSIRIS, in which ecotoxicogenomic studies of anilines (e.g., for Daphnia magna will also be performed that may help to clarify the mechanisms of toxicity of different anilines.

  6. Toward crustacean without chemicals: a descriptive analysis of consumer response using price comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala; Bono, Gioacchino; Pipitone, Vito; Vitale, Sergio; Cannizzaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: To date, there seems to be limited-to-zero emphasis about how consumers perceive crustacean products subject to either chemical and or non-chemical preservative treatments. In addition, studies that investigated price comparisons of crustacean products subject to either chemical or chemical-free preservative methods seem unreported.Objective: This study focused on providing some foundational knowledge about how consumers perceive traditionally harvested crustaceans that are either...

  7. Crustacean fauna of a mussel cultivated raft system in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sezgin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to make a faunistic analysis of the crustaceans associated with cultivated mussels grown on ropes. Mussel samples from 30 cm ropes were collected from rope-grown mussel beds by hand. The crustacean fauna associated with mussel population were quantified. The density of crustacean fauna associated with mussels was significantly greater within rope-grown mussel assemblages than on other biotopes around.

  8. The First Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences for Stomatopod Crustaceans: Implications for Phylogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinstrom, Kirsten; Caldwell, Roy; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-09-07

    We report the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences of stomatopods and compare their features to each other and to those of other crustaceans. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated mitochondrial protein-coding sequences were used to explore relationships within the Stomatopoda, within the malacostracan crustaceans, and among crustaceans and insects. Although these analyses support the monophyly of both Malacostraca and, within it, Stomatopoda, it also confirms the view of a paraphyletic Crustacea, with Malacostraca being more closely related to insects than to the branchiopod crustaceans.

  9. The Broad Foundations, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad Foundation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the Broad Foundations is to transform K-12 urban public education through better governance, management, labor relations and competition; make significant contributions to advance major scientific and medical research; foster public appreciation of contemporary art by increasing access for audiences worldwide; and lead and…

  10. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  11. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Casuso, Antonio; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype) in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  12. MIO-PLIOCENE CRUSTACEANS FROM THE CANARY ISLANDS, SPAIN

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    JUAN FRANCISCO BETANCORT

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are few previous references to fossil crustaceans for the Neogene marine layers of the Canary Islands (Spain. The Mio-Pliocene marine sedimentary layers in the eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote were previously characterised by the presence of numerous fossil fauna, mainly anthozoans and molluscs, which correspond to an equatorial-typepalaeoclimate, warmer than the present climate. This Mio-Pliocene transition dated between 9.3 and 4.1 Ma. In this paper, 12 fossil crustacean taxa are identified and classified, including decapods and barnacles: Balanus concavus Bronn, 1831, Balanus spongicola Brown, 1827, Balanus perforatus Bruguière, 1789, Chenolobia testudinaria Linnè, 1767, Tetraclita cf. rubescens Darwin, 1854, Callianassa matsoni Rathbun, 1935, Callianassa sp., Upogebia sp, Eriphia aff. verrucosa (Forskal, 1775 , Maja sp., Scylla michelini Milne-Edwards, 1861 and Ocypode sp. Some of these taxa mean new references for the Atlantic islands and the North African Atlantic and definitely enlarge the palaeographic distribution of Neogene crustaceans beyond the Mediterranean region, extending it to the North Atlantic. Particularly significant are the presence of Tetraclita cf. rubescens ,this being the first reported fossil occurrence of this barnacle outside the North America Pacific coasts, and Chenolobia testudinaria , indicating for the first time the existence of marine turtles in these islands during the Neogene. These results are coherent with previous research hypothesising the existence of a flow of surface water between the Pacific and Atlantic in the Mio-Pliocene transition (Central American Seaway, CAS which explains the arrival of organisms, in larval stage, from Central America to the Canary Islands.

  13. Do decapod crustaceans have nociceptors for extreme pH?

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    Sakshi Puri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nociception is the physiological detection of noxious stimuli. Because of its obvious importance, nociception is expected to be widespread across animal taxa and to trigger robust behaviours reliably. Nociception in invertebrates, such as crustaceans, is poorly studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: THREE DECAPOD CRUSTACEAN SPECIES WERE TESTED FOR NOCICEPTIVE BEHAVIOUR: Louisiana red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus, and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes sp.. Applying sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, or benzocaine to the antennae caused no change in behaviour in the three species compared to controls. Animals did not groom the stimulated antenna, and there was no difference in movement of treated individuals and controls. Extracellular recordings of antennal nerves in P. clarkii revealed continual spontaneous activity, but no neurons that were reliably excited by the application of concentrated sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Previously reported responses to extreme pH are either not consistently evoked across species or were mischaracterized as nociception. There was no behavioural or physiological evidence that the antennae contained specialized nociceptors that responded to pH.

  14. Decapod crustaceans associated with an artificial reef (Adriatic Sea

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    A. SANTELLI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge on the distribution of decapod crustaceans associated with an artificial reef positioned on sandy-mud bottoms in the central Adriatic Sea. The reef is constituted of concrete modules assembled in pyramids and concrete poles. Hard and soft bottom samples were collected from 2001, just after reef construction, to 2005 (4 surveys per year. Regarding the soft seabed, three sites close to a pyramid, three inside the reef area at a distance of 10-15 m from the structures, and three 200 m outside the reef (control sites were randomly sampled during each survey. At the same time, three pyramids (vertical and horizontal walls and three poles were also investigated. After taxonomical analysis, decapod crustaceans were analysed using abundance and species richness. Sites and years were compared using a balanced, fixed effect, 2-way ANOVA and PERMANOVA. In addition, SIMPER analysis was performed to identify those species typifying each community inhabiting both the soft bottom and the artificial substrates. The results showed that the artificial reef induced an increase in both abundance and diversity of the decapods of the natural habitat. In fact, man-made substrates may offer new available space for biological colonization and allow the settlement of new species usually living on hard bottoms, thus increasing the complexity of the original benthic communities.

  15. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom); Smith, Jim T. [School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Ford, Alex T., E-mail: alex.ford@port.ac.uk [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We comprehensively review the effects of ionising radiation in crustaceans. • Current environmental radioprotection levels found to be inadequate in some cases. • Mutation is shown to be a sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure. • Lowest observed effect dose rate varies by orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive

  16. Neuropeptide Signaling in Crustaceans Probed by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhidan

    Neuropeptides are one of the most diverse classes of signaling molecules whose identities and functions are not yet fully understood. They have been implicated in the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes, including feeding-related and motivated behaviors, and also environmental adaptations. In this work, improved mass spectrometry-based analytical platforms were developed and applied to the crustacean systems to characterize signaling molecules. This dissertation begins with a review of mass spectrometry-based neuropeptide studies from both temporal- and spatial-domains. This review is then followed by several chapters detailing a few research projects related to the crustacean neuropeptidomic characterization and comparative analysis. The neuropeptidome of crayfish, Orconectes rusticus is characterized for the first time using mass spectrometry-based tools. In vivo microdialysis sampling technique offers the capability of direct sampling from extracellular space in a time-resolved manner. It is used to investigate the secreted neuropeptide and neurotransmitter content in Jonah crab, Cancer borealis, in this work. A new quantitation strategy using alternative mass spectrometry data acquisition approach is developed and applied for the first time to quantify neuropeptides. Coupling of this method with microdialysis enables the study of neuropeptide dynamics concurrent with different behaviors. Proof-of-principle experiments validating this approach have been carried out in Jonah crab, Cancer borealis to study feeding- and circadian rhythm-related neuropeptide changes using micoridialysis in a time-resolved manner. This permits a close correlation between behavioral and neurochemical changes, providing potential candidates for future validation of regulatory roles. In addition to providing spatial information, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) technique enables the characterization of signaling molecules while preserving the temporal resolution. A

  17. Behavioral plasticity, behavioral syndromes and animal personality in crustacean decapods: An imperfect map is better than no map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesca GHERARDI; Laura AQUILONI; Elena TRICARICO

    2012-01-01

    Despite their key role as model organisms in many behavioral studies,crustacean decapods have been only slightly touched upon by the recent surge of scientific interest in animal personality.Only seven articles investigated the issue in a handful of species among hermit crabs,crabs,and crayfish.Obviously,a limited number of publications does not mean that personality is rare in decapods.On the contrary,few studies might be the result of a form of reluctance by behavioral ecologists to deal with such a phenomenon in these and other invertebrates.This reluctance contrasts with the enthusiasm shown in tackling the behavioral plasticity issue.Here we discuss the possible theoretical and methodological difficulties raised by applying the animal personality perspective to decapods and analyze implications of personality studies for their ecology,conservation,and welfare.By highlighting gaps in knowledge and directions of future research,our intention is to increase scientific emphasis on the issue.

  18. Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is

  19. Unusual duplication of the insulin-like receptor in the crustacean Daphnia pulex

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    Dufresne France

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insulin signaling pathway (ISP has a key role in major physiological events like carbohydrate metabolism and growth regulation. The ISP has been well described in vertebrates and in a few invertebrate model organisms but remains largely unexplored in non-model invertebrates. This study is the first detailed genomic study of this pathway in a crustacean species, Daphnia pulex. Results The Daphnia pulex draft genome sequence assembly was scanned for major components of the ISP with a special attention to the insulin-like receptor. Twenty three putative genes are reported. The pathway appears to be generally well conserved as genes found in other invertebrates are present. Major findings include a lower number of insulin-like peptides in Daphnia as compared to other invertebrates and the presence of multiple insulin-like receptors (InR, with four genes as opposed to a single one in other invertebrates. Genes encoding for the Dappu_InR are likely the result of three duplication events and bear some unusual features. Dappu_InR-4 has undergone extensive evolutionary divergence and lacks the conserved site of the catalytic domain of the receptor tyrosine kinase. Dappu_InR-1 has a large insert and lacks the transmembranal domain in the β-subunit. This domain is also absent in Dappu_InR-3. Dappu_InR-2 is characterized by the absence of the cystein-rich region. Real-time q-PCR confirmed the expression of all four receptors. EST analyses of cDNA libraries revealed that the four receptors were differently expressed under various conditions. Conclusions Duplications of the insulin receptor genes might represent an important evolutionary innovation in Daphnia as they are known to exhibit extensive phenotypic plasticity in body size and in the size of defensive structures in response to predation.

  20. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the food web include, but are not limited to, finfish, crustaceans, mollusks, insects, annelids... reproduction and growth and development due primarily to their limited mobility. They can be rendered unfit...

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE AGONISTTS ON METAMORPHOSIS AND REPRODUCTION IN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative developmental and reproductive studies were performed on several species of estuarine crustaceans in response to three juvenile hormone agonists (JHAs) (methoprene, fenoxycarb, and pyriproxyfen). Larval development of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was greater ...

  2. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Gary C B; Bruce, Niel L

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the

  3. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C B Poore

    Full Text Available The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species

  4. Biodegradation of the chitin-protein complex in crustacean cuticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artur, Stankiewicz B.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hof, C.H.J.; Bierstedt, A.; Flannery, M.B.; Briggs, D.E.G.; Evershed, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. The stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii was decayed in the laboratory under anoxic conditions. A combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FTIR revealed extensive chemical changes after just 2 weeks that resulted in a cuticle composition dominated by chitin. Quantitative analysis of amino acids (by HPLC) and chitin showed that the major loss of proteins and chitin occurred between weeks 1 and 2. After 8 weeks tyrosine, tryptophan and valine are the most prominent amino acid moieties, showing their resistance to degradation. The presence of cyclic ketones in the pyrolysates indicates that mucopolysaccharides or other bound non-chitinous carbohydrates are also resistant to decay. There is no evidence of structural degradation of chitin prior to 8 weeks when FTIR revealed a reduction in chitin-specific bands. The chemical changes are paralleled by structural changes in the cuticle, which becomes an increasingly open structure consisting of loose chitinous fibres. The rapid rate of decay in the experiments suggests that where chitin and protein are preserved in fossil cuticles degradation must have been inhibited.Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. The stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii was decayed in the laboratory under anoxic conditions. A combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FTIR revealed extensive chemical changes after just 2 weeks that resulted in a cuticle composition dominated by chitin. Quantitative

  5. Neocaridina denticulata: A Decapod Crustacean Model for Functional Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykles, Donald L; Hui, Jerome H L

    2015-11-01

    A decapod crustacean model is needed for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological processes, such as reproduction, sex determination, molting and growth, immunity, regeneration, and response to stress. Criteria for selection are: life-history traits, adult size, availability and ease of culture, and genomics and genetic manipulation. Three freshwater species are considered: cherry shrimp, Neocaridina denticulata; red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii; and redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. All three are readily available, reproduce year round, and grow rapidly. The crayfish species require more space for culture than does N. denticulata. The transparent cuticle of cherry shrimp provides for direct assessment of reproductive status, stage of molt, and tissue-specific expression of reporter genes, and facilitates screening of mutations affecting phenotype. Moreover, a preliminary genome of N. denticulata is available and efforts toward complete genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing have been initiated. Neocaridina denticulata possesses the best combination of traits that make it most suitable as a model for functional genomics. The next step is to obtain the complete genome sequence and to develop molecular technologies for the screening of mutants and for manipulating tissue-specific gene expression.

  6. Agonist-mediated assembly of the crustacean methyl farnesoate receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaley, Elizabeth K. Medlock; Wang, Helen Y.; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

    2017-01-01

    The methyl farnesoate receptor (MfR) orchestrates aspects of reproduction and development such as male sex determination in branchiopod crustaceans. Phenotypic endpoints regulated by the receptor have been well-documented, but molecular interactions involved in receptor activation remain elusive. We hypothesized that the MfR subunits, methoprene-tolerant transcription factor (Met) and steroid receptor coactivator (SRC), would be expressed coincident with the timing of sex programming of developing oocytes by methyl farnesoate in daphnids. We also hypothesized that methyl farnesoate activates MfR assembly. Met mRNA was expressed rhythmically during the reproductive cycle, with peak mRNA accumulation just prior period of oocytes programming of sex. Further, we revealed evidence that Met proteins self-associate in the absence of methyl farnesoate, and that the presence of methyl farnesoate stimulates dissociation of Met multimers with subsequent association with SRC. Results demonstrated that the Met subunit is highly dynamic in controlling the action of methyl farnesoate through temporal variation in its expression and availability for receptor assembly.

  7. Bacteria-Induced Dscam Isoforms of the Crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiruck Watthanasurorot

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule, also known as Dscam, is a member of the immunoglobulin super family. Dscam plays an essential function in neuronal wiring and appears to be involved in innate immune reactions in insects. The deduced amino acid sequence of Dscam in the crustacean Pacifastacus leniusculus (PlDscam, encodes 9(Ig-4(FNIII-(Ig-2(FNIII-TM and it has variable regions in the N-terminal half of Ig2 and Ig3 and the complete Ig7 and in the transmembrane domain. The cytoplasmic tail can generate multiple isoforms. PlDscam can generate more than 22,000 different unique isoforms. Bacteria and LPS injection enhanced the expression of PlDscam, but no response in expression occurred after a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection or injection with peptidoglycans. Furthermore, PlDscam silencing did not have any effect on the replication of the WSSV. Bacterial specific isoforms of PlDscam were shown to have a specific binding property to each tested bacteria, E. coli or S. aureus. The bacteria specific isoforms of PlDscam were shown to be associated with bacterial clearance and phagocytosis in crayfish.

  8. 75 FR 50777 - Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan; John Hay National Wildlife Refuge, Merrimack County, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan; John Hay National Wildlife Refuge... wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our policies. In addition to outlining broad... Hampshire Wildlife Action Plan, Birds of Conservation Concern 2008, and other conservation plans at...

  9. Extended parental care in crustaceans: an update Cuidado parental extendido en crustáceos: conocimiento actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTIN THIEL

    2003-06-01

    increase in dispersal distances of crustaceans with XPC via rafting, surpassing that of crustaceans with pelagic larvae. Since crustaceans with XPC may be particularly susceptible to changing environmental conditions, especially in the terrestrial environment where populations are often small and locally restricted, conservation of biodiversity should focus on these (and other invertebrate species with XPCMuchas especies de crustáceos presentan cuidado parental extendido (XPC, donde individuos juveniles completamente desarrollados son cuidados por los padres. En la presente contribución se revisa el conocimiento actual del XPC, sus consecuencias y además se identifican tópicos importantes para ser investigados en el futuro. Los crustáceos que presentan XPC pueden ser encontrados en ambientes marinos, límnicos y terrestres, pero el XPC es más conspicuo y aparentemente más común en el ambiente terrestre. En todas las especies analizadas, las hembras desarrollan las principales tareas relacionadas con el XPC. Crustáceos que portan sus juveniles en alguna estructura del cuerpo (i.e. marsupio durante el XPC liberan a estos tempranamente, mientras que las especies que habitan refugios pueden albergar a sus crías incluso cuando éstas alcanzan estadios tardíos de desarrollo, o bien, la adultez. Además de proveer un microhabitat adecuado y seguro para las crías, las madres comparten el alimento con, limpian y/o defienden activamente a sus juveniles. Entre los beneficios más importantes del XPC figura el incremento de las tasas de crecimiento y sobrevivencia de los juveniles. El XPC puede producir conflictos entre las crías o entre los padres y sus crías, especialmente durante la etapa tardía del XPC, cuando algunos recursos (alimento y espacio pueden llegar a ser aún más limitantes. De manera similar, debido a la proximidad y frecuente interacción entre padres y crías, epibiontes (e.g., parásitos pueden ser transferidos desde los padres hacia los juveniles

  10. Surviving environmental stress: the role of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in marine crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NA Stephens-Camacho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH family, an ancestral group of enzymes responsible for aldehyde detoxification in several organisms. The BADH enzyme catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine (GB an important osmoptrotector and osmoregulator accumulated in response to cellular osmotic stress. The BADH enzymes have been extensively described in terrestrial organisms, but information in marine crustaceans remains scarce. Research on crustacean stress-adaptive capacity to environmental stressors relates GB accumulation in response to salinity variations. Although GB de novo synthesis is confirmed on crustaceans, its metabolic pathways and regulation mechanism are unexplored. In this work, the state of the knowledge of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes in marine crustaceans is summarized, as a mechanism to overcome the deleterious effects of changes in temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration in seawater. The purpose of this review is to provide a more comprehensive overview to set the basis for exploring novel functions and properties of BADHs on the response of crustaceans to environmental stress.

  11. Undesirable Enzymatic Browning in Crustaceans: Causative Effects and Its Inhibition by Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat; Ahmad, Mehraj; Arfat, Yasir Ali; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2015-01-01

    Undesirable enzymatic browning mediated by polyphenol oxidase (E.C. 1.14.18.1) on the surface of seafood from crustaceans have been a great concern to food processors, causing quality losses of seafood products. Seafoods especially from crustaceans are worldwide consumed due to their delicacy and nutritional value. However, black spot formation (melanosis) is the major problem occurring in crustaceans during postmortem handling and refrigerated storage induce deleterious changes in organoleptic properties and, therefore, decreases commercial value. Polyphenoloxidase (PPO), the copper-containing metalloprotein involved in oxidation of phenol to quinone is the major biochemical reaction of melanosis formation. This enzymatic mechanism causes unappealing blackening in postharvest crustaceans. To alleviate the melanosis formation in crustaceans, use of phenolic compounds from plant extract can serve as antimelanotics and appears to be a good alternative to the conventional sulfites which are associated with health-related disorders. In this review, we focuses on the unique features about the structure, distribution, and properties of PPO as well as mechanism of melanosis formation and provide a comprehensive deeper insight on the factors affecting melanosis formation and its inhibition by various antimelanotics including newly discovered plant phenolic compounds.

  12. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Da eZhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

  13. Armadillidin H, a glycine-rich peptide from the terrestrial crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, displays an unexpected wide antimicrobial spectrum with membranolytic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Verdon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, there are currently 15 distinct AMP families published so far in the literature, mainly isolated from members of the Decapoda order. Up to now, armadillidin is the sole non-decapod AMP isolated from the haemocytes of Armadillidium vulgare, a crustacean isopod. Its first description demonstrated that armadillidin is a linear glycine-rich (47% cationic peptide with an antimicrobial activity directed towards Bacillus megaterium. In the present work, we report identification of armadillidin Q, a variant of armadillidin H (earlier known as armadillidin, from crude haemocyte extracts of A. vulgare using LC-MS approach. We demonstrated that both armadillidins displayed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria, fungi, but were totally inactive against yeasts. Membrane permeabilization assays, only performed with armadillidin H, showed that the peptide is membrane active against bacterial and fungal strains leading to deep changes in cell morphology. This damaging activity visualized by electronic microscopy correlates with a rapid decrease of cell viability leading to highly blebbed cells. In contrast, armadillidin H does not reveal cytotoxicity towards human erythrocytes. Furthermore, no secondary structure could be defined in this study (by CD and NMR even in a membrane mimicking environment. Therefore, armadillidins represent interesting candidates to gain insight into the biology of glycine-rich AMPs.

  14. Armadillidin H, a Glycine-Rich Peptide from the Terrestrial Crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, Displays an Unexpected Wide Antimicrobial Spectrum with Membranolytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Julien; Coutos-Thevenot, Pierre; Rodier, Marie-Helene; Landon, Celine; Depayras, Segolene; Noel, Cyril; La Camera, Sylvain; Moumen, Bouziane; Greve, Pierre; Bouchon, Didier; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, there are currently 15 distinct AMP families published so far in the literature, mainly isolated from members of the Decapoda order. Up to now, armadillidin is the sole non-decapod AMP isolated from the haemocytes of Armadillidium vulgare, a crustacean isopod. Its first description demonstrated that armadillidin is a linear glycine-rich (47%) cationic peptide with an antimicrobial activity directed toward Bacillus megaterium. In the present work, we report identification of armadillidin Q, a variant of armadillidin H (earlier known as armadillidin), from crude haemocyte extracts of A. vulgare using LC-MS approach. We demonstrated that both armadillidins displayed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, but were totally inactive against yeasts. Membrane permeabilization assays, only performed with armadillidin H, showed that the peptide is membrane active against bacterial and fungal strains leading to deep changes in cell morphology. This damaging activity visualized by electronic microscopy correlates with a rapid decrease of cell viability leading to highly blebbed cells. In contrast, armadillidin H does not reveal cytotoxicity toward human erythrocytes. Furthermore, no secondary structure could be defined in this study [by circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] even in a membrane mimicking environment. Therefore, armadillidins represent interesting candidates to gain insight into the biology of glycine-rich AMPs. PMID:27713732

  15. Anticholinesterase effect of eserine (physostigmine in fish and crustacean species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Monserrat

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic characteristic (Km of cholinesterase from the crab Chasmagnathus granulata, the shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and the fish Odontesthes bonaeriensis were compared and correlated with the anticholinesterasic effect of eserine (physostigmine. For the crustaceans, the estimated Km values were about 5-8 times higher than that estimated for the fish (0.04 mM. In the crab and the shrimp, the concentration of eserine which inhibited 50% of cholinesterase activity (IC50 was estimated as 5.33x10-4 and 4.33x10-4 mM, respectively. In both cases, it was significantly higher (P As caraterísticas cinéticas (Km de colinesterases do caranguejo Chasmagnathus granulata, o camarão Farfantepenaeus paulensis e o peixe Odontesthes bonaeriensis foram comparadas e correlacionadas com os efeitos anticolinesterásicos da eserina (fisostigmina. Nos crustáceos, o valores estimados de Km foram aproximadamente 5-8 vezes maiores do que aquele estimado para a espécie de peixe (0.04 mM. No caranguejo e camarão, a concentração de eserina que inibiu 50% da atividade colinesterásica (CI50 foi estimada em 5.33x10-4 e 4.33x10-4 mM, respectivamente. Estes valores foram significativamente maiores (P < 0.05 que aquele estimado para as larvas de peixes (7.43x10-5 mM. Um valor de Km mais elevado poderia refletir uma menor afinidade da colinesterase pelo seu substrato natural, acetilcolina, ou análogos tais como inseticidas carbamatos e fosforados. Se a CI50 para eserina é considerada como um índice da susceptibilidade da enzima a inibição por inseticidas, logo a colinesterase de larvas de peixes poderiam ser uma ferramenta mais útil no monitoramento de inseticidas do que aquelas das espécies de crustáceos.

  16. Broad resonances in transport theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leupold, S

    2003-01-01

    The extension of the transport theoretical framework to include states with a broad mass distribution is discussed. The proper life-time and cross sections for a state with an arbitrarily given invariant mass is discussed in detail. (author)

  17. Toward crustacean without chemicals: a descriptive analysis of consumer response using price comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, there seems to be limited-to-zero emphasis about how consumers perceive crustacean products subject to either chemical and or non-chemical preservative treatments. In addition, studies that investigated price comparisons of crustacean products subject to either chemical or chemical-free preservative methods seem unreported. Objective: This study focused on providing some foundational knowledge about how consumers perceive traditionally harvested crustaceans that are either chemical-treated and or free of chemicals, incorporating price comparisons using a descriptive approach. Design: The study design employed a questionnaire approach via interview using a computer-assisted telephone system and sampled 1,540 participants across five key locations in Italy. To actualize consumer sensitivity, ‘price’ was the focus given its crucial role as a consumption barrier. Prior to this, variables such as demographic characteristics of participants, frequency of purchasing, quality attributes/factors that limit the consumption of crustaceans were equally considered. Results: By price comparisons, consumers are likely to favor chemical-free (modified atmosphere packaging crustacean products amid a price increase of up to 15%. But, a further price increase such as by 25% could markedly damage consumers’ feelings, which might lead to a considerable number opting out in favor of either chemical-treated or other seafood products. Comparing locations, the studied variables showed no statistical differences (p>0.05. On the contrary, the response weightings fluctuated across the studied categories. Both response weightings and coefficient of variation helped reveal more about how responses deviated per variable categories. Conclusions: This study has revealed some foundational knowledge about how consumers perceive traditionally harvested crustaceans that were either chemical-treated or subject to chemical-free preservative up to price

  18. The eyes of a tiny 'Orsten' crustacean - a compound eye at receptor level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenemann, Brigitte

    2013-01-14

    Among the oldest fossil crustaceans are those of the Late Cambrian (Furongian 499 ± 0.3-488.3 ± 1.7 Ma) of Västergötland, central Sweden and the lower Ordovician (Tremadocian 488.3 and 478.6 Ma) of the island of Őland. These are three-dimensionally preserved in nodules from the so called 'stinkstone' ('Orsten') limestone. 'Orsten'-like fossils represent tiny, often meiobenthic organsisms (Haug, Maas, & Waloszek, 2009) smaller than 2mm, which mainly were arthropods, especially crustaceans close to the stemline. As a result of phosphatisation, hairs, bristles and even cellular structures up to 0.3 μm are preserved (Walossek, 1993), especially compound eyes, as typical for all visually orientated crustaceans (Schoenemann et al., 2011). We show a miniscule prototype of a compound eye (∼40 μm) in a small crustacean, which lived almost half a billion years ago. The eye is close to but comfortably established above being limited in its resolving power by diffraction, but it is too small to be an apposition eye, normally regarded as the basal form of all compound eyes, as is found in bees, dragonflies, crustaceans and many other arthropods still living today. The facets of this compound eye are ∼8 μm in size, the surface structure indicates the relicts of a tiny lens covering each facet. In order to work functionally and to ensure that that diffraction and waveguide problems were avoided, it seems reasonable to suppose that the compound eye consisted of visual units, each with a single photoreceptor cell directly below a weak lens for capturing and slightly focusing the light. The entire unit has a diameter similar to that of a normal sensory cell as found in compound eyes. Thus, the early compound eye analysed here may be interpreted as a prototype representing the earliest stages of the evolution of crustacean compound eyes.

  19. Microcystins derived from lysing Microcystis cells do not cause negative effects on crustacean zooplankton in Lake Taihu, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, F.; Dai, X.; Shu, T.; Gulati, R.D.; Liu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) have a toxic effect on crustacean zooplankton in the laboratory, but there is little or no unequivocal evidence in the literature of their lethal effects on crustacean zooplankton in the field. We used the natural microcystins extracted from Microcystis spp. to test if they could

  20. Respiratory and Metabolic Impacts of Crustacean Immunity: Are there Implications for the Insects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Karen G; Burnett, Louis E

    2015-11-01

    Extensive similarities in the molecular architecture of the crustacean immune system to that of insects give credence to the current view that the Hexapoda, including Insecta, arose within the clade Pancrustacea. The crustacean immune system is mediated largely by hemocytes, relying on suites of pattern recognition receptors, effector functions, and signaling pathways that parallel those of insects. In crustaceans, as in insects, the cardiovascular system facilitates movement of hemocytes and delivery of soluble immune factors, thereby supporting immune surveillance and defense along with other physiological functions such as transport of nutrients, wastes, and hormones. Crustaceans also rely heavily on their cardiovascular systems to mediate gas exchange; insects are less reliant on internal circulation for this function. Among the largest crustaceans, the decapods have developed a condensed heart and a highly arteriolized cardiovascular system that supports the metabolic demands of their often large body size. However, recent studies indicate that mounting an immune response can impair gas exchange and metabolism in their highly developed vascular system. When circulating hemocytes detect the presence of potential pathogens, they aggregate rapidly with each other and with the pathogen. These growing aggregates can become trapped in the microvasculature of the gill where they are melanized and may be eliminated at the next molt. Prior to molting, trapped aggregates of hemocytes also can impair hemolymph flow and oxygenation at the gill. Small shifts to anaerobic metabolism only partially compensate for this decrease in oxygen uptake. The resulting metabolic depression is likely to impact other energy-expensive cellular processes and whole-animal performance. For crustaceans that often live in microbially-rich, but oxygen-poor aquatic environments, there appear to be distinct tradeoffs, based on the gill's multiple roles in respiration and immunity. Insects have

  1. A 4D-microscopic analysis of the germ band in the isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber (Malacostraca, Peracarida)-developmental and phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejnol, Andreas; Schnabel, Ralf; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2006-12-01

    Malacostracan crustaceans have evolved a conserved stereotyped cell division pattern in the post-naupliar germ band. This cleavage pattern is unique in arthropods investigated so far, and allows a combined analysis of gene expression and cell lineage during segmentation and organ development at the level of individual cells. To investigate the cell lineage in the germ band of the isopod Porcellio scaber, we used a 4D-microscopy system, which enables us to analyse every cell event in the living embryo. The study was combined with the analysis of the expression of the gene engrailed (en) at different stages of germ band formation. Our findings confirm the results of earlier investigations of the cell division pattern in the posterior part of the isopod germ band. Furthermore, we can show that in the anterior region, in contrast to the posterior part, cleavage directions are variable and cell sorting takes place-similar to other arthropod germ bands. Additionally, the gene expression pattern of en in this region is not as regular as in the post-naupliar germ band, and only later becomes regulated into its characteristic stripe pattern. The comparison of the cell lineage of P. scaber with that of other malacostracan crustaceans shows an enhancement in the velocity of cell divisions relative to the arrangement of these cells in rows in the isopod germ band. The striking similarity of the formation of the genealogical units in the anterior part suggests a sister group relationship between the peracarid taxa Tanaidacea and Isopoda.

  2. Using DNA Barcoding and Standardized Sampling to Compare Geographic and Habitat Differentiation of Crustaceans: A Hawaiian Islands Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Julian Caley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Census of Marine Life has explored methods to assess coral reef diversity by combining standardized sampling (to permit comparison across sites with molecular techniques (to make rapid counts of species possible. To date, this approach has been applied across geographically broad scales (seven sites spanning the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, focusing on similar habitats at all sites (10–12 m forereef. Here we examine crustacean spatial diversity patterns for a single atoll, comparing results for four sites (comprising forereef, backreef, and lagoon habitats at French Frigate Shoals (FFS, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA, within the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. The Bray-Curtis index of similarity across these habitats at FFS was the same or greater than the similarity between similar habitats on Heron Island and Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef and much greater than similarity between more widely separated localities in the Indo-Pacific Ocean (e.g., Ningaloo, Moorea, French Polynesia or the Line Islands. These results imply that, at least for shallow reefs, sampling multiple locations versus sampling multiple habitats within a site maximizes the rate at which we can converge on the best global estimate of coral reef biodiversity.

  3. Conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, W; Leifeld, L; Pfützer, R

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of diverticulitis comprises at least two options: conservative or surgical management. There is a recent trend to limit surgical treatment of acute diverticulitis and to favor conservative management. This review addresses general aspects of conservative patient care with special focus on the treatment of patients with a first attack of diverticulitis. The presentation does not include a discussion of specific drugs which is given in other sections of this issue.

  4. Decapod crustaceans from the Neogene of the Caribbean: diversity, distribution and prospectus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.S.H.; Portell, R.W.; Donovan, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    The Neogene decapod crustaceans are reviewed from Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, Anguilla, Barbados, Carriacou, Costa Rica, Cuba, Florida, Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, Tintamare Island, Trinidad and Venezuela. The most widely distributed ta

  5. Chitinous palynomorphs and palynodebris representing crustacean exoskeleton remains from sediments of the Banda Sea (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waveren, van I.M.

    1994-01-01

    Palynological residues from surface sediments in the Banda Sea (Indonesia) are characterised by the presence of chitinous palynomorph types that can be correlated with exoskeletons of crustaceans, notably calanoid copepods. A series of 27 palynomorph types are described and informally categorised. A

  6. PCBs, PCDD/Fs and PBDEs in crustaceans from different French coastal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, N.; Abarnou, A. [IFREMER, Brest (France); Defour, S.; Fraisse, D. [CARSO, Lyon (France)

    2004-09-15

    There is very few information on the presence of persistent organo-halogenated contaminants in crustaceans from the French coast. A previous report pointed out high levels of dioxins in seafood marketed in France, particularly in large crustaceans. However, these data were very limited and the dioxin concentrations were reported on a fat basis. In this paper new data on PCBs, PCDD/Fs and PBDEs in crustaceans will be discussed. Our first objective was to obtain an estimation of the concentration ranges of those contaminants in large crustaceans from the French coast. For that purpose, three areas were selected: the first one in the Bay of Seine, the others along the Brittany coast. According to results obtained within the French marine pollution monitoring programme (RNO), these sites are assumed to represent very opposite situations: on the one hand the coasts of Brittany which are very little contaminated by such man-made contaminants of industrial origin, on the other hand the Bay of Seine where highest PCB levels are currently measured in mussels and other species living close to the Seine Estuary. The second objective was to contribute to a better understanding of the factors acting on the distribution of these contaminants. Our approach is based on a detailed examination and comparison of the contaminant fingerprints in biological tissues according to either the origin of the samples, or the type of species in relation with their trophic position, feeding mode or metabolising capacities.

  7. The role of crustacean fisheries and aquaculture in global food security: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Josupeit, Helga; Cai, Junning; Zhou, Xiaowei

    2012-06-01

    The 1996 World Food Summit defined food security as "Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life". This paper looks at the status of production from both shrimp capture fisheries and shrimp aquaculture, as well as trade, in order to understand the contribution of the crustacean sector to overall fish production and thus to global food security. This paper also examines some sustainability issues that will potentially affect the contribution of the crustacean sector (particularly shrimp) to food security. These include sustainable shrimp capture fisheries, sustainable shrimp trade and sustainable shrimp aquaculture. The paper concludes that crustaceans are an important source of aquatic food protein. Production (as food and ornamental) and trade are extremely important for developing countries. It provides both economic development and empowerment in terms of contribution to GDP, consumption, employment, catch value and exports. The crustacean sector generates high value export products which enables producers to buy lower value products in the world market - thus a positive contribution to food security in both producing and exporting countries.

  8. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stentiford, G.D.; Neil, D.M.; Peeler, E.J.; Shields, J.D.; Small, H.J.; Flegel, T.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Jones, B.; Morado, F.; Moss, S.; Lotz, J.; Bartholomay, L.; Behringer, D.C.; Hauton, C.; Lightner, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global aquacu

  9. The organization of the mitochondrial control region in 2 Brachyuran Crustaceans: Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae) and Cardisoma guanhumi (Gecarcinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pie, Marcio R; Oliveira-Neto, José F; Boeger, Walter A; Ostrensky, Antonio; Baggio, Rafael A

    2008-01-01

    The control region (CR) is the largest noncoding segment of the mitochondrial DNA and includes the major regulatory elements for its replication and expression. In addition, the high level of intraspecific genetic variability found in the CR favors its use in phylogeographical and population genetic studies of a variety of organisms. However, most of the work on the structure of the CR has focused on vertebrates and insects, and little is known about the evolution of the CR in other taxa. In this study, we sequenced the entire CR of several individuals of 2 crab species: Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae) and Cardisoma guanhumi (Gecarcinidae). There were neither large conserved regions in the CR of either species nor any similarity among species at the nucleotide level. However, the spatial pattern of genetic variability on the CR was similar among species. In addition, interesting similarities were found in the formation of stable secondary structures and in the position of regulatory elements. These results indicate that the evolution of CR in crustaceans is a remarkably dynamic process, with most homology among species being found at the secondary level.

  10. Daphnia longicephala neuropeptides: morphological description of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and periviscerokinins in the Ctenodaphnia central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Linda C; Laforsch, Christian; Ioannidou, Ioanna; Herbert, Zsofia; Tollrian, Ralph

    2014-10-01

    The publication of the Daphnia genome has driven research in this ecologically relevant model organism in many directions. However, information on this organism's physiology and the relevant controlling factors is limited. In this regard, especially neuropeptides are important biochemical regulators that control a variety of cellular processes, which in combination influence physiological conditions and allow the adaptation of the internal physiological state to external conditions. Thus, neuropeptides are prime in understanding an organism's physiology. We here aimed to detect and describe the distribution of evolutionary conserved neuropeptides including the crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and peptides of the family periviscerokinins (PVKs) in the central nervous system and the periphery of the Daphnia longicephala head region. We were able to identify a large pair of CCAP immunoreactive cells within central nervous system. In addition, in the periphery we found CCAP immunoreactive cells in the epidermis of the head with processes indicating cuticular secretion. Furthermore, we were able to identify and describe a complex neuronal circuit of PVK neuropeptides in the central nervous system. The data obtained in this study will provide important background information for future investigations aiming to unravel the cellular, neuronal and physiological pathways in a highly adaptive organism such as Daphnia.

  11. Behavioral plasticity, behavioral syndromes and animal personality in crustacean decapods: An imperfect map is better than no map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca GHERARDI, Laura AQUILONI, Elena TRICARICO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite their key role as model organisms in many behavioral studies, crustacean decapods have been only slightly touched upon by the recent surge of scientific interest in animal personality. Only seven articles investigated the issue in a handful of species among hermit crabs, crabs, and crayfish. Obviously, a limited number of publications does not mean that personality is rare in decapods. On the contrary, few studies might be the result of a form of reluctance by behavioral ecologists to deal with such a phenomenon in these and other invertebrates. This reluctance contrasts with the enthusiasm shown in tackling the beha­vioral plasticity issue. Here we discuss the possible theoretical and methodological difficulties raised by applying the animal personality perspective to decapods and analyze implications of personality studies for their ecology, conservation, and welfare. By highlighting gaps in knowledge and directions of future research, our intention is to increase scientific emphasis on the issue [Current Zoology 58 (4: 567–579, 2012].

  12. The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Robert S. E.; Losh, Molly; Parlier, Morgan; Reznick, J. Steven; Piven, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of personality and language characteristics that reflect the phenotypic expression of the genetic liability to autism, in non-autistic relatives of autistic individuals. These characteristics are milder but qualitatively similar to the defining features of autism. A new instrument designed to measure the…

  13. Crustaceans from a tropical estuarine sand-mud flat, Pacific, Costa Rica, (1984-1988) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Zamora, José A; Sibaja-Cordero, Jeffrey A; Vargas-Castillo, Rita

    2012-12-01

    The availability of data sets for time periods of more than a year is scarce for tropical environments. Advances in hardware and software speed-up the re-analysis of old data sets and facilitates the description of population oscillations. Using recent taxonomic literature and software we have updated and re-analized the information on crustacean diversity and population fluctuations from a set of cores collected at a mud-sand flat in the mid upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica (1984-1988). A total of 112 morphological species of macroinvertebrates was found, of which 29 were crustaceans. Taxonomic problems, maily with the peracarids, prevented the identification of a group of species. The abundance patterns of the crab Pinnixa valerii, the ostracod Cyprideis pacifica, and the cumacean Coricuma nicoyensis were analized with the Generalized Additive Models of the free software R. The models evidenced a variety of population oscillations during the sampling period. These oscillations probably included perturbations induced by external factors, like the strong red tide events of 1985. In additon, early on 1984 the populations might have been at an altered state due to the inpact of El Niño 1982-83. Thus, the oscillations observed during the study period departed from the expected seasonality (dry vs rainy) pattern and are thus considered atypical for this tropical estuarine tidal-flat. Crustacean diversity and population peaks were within the range of examples found in worldwide literature. However, abundances of the cumacean C. nicoyensis, an endemic species, are the highest reported for a tropical estuary. Comparative data from tropical tidal flat crustaceans continues to be scarce. Crustaceans (total vs groups) had population changes in response to the deployment of predator exclusion cages during the dry and rainy seasons of 1985. Temporal and spatial patchiness characterized the abundances of P. valeri, C. pacifica and C. nicoyenis.

  14. Creative Conservation Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Jason

    2015-04-01

    I am a fellow with the International League of Conservation photographers (iLCP) and have been focused on photographing conservation dynamics at the intersection of social and environmental issues for a decade. Subjects have included traditional concerns such as deforestation, water conservation, endangered species, and fisheries. However, I rarely make photographs of the traditional nature, wildlife, landscapes, or environmental atrocities that most people think of when they think about environmentalism. Instead, I photograph people and how they live on the planet, as I believe passionately that without also considering social and cultural concerns, we will not be able to effectively and sustainably do conservation work or achieve positive environmental change. My presentation will share recent photography projects on forest conservation in Indonesian Borneo and fisheries management in Central America where I used a 'stakeholder profile-based' process to broadly survey the complexity of the issues while also making personal connections for these projects' diverse audiences. Through these case studies I will explore the opportunities and challenges of combining the authenticity, accuracy, and scientific validity of journalistic and documentary work with the emotional impact of the conventions of art and storytelling.

  15. Broad Diphotons from Narrow States

    CERN Document Server

    An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS have each reported a modest diphoton excess consistent with the decay of a broad resonance at ~ 750 GeV. We show how this signal can arise in a weakly coupled theory comprised solely of narrow width particles. In particular, if the decaying particle is produced off-shell, then the associated diphoton resonance will have a broad, adjustable width. We present simplified models which explain the diphoton excess through the three-body decay of a scalar or fermion. Our minimal ultraviolet completion is a weakly coupled and renormalizable theory of a singlet scalar plus a heavy vector-like quark and lepton. The smoking gun of this mechanism is an asymmetric diphoton peak recoiling against missing transverse energy, jets, or leptons.

  16. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits......, although the monitoring scheme has also to some extent become dominated by local 'conservation elites' who negotiate the terrain between the state and other community members. Our findings suggest that we need to move beyond simplistic assumptions of community strategies and incentives in participatory...... conservation and allow for more adaptive and politically explicit governance spaces in protected area management....

  17. Occurrence and molecular characterisation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in crustaceans commercialised in Venice area, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caburlotto, Greta; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Toson, Marica; Fasolato, Luca; Antonetti, Paolo; Zambon, Michela; Manfrin, Amedeo

    2016-03-02

    Infections due to the pathogenic human vibrios, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus, are mainly associated with consumption of raw or partially cooked bivalve molluscs. At present, little is known about the presence of Vibrio species in crustaceans and the risk of vibriosis associated with the consumption of these products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and concentration of the main pathogenic Vibrio spp. in samples of crustaceans (n=143) commonly eaten in Italy, taking into account the effects of different variables such as crustacean species, storage conditions and geographic origin. Subsequently, the potential pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from crustaceans (n=88) was investigated, considering the classic virulence factors (tdh and trh genes) and four genes coding for relevant proteins of the type III secretion systems 2 (T3SS2α and T3SS2β). In this study, the presence of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus was never detected, whereas 40 samples (28%) were positive for V. parahaemolyticus with an overall prevalence of 41% in refrigerated products and 8% in frozen products. The highest prevalence and average contamination levels were detected in Crangon crangon (prevalence 58% and median value 3400 MPN/g) and in products from the northern Adriatic Sea (35%), with the samples from the northern Venetian Lagoon reaching a median value of 1375 MPN/g. While genetic analysis confirmed absence of the tdh gene, three of the isolates contained the trh gene and, simultaneously, the T3SS2β genes. Moreover three possibly clonal tdh-negative/trh-negative isolates carried the T3SS2α apparatus. The detection of both T3SS2α and T3SS2β apparatuses in V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from crustaceans emphasised the importance of considering new genetic markers associated with virulence besides the classical factors. Moreover this study represents the first report dealing with Vibrio spp. in

  18. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2017-02-01

    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  19. Wildlife Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash; Aldred, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we consider how conservation has arisen as a key aspect of the reaction to human-initiated degradation and disappearance of ecosystems, wild lands. and wildlife. Concern over species extinction is given an historical perspective which shows the way in which pressure on wild and natural aspects of global ecology have changed in recent centuries. The role of conservation in the struggle to protect the environment is then analysed using underlying ethical arguments behind the econo...

  20. Seasonal Patterns in the Fish and Crustacean Community of a Turbid Temperate Estuary (Zeeschelde Estuary, Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, J.; Taillieu, A.; Van Damme, P. A.; Cottenie, K.; Ollevier, F.

    1998-08-01

    Fish and crustaceans were sampled for 1 year in the upper reaches of a temperate estuary characterized by high turbidity and a tidal range of up to 5 m. Samples were taken in the cooling-water circuit of the Doel Nuclear Power station (Zeeschelde, Belgium). Between July 1994 and June 1995, 55 fish species, two shrimp species and four crab species were recorded. The fish community was composed of 36 marine species, 16 freshwater species and three diadromous species. Shrimps, Gobiidae and Clupeidae dominated the samples both in numbers and biomass. An exceptionally clear seasonal succession was observed in the species composition. It is argued that young fish and crustaceans use the highly turbid Zeeschelde Estuary as a refuge from predators.

  1. Chitin Extraction from Crustacean Shells Using Biological Methods – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassila Arbia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After cellulose, chitin is the most widespread biopolymer in nature. Chitin and its derivatives have great economic value because of their biological activities and their industrial and biomedical applications. It can be extracted from three sources, namely crustaceans, insects and microorganisms. However, the main commercial sources of chitin are shells of crustaceans such as shrimps, crabs, lobsters and krill that are supplied in large quantities by the shellfish processing industries. Extraction of chitin involves two steps, demineralisation and deproteinisation, which can be conducted by two methods, chemical or biological. The chemical method requires the use of acids and bases, while the biological method involves microorganisms. Although lactic acid bacteria are mainly applied, other microbial species including proteolytic bacteria have also been successfully implemented, as well as mixed cultures involving lactic acid-producing bacteria and proteolytic microorganisms. The produced lactic acid allows shell demineralisation, since lactic acid reacts with calcium carbonate, the main mineral component, to form calcium lactate.

  2. Industrialization of crustaceans for obtaining chitosan in effect ointment wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    García Zapata, Teonila; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Roca Ortega, Johana Melissa; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Between 20 to 30, the weight of the kind of crust,Crustaceans is used human food, no human is the rest consisting of viceras and exoskeleton, especially the carapaces of hairy crab, crab raped her ceo, jaivas, lobster, shrimp that are found in greater numbers along the coasts of thePeruvian coast,which are regarded as environmental pollutants (waste ) These compounds are commercially valuable untapped, which can be used to obtain two biopolymers specialized high valueadded established worldwi...

  3. Broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd H Rider

    Full Text Available Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA Activated Caspase Oligomerizer (DRACO that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing viral dsRNA, rapidly killing infected cells without harming uninfected cells. We have created DRACOs and shown that they are nontoxic in 11 mammalian cell types and effective against 15 different viruses, including dengue flavivirus, Amapari and Tacaribe arenaviruses, Guama bunyavirus, and H1N1 influenza. We have also demonstrated that DRACOs can rescue mice challenged with H1N1 influenza. DRACOs have the potential to be effective therapeutics or prophylactics for numerous clinical and priority viruses, due to the broad-spectrum sensitivity of the dsRNA detection domain, the potent activity of the apoptosis induction domain, and the novel direct linkage between the two which viruses have never encountered.

  4. The Environmental-Endocrine Basis of Gynandromorphism (Intersex in a Crustacean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W. Olmstead, Gerald A. LeBlanc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Commensurate with the decline in many crustacean populations has been an accumulation in reports of sexually ambiguous individuals within these populations. The cause of gynandromorphism or intersex among crustaceans is unknown. We show that gynandromorphism in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna is initiated by the sex-determining hormone methyl farnesoate when levels of the hormone are intermediate between low levels that stimulate the production of broods containing all female offspring and high levels that stimulate the production of broods of all male offspring. The incidence of hormonally-induced gynandromorphism was low (0.14% at the maximum stimulatory hormone concentrations but was significantly increased (46-fold when the animals were hormone-treated at 30oC. Some environmental chemicals also can stimulate the gynandromorphic phenotype as we demonstrated with the insecticide pyriproxyfen. Gynandromorphism occurs due to inadequate signaling of male-sex determination since: a gynandromorphs did not occur in a population that was producing only female offspring; and, b conditions that stimulated gynandromorphism also reduced the incidence of male offspring. We suggest that male sex determination normally occurs prior to the first embryonic cleavage. Elevated temperature may alter the timing of sex determination such that methyl farnesoate signaling occurs after the first embryonic cleavage and bilateral gynandromorphism occurs as a consequence of signaling to only one of the daughter cells. These results demonstrate that environmental factors can cause aberrant sex determination via perturbations in methyl farnesoate signaling.

  5. Pyrokinin neuropeptides in a crustacean. Isolation and identification in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, P; Nieto, J; Cerstiaens, A; Boon, D; Baggerman, G; Poulos, C; Waelkens, E; Derua, R; Calderón, J; De Loof, A; Schoofs, L

    2001-01-01

    Identification of substances able to elicit physiological or behavioural processes that are related to reproduction would greatly contribute to the domestication of commercially important crustaceans that do not reproduce easily in captivity. Crustaceans are thought to release urine signals used for chemical communication involved in courtship behaviour. In contrast to insects, very little is known about the endocrinological processes underlying this phenomenon. Therefore, an extract of 3500 central nervous systems of female white shrimp Penaeus vannamei was screened for myotropic activity in order to purify pyrokinin-like peptides that belong to the pyrokinin/PBAN neuropeptide family. Members of this family regulate reproductive processes in insects, including pheromone biosynthesis. Purification of these pyrokinins was achieved by a combination of reversed-phase and normal-phase chromatography. Subsequent characterization by mass spectrometry, Edman degradation and peptide synthesis resulted in the elucidation of two novel peptides. Pev-PK 1 has the primary sequence DFAFSPRL-NH(2) and a second peptide (Pev-PK 2) is characterized as the nonapeptide ADFAFNPRL-NH(2). Pev-PK 1 contains the typical FXPRL-NH(2) (X = G, S, T or V) C-terminal sequence that characterizes members of the versatile pyrokinin/PBAN family. Pev-PK 2 displays an Asn residue at the variable X position of the core pyrokinin sequence. These crustacean pyrokinins are the first to be found in a noninsect. The synthetic peptides display myotropic activity on the Leucophaea maderae as well as on the Astacus leptodactylus hindgut.

  6. Mass spectrometric analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics of crustacean neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OuYang, Chuanzi; Liang, Zhidan; Li, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Neuropeptides represent one of the largest classes of signaling molecules used by nervous systems to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. Over the past several years, mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategies have revolutionized the discovery of neuropeptides in numerous model organisms, especially in decapod crustaceans. Here, we focus our discussion on recent advances in the use of MS-based techniques to map neuropeptides in the spatial domain and monitoring their dynamic changes in the temporal domain. These MS-enabled investigations provide valuable information about the distribution, secretion and potential function of neuropeptides with high molecular specificity and sensitivity. In situ MS imaging and in vivo microdialysis are highlighted as key technologies for probing spatio-temporal dynamics of neuropeptides in the crustacean nervous system. This review summarizes the latest advancement in MS-based methodologies for neuropeptide analysis including typical workflow and sample preparation strategies as well as major neuropeptide families discovered in decapod crustaceans. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroproteomics: Applications in Neuroscience and Neurology.

  7. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段德洋; 张路; 杜少将; 夏云杰

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is.

  8. [Faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zi-Rong; Sun, Dian-Rong; Chen, Zuo-Zhi; Zhang, Han-Hua; Wang, Xue-Hui; Wang, Yue-Zhong; Fang, Hong-Da; Dong, Yan-Hong

    2009-10-01

    Based on the data of bottom trawl surveys in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary in August (summer), October (autumn), December (winter) 2006, and April (spring) 2007, the faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans were analyzed. A total of 54 species belonging to 25 genera, 17 families, and 2 orders were collected, including 22 species of shrimps, 22 species of crabs, and 10 species of squills. Most of the crustaceans were tropical-subtropical warm-water species, a few of them were eurythermal species, and no warm-water and cold-water species occurred. Euryhaline species were most abundant, followed by halophile species, and the low-salinity species were the least. Most of the crustacean species belonged to the fauna of Indian Ocean-western Pacific Ocean. The faunal assemblages were closer to those of the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, Indonesia Sea, and the Japan Sea, and estranger with those of the Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea, and Korea Sea. The dominant species were Metapenaeus joyner, Oratosquilla oratoria, Charybdis miles, Portunus sanguinolentus, Harpiosquilla harpax, Charybdis feriatus, Charybdis japonica, Oratosquilla nepa, Solenocera crassicornis, Portunus trituberculatus, and Calappa philargius. The crustaceans had the largest species number (33) in autumn and the least one (26) in spring, and the highest stock density at the water depth of < 40 m, especially at 10-20 m. The average stock density of the crustaceans was estimated to be 99.60 kg x km(-2), with the highest (198.93 kg x km(-2)) in summer and the lowest (42.35 kg x km(-2)) in spring. Of the 3 species groups, crabs had the highest stock density (41.81 kg x km(-2)), followed by shrimps (38.91 kg x km(-2)), and squills (18.88 kg x km(-2)). The stock densities of the 3 species groups showed an obvious seasonal variation. Shrimps had the highest stock density (120.32 kg x km(-2)) in summer and the lowest density (0.67 kg x km(-2)) in spring, while crabs and squills had the highest

  9. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  10. Apolipocrustacein, formerly vitellogenin, is the major egg yolk precursor protein in decapod crustaceans and is homologous to insect apolipophorin II/I and vertebrate apolipoprotein B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubzens Esther

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animals, the biogenesis of some lipoprotein classes requires members of the ancient large lipid transfer protein (LLTP superfamily, including the cytosolic large subunit of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP, vertebrate apolipoprotein B (apoB, vitellogenin (Vtg, and insect apolipophorin II/I precursor (apoLp-II/I. In most oviparous species, Vtg, a large glycolipoprotein, is the main egg yolk precursor protein. Results This report clarifies the phylogenetic relationships of LLTP superfamily members and classifies them into three families and their related subfamilies. This means that the generic term Vtg is no longer a functional term, but is rather based on phylogenetic/structural criteria. In addition, we determined that the main egg yolk precursor protein of decapod crustaceans show an overall greater sequence similarity with apoLp-II/I than other LLTP, including Vtgs. This close association is supported by the phylogenetic analysis, i.e. neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, of conserved sequence motifs and the presence of three common conserved domains: an N-terminal large lipid transfer module marker for LLTP, a DUF1081 domain of unknown function in their central region exclusively shared with apoLp-II/I and apoB, and a von Willebrand-factor type D domain at their C-terminal end. Additionally, they share a conserved functional subtilisin-like endoprotease cleavage site with apoLp-II/I, in a similar location. Conclusion The structural and phylogenetic data presented indicate that the major egg yolk precursor protein of decapod crustaceans is surprisingly closely related to insect apoLp-II/I and vertebrate apoB and should be known as apolipocrustacein (apoCr rather than Vtg. These LLTP may arise from an ancient duplication event leading to paralogs of Vtg sequences. The presence of LLTP homologs in one genome may facilitate redundancy, e.g. involvement in lipid metabolism and as

  11. Risk of Vibrio Transmission Linked to the Consumption of Crustacean in Coastal Towns of Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRAORÉ, S. G.; BONFOH, B.; KRABI, R.; ODERMATT, P.; UTZINGER, J.; ROSE, K.-N.; TANNER, M.; FREY, J.; QUILICI, M.-L.; KOUSSÉMON, M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of Vibrio spp. transmission from crustaceans to humans in two coastal towns of Côte d’Ivoire. Bacteriologic analysis was performed on 322 crustacean samples obtained from six markets in Abidjan and one in Dabou. Suspected colonies of Vibrio spp. were identified by morphological, cultural, biochemical and molecular tests, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to further characterize Vibrio strains. Additionally, a survey on consumption of crustaceans was conducted among 120 randomly selected households in Abidjan. Overall, Vibrio spp. were isolated from 7.8% of the crustacean samples studied, at concentrations as high as 6.3 Log colony forming unit per gram. Vibrio strains identified were divided into 40% Vibrio alginolyticus, 36% Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and 24% non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae with the latter two species potentially causing mild to severe forms of seafood-associated gastroenteritis. Among interviewed households, 11.7% reported daily consumption of crustaceans, confirming the high probability of exposure of human population to Vibrio spp., and 7.5% reported symptoms of food poisoning after consumption of crustaceans. The absence of genes encoding major virulence factors in the studied strains, i.e., cholera toxin (ctxA and ctxB) for V. cholerae and thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and tdh-related haemolysin (trh) for V. parahaemolyticus, does not exclude the possibility of a potential exposure to pathogenic strains. However, food preparation practices prevent human infections, as most households boil crustaceans before consumption (96.7%), usually for at least 45 min (85.9%). PMID:22691466

  12. Experimental mineralization of crustacean eggs leads to surprising tissue conservation: new implications for the fossilization of Precambrian-Cambrian embryos

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatized globular microfossils from the Ediacaran and Lower Cambrian of South China represent an impressive record of early animal evolution and development, however their affinity based on putative embryonic metazoan, bacterial and inorganic features is strongly debated. Understanding key processes and conditions that cause exceptional egg and embryo preservation and fossilization are therefore crucial for a reliable interpretation of their phylogenetic position. Taphonomic experime...

  13. Experimental mineralization of crustacean eggs leads to surprising tissue conservation: new implications for the fossilization of Precambrian-Cambrian embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, D.; Hu, N.; Steiner, M.; Scholtz, G.; Franz, G.

    2011-12-01

    Phosphatized globular microfossils from the Ediacaran and Lower Cambrian of South China represent an impressive record of early animal evolution and development, however their affinity based on putative embryonic metazoan, bacterial and inorganic features is strongly debated. Understanding key processes and conditions that cause exceptional egg and embryo preservation and fossilization are therefore crucial for a reliable interpretation of their phylogenetic position. Taphonomic experiments on eggs of the marbled crayfish indicate a close link between early mineralization and rapid anaerobic decay of the endochorional envelope, producing different preservational stages of degradation resembling the various decay stages observed in the fossil record. Stabilization of the spherical morphology was achieved by pre-heating of the eggs. Complete surface mineralization occurred under reduced conditions within one to two weeks, with fine-grained brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O) over calcite as the dominating mineral phase. Although the endochorional envelope was not preserved, experiments resulted in exceptional preservation of the embryonic tissue at the cellular level. Thus our findings suggest that the mechanisms of decay, preservation of surface structures, and mineral replacement in the experiment and during fossilization of Cambrian embryos were likely operating at a similar rationale.

  14. Experimental mineralization of crustacean eggs leads to surprising tissue conservation: new implications for the fossilization of Precambrian-Cambrian embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hippler

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatized globular microfossils from the Ediacaran and Lower Cambrian of South China represent an impressive record of early animal evolution and development, however their affinity based on putative embryonic metazoan, bacterial and inorganic features is strongly debated. Understanding key processes and conditions that cause exceptional egg and embryo preservation and fossilization are therefore crucial for a reliable interpretation of their phylogenetic position. Taphonomic experiments on eggs of the marbled crayfish indicate a close link between early mineralization and rapid anaerobic decay of the endochorional envelope, producing different preservational stages of degradation resembling the various decay stages observed in the fossil record. Stabilization of the spherical morphology was achieved by pre-heating of the eggs. Complete surface mineralization occurred under reduced conditions within one to two weeks, with fine-grained brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O over calcite as the dominating mineral phase. Although the endochorional envelope was not preserved, experiments resulted in exceptional preservation of the embryonic tissue at the cellular level. Thus our findings suggest that the mechanisms of decay, preservation of surface structures, and mineral replacement in the experiment and during fossilization of Cambrian embryos were likely operating at a similar rationale.

  15. Broad Leaves in Strong Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Flexible broad leaves are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up into a cone shape and reduce both drag and vortex induced oscillations. In this fluid dynamics video, the flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is ...

  16. Energy Conserving Lifestyles: Final Report to the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seymour I.

    This report examines the broad topic of energy use and its relationship to lifestyles. The emphasis is on three energy conserving lifestyle models: (1) the rural alternative lifestyle; (2) new towns; and (3) energy conserving subdivisions in existing cities. The first chapter presents an introduction. Chapter two examines the back-to-the-land…

  17. Heron conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushlan, J.A.; Hafner, H.

    2000-01-01

    Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

  18. 76 FR 34087 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until.... The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on the effectiveness of...

  19. 78 FR 20119 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal... responders across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  20. 77 FR 50144 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until... across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  1. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentiford, G D; Neil, D M; Peeler, E J; Shields, J D; Small, H J; Flegel, T W; Vlak, J M; Jones, B; Morado, F; Moss, S; Lotz, J; Bartholomay, L; Behringer, D C; Hauton, C; Lightner, D V

    2012-06-01

    Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global aquaculture industry. It is significant in supporting rural livelihoods and alleviating poverty in producing nations within Asia and Latin America while forming an increasing contribution to aquatic food supply in more developed countries. Nations with marine borders often also support important marine fisheries for crustaceans that are regionally traded as live animals and commodity products. A general separation of net producing and net consuming nations for crustacean seafood has created a truly globalised food industry. Projections for increasing global demand for seafood in the face of level or declining fisheries requires continued expansion and intensification of aquaculture while ensuring best utilisation of captured stocks. Furthermore, continued pressure from consuming nations to ensure safe products for human consumption are being augmented by additional legislative requirements for animals (and their products) to be of low disease status. As a consequence, increasing emphasis is being placed on enforcement of regulations and better governance of the sector; currently this is a challenge in light of a fragmented industry and less stringent regulations associated with animal disease within producer nations. Current estimates predict that up to 40% of tropical shrimp production (>$3bn) is lost annually, mainly due to viral pathogens for which standard preventative measures (e.g. such as vaccination) are not feasible. In light of this problem, new approaches are urgently required to enhance yield by improving broodstock and larval sourcing, promoting best management practices by farmer outreach and supporting cutting-edge research that aims to harness the natural

  2. Exploring developmental gene toolkit and associated pathways in a potential new model crustacean using transcriptomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Michael L; Guzman, Frank; Paese, Christian L B; Margis, Rogerio; Nazari, Evelise M; Ammar, Dib; Müller, Yara Maria Rauh

    2016-09-01

    The crustaceans are one of the largest, most diverse, and most successful groups of invertebrates. The diversity among the crustaceans is also reflected in embryonic development models. However, the molecular genetics that regulates embryonic development is not known in those crustaceans that have a short germ-band development with superficial cleavage, such as Macrobrachium olfersi. This species is a freshwater decapod and has great potential to become a model for developmental biology, as well as for evolutionary and environmental studies. To obtain sequence data of M. olfersi from an embryonic developmental perspective, we performed de novo assembly and annotation of the embryonic transcriptome. Using a pooling strategy of total RNA, paired-end Illumina sequencing, and assembly with multiple k-mers, a total of 25,636,097 pair reads were generated. In total, 99,751 unigenes were identified, and 20,893 of these returned a Blastx hit. KEGG pathway analysis mapped a total of 6866 unigenes related to 129 metabolic pathways. In general, 21,845 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories: molecular function (19,604), cellular components (10,254), and biological processes (13,841). Of these, 2142 unigenes were assigned to the developmental process category. More specifically, a total of 35 homologs of embryonic development toolkit genes were identified, which included maternal effect (one gene), gap (six), pair-rule (six), segment polarity (seven), Hox (four), Wnt (eight), and dorsoventral patterning genes (three). In addition, genes of developmental pathways were found, including TGF-β, Wnt, Notch, MAPK, Hedgehog, Jak-STAT, VEGF, and ecdysteroid-inducible nuclear receptors. RT-PCR analysis of eight genes related to embryonic development from gastrulation to late morphogenesis/organogenesis confirmed the applicability of the transcriptome analysis.

  3. Detrimental effect of CO2-driven seawater acidification on a crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao-qun; Jeswin, Joseph; Shen, Kai-li; Lablche, Meghan; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the decline in ocean pH, termed as ocean acidification due to the elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, on calcifying organisms such as marine crustacean are unclear. To understand the possible effects of ocean acidification on the physiological responses of a marine model crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, three groups of the cysts or animals were raised at different pH levels (8.2 as control; 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress according to the predictions for the end of this century and next century accordingly) for 24 h or two weeks, respectively, followed by examination of their hatching success, morphological appearance such as deformity and microstructure of animal body, growth (i.e. body length), survival rate, expression of selected genes (involved in development, immunity and cellular activity etc), and biological activity of several key enzymes (participated in antioxidant responses and physiological reactions etc). Our results clearly demonstrated that the cysts hatching rate, growth at late stage of acidification stress, and animal survival rate of brine shrimp were all reduced due to lower pH level (7.6 & 7.8) on comparison to the control group (pH 8.2), but no obvious change in deformity or microstructure of brine shrimp was present under these acidification stress by microscopy observation and section analysis. In addition, the animals subjected to a lower pH level of seawater underwent changes on their gene expressions, including Spätzle, MyD88, Notch, Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, prophenoloxidase, Apoptosis inhibitor 5, Trachealess, Caveolin-1 and Cyclin K. Meanwhile, several key enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, were also affected by acidified seawater stress. Taken together, our findings supports the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification indeed has a detrimental effect, in case of hatching success, growth and survival, on

  4. Mixture and single-substance toxicity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors toward algae and crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Munch; Faaborg-Andersen, S.; Ingerslev, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    with an identical mechanism of action in mammals (inhibit reuptake of serotonin), and they have been found in different aqeous as well as biological samples collected in the environment. In the present study, we tested the toxicities of five SSRIs (citalopram, fluoxetine, fluoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline......) as single substances and of citalopram, fluoxetine. and sertraline in binary mixtures in two standardized bioassays. Test organisms were the freshwater algae Pseudo-kirchneriella subcapitata and the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. In algae, test median effect concentrations (EC50s) ranged from 0...

  5. Crustacean hyperglycemic and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormones in the lobster Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivaux, Céline; Vinh, Joëlle; Soyez, Daniel; Toullec, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), produced by the X organ-sinus gland neurosecretory complex, belong to a peptide group referred to as the CHH family, which is widely distributed in arthropods. In this study, genetic variants and post-translationally modified isoforms of CHH and VIH were characterized in the European lobster Homarus gammarus. With the use of RP-HPLC and ELISA with specific antibodies that discriminate between stereoisomers of CHH and VIH, two groups of CHH-immunoreactive peaks were characterized from HPLC fractions of sinus gland extract (CHH A and CHH B); each group contained two variants (CHH and D-Phe3CHH). In the same way, two VIH-immunoreactive peaks (VIH and D-Trp4VIH) were demonstrated in HPLC fractions from sinus gland extract. The masses of these different neuropeptides were determined by FT-ICR MS: CHH A and CHH B spectra exhibited monoisotopic ions at 8557.05 Da and 8527.04 Da, respectively, and both VIH isomers displayed an m/z value of 9129.19 Da. Two full-length cDNAs encoding preprohomones of CHH A and CHH B and only one cDNA for VIH precursor were cloned and sequenced from X organ RNA. Comparison of CHH sequences between European lobster and other Astacoidea suggests that the most hydrophobic form appeared first during crustacean evolution.

  6. Evolutionary variation in neural gene expression in the developing sense organs of the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Marleen; Stollewerk, Angelika

    2017-02-24

    Arthropods have numerous sense organs, which are adapted to their habitat. While some sense organs are similar in structure and function in all arthropod groups, structural differences in functionally related sense organs have been described, as well as the absence of particular sense organ subtypes in individual arthropod groups. Here we address the question of how the diverse structures of arthropod sense organs have evolved by analysing the underlying molecular developmental processes in a crustacean, an arthropod group that has been neglected so far. We have investigated the development of four types of chemo- and mechanosensory sense organs in the branchiopod Daphnia magna (Cladocera) that either cannot be found in arthropods other than crustaceans or represent adaptations to an aquatic environment. The formation of the sensory organ precursors shows greater similarity to the arthropod taxa Chelicerata and Myriapoda than to the more closely related insects. All analysed sense organ types co-express the proneural genes ASH and atonal regardless of their structure and function. In contrast, in Drosophila melanogaster, ASH and atonal expression does not overlap and the genes confer different sense organ subtype identities. We performed experimental co-expression studies in D. melanogaster and found that the combinatorial expression of ato and ASH can change the external structure of sense organs. Our results indicate a central role for ASH and Atonal family members in the emergence of structural variations in arthropod sense organs.

  7. Self-Assembled, Iridescent, Crustacean-Mimetic Nanocomposites with Tailored Periodicity and Layered Cuticular Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baochun; Walther, Andreas

    2015-11-24

    Natural high-performance materials inspire the pursuit of ordered hard/soft nanocomposite structures at high fractions of reinforcements and with balanced molecular interactions. Herein, we develop a facile, waterborne self-assembly pathway to mimic the multiscale cuticle structure of the crustacean armor by combining hard reinforcing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with soft poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). We show iridescent CNC nanocomposites with cholesteric liquid-crystal structure, in which different helical pitches and photonic band gaps can be realized by varying the CNC/PVA ratio. We further show that multilayered crustacean-mimetic materials with tailored periodicity and layered cuticular structure can be obtained by sequential preparation pathways. The transition from a cholesteric to a disordered structure occurs for a critical polymer concentration. Correspondingly, we find a transition from stiff and strong mechanical behavior to materials with increasing ductility. Crack propagation studies using scanning electron microscopy visualize the different crack growth and toughening mechanisms inside cholesteric nanocomposites as a function of the interstitial polymer content for the first time. Different extents of crack deflection, layered delamination, ligament bridging, and constrained microcracking can be observed. Drawing of highly plasticized films sheds light on the mechanistic details of the transition from a cholesteric/chiral nematic to a nematic structure. The study demonstrates how self-assembly of biobased CNCs in combination with suitable polymers can be used to replicate a hierarchical biological structure and how future design of these ordered multifunctional nanocomposites can be optimized by understanding mechanistic details of deformation and fracture.

  8. Genetic evidence confirms polygamous mating system in a crustacean parasite with multiple hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Jossart

    Full Text Available Mating systems are diverse in animals, notably in crustaceans, but can be inferred from a limited set of parameters. Baeza and Thiel (2007 proposed a model predicting mating systems of symbiotic crustaceans with three host characteristics and the risk of predation. These authors proposed five mating systems, ranging from monogamy to polygynandry (where multiple mating occurs for both genders. Using microsatellite loci, we tested the putatively mating system of the ectoparasite crab Dissodactylus primitivus. We determined the mating frequencies of males and females, parentage assignment (COLONY & GERUD software as well as the contents of female spermathecae. Our results are globally consistent with the model of Baeza and Thiel and showed, together with previous aquarium experiments, that this ectoparasite evolved a polygamous mating system where males and females move between hosts for mate search. Parentage analyses revealed that polyandry is frequent and concerns more than 60% of clutches, with clutches being fertilized by up to 6 different fathers. Polygyny is supported by the detection of eight males having sired two different broods. We also detected a significant paternity skew in 92% of the multipaternal broods. Moreover, this skew is probably higher than the estimation from the brood because additional alleles were detected in most of spermathecae. This high skew could be explained by several factors as sperm competition or cryptic female choice. Our genetic data, combined with previous anatomic analyses, provide consistent arguments to suggest sperm precedence in D. primitivus.

  9. Effects of chlordecone on 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration and chitobiase activity in a decapod crustacean, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Anne; Gismondi, Eric; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Geraudie, Perrine; Dodet, Nathalie; Caupos, Fanny; Lemoine, Soazig; Lagadic, Laurent; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Forget-Leray, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) is an organochlorine insecticide abundant in aquatic environment of the French West Indies. However, few studies have investigated its impact on freshwater invertebrates. Whereas CLD is suspected of inducing endocrine disruption, this work aimed to study the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of CLD on the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) hormone concentration and on the chitobiase activity, both having key roles in the molting process of crustaceans. In addition, the bioaccumulation of CLD was measured in the muscle tissue of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to underline potential dose-response relationship. The results have shown that CLD was bioaccumulated in exposed organisms according to a trend to a dose-response relationship. Moreover, it was observed that CLD decreased the 20-HE concentration in exposed prawns when compared to control, whatever the duration of exposure, as well as it inhibited the chitobiase activity after 30days of exposure. The present study indicates that CLD could interfere with molting process of M. rosenbergii by disturbing the 20-HE concentration and the activity of chitobiase, suggesting consequences at the long term on the shrimp development. This study also confirmed that CLD could be an endocrine disruptor in decapod crustaceans, as it was already observed in vertebrates.

  10. Unconventional Approach for Demineralization of Deproteinized Crustacean Shells for Chitin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is a versatile environmentally friendly modern material. It has a wide range of applications in areas such as water treatment, pulp and paper, biomedical devices and therapies, cosmetics, membrane technology and biotechnology and food applications. Crustacean waste is the most important chitin source for commercial use. Demineralization is an important step in the chitin purification process from crustacean waste. The conventional method of demineralization includes the use of strong acid (commonly HCl that harms the physiochemical properties of chitin, results in a harmful effluent wastewater and increases the cost of chitin purification process. The current study proposes the use of organic acids (lactic and acetic produced by cheese whey fermentation to demineralize microbially deproteinized shrimp shells. The effects of acid type, demineralization condition, retention time and shells to acid ratio were investigated. The study showed that the effectiveness of using lactic and/or acetic acids for demineralization of shrimp shells was comparable to that of using hydrochloric acid. Using organic acids for demineralization is a promising concept, since organic acids are less harmful to the environment, can preserve the characteristics of the purified chitin and can be produced from low cost biomass such as cheese whey. In addition, the resulted organic salts from the demineralization process can be used as a food preservative and/or an environmentally friendly de-icing/anti-icing agents.

  11. The embryonic development of the malacostracan crustacean Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Carsten

    2009-12-01

    To examine the evolution of development and put it into a phylogenetic context, it is important to have, in addition to a model organism like Drosophila, more insights into the huge diversity of arthropod morphologies. In recent years, the malacostracan crustacean Porcellio scaber Latreille, 1804 has become a popular animal for studies in evolutionary and developmental biology, but a detailed and complete description of its embryonic development is still lacking. Therefore, the embryonic development of the woodlouse P. scaber is described in a series of discrete stages easily identified by examination of living animals and the widely used technique of nuclei staining on fixed specimens. It starts with the first cleavage of the zygote and ends with a hatched manca that eventually leaves the mother's brood pouch. Classical methods like normal light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy are used, in addition to confocal LCM and computer-aided 3D reconstruction in order to visualise important processes during ontogeny. The purpose of these studies is to offer an easy way to define the different degrees of development for future comparative analyses of embryonic development amongst crustaceans in particular, as well as between different arthropod groups. In addition, several aspects of Porcellio embryonic development, such as the mouth formation, limb differentiations and modifications or the formation of the digestive tract, make this species particularly interesting for future studies in evolutionary and developmental biology.

  12. Axogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous system of the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerer, Petra; Geppert, Maria; Wolff, Carsten

    2011-03-01

    We describe the formation of the major axon pathways in the embryonic central and peripheral nervous systems of the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana Heller, 1865 by means of antibody staining against acetylated alpha-tubulin. The data add to a long list of previous studies of various other aspects of development in Orchestia and provide a basis for future studies of neurogenesis on a deeper cellular and molecular level. Orchestia exhibits a tripartite dorsal brain, which is a characteristic feature of euarthropods. Its anlagen are the first detectable structures in the developing nervous system and can be traced back to distinct neuronal cell clusters in the early embryo. The development of the ventral nervous system proceeds with an anteroposterior gradient of development. In each trunk segment, the longitudinal connectives and the anterior commissure form first, followed by the intersegmental nerve, the posterior commissure and segmental nerves, respectively. A single commissure of a vestigial seventh pleonal segment is found. In the peripheral nervous system we observe a spatial and temporal pattern of leg innervation, which is strikingly similar in both limb types, the uniramous pereopods and the biramous pleopods. A proximal leg nerve splitting distally into two separated nerves probably reflects a general feature of crustaceans.

  13. Interpopulational variation in the cold tolerance of a broadly distributed marine copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gemma T; Kim, Tiffany L; Neufeld, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Latitudinal trends in cold tolerance have been observed in many terrestrial ectotherms, but few studies have investigated interpopulational variation in the cold physiology of marine invertebrates. Here, the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus was used as a model system to study how local adaptation influences the cold tolerance of a broadly distributed marine crustacean. Among five populations spanning 18° in latitude, the following three metrics were used to compare cold tolerance: the temperature of chill-coma onset, the chill-coma recovery time and post-freezing recovery. In comparison to copepods from warmer southern latitudes, animals from northern populations exhibited lower chill-coma onset temperatures, shorter chill-coma recovery times and faster post-freezing recovery rates. Importantly, all three metrics showed a consistent latitudinal trend, suggesting that any single metric could be used equivalently in future studies investigating latitudinal variation in cold tolerance. Our results agree with previous studies showing that populations within a single species can display strong local adaptation to spatially varying climatic conditions. Thus, accounting for local adaptation in bioclimate models will be useful for understanding how broadly distributed species like T. californicus will respond to anthropogenic climate change.

  14. Constructing Conservation Impact: Understanding Monitoring and Evaluation in Conservation NGOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Benson Wahlén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of scholars critically examine large conservation organisations to explore organisational intentions, practices, and outcomes. In parallel, other scholars have problematised audit cultures, suggesting that these seemingly good practices of evaluation and measurement are not neutral and instead have consequences for governance and power. This article combines literature on conservation NGOs, organisational theory, and audit culture to study the inner workings of conservation and to understand the construction of effectiveness and impact. I draw on semi-structured interviews to examine how a large, international conservation organisation, which I term the World Conservation Organisation (WCO; a pseudonym, coordinates monitoring and evaluation (M&E processes among its international, national, and local offices. I find individual staff within WCO make varying assumptions about the M&E policies and place different values on M&E, which results in different institutional logics towards M&E and a broader organisational failure to measure progress and reflect upon outcomes. The findings also show difficulties in translating broad organisational goals into specific project activities, underscoring tensions in implementation and limitations in M&E practice. I also find that organisational and managerial pressure to report success is greater than donor pressure, a finding that expands understandings of NGO-donor dynamics.

  15. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  16. Hypothesis for heritable, anti-viral immunity in crustaceans and insects

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    Flegel Timothy W

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that crustaceans and insects can persistently carry one or more viral pathogens at low levels, without signs of disease. They may transmit them to their offspring or to naïve individuals, often with lethal consequences. The underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated, but the process has been called viral accommodation. Since tolerance to one virus does not confer tolerance to another, tolerance is pathogen-specific, so the requirement for a specific pathogen response mechanism (memory was included in the original viral accommodation concept. Later, it was hypothesized that specific responses were based on the presence of viruses in persistent infections. However, recent developments suggest that specific responses may be based on viral sequences inserted into the host genome. Presentation of the hypothesis Non-retroviral fragments of both RNA and DNA viruses have been found in insect and crustacean genomes. In addition, reverse-transcriptase (RT and integrase (IN sequences are also common in their genomes. It is hypothesized that shrimp and other arthropods use these RT to recognize "foreign" mRNA of both RNA and DNA viruses and use the integrases (IN to randomly insert short cDNA sequences into their genomes. By chance, some of these sequences result in production of immunospecific RNA (imRNA capable of stimulating RNAi that suppresses viral propagation. Individuals with protective inserts would pass these on to the next generation, together with similar protective inserts for other viruses that could be amalgamated rapidly in individual offspring by random assortment of chromosomes. The most successful individuals would be environmentally selected from billions of offspring. Conclusion This hypothesis for immunity based on an imRNA generation mechanism fits with the general principle of invertebrate immunity based on a non-host, "pattern recognition" process. If proven correct, understanding the

  17. Decapod crustaceans inhabiting live and dead colonies of three species of Acropora in the Roques Archipelago, Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grajal, P. Alejandro; Laughlin, G. Roger

    1984-01-01

    A systematic account is given of the decapod crustaceans found in live and dead colonies of three species of the scleractinian coral Acropora (A. cervicornis, A. palmata, A. prolifera), collected during a 9 month period in a shallow reef flat in the southwestern portion of the Archipelago Los Roques

  18. Controlling of crustacean zooplankton reproduction in biological activated carbon (BAC) filters by strengthen operation and management of conventional process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-jun; ZHANG Jin-song; LI Xiao-wei; HE Jun-guo

    2010-01-01

    To counter the mass reproduction and penetration of crustacean zooplankton in Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) filters which may result in the presence of organisms in potable water and water pollution,this paper analyzed the factors affecting organisms' reproduction in BAC filters.A comparative study was performed on the density and composition of crustacean zooplankton of the concerned water treatment units of two advanced water plants (Plant A and B) which with the same raw water and the same treatment technique in southern China.The results obtained show that the crustaceans' density and composition was very different between the sand filtered water of Plant A and Plant B.which Harpacticoida bred sharply in the sediment tanks and penetrated sand filter into BAC falters was the primary reason of crustaceans reproduce in BAC filters of Plant A.For prevention of the organisms reproduction in BAC,some strengthen measures was taken including pre-chlorination,cleaning coagulation tanks and sediment tanks completely,increasing sludge disposal frequency to stop organisms enter BAC filters,and the finished water quality was improved and enhanced.

  19. Toxicity tests with crustaceans for detecting sublethal effects of potential endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah

    of effective concentrations (ECx). After having demonstrated that larval development of A. tonsa was a very sensitive endpoint for evaluating effects of chemicals that might interfere with the endocrine system of crustaceans, the larval development test has been applied to two groups of emerging environmental...... of in vitro assays and (sub)chronic copepod tests, as applied in this study, is a valuable tool when screening chemicals suspected to be specifically toxic, in particular, to interfere with the endocrine system. The results of the experimental work as well as the literature survey demonstrated clearly......New and updated test methods to detect and characterise endocrine disrupting chemicals are urgently needed for the purpose of environmental risk assessment. Although endocrine disruption in invertebrates has not been studied as extensive as in vertebrates, in particular in fish, numerous reports...

  20. Immunochemical and immunocytochemical studies of the crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusy, J J; Martin, G; Soyez, D; van Deijnen, J E; Gallo, J M

    1987-09-01

    Immunochemical investigations, using dot immunobinding assay (DIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunocytochemical studies reveal the following new information about crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH): (1) The structure of VIH is sufficiently different from that of the other sinus gland neuropeptides to allow a selective recognition of VIH by polyclonal antibodies. (2) From immunochemical criteria, VIH does not seem strictly species specific. The antisera raised against VIH of Homarus americanus cross-react with sinus gland extracts of Palaemonetes varians, Palaemon serratus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Carcinus maenas, and Porcellio dilatatus. (3) In the sinus gland of H. americanus, VIH immunoreactivity is localized mainly in electron-dense granules of medium size (110-185 nm in diameter) while, in P. dilatatus, the labeling is mostly on the largest granules (200-270 nm in diameter).

  1. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Galaviz José Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris, crabs (Callinectes arcuatus and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and sequencing. Compared to strains of WSSV from other sites, Mexican samples exhibited a distinct number of repeat units (RUs in ORF94, ORF75 and ORF125, which ranged between 1-11, 3-15, and 8-11 RUs respectively, and a unique single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 48 of ORF94. A total of six Mexican genotypes were found in organism from shrimp farm and natural environment.

  2. Foreseeing fates: a commentary on Manton (1928) 'On the embryology of a mysid crustacean, Hemimysis lamornae'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akam, Michael

    2015-04-19

    Sidnie Manton became best known for her work on arthropod locomotion, and for proposing radical views on the evolution of arthropods that were accepted for a generation. However, her early training was as an embryologist, and the work that she carried out at the beginning of her career still stands as one of the major twentieth century contributions to the study of crustacean embryology. Here, I review her first major paper, largely completed while she was a graduate student, describing embryonic development in Hemimysis lamornae, a small shrimp-like animal found in the seas around the UK. The clarity of her writing and the quality of her figures set a standard that laid the basis for subsequent work, and although not all of her conclusions have stood the test of time, they remain a standard reference for work today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  3. Physiological thermoregulation in a crustacean? Heart rate hysteresis in the freshwater crayfish Cherax destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudkamp, Jacqueline E; Seebacher, Frank; Ahern, Mark; Franklin, Craig E

    2004-07-01

    Differential heart rates during heating and cooling (heart rate hysteresis) are an important thermoregulatory mechanism in ectothermic reptiles. We speculate that heart rate hysteresis has evolved alongside vascularisation, and to determine whether this phenomenon occurs in a lineage with vascularised circulatory systems that is phylogenetically distant from reptiles, we measured the response of heart rate to convective heat transfer in the Australian freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor. Heart rate during convective heating (from 20 to 30 degrees C) was significantly faster than during cooling for any given body temperature. Heart rate declined rapidly immediately following the removal of the heat source, despite only negligible losses in body temperature. This heart rate 'hysteresis' is similar to the pattern reported in many reptiles and, by varying peripheral blood flow, it is presumed to confer thermoregulatory benefits particularly given the thermal sensitivity of many physiological rate functions in crustaceans.

  4. Crustacean zooplankton species richness in Chilean lakes and ponds (23°-51°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Ríos-Escalante

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chilean inland-water ecosystems are characterized by their low species-level biodiversity. This study analyses available data on surface area, maximum depth, conductivity, chlorophyll-α concentration, and zooplankton crustacean species number in lakes and ponds between 23° and 51°S. The study uses multiple regression analysis to identify the potential factors affecting the species number. The partial correlation analysis indicated a direct significant correlation between chlorophyll-α concentration and species number, whereas the multiple regression analysis indicated a direct significant response of species number to latitude and chlorophyll-α concentration. These results agree with findings from comparable ecosystems in Argentina and New Zealand.

  5. Structural prediction and analysis of VIH-related peptides from selected crustacean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Ganji Purna Chandra; Kumari, Nunna Siva; Prasad, Ganji Lakshmi Vara; Rajitha, Balney; Meenu, Madan; Rao, Manam Sreenivasa; Naik, Bannoth Reddya

    2009-08-17

    The tentative elucidation of the 3D-structure of vitellogenesis inhibiting hormone (VIH) peptides is conversely underprivileged by difficulties in gaining enough peptide or protein, diffracting crystals, and numerous extra technical aspects. As a result, no structural information is available for VIH peptide sequences registered in the Genbank. In this situation, it is not surprising that predictive methods have achieved great interest. Here, in this study the molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) of the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) is used, to predict the structure of four VIHrelated peptides in the crustacean species. The high similarity of the 3D-structures and the calculated physiochemical characteristics of these peptides suggest a common fold for the entire family.

  6. Crustacean peptidergic neurons in culture show immediate outgrowth in simple medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, I; Graf, R; Grau, S; Haylett, B; Meyers, D; Ruben, P

    1989-01-01

    The survival and outgrowth of neurons in culture has usually required conditioning factors. We now report that crustacean neurons, taken from the peptidergic neurosecretory system of the eyestalk of crabs (Cardisoma carnifex) and lobsters (Panulirus marginatus), show immediate outgrowth, sustained for a week or more, in defined medium as simple as physiological saline with glucose and glutamine. The neurons show peptide hormone immunoreactivity that is prominent at growth cones, exhibit differences in form correlated with their immunoreactivity, release peptides to the medium, and have voltage-dependent currents, including a well-sustained Ca current. Cd blocks secretion, growth, and the Ca current. Peptidergic secretory neurons may be able to utilize existing membrane from their store of granules and already active synthetic, transport, and secretory mechanisms for immediate outgrowth.

  7. Analysis of DNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation in the Genome of Crustacean Daphnia pulex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovilė Strepetkaitė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to analyze the presence of 5-methyl-cytosine (5-mC and 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine (5-hmC in the genome of crustacean Daphnia pulex. First, the presence of 5-mC and 5-hmC in genomic DNA was demonstrated by using antibodies specific to either 5-mC or 5-hmC. Then, analysis of 5-mC and 5-hmC using pairs of restriction enzymes with different sensitivity to methylation and hydroxymethylation confirmed the presence of both modifications in selected regions of three genes (Cox4, Cand2 and Ephx1. To get a detailed picture of 5-hmC distribution over the D. pulex genome, we performed 5-hmC enrichment and sequenced the enriched fraction using next generation sequencing and non-enriched library (input as a control. Comparison of input and enriched libraries showed that 5-hmC in exons is twice as frequent as in introns. Functional analysis indicated that 5-hmC abundance is associated with genes that are involved in the adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, molting cycles, morphogenesis and cell fate determination. Genes that lack 5-hmC tend to be involved in the regulation of the transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway and in many mRNA-related processes. Our results suggest that epigenetic modifications are present in the genome of D. pulex and most likely are involved in the regulation of gene expression of this crustacean.

  8. Cell lineage, axis formation, and the origin of germ layers in the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Carsten; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2002-10-01

    Embryos of the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana are examined during cleavage, gastrulation, and segmentation by using in vivo labelling. Single blastomeres of the 8- and 16-cell stages were labelled with DiI to trace cell lineages. Early cleavage follows a distinct pattern and the a/p and d/v body axes are already determined at the 4- and 8-cell stages, respectively. In these stages, the germinal rudiment and the naupliar mesoderm can be traced back to a single blastomere each. In addition, the ectoderm and the postnaupliar mesoderm are separated into right and left components. At the16-cell stage, naupliar ectoderm is divided from the postnaupliar ectoderm, and extraembryonic lineages are separated from postnaupliar mesoderm and endoderm. From our investigation, it is evident that the cleavage pattern and cell lineage of Orchestia cavimana are not of the spiral type. Furthermore, the results of the labelling show many differences to cleavage patterns and cell lineages in other crustaceans, in particular, other Malacostraca. The cleavage and cell lineage patterns of the amphipod Orchestia are certainly derived within Malacostraca, whose ancestral cleavage mode was most likely of the superficial type. On the other hand, Orchestia exhibits a stereotyped cell division pattern during formation and differentiation of the germ band that is typical for malacostracans. Hence, a derived (apomorphic) early cleavage pattern is the ontogenetic basis for an evolutionarily older cell division pattern of advanced developmental stages. O. cavimana offers the possibility to trace the lineages and the fates of cells from early developmental stages up to the formation of segmental structures, including neurogenesis at a level of resolution that is not matched by any other arthropod system.

  9. An epipodite-bearing crown-group crustacean from the Lower Cambrian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-guang; Siveter, David J; Waloszek, Dieter; Maas, Andreas

    2007-10-04

    Crown-group crustaceans (Eucrustacea) are common in the fossil record of the past 500 million years back to the early Ordovician period, and very rare representatives are also known from the late Middle and Late Cambrian periods. Finds in Lower Cambrian rocks of the Phosphatocopina, the fossil sister group to eucrustaceans, imply that members of the eucrustacean stem lineage co-occurred, but it remained unclear whether crown-group members were also present at that time. 'Orsten'-type fossils are typically tiny embryos and cuticle-bearing animals, of which the cuticle is phosphatized and the material is three-dimensional and complete with soft parts. Such fossils are found predominantly in the Cambrian and Ordovician and provide detailed morphological and phylogenetic information on the early evolution of metazoans. Here we report an Orsten-type Konservat-Lagerstätte from the Lower Cambrian of China that contains at least three new arthropod species, of which we describe the most abundant form on the basis of exceptionally well preserved material of several growth stages. The limb morphology and other details of this new species are markedly similar to those of living cephalocarids, branchiopods and copepods and it is assigned to the Eucrustacea, thus representing the first undoubted crown-group crustacean from the early Cambrian. Its stratigraphical position provides substantial support to the proposition that the main cladogenic event that gave rise to the Arthropoda was before the Cambrian. Small leaf-shaped structures on the outer limb base of the new species provide evidence on the long-debated issue of the origin of epipodites: they occur in a set of three, derive from setae and are a ground-pattern feature of Eucrustacea.

  10. The global diversity of parasitic isopods associated with crustacean hosts (Isopoda: Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Williams

    Full Text Available Parasitic isopods of Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea (commonly referred to as epicarideans are unique in using crustaceans as both intermediate and definitive hosts. In total, 795 epicarideans are known, representing ~7.7% of described isopods. The rate of description of parasitic species has not matched that of free-living isopods and this disparity will likely continue due to the more cryptic nature of these parasites. Distribution patterns of epicarideans are influenced by a combination of their definitive (both benthic and pelagic species and intermediate (pelagic copepod host distributions, although host specificity is poorly known for most species. Among epicarideans, nearly all species in Bopyroidea are ectoparasitic on decapod hosts. Bopyrids are the most diverse taxon (605 species, with their highest diversity in the North West Pacific (139 species, East Asian Sea (120 species, and Central Indian Ocean (44 species. The diversity patterns of Cryptoniscoidea (99 species, endoparasites of a diverse assemblage of crustacean hosts are distinct from bopyrids, with the greatest diversity of cryptoniscoids in the North East Atlantic (18 species followed by the Antarctic, Mediterranean, and Arctic regions (13, 12, and 8 species, respectively. Dajidae (54 species, ectoparasites of shrimp, mysids, and euphausids exhibits highest diversity in the Antarctic (7 species with 14 species in the Arctic and North East Atlantic regions combined. Entoniscidae (37 species, endoparasites within anomuran, brachyuran and shrimp hosts show highest diversity in the North West Pacific (10 species and North East Atlantic (8 species. Most epicarideans are known from relatively shallow waters, although some bopyrids are known from depths below 4000 m. Lack of parasitic groups in certain geographic areas is likely a sampling artifact and we predict that the Central Indian Ocean and East Asian Sea (in particular, the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago hold a wealth of

  11. POST-EXERCISE LACTATE PRODUCTION AND METABOLISM IN THREE SPECIES OF AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh

    1994-01-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial crustaceans are dependent on both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism for energy production during exercise. Anaerobic energy production is marked by an accumulation of lactate in both muscle tissue and haemolymph, but the metabolic fate of lactate is not clear. Lactate recycling via gluconeogenesis and the potential role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in supplying bicarbonate for the carboxylation of pyruvate were investigated in three species of decapod crustaceans: Callinectes sapidus (aquatic), Cardisoma guanhumi (semi-terrestrial) and Gecarcinus lateralis (terrestrial). CA activity was found in mitochondria and cytoplasmic fractions of gill, hepatopancreas and muscle of all three species. Significant activities of key enzymes of gluconeogenesis (e.g. pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and fructose bisphosphatase), however, could not be detected. Exercise to exhaustion produced a species-specific pattern of accumulation and clearance of lactate in tissue and haemolymph, indicating a differential degree of reliance on anaerobic energy production. Treatment with acetazolamide, a CA inhibitor, did not significantly alter the pattern of lactate dynamics in animals given repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise interspersed with periods of recovery. Injection of [U-14C]lactate resulted in the appearance of label in both muscle glycogen and excreted carbon dioxide, suggesting multiple metabolic fates for lactate. Lactate turnover rates for G. lateralis were similar to those reported for fish. In these animals, gluconeogenesis possibly proceeds via the reversal of pyruvate kinase, or via the typical Cori cycle but so slowly that the uncatalysed supply of bicarbonate is sufficient to keep pace with the low activities of pyruvate carboxylase and the subsequent low rates of pyruvate carboxylation.

  12. Mapping of Neuropeptides in the Crustacean Stomatogastric Nervous System by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Hui, Limei; Kellersberger, Katherine; Li, Lingjun

    2013-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to characterizing the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) with great emphasis on comprehensive analysis and mapping distribution of its diverse neuropeptide complement. Previously, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been applied to this endeavor, yet with identification accuracy and throughput compromised. Therefore, molecular imaging methods are pursued to unequivocally determine the identity and location of the neuropeptides at a high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a novel, multi-faceted mass spectrometric strategy combining profiling and imaging techniques to characterize and map neuropeptides from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus STNS at the network level. In total, 55 neuropeptides from 10 families were identified from the major ganglia in the C. sapidus STNS for the first time, including the stomatogastric ganglion (STG), the paired commissural ganglia (CoG), the esophageal ganglion (OG), and the connecting nerve stomatogastric nerve ( stn) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and the MS/MS capability of this technique. In addition, the locations of multiple neuropeptides were documented at a spatial resolution of 25 μm in the STG and upstream nerve using MALDI-TOF/TOF and high-mass-resolution and high-mass-accuracy MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) instrument. Furthermore, distributions of neuropeptides in the whole C. sapidus STNS were examined by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Different isoforms from the same family were simultaneously and unambiguously mapped, facilitating the functional exploration of neuropeptides present in the crustacean STNS and exemplifying the revolutionary role of this novel platform in neuronal network studies.

  13. Toxicity on crustaceans and endocrine disrupting activity on Saccharomyces cerevisiae of eight alkylphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidori, Marina; Lavorgna, Margherita; Nardelli, Angela; Parrella, Alfredo

    2006-06-01

    In the last few years many concerns have been raised regarding the environmental safety of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants (APnEOs). They are widely used in detergents, paints, herbicides and many other formulated products. It has been estimated that 60% of APnEOs end up in the aquatic environment; they are biodegradable and transformed into alkylphenols, such as nonylphenol and octylphenol that are hydrophobic and tend to accumulate. In the present study, acute and chronic aquatic toxicity and the estrogenic activity of the following eight alkylphenols were assessed: 4-nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate, 4-tert-octylphenol, POE (1 to 2)-nonylphenol, POE (6)-nonylphenol, POE (3)-tert-octylphenol and POE (9 to 10)-tert-octylphenol. The toxic potential was measured on the crustaceans Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia, while the estrogenic activity was determined by using the YES-test with the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae RMY326. The results showed that the exposure of crustaceans to the eight xenoestrogens investigated caused both acute and chronic effects. The EC50 values found for C. dubia at 48 h were compared to D. magna at 24h and, gave a first indication about the toxic activity of the compounds investigated, that is better expressed in the long-term. In fact, chronic data showed a strong increase in toxicity with EC50 values one or two orders of magnitude lower than the acute values. The results of the YES-test showed that nonylphenol, octylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol were the most estrogenic and the bioassay was able to detect their estrogenicity at very low concentrations (ng-microg/l).

  14. Influenza virus antigenicity and broadly neutralizing epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air, Gillian M

    2015-04-01

    A vaccine formulation that would be effective against all strains of influenza virus has long been a goal of vaccine developers, but antibodies after infection or vaccination were seen to be strain specific and there was little evidence of cross-reactive antibodies that neutralized across subtypes. Recently a number of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been characterized. This review describes the different classes of broadly neutralizing antibodies and discusses the potential of their therapeutic use or for design of immunogens that induce a high proportion of broadly neutralizing antibodies.

  15. Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical Assessment of CHIPRA Core Measures Differences in CHIP design and structure, across states and over time, may limit...

  16. Hazard identification of contaminated sites. Ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, J.; Sundberg, H.; Aakerman, G.; Grunder, K.; Eklund, B.; Breitholtz, M. [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    Background, aim, and scope: It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with, e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compounds with different polarities. Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure (i.e. ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions (semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations, ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique. Results and discussion Clear concentration-response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout, the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi

  17. Ingestion and selection of suprabenthic crustaceans by small-sized fishes in a lower saltmarsh system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Wakabara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in the lower saltmarsh system of the Arrozal, in the Cananéia lagoon estuarine region (25º02'S - 47º56'W, Brazil. Suprabenthic fauna was surveyed Wlth a small sledge and fishes were captured with casting and set nets to analyse: crustacean fauna as food for local fish species; difference in the diet at different times of the year; if there is diet overlap between species and the feeding behaviour of the species analysed. The fauna of Arrozal is poor in species, dominated mainly by Metamysidopsis alongata atlantica, Acartia lilljeborgi, Atylus minikoi, decapod larvae, and reveals a strong seasonal variation. The fishes were ali camivorous with suprabenthic crustacean as their main food resource. Seasonal changes in food supply are also reflected in the diet. Of the 12 flSh species collected six were opportunistlc feeders whereas six others were selective feeders. Food overlap value of 0.08 for ali of the fish community indicates an almost completely distinct food niches. The increased overlapping of summer food between Cathorops spixii and species of Group 11 and between Oligoplites sp and species of Group I seems to have two different explanations: 1 the mmIDishing of food supply for species feeding on benthic originated suprabenthic crustaceans and 2 overabundance of planktonic forms of suprabenthos as well as a period of high feeding activity of fishes with such diet.O presente estudo foi realizado no infralitoral contíguo à marisma, na Ponta do Arrozal, região estuarina lagunar de Cananéia (25º02'S - 47º56'W, Brasil. A fauna suprabêntica foi amostrada com uma pequena draga e os peixes capturados com tarrafa e rede de espera, com a finalidade de analisar: a composição de espécies dos crustáceos suprabênticos como itens alimentares dos peixes; diferenças na dieta em diferentes época do ano; se ocorre sobreposição alimentar entre as espécies e o comportamento alimentar: das espécies de peixes

  18. Conservation focus on Europe: major conservation policy issues that need to be informed by conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Andrew S; Báldi, András; Can, Ozgun Emre; Dieterich, Martin; Kati, Vassiliki; Livoreil, Barbara; Lövei, Gabor; Mihók, Barbara; Nevin, Owen; Selva, Nuria; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2009-08-01

    Europe is one of the world's most densely populated continents and has a long history of human-dominated land- and seascapes. Europe is also at the forefront of developing and implementing multinational conservation efforts. In this contribution, we describe some top policy issues in Europe that need to be informed by high-quality conservation science. These include evaluation of the effectiveness of the Natura 2000 network of protected sites, implications of rapid economic and subsequent land-use change in Central and Eastern Europe, conservation of marine biodiversity and sustainability of fisheries, the effect of climate change on movement of species in highly fragmented landscapes, and attempts to assess the economic value of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Broad policy issues such as those identified are not easily amenable to scientific experiment. A key challenge at the science-policy interface is to identify the research questions underlying these problem areas so that conservation science can provide evidence to underpin future policy development.

  19. Biodiversity patterns of crustacean suprabenthic assemblages along an oligotrophic gradient in the bathyal Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mariana; Frutos, Inmaculada; Tecchio, Samuele; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Company, Joan B.; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Cunha, Marina R.

    2017-03-01

    Crustacean suprabenthic abundance, community structure, α-diversity (both taxonomic and trophic) and β-diversity were studied along a West-East gradient of oligotrophy in the deep Mediterranean Sea. The assemblages were sampled with a suprabenthic sledge in three regions (western, central and eastern basins) at three water depths (1200, 2000 and 3000 m) in May-June 2009. Environmental data were obtained at each sampling location including sediment properties, oceanographic variables near the seafloor and in the water column, and proxies of epipelagic productivity at the surface. Our results, concerning the crustacean component of the suprabenthos, showed complex trends in community structure and biodiversity across different spatial scales (longitudinal, bathymetric, and near-bottom distribution). A decrease in the number of species and abundance, accompanied by changes in the trophic structure of the assemblages were observed from West to East. In the eastern region the assemblages were impoverished in number of trophic guilds and trophic diversity. The West-East oligotrophic gradient was identified as the main driver in community structure as shown by the significant correlation with trophic environmental variables. Differences in community structure across regions were more marked at greater depths, while at the shallower sites assemblages were more similar. Within each basin, abundance, number of species and number of trophic groups decreased with depth, showing high turnover rates between 1200 and 2000 m depths. The small-scale (0-150 cm) vertical distribution of the suprabenthos was interpreted in relation to the species' functional traits (e.g. swimming activity, migratory behaviour, bottom dependence, feeding habits). Bottom-dependent and more mobile components of the suprabenthos were apparently responding differently to the various environmental challenges imposed by the large-scale longitudinal and bathymetric gradients. We propose that the bathyal

  20. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones directly modulate the immune response of hemocytes in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Chen, Hao; Xu, Jianchao; Xu, Qingsong; Wang, Mengqiang; Zhao, Depeng; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2017-03-01

    A robust immune response against invading pathogens is crucial for host to survive, which depends greatly on the well balance of metabolism. Increasing evidence has indicated that some metabolic hormones, such as insulin, could modulate immune responses directly. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family is a group of ecdysozoans-specific peptide hormone involved in glucose metabolism and other biological events. In the present study, two members of CHH family (designated as LvCHH I and LvCHH II) in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with one and two crustacean neurohormone domains respectively were chosen to investigate their putative modulatory roles in both glucose metabolism and immune response. LvCHH I and LvCHH II were both expressed in the sinus gland and lamina ganglionalis of eyestalks and were significantly induced after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Meanwhile, significant increases of hemolymph glucose levels were observed in shrimp at 12 and 24 h after WSSV infection while the glucose inside the hemocytes decreased at 6 h and then increased at 12 h. Gain-of-function of rLvCHHs was subsequently conducted in vivo by injecting the recombinant proteins (rLvCHH I and rLvCHH II). The hemolymph glucose increased significantly from 0.5 h to 3 h after the shrimps received an injection of rLvCHH I, while it decreased at 0.5 h and increased afterward at 3 h post rLvCHH II injection. At the meantime, significant decreases of reactive oxygen species level in hemocytes were observed at 3 h and 6 h post rLvCHH I injection, while it remained unchanged in rLvCHH II injection group. rLvCHH I and rLvCHH II could bind to the cytomembrane of primary shrimp hemocytes in vitro, and the expressions of superoxide dismutase and LvRelish increased when the hemocytes were incubated with rLvCHH I for 3 h. Meanwhile, the expression of antimicrobial peptides, crustin and penaeidin-4, were also induced by rLvCHH I and rLvCHH II. These results demonstrated that

  1. Distribution of centrifugal neurons targeting the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain among decapod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M

    1997-03-28

    To determine the distribution of two systems of centrifugal neurons innervating the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain across decapod crustaceans, brains of the following nine species comprising most infraorders were immunostained with antibodies against dopamine and the neuropeptides substance P and FMRFamide: Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Homarus americanus, Cherax destructor, Orconectes limosus, Procambarus clarkii, Astacus leptodactylus, Carcinus maenas, Eriocheir sinensis and Pagurus bernhardus. One system consisting of several neurons with dopamine-like immunoreactivity that originate in the eyestalk ganglia was present in the four crayfish but not in any other species. These neurons project mainly into the lateral soma clusters (cluster 10) comprising the somata of ascending olfactory projection neurons and innervate very sparsely the medial soma clusters (clusters 9 and 11) containing the somata of local interneurons. In the innervation pattern of the lateral cluster, the dopamine-immunoreactive neurons showed large species-specific differences. The other system comprises a pair of giant neurons with substance P-like immunoreactivity. These neurons have somata in the median protocerebrum of the central brain and major projections into the lateral clusters and the core of the olfactory lobes, the neuropils that are the first synaptic relay in the central olfactory pathway of decapods; minor arborizations are present in the medial clusters. The system of substance P-immunoreactive giant neurons was present and of great morphological similarity in all studied species. Only in one species, the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii, evidence for co-localization of FMRFamide-like with substance P-like immunoreactivity in these neurons was obtained. These and previously collected data indicate that the centrifugal neurons with dopamine-like immunoreactivity may be associated with the presence of an accessory lobe, a second-order neuropil that receives input from the

  2. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick

    2015-01-01

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those seen in the most luminous quasars. Secondly, the size of the BLR is not correlated with the central continuum luminosity, an observation that distinguishes them from their reverberating counterparts. Collectively, these early results suggest that non-reverberating dwarf Seyferts are a heterogeneous group and not simply scaled versions of each other. Careful inspection reveals broad H Balmer emission lines with single peaks, double peaks, and a combination of the two, suggesting that the broad emission lines are produced in kinematically distinct regions centered on the black hole (BH). Because the gravitational field strength is already known for these objects, by virtue of knowing their BH mass, ...

  3. A long-term study on crustacean plankton of a shallow tropical lake: the role of invertebrate predation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene S. Arcifa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary factor that governs the size and species composition of zooplankton is still a controversial issue and temperature is considered the main factor responsible for latitudinal differences. In waters with a narrow temperature range, such as in the tropics, predation may be a more important factor. Nearly three decades of intermittent studies of the crustacean plankton in a shallow tropical lake revealed that the main event that led to their restructuring was the appearance of a second predator, the water mite Krendowskia sp. The new predator and larvae of the dipteran Chaoborus brasiliensis Theobald exerted a combined, although asymmetrical effect on microcrustaceans. The period when the mite was detected was followed by the restructuring of the crustacean plankton community. Predation by these two invertebrates emerged as the factor responsible for community changes, involving an increased contribution of copepods and decreases in the relative abundance of smaller cladoceran species. In the short term, the mite caused a decrease in species richness and the annual mean instantaneous composition of cladocerans, a predominance of large-sized species (Daphnia ambigua Scourfield and Daphnia gessneri Herbst and the virtual disappearance of small species (e.g., Bosmina tubicen Brehm. The long-term impact resulted in increased species richness and the dominance of large and medium-sized cladocerans, such as D. gessneri and Ceriodaphnia richardi Sars. The larger body size of three cladocerans, the two Daphnia species and B. tubicen, in the long term, may be a response to the dominant predator, Chaoborus. The seasonal variation in the predator abundance, mainly Chaoborus larvae, allowed the prey to recover during the cool season. The copepods Tropocyclops prasinus meridionalis (Fischer and Thermocyclops decipiens Kiefer were less affected by predation than the cladocerans; their contribution to the crustacean plankton increased 12-28% after the

  4. Modelling Demand for Broad Money in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Valadkhani

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a stable demand for money is very important for the conduct of monetary policy. It is argued that previous work on the demand for money in Australia has not been very satisfactory in a number of ways. This paper examines the long- and short-run determinants of the demand for broad money employing the Johansen cointegration technique and a short-run dynamic model. Using quarterly data for the period 1976:3-2002:2, this paper finds, inter alia, that the demand for broad money i...

  5. Virulence and Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Crustaceans and Shellfish in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiongxia; Chen, Lanming

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus can cause serious human seafoodborne gastroenteritis and even death. In this study, we isolated and characterized 208 V. parahaemolyticus strains from 10 species of commonly consumed crustaceans and shellfish available in fish markets in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, in 2014. Most of these aquatic species had not been detected previously. The results revealed an extremely low occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus carrying the toxin gene trh (1.9%). However, a high level of resistance to the antibiotics ampicillin (94.2%), rifampin (93.3%), and streptomycin (77.9%) was found. Approximately 74.5% of the isolates had multidrug-resistant phenotypes. Tolerance to the heavy metals Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Cd(2+) was detected in the majority of antibiotic resistant isolates. The resistance patterns differed depending on the tested samples. The crustaceans Penaeus monodon and Marsupenaeus japonicus harbored more antibiotic-resistant bacteria, whereas the isolates from the crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei and the shellfish Busycon canaliculatus had high tolerance to eight heavy metals tested. In contrast to the wide distribution of multidrug resistance and tolerance to heavy metals, lower percentages of plasmid DNA (22.6%) and SXT/R391-like integrative and conjugative elements (4.8%) were detected in the isolates, suggesting that V. parahaemolyticus in these aquatic species may have adopted some other molecular mechanisms that mediated the high prevalence of resistance determinants. The results of this study support the need for food safety risk assessment of aquatic products.

  6. Dormant stages of crustaceans as a mechanism of propagation in the extreme and unpredictable environment in the Crimean hypersaline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrin, Nickolai V.; Anufriieva, Elena V.; Amat, Francisco; Eremin, Oleg Yu.

    2015-11-01

    A pool of dormant stages of planktonic organisms in saline lakes is a substantial component in the plankton communities; we need to take it into account to understand plankton dynamics. Hypersaline water bodies in Crimea, the largest peninsula in the Black Sea, constitute a very characteristic and peculiar habitat type in the region. We examined the presence of crustacean resting stages in sediments of dried up sites of the Crimean hypersaline lakes. Sediment samples were taken in 9 different lakes. Experiments performed on the hatching of these resting stages showed the presence of Moina salina (Cladocera), parthenogenetic Artemia and Artemia urmiana (Anostraca), Eucypris mareotica ( inflata) (Ostracoda), and Cletocamptus retrogressus (Harpacticoida). Comparing the experimental results obtained with clean dried brine shrimp cysts and those kept in sediment samples, it was noted that clean cysts hatched much faster than those from sediments did. Some components in bottom sediments slow down and desynchronize hatching from resting eggs in different groups of crustaceans. The sediments of different lakes inhibited the nauplii output from Artemia and ostracod resting eggs to different degrees. More data are needed before we can discuss the reasons of this inhibition. The nonsynchronous output of active stages from the bottom resting ones may be an adaptation that allows crustacean species to exist in extreme and unpredictably changing environments, avoiding the risk that all may emerge at once under unsuitable conditions.

  7. Narrow and broad senses on salinity scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The narrow sense and applicable limit of Practical Salinity Scale 1978 (PSS78) and volumetric titration using silver nitrate to measure the salinity of non-conservative oceanwater are discussed.The salinity obtained by electrical conductivity method and chlorinity salinity method obviously deviates from the absolute salinity (SA). The Density Salinity Scale (DSS98) proposed by the writers can be extensively used in conservative and non-conservative water samples.The merits of the density salinity scale are as follows,(1) The Density Salinity Scale is only related to seawater mass and its buoyant effect, and is not influenced by the variation in seawater composition, and therefore, has high reliability, and repeatability for salinity determination.(2) The salinity values measured by the DSS98 have a conservative property. For oceanwater samples the salinity values are the same as those determined by the PSS78; for non-conservative water samples (e.g. samples from industrial sources), the salinity values are close to the absolute salinity values in comparison with those measured by the PSS78 and the Knudsen method.(3)For a solution with given solute mass, the solution concentration can be converted into the corresponding salinity by the Density Salinity Scale using the expansion coefficient of the solution and the calibration coefficient of the partial molar volume of the solute.

  8. Uptake and effects of microplastic textile fibers on freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec, Anita; Horvat, Petra; Kunej, Urban; Bele, Marjan; Kržan, Andrej

    2016-12-01

    Microplastic fibers (MP) from textile weathering and washing are increasingly being recognized as environmental pollutants. The majority of studies on the bioavailability and effects of microplastic focused on small polystyrene spherical plastic particles, while less data are available for fibers and for other materials besides polystyrene. We investigated the ingestion and effects of ground polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile microfibers (length range: 62-1400 μm, width 31-528 μm, thickness 1-21.5 μm) on the freshwater zooplankton crustacean Daphnia magna after a 48 h exposure and subsequent 24 h of recovery in MP free medium and algae. The majority of ingested fibers by D. magna were around 300 μm, but also some very large twisted MP fibers around 1400 μm were found inside the gut. Exposure to these fibers results in increased mortality of daphnids after 48 h only in the case where daphnids were not pre-fed with algae prior to experiment, but no effect was found when daphnids were fed before the experiments. Regardless of the feeding regime, daphnids were not able to recover from MP exposure after additional 24 h incubation period in a MP free medium with algae. The uptake and effects of PET textile MP on D. magna are presented here for the first time.

  9. Heading which way? Y-maze chemical assays: not all crustaceans are alike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenning, Matthes; Lehmann, Philipp; Lindström, Magnus; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-09-01

    In a world full of chemicals, many crustaceans rely on elaborate olfactory systems to guide behaviors related to finding food or to assess the presence of conspecifics and predators. We analyzed the responses of the isopod Saduria entomon to a range of stimuli by which the animal is likely to encounter in its natural habitat using a Y-maze bioassay. In order to document the efficiency of the experimental design, the same bioassay was used to test the behavior of the crayfish Procambarus fallax whose ability to track odors is well documented. The crayfish performed well in the Y-maze and were able to locate the source of a food-related odor with high fidelity. The isopod S. entomon reacted indifferently or with aversion to most of the stimuli applied. In 1800 trials, only four out of 15 different stimuli yielded statistically significant results, and only one odorant was found to be significantly attractive. The findings raise several questions whether the stimuli presented and/or the experimental setup used represents an ecologically relevant situation for S. entomon. In each instance, our experiments illustrate that established methods cannot be readily transferred from one species to another.

  10. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Jason E; Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay.

  11. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of crustacean proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Miranda, Jesus S.; Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; de-la-Re-Vega, Enrique; De la Mora, Eugenio; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Brieba, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, interacts specifically with DNA replication and repair proteins through a small peptide motif called the PCNA-interacting protein or PIP box. PCNA is recognized as one of the key proteins involved in DNA metabolism. In the present study, the recombinant PCNA from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPCNA) was heterologously overexpressed and purified using metal ion-affinity chromatography. Crystals suitable for diffraction grew overnight using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. LvPCNA crystals belong to space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 144.6, b = 83.4, c = 74.3 Å, β = 117.6°. One data set was processed to 3 Å resolution, with an overall R meas of 0.09 and a completeness of 93.3%. Initial phases were obtained by molecular replacement using a homology model of LvPCNA as the search model. Refinement and structural analysis are underway. This report is the first successful crystallographic analysis of a marine crustacean decapod shrimp (L. vannamei) proliferating cell nuclear antigen. PMID:23143251

  12. Light and vision in the deep-sea benthos: II. Vision in deep-sea crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke; Cronin, Thomas W

    2012-10-01

    Using new collecting techniques with the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible, eight species of deep-sea benthic crustaceans were collected with intact visual systems. Their spectral sensitivities and temporal resolutions were determined shipboard using electroretinography. Useable spectral sensitivity data were obtained from seven species, and in the dark-adapted eyes, the spectral sensitivity peaks were in the blue region of the visible spectrum, ranging from 470 to 497 nm. Under blue chromatic adaptation, a secondary sensitivity peak in the UV portion of the spectrum appeared for two species of anomuran crabs: Eumunida picta (λ(max)363 nm) and Gastroptychus spinifer (λ(max)383 nm). Wavelength-specific differences in response waveforms under blue chromatic adaptation in these two species suggest that two populations of photoreceptor cells are present. Temporal resolution was determined in all eight species using the maximum critical flicker frequency (CFF(max)). The CFF(max) for the isopod Booralana tricarinata of 4 Hz proved to be the lowest ever measured using this technique, and suggests that this species is not able to track even slow-moving prey. Both the putative dual visual pigment system in the crabs and the extremely slow eye of the isopod may be adaptations for seeing bioluminescence in the benthic environment.

  13. Decapod crustaceans from a marine tropical mangrove ecosystem on the Southern Western Atlantic, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurinete Oliveira Negromonte

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biodiversity, relative abundance and frequency of decapod crustaceans in the marine mangrove ecosystem at Gaibu Beach, Pernambuco State, Brazil. A total of eight samples were taken: four in the rainy season (August 2010 and four in the dry season (February 2011, during spring low tides and according to the phases of the moon. In all, 352 decapods were sampled. These specimens belonged to 17 species, 14 genera and 13 families. Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850, P. gracilis (Saussure, 1858, Panopeus americanus Saussure, 1857 and Uca (Leptuca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 were very frequent. The three latter species occurred in all samples. The most abundant species was P. americanus. The Shannon-Wiener index (H' showed that, in general, the diversity level was medium for all samples. However, the sample taken at the time of the new moon during the rainy season was classified as highly diverse. These results contribute to the knowledge of the decapod fauna inhabiting mangroves associated with fringe reefs.

  14. Proteomic investigation of male Gammarus fossarum, a freshwater crustacean, in response to endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Judith; Armengaud, Jean; Pible, Olivier; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Abbaci, Khedidja; Habtoul, Yassine; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier

    2015-01-02

    While the decrease in human sperm count in response to pollutants is a worldwide concern, little attention is being devoted to its causes and occurrence in the biodiversity of the animal kingdom. Arthropoda is the most species-rich phyla, inhabiting all aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. During evolution, key molecular players of the arthropod endocrine system have diverged from the vertebrate counterparts. Consequently, arthropods may have different sensitivities toward endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Here alteration of sperm quality in a crustacean, Gammarus fossarum, a popular organism in freshwater risk assessment, was investigated after laboratory exposure to various concentrations of three different xenobiotics: cadmium, methoxyfenozide, and pyriproxyfen. The integrity of the reproductive process was assessed by means of sperm-quality markers. For each substance, semiquantitative/relative proteomics based on spectral counting procedure was carried out on male gonads to observe the biological impact. The changes in a total of 871 proteins were monitored in response to toxic pressure. A drastic effect was observed on spermatozoon production, with a dose-response relationship. While exposure to EDCs leads to strong modulations of male-specific proteins in testis, no induction of female-specific proteins was noted. Also, a significant portion of orphans proved to be sensitive to toxic stress.

  15. Seaweed, fish and Crustaceans as bioindicators for {sup 99}Tc released to marine environment[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerpetjoen, A.; Oughton, D.; Skipperud, l. [Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    Along the Norwegian coast, {sup 99}Tc discharged from nuclear installations is found in seaweed, Crustaceans and fish. The activity concentrations of {sup 99}Tc in seaweed peaked around July 2002, giving a concentration ratio (CF) for the stems up to 121 m{sup 3}/Kg. The CF in different marine organisms differs between species, and within species; however, the CF is found to be highest for lobster, 4210 and 3755 m{sup 3}/Kg in the Irish Sea and 68 to 158 m{sup 3}/Kg along the Norwegian coast. {sup 99}Tc activity concentrations in Crabs from the Norwegian coast ranged from 0.12 to 0.61 Bq/kg giving CF's in Crab ranging from 0.24 to 1.22 m{sup 3}/Kg. Salmon filet collected from Norwegian fish farms showed CF levels ranging from 0.21 to 1.39 m{sup 3}/Kg, whereas Herring showed CF values of 0.08 and 0.16 m{sup 3}/Kg. Overall the data varies a lot, which is a problem when measuring natural organisms. Habitat, growth, and eating habits are among many different factors influencing the uptake of {sup 99}Tc. Further investigation on CF and how {sup 99}Tc are obtained by different species in the marine environment, and also different organs of the organisms, is needed. (au)

  16. Tellurium-speciation in seawater and accumulation by marine phytoplankton and crustaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, C.; Whitehead, N.; Teyssie, J.-L. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco-Ville (Monaco). Lab. of Marine Radioactivity)

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the speciation of tellurium (using {sup 129m}Te as a radiotracer) in seawater and the extent of its accumulation by cultures of marine phytoplankton and crustaceans. Tellurite Te(IV) added to distilled water and to sterile filtered seawater was gradually transformed to the tellurate Te(VI) form, whereas Te(IV) tracer added to phytoplankton cultures was almost instantaneously transformed to a neutral form. Accumulation of radiotracer by phytoplankton (Dunaliella tertiolecta and Thallassiosira pseudonana) was moderate and for Dunaliella was greater in static cultures than in those which were actively dividing. Equilibrium concentration factors of 20 and 8 were established respectively after up to seven days' exposure of the herbivorous brine shrimp (Artemia salina) to labelled seawater with and without added phytoplankton. The loss of radionuclide upon transfer to uncontaminated running seawater was extensive and complete after one day, indicating that no true assimilation occurred. Transfer of radioactivity from Artemia salina to a predator, the Monaco shrimp (Lysmata seticaudata), was not observed. (author).

  17. The functional relationship between ectodermal and mesodermal segmentation in the crustacean, Parhyale hawaiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Roberta L; Price, Alivia L; Patel, Nipam H

    2012-01-15

    In arthropods, annelids and chordates, segmentation of the body axis encompasses both ectodermal and mesodermal derivatives. In vertebrates, trunk mesoderm segments autonomously and induces segmental arrangement of the ectoderm-derived nervous system. In contrast, in the arthropod Drosophila melanogaster, the ectoderm segments autonomously and mesoderm segmentation is at least partially dependent on the ectoderm. While segmentation has been proposed to be a feature of the common ancestor of vertebrates and arthropods, considering vertebrates and Drosophila alone, it is impossible to conclude whether the ancestral primary segmented tissue was the ectoderm or the mesoderm. Furthermore, much of Drosophila segmentation occurs before gastrulation and thus may not accurately represent the mechanisms of segmentation in all arthropods. To better understand the relationship between segmented germ layers in arthropods, we asked whether segmentation is an intrinsic property of the ectoderm and/or the mesoderm in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis by ablating either the ectoderm or the mesoderm and then assaying for segmentation in the remaining tissue layer. We found that the ectoderm segments autonomously. However, mesoderm segmentation requires at least a permissive signal from the ectoderm. Although mesodermal stem cells undergo normal rounds of division in the absence of ectoderm, they do not migrate properly in respect to migration direction and distance. In addition, their progeny neither divide nor express the mesoderm segmentation markers Ph-twist and Ph-Even-skipped. As segmentation is ectoderm-dependent in both Parhyale and holometabola insects, we hypothesize that segmentation is primarily a property of the ectoderm in pancrustacea.

  18. Regulation of calcium currents and secretion by magnesium in crustacean peptidergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, J E; Sher, E; Keller, R; Haylett, B; Reichwein, B; Cooke, I M

    1995-12-01

    The effect of varying the external Mg2+ concentration on Ca2+ currents through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels has been examined with the patch-clamp technique in acutely isolated neuronal somata from the X-organ-sinus gland (XOSG) of the crab, Cardisoma carnifex. Neurons from this neurosecretory system were selected for morphology associated with crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) content. In parallel, the effects of Mg2+ concentration on K(+)-evoked secretion of CHH from isolated, intact XOSGs have been assayed by ELISA. At physiological Ca2+ levels the high-voltage-activated Ca2+ currents were attenuated with increasing Mg2+ concentration, with 50% inhibition at approximately 75 mM. Mg2+ block was voltage-dependent, relief from block occurring with increasing depolarization. Thus, in 24 mM Mg2+ inhibition of the Ca2+ current was approximately 55% at -10 mV. Secretion of CHH varied almost linearly with the log of Mg2+ concentration; in 2.4 mM Mg2+ it was double that in 24 mM Mg2+ and almost completely inhibited in 100 mM. Thus, Mg2+ produces a parallel inhibition of Ca2+ currents and CHH secretion and may play a role as a physiological modulator of neuronal activity and secretion in the XOSG of these crabs.

  19. Distribution of presumptive chemosensory afferents with FMRFamide- or substance P-like immunoreactivity in decapod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M

    1997-01-23

    In five species of decapod crustaceans--Cherax destructor (crayfish), Carcinus maenas (crab), Homarus americanus (clawed lobster), Eriocheir sinensis (crab), Macrobrachium rosenbergii (shrimp)--immunocytochemical stainings revealed the presence of sensory afferents with FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system. These afferents were extremely thin, very numerous, and innervated all sensory neuropils except the optic and olfactory lobes. In their target neuropils they gave rise to condensed net- or ball-like terminal structures. Only in Homarus americanus but not in any other studied species immunocytochemistry revealed a separate, non-overlapping class of sensory afferents with substance P-like immunoreactivity. Also the afferents with substance P-like immunoreactivity were very thin and numerous, innervated all sensory neuropils except optic and olfactory lobes, and gave rise to condensed terminal structures. From their morphological characteristics it can be concluded that likely both classes of afferents are chemosensory. The substance P-like immunoreactivity suggests a link with the nociceptor afferents of vertebrates, with which both classes of afferents share several other morphological features.

  20. Transforming nanostructured chitin from crustacean waste into beneficial health products: a must for our society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morganti P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available P Morganti1, G Morganti2, A Morganti3,41Department of Dermatology, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Centre of Nanoscience, Mavi Sud s.r.l, Aprilia, Italy; 3Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law, Munich, Germany; 4Lextray, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Chitin, obtained principally from crustacean waste, is a sugar-like polymer that is available at low cost. It has been shown to be bio- and ecocompatible, and has a very low level of toxicity. Recently, it has become possible to industrially produce pure chitin crystals, named "chitin nanofibrils" (CN for their needle-like shape and nanostructured average size (240 × 5 × 7 nm. Due to their specific chemical and physical characteristics, CN may have a range of industrial applications, from its use in biomedical products and biomimetic cosmetics, to biotextiles and health foods. At present, world offshore disposal of this natural waste material is around 250 billion tons per year. It is an underutilized resource and has the potential to supply a wide range of useful products if suitably recycled, thus contributing to sustainable growth and a greener economy.Keywords: chitin nanofibrils, biomimetic cosmetics, biomedical products, food, nanotechnology, waste

  1. Description of two new associated infaunal decapod crustaceans (Axianassidae and Alpheidae from the tropical eastern Pacific

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    Arthur Anker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of infaunal decapod crustaceans are described based on material collected in Bahía Málaga, Pacific coast of Colombia, in 2009. The mud-shrimp Axianassa darrylfelderi sp. nov. (Axianassidae appears to be most closely related to A. australis Rodrigues & Shimizu, 1992, A. canalis Kensley & Heard, 1990, and A. jamaicensis Kensley & Heard, 1990. The new species may be distinguished from each of them by a combination of morphological features, mainly on the uropodal exopod, antennal acicle, third maxilliped and first pleonite. The shrimp Leptalpheus canterakintzi sp. nov. (Alpheidae, associated with burrows of A. darrylfelderi sp. nov., undoubtedly represents the eastern Pacific sister species of the western Atlantic L. axianassae Dworschak & Coelho, 1999, which lives exclusively in burrows of A. australis. The two species are reliably distinguishable only by the proportions of the merus and propodus of the third pereiopod. Leptalpheus azuero Anker, 2011, previously known only from the Pacific coast of Panama, is reported for the first time from Bahía Málaga, Colombia.

  2. Beyond protection: Expanding "conservation opportunity" to redefine conservation planning in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Marjorie R; Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Vokoun, Jason C

    2016-12-01

    The protected lands estate increased dramatically during the 20th century and forms the backbone of current fisheries and wildlife conservation in North America. However, there is increasing evidence that modern conservation goals cannot be achieved by only focusing on adding new acreage, particularly with opportunistic protection. In the 21st century, flexibility and adaptability of conservation options can be accomplished by expanding the vocabulary of conservation planning beyond protection. We suggest a conceptual framework that considers suites of objectives to translate the broad goal of "conservation" into multiple implementation-specific objectives. These objectives form the "PCRM-PI" approach: protect, connect, restore, manage, partner, and inform. We use a case study to illustrate the limitations of protection-centric planning and how expanding the definition of conservation opportunity can help planners do more on the landscape. We suggest that the PCRM-PI approach with implementation-specific objectives is an effective way to bridge planning-implementation gaps and translate broad, landscape-level conservation goals into implementable actions.

  3. REVIEW: Citanduy river diversion, advantages and disadvantages plan to conserve mangrove ecosystem in Segara Anakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem at Segara Anakan lagoon, Cilacap having specific characteristics so that in developing this area should consider the conservation aspect. This area is the widest conserved-mangrove ecosystem at Java, and the place for breeding of many species of fish, crustacean and others. Thousand families of fisheries were supported both direct and indirectly from this ecosystem. However, along with the development activities in the watershed of Citanduy, Cimeneng/Cikonde and other rivers connected to the area has brought about the increase of sediment, and threaten the existence of the lagoon and surrounding mangrove ecosystem. Diversion of Citanduy river, dredging sediment, and reboisation of the watershed river was a preference of conserving the ecosystem, however, the diversion could be forming a new ecosystem, that actually threat the fisheries and tourism activities at Pangandaran, Ciamis.

  4. Recognition determinants of broadly neutralizing human antibodies against dengue viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinski, Alexander; Guardado-Calvo, Pablo; Barba-Spaeth, Giovanna; Duquerroy, Stéphane; Vaney, Marie-Christine; Kikuti, Carlos M; Navarro Sanchez, M Erika; Dejnirattisai, Wanwisa; Wongwiwat, Wiyada; Haouz, Ahmed; Girard-Blanc, Christine; Petres, Stéphane; Shepard, William E; Desprès, Philippe; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Dussart, Philippe; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Screaton, Gavin R; Rey, Félix A

    2015-04-02

    Dengue disease is caused by four different flavivirus serotypes, which infect 390 million people yearly with 25% symptomatic cases and for which no licensed vaccine is available. Recent phase III vaccine trials showed partial protection, and in particular no protection for dengue virus serotype 2 (refs 3, 4). Structural studies so far have characterized only epitopes recognized by serotype-specific human antibodies. We recently isolated human antibodies potently neutralizing all four dengue virus serotypes. Here we describe the X-ray structures of four of these broadly neutralizing antibodies in complex with the envelope glycoprotein E from dengue virus serotype 2, revealing that the recognition determinants are at a serotype-invariant site at the E-dimer interface, including the exposed main chain of the E fusion loop and the two conserved glycan chains. This 'E-dimer-dependent epitope' is also the binding site for the viral glycoprotein prM during virus maturation in the secretory pathway of the infected cell, explaining its conservation across serotypes and highlighting an Achilles' heel of the virus with respect to antibody neutralization. These findings will be instrumental for devising novel immunogens to protect simultaneously against all four serotypes of dengue virus.

  5. Teaching the Broad, Interdisciplinary Impact of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David; Atlas, Pierre; Haberski, Raymond; Higgs, Jamie; Kiley, Patrick; Maxwell, Michael, Jr.; Mirola, William; Norton, Jamey

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most encompassing idea in biology, evolution has impacted not only science, but other academic disciplines as well. The broad, interdisciplinary impact of evolution was the theme of a course taught at Marian College, Indianapolis, Indiana in 2002, 2004, and 2006. Using a strategy that could be readily adopted at other institutions,…

  6. The GREGOR Broad-Band Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Kentischer, T. J.; Geißler, R.

    2012-11-01

    The design and characteristics of the Broad-Band Imager (BBI) of GREGOR are described. BBI covers the visible spectral range with two cameras simultaneously for a large field and with critical sampling at 390 nm, and it includes a mode for observing the pupil in a Foucault configuration. Samples of first-light observations are shown.

  7. Detection and discovery of crustacean parasites in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by using 18S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troedsson, Christofer; Lee, Richard F; Walters, Tina; Stokes, Vivica; Brinkley, Karrie; Naegele, Verena; Frischer, Marc E

    2008-07-01

    Recently, we described a novel denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) approach useful for initial detection and identification of crustacean parasites. Because this approach utilizes general primers targeted to conserved regions of the 18S rRNA gene, a priori genetic sequence information on eukaryotic parasites is not required. This distinction provides a significant advantage over specifically targeted PCR assays that do not allow for the detection of unknown or unsuspected parasites. However, initial field evaluations of the DHPLC assay suggested that because of PCR-biased amplification of dominant host genes it was not possible to detect relatively rare parasite genes in infected crab tissue. Here, we describe the use of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) PCR hybridization blocking probe in association with DHPLC (PNA-PCR DHPLC) to overcome inherent PCR bias associated with amplification of rare target genes by use of generic primers. This approach was utilized to detect infection of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. Evaluation of 76 crabs caught in Wassaw Sound, GA, indicated a 97% correspondence between detection of the parasite by use of a specific PCR diagnostic assay and that by use of PNA-PCR DHPLC. During these studies, we discovered one crab with an association with a previously undescribed protist symbiont. Phylogenetic analysis of the amplified symbiont 18S rRNA gene indicated that it is most closely related to the free-living kinetoplastid parasite Procryptobia sorokini. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this parasite group in a decapod crab and of this organism exhibiting a presumably parasitic life history.

  8. Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for HIV Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kathryn E; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-02-01

    Passive transfer of antibodies has long been considered a potential treatment modality for infectious diseases, including HIV. Early efforts to use antibodies to suppress HIV replication, however, were largely unsuccessful, as the antibodies that were studied neutralized only a relatively narrow spectrum of viral strains and were not very potent. Recent advances have led to the discovery of a large portfolio of human monoclonal antibodies that are broadly neutralizing across many HIV-1 subtypes and are also substantially more potent. These antibodies target multiple different epitopes on the HIV envelope, thus allowing for the development of antibody combinations. In this review, we discuss the application of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for HIV treatment and HIV eradication strategies. We highlight bNAbs that target key epitopes, such as the CD4 binding site and the V2/V3-glycan-dependent sites, and we discuss several bNAbs that are currently in the clinical development pipeline.

  9. Multiple and broad frequency response Gunn diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, N. J.; Macpherson, R. F.; Khalid, A.; Dunn, G. M.; Cumming, D. R. S.

    2009-10-01

    Gunn diodes, operating in transit time mode, are usually thought of as incapable of generating power at multiple frequencies or over a broad frequency range. In this paper, we report experimental results showing that these diodes can generate power at several frequencies and, using Monte Carlo simulations of both planar and vertical devices, we offer an explanation of how this unusual behaviour may come into being and suggest possible applications for this novel device.

  10. Advances in recording scattered light changes in crustacean nerve with electrical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, K. M. (Kathleen M.); Rector, D. M. (David M.); Martinez, A. T. (Anne T.); Guerra, F. M. (Francisco M.); George, J. S. (John S.)

    2002-01-01

    We investigated optical changes associated with crustacean nerve stimulation using birefringent and large angle scattered light. Improved detection schemes disclosed high temporal structure of the optical signals and allowed further investigations of biophysical mechanisms responsible for such changes. Most studies of physiological activity in neuronal tissue use techniques that measure the electrical behavior or ionic permeability of the nerve, such as voltage or ion sensitive dyes injected into cells, or invasive electric recording apparatus. While these techniques provide high resolution, they are detrimental to tissue and do not easily lend themselves to clinical applications in humans. Electrical and chemical components of neural excitation evoke physical responses observed through changes in scattered and absorbed light. This method is suited for in-vivo applications. Intrinsic optical changes have shown themselves to be multifaceted in nature and point to several different physiological processes that occur with different time courses during neural excitation. Fast changes occur concomitantly with electrical events, and slow changes parallel metabolic events including changes in blood flow and oxygenation. Previous experiments with isolated crustacean nerves have been used to study the biophysical mechanisms of fast optical changes. However, they have been confounded by multiple superimposed action potentials which make it difficult to discriminate the temporal signatures of individual optical responses. Often many averages were needed to adequately resolve the signal. More recently, optical signals have been observed in single trials. Initially large angle scattering measurements were used to record these events with much of the signal coming from cellular swelling associated with water influx during activation. By exploiting the birefringent properties derived from the molecular stiucture of nerve membranes, signals appear larger with a greater contrast

  11. Heterodimeric TALENs induce targeted heritable mutations in the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitou, Akiko; Kato, Yasuhiko; Nakanishi, Takashi; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2015-02-13

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are artificial nucleases harboring a customizable DNA-binding domain and a FokI nuclease domain. The high specificity of the DNA-binding domain and the ease of design have enabled researchers to use TALENs for targeted mutagenesis in various organisms. Here, we report the development of TALEN-dependent targeted gene disruption in the crustacean Daphnia magna, the emerging model for ecological and toxicological genomics. First, a reporter transgene DsRed2 (EF1α-1::DsRed2) was targeted. Using the Golden Gate method with a GoldyTALEN scaffold, we constructed homodimeric and heterodimeric TALENs containing wild-type and ELD/KKR FokI domains. mRNAs that coded for either the customized homodimeric or heterodimeric TALENs were injected into one-cell-stage embryos. The high mortality of embryos injected with homodimeric TALEN mRNAs prevented us from detecting mutations. In contrast, embryos injected with heterodimeric TALEN mRNAs survived and 78%-87% of the adults lost DsRed2 fluorescence in a large portion of cells throughout the body. In addition, these adults produced non-fluorescent progenies, all of which carried mutations at the dsRed2 locus. We also tested heterodimeric TALENs targeted for the endogenous eyeless gene and found that biallelic mutations could be transmitted through germ line cells at a rate of up to 22%. Both somatic and heritable mutagenesis efficiencies of TALENs were higher than those of the CRISPR/Cas9 system that we recently developed. These results suggest that the TALEN system may efficiently induce heritable mutations into the target genes, which will further contribute to the progress of functional genomics in D. magna.

  12. Response of rotifer functional groups to changing trophic state and crustacean community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MANCA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Information based on taxon-based indices is species-specific while information gained from function-based research can give a comprehensive view of ecosystem processes. We applied the guild-ratio, an index based on the proportion of functional groups of rotifers (i.e. microphagous and raptorial species, on a long-term data set of Lago Maggiore. By applying seasonal trend decomposition based on smoothing techniques and non-metrical multidimensional scaling, we assessed the response of rotifer functional groups to changes in trophic state and climate. While the taxon-based indices showed smooth changes, the function-based index showed a dramatic shift from a raptorial to a microphagous dominance, with a back-shift to raptorial dominance starting in 2000. The seasonal peak of microphagous and raptorial dry weight was clearly separated in the pre-eutrophication period. When mesotrophic conditions prevailed both peaks overlapped, only to be separated again with re-oligotrophication. We attributed these alterations of rotifer functional groups to changes in competition with crustacean zooplankton and to decreased phytoplankton algal abundance and size while altered seasonality in functional groups could be related to inter-group competition for food. We hypothesise that the effects of trophic state (i.e. altered phytoplankton and climate (i.e. altered cladoceran community were transferred across trophic levels to rotifer functional groups. Our study highlights that functional groups are valid instruments for illustrating unifying principles in ecology through a better understanding of ecosystem processes and the interrelationship between trophic levels.

  13. Circadian modulation of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in crayfish eyestalk and retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul-Moles, Maria Luisa; Escamilla-Chimal, Elsa Guadalupe; Salceda, Rocio; Giulianini, Piero G; Sánchez-Chávez, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies suggested the retina could be a putative locus of daily crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) secretion, as it possesses its own metabolic machinery and is independent of the well-known CHH eyestalk locus responsible for the circadian secretion of this peptide. However, it has been proposed that hemolymph glucose and lactate concentrations play a dual role in the regulation of CHH in crayfish. To elucidate the temporal relationship between these two different CHH production loci and to examine their relationship with glucose regulation, we investigated the expression of CHH daily and circadian rhythms in the eyestalk and retina of crayfish using biochemical methods and time series analysis. We wanted to determine whether (1) putative retina and eyestalk CHH rhythmic expressions are correlated and if the oscillations of the two metabolic products of lactate and glucose in the blood due to CHH action on the target tissue correlate, and (2) retina CHH (RCHH) and the possible retinal substrate glycogen and its product glucose are temporally correlated. We found a negative correlation between daily and circadian changes of relative CHH abundance in the retina and eyestalk. This correlation and the cross-correlation values found between eyestalk CHH and hemolymph and glucose confirm that CHH produced by the X-organ sinus gland complex is under the previously proposed dual feedback control system over the 24 h time period. However, the presence of both glycogen and glucose in the retina, the cross-correlation values found between these parameters and hemolymph lactate and glucose, as well as RCHH and hemolymph and retina metabolic markers suggest RCHH is not under the same temporal metabolic control as eyestalk CHH. Nonetheless, their expression may be linked to common rhythms-generating processes.

  14. Exoskeleton anchoring to tendon cells and muscles in molting isopod crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Žnidaršič

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Specialized mechanical connection between exoskeleton and underlying muscles in arthropods is a complex network of interconnected matrix constituents, junctions and associated cytoskeletal elements, which provides prominent mechanical attachment of the epidermis to the cuticle and transmits muscle tensions to the exoskeleton. This linkage involves anchoring of the complex extracellular matrix composing the cuticle to the apical membrane of tendon cells and linking of tendon cells to muscles basally. The ultrastructural arhitecture of these attachment complexes during molting is an important issue in relation to integument integrity maintenance in the course of cuticle replacement and in relation to movement ability. The aim of this work was to determine the ultrastructural organization of exoskeleton – muscles attachment complexes in the molting terrestrial isopod crustaceans, in the stage when integumental epithelium is covered by both, the newly forming cuticle and the old detached cuticle. We show that the old exoskeleton is extensively mechanically connected to the underlying epithelium in the regions of muscle attachment sites by massive arrays of fibers in adult premolt Ligia italica and in prehatching embryos and premolt marsupial mancas of Porcellio scaber. Fibers expand from the tendon cells, traverse the new cuticle and ecdysal space and protrude into the distal layers of the detached cuticle. They likely serve as final anchoring sites before exuviation and may be involved in animal movements in this stage. Tendon cells in the prehatching embryo and in marsupial mancas display a substantial apicobasally oriented transcellular arrays of microtubules, evidently engaged in myotendinous junctions and in apical anchoring of the cuticular matrix. The structural framework of musculoskeletal linkage is basically established in described intramarsupial developmental stages, suggesting its involvement in animal motility within the marsupium.

  15. Simultaneous Sampling of Flow and Odorants by Crustaceans can Aid Searches within a Turbulent Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Pravin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters and crayfish use dispersing odorant molecules to determine the location of predators, prey, potential mates and habitat. Odorant molecules diffuse in turbulent flows and are sensed by the olfactory organs of these animals, often using a flicking motion of their antennules. These antennules contain both chemosensory and mechanosensory sensilla, which enable them to detect both flow and odorants during a flick. To determine how simultaneous flow and odorant sampling can aid in search behavior, a 3-dimensional numerical model for the near-bed flow environment was created. A stream of odorant concentration was released into the flow creating a turbulent plume, and both temporally and spatially fluctuating velocity and odorant concentration were quantified. The plume characteristics show close resemblance to experimental measurements within a large laboratory flume. Results show that mean odorant concentration and it’s intermittency, computed as dc/dt, increase towards the plume source, but the temporal and spatial rate of this increase is slow and suggests that long measurement times would be necessary to be useful for chemosensory guidance. Odorant fluxes measured transverse to the mean flow direction, quantified as the product of the instantaneous fluctuation in concentration and velocity, v’c’, do show statistically distinct magnitude and directional information on either side of a plume centerline over integration times of <0.5 s. Aquatic animals typically have neural responses to odorant and velocity fields at rates between 50 and 500 ms, suggesting this simultaneous sampling of both flow and concentration in a turbulent plume can aid in source tracking on timescales relevant to aquatic animals.

  16. Heterodimeric TALENs induce targeted heritable mutations in the crustacean Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Naitou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs are artificial nucleases harboring a customizable DNA-binding domain and a FokI nuclease domain. The high specificity of the DNA-binding domain and the ease of design have enabled researchers to use TALENs for targeted mutagenesis in various organisms. Here, we report the development of TALEN-dependent targeted gene disruption in the crustacean Daphnia magna, the emerging model for ecological and toxicological genomics. First, a reporter transgene DsRed2 (EF1α-1::DsRed2 was targeted. Using the Golden Gate method with a GoldyTALEN scaffold, we constructed homodimeric and heterodimeric TALENs containing wild-type and ELD/KKR FokI domains. mRNAs that coded for either the customized homodimeric or heterodimeric TALENs were injected into one-cell-stage embryos. The high mortality of embryos injected with homodimeric TALEN mRNAs prevented us from detecting mutations. In contrast, embryos injected with heterodimeric TALEN mRNAs survived and 78%–87% of the adults lost DsRed2 fluorescence in a large portion of cells throughout the body. In addition, these adults produced non-fluorescent progenies, all of which carried mutations at the dsRed2 locus. We also tested heterodimeric TALENs targeted for the endogenous eyeless gene and found that biallelic mutations could be transmitted through germ line cells at a rate of up to 22%. Both somatic and heritable mutagenesis efficiencies of TALENs were higher than those of the CRISPR/Cas9 system that we recently developed. These results suggest that the TALEN system may efficiently induce heritable mutations into the target genes, which will further contribute to the progress of functional genomics in D. magna.

  17. Comparative phylogeography of two marine species of crustacean: Recent divergence and expansion due to environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daizhen; Ding, Ge; Ge, Baoming; Zhang, Huabin; Tang, Boping; Yang, Guang

    2014-10-15

    Environmental changes, such as changes in the coastal topography due to Eurasian plate movements, climate oscillation during the Pleistocene, and alteration of ocean currents, have complicated the geographical structure of marine species and deepened their divergence between populations. As two widely distributed species of crustacean (Oratosquilla oratoria and Eriocheir japonica), weak differences were expected due to their high dispersal potential of planktonic larvae with ocean currents. However, results showed a significant genetic divergence between north of China and south of China in the study. In addition, the estimated north-south divergence time (27-30.5 Myr) of mantis shrimp was near the time of the Himalayan movement, and the China-Japan clade divergence time (10.5-11.9 Myr) of mitten crabs was also coincident with the time of the opening of the Sea of Japan. Thus, we hypothesized that environmental changes in the coastal topography contributed to the marine species divergence. Furthermore, based on phylogenetic analysis, network analysis and haplotype distribution, we surmised that mitten crabs originated from a population with the oldest haplotype (H6) and then divided into the north and south populations due to the recent Eurasian plate movements and ocean currents. And lineage of Japan originated from the north population for the opening of the Sea of Japan. While O. oratoria was guessed to originate from two separate populations in the China Sea. The results of "star-like" network, negative values in neutral test, and Tajima's D statistics of two marine species supported a recent rapid population expansion event after the Pleistocene glaciations.

  18. Abundance and diversity of amphipod crustaceans in the Upper Songkhla Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruensirikul, J.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A bimonthly investigation of amphipod crustaceans in the Upper Songkhla Lagoon from April 2003 to February 2004 was undertaken to determine the abundance and species richness. The mean density of amphipods among stations ranged from 233 to 4937 ind.m-2, while the monthly densities ranged from 600 to 3620 ind.m-2. A total 10 families, 14 genera and 16 species were identified. The diversity among stationsranged from 2-12 species while varying from 8-15 species during the different months. Kamaka cf. taditadi is the most dominant amphipod with 89.2% of total (max. 16486 ind.m-2 in December. It distributed widely and in every sampling month. Photis longicaudata (36-338 ind.m-2 Grandidierella taihuensis (28-65 ind.m-2 Cerapus sp. (3-95 ind.m-2 and Perioculodes cf. acuticoxa (19-54 ind.m-2 distributed widely in all months but with lower densities. The other 11 species were occasionally found and had narrow distribution with low densities (< 20 ind.m-2. The density and diversity of amphipods were higher at the shallower stations nearby the bank (mean depth 1.1 m. than at the deeper stations in the middle area (mean depth 2.5 m.. The species richness among seasons was not different but the density tended to increase in the rainy season in December and markedly decrease in the post-rainy season in February. The best fitting of the environmental variables to explain the amphipod community pattern of the Upper Songkhla Lagoon for 6 months was a 4-variable combination of pH, salinity, %sand and %organic carbon and a 3-variable combination of depth, DO and %sand for 11 stations (harmonic rank correlation coefficient, ρw = 0.56 and 0.51 respectively.

  19. Change in Species Diversity during Recovering Process of Evergreen Broad-leaved Fo rest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenYuanguang; LiuShirong; ChenFang; HeTatping; LiangHongwen

    2005-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is one of the most important vegetation types in China. Because of the human activities, evergreen broad-leaved forest has been destroyed extensively, leading to degraded ecosystem. It is urgent to conserve and restore these natural forests in China.tn this paper, the tendency and rate of species diversity restoration of the evergreen broad-lea ved forest in Darning Mountain has been studied. The main results are as follows:(a) in subtropical mid-mountain area, species diversity in degraded evergreen broad-leaved forest can be restored. Through analyzing b diversity index of communities in different time and space, it was found that the species composition of communities tend to be the same as that in the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. (b) The restoration rate of evergreen broad-leaved forest was very fast. Planting Chinese fir after clear-cutting and controlled burning of the forest 178 species appeared in a 60Om2, sample area after 20 years"" natural recovering. Among these species, 58 were tree layer and the height of community reached 18m, The survey suggested that it would take only 20 years for the degraded forest to develop into community composed of light demanding broad-leaved pioneer trees and rain-tolerance broad-leaved trees, and it need another 40-80 years to reach the stage consisting of min-tulerance evergreen broad-leaved trees, (c) Species number increased quickly at the early stage (2-20 years) during vegetation recovering process toward the climax, and decreased at the min-stage (50-60 years ), then maintained a relatively stable level at the late-stage (over 150 years).

  20. Meeting global conservation challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Hot on the heels of last year's Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement, representatives from the global conservation community met to set the conservation agenda that will help to implement these targets.

  1. Conservation: Threatened by Luxury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas J

    2016-06-20

    When animals are traded in lucrative international luxury markets, individuals really do matter to conservation. Identifying the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that make some species especially vulnerable to this kind of threat helps set guidelines for more effective conservation.

  2. Conservation Action Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  3. To Broad-Match or Not to Broad-Match : An Auctioneer's Dilemma ?

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2008-01-01

    We initiate the study of an interesting aspect of sponsored search advertising, namely the consequences of broad match-a feature where an ad of an advertiser can be mapped to a broader range of relevant queries, and not necessarily to the particular keyword(s) that ad is associated with. Starting with a very natural setting for strategies available to the advertisers, and via a careful look through algorithmic and complexity theoretic glasses, we first propose a solution concept called broad match equilibrium(BME) for the game originating from the strategic behavior of advertisers as they try to optimize their budget allocation across various keywords. Next, we consider two broad match scenarios based on factors such as information asymmetry between advertisers and the auctioneer, and the extent of auctioneer's control on the budget splitting. In the first scenario, the advertisers have the full information about broad match and relevant parameters, and can reapportion their own budgets to utilize the extra i...

  4. Waterfowl populations of conservation concern: learning from diverse challenges, models, and conservation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; Slattery, Stuart; Clark, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    There are 30 threatened or endangered species of waterfowl worldwide, and several sub-populations are also threatened. Some of these species occur in North America, and others there are also of conservation concern due to declining population trends and their importance to hunters. Here we review conservation initiatives being undertaken for several of these latter species, along with conservation measures in place in Europe, to seek common themes and approaches that could be useful in developing broad conservation guidelines. While focal species may vary in their life histories, population threats and geopolitical context, most conservation efforts have used a systematic approach to understand factors limiting populations and o identify possible management or policy actions. This approach generally includes a priori identification of plausible hypotheses about population declines or status, incorporation of hypotheses into conceptual or quantitative planning models, and the use of some form of structured decision making and adaptive management to develop and implement conservation actions in the face of many uncertainties. A climate of collaboration among jurisdictions sharing these birds is important to the success of a conservation or management programme. The structured conservation approach exemplified herein provides an opportunity to involve stakeholders at all planning stages, allows for all views to be examined and incorporated into model structures, and yields a format for improved communication, cooperation and learning, which may ultimately be one of the greatest benefits of this strategy.

  5. Trace metal contamination in commercial fish and crustaceans collected from coastal area of Bangladesh and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Tokumura, Masahiro; Sekine, Makoto; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-09-01

    Trace metals contamination in commercial fish and crustaceans have become a great problem in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to determine seven trace metals concentration (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) in some commercial fishes and crustaceans collected from coastal areas of Bangladesh. Trace metals in fish samples were in the range of Cr (0.15 - 2.2), Ni (0.1 - 0.56), Cu (1.3 - 1.4), Zn (31 - 138), As (0.76 - 13), Cd (0.033 - 0.075), and Pb (0.07 - 0.63 mg/kg wet weight (ww)), respectively. Arsenic (13 mg/kg ww) and Zn (138 mg/kg ww) concentrations were remarkably high in fish of Cox's Bazar due to the interference of uncontrolled huge hatcheries and industrial activities. The elevated concentrations of Cu (400), Zn (1480), and As (53 mg/kg ww) were also observed in crabs of Cox's Bazar which was considered as an absolutely discrepant aquatic species with totally different bioaccumulation pattern. Some metals in fish and crustaceans exceeded the international quality guidelines. Estimated daily intake (EDI) and target cancer risk (TR) revealed high dietary intake of As and Pb, which was obviously a matter of severe public health issue of Bangladeshi coastal people which should not be ignored and concentrate our views to solve this problem with an integrated approaches. Thus, continuous monitoring of these toxic trace elements in seafood and immediate control measure is recommended.

  6. Susceptibility to infection and pathogenicity of White Spot Disease (WSD) in non-model crustacean host taxa from temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, K S; Tew, I; French, C; Hicks, R J; Martin, P; Munro, J; Stentiford, G D

    2012-07-01

    Despite almost two decades since its discovery, White Spot Disease (WSD) caused by White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still considered the most significant known pathogen impacting the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in tropical regions, the virus is also able to infect, cause disease and kill a wide range of other decapod crustacean hosts from temperate regions, including lobsters, crabs, crayfish and shrimp. For this reason, WSSV has recently been listed in European Community Council Directive 2006/88. Using principles laid down by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) we applied an array of diagnostic approaches to provide a definitive statement on the susceptibility to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection in seven ecologically or economically important crustacean species from Europe. We chose four marine species: Cancer pagurus, Homarus gammarus, Nephrops norvegicus and Carcinus maenas; one estuarine species, Eriocheir sinensis and two freshwater species, Austropotamobius pallipes and Pacifastacus leniusculus. Exposure trials based upon natural (feeding) and artificial (intra-muscular injection) routes of exposure to WSSV revealed universal susceptibility to WSSV infection in these hosts. However, the relative degree of susceptibility (measured by progression of infection to disease, and mortality) varied significantly between host species. In some instances (Type 1 hosts), pathogenesis mimicked that observed in penaeid shrimp hosts whereas in other examples (Types 2 and 3 hosts), infection did not readily progress to disease, even though hosts were considered as infected and susceptible according to accepted principles. Results arising from challenge studies are discussed in relation to the potential risk posed to non-target hosts by the inadvertent introduction of WSSV to European waters via trade. Furthermore, we highlight the potential for

  7. Exactly conservation integrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Traditional explicit numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically predict artificial secular drifts of any nonlinear invariants. In this work the authors present a general approach for developing explicit nontraditional algorithms that conserve such invariants exactly. They illustrate the method by applying it to the three-wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. The ideas are discussed in the context of symplectic (phase-space-conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. They comment on the application of the method to general conservative systems.

  8. Exactly conservative integrators

    CERN Document Server

    Shadwick, B A; Morrison, P J; Bowman, John C

    1995-01-01

    Traditional numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically yield an artificial secular drift of any nonlinear invariants. In this work we present an explicit nontraditional algorithm that exactly conserves these invariants. We illustrate the general method by applying it to the three-wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Lotka--Volterra predator--prey model, and the Kepler problem. This method is discussed in the context of symplectic (phase space conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. We comment on the application of our method to general conservative systems.

  9. Exactly conservative integrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

    1995-07-19

    Traditional numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically yield an artificial secular drift of any nonlinear invariants. In this work we present an explicit nontraditional algorithm that exactly conserves invariants. We illustrate the general method by applying it to the Three-Wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Volterra-Lotka predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. We discuss our method in the context of symplectic (phase space conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. We comment on the application of our method to general conservative systems.

  10. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M;

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use......-regulation of 745 genes (p pineal glands of wild......-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx-/- pineal gland. However, in the Crx-/- pineal gland 41 genes exhibited differential night/day expression that was not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also...

  11. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  12. Nucleotide sequence of a crustacean 18S ribosomal RNA gene and secondary structure of eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelles, L; Fang, B L; Volckaert, G; Vandenberghe, A; De Wachter, R

    1984-12-11

    The primary structure of the gene for 18 S rRNA of the crustacean Artemia salina was determined. The sequence has been aligned with 13 other small ribosomal subunit RNA sequences of eukaryotic, archaebacterial, eubacterial, chloroplastic and plant mitochondrial origin. Secondary structure models for these RNAs were derived on the basis of previously proposed models and additional comparative evidence found in the alignment. Although there is a general similarity in the secondary structure models for eukaryotes and prokaryotes, the evidence seems to indicate a different topology in a central area of the structures.

  13. A new chytridiomycete fungus intermixed with crustacean resting eggs in a 407-million-year-old continental freshwater environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strullu-Derrien, Christine; Gora, Tomasz; Longcore, Joyce E.;

    2016-01-01

    critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures...... interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov) is attributed to Chytridiomycota based...

  14. FRESHWATER FISH AND DECAPOD CRUSTACEAN POPULATIONS ON RÉUNION ISLAND, WITH AN ASSESSMENT OF SPECIES INTRODUCTIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEITH P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Streams of Réunion Island shelter with 26 fish species and 11 decapod crustacean species. Some species have been introduced (18%, some other are endemic to the island or to the Madagascar-Mascarenes region (16.2%, are originated from Indo-Pacific area (35.2% or from Indo-African area (27%. Gobiidae and Palaemonidae are the prevailing family in freshwaters, with the highest number of species. 16 species were introduced, mainly fishes, beginning at the turn of the 19th century, but only 4 of those have become acclimatised, while 7 have disappeared and the status of the other is uncertain.

  15. Development and validation of a lateral flow assay for the detection of crustacean protein in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Daisuke; Shirota, Kazuya; Akita, Ryoko; Oda, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    We developed and validated a novel lateral flow assay for the detection of crustacean protein in processed foods. This assay had high sensitivity; the visual detection limit for shrimp protein extract was 25μg/L, equivalent to 1μg/g protein in a food sample, and results could be obtained within 20min without sophisticated procedures or expensive equipment. Concordance between our assay and another validated quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 97% for commercially processed foods. This assay is rapid, simple, reliable, and highly correlated with validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and is thus suitable for monitoring of food products, especially in food-processing facilities.

  16. BIODIVERSITY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS (DECAPODA: NATANTIA FROM VANUATU, A COMPARISON WITH FIJI AND NEW CALEDONIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARQUET G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first comprehensive study of freshwater decapoda crustaceans from Vanuatu. Of the nineteen species collected during this study, eighteen appear to be new records for the archipelago. However none of these species is endemic to Vanuatu, nine having a Pacific distribution and ten an Indo-Pacific distribution. Half of the species recorded were widely distributed in Vanuatu, whereas the others were more restricted. A comparison is made with the freshwater decapoda fauna of the two neighbouring archipelagoes namely, those of Fiji and New Caledonia, which have already been thoroughly surveyed.

  17. Fixism and conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2016-12-10

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles.

  18. Integrating technologies for scalable ecology and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Marvin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Integration of multiple technologies greatly increases the spatial and temporal scales over which ecological patterns and processes can be studied, and threats to protected ecosystems can be identified and mitigated. A range of technology options relevant to ecologists and conservation practitioners are described, including ways they can be linked to increase the dimensionality of data collection efforts. Remote sensing, ground-based, and data fusion technologies are broadly discussed in the context of ecological research and conservation efforts. Examples of technology integration across all of these domains are provided for large-scale protected area management and investigation of ecological dynamics. Most technologies are low-cost or open-source, and when deployed can reach economies of scale that reduce per-area costs dramatically. The large-scale, long-term data collection efforts presented here can generate new spatio-temporal understanding of threats faced by natural ecosystems and endangered species, leading to more effective conservation strategies.

  19. XMM-Newton and Broad Iron Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C

    2007-01-01

    Iron line emission is common in the X-ray spectra of accreting black holes. When the line emission is broad or variable then it is likely to originate from close to the black hole. X-ray irradiation of the accretion flow by the power-law X-ray continuum produces the X-ray 'reflection' spectrum which includes the iron line. The shape and variability of the iron lines and reflection can be used as a diagnostic of the radius, velocity and nature of the flow. The inner radius of the dense flow corresponds to the innermost stable circular orbit and thus can be used to determine the spin of the black hole. Studies of broad iron lines and reflection spectra offer much promise for understanding how the inner parts of accretion flows (and outflows) around black holes operate. There remains great potential for XMM-Newton to continue to make significant progress in this work. The need for high quality spectra and thus for long exposure times is paramount.

  20. Occurrence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in crustacean shellfishes in coastal parts of Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parthasarathy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The objective of the study was to isolate and characterize pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from crustacean shellfishes (crab and shrimp commonly retailed in coastal parts of eastern India. Materials and Methods: Samples were processed by bacteriological isolation followed by biochemical characterization in Kaper’s medium. Presumptively identified isolates were confirmed by species-specific Vp-toxR polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. Virulence and pandemic property of the confirmed V. parahaemolyticus isolates were determined by specific PCR assays. Results: On screening of 167 samples comprising crabs (n=82 and shrimps (n=85 by the standard bacteriological cultural method, V. parahaemolyticus was presumptively identified in 86.6% (71/82 and 82.3% (70/85 of respective samples. Of these, 46 (56% and 66 (77.6% isolates from crab and shrimp, respectively, were confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus by biochemical characterization (Kaper’s reaction followed by specific Vp-toxR PCR assay. About 10 isolates each from crab and shrimp was found to carry the virulence gene (tdh. It denotes that 12.2% of crab and 11.7% of shrimp in the study area are harboring the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. Such tdh+ isolates (n=20 were subjected for screening of pandemic genotype by pandemic group specific (PGS - PCR (PGS-PCR and GS-PCR (toxRS gene where 11 (6.5% isolates revealed the pandemic determining amplicon (235 bp in PGS-PCR and belonged to crab (7.3% and shrimp (6% samples; however, 2 (2.4% isolates were positive in GS-PCR and belonged to crab samples only. These two GS-PCR+ isolates from crab were also positive in PGS-PCR. Conclusion: The findings of the study conclusively indicated that a considerable percentage of crab and shrimp in these areas were harboring pathogenic and pandemic V. parahaemolyticus posing a public health risk in consumption of improperly processed such shellfishes. Cross contamination of other marine and fresh water

  1. Occurrence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in crustacean shellfishes in coastal parts of Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, S.; Das, Suresh Chandra; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the study was to isolate and characterize pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from crustacean shellfishes (crab and shrimp) commonly retailed in coastal parts of eastern India. Materials and Methods: Samples were processed by bacteriological isolation followed by biochemical characterization in Kaper’s medium. Presumptively identified isolates were confirmed by species-specific Vp-toxR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Virulence and pandemic property of the confirmed V. parahaemolyticus isolates were determined by specific PCR assays. Results: On screening of 167 samples comprising crabs (n=82) and shrimps (n=85) by the standard bacteriological cultural method, V. parahaemolyticus was presumptively identified in 86.6% (71/82) and 82.3% (70/85) of respective samples. Of these, 46 (56%) and 66 (77.6%) isolates from crab and shrimp, respectively, were confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus by biochemical characterization (Kaper’s reaction) followed by specific Vp-toxR PCR assay. About 10 isolates each from crab and shrimp was found to carry the virulence gene (tdh). It denotes that 12.2% of crab and 11.7% of shrimp in the study area are harboring the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. Such tdh+ isolates (n=20) were subjected for screening of pandemic genotype by pandemic group specific (PGS) - PCR (PGS-PCR) and GS-PCR (toxRS gene) where 11 (6.5%) isolates revealed the pandemic determining amplicon (235 bp) in PGS-PCR and belonged to crab (7.3%) and shrimp (6%) samples; however, 2 (2.4%) isolates were positive in GS-PCR and belonged to crab samples only. These two GS-PCR+ isolates from crab were also positive in PGS-PCR. Conclusion: The findings of the study conclusively indicated that a considerable percentage of crab and shrimp in these areas were harboring pathogenic and pandemic V. parahaemolyticus posing a public health risk in consumption of improperly processed such shellfishes. Cross contamination of other marine and fresh water market

  2. Comparative cation dependency of sugar transport by crustacean hepatopancreas and intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Duka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is transported in crustacean hepatopancreas and intestine by Na+-dependent co-transport, while Na+-dependent D-fructose influx has only been described for the hepatopancreas. It is still unclear if the two sugars are independently transported by two distinct cation-dependent co-transporter carrier systems. In this study, lobster (Homarus americanus hepatopancreas brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV were used to characterize, in detail, the cation-dependency of both D-[3H]-glucose and D-[3H]-fructose influxes, while in vitro perfused intestines were employed to determine the nature of cation-dependent sugar transport across this organ. Over the sodium concentration range of 0–100 mM, both [3H]-glucose and [3H]-fructose influxes (0.1 mM; 1 min uptakes by hepatopancreatic BBMV were hyperbolic functions of [Na+]. [3H]-glucose and [3H]-fructose influxes by hepatopancreatic BBMV over a potassium concentration range of 15–100 mM were hyperbolic functions of [K+]. Both sugars displayed significant (p<0.01 Na+/K+-dependent and cation-independent uptake processes. Transepithelial 25 µM [3H]-glucose and [3H]-fructose fluxes across lobster intestine over luminal sodium and potassium concentration ranges of 0–50 mM and 5–100 mM, respectively, were hyperbolic functions of luminal [Na+] and [K+]. As with hepatopancreatic sugar transport, transepithelial intestinal sugar transport exhibited both significant (p<0.01 Na+/K+-dependent and cation-independent processes. Results suggest that both D-glucose and D-fructose are transported by a single SGLT-type carrier in each organ with sodium being the “preferred”, high affinity, cation for both sugars in the hepatopancreas, and potassium being the “preferred”, high affinity, cation for both sugars in the intestine.

  3. Broadly neutralizing epitopes in the Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate Duffy Binding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edwin; Salinas, Nichole D; Huang, Yining; Ntumngia, Francis; Plasencia, Manolo D; Gross, Michael L; Adams, John H; Tolia, Niraj Harish

    2016-05-31

    Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) is the most promising vaccine candidate for P. vivax malaria. The polymorphic nature of PvDBP induces strain-specific immune responses, however, and the epitopes of broadly neutralizing antibodies are unknown. These features hamper the rational design of potent DBP-based vaccines and necessitate the identification of globally conserved epitopes. Using X-ray crystallography, small-angle X-ray scattering, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and mutational mapping, we have defined epitopes for three inhibitory mAbs (mAbs 2D10, 2H2, and 2C6) and one noninhibitory mAb (3D10) that engage DBP. These studies expand the currently known inhibitory epitope repertoire by establishing protective motifs in subdomain three outside the receptor-binding and dimerization residues of DBP, and introduce globally conserved protective targets. All of the epitopes are highly conserved among DBP alleles. The identification of broadly conserved epitopes of inhibitory antibodies provides critical motifs that should be retained in the next generation of potent vaccines for P. vivax malaria.

  4. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.23 Conservation plans and conservation systems. (a) Use...

  5. Spatial distribution of calcite and amorphous calcium carbonate in the cuticle of the terrestrial crustaceans Porcellio scaber and Armadillidium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Sabine; Marti, Othmar; Ziegler, Andreas

    2008-07-01

    The crustacean cuticle is an interesting model to study the properties of mineralized bio-composites. The cuticle consists of an organic matrix composed of chitin-protein fibres associated with various amounts of crystalline and amorphous calcium carbonate. It is thought that in isopods the relative amounts of these mineral polymorphs depend on its function and the habitat of the animal. In addition to the composition, the distribution of the various components should affect the properties of the cuticle. However, the spatial distribution of calcium carbonate polymorphs within the crustacean cuticle is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the mineralized cuticles of the terrestrial isopods Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellio scaber using scanning electron-microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and confocal mu-Raman spectroscopic imaging. We show for the first time that the mineral phases are arranged in distinct layers. Calcite is restricted to the outer layer of the cuticle that corresponds to the exocuticle. Amorphous calcium carbonate is located within the endocuticle that lies below the exocuticle. Within both layers mineral is arranged in rows of granules with diameters of about 20 nm. The results suggest functional implications of mineral distribution that accord to the moulting and escape behaviour of the animals.

  6. The early life history of tissue oxygenation in crustaceans: the strategy of the myodocopid ostracod Cylindroleberis mariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Laure; Carbonel, Pierre; Massabuau, Jean-Charles

    2005-02-01

    We studied basic principles of respiratory physiology in Cylindroleberididae, Cylindroleberis mariae Baird 1850, which are millimetre-sized crustaceans (myodocop ostracod) having a fossil record dating back to about 425 millions years ago. Facing experimental changes of O2 partial pressures in the range 2-40 kPa (normoxia is 21 kPa), C. mariae lack any regulatory mechanism to adapt their ventilatory and circulatory activity. Thus, the oxygenation status of their internal milieu must follow, as a dependent variable, the ambient oxygenation. Freely behaving C. mariae exhibit a marked diurnal activity rhythm. They are actively swimming in the water column during night, where they inspire in normoxic-normocapnic water. They are resting in self-made nests during daytime, where they are rebreathing in a confined and hypoxic environment. By analogy to extensive previous literature data, we suggest that these changes of respiratory gas content, and the associated tissue gas status, participate to the shaping of their metabolic activity and behaviour. To conclude, as Cylindroleberididae are early crustaceans exhibiting a remarkable stasis since the Palaeozoic, present data illustrates how principles of tissue oxygenation strategy can cover an impressive time scale.

  7. Experimental whole-lake increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration produces unexpected increase in crustacean zooplankton density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick T.; Craig, Nicola; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.; Zwart, Jacob A.; Jones, Stuart E.

    2016-01-01

    The observed pattern of lake browning, or increased terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, across the northern hemisphere has amplified the importance of understanding how consumer productivity varies with DOC concentration. Results from comparative studies suggest these increased DOC concentrations may reduce crustacean zooplankton productivity due to reductions in resource quality and volume of suitable habitat. Although these spatial comparisons provide an expectation for the response of zooplankton productivity as DOC concentration increases, we still have an incomplete understanding of how zooplankton respond to temporal increases in DOC concentration within a single system. As such, we used a whole-lake manipulation, in which DOC concentration was increased from 8 to 11 mg L−1 in one basin of a manipulated lake, to test the hypothesis that crustacean zooplankton production should subsequently decrease. In contrast to the spatially derived expectation of sharp DOC-mediated decline, we observed a small increase in zooplankton densities in response to our experimental increase in DOC concentration of the treatment basin. This was due to significant increases in gross primary production and resource quality (lower seston carbon-to-phosphorus ratio; C:P). These results demonstrate that temporal changes in lake characteristics due to increased DOC may impact zooplankton in ways that differ from those observed in spatial surveys. We also identified significant interannual variability across our study region, which highlights potential difficulty in detecting temporal responses of organism abundances to gradual environmental change (e.g., browning).

  8. A novel function of red pigment-concentrating hormone in crustaceans: Porcellio scaber (Isopoda) as a model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zralá, Jana; Kodrík, Dalibor; Zahradnícková, Helena; Zemek, Rostislav; Socha, Radomír

    2010-04-01

    The RP HPLC and LC/MS QTOF analyses of the methanolic CNS extract from isopod crustacean the woodlouse, Porcellio scaber revealed a presence of the red pigment-concentrating hormone (Panbo-RPCH) in this species. It has been shown that this neuropeptide plays a role in mobilization of energy stores: topical treatments of P. scaber individuals by Panbo-RPCH in a concentration 20 pmol/microl increased the level of glucose in haemolymph about 4 times, while the level of trehalose was only doubled. The results demonstrated that glucose was the main carbohydrate mobilized by the Panbo-RPCH treatment: glucose was responsible for about 97% of total carbohydrate increasing. Despite the demonstration of hyperglycaemic activity of Panbo-RPCH, no stimulatory effect of this hormone on the locomotory activity of P. scaber was observed. The present study is the first discovery of an occurrence of Panbo-RPCH and its hyperglycaemic activity in the representative of the isopod crustaceans. The relationship of the function of Panbo-RPCH in P. scaber to the role of this neuropeptide and adipokinetic hormones in insects is discussed.

  9. Negative effects of Microcystis blooms on the crustacean plankton in an enclosure experiment in the subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei-zhou; XIE Ping; TANG Hui-juan; LIU Hong

    2005-01-01

    Effects of Microcystis blooms on the crustacean plankton were studied using enclosure experiments during July-September,2000. Eight enclosures were set in the hypereutrophic Donghu Lake. Different nutrient concentrations through additional nutrient and sediment in enclosures were expected to result in different abundance of Microcystis. From July to early August, the phytoplankton community was dominated by Chlorophyta, Cryptophyta, Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta other than Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa showed a rapid increase during early August in all enclosures and predominated. Crustacean plankton was dominated by the herbivorous Moina micrura, Diaphanosoma brachyurum and Ceriodaphnia cornuta, and the predaceous Mesocyclops sp. and Thermocyclops taihokuensis. During the pre-bloom period, the dynamics of M. micrura population appeared to be mainly affected by the predaceous cyclopoids. With the development of Microcystis blooms, such interaction between M. micrura and cyclopoids seemed weakened, especially when the Microcystis biomass was high. But there was no apparent influence on the interaction between Leptodora kindti and its zooplanktonic prey. The density of two cyclopoids decreased with the enhancement of Microcystis. The density decline of M. micrura was caused by both predation and inhibition by Microcystis. The low food availability of other edible phytoplankton during the blooms led to low densities of both C. comuta and D. brachyurum by late August. lt appears that dense Microcystis blooms exert strong negative effects on the herbivorous cladocerans and the predaceous cyclopoids.

  10. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chen; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negative refraction, backward waves, spatial filtering, and subwavelength imaging. Although the importance of acoustic hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMMs) as a tool for achieving full control of acoustic waves is substantial, the realization of a broad-band and truly hyperbolic AMM has not been reported so far. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of a broadband AHMM that operates between 1.0 kHz and 2.5 kHz.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of broad line region clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Martin; Burkert, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodynamic stability has been a longstanding issue for the cloud model of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei. We argue that the clouds may be gravitationally bound to the supermassive black hole. If true, stabilisation by thermal pressure alone becomes even more difficult. We further argue that if magnetic fields should be present in such clouds at a level that could affect the stability properties, they need to be strong enough to compete with the radiation pressure on the cloud. This would imply magnetic field values of a few Gauss for a sample of Active Galactic Nuclei we draw from the literature. We then investigate the effect of several magnetic configurations on cloud stability in axi-symmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For a purely azimuthal magnetic field which provides the dominant pressure support, the cloud first gets compressed by the opposing radiative and gravitational forces. The pressure inside the cloud then increases, and it expands vertically. Kelvin-Helmholtz and colu...

  12. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  13. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  14. Conservation genetics in transition to conservation genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouborg, N. Joop; Pertoldi, Cino; Loeschcke, Volker; Bijlsma, R. (Kuke); Hedrick, Phil W.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years conservation genetics has progressed from being mainly a theory-based field of population biology to a full-grown empirical discipline. Technological developments in molecular genetics have led to extensive use of neutral molecular markers such as microsatellites in conser

  15. Seven broad absorption line quasars with excess broad band absorption near 2250

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shaohua; Jiang, Peng; Zhou, Hongyan; Ma, Jingzhe; Brandt, W N; York, Donald G; Noterdaeme, P; Schneider, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of excess broad band absorption near 2250 A (EBBA) in the spectra of seven broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. By comparing with the statistical results from the control quasar sample, the significance for the detections are all above the > 4{\\sigma} level, with five above > 5{\\sigma}. The detections have also been verified by several other independent methods. The EBBAs present broader and weaker bumps at smaller wavenumbers than the Milky Way, and similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud. The EBBA bump may be related to the 2175 A bump seen in the Local Group and may be a counterpart of the 2175 A bump under different conditions in the early Universe. Furthermore, five objects in this sample show low-ionization broad absorption lines (LoBALs), such as Mg II and Al III, in addition to the high-ionization broad absorption lines (HiBALs) of C IV and Si IV. The fraction of LoBALs in our sample, ~70%, is surprisingly high compared to that of general BAL quasars, ~10%. Although the origin of...

  16. Broad-spectrum transgenic resistance against distinct tospovirus species at the genus level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Chu Peng

    Full Text Available Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause severe damage to crops worldwide. In this investigation, tobacco lines transgenic for individual WLm constructs containing the conserved motifs of the L RNA-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The WLm constructs included: (i translatable WLm in a sense orientation; (ii untranslatable WLmt with two stop codons; (iii untranslatable WLmts with stop codons and a frame-shift; (iv untranslatable antisense WLmA; and (v WLmhp with an untranslatable inverted repeat of WLm containing the tospoviral S RNA 3'-terminal consensus sequence (5'-ATTGCTCT-3' and an NcoI site as a linker to generate a double-stranded hairpin transcript. A total of 46.7-70.0% transgenic tobacco lines derived from individual constructs showed resistance to the homologous WSMoV; 35.7-100% plants of these different WSMoV-resistant lines exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against four other serologically unrelated tospoviruses Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut yellow spot virus, Impatiens necrotic spot virus and Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus. The selected transgenic tobacco lines also exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against five additional tospoviruses from WSMoV and Iris yellow spot virus clades, but not against RNA viruses from other genera. Northern analyses indicated that the broad-spectrum resistance is mediated by RNA silencing. To validate the L conserved region resistance in vegetable crops, the constructs were also used to generate transgenic tomato lines, which also showed effective resistance against WSMoV and other tospoviruses. Thus, our approach of using the conserved motifs of tospoviral L gene as a transgene generates broad-spectrum resistance against tospoviruses at the genus level.

  17. A broad pH range and processive chitinase from a metagenome library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Thimoteo

    Full Text Available Chitinases are hydrolases that degrade chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine linked β(1-4 present in the exoskeleton of crustaceans, insects, nematodes and fungal cell walls. A metagenome fosmid library from a wastewater-contaminated soil was functionally screened for chitinase activity leading to the isolation and identification of a chitinase gene named metachi18A. The metachi18A gene was subcloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and the MetaChi18A chitinase was purified by affinity chromatography as a 6xHis-tagged fusion protein. The MetaChi18A enzyme is a 92-kDa protein with a conserved active site domain of glycosyl hydrolases family 18. It hydrolyses colloidal chitin with an optimum pH of 5 and temperature of 50°C. Moreover, the enzyme retained at least 80% of its activity in the pH range from 4 to 9 and 98% at 600 mM NaCl. Thin layer chromatography analyses identified chitobiose as the main product of MetaChi18A on chitin polymers as substrate. Kinetic analysis showed inhibition of MetaChi18A activity at high concentrations of colloidal chitin and 4-methylumbelliferyl N,N′-diacetylchitobiose and sigmoid kinetics at low concentrations of colloidal chitin, indicating a possible conformational change to lead the chitin chain from the chitin-binding to the catalytic domain. The observed stability and activity of MetaChi18A over a wide range of conditions suggest that this chitinase, now characterized, may be suitable for application in the industrial processing of chitin.

  18. Biodiversity Conservation in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Dale Squires

    2014-01-01

    Asian's remarkable economic growth brought many benefits but also fuelled threats to its ecosystems and biodiversity. Economic growth brings biodiversity threats but also conservation opportunities. Continued biodiversity loss is inevitable, but the types, areas and rates of biodiversity loss are not. Prioritising biodiversity conservation, tempered by what is tractable, remains a high priority. Policy and market distortions and failures significantly underprice biodiversity, undermine ecosys...

  19. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  20. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  1. Otter Conservation In Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Ahmad Khan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This note describes the conservation status and threats of the two otter species described in Pakistan; Smooth coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata sindica and the Eurasian or common otter (Lutra lutra. It also briefly describes the actors involved as well as the efforts made for its conservation.

  2. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  3. On exactly conservative integrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.C. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Shadwick, B.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Morrison, P.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1997-06-01

    Traditional explicit numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically predict artificial secular drifts of nonlinear invariants. These algorithms are based on polynomial functions of the time step. The authors discuss a general approach for developing explicit algorithms that conserve such invariants exactly. They illustrate the method by applying it to the truncated two-dimensional Euler equations.

  4. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  5. Conservation in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-30

    A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

  6. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  7. Photoionisation modelling of the broad line region

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthea

    2016-08-01

    Two of the most fundamental questions regarding the broad line region (BLR) are "what is its structure?" and "how is it moving?" Baldwin et al. (1995) showed that by summing over an ensemble of clouds at differing densities and distances from the ionising source we can easily and naturally produce a spectrum similar to what is observed for AGN. This approach is called the `locally optimally emitting clouds' (LOC) model. This approach can also explain the well-observed stratification of emission lines in the BLR (e.g. Clavel et al. 1991, Peterson et al. 1991, Kollatschny et al. 2001) and `breathing' of BLR with changes in the continuum luminosity (Netzer & Mor 1990, Peterson et al. 2014) and is therefore a generally accepted model of the BLR. However, LOC predictions require some assumptions to be made about the distribution of the clouds within the BLR. By comparing photoionization predictions, for a distribution of cloud properties, with observed spectra we can infer something about the structure of the BLR and distribution of clouds. I use existing reverberation mapping data to constrain the structure of the BLR by observing how individual line strengths and ratios of different lines change in high and low luminosity states. I will present my initial constraints and discuss the challenges associated with the method.

  8. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  9. Monthly variation in crustacean assemblage (decapod and stomatopod) and its relationships with environmental variables in Laizhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Ruisheng; Jin, Xianshi

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the community structure of crustaceans (decapod and stomatopod) inhabiting the sandy mud bottoms of Laizhou Bay (northeastern China) monthly from May 2011 to April 2012. Investigation was stopped from December 2011 to February 2012 because of the extreme weather and sea ice. A total of 205,057 specimens belonging to 31 species (shrimp, 15; crab, 15; and stomatopod, 1) were collected in 148 hauls. From 2011 to 2012, Oratosquilla oratoria was the dominant biomass species (47.80%), followed by Charybdis japonica (15.49%), Alpheus japonicas (12.61%), Portunus trituberculatus (6.46%), and Crangon spp. (4.19%). Crangon spp. was the most dominant species by individual (32.55%). O. oratoria was the most-frequently encountered species (81.76%), followed by Palaemon gravieri (70.95%), C. japonica (65.54%), A. japonicas (62.16%), and P. trituberculatus (54.73%). The biomass density increased from August to September 2011 and decreased from March 2012 to April 2012. The dynamics of the ecological indices evolve in a similar manner, with high values of diversity and evenness and rich species from May to June 2011 and low values from September to October 2011. O. oratoria, C. japonica, and P. trituberculatus differed by biomass data between groups I (samples obtained from September to October 2011) and II (samples in other months). These species contributed more than 70% to the similarity of the crustacean community structure. Furthermore, the subsets of environmental variables that best matched the crustacean-assemblage structure were as follows: water depth (WD) in summer (June to August); sea surface temperature (SST), dissolved oxygen (DO), and WD in autumn (September to November); and DO, salinity, and WD in spring (March to May). The calculated correlation coefficients and significance level were higher in the period of July to August 2011 than in other months. Comparing 2011 to 2012 with 1982 to 1983, the species composition remained stable

  10. 甲壳动物渗透调节生理学研究进展%Review on the osmoregulation of crustacean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘鲁青; 刘泓宇

    2005-01-01

    Osmoregulation involves many aspects of physiological function in crustacean. Crustacean species exhibit almost all possible patterns of osmotic regulation and they are widely distributed in most of known biotopes. With the changes of liquid environment, the structure and function of the osmoregulation organs( such as gills, antennary glands) ,haemolymph osmotic pressure and ionic transport will turn to maintain the well-balanced metabolism, which are under the neuroendocrine regulation. The current research status of physiological mechanism of crustacean osmoregulation was reviewed in the following aspects. 1 ) Structure and function of gills and antennal glands(maxillary glands). The gills are very important organs and play a prominenet role in osmoregulatien; 2)Regulafien of ion transport in branchial epithelium. Ion transport enzymes (Na+ -K+ -ATPase, V-ATPase,HCO3--ATPase and carbonicanhydrase)stimulated by bioamines and cAMP may participate in the ion transport of branchial epithelium in crustacean; 3 )Haemolymph composition and osmoregulation. Haemolymph concentration of ion and free amino acid accompanied by metabolites of blood can contribute to the most of haemolymph osmotic pressure; 4)Neuroendocrine control. Many neuropeptides may regulate the osraotic pressure of haemolymph and proteinsases activity of epithelial gill cells. Bioamines, cAMP and CaM have been proved to stimulate the uptake of Na+ and transport of Cl-.

  11. Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Robbins, Justin B.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun (Scripps)

    2012-10-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. Circulating HCV is genetically diverse, and therefore a broadly effective vaccine must target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Human mAb HCV1 has broad neutralizing activity against HCV isolates from at least four major genotypes and protects in the chimpanzee model from primary HCV challenge. The antibody targets a conserved antigenic site (residues 412-423) on the virus E2 envelope glycoprotein. Two crystal structures of HCV1 Fab in complex with an epitope peptide at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution reveal that the epitope is a {beta}-hairpin displaying a hydrophilic face and a hydrophobic face on opposing sides of the hairpin. The antibody predominantly interacts with E2 residues Leu{sup 413} and Trp{sup 420} on the hydrophobic face of the epitope, thus providing an explanation for how HCV isolates bearing mutations at Asn{sup 415} on the same binding face escape neutralization by this antibody. The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination.

  12. Validation, automatic generation and use of broad phonetic transcriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bael, Cristophe Patrick Jan Van

    2007-01-01

    Broad phonetic transcriptions represent the pronunciation of words as strings of characters from specifically designed symbol sets. In everyday life, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used as aids to pronounce (foreign) words. In addition, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used for lingu

  13. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  14. Arctic Change Information for a Broad Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreide, N. N.; Overland, J. E.; Calder, J.

    2002-12-01

    Demonstrable environmental changes have occurred in the Arctic over the past three decades. NOAA's Arctic Theme Page is a rich resource web site focused on high latitude studies and the Arctic, with links to widely distributed data and information focused on the Arctic. Included is a collection of essays on relevant topics by experts in Arctic research. The website has proven useful to a wide audience, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public, as indicated through recognition by USA Today, Science magazine, etc. (http://www.arctic.noaa.gov) Working jointly with NSF and the University of Washington's Polar Science Center as part of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, NOAA has developed a website for access to pan-Arctic time series spanning diverse data types including climate indices, atmospheric, oceanic, sea ice, terrestrial, biological and fisheries. Modest analysis functions and more detailed analysis results are provided. (http://www.unaami.noaa.gov/). This paper will describe development of an Artic Change Detection status website to provide a direct and comprehensive view of previous and ongoing change in the Arctic for a broad climate community. For example, composite metrics are developed using principal component analysis based on 86 multivariate pan-Arctic time series for seven data types. Two of these metrics can be interpreted as a regime change/trend component and an interdecadal component. Changes can also be visually observed through tracking of 28 separate biophysical indicators. Results will be presented in the form of a web site with relevant, easily understood, value-added knowledge backed by peer review from Arctic scientists and scientific journals.

  15. A new chytridiomycete fungus intermixed with crustacean resting eggs in a 407-million-year-old continental freshwater environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strullu-Derrien, Christine; Gora, Tomasz; Longcore, Joyce E.

    2016-01-01

    The 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland) contains the most intact fossilised remains of an early land-based ecosystem including plants, arthropods, fungi and other microorganisms. Although most studies have focused on the terrestrial component, fossilised freshwater environments provide...... critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures...... interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov) is attributed to Chytridiomycota based...

  16. Glutathione S-Transferase (GST Gene Diversity in the Crustacean Calanus finmarchicus--Contributors to Cellular Detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Roncalli

    Full Text Available Detoxification is a fundamental cellular stress defense mechanism, which allows an organism to survive or even thrive in the presence of environmental toxins and/or pollutants. The glutathione S-transferase (GST superfamily is a set of enzymes involved in the detoxification process. This highly diverse protein superfamily is characterized by multiple gene duplications, with over 40 GST genes reported in some insects. However, less is known about the GST superfamily in marine organisms, including crustaceans. The availability of two de novo transcriptomes for the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, provided an opportunity for an in depth study of the GST superfamily in a marine crustacean. The transcriptomes were searched for putative GST-encoding transcripts using known GST proteins from three arthropods as queries. The identified transcripts were then translated into proteins, analyzed for structural domains, and annotated using reciprocal BLAST analysis. Mining the two transcriptomes yielded a total of 41 predicted GST proteins belonging to the cytosolic, mitochondrial or microsomal classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytosolic GSTs validated their annotation into six different subclasses. The predicted proteins are likely to represent the products of distinct genes, suggesting that the diversity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus exceeds or rivals that described for insects. Analysis of relative gene expression in different developmental stages indicated low levels of GST expression in embryos, and relatively high expression in late copepodites and adult females for several cytosolic GSTs. A diverse diet and complex life history are factors that might be driving the multiplicity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus, as this copepod is commonly exposed to a variety of natural toxins. Hence, diversity in detoxification pathway proteins may well be key to their survival.

  17. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadanat Noonin

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm. The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the

  18. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonin, Chadanat; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2010-12-29

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish) and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm). The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core) is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT) containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the proPO system

  19. Broad-Spectrum Solution-Processed Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Alexander Halley

    High global demand for energy coupled with dwindling fossil fuel supply has driven the development of sustainable energy sources such as solar photovoltaics. Emerging solar technologies aim for low-cost, solution-processable materials which would allow wide deployment. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are such a materials system which exhibits the ability to absorb across the entire solar spectrum, including in the infrared where many technologies cannot harvest photons. However, due to their nanocrystalline nature, CQDs are susceptible to surface-associated electronic traps which greatly inhibit performance. In this thesis, surface engineering of CQDs is presented through a combined ligand approach which improves the passivation of surface trap states. A metal halide treatment is found to passivate quantum dot surfaces in solution, while bifunctional organic ligands produce a dense film in solid state. This approach reduced midgap trap states fivefold compared with conventional passivation strategies and led to solar cells with a record certified 7.0% power conversion efficiency. The effect of this process on the electronic structure is studied through photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that while the halide provides deep trap passivation, the nature of the metal cation on the CQD surface affects the density of band tail states. This effect is explored further through a wide survey of materials, and it is found that the coordination ability of the metal cation is responsible for the suppression of shallow traps. With this understanding of CQD surface passivation, broad spectral usage is then explored through a study of visible-absorbing organolead halide perovskite materials as well as narrow-bandgap CQD solar cells. Control over growth conditions and modification of electrode interfaces resulted in efficient perovskite devices with effective usages of visible photons. For infrared-absorbing CQDs, it is found that, in addition to providing surface trap

  20. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are public-private partnerships composed of states, tribes, federal agencies, non-governmental organizations,...

  1. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  2. Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Börner, Dirk; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Kalz, M., Börner, D., Ternier, S., & Specht, M. (2013, 31 January). Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit. Presentation given at the symposium "Groene ICT en Duurzame ontwikkeling: Meters maken in het Hoger Onderwijs", Driebergen, The Netherlands.

  3. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  4. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear. Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  5. Energy conservation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Energy acquisition through suckling has been widely studied in rat and human infants. Processes mediating energy conservation, however, have not received the attention that they deserve. This essay, in honor of Professor Jerry Hogan, discusses parallel behaviors used by rat and human mothers to minimize energy loss in their offspring. Parallel mechanisms underlying energy preservation have been identified in rats and humans, suggesting phylogenetic conservation and possibly continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  6. Conservative Management of a Delayed Neovesicocutaneous Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kodama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A neovesicocutaneous fistula is a rare complication after orthotopic bladder reconstruction, particularly in the late postoperative period. We report the case of a 59-year-old man who had undergone ileal neobladder construction 17 months previously. He presented with urinary retention concomitant with urinary tract infection due to a neovesicourethral anastomotic stricture. After a combination of transurethral catheter drainage and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy for 3 weeks, the fistulous tract completely closed. Therefore, conservative treatment may be regarded as a valid option for a delayed neovesicocutaneous fistula.

  7. Energy conservation indicators. 1982 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 40 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation and Electric Utilities. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  8. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  9. A Potent and Broad Neutralizing Antibody Recognizes and Penetrates the HIV Glycan Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejchal, Robert; Doores, Katie J.; Walker, Laura M.; Khayat, Reza; Huang, Po-Ssu; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Ramos, Alejandra; Crispin, Max; Depetris, Rafael; Katpally, Umesh; Marozsan, Andre; Cupo, Albert; Maloveste, Sebastien; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Ito, Yukishige; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ogohara, Cassandra; Paulson, James C.; Feizi, Ten; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Moore, John P.; Olson, William C.; Ward, Andrew B.; Poignard, Pascal; Schief, William R.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A. (UWASH); (Progenics); (ICL); (Weill-Med); (NIH); (JSTA); (Scripps); (Oxford)

    2015-10-15

    The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) PGT 127 and 128 with Man{sub 9} at 1.65 and 1.29 angstrom resolution, respectively, and glycan binding data delineate a specific high mannose-binding site. Fab PGT 128 complexed with a fully glycosylated gp120 outer domain at 3.25 angstroms reveals that the antibody penetrates the glycan shield and recognizes two conserved glycans as well as a short {beta}-strand segment of the gp120 V3 loop, accounting for its high binding affinity and broad specificify. Furthermore, our data suggest that the high neutralization potency of PGT 127 and 128 immunoglobulin Gs may be mediated by cross-linking Env trimers on the viral surface.

  10. 78 FR 4430 - Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge, FL; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our policies. In addition to outlining broad management direction on conserving wildlife and their habitats... studied and the results of those studies applied to refuge management and public use. Upland uses will...

  11. Snakes. A Conservation Education Program of the Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kelly; Theiss, Nancy S.

    The Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources is charged with the responsibility to preserve, protect, and perpetuate the fish and wildlife in Kentucky. Involved in this broad program are a number of services, including the Wildlife Conservation Education Program. During the months of September through April, Conservation Club leaders…

  12. Overview of energy-conservation research opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, W.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Bird, S.P.; Cliff, W.C.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1981-12-01

    This document is a study of research opportunities that are important to developing advanced technologies for efficient energy use. The study's purpose is to describe a wide array of attractive technical areas from which specific research and development programs could be implemented. Research areas are presented for potential application in each of the major end-use sectors. The study develops and applies a systematic approach to identifying and screening applied energy conservation research opportunities. To broadly cover the energy end-use sectors, this study develops useful information relating to the areas where federally-funded applied research will most likely play an important role in promoting energy conservation. This study is not designed to produce a detailed agenda of specific recommended research activities. The general information presented allows uniform comparisons of disparate research areas and as such provides the basis for formulating a cost-effective, comprehensive federal-applied energy conservation research strategy. Chapter 2 discusses the various methodologies that have been used in the past to identify research opportunities and details the approach used here. In Chapters 3, 4, and 5 the methodology is applied to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors and the opportunities for applied research in these sectors are discussed.Chapter 6 synthesizes the results of the previous three chapters to give a comprehensive picture of applied energy conservation research opportunities across all end-use sectors and presents the conclusions to the report.

  13. Subsurface crustacean communities as proxy for groundwater-surface water interactions in the Henares and Tajuña Rivers floodplains, central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasines Ladero, Ruben; Iepure, Sanda; Careño, Francisco; de Bustamante, Irene

    2013-04-01

    In the last decades, the linkage between surface water - groundwater via the hyporheic zone and the alluvial floodplains become more and more acknowledged. Hydrological exchanges between the stream and hyporheic zone ensure the transport of matter and energy and provide support for biogeochemical processes occurring in-stream bed sediments. Furthermore, the hyporheic zone is directly linked to permeable alluvial aquifers of which exchanges in both directions ensure the withstanding of a mixt biotic community's that may originate either from the surface benthic habitats or from the shallow aquifer. Data on the subsurface crustacean assemblages are used to infer the surface-groundwater interaction in two-groundwater fed-streams in central Spain. The survey was conducted on 20 hyporheic sites (20-40 cm depth) and 28 shallow or deep boreholes. Multivariate statistics were applied to test for differences in crustacean communities resulting from changes in water chemistry between the upstream and downstream parts of the alluvial aquifer, and between the hyporheic zone and the alluvial aquifer. Our aims were to: 1) test whether groundwater discharges in-stream bed sediments are reflected in changes in the crustacean assemblage's structure; and 2) establish whether the surface water influence decreases with increasing groundwater depth and distance from the river. We further aimed to test whether the diversity-stability ecotonal paradigm associated with the distinct level of disturbances and stability at the interface surface-groundwater and the aquifer is reflected in groundwater crustacean community structure. We start from the assumption that groundwater ecosystems undergo significant changes in space and time, and that classical groundwater stability hypothesis ought to be changed to concepts operative for surface ecosystems: disturbance and resilience. The streams are characterised by distinct gradients of surface-groundwater exchanges at spatial scale, with major

  14. Using strategic foresight to assess conservation opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carly N; Wintle, Bonnie C; Aldrich, Stephen C; Wintle, Brendan A

    2014-12-01

    The nature of conservation challenges can foster a reactive, rather than proactive approach to decision making. Failure to anticipate problems before they escalate results in the need for more costly and time-consuming solutions. Proactive conservation requires forward-looking approaches to decision making that consider possible futures without being overly constrained by the past. Strategic foresight provides a structured process for considering the most desirable future and for mapping the most efficient and effective approaches to promoting that future with tools that facilitate creative thinking. The process involves 6 steps: setting the scope, collecting inputs, analyzing signals, interpreting the information, determining how to act, and implementing the outcomes. Strategic foresight is ideal for seeking, recognizing, and realizing conservation opportunities because it explicitly encourages a broad-minded, forward-looking perspective on an issue. Despite its potential value, the foresight process is rarely used to address conservation issues, and previous attempts have generally failed to influence policy. We present the strategic foresight process as it can be used for proactive conservation planning, describing some of the key tools in the foresight tool kit and how they can be used to identify and exploit different types of conservation opportunities. Scanning is an important tool for collecting and organizing diverse streams of information and can be used to recognize new opportunities and those that could be created. Scenario planning explores how current trends, drivers of change, and key uncertainties might influence the future and can be used to identify barriers to opportunities. Backcasting is used to map out a path to a goal and can determine how to remove barriers to opportunities. We highlight how the foresight process was used to identify conservation opportunities during the development of a strategic plan to address climate change in New York

  15. The key elements of a comprehensive global mammal conservation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondinini, Carlo; Rodrigues, Ana S L; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-09-27

    A global strategy is necessary to achieve the level of coordination, synergy and therefore optimization of resources to achieve the broad goal of conserving mammals worldwide. Key elements for the development of such a strategy include: an institutional subject that owns the strategy; broad conservation goals, quantitative targets derived from them and appropriate indicators; data on the distribution of species, their threats, the cost-effectiveness of conservation actions; and a set of methods for the identification of conservation priorities. Previous global mammal research investigated phylogeny, extinction risk, and the species and areas that should be regarded as global conservation priorities. This theme issue presents new key elements: an updated Red List Index, a new list of evolutionarily distinct and globally endangered species, new high-resolution mammal distribution models, a global connectivity analysis and scenarios of future mammal distribution based on climate and land-cover change. Area prioritization schemes account for mammalian phylogeny, governance and cost-benefit of measures to abate habitat loss. Three discussion papers lay the foundations for the development of a global unifying mammal conservation strategy, which should not be further deterred by the knowledge gaps still existing.

  16. The Data Conservancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, S.; Duerr, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    NSF's Sustainable Digital Data Preservation and Access Network Partners program is an ambitious attempt to integrate a wide variety of expertise and infrastructure into a network for providing "reliable digital preservation, access, integration, and analysis capabilities for science." One of the first two DataNet award recipients, the Data Conservancy, is itself a network of widely diverse partners led by the libraries at the Johns Hopkins University. The Data Conservancy is built on existing exemplar scientific projects, communities, and virtual organizations that have deep engagement with their user communities, and extensive experience with large-scale distributed system development. Data Conservancy members embrace a shared vision that data curation is not an end, but rather a means to collect, organize, validate, and preserve data needed to address the grand research challenges that face society. Data Conservancy members holdings encompass the entire range of earth, life, and space science data. New to the Data Conservancy is the concept that University libraries will be part of the distributed network of data centers and that data science will become a path in the library and information science curricula. As noted by Winston Tabb (JHU Dean of Libraries) "Data Centers are the new library stacks."

  17. On the Operational Meaning of Broad-Spectrum Philosophy Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyze the Broad-spectrum Philosophy Methodology on the operational meaning, and discusses three relatively primary methods of Broad-spectrum Philosophy Methodologies. The methodology of Broad-spectrum philosophy cannot pursuit of accuracy of numerical sense, but it pursuits of the exact nature of the research questions, the accuracy of the sense of set theory and sums up the experience which we solve problems in real life and make it up to the generalized quantization and procedural level and thus the methodology of Broad-spectrum philosophy has a general guide and it is a broad operations research. We gets the results that along with deep exploration and development of Broad-spectrum Philosophy Methodology, its function as generalized operation research can be more powerful.

  18. Cross-reactive broadly neutralizing antibodies: timing is everything

    OpenAIRE

    Euler, Zelda; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2012-01-01

    The recent surge of research into new broadly neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1 infection has recharged the field of HIV-1 vaccinology. In this review we discuss the currently known broadly neutralizing antibodies and focus on factors that may shape these antibodies in natural infection. We further discuss the role of these antibodies in the clinical course of the infection and consider immunological obstacles in inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies with a vaccine.

  19. Cross-reactive broadly neutralizing antibodies: timing is everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Zelda; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2012-01-01

    The recent surge of research into new broadly neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1 infection has recharged the field of HIV-1 vaccinology. In this review we discuss the currently known broadly neutralizing antibodies and focus on factors that may shape these antibodies in natural infection. We further discuss the role of these antibodies in the clinical course of the infection and consider immunological obstacles in inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies with a vaccine.

  20. Conservation of Mangifera sylvatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhter, Sayma

    and conservation of these valuable species. The present study considers an underutilised and threatened species of Bangladesh, namely wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.). Although this wild mango is one of the genetically closest species to the common mango (Mangifera indica L.) research is very limited...... and mostly focused on wood quality and phylogenetic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated the conservation potential of wild mango considering its contribution for food, nutrition and livelihoods. To do so, an assessment was made of the current and future distribution of the species, which...... explored. The study conveyed five key messages: 1. Wild mango may become extinct under future climate change scenarios so it is high time to start thinking about conservation initiatives. 2. Wild mango is a small sized mango with a large kernel in relation to other Mangifera species which provides...

  1. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  2. Governance principles for wildlife conservation in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Daniel; Smith, Christian; Forstchen, Ann; Hare, Darragh; Pomeranz, Emily; Doyle-Capitman, Catherine; Schuler, Krysten; Organ, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Wildlife conservation is losing ground in the U.S. for many reasons. The net effect is declines in species and habitat. To address this trend, the wildlife conservation institution (i.e., all customs, practices, organizations and agencies, policies, and laws with respect to wildlife) must adapt to contemporary social–ecological conditions. Adaptation could be supported by clear guidelines reflecting contemporary expectations for wildlife governance. We combine elements of public trust thinking and good governance to produce a broad set of wildlife governance principles. These principles represent guidance for ecologically and socially responsible wildlife conservation. They address persistent, systemic problems and, if adopted, will bring the institution into line with modern expectations for governance of public natural resources. Implementation will require changes in values, objectives, and processes of the wildlife conservation institution. These changes may be difficult, but promise improved wildlife conservation outcomes and increased support for conservation. We introduce challenges and opportunities associated with the principles, and encourage dialogue about them among scientists, practitioners, and other leaders in U.S. wildlife conservation. The principles alone will not change the course of conservation for the better, but may be necessary for such change to occur.

  3. 14 Conservation of Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torre, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    After all of these developments it is nice to keep in mind the idea that the wave equation describes (a continuum limit of) a network of coupled oscillators. This raises an interesting question. Certainly you have seen by now how important energy and momentum — and their conservation — are for understanding the behavior of dynamical systems such as an oscillator. If a wave is essentially the collective motion of many oscillators, might not there be a notion of conserved energy and momentum fo...

  4. General vorticity conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Gümral, H

    1998-01-01

    The motion of an incompressible fluid in Lagrangian coordinates involves infinitely many symmetries generated by the left Lie algebra of group of volume preserving diffeomorphisms of the three dimensional domain occupied by the fluid. Utilizing a 1+3-dimensional Hamiltonian setting an explicit realization of this symmetry algebra and the related Lagrangian and Eulerian conservation laws are constructed recursively. Their Lie algebraic structures are inherited from the same construction. The laws of general vorticity and helicity conservations are formulated globally in terms of invariant differential forms of the velocity field.

  5. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E. [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  6. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  7. Inclination of Broad Line Region in Narrow Line and Broad Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The sizes of the Broad Line Region (BLR) of some Seyfert 1 galax-ies and nearby quasars can be determined by the reverberation mapping method.Combining with the observed FWHM of Hβ emission line and assuming that themotion of BLR clouds is virialized, the black hole masses of these objects have beenestimated. However, this method strongly depends on the poorly-understood geom-etry and inclination of the BLR. On the other hand, a tight correlation between theblack hole mass and the bulge velocity dispersion was recently found for both activeand nearby inactive galaxies. This may provide another method, independent of theBLR geometry, for estimating the black hole mass. Using this method for estimatingthe black hole mass and combining with the measured BLR size and FWHM of Hβemission line, we derived the BLR inclination angles for 20 Seyfert I galaxies underthe assumption that the BLR is disk-like. The derived inclination angles agree wellwith those derived previously by fitting the UV continuum and Hβ emission lineprofiles. Adopting a relation between the FWHMs of [OⅢ]λ5007 forbidden line andthe stellar velocity dispersion, we also estimated the BLR inclinations for 50 nar-row line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLSls). We found that the inclinations of broad LineSeyfert 1 galaxies (BLS1s) are systematically greater than those of NLS1s, whichseldom exceed 30. This may be an important factor that leads to the differencesbetween NLS1s and BLS1s if the BLR of NLS1s is really disk-like.

  8. Effect of saponin treatment on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat, cane toad and crustacean (yabby) skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G

    1997-10-15

    1. Mechanically skinned fibres from skeletal muscles of the rat, toad and yabby were used to investigate the effect of saponin treatment on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ loading properties. The SR was loaded submaximally under control conditions before and after treatment with saponin and SR Ca2+ was released with caffeine. 2. Treatment with 10 micrograms ml-1 saponin greatly reduced the SR Ca2+ loading ability of skinned fibres from the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat with a rate constant of 0.24 min-1. Saponin concentrations up to 150 micrograms ml-1 and increased exposure time up to 30 min did not further reduce the SR Ca2+ loading ability of the SR, which indicates that the inhibitory action of 10-150 micrograms ml-1 saponin is not dose dependent. The effect of saponin was also not dependent on the state of polarization of the transverse-tubular system. 3. Treatment with saponin at concentrations up to 100 micrograms ml-1 for 30 min did not affect the Ca2+ loading ability of SR in skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch portion of the toad iliofibularis muscle but SR Ca2+ loading ability decreased markedly with a time constant of 0.22 min-1 in the presence of 150 micrograms ml-1 saponin. 4. The saponin dependent increase in permeability could be reversed in both rat and toad fibres by short treatment with 6 microM Ruthenium Red, a potent SR Ca2+ channel blocker, suggesting that saponin does affect the SR Ca2+ channel properties in mammalian and anuran skeletal muscle. 5. Treatment of skinned fibres of long sarcomere length (> 6 microns) from the claw muscle of the yabby (a freshwater decapod crustacean) with 10 micrograms ml-1 saponin for 30 min abolished the ability of the SR to load Ca2+, indicating that saponin affects differently the SR from skeletal muscles of mammals, anurans and crustaceans. 6. It is concluded that at relatively low concentrations, saponin causes inhibition of the skeletal SR Ca2+ loading ability in a species

  9. Differential protein expression using proteomics from a crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) under CO2-driven seawater acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Jiao; Zheng, Chao-Qun; Wang, Yu-Wei; Meng, Chuang; Xie, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Hai-Peng

    2016-11-01

    Gradually increasing atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) has caused an imbalance in carbonate chemistry and resulted in decreased seawater pH in marine ecosystems, termed seawater acidification. Anthropogenic seawater acidification is postulated to affect the physiology of many marine calcifying organisms. To understand the possible effects of seawater acidification on the proteomic responses of a marine crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) three groups of cysts were hatched and further raised in seawater at different pH levels (8.2 as control and 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress levels according to the predicted levels at the end of this century and next century, respectively) for 1, 7 and 14 days followed by examination of the protein expression changes via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Searches of protein databases revealed that 67 differential protein spots were altered due to lower pH level (7.6 and 7.8) stress in comparison to control groups (pH 8.2) by mass spectrometry. Generally, these differentially expressed proteins included the following: 1) metabolic process-related proteins involved in glycolysis and glucogenesis, nucleotide/amino acid/fatty acid metabolism, protein biosynthesis, DNA replication and apoptosis; 2) stress response-related proteins, such as peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin peroxidase, 70-kDa heat shock protein, Na/K ATPase, and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase; 3) immune defence-related proteins, such as prophenoloxidase and ferritin; 4) cytoskeletal-related proteins, such as myosin light chain, TCP1 subunit 2, tropomyosin and tubulin alpha chain; and 5) signal transduction-related proteins, such as phospholipase C-like protein, 14-3-3 zeta, translationally controlled tumour protein and RNA binding motif protein. Taken together, these data support the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification may affect protein expression in the crustacean A. sinica and possibly also in other species that feed on brine shrimp in the

  10. Diversity and distribution patterns of the Oligocene and Miocene decapod crustaceans (Crustacea: Malacostraca) of the Western and Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyžný, Matúš

    2017-01-01

    Decapod associations have been significant components of marine habitats throughout the Cenozoic when the major diversification of the group occurred. In this respect, the circum-Mediterranean area is of particular interest due to its complex palaeogeographic history. During the Oligo-Miocene, it was divided in two major areas, Mediterranean and Paratethys. Decapod crustaceans from the Paratethys Sea have been reported in the literature since the 19th century, but only recent research advances allow evaluation of the diversity and distribution patterns of the group. Altogether 176 species-level taxa have been identified from the Oligocene and Miocene of the Western and Central Paratethys. Using the three-dimensional NMDS analysis, the composition of decapod crustacean faunas of the Paratethys shows significant differences through time. The Ottnangian and Karpatian decapod associations were similar to each other both taxonomically and in the mode of preservation, and they differed taxonomically from the Badenian ones. The Early Badenian assemblages also differed taxonomically from the Late Badenian ones. The time factor, including speciation, immigration from other provinces and/or (local or global) extinction, can explain temporal differences among assemblages within the same environment. High decapod diversity during the Badenian was correlated with the presence of reefal settings. The Badenian was the time with the highest decapod diversity, which can, however, be a consequence of undersampling of other time slices. Whereas the Ottnangian and Karpatian decapod assemblages are preserved virtually exclusively in the siliciclastic “Schlier”-type facies that originated in non-reefal offshore environments, carbonate sedimentation and the presence of reefal environments during the Badenian in the Central Paratethys promoted thriving of more diverse reef-associated assemblages. In general, Paratethyan decapods exhibited homogeneous distribution during the Oligo

  11. Serotonin immunoreactive interneurons in the brain of the Remipedia: new insights into the phylogenetic affinities of an enigmatic crustacean taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stemme Torben

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Remipedia, a group of homonomously segmented, cave-dwelling, eyeless arthropods have been regarded as basal crustaceans in most early morphological and taxonomic studies. However, molecular sequence information together with the discovery of a highly differentiated brain led to a reconsideration of their phylogenetic position. Various conflicting hypotheses have been proposed including the claim for a basal position of Remipedia up to a close relationship with Malacostraca or Hexapoda. To provide new morphological characters that may allow phylogenetic insights, we have analyzed the architecture of the remipede brain in more detail using immunocytochemistry (serotonin, acetylated α-tubulin, synapsin combined with confocal laser-scanning microscopy and image reconstruction techniques. This approach allows for a comprehensive neuroanatomical comparison with other crustacean and hexapod taxa. Results The dominant structures of the brain are the deutocerebral olfactory neuropils, which are linked by the olfactory globular tracts to the protocerebral hemiellipsoid bodies. The olfactory globular tracts form a characteristic chiasm in the center of the brain. In Speleonectes tulumensis, each brain hemisphere contains about 120 serotonin immunoreactive neurons, which are distributed in distinct cell groups supplying fine, profusely branching neurites to 16 neuropilar domains. The olfactory neuropil comprises more than 300 spherical olfactory glomeruli arranged in sublobes. Eight serotonin immunoreactive neurons homogeneously innervate the olfactory glomeruli. In the protocerebrum, serotonin immunoreactivity revealed several structures, which, based on their position and connectivity resemble a central complex comprising a central body, a protocerebral bridge, W-, X-, Y-, Z-tracts, and lateral accessory lobes. Conclusions The brain of Remipedia shows several plesiomorphic features shared with other Mandibulata, such as deutocerebral

  12. Diversity and distribution patterns of the Oligocene and Miocene decapod crustaceans (Crustacea: Malacostraca) of the Western and Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyžný, Matúš

    2016-10-01

    Decapod associations have been significant components of marine habitats throughout the Cenozoic when the major diversification of the group occurred. In this respect, the circum-Mediterranean area is of particular interest due to its complex palaeogeographic history. During the Oligo-Miocene, it was divided in two major areas, Mediterranean and Paratethys. Decapod crustaceans from the Paratethys Sea have been reported in the literature since the 19th century, but only recent research advances allow evaluation of the diversity and distribution patterns of the group. Altogether 176 species-level taxa have been identified from the Oligocene and Miocene of the Western and Central Paratethys. Using the three-dimensional NMDS analysis, the composition of decapod crustacean faunas of the Paratethys shows significant differences through time. The Ottnangian and Karpatian decapod associations were similar to each other both taxonomically and in the mode of preservation, and they differed taxonomically from the Badenian ones. The Early Badenian assemblages also differed taxonomically from the Late Badenian ones. The time factor, including speciation, immigration from other provinces and/or (local or global) extinction, can explain temporal differences among assemblages within the same environment. High decapod diversity during the Badenian was correlated with the presence of reefal settings. The Badenian was the time with the highest decapod diversity, which can, however, be a consequence of undersampling of other time slices. Whereas the Ottnangian and Karpatian decapod assemblages are preserved virtually exclusively in the siliciclastic "Schlier"-type facies that originated in non-reefal offshore environments, carbonate sedimentation and the presence of reefal environments during the Badenian in the Central Paratethys promoted thriving of more diverse reef-associated assemblages. In general, Paratethyan decapods exhibited homogeneous distribution during the Oligo

  13. Overall pattern of publication in Journal of Conservative Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmani, Umesh Kumar; Devi, T. Premlata; Sh. Priyadarshini; Jadhav, Ganesh; Dharmani, Charan Kamal Kaur; Singh, Bishnupati; Kumar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Journal of Conservative Dentistry (JCD) has been online since 2008. Materials and Methods: This paper reviews the publication in this journal over a 5-year period (2011–2015). It assesses the types of articles published, coverage of various types of subjects of endodontics, and conservative dentistry in the journal and explores the authorship patterns in the publication and citation of the journal over this period. Results and Conclusion: JCD has delivered broad-based, balanced coverage of endodontics and conservative dentistry between 2011 and 2015, with contributions from all over India, as well as abroad. Although a maximum number of articles were from India, the publications from other countries are also on an increase. Thus, the widespread coverage of this journal suggests that JCD has begun to represent the global face of the Indian Association of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics. PMID:27656069

  14. Crustacean fauna (Stomatopoda: Decapoda) associated with the deepwater fishery of Heterocarpus vicarius (Decapoda: Pandalidae) along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    S. Wehrtmann - Silvia Echeverría-Sáenz, Ingo

    2005-01-01

    Commercial bottom trawling is a successful and commonly used method to catch marine shrimps. However, the shrimp fishing gears are poorly selective, and in addition to the target species they catch and retain large quantities of non-target species (bycatch). This study presents data concerning species composition and depth distribution of the crustacean fauna (stomatopods and decapods) associated with Heterocarpus vicarius catches from Pacific Costa Rica. A total of 74 samples (three to five ...

  15. Long-term responses of sandy beach crustaceans to the effects of coastal armouring after the 2010 Maule earthquake in South Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Iván F.; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Acuña, Emilio; Manzano, Mario; Velasquez, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes and tsunamis are large physical disturbances frequently striking the coast of Chile with dramatic effects on intertidal habitats. Armouring structures built as societal responses to beach erosion and shoreline retreat are also responsible of coastal squeeze and habitat loss. The ecological implications of interactions between coastal armouring and earthquakes have recently started to be studied for beach ecosystems. How long interactive impacts persist is still unclear because monitoring after disturbance generally extends for a few months. During five years after the Maule earthquake (South Central Chile, February 27th 2010) we monitored the variability in population abundances of the most common crustacean inhabitants of different beach zones (i.e. upper, medium, and lower intertidal) at two armoured (one concrete seawall and one rocky revetment) and one unarmoured sites along the sandy beach of Llico. Beach morphology changed after the earthquake-mediated uplift, restoring upper- and mid-shore armoured levels that were rapidly colonized by typical crustacean species. However, post-earthquake increasing human activities affected the colonization process of sandy beach crustaceans in front of the seawall. Lower-shore crab Emerita analoga was the less affected by armouring structures, and it was the only crustacean species present at the three sites before and after the earthquake. This study shows that field sampling carried out promptly after major disturbances, and monitoring of the affected sites long after the disturbance is gone are effective approaches to increase the knowledge on the interactive effects of large-scale natural phenomena and artificial defences on beach ecology.

  16. NEUROSECRETION OF CRUSTACEAN HYPERGLYCEMIC HORMONE EVOKED BY AXONAL STIMULATION OR ELEVATION OF SALINE K+ CONCENTRATION QUANTIFIED BY A SENSITIVE IMMUNOASSAY METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller; Haylett; Cooke

    1994-03-01

    A sandwich-type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was utilized to quantify crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (as Carcinus maenas equivalents) released by single X-organ­sinus gland systems of the crab Cardisoma carnifex during continuous perifusion. Basal rates of secretion (20­60 pg min-1) were stable for at least 4 h. Electrical stimulation (600 stimuli in 5 min) of the axon tract increased secretion two- to threefold, but only if it resulted in neural activity that was propagated to the terminals of the sinus gland. No difference was observable when stimuli were given repetitively or as a series of trains. Perifusion with saline having ten times the normal K+ concentration augmented secretion by as much as fivefold. Augmented secretion of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone evoked by either electrical or K+ stimulation appeared abruptly but declined slowly (over tens of minutes) after stimulation was stopped. K+-evoked secretion of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone was maintained without decrement for at least 1 h. Basal secretion increased in saline from which Ca2+ had been omitted, but decreased in saline containing Mn2+. Neither electrical stimulation nor high [K+] augmented secretion in Ca2+-deficient saline or if Mn2+ was present. Introduction of Mn2+ during K+-evoked secretion immediately reduced release to unstimulated levels; secretion resumed promptly upon removal of Mn2+. Tetrodotoxin reversibly blocked both electrical and secretory responses to axonal stimulation, but it did not block basal or K+-evoked secretion. Release of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone by isolated axon terminals was augmented two- to threefold by perifusion with saline having ten times the normal K+ concentration. The responses were similar to those of the intact systems, having a rapid onset, well-maintained secretion and a long 'tail' of secretion after removal of the K+ stimulus.

  17. Conservative Public Interest Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Terence J.

    2007-01-01

    The idea that lawsuits can move a public as well as a legal agenda is not new. In recent years, conservatives have brought high profile lawsuits designed both to vindicate the rights of an individual plaintiff and to educate the public about an important issue. For example, lawsuits filed nearly 10 years ago against the University of Michigan's…

  18. Deficiencies in Water Conservancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recent droughts and floods show the fragility of China’s water conservancy capabilities Be it extreme flooding or severe droughts,China has yet to find a stable middle ground concerning its water supply.These disasters,primarily in the Yangtze

  19. Conservation of fern spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns are a diverse and important group of plants, but diversity of species and populations are at risk from increasing social pressures, loss of habitat and climate change. Ex situ conservation is a useful strategy to limit decline in genetic diversity and requires technologies to preserve fern ger...

  20. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  1. Conservation and gene banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  2. Supersymmetric non conservative systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pérez, N E

    2015-01-01

    We give the generalization of a recent variational formulation for nonconservative classical mechanics, for fermionic and sypersymmetric systems. Both cases require slightly modified boundary conditions. The supersymmetric version is given in the superfield formalism. The corresponding Noether theorem is formulated. As expected, like the energy, the supersymmetric charges are not conserved. Examples are discussed.

  3. Beyond conservation agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Andersson, J.A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and s

  4. Energy Conservation Simplified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

  5. Conservative Pressures on Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Joseph E.

    Pressure on the public schools is coming from conservative New Right religious-political groups. Their concerns focus on: (1) secular humanism--a Godless form of religion that the public schools are alleged to be teaching; (2) scientific evolution versus creationism--the balanced treatment statute; (3) Bible clubs and prayer in the classroom; and…

  6. Metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists modify the pyloric output of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Acevedo, Nivia L; Krenz, Wulf D

    2005-11-16

    We have studied the effects of groups I, II, and III metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists and antagonists on pyloric activity in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We have found that agonists for all three groups of mGluRs modify the pyloric output. The group I agonist, l-quisqualic acid (l-QA), activated the pyloric central pattern generator (CPG). When the pyloric rhythm was partially suppressed by sucrose-block of input fibers in the stomatogastric nerve (stn), l-QA accelerated the rhythmic activity. In addition, the number of spike discharges was increased in pyloric motoneurons: pyloric (PY), and lateral pyloric (LP). In completely blocked preparations, a slow pyloric rhythm was initiated by l-QA. Groups II and III agonists exerted an inhibitory effect on pyloric activity. The group II agonist, (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-I), decreased both the frequency of the pyloric rhythm and the number of spike discharges in the motoneurons: ventricular dilator (VD), PY, and LP. The effects of L-CCG-I were dose-dependent. The group III agonist, l-(+)-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (l-AP4), slightly decreased the frequency of the pyloric rhythm and suppressed spike discharges in the VD neuron. All effects of mGluR agonists were reversible. The effect of l-QA was blocked by the broad spectrum mGluR antagonist (S)-Methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG). The inhibitory effect of L-CCG-I was prevented by MCPG and by the group II/III mGluR antagonist (RS)-alpha-Methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG), and was partially blocked by the group II mGluR antagonist (RS)-1-amino-5-phosphonoindan-1-carboxylic acid (APICA). The inhibitory effect of l-AP4 was blocked by MPPG and partially blocked by APICA.

  7. Assessing Eli Broad's Assault on Public School System Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Fenwick W.; Crowder, Zan

    2012-01-01

    Eli Broad's approach to reforming urban public education does not recognize his own self-interest in promoting changes within such educational systems, a classic problem of misrecognition. The Broad agenda is an assault on the notion of the mission of public education as a service instead of a for-profit enterprise concerned with making money for…

  8. Social Cognition, Social Skill, and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J.; Nowlin, Rachel B.; Pinkham, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits differentiate parents with the "broad autism phenotype" from non-broad autism phenotype parents more robustly than other neuropsychological features of autism, suggesting that this domain may be particularly informative for identifying genetic and brain processes associated with the phenotype. The current study…

  9. Broadly protective influenza vaccines: Redirecting the antibody response through adjuvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, F.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infections are responsible for significant morbidity worldwide and current vaccines have limited coverage, therefore it remains a high priority to develop broadly protective vaccines. With the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza these vaccines becam

  10. Boot Camp for Education CEOs: The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlen, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy is the most prominent and most controversial training institute for school chiefs. The Academy is the flagship program of the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, the smallest of a triumvirate of corporate foundations that are at the heart of the billionaire campaign to remake public education in the image…

  11. Engineering HIV envelope protein to activate germline B cell receptors of broadly neutralizing anti-CD4 binding site antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Andrew T; Hoot, Sam; Dreyer, Anita M; Lippy, Adriana; Stuart, Andrew; Cohen, Kristen W; Jardine, Joseph; Menis, Sergey; Scheid, Johannes F; West, Anthony P; Schief, William R; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2013-04-08

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV are believed to be a critical component of the protective responses elicited by an effective HIV vaccine. Neutralizing antibodies against the evolutionarily conserved CD4-binding site (CD4-BS) on the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) are capable of inhibiting infection of diverse HIV strains, and have been isolated from HIV-infected individuals. Despite the presence of anti-CD4-BS broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) epitopes on recombinant Env, Env immunization has so far failed to elicit such antibodies. Here, we show that Env immunogens fail to engage the germline-reverted forms of known bnAbs that target the CD4-BS. However, we found that the elimination of a conserved glycosylation site located in Loop D and two glycosylation sites located in variable region 5 of Env allows Env-binding to, and activation of, B cells expressing the germline-reverted BCRs of two potent broadly neutralizing antibodies, VRC01 and NIH45-46. Our results offer a possible explanation as to why Env immunogens have been ineffective in stimulating the production of such bNAbs. Importantly, they provide key information as to how such immunogens can be engineered to initiate the process of antibody-affinity maturation against one of the most conserved Env regions.

  12. Taxocenosis of mollusks and crustaceans on roots of Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae at Cispatá Bay, Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alexander Quirós R

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the existing knowledge on the ecology of mangroves at Cispatá Bay, few studies have focused on the association of invertebrates on red mangrove roots, so between December 2010 and September 2011, it was characterized taxocenosis of mollusks and crustaceans on roots of Rhizophora mangle in two study sites at Cispatá Bay, Colombia. For the collections of biological material were randomly taken three red mangrove roots with a diameter. Mollusks and crustaceans were obtained from the root surface with a scraping knife then were removed and fixed in 10 % formalin for later identification to species using specialized taxonomic keys. Of the 12289 individuals collected in the four samples, 10470 belonged to the phylumMollusca (85,2 % and the remaining 1819 to subphylum Crustacea (14,8 %. For mollusks were identified 14 species distributed in 11 families and two classes; Bivalvia and Gastropoda. For crustaceans were identified 24 species distributed in 16 families and four orders; Sessillia, Decapoda, Isopoda and Amphipoda. In both sectors sampling Mytella charruana, Balanus eburneusand Crassostrea rhizophorae were the most important species in terms of abundance, however mollusks like M. charruana and B. eburneus have a great ability to adapt and adjust to changing hydroclimatic, which was reflected in the dominance of these species in the sector with the greatest influence Sinu River. The presence of crustaceans Petrolisthes armatus and Aratus pisonii in the sector with more proximity to the Caribbean Sea indicate that are species with great mobility and physiological adaptation mechanisms.TAXOCENOSIS DE MOLUSCOS Y CRUSTÁCEOS EN RAÍCESDE Rhizophora mangle (RHIZOPHORACEAEEN LA BAHÍA DE CISPATÁ, CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIAA pesar del conocimiento existente sobre la ecología de los manglares en la bahía de Cispatá, pocos estudios han sido enfocados en invertebrados asociados a las raíces del mangle rojo. Entre diciembre 2010 y

  13. Physicochemical Process, Crustacean, and Microcystis Biomass Changes In Situ Enclosure after Introduction of Silver Carp at Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjie Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to control cyanobacteria blooms with silver carp in Lake Taihu, an in situ experiment was carried out by stocking silver carp at a biomass of 35, 70, and 150 g m-3 and no carp control in waterproof enclosures. Physicochemical water parameters and biomass of plankton were measured in enclosures to evaluate the suitable stocking density of silver carp for relieving internal nutrients and constraining cyanobacteria growth in Lake Taihu. It is found that the 35 g m-3 silver carp group and 70 g m-3 silver carp group presented lower total phosphorus, lower chlorophyll-a, and higher water transparency. Increased nitrogen to phosphorus ratio, which indicated the result of algae decline in fish presence enclosures, was attributed to decline of phosphorus. Phosphorus decline also exerted limitation on reestablish of cyanobacteria bloom. Crustacean zooplankton biomass and Microcystis biomass decreased significantly in fish presence enclosures. Silver carp could be more effective to regulate algae bloom in enclosures with dense cyanobacteria. Therefore, nonclassic manipulation is supposed to be appropriate method to get rid of cyanobacteria blooms in Lake Taihu by stocking 35 to 70 g m-3 silver carp in application.

  14. Candidate pathogenicity islands in the genome of ‘Candidatus Rickettsiella isopodorum’, an intracellular bacterium infecting terrestrial isopod crustaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YaDong

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial genus Rickettsiellabelongs to the order Legionellales in the Gammaproteobacteria, and consists of several described species and pathotypes, most of which are considered to be intracellular pathogens infecting arthropods. Two members of this genus, R. grylliand R. isopodorum, are known to infect terrestrial isopod crustaceans. In this study, we assembled a draft genomic sequence for R. isopodorum, and performed a comparative genomic analysis with R. grylli. We found evidence for several candidate genomic island regions in R. isopodorum, none of which appear in the previously available R. grylli genome sequence.Furthermore, one of these genomic island candidates in R. isopodorum contained a gene that encodes a cytotoxin partially homologous to those found in Photorhabdus luminescensand Xenorhabdus nematophilus (Enterobacteriaceae), suggesting that horizontal gene transfer may have played a role in the evolution of pathogenicity in Rickettsiella. These results lay the groundwork for future studies on the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis in R. isopodorum, and this system may provide a good model for studying the evolution of host-microbe interactions in nature. PMID:28028472

  15. A new species of the subterranean amphipod crustacean genus Stygobromus (Crangonyctidae from a cave in Nevada, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Taylor

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stygobromus albapinus, a new stygobiotic amphipod crustacean species in the family Crangonyctidae, is described from two pools in Model Cave in Great Basin National Park, White Pine County, Nevada, USA. The type specimens were collected on two different visits to the cave. The new species is assigned to the hubbsi group, bringing the number of described species in this group to 45, but many other provisionally recognized species assigned to this group remain undescribed. With exception of a single species from deep wells in southeastern Wisconsin, all other members of the hubbsi group are recorded from a wide variety of subterranean groundwater habitats (e.g., caves, springs, wells, etc. in western North America, west of the Great Plains. Although the taxonomic affi nities of Stygobromus albapinus, n. sp. need further study, the species does appear to share several important morphological characters with a species from a cave in western Utah located approximately 300 km east-northeast of Model Cave.

  16. TALEN-mediated knock-in via non-homologous end joining in the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takashi; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2016-11-07

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are versatile tools that enable the insertion of DNA into different organisms. Here, we confirmed TALEN-mediated knock-in via non-homologous end joining in the crustacean Daphnia magna, a model organism for ecological and toxicological genomics. We tested two different TALENs, ey1 TALEN and ey2 TALEN, both of which target the eyeless locus. The donor DNA plasmid, harbouring the H2B-GFP reporter gene, was designed to contain both TALEN target sites and was co-injected with each TALEN mRNA into eggs. The ey1 TALEN and ey2 TALEN constructs both resulted in H2B-GFP expression in Daphnia with a germline transmission efficiency of 3%. Of the three transgenic animals generated, two had donor DNA at the targeted genomic site, which suggested concurrent cleavage of the injected plasmid DNA and genome DNA. The availability of such tools that are capable of targeted knock-in of foreign genes will be extremely useful for advancing the knowledge of gene function and contribute to an increased understanding of functional genomics in Daphnia.

  17. Elicitation of broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies in animals with previous influenza exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chih-Jen; Yassine, Hadi M; McTamney, Patrick M; Gall, Jason G D; Whittle, James R R; Boyington, Jeffrey C; Nabel, Gary J

    2012-08-15

    The immune system responds to influenza infection by producing neutralizing antibodies to the viral surface protein, hemagglutinin (HA), which regularly changes its antigenic structure. Antibodies that target the highly conserved stem region of HA neutralize diverse influenza viruses and can be elicited through vaccination in animals and humans. Efforts to develop universal influenza vaccines have focused on strategies to elicit such antibodies; however, the concern has been raised that previous influenza immunity may abrogate the induction of such broadly protective antibodies. We show here that prime-boost immunization can induce broadly neutralizing antibody responses in influenza-immune mice and ferrets that were previously infected or vaccinated. HA stem-directed antibodies were elicited in mice primed with a DNA vaccine and boosted with inactivated vaccine from H1N1 A/New Caledonia/20/1999 (1999 NC) HA regardless of preexposure. Similarly, gene-based vaccination with replication-defective adenovirus 28 (rAd28) and 5 (rAd5) vectors encoding 1999 NC HA elicited stem-directed neutralizing antibodies and conferred protection against unmatched 1934 and 2007 H1N1 virus challenge in influenza-immune ferrets. Indeed, previous exposure to certain strains could enhance immunogenicity: The strongest HA stem-directed immune response was observed in ferrets previously infected with a divergent 1934 H1N1 virus. These findings suggest that broadly neutralizing antibodies against the conserved stem region of HA can be elicited through vaccination despite previous influenza exposure, which supports the feasibility of developing stem-directed universal influenza vaccines for humans.

  18. Two Escape Mechanisms of Influenza A Virus to a Broadly Neutralizing Stalk-Binding Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ning; Swem, Lee R; Reichelt, Mike; Chen-Harris, Haiyin; Luis, Elizabeth; Park, Summer; Fouts, Ashley; Lupardus, Patrick; Wu, Thomas D; Li, Olga; McBride, Jacqueline; Lawrence, Michael; Xu, Min; Tan, Man-Wah

    2016-06-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the stalk region of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) are effective in blocking virus infection both in vitro and in vivo. The highly conserved epitopes recognized by these antibodies are critical for the membrane fusion function of HA and therefore less likely to be permissive for virus mutational escape. Here we report three resistant viruses of the A/Perth/16/2009 strain that were selected in the presence of a broadly neutralizing stalk-binding antibody. The three resistant viruses harbor three different mutations in the HA stalk: (1) Gln387Lys; (2) Asp391Tyr; (3) Asp391Gly. The Gln387Lys mutation completely abolishes binding of the antibody to the HA stalk epitope. The other two mutations, Asp391Tyr and Asp391Gly, do not affect antibody binding at neutral pH and only slightly reduce binding at low pH. Interestingly, they enhance the fusion ability of the HA, representing a novel mechanism that allows productive membrane fusion even in the presence of antibody and hence virus escape from antibody neutralization. Therefore, these mutations illustrate two different resistance mechanisms used by IAV to escape broadly neutralizing stalk-binding antibodies. Compared to the wild type virus, the resistant viruses release fewer progeny viral particles during replication and are more sensitive to Tamiflu, suggesting reduced viral fitness.

  19. Broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus from vaccinated healthy donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Mizuta, Hiroyuki [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Oshita, Masatoshi; Ideno, Shoji [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Yunoki, Mikihiro [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kuhara, Motoki [Ina Laboratory, Medical and Biological Laboratories Corporation, Ltd., Ina, Nagano 396-0002 (Japan); Yamamoto, Naomasa [Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ohu University, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan); Okuno, Yoshinobu [Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa 768-0061 (Japan); Ikuta, Kazuyoshi, E-mail: ikuta@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-09-11

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) prepared from patients with viral infections could provide information on human epitopes important for the development of vaccines as well as potential therapeutic applications. Through the fusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of five influenza-vaccinated volunteers, with newly developed murine-human chimera fusion partner cells, named SPYMEG, we obtained 10 hybridoma clones stably producing anti-influenza virus antibodies: one for influenza A H1N1, four for influenza A H3N2 and five for influenza B. Surprisingly, most of the HuMAbs showed broad reactivity within subtype and four (two for H3N2 and two for B) showed broad neutralizing ability. Importantly, epitope mapping revealed that the two broad neutralizing antibodies to H3N2 derived from different donors recognized the same epitope located underneath the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin globular region that is highly conserved among H3N2 strains.

  20. Metrology and Energy Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Xiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ May 20 is World Metrology Day and the theme of this year is "Metrology and Energy Conservation." Energy is not only a vital issue for China, but also for the world. In order to implement Proposal of the CPC Central Committee on the 11th Five-Year Program for National Economic and Social Development, the government bulletin of 5th Plenary Session of the 16th CPC Central Committee announced that "there shall be marked improvement on resource utilization; the energy consumption for unit GDP shall cut 20%, water consumption of unit industrial added value drop 30%... and the recycle ratio of industrial solid wastes shall raise by 60%." These are key targets of economic development during the 11th five-year program. To make full use of metrology for energy conservation and energy utilization, the competent metrology department of Chinese Goyernment advanced metrology program in light of China's energy status.

  1. Laser conservation paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, John F.

    2001-10-01

    Just as lasers have found countless applications in science, industry, medicine, and entertainment, an array of real and potential uses for lasers in art-conservation analytes and practice have been investigated over the past thirty years. These include holographic recording, holographic recording, holographic nondestructive testing, laser-induced ultrasonic imaging, laser-scattering surface characterization, atomic and molecular analyses, photoacoustic spectroscopy, surface modification, as well as surface divestment and cleaning. The initial endeavors in exploring and assessing the utility of these tools for art conservation are recounted for investigations involving ruby, glass, ion, YAG, carbon dioxide, dye, and excimer lasers as well as high-intensity nonlaser light generators such as xenon flashlamps and argon pinchlamps. Initially, laser divestment/cleaning was, by general consensus, the least plausible laser application in art conservation. In the past ten years it has emerged to dominate all the other applications noted above. Today, at least a dozen firms supply user-friendly laser systems optimized for a range of art-conservation divestment applications. The first-generation laser-cleaning tools are essentially a laser, a beam-delivery device, and a debris- collection accessory. Advanced developmental work has turned in large measure to ancillary subsystems for more sophisticated process control. Of particular importance are acoustic, optical, spectral, EMP, and electronic-vision process control. Beam direction may be via manual, translational-scanner, or robotic beam positioning implemented by means of fiber optics, minors, or prisms and computer control. Substrate thermal alteration and debris redeposition may be minimized or avoided through the incorporation of a gas jet, fluid or fluid jet, or dry-ice blast.

  2. The Bureau of Reclamation's New Mandate for Irrigation Water Conservation: Purposes and Policy Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael R.

    1991-02-01

    Although the Bureau of Reclamation adopted a new mission as a water management agency, social purposes of the mission and methods of accomplishing the purposes remain undefined. A broad consensus agrees that a central feature of the agency's management program should be irrigation water conservation. This paper describes three purposes of irrigation water conservation: achieving economic efficiency of water allocation, improving environmental quality of western river systems, and satisfying outstanding Native American water claims. Five policy instruments are described as alternative methods of inducing conservation: quantity-based regulation, price-based regulation, transferable water use permits, conservation subsidies, and decentralization of ownership of Reclamation facilities. Two findings are: (1) price-based regulation may not produce water conservation and (2) conservation policy instruments should be chosen with reference to their ability to achieve the purposes of federal water conservation policy. An example illustrates quantitative effects on farm income of the alternative instruments.

  3. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification.

  4. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action.

  5. 75 FR 59469 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators, Refrigerator... Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and......

  6. AGN Broad Line Regions Scale with Bolometric Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The masses of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be derived spectroscopically via virial mass estimators based on selected broad optical/ultraviolet emission lines. These estimates commonly use the line width as a proxy for the gas speed and the monochromatic continuum luminosity as a proxy for the radius of the broad line region. However, if the size of the broad line region scales with bolometric rather than monochromatic AGN luminosity, mass estimates based on different emission lines will show a systematic discrepancy which is a function of the color of the AGN continuum. This has actually been observed in mass estimates based on H-alpha / H-beta and C IV lines, indicating that AGN broad line regions indeed scale with bolometric luminosity. Given that this effect seems to have been overlooked as yet, currently used single-epoch mass estimates are likely to be biased.

  7. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  8. Clues to Quasar Broad Line Region Geometry and Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.; Barthel, P. D.

    2000-01-01

    width to show significant inverse correlations with the fractional radio core-flux density, R, the radio axis inclination indicator. Highly inclined systems have broader line wings, consistent with a high-velocity field perpendicular to the radio axis. By contrast, the narrow line-core shows...... and with an accretion disk-wind emitting the broad lines. A spherical distribution of randomly orbiting broad-line clouds and a polar high-ionization outflow are ruled out....

  9. Identification and specificity of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Laura E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Beginning in 2009, studies of the humoral responses of HIV‐positive individuals have led to the identification of scores, if not hundreds, of antibodies that are both broadly reactive and potently neutralizing. This development has provided renewed impetus toward an HIV vaccine and led directly to the development of novel immunogens. Advances in identification of donors with the most potent and broad anti‐HIV serum neutralizing responses were crucial in this effort. Equally, developme...

  10. Approved Practices in Soil Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Albert B.

    This book is written for individuals who wish to apply conservation practices, especially those of soil and water conservation, without technical assistance, to meet one's own conditions, and within his own capability to apply them. To meet these needs, the book includes a discussion and description of soil and water conservation methods for the…

  11. Conservation Education: A Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    The Soil Conservation Society of America's (SCSA) aim is to advance the science and art of good land and water use. Conservation education has a significant role in achieving the wise use of these resources. In this report, perspectives are offered on: (1) the requirements for effective conservation education programs; (2) rationale for…

  12. Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Michael H.; And Others

    This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

  13. 76 FR 22785 - Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... 7 CFR Part 12 RIN 0578-AA58 Wetland Conservation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, United States.... Background Existing wetland conservation provisions in 7 CFR part 12 require that NRCS' certification of a... Subjects in 7 CFR Part 12 Administrative practices and procedures, Soil conservation, Wetlands. For...

  14. Packaging and Performance of 980nm Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High power broad area semiconductor lasers have found increasing applications in pumping of solid state laser systems and fiber amplifiers, frequency doubling, medical systems and material processing.Packaging including the assembly design, process and thermal management, has a significant impact on the optical performance and reliability of a high power broad area laser. In this paper, we introduce the package structures and assembling process of 980nm broad area lasers and report the performances including output power, thermal behavior and far fields.We will report two types of high power broad area laser assemblies.One is a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and the other is a conduction cooled CT-mount assembly. Optical powers of 15W and 10W were achieved from a 980nm broad area laser with a 120 μ m stripe width in a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and conduction cooled CT-mount assembly, respectively.Furthermore,a high power of 6.5W out of fiber was demonstrated from a pigtailed, fully packaged butterfly-type module without TEC (Thermoelectric cooler).The measurement results showed that thermal management is the key in not only improving output power, but also significantly improving beam divergence and far field distribution.The results also showed that the die attach solder can significant impact the reliability of high power broad area lasers and that indium solder is not suitable for high power laser applications due to electromigration at high current densities and high temperatures.

  15. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  16. Long-term changes of the crustacean zooplankton community in Lake Mjøsa, the largest lake in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarl Eivind LØVIK

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Lake Mjøsa has been subject to an accelerating eutrophication from the 1950s to the mid 1970s, but comprehensive nutrient reduction efforts caused marked reductions of phytoplankton production and biomass during the 1980s, a process that continued during the 1990s. Zooplankton biomass and species composition was considerably affected during the eutrophication and subsequent oligotrophication. Total crustacean zooplankton biomass decreased along with decreasing algal biomass during the 1980s and 1990s. The seasonal means of zooplankton biomass were positively correlated with seasonal means of phytoplankton biovolume and chlorophyll-a, indicating a primarily bottom up regulation of the zooplankton biomass. Several herbivorous and omnivorous zooplankton species (Daphnia galeata, Bosmina longispina, Limnocalanus macrurus and Cyclops lacustris were probably negatively affected by reduced algal biomass, whereas other species (Holopedium gibberum and Thermocyclops oithonoides/Mesocyclops leuckarti seemed to be positively affected. H. gibberum disappeared in the 1960s, but reappeared in the 1980s after the significant reduction in algal biomass and primary production. The temporal trend of T. oithonoides/M. leuckarti indicated a strong competition with cladocerans (mainly B. longispina and D. galeata in periods with high algal biomass. Early warming of the lake could also have promoted a biomass increase of T. oithonoides/M. leuckarti in later years, although the mean epilimnion temperature did not correlate with seasonal mean biomass of these species. The seasonal mean biomass of Eudiaptomus gracilis, the dominant calanoid, showed substantial fluctuations with 6-7 years between tops, but a decreasing trend during the 1990s. However, there were no significant correlations between this species and any of the environmental variables. The study indicated that dominant cladocerans (D. galeata and B. longispina are decisive for the success of cisco

  17. Distribution of heavy metals in muscles and internal organs of Korean cephalopods and crustaceans: risk assessment for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Shim, Kil Bo; Lee, Tae Seek; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-12-01

    Samples of seven species of cephalopods and crustaceans were collected from major fish markets on the Korean coast and analyzed for mercury (Hg) using a direct Hg analyzer and for the metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distributions of heavy metals in muscles, internal organs, and whole tissues were determined, and a risk assessment was conducted to provide information concerning consumer safety. The heavy metals accumulated to higher levels (P organs than in muscles for all species. The mean concentrations of Cd, which had the highest concentrations of the three hazardous metals (Cd, Pb, and Hg), in all internal organs (except those of blue crab) exceeded the regulatory limits set by Korea and the European Union. The Cd concentrations in all whole tissues of squid and octopus (relatively large cephalopods), red snow crab, and snow crab exceeded the European Union limits. The estimated dietary intake of Cd, Pb, and Hg for each part of all species accounted for 1.73 to 130.57%, 0.03 to 0.39%, and 0.93 to 1.67%, respectively, of the provisional tolerable daily intake adopted by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives; the highest values were found in internal organs. The hazard index (HI) is recognized as a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. Because of the high HI (>1.0) of the internal organs of cephalopods and the maximum HI for whole tissue of 0.424, consumers eating internal organs or whole tissues of cephalopods could be at risk of high heavy metal exposure. Therefore, the internal organs of relatively large cephalopods and crabs (except blue crab) are unfit for consumption. However, consumption of flesh after removing internal organs is a suitable approach for decreasing exposure to harmful metals.

  18. FTIR microscopy reveals distinct biomolecular profile of crustacean digestive glands upon subtoxic exposure to ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romih, Tea; Jemec, Anita; Novak, Sara; Vaccari, Lisa; Ferraris, Paolo; Šimon, Martin; Kos, Monika; Susič, Robert; Kogej, Ksenija; Zupanc, Jernej; Drobne, Damjana

    2016-01-01

    Biomolecular profiling with Fourier-Transform InfraRed Microscopy was performed to distinguish the Zn(2+)-mediated effects on the crustacean (Porcellio scaber) digestive glands from the ones elicited by the ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). The exposure to ZnO NPs or ZnCl2 (1500 and 4000 µg Zn/g of dry food) activated different types of metabolic pathways: some were found in the case of both substances, some only in the case of ZnCl2, and some only upon exposure to ZnO NPs. Both the ZnO NPs and the ZnCl2 increased the protein (∼1312 cm(-1); 1720-1485 cm(-1)/3000-2830 cm(-1)) and RNA concentration (∼1115 cm(-1)). At the highest exposure concentration of ZnCl2, where the effects occurred also at the organismal level, some additional changes were found that were not detected upon the ZnO NP exposure. These included changed carbohydrate (most likely glycogen) concentrations (∼1043 cm(-1)) and the desaturation of cell membrane lipids (∼3014 cm(-1)). The activation of novel metabolic pathways, as evidenced by changed proteins' structure (at 1274 cm(-1)), was found only in the case of ZnO NPs. This proves that Zn(2+) are not the only inducers of the response to ZnO NPs. Low bioavailable fraction of Zn(2+) in the digestive glands exposed to ZnO NPs further supports the role of particles in the ZnO NP-generated effects. This study provides the evidence that ZnO NPs induce their own metabolic responses in the subtoxic range.

  19. Descending into the abyss: Bathymetric patterns of diversity in decapod crustaceans shift with taxonomic level and life strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Trübenbach, Katja; Baptista, Miguel; Araújo, Ricardo; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the depth-related changes in the diversity of decapod crustaceans from the intertidal to abyssal zones off Madeira Archipelago, a chain of islands in the subtropical North East Atlantic Ocean. The bathymetric gradient in species richness was evaluated using the reported ranges of 175 out of approximately 186 decapod species known in this archipelago. The depth-related changes at different taxonomic (order, sub-orders and families) and life strategy (pelagic, benthopelagic and benthic) levels were investigated and different ecological hypotheses (species-energy, mid-domain and Rapoport's effects) were tested to explain the observed patterns. No unimodal trend of Decapoda diversity was revealed and, instead, a monotonic decrease towards the abyss was observed, mainly as a consequence of the depth-related changes in the benthic diversity of the suborder Pleocyemata. Nonetheless, all bathymetric gradients of pelagic diversity (at order and suborder levels) displayed parabolic trends. There was also a general increase in bathymetric range towards greater depth, and the major faunal break was identified within the continental shelf area. All species richness-depth patterns were significantly nested, but there was a clear increasing trend in randomness from the benthic to the pelagic realm. The present study shows for the first time that even within the same taxonomic group and geographic region different bathymetric patterns of diversity can be observed, depending on the taxonomic level and, more importantly, on the group's life strategies. Moreover, our analysis supports the species-energy hypothesis, implicating a combination of temperature and food availability as the main causal predictors explaining diversity variation.

  20. Survivorship in micro fungi and crustacean resting stages during ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum land testing of EXPOSE unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Deshevaya, Elena; Brancelj, Anton; Malyavin, Stanislav

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches on interplanetary quarantine within space missions. Direct experiments in open space supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria and fungi spores in open space during long time experiments (Novikova et al. 2007). The rate of survivorship in long-term mission was low but enough to conclude that biological invasion to Mars is a real danger. The possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it dormant stages (spores) of primitive fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium expansum, and Penicillium aurantiogriseum derived from ISS environment were used in the land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions. Survivorship in resting eggs of some crustaceans with dried (cladoceran Daphnia magna, fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis and ostracode Eucypris ornate from hemi desert Caspian area) and wet diapause state (copepod Mixodiaptomus tatricus from the Tatra mountains, altitude 1510 m) was tested also. The total UV dose of 9,1x10 to the 4th KJ/m2 during this imitation was accomplished with a SOL 2000 sun simulator lamp. The final vacuum value achieved during EST was 10 to the minus 6 Pa. Temperature during the experiment fluctuated in the range 19-25 o C. Micro fungi showed a high level of survivorship in samples treated with UV samples varied from 95 till 100 Supported by RFBR grant 07-04-00006.

  1. Brain architecture in the terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus (Anomura, Coenobitidae, a crustacean with a good aerial sense of smell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Bill S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the evolutionary radiation of Crustacea, several lineages in this taxon convergently succeeded in meeting the physiological challenges connected to establishing a fully terrestrial life style. These physiological adaptations include the need for sensory organs of terrestrial species to function in air rather than in water. Previous behavioral and neuroethological studies have provided solid evidence that the land hermit crabs (Coenobitidae, Anomura are a group of crustaceans that have evolved a good sense of aerial olfaction during the conquest of land. We wanted to study the central olfactory processing areas in the brains of these organisms and to that end analyzed the brain of Coenobita clypeatus (Herbst, 1791; Anomura, Coenobitidae, a fully terrestrial tropical hermit crab, by immunohistochemistry against synaptic proteins, serotonin, FMRFamide-related peptides, and glutamine synthetase. Results The primary olfactory centers in this species dominate the brain and are composed of many elongate olfactory glomeruli. The secondary olfactory centers that receive an input from olfactory projection neurons are almost equally large as the olfactory lobes and are organized into parallel neuropil lamellae. The architecture of the optic neuropils and those areas associated with antenna two suggest that C. clypeatus has visual and mechanosensory skills that are comparable to those of marine Crustacea. Conclusion In parallel to previous behavioral findings of a good sense of aerial olfaction in C. clypeatus, our results indicate that in fact their central olfactory pathway is most prominent, indicating that olfaction is a major sensory modality that these brains process. Interestingly, the secondary olfactory neuropils of insects, the mushroom bodies, also display a layered structure (vertical and medial lobes, superficially similar to the lamellae in the secondary olfactory centers of C. clypeatus. More detailed analyses with

  2. Conservation Laws with Dissipation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    smooth, due to the formation of shock waves. However, global solutions exist in the class of functions of bounded variation ,/in the sense of Tonelli...hyperbolic conservation law (2.2) ut + f(u)x -0 The Cauchy problem for (2.2), with initial data u(x,O), of bounded variation , admits a solution in the class...BV of functions of bounded variation ,.in the sense of Tonelli-Cesari. No gain would be made by assuming that u(x,O) is smoother, even analytic! In

  3. Hearing Conservation Live #2430

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  4. CHP and Energy Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Jim

    1995-01-01

    The principles of the use of 'combined heat and power' (CHP) for the achievement of fuel energy conservation, minimisation of environmental impact and economic advantage are explained. A distinction is made between the two types of outputs: heat and work. It is argued that an efficiency value that is defined as the sum of the heat and work outputs divided by the energy of the fuel used is not very meaningful. An alternative, rational, efficiency is explained. It is concluded that CHP is an op...

  5. Is Baryon Number Conserved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Jogesh C.; Salam, Abdus

    We suggest that baryon-number conservation may not be absolute and that an integrally charged quark may disintegrate into two leptons and an antilepton with a coupling strength G Bmp2≲ 10-9. On the other hand, if quarks are much heavier than low-lying hadrons, the decay of a three-quark system like the proton is highly forbidden (proton lifetime ≳ 1028 y). Motivation for these ideas appears to arise within a unified theory of hadrons and leptons and their gauge interactions. We emphasize the consequences of such a possibility for real quark searches.

  6. Energy conservation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtright, H.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  7. Conservation covenants on private land: issues with measuring and achieving biodiversity outcomes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, James A; Carr, C Ben

    2014-09-01

    Conservation covenants and easements have become essential tools to secure biodiversity outcomes on private land, and to assist in meeting international protection targets. In Australia, the number and spatial area of conservation covenants has grown significantly in the past decade. Yet there has been little research or detailed policy analysis of conservation covenanting in Australia. We sought to determine how conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties, and factors inhibiting or contributing to measuring these outcomes. In addition, we also investigated the drivers and constraints associated with actually delivering the biodiversity outcomes, drawing on detailed input from covenanting programs. Although all conservation covenanting programs had the broad aim of maintaining or improving biodiversity in their covenants in the long term, the specific stated objectives of conservation covenanting programs varied. Programs undertook monitoring and evaluation in different ways and at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, it was difficult to determine the extent Australian conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties on a national scale. Lack of time available to covenantors to undertake management was one of the biggest impediments to achieving biodiversity conservation outcomes. A lack of financial resources and human capital to monitor, knowing what to monitor, inconsistent monitoring methodologies, a lack of benchmark data, and length of time to achieve outcomes were all considered potential barriers to monitoring the biodiversity conservation outcomes of conservation covenants.

  8. Conservation Covenants on Private Land: Issues with Measuring and Achieving Biodiversity Outcomes in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, James A.; Carr, C. Ben

    2014-09-01

    Conservation covenants and easements have become essential tools to secure biodiversity outcomes on private land, and to assist in meeting international protection targets. In Australia, the number and spatial area of conservation covenants has grown significantly in the past decade. Yet there has been little research or detailed policy analysis of conservation covenanting in Australia. We sought to determine how conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties, and factors inhibiting or contributing to measuring these outcomes. In addition, we also investigated the drivers and constraints associated with actually delivering the biodiversity outcomes, drawing on detailed input from covenanting programs. Although all conservation covenanting programs had the broad aim of maintaining or improving biodiversity in their covenants in the long term, the specific stated objectives of conservation covenanting programs varied. Programs undertook monitoring and evaluation in different ways and at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, it was difficult to determine the extent Australian conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties on a national scale. Lack of time available to covenantors to undertake management was one of the biggest impediments to achieving biodiversity conservation outcomes. A lack of financial resources and human capital to monitor, knowing what to monitor, inconsistent monitoring methodologies, a lack of benchmark data, and length of time to achieve outcomes were all considered potential barriers to monitoring the biodiversity conservation outcomes of conservation covenants.

  9. Predators on private land: broad-scale socioeconomic interactions influence large predator management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley S. Clements

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of private land conservation areas (PLCAs is placing increasing pressure on conservation authorities to effectively regulate their ecological management. Many PLCAs depend on tourism for income, and charismatic large mammal species are considered important for attracting international visitors. Broad-scale socioeconomic factors therefore have the potential to drive fine-scale ecological management, creating a systemic scale mismatch that can reduce long-term sustainability in cases where economic and conservation objectives are not perfectly aligned. We assessed the socioeconomic drivers and outcomes of large predator management on 71 PLCAs in South Africa. Owners of PLCAs that are stocking free-roaming large predators identified revenue generation as influencing most or all of their management decisions, and rated profit generation as a more important objective than did the owners of PLCAs that did not stock large predators. Ecotourism revenue increased with increasing lion (Panthera leo density, which created a potential economic incentive for stocking lion at high densities. Despite this potential mismatch between economic and ecological objectives, lion densities were sustainable relative to available prey. Regional-scale policy guidelines for free-roaming lion management were ecologically sound. By contrast, policy guidelines underestimated the area required to sustain cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, which occurred at unsustainable densities relative to available prey. Evidence of predator overstocking included predator diet supplementation and frequent reintroduction of game. We conclude that effective facilitation of conservation on private land requires consideration of the strong and not necessarily beneficial multiscale socioeconomic factors that influence private land management.

  10. Water Wisdom: 23 Stand-Alone Activities on Water Supply and Water Conservation for High School Students. 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    This water conservation education program for high schools consists of both stand-alone activities and teacher support materials. Lessons are divided into six broad categories: (1) The Water Cycle; (2) Water and Society; (3) Keeping Water Pure; (4) Visualizing Volumes; (5) The Economics of Water Use; and (6) Domestic Water Conservation. The…

  11. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  12. Selling energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity.

  13. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  14. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

    2015-03-01

    We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  15. Ensamble de crustáceos bentónicos en un lago salino tropical Benthic crustaceans assemblage in a tropical, saline lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Carmen Hernández

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo reconoce la composición, estructura y distribución espacial del ensamble de crustáceos bentónicos de Alchichica, un lago salino tropical ubicado en el extremo oriental del altiplano mexicano. El lago presenta una riqueza taxonómica de crustáceos bentónicos compuesta por 1 anfípodo (Hyalella azteca, 1 isópodo (Caecidotea williamsi y 2 ostrácodos (Limnocythere inopinata y Candona sp.. Comparada con otros lagos tropicales, la riqueza de especies es reducida. A pesar de lo anterior, es importante mencionar el grado elevado de endemismo representado por C. williamsi, recientemente descrita para el lago Alchichica; adicionalmente, es factible que tanto Candona como H. azteca sean especies nuevas y endémicas del lago. Los crustáceos bentónicos se distribuyen desde la zona litoral hasta la zona más profunda del lago (62 m con abundancias y riqueza taxonómica variables. Los ostrácodos fueron los crustáceos que con mayor frecuencia se recolectaron en el lago, en la zona litoral, en el talud, y en la zona profunda de la que son habitantes exclusivos. Los anfípodos constituyeron el segundo grupo en abundancia de la zona litoral y talud y estuvieron ausentes en la zona profunda. Los isópodos sólo se encuentran asociados a los depósitos de tufa, hábitat característico del lago que se extiende a lo largo del talud, por lo que con las técnicas de muestreo tradicional empleadas en el presente estudio no fueron capturados. En este ensamble de crustáceos predominan las especies de desarrollo directo y con posiciones tróficas que incluyen componentes herbívoros (H. azteca, omnívoros (C. williamsi y bacterívoros (L. inopinata y Candona sp..This work acknowledges the composition, structure and spatial distribution of the benthic crustaceans assemblage of Alchichica, a tropical saline lake located in the easternmost portion of the Mexican highlands. The benthic crustaceans' assemblage was comprised by 1 amphipod

  16. Bonneville Power Administration`s Commercial Sector Conservation Market.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordan, Frederick M. [Pacific Energy Associates, Inc. (United States)

    1992-11-10

    Bonneville has, as part of its resource plan, accepted targets for commercial conservation which are quite ambitious. To meet these targets, Bonneville will need to acquire as much cost-effective conservation as possible over the next twelve years. With this in mind, this document explores the relative importance of different commercial market segments and the types of assistance each market needs to install as many cost-effective conservation measures in as many buildings as possible. This document reviews Bonneville`s marketing environment and position, and suggests goals for commercial sector conservation marketing at Bonneville. Then it presents a broad market segmentation and series of additional demographic analyses. These analyses assess what groups of consumers Bonneville must reach to achieve most of the commercial conservation potential and what is needed to reach them. A final section reviews the success of Bonneville programs at reaching various markets. The market segmentation identifies different types of consumers and opportunities which would require distinct program approaches. Four large market segments are identified that have distinct program needs. Then four ``building life-cycle events`` are identified which provide important conservation opportunities and also require distinct program services. This creates a matrix of 16 cells which delineate distinct needs for program marketing. Each of the four key market segments manages at least 20% of the Region`s commercial floorspace.

  17. Whereto with institutions and governance challenges in African wildlife conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchapondwa, Edwin; Stage, Jesper

    2015-09-01

    African wildlife conservation has been transformed, shifting from a traditional, state-managed government approach to a broader governance approach with a wide range of actors designing and implementing wildlife policy. The most widely popularized approach has been that of community-managed nature conservancies. The knowledge of how institutions function in relation to humans and their use of the environment is critical to the design and implementation of effective conservation. This paper seeks to review the institutional and governance challenges faced in wildlife conservation in southern and eastern Africa. We discuss two different sets of challenges related to the shift in conservation practices: the practical implementation of wildlife governance, and the capacity of current governance structures to capture and distribute economic benefits from wildlife. To some extent, the issues raised by the new policies must be resolved through theoretical and empirical research addressed at wildlife conservation per se. However, many of these issues apply more broadly to a wide range of policy arenas and countries where similar policy shifts have taken place.

  18. A horizon scan for species conservation by zoos and aquariums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusset, Markus; Fa, John E; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    We conducted the first horizon scan for zoos and aquariums to identify the 10 most important emerging issues for species conservation. This involved input from more than 100 experts from both the wider conservation community and the world zoo and aquarium community. Some of the issues are globally important: diseases, zoonoses, and biosecurity issues; new (communication) technologies; global water shortage and food insecurity; developing economies and markets for wildlife consumption; changes in wildlife population dynamics; and political instability and conflicts. Other issues are more specific to zoos and aquariums: need for extractive reserves; space shortage in zoos and aquariums; need for metapopulation management; and demand for caring of more species in zoos and aquariums. We also identified some broad approaches to these issues. Addressing the emerging issues identified in our horizon scan will further increase the contribution of the world zoo and aquarium community to global biodiversity conservation.

  19. Partners in amphibian and reptile conservation 2013 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Paulette M.; Weir, Linda A.; Nanjappa, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (PARC) was established in 1999 to address the widespread declines, extinctions, and range reductions of amphibians and reptiles, with a focus on conservation of taxa and habitats in North America. Amphibians and reptiles are affected by a broad range of human activities, both as incidental effects of habitat alteration and direct effect from overexploitation; these animals are also challenged by the perception that amphibians and reptiles are either dangerous or of little environmental or economic value. However, PARC members understand these taxa are important parts of our natural an cultural heritage and they serve important roles in ecosystems throughout the world. With many amphibians and reptiles classified as threatened with extinction, conservation of these animals has never been more important.

  20. Crystal structure of a crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) precursor suggests structural variety in the C-terminal regions of CHH superfamily members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Arisaka, Fumio; Tanokura, Masaru; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Koji

    2016-12-01

    The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is one of the major hormones in crustaceans, and peptides belonging to the CHH superfamily have been found in diverse ecdysozoans. Although the basic function of CHH is to control energy metabolism, it also plays various roles in crustacean species, such as in molting and vitellogenesis. Here, we present the crystal structure of Pej-SGP-I-Gly, a partially active precursor of CHH from the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, which has an additional Gly residue in place of the C-terminal amide group of the mature Pej-SGP-I. The 1.6-angstrom crystal structure showed not only the common CHH superfamily scaffold comprising three α-helices, three disulfide bridges, and a hydrophobic core but also revealed that the C-terminal part has a variant backbone fold that is specific to Pej-SGP-I-Gly. The α-helix 4 of Pej-SGP-I-Gly was much longer than that of molt-inhibiting hormone (Pej-MIH) from the same species, and as a result, the following C-terminal helix, corresponding to α-helix 5 in MIH, was not formed. Unlike monomeric Pej-MIH, Pej-SGP-I-Gly forms a homodimer in the crystal structure via its unique α-helix 4. The unexpected dissimilar folds between Pej-SGP-I-Gly and Pej-MIH appear to be the result of their distinct C-terminal amino acid sequences. Variations in amino acid sequences and lengths and the resulting variety of backbone folds allow the C-terminal and sterically adjoining regions to confer different hormonal activities in diverse CHH superfamily members.

  1. Bid Optimization in Broad-Match Ad auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Even-dar, Eyal; Mirrokni, Vahab; Muthukrishnan, S; Nadav, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Ad auctions in sponsored search support ``broad match'' that allows an advertiser to target a large number of queries while bidding only on a limited number. While giving more expressiveness to advertisers, this feature makes it challenging to optimize bids to maximize their returns: choosing to bid on a query as a broad match because it provides high profit results in one bidding for related queries which may yield low or even negative profits. We abstract and study the complexity of the {\\em bid optimization problem} which is to determine an advertiser's bids on a subset of keywords (possibly using broad match) so that her profit is maximized. In the query language model when the advertiser is allowed to bid on all queries as broad match, we present an linear programming (LP)-based polynomial-time algorithm that gets the optimal profit. In the model in which an advertiser can only bid on keywords, ie., a subset of keywords as an exact or broad match, we show that this problem is not approximable within any ...

  2. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  3. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqing; Li, Shaowei; Gu, Ying; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-11-18

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART) but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  4. An Evolutionarily Conserved Synthetic Lethal Interaction Network Identifies FEN1 as a Broad-Spectrum Target for Anticancer Therapeutic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Derek M. van Pel; Barrett, Irene J.; Yoko Shimizu; Sajesh, Babu V.; Brent J Guppy; Tom Pfeifer; McManus, Kirk J.; Philip Hieter

    2013-01-01

    Harnessing genetic differences between cancerous and noncancerous cells offers a strategy for the development of new therapies. Extrapolating from yeast genetic interaction data, we used cultured human cells and siRNA to construct and evaluate a synthetic lethal interaction network comprised of chromosome instability (CIN) genes that are frequently mutated in colorectal cancer. A small number of genes in this network were found to have synthetic lethal interactions with a large number of canc...

  5. Of reindeer and man, modern and Neanderthal: A creation story founded on a historic perspective on how to conserve wildlife, woodland caribou in particular

    OpenAIRE

    Valerius Geist

    2003-01-01

    A review of successful systems of wildlife conservation, the North American included, suggests that broad public support and determined effort by volunteers is essential for wildlife conservation. Since North American wildlife conservation is the only large-scale system of sustainable natural resource use, and exemplifies the great economic and cultural benefits of a renewable resource held in common, its lessons may be profitably applied to Rangifer conservation. Animals that have value are ...

  6. Interfamily transfer of a plant pattern-recognition receptor confers broad-spectrum bacterial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Séverine; Rougon-Cardoso, Alejandra; Sherwood, Emma; Peeters, Nemo; Dahlbeck, Douglas; van Esse, H Peter; Smoker, Matthew; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Thomma, Bart P H J; Staskawicz, Brian; Jones, Jonathan D G; Zipfel, Cyril

    2010-04-01

    Plant diseases cause massive losses in agriculture. Increasing the natural defenses of plants may reduce the impact of phytopathogens on agricultural productivity. Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) detect microbes by recognizing conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Although the overall importance of PAMP-triggered immunity for plant defense is established, it has not been used to confer disease resistance in crops. We report that activity of a PRR is retained after its transfer between two plant families. Expression of EFR (ref. 4), a PRR from the cruciferous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, confers responsiveness to bacterial elongation factor Tu in the solanaceous plants Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), making them more resistant to a range of phytopathogenic bacteria from different genera. Our results in controlled laboratory conditions suggest that heterologous expression of PAMP recognition systems could be used to engineer broad-spectrum disease resistance to important bacterial pathogens, potentially enabling more durable and sustainable resistance in the field.

  7. Community strategy for mangrove forest conservation: Conquista Campesina Conservation Easement

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The drafting of a community plan for mangrove forest conservation in the communal land of Conquista Campesina (Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico) is part of a more ambitious project aimed at establishing a protected wetlands corridor in the coastal region of the state of Chiapas. The purpose is to guarantee the conservation, protection and restoration of priority wetlands, placing special emphasis on vulnerable ecosystems. With the technical support of Pronatura Sur A. C. and after signing a conserv...

  8. Energy efficiency and conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A. [Association for the Conservation of Energy, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The article discusses energy efficiency and conservation in the light of what is termed 'least cost planning'. It is explained how the normal market economy scenario of producing and purchasing in terms of supply and demand are not sufficient to describe the energy market. Seven market imperfections and barriers which hinder optimal investment in energy efficiency are listed. Much of the article is devoted to explaining the meaning of least cost planning and compares energy bills with energy prices. Sub-headings in the article include: (i) Integrated Resource Planning as an Instrument of Strategic Resource Planning; (ii) Accounting for the Environmental Externalities of Electricity Production in the USA; (iii) Monetization Using Damage Costs; (iv) Monetization Using Control Costs; (v) Damage Costs versus Control Costs for Policy Purposes and (vi) Unpriceable Environmental Costs.

  9. Conservative Noise Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M.Jamjoom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Noisy training data have a huge negative impact on machine learning algorithms. Noise-filtering algorithms have been proposed to eliminate such noisy instances. In this work, we empirically show that the most popular noise-filtering algorithms have a large False Positive (FP error rate. In other words, these noise filters mistakenly identify genuine instances as outliers and eliminate them. Therefore, we propose more conservative outlier identification criteria that improve the FP error rate and, thus, the performance of the noise filters. With the new filter, an instance is eliminated if and only if it is misclassified by a mutual decision of Naïve Bayesian (NB classifier and the original filtering criteria being used. The number of genuine instances that are incorrectly eliminated is reduced as a result, thereby improving the classification accuracy.

  10. PG 1411 + 442 - The nearest broad absorption line quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkan, Matthew A.; Green, Richard F.; Hutchings, John B.

    1987-01-01

    IUE observations reveal strong, moderately broad absorption troughs in the blue wings of the C IV and N V emission lines of the quasar PG 1411 + 442. No absorption from weakly ionized gas is detected. The emission-line strengths and overall shape of the ultraviolet/optical/near-infrared/far-infrared continuum of the new broad absorption line quasar are within the range normally measured in quasars. Its redshift is low enough to allow the morphology of the host galaxy to be studied in deep broad-band and intermediate-band CCD images. The galaxy appears to be a large spiral with a very long arm or tail. The inclination angle is 57 deg, which rules out the possibility that the line of sight to the nucleus intersects a large path length in a galactic disk.

  11. Folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunsong; Zhu, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The angled-grating broad-area laser is a promising candidate for high power, high brightness diode laser source. The key point in the design is the angled gratings which can simultaneously support the unique snake-like zigzag lasing mode and eliminate the direct Fabry-Perot (FP) feedback. Unlike a conventional laser waveguide mode, the phase front of the zigzag mode periodically changes along the propagation direction. By use of the mirror symmetry of the zigzag mode, we propose and demonstrate the folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers. One benefit of this design is to reduce the required wafer space compared to a regular angled-grating broad-area laser, especially in a long cavity laser for high power operation. Experimental results show that the folded cavity laser exhibits good beam quality in far field with a slightly larger threshold and smaller slope efficiency due to the additional interface loss.

  12. Surface Roughness Effects on Discharge Coefficient of Broad Crested Weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker A. Jalil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of surface roughness sizes on the discharge coefficient for a broad crested weirs. For this purpose, three models having different lengths of broad crested weirs were tested in a horizontal flume. In each model, the surface was roughed four times. Experimental results of all models showed that the logical negative effect of roughness increased on the discharge (Q for different values of length. The performance of broad crested weir improved with decrease ratio of roughness to the weir height (Ks/P and with the increase of the total Head to the Length (H/L. An empirical equation was obtained to estimate the variation of discharge coefficient Cd in terms total head to length ratio, with total head to roughness ratio.

  13. Broad ligament pregnancy a diagnostic dilemma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Broad ligament pregnancy is one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy with high risk of maternal mortality. Although ultrasonography is usually helpful in making the diagnosis but it is mostly established during laparotomy. 34 year old G2P1 with previous caesarean section reported at 8th month of pregnancy with inability to perceive foetal movements. Ultrasonography confirmed intrauterine fetal demise. Patient was taken for caesarean section after failed induction. Intraoperative diagnosis of broad ligament pregnancy was made and broad ligament along with fetus, sac, fallopian tube and ovary was excised. Post-operative period was uneventful. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2478-2480

  14. Why not energy conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation is a deep principle that is obeyed by all of the fundamental forces of nature. It puts stringent constraints on all systems, particularly systems that are ‘isolated,’ meaning that no energy can enter or escape. Notwithstanding the success of the principle of stationary action, it is fair to wonder to what extent physics can be formulated from the principle of stationary energy. We show that if one interprets mechanical energy as a state function, then its stationarity leads to a novel formulation of classical mechanics. However, unlike Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which deliver their state functions via algebraic proscriptions (i.e., the Lagrangian is always the difference between a system’s kinetic and potential energies), this new formalism identifies its state functions as the solutions to a differential equation. This is an important difference because differential equations can generate more general solutions than algebraic recipes. When applied to Newtonian systems for which the energy function is separable, these state functions are always the mechanical energy. However, while the stationary state function for a charged particle moving in an electromagnetic field proves not to be energy, the function nevertheless correctly encodes the dynamics of the system. Moreover, the stationary state function for a free relativistic particle proves not to be the energy either. Rather, our differential equation yields the relativistic free-particle Lagrangian (plus a non-dynamical constant) in its correct dynamical context. To explain how this new formalism can consistently deliver stationary state functions that give the correct dynamics but that are not always the mechanical energy, we propose that energy conservation is a specific realization of a deeper principle of stationarity that governs both relativistic and non-relativistic mechanics.

  15. Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Teng; Kong, Liangliang; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jinping; Liu, Qingwei; Chen, Tan; Zhang, Yingyi; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Linqi; Huang, Zhong; Cong, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection. PMID:26938634

  16. Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaohua; Fan, Chen; Ku, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Teng; Kong, Liangliang; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jinping; Liu, Qingwei; Chen, Tan; Zhang, Yingyi; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Linqi; Huang, Zhong; Cong, Yao

    2016-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection.

  17. Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Ye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3 of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2, the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection.

  18. Energy-conserving development regulations: current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Almost every aspect of land development has an effect on energy use, from minute architectural details to broad considerations of urban density. Energy-efficiency depends in part on how development is planned and carried out. Conventional development regulations, such as zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, can be adapted in many ways to promote energy conservation at the community level. This report is about energy-efficient site and neighborhood design. It examines recent experiences of local governments that have adopted new development regulations or amended existing ones to promote energy conservation, more efficient generation and distribution, or a switch to alternative, renewable sources. Although much has been written in recent years about saving energy through community design, actual experience in applying these new ideas is still limited. To date, most communities have focused their efforts on studying the problem, documenting consumption patterns, and writing reports and plans. Only a handful have amended their land-use controls for the express purpose of saving energy. This study identifies 13 of these pioneering communities, after undertaking a survey of over 1400 local, regional, and state planning agencies. It takes a look at their experiences, to learn what has been done, how well it has worked, and what problems have been encountered.

  19. A crustin isoform from black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon exhibits broad spectrum anti-bacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Banerjee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans have a powerful non-specific immune mechanism that responds to pathogen invasion and together with cellular responses, generates powerful humoral factors such as antimicrobial peptides. Crustins are a diverse class of antimicrobial peptides that are expressed by the circulating haemocytes of crustaceans. Several isoforms of this molecule are reported and in this study, one isoform from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli SG 13009. The purified recombinant crustin peptide had a molecular weight of 22 kDa and exhibited potent anti-bacterial activity in vitro against several Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria that included pathogens of aquatic animals and humans. The recombinant crustin showed a minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.5 μg ml−1 against the vibrio pathogens of shrimp, which suggests its promise for application in aquaculture.

  20. The molecular basis for the broad substrate specificity of human sulfotransferase 1A1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Berger

    Full Text Available Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs are mammalian enzymes that detoxify a wide variety of chemicals through the addition of a sulfate group. Despite extensive research, the molecular basis for the broad specificity of SULTs is still not understood. Here, structural, protein engineering and kinetic approaches were employed to obtain deep understanding of the molecular basis for the broad specificity, catalytic activity and substrate inhibition of SULT1A1. We have determined five new structures of SULT1A1 in complex with different acceptors, and utilized a directed evolution approach to generate SULT1A1 mutants with enhanced thermostability and increased catalytic activity. We found that active site plasticity enables binding of different acceptors and identified dramatic structural changes in the SULT1A1 active site leading to the binding of a second acceptor molecule in a conserved yet non-productive manner. Our combined approach highlights the dominant role of SULT1A1 structural flexibility in controlling the specificity and activity of this enzyme.

  1. Nucleotide Base Variation of Blast Disease Resistance Gene Pi33 in Rice Selected Broad Genetic Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWINITA WIKAN UTAMI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important crops for human beings, thus increasing productivity are continually persecuted. Blast disease can reduce the rate of productivity of rice cultivation. Therefore, the program of blast disease-resistant varieties needs to do effectively. One of broad-spectrum blast disease-resistant gene is Pi33. This study was aimed to identify the variation in the sequence of nucleotide bases of Pi33 gene in five interspesific lines which derived from Bio46 (IR64/Oryza rufipogon and CT13432 crossing. DNA of five rice lines were amplified using the spesific primer for Pi33, G1010. Amplification results purified through Exonuclease 1 and Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatase protocols. Labelling using fluorescent dyes done before sequencing nucleotide base using CEQ8000 instrument. The results showed that lines number 28 showed introgesion of the three control parent genome (subspecies of Indica, subspecies of Japonica, and O. rufipogon while the Lines number 79, 136, and 143 were identical to Indica genome. Strain number 195 was identical to Japonica genome. These broad genetic background lines promise as durable performance to attack the expansion of the dynamic nature of the pathogen to blast. The result of ortholog sequence analysis found conserved nucleotide base sequence (CAGCAGCC which involved in heterotrimeric G-protein group. This protein has role as plant receptor for recognizing pathogen elicitor in interaction of rice and blast pathogen.

  2. Fast symplectic mapping and long-term stability near broad resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnock, R.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (United States); Berg, J.S. [European Organization for High-Energy Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    1997-04-01

    Fast symplectic mapping, based on a canonical generator of the full-turn map in polar coordinates (I, {Phi}), is a powerful tool to study long-term stability in large hadron storage rings. Accurate maps for realistic lattices can be constructed in a few hours on a workstation computer, and can be iterated to follow orbits for 10{sup 7} turns in less than 4 hours. Orbits of the map can also be used in a non-perturbative construction of quasi-invariant actions. By bounding the small changes in quasi-invariants along many short orbits, one can derive conservative estimates of survival time for long orbits, for any initial condition in a region of phase space. A first quasi-invariant vector, J, arises from a canonical transformation (1, {Phi}) {r_arrow} (J, {Psi}), based on interpolation of invariant tori surrounding the origin. The variation of J is relatively large near a broad resonance. In such a region a second canonical transformation, associated with pendulum-like motion in appropriate variables, is required to produce a good quasi-invariant. This quasi-invariant is used to set a long-term bound on motion near a broad, large-amplitude resonance in a realistic model of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Interesting general properties of the pseudo-pendulum motion are studied.

  3. Broadly Neutralizing Alphavirus Antibodies Bind an Epitope on E2 and Inhibit Entry and Egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Julie M; Long, Feng; Edeling, Melissa A; Lin, Hueylie; van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Fong, Rachel H; Kahle, Kristen M; Smit, Jolanda M; Jin, Jing; Simmons, Graham; Doranz, Benjamin J; Crowe, James E; Fremont, Daved H; Rossmann, Michael G; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-11-19

    We screened a panel of mouse and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against chikungunya virus and identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing MAbs protected mice against infection by chikungunya, Mayaro, and O'nyong'nyong alphaviruses. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis, loss-of-function recombinant proteins and viruses, and multiple functional assays, we determined that broadly neutralizing MAbs block multiple steps in the viral lifecycle, including entry and egress, and bind to a conserved epitope on the B domain of the E2 glycoprotein. A 16 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of a Fab fragment bound to CHIKV E2 B domain provided an explanation for its neutralizing activity. Binding to the B domain was associated with repositioning of the A domain of E2 that enabled cross-linking of neighboring spikes. Our results suggest that B domain antigenic determinants could be targeted for vaccine or antibody therapeutic development against multiple alphaviruses of global concern.

  4. 77 FR 74167 - Information Collection Request: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland... associated with Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation certification requirements. This.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation Certification....

  5. 78 FR 23335 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... April 18, 2013 Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Energy... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers AGENCY: Office... Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation...

  6. Values, Advocay and Conservation Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    In this essay, I examine the controversy concerning the advocacy of ethical values in conservation biology. First, I argue, as others have, that conservation biology is a science laden with values both ethical and non-ethical. Second, after clarifying the notion of advocacy at work, I contend that conservation biologists should advocate the preservation of biological diversity. Third, I explore what ethical grounds should be used for advocating the preservation of ecological systems by conser...

  7. Transcriptome dynamics of a broad host-range cyanophage and its hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Shany; Fedida, Ayalla; Hernández-Prieto, Miguel A; Sabehi, Gazalah; Karunker, Iris; Stazic, Damir; Feingersch, Roi; Steglich, Claudia; Futschik, Matthias; Lindell, Debbie; Sorek, Rotem

    2016-06-01

    Cyanobacteria are highly abundant in the oceans and are constantly exposed to lytic viruses. The T4-like cyanomyoviruses are abundant in the marine environment and have broad host-ranges relative to other cyanophages. It is currently unknown whether broad host-range phages specifically tailor their infection program for each host, or employ the same program irrespective of the host infected. Also unknown is how different hosts respond to infection by the same phage. Here we used microarray and RNA-seq analyses to investigate the interaction between the Syn9 T4-like cyanophage and three phylogenetically, ecologically and genomically distinct marine Synechococcus strains: WH7803, WH8102 and WH8109. Strikingly, Syn9 led a nearly identical infection and transcriptional program in all three hosts. Different to previous assumptions for T4-like cyanophages, three temporally regulated gene expression classes were observed. Furthermore, a novel regulatory element controlled early-gene transcription, and host-like promoters drove middle gene transcription, different to the regulatory paradigm for T4. Similar results were found for the P-TIM40 phage during infection of Prochlorococcus NATL2A. Moreover, genomic and metagenomic analyses indicate that these regulatory elements are abundant and conserved among T4-like cyanophages. In contrast to the near-identical transcriptional program employed by Syn9, host responses to infection involved host-specific genes primarily located in hypervariable genomic islands, substantiating islands as a major axis of phage-cyanobacteria interactions. Our findings suggest that the ability of broad host-range phages to infect multiple hosts is more likely dependent on the effectiveness of host defense strategies than on differential tailoring of the infection process by the phage.

  8. Shigella outer membrane protein PSSP-1 is broadly protective against Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Ouk; Rho, Semi; Kim, Su Hee; Kim, Heejoo; Song, Hyo Jin; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Ryang Yeo; Kim, Eun Hye; Sinha, Anuradha; Dey, Ayan; Yang, Jae Seung; Song, Man Ki; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-04-01

    In developing countries, Shigella is a primary cause of diarrhea in infants and young children. Although antibiotic therapy is an effective treatment for shigellosis, therapeutic options are narrowing due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Thus, preventive vaccination could become the most efficacious approach for controlling shigellosis. We have identified several conserved protein antigens that are shared by multiple Shigella serotypes and species. Among these, one antigen induced cross-protection against experimental shigellosis, and we have named it pan-Shigella surface protein 1 (PSSP-1). PSSP-1-induced protection requires a mucosal administration route and coadministration of an adjuvant. When PSSP-1 was administered intranasally, it induced cross-protection against Shigella flexneri serotypes 2a, 5a, and 6, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. Intradermally administered PSSP-1 induced strong serum antibody responses but failed to induce protection in the mouse lung pneumonia model. In contrast, intranasal administration elicited efficient local and systemic antibody responses and production of interleukin 17A and gamma interferon. Interestingly, blood samples from patients with recent-onset shigellosis showed variable but significant mucosal antibody responses to other conserved Shigella protein antigens but not to PSSP-1. We suggest that PSSP-1 is a promising antigen for a broadly protective vaccine against Shigella.

  9. Pan-Nematoda Transcriptomic Elucidation of Essential Intestinal Functions and Therapeutic Targets With Broad Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Rosa, Bruce A; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-09-01

    The nematode intestine is continuous with the outside environment, making it easily accessible to anthelmintics for parasite control, but the development of new therapeutics is impeded by limited knowledge of nematode intestinal cell biology. We established the most comprehensive nematode intestinal functional database to date by generating transcriptional data from the dissected intestines of three parasitic nematodes spanning the phylum, and integrating the results with the whole proteomes of 10 nematodes (including 9 pathogens of humans or animals) and 3 host species and 2 outgroup species. We resolved 10,772 predicted nematode intestinal protein families (IntFams), and studied their presence and absence within the different lineages (births and deaths) among nematodes. Conserved intestinal cell functions representing ancestral functions of evolutionary importance were delineated, and molecular features useful for selective therapeutic targeting were identified. Molecular patterns conserved among IntFam proteins demonstrated large potential as therapeutic targets to inhibit intestinal cell functions with broad applications towards treatment and control of parasitic nematodes.

  10. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  11. Broad Band Photometric Reverberation Mapping of NGC 4395

    CERN Document Server

    Edri, Haim; Chelouche, Doron; Kaspi, Shai; Behar, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    We present results of broad band photometric reverberation mapping (RM) to measure the radius of the broad line region, and subsequently the black hole mass (M$_{\\rm BH}$), in the nearby, low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN) NGC 4395. Using the Wise Observatory's 1m telescope equipped with the SDSS g$'$, r$'$ and i$'$ broad band filters, we monitored NGC 4395 for 9 consecutive nights and obtained 3 light curves each with over 250 data points. The g$'$ and r$'$ bands include time variable contributions from H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$ (respectively) plus continuum. The i$'$ band is free of broad lines and covers exclusively continuum. We show that by looking for a peak in the difference between the cross-correlation and the auto-correlation functions for all combinations of filters, we can get a reliable estimate of the time lag necessary to compute M$_{\\rm BH}$. We measure the time lag for H$\\alpha$ to be $3.6 \\pm 0.8 $ hours, comparable to previous studies using the line resolved spectroscopic RM method. W...

  12. Mathematical Development: The Role of Broad Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Tena, Carlos O.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of broad cognitive processes in the development of mathematics skills among children and adolescents. Four hundred and forty-seven students (age mean [M] = 10.23 years, 73% boys and 27% girls) from an elementary school district in the US southwest participated. Structural equation modelling tests indicated that…

  13. PRINCIPAR An Efficient, Broad-coverage, Principle-based Parser

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, D

    1994-01-01

    We present an efficient, broad-coverage, principle-based parser for English. The parser has been implemented in C++ and runs on SUN Sparcstations with X-windows. It contains a lexicon with over 90,000 entries, constructed automatically by applying a set of extraction and conversion rules to entries from machine readable dictionaries.

  14. Model Invariance across Genders of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Neill; Wade, Jordan L.; Meyer, J. Patrick; Hull, Michael; Reeve, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    ASD is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, though comprehensive genetic liability remains elusive. To facilitate genetic research, researchers employ the concept of the broad autism phenotype (BAP), a milder presentation of traits in undiagnosed relatives. Research suggests that the BAP Questionnaire (BAPQ) demonstrates…

  15. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.;

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity of ...

  16. Broad-Band Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Fumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed with Suzaku in the main-on state from 2005 to 2010. The 0.4- 100 keV wide-band spectra obtained in four observations showed a broad hump around 4-9 keV in addition to narrow Fe lines at 6.4 and 6.7 keV. The hump was seen in all the four observations regardless of the selection of the continuum models. Thus it is considered a stable and intrinsic spectral feature in Her X-1. The broad hump lacked a sharp structure like an absorption edge. Thus it was represented by two different spectral models: an ionized partial covering or an additional broad line at 6.5 keV. The former required a persistently existing ionized absorber, whose origin was unclear. In the latter case, the Gaussian fitting of the 6.5-keV line needs a large width of sigma = 1.0-1.5 keV and a large equivalent width of 400-900 eV. If the broad line originates from Fe fluorescence of accreting matter, its large width may be explained by the Doppler broadening in the accretion flow. However, the large equivalent width may be inconsistent with a simple accretion geometry.

  17. Broad spectral range synchronized flat-top arrayed waveguide grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akca, B. Imran; Doerr, Christopher R.; Pollnau, Markus; Ridder, de René M.

    2012-01-01

    A broad-band Mach-Zehnder-interferometer-synchronized flat-top arrayed waveguide grating is presented with a 0.5-dB bandwidth of 12 nm over 90 nm of spectral range and a central excess loss value of -0.5 dB.

  18. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previou...

  19. Democracy in Conservation – Wall Painting Conservation and Church Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve

    2007-01-01

    Wall painting conservation in Denmark has been functioning within a democratically organised church infrastructure for more than 100 years, which permits an overview of community involvement in conservation over a longer period. The case stories presented here show widely varying attitudes held...

  20. Using biochemical markers to assess the effects of imposed temperature stress on freshwater decapod crustaceans: Cherax quadricarinatus as a test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, J W P; Renshaw, G M C; Furse, J M; Wild, C H

    2015-04-01

    The effects of thermal stress can impact negatively on the abundance and distribution of temperature-sensitive species, particularly freshwater crustaceans. This study investigated the effects of thermal stress on physiological and biochemical parameters at five treatment temperatures resulting in minimal (25 °C), moderate (27, 29 °C) or severe (31, 33 °C) thermal stress in the common tropical freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. The aim was to develop a suite of stress-sensitive assays to use on threatened populations of freshwater crustaceans, particularly those restricted to cooler temperatures and only found in high altitude refugia. Significant increases in indicators of oxidative and metabolic stress were observed at 29 °C and were elevated further at 33 °C. After a 50-day acclimation to an imposed temperature stress, significant changes in the level of total glutathione, total lipids, muscular protein, total haemocyte count, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls were observed between treatments while superoxide dismutase activity and haemolymph protein concentrations did not change. The data provided proof of concept that measuring key biochemical responses to high temperature can provide a means of contrasting the level of thermal stress experienced between individuals of the same species adapted to different temperatures. The methods developed are expected to be of use in research on wild populations of other freshwater poikilothermic organisms, particularly those susceptible to increased environmental temperatures associated with climate change.

  1. Silencing two main isoforms of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH induces compensatory expression of two CHH-like transcripts in the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Manfrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference has frequently been applied to modulate gene function in organisms. With the aim of creating new autocidal methods based on neuro-endocrine disruptors for invasive populations of Procambarus clarkii, we silenced the Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH by injecting the corresponding dsRNA. CHH is a pleiotropic hormone that primarily regulates the mobilization of energy reserves and plays a pivotal role in stress responses. Here, we describe two experiments aimed at testing whether CHH silencing significantly alters important physiological aspects. The first experiment investigates the effects of CHH silencing at the glycemic and transcriptomic level in the eyestalk. The second experiment explores the long-term effects of CHH silencing and the effects on mortality and moulting rates. Osmotic deficits and mortality were recorded in specimens injected with CHH dsRNA, whilst controls were injected with GFP dsRNA. After 20 days, despite still silenced for CHH, individuals that survived recovered a strong hyperglycemic response after serotonin injection due to the compensatory effect of two peptides belonging to the crustacean neurohormone CHH protein family

  2. Solution structure of Cn5, a crustacean toxin found in the venom of the scorpions Centruroides noxius and Centruroides suffusus suffusus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, Gerardo; Prochnicka-Chalufour, Ada; García, Blanca I; Possani, Lourival D; Delepierre, Muriel

    2009-11-01

    The crustacean toxin Cn5 from Centruroides noxius Hoffmann and peptide Css39.8 from Centruroides suffusus suffusus scorpion venoms are identical peptides, as confirmed by amino acid sequence of purified toxins and by DNA sequencing of the two respective cloned genes. Therefore in this communication they will be simply named Cn5. Cn5 is a 66 amino acid long peptide with four disulfide bridges, formed between pairs of cysteines: C1-C8, C2-C5, C3-C6, and C4-C7 (the numbers indicate the relative positions of the cysteine residues in the primary structure). This peptide is non-toxic to mammals but deadly to arthropods (LD(50) 28.5 mg/g body weight of crayfish). Its three-dimensional structure was determined by NMR using a total of 965 meaningful distance constraints derived from the volume integration of the 2D NOESY spectra. The Cn5 structure displays a mixed alpha/beta fold stabilized by four disulfide bridges, with a kink induced by a cis-proline in its C-terminal part. Cn5 electrostatic surface is compared to that of Cn2 toxin toxic to mammals. The local differences produced by additional or substituted residues that would influence toxin selectivity towards mammalian or crustacean Na(+) channels are discussed.

  3. Hyperglycemic activity of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormone B1 isoform (CHH-B1) of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Márquez, Ma Enriqueta; Aguilar, Manuel B; Re, Ana Denisse; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is the most abundant neuropeptide produced by the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex in the crustacean eyestalk. CHH plays a principal role in the control of glucose metabolism. The CHH-B1 isoform is produced in the eyestalk of Litopenaeus vannamei by alternative splicing of the chhB gene and its cDNA sequence has revealed that this isoform has a non-amidated C-terminal residue (CHH-like peptide). In this work, a recombinant CHH-B1 (rCHH-B1) with a sequence identical to the native hormone was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris X-33 and purified from the culture medium by RP-HPLC. The identity of the purified rCHH-B1 was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing and by using an anti-CHH-B1 polyclonal antibody. An in vivo assay showed that the hyperglycemic effect was dependant of the dosage of rCHH-B1, and the maximal hyperglycemic response was obtained with 250pmol treatment. These results suggest that the amino acid sequence of the C-terminus and its correct structure are both important for the hyperglycemic activity of naturally occurring non-amidated CHH peptides, such as CHH-B1. CHH-B1 appears to be the first reported CHH-like peptide with significant hyperglycemic activity produced in the sinus gland of a penaeid shrimp.

  4. Deep-sea crustacean trawling fisheries in Portugal: quantification of effort and assessment of landings per unit effort using a Vessel Monitoring System (VMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Pardo, Juan; Ramalho, Sofia P.; García-Alegre, Ana; Morgado, Mariana; Vieira, Rui P.; Cunha, Marina R.; Queiroga, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Mapping and quantifying bottom trawling fishing pressure on the seafloor is pivotal to understand its effects on deep-sea benthic habitats. Using data from the Vessel Monitoring System of crustacean trawlers along the Portuguese margin, we have identified the most exploited areas and characterized the most targeted habitats and water depths. We estimated a total trawling effort of 69596, 66766, and 63427 h y‑1 for the years 2012, 2013, and 2014 respectively which, considering the total landings estimated for this gear, yield values of 20.76, 21.06, and 19.11 kg of landed fish per trawled hour. The main trawling pressure is exerted in the South and Southwest Portuguese margins, on muddy and muddy-sand bottoms between 200 and 700 m water depths, while in the North and Central-West coasts a minor effort, at shallower waters and across a wider range of habitats, is also applied. The most landed species are crustaceans such as rose shrimp and Norway lobster, although this varies importantly between the different regions of Portugal, being fish and cephalopods the main captures in the Northern ports. We discuss the consequences of trawling for the impacted communities as well as the characteristics of the commercialization of these captures in Portugal.

  5. Effects of crustacean cardioactive peptide on the hearts of two Orthopteran insects, and the demonstration of a Frank-Starling-like effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Sara R; da Silva, Rosa; Lange, Angela B

    2011-04-01

    Like vertebrate cardiovascular systems, the dorsal vessel of the Orthopteran insects Baculum extradentatum and Locusta migratoria is under myogenic as well as neural control, through the action of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neurohormones. It was previously shown that the excitatory neuropeptide, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), triggers an increase in heart rate in B. extradentatum, and CCAP-like immunoreactivity is present in the innervation to the heart in many insects. In the present study, CCAP resulted in a dose-dependent increase in heart rate and hemolymph flow velocity, or cardiac output, in B. extradentatum. In contrast, CCAP led to a significant increase in stroke volume and cardiac output in L. migratoria without modifying heart rate or aortic contraction frequency. Hemolymph flow through the excurrent ostia of L. migratoria, small openings or valves on the posterior aorta and anterior heart, was inhibited with increasing concentrations of CCAP, with complete inhibition seen at 10(-7) M CCAP. In the locust, CCAP increases the volume of hemolymph in the dorsal vessel by the synchronous closing of the excurrent ostia, resulting in more forceful heart contractions and increased stroke volume and cardiac output, without modifying heart rate through a physiological mechanism analogous to the Frank-Starling mechanism in vertebrates. Therefore, crustacean cardioactive peptide alters the contractile properties of cardiac tissue in both B. extradentatum and L. migratoria, allowing for an increase in blood flow and circulation.

  6. 50 CFR 16.13 - Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or their eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER... exporter filing a written declaration with the District Director of Customs at the port of entry as... may be released into the wild except by the State wildlife conservation agency having...

  7. Understanding and managing compliance in the nature conservation context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Adrian

    2015-04-15

    Nature conservation relies largely on peoples' rule adherence. However, noncompliance in the conservation context is common: it is one of the largest illegal activities in the world, degrading societies, economies and the environment. Understanding and managing compliance is key for ensuring effective conservation, nevertheless crucial concepts and tools are scattered in a wide array of literature. Here I review and integrate these concepts and tools in an effort to guide compliance management in the conservation context. First, I address the understanding of compliance by breaking it down into five key questions: who?, what?, when?, where? and why?. A special focus is given to 'why?' because the answer to this question explains the reasons for compliance and noncompliance, providing critical information for management interventions. Second, I review compliance management strategies, from voluntary compliance to coerced compliance. Finally, I suggest a system, initially proposed for tax compliance, to balance these multiple compliance management strategies. This paper differs from others by providing a broad yet practical scope on theory and tools for understanding and managing compliance in the nature conservation context.

  8. Concrete: Too young for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineman, H.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Nijland, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    The 20th century built heritage is one of the new conservation challenges, due to its architectural differences from the traditional heritage and new materials. One major new material is concrete; its quantity and importance for the new heritage requires a tailored conservation approach. Until now,

  9. African Conservation Tillage Network Website

    OpenAIRE

    African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Maintained by the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), this website provides information on Conservation Agriculture in an African context and gathered by stakeholders (NGOs) native to the continent. Resources on projects, practices, reports, and training courses are provided.

  10. Conservation of wetlands of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bakobi, B.L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The major wetland systems of Tanzania are described together with specific functions,products and attributes of lakes, rivers, swamps, estuaries, mangroves and coastal areas. Reasons and priorities for the conservation of wetlands are given together with the existingproblems of wetland conservation and their solutions.

  11. Motivations for conserving urban biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, Donald C; Kark, Salit

    2010-04-01

    In a time of increasing urbanization, the fundamental value of conserving urban biodiversity remains controversial. How much of a fixed budget should be spent on conservation in urban versus nonurban landscapes? The answer should depend on the goals that drive our conservation actions, yet proponents of urban conservation often fail to specify the motivation for protecting urban biodiversity. This is an important shortcoming on several fronts, including a missed opportunity to make a stronger appeal to those who believe conservation biology should focus exclusively on more natural, wilder landscapes. We argue that urban areas do offer an important venue for conservation biology, but that we must become better at choosing and articulating our goals. We explored seven possible motivations for urban biodiversity conservation: preserving local biodiversity, creating stepping stones to nonurban habitat, understanding and facilitating responses to environmental change, conducting environmental education, providing ecosystem services, fulfilling ethical responsibilities, and improving human well-being. To attain all these goals, challenges must be faced that are common to the urban environment, such as localized pollution, disruption of ecosystem structure, and limited availability of land. There are, however, also challenges specific only to particular goals, meaning that different goals will require different approaches and actions. This highlights the importance of specifying the motivations behind urban biodiversity conservation. If the goals are unknown, progress cannot be assessed.

  12. Conservation laws and thermodynamic efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio; Wang, Jiao

    2013-02-15

    We show that generic systems with a single relevant conserved quantity reach the Carnot efficiency in the thermodynamic limit. Such a general result is illustrated by means of a diatomic chain of hard-point elastically colliding particles where the total momentum is the only relevant conserved quantity.

  13. Is international conservation aid enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  14. Optimal conservation of migratory species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara G Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of

  15. Permissiveness of soil microbial communities towards broad host range plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli

    larger than previously assumed. I was able to show abundant plasmid transfer from the Gram negative donor strains to a wide diversity of Gram positive soil bacteria, formerly thought to constitute distinct clusters of gene transfer. Moreover, among the observed transconjugants, I identified a core super...... environmental factors that modulate plasmid transfer in soil microbial communities. In order to attain these goals, I developed a high-throughput method that enabled me to evaluate the permissiveness of bacterial communities towards introduced plasmids. This new approach is based on the introduction...... fraction of soil the bacteria (up to 1 in 10,000) were able to take up any of these broad host range conjugal plasmids. The transconjugal pools comprised 11 bacterial phyla. This finding indicates that the realized transfer range of broad host range plasmids in environmental microbial communities is much...

  16. 30 GHz monitoring of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Ceglowski, Maciej; Pazderska, Bogna; Gawronski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Broad absorption line (BAL) quasars have been studied for over thirty years. Yet it is still unclear why and when we observe broad absorption lines in quasars. Is this phenomenon caused by geometry or is it connected with the evolution process? Variability of the BAL quasars, if present, can give us information about their orientation, namely it can indicate whether they are oriented more pole-on. Using the Torun 32-metre dish equipped with the One Centimetre Receiver Array (OCRA) we have started a monitoring campaign of a sample of compact radio-loud BAL quasars. This 30 GHz variability monitoring program supplements the high-resolution interferometric observations of these objects we have carried out with the EVN and VLBA.

  17. Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Říha Jaromír

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad-crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

  18. Evolution of Broad-line Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Elitzur, Moshe; Trump, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Apart from viewing-dependent obscuration, intrinsic broad-line emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) follows an evolutionary sequence: Type $1 \\to 1.2/1.5 \\to 1.8/1.9 \\to 2$ as the accretion rate onto the central black hole is decreasing. This spectral evolution is controlled, at least in part, by the parameter $L_{\\rm bol}/M^{2/3}$, where $L_{\\rm bol}$ is the AGN bolometric luminosity and $M$ is the black hole mass. Both this dependence and the double-peaked profiles that emerge along the sequence arise naturally in the disk-wind scenario for the AGN broad-line region.

  19. Diverse Broad Line Region Kinematic Signatures From Reverberation Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Denney, K D; Pogge, R W; Adair, A; Atlee, D W; Au-Yong, K; Bentz, M C; Bird, J C; Brokofsky, D J; Chisholm, E; Comins, M L; Dietrich, M; Doroshenko, V T; Eastman, J D; Efimov, Y S; Ewald, S; Ferbey, S; Gaskell, C M; Hedrick, C H; Jackson, K; Klimanov, S A; Klimek, E S; Kruse, A K; Ladéroute, A; Lamb, J B; Leighly, K; Minezaki, T; Nazarov, S V; Onken, C A; Petersen, E A; Peterson, P; Poindexter, S; Sakata, Y; Schlesinger, K J; Sergeev, S G; Skolski, N; Stieglitz, L; Tobin, J J; Unterborn, C; Vestergaard, M; Watkins, A E; Watson, L C; Yoshii, Y

    2009-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the data from a high sampling rate, multi-month reverberation mapping campaign, undertaken primarily at MDM Observatory with supporting observations from telescopes around the world, reveals that the Hbeta emission region within the broad line regions (BLRs) of several nearby AGNs exhibit a variety of kinematic behaviors. While the primary goal of this campaign was to obtain either new or improved Hbeta reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low luminosity AGNs (presented in a separate work), we were also able to unambiguously reconstruct velocity-resolved reverberation signals from a subset of our targets. Through high cadence spectroscopic monitoring of the optical continuum and broad Hbeta emission line variations observed in the nuclear regions of NGC 3227, NGC 3516, and NGC 5548, we clearly see evidence for outflowing, infalling, and virialized BLR gas motions, respectively.

  20. The broad autism phenotype: findings from an epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, N; Chakrabarti, S; Fombonne, E

    2004-03-01

    This study aimed to determine if relatives of children with autism and less severe pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) have higher rates of various components of the broad autistic phenotype. Psychiatric and medical disorders were investigated. Parents of children with PDDs were selected from an epidemiological survey and compared with parents of control children with non-autistic developmental problems. Rates of abnormalities and disorders were compared in relatives of 79 cases and 61 controls. Medical and autoimmune disorders in both groups were endorsed by few relatives. Specific developmental disorders were commoner in parents of controls. Depression and anxiety were significantly more prevalent in mothers of children with PDDs. Significantly more PDD children had at least one first-degree relative with anxiety and one second-degree relative with OCD. PDDs were commoner in first-degree relatives. The implications of the findings for the definition of the broad phenotype of autism are discussed.

  1. Broad-Band Molecular Polarization in White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Piirola, V.; Shapiro, A.

    2007-09-01

    We present novel calculations of broad-band polarization due to the molecular Paschen--Back effect in a strong magnetic field. Based on that, we analyze new spectropolarimetric observations of the cool magnetic helium-rich white dwarf G 99-37 which shows strongly polarized molecular bands in its spectrum. Combining the polarimetric observations with our model calculations for the CH bands at 4300 Å, we deduce a magnetic field of 8 MG on this unique magnetic white dwarf.

  2. Flow structure in front of the broad-crested weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachoval Zbyněk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research focused on description of flow structure in front of broad-crested weir. Based on experimental measurement, the flow structure in front of the weir (the recirculation zone of flow and tornado vortices and flow structure on the weir crest has been described. The determined flow character has been simulated using numerical model and based on comparing results the suitable model of turbulence has been recommended.

  3. Broad Money Demand and Monetary Policy in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Treichel

    1997-01-01

    The development of empirical foundations to the conduct of monetary policy in Tunisia is the central concern of this paper. Finding stable money demand functions, it broadly corroborates the choice of monetary aggregates as intermediate targets of monetary policy by the Tunisian Central Bank. It finds, however, a lower income elasticity than the one currently applied by the Central Bank and proposes a different methodology for defining monetary growth targets. The paper also finds that both i...

  4. The broad spectrum revisited: Evidence from plant remains

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Ehud; Wetterstrom, Wilma; Nadel, Dani; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-01-01

    The beginning of agriculture is one of the most important developments in human history, with enormous consequences that paved the way for settled life and complex society. Much of the research on the origins of agriculture over the last 40 years has been guided by Flannery's [Flannery, K. V. (1969) in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, eds. Ucko, P. J. & Dimbleby, G. W. (Duckworth, London), pp. 73–100] “broad spectrum revolution” (BSR) hypothesis, which posits that the...

  5. Broad spectrum antiangiogenic treatment for ocular neovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofra Benny

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Pathological neovascularization is a hallmark of late stage neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD and the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 50 in the western world. The treatments focus on suppression of choroidal neovascularization (CNV, while current approved therapies are limited to inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF exclusively. However, this treatment does not address the underlying cause of AMD, and the loss of VEGF's neuroprotective can be a potential side effect. Therapy which targets the key processes in AMD, the pathological neovascularization, vessel leakage and inflammation could bring a major shift in the approach to disease treatment and prevention. In this study we have demonstrated the efficacy of such broad spectrum antiangiogenic therapy on mouse model of AMD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Lodamin, a polymeric formulation of TNP-470, is a potent broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug. Lodamin significantly reduced key processes involved in AMD progression as demonstrated in mice and rats. Its suppressive effects on angiogenesis, vascular leakage and inflammation were studied in a wide array of assays including; a Matrigel, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, Miles assay, laser-induced CNV and corneal micropocket assay. Lodamin significantly suppressed the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNV lesion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/Ccl2. Importantly, Lodamin was found to regress established CNV lesions, unlike soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlk-1. The drug was found to be safe in mice and have little toxicity as demonstrated by electroretinography (ERG assessing retinal and by histology. CONCLUSIONS: Lodamin, a polymer formulation of TNP-470, was identified as a first in its class, broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug that can be administered orally or locally to treat corneal and retinal neovascularization. Several unique properties

  6. A Simple Disk Wind Model for Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Higginbottom, N; Long, K S; Sim, S A; Matthews, J H

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 20% of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) exhibit broad, blue-shifted absorption lines in their ultraviolet spectra. Such features provide clear evidence for significant outflows from these systems, most likely in the form of accretion disk winds. These winds may represent the "quasar" mode of feedback that is often invoked in galaxy formation/evolution models, and they are also key to unification scenarios for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and QSOs. To test these ideas, we construct a simple benchmark model of an equatorial, biconical accretion disk wind in a QSO and use a Monte Carlo ionization/radiative transfer code to calculate the ultraviolet spectra as a function of viewing angle. We find that for plausible outflow parameters, sightlines looking directly into the wind cone do produce broad, blue-shifted absorption features in the transitions typically seen in broad absorption line QSOs. However, our benchmark model is intrinsically X-ray weak in order to prevent overionization of the outflow, an...

  7. FTIR Spectroscopic Study of Broad Bean 3iseased Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to indentify diseased leaves of broad bean by vibra- tional spectroscopy. [Method] In this paper, broad bean rust, fusarium rhizome rot, broad bean zonate spot, yellow leaf curl virus and normal leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. [Result] The spectra of the samples were similar, only with minor differences in absorption inten- sity of several peaks. Second derivative analyses show that the significant difference of all samples was in the range of 1 200-700 cm2. The data in the range of 1 200- 700 cm' were selected to evaluate correlation coefficients, hierarchical cluster analy- sis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that the correla- tion coefficients are larger than 0.928 not only between the healthy leaves, but also between the same diseased leaves. The values between healthy and diseased leaves, and among diseased leaves, are all declined. HCA and PCA yielded about 73.3% and 82.2% accuracy, respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that FTIR techniques might be used to detect crop diseases.

  8. Few Group Collapsing of Covariance Matrix Data Based on a Conservation Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Hiruta; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores; R. Arcilla, Jr.; R. D. McKnight; G. Aliberti; P. Oblozinsky; W. S. Yang

    2008-12-01

    A new algorithm for a rigorous collapsing of covariance data is proposed, derived, implemented, and tested. The method is based on a conservation principle that allows the uncertainty calculated in a fine group energy structure for a specific integral parameter, using as weights the associated sensitivity coefficients, to be preserved at a broad energy group structure.

  9. OVERVIEW OF THE MARK TWAIN LAKE/SALT RIVER BASIN CONSERVATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mark Twain Lake/Salt River Basin was selected as one of 12 USDA-Agricultural Research Service benchmark watersheds for the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) because of documented soil and water quality problems and broad stakeholder interest. The basin is located in northeastern Mis...

  10. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Private - Volusia County Conservation Corridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Volusia Conservation Corridor (VCC) is a mosaic of contiguous parcels of land, approximately 55,000 acres in size, which sits essentially in the middle of the...

  11. Cell lineage analysis of the mandibular segment of the amphipod Orchestia cavimana reveals that the crustacean paragnaths are sternal outgrowths and not limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholtz Gerhard

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The question of arthropod head segmentation has become one of the central issues in Evolutionary Developmental Biology. The number of theories pertaining to head segments progressively enlarges, old concepts have been revitalized, and nearly every conceivable composition of the arthropod head has at some point received discussion. One contentious issue involves a characteristic mouthpart in crustaceans – the lower lips or the so-called paragnaths. The paragnaths build the posterior border of the mouth region antagonistic to the upper lip – the labrum. We show here the development of the appendage-like structures in the mandibular region of the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana at a high level of cellular resolution. The embryos are examined during development of the mouthparts using in vivo labeling. An invariant cell division pattern of the mandibular segment was detected by 4D-microscopy and a preliminary model for pattern of the first cleavages in the mandibular region created. With this indispensable precondition single ectodermal cells of the grid-like pattern were labeled with DiI – a lipophilic fluorescent dye – to trace cell lineages and determine the clonal composition of the developing mouthparts, especially the mandibular segment. From our data it is evident that the paragnaths are sternal outgrowths of the mandible segment. The assumption of the limb nature of paragnaths and the presence of an additional head segment between the mandibular and the second antennal segments are clearly refuted by our data. Our results show the power of cell lineage and clonal analyses for inferences on the nature, origin and thus homology of morphological structures. With this kind of investigation morphological and gene expression data can be complemented. We discuss notable similarities of paragnath anlagen to those of the hypopharynx complex in myriapods and hexapods. The fact that both structures grow out as two lateral buds

  12. Climate, Carbon, Conservation and Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaugn, Kit; Brickell, Emily [WWF-UK (United Kingdom); Roe, Dilys; Reid, Hannah; Elliot, Jo

    2007-07-01

    The growing market for carbon offers great opportunities for linking greenhouse gas mitigation with conservation of forests and biodiversity, and the generation of local livelihoods. For these combined objectives to be achieved, strong governance is needed along with institutions that ensure poor people win, rather than lose out, from the new challenges posed by climate change. This briefing paper explores the opportunities from and limitations to carbon-based funds for conservation and development. It highlights mechanisms that may help secure benefits for climate, conservation and communities.

  13. The conservation of orbital symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, R B

    2013-01-01

    The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope

  14. Challenges of conservation: working objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Elizabeth Pye

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concepts and practice of museum conservation, and the role of conservation in preserving both material and significance of objects. It explores the conservation of science and industry collections and the fact that the significance of many of these objects lies in their operation. It considers alternatives to operating original objects but emphasises the value of experiencing the real thing, and argues that visitors should be given greater physical access to museum objects, including being enabled to handle and work functioning objects. It finishes by calling for research into the effects of operation on the objects themselves, and into what constitutes a satisfying experience of working objects.

  15. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources.

  16. Ten ways remote sensing can contribute to conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Robert A; Byler, Dirck; Eastman, J Ron; Fleishman, Erica; Geller, Gary; Goetz, Scott; Guild, Liane; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matt; Headley, Rachel; Hewson, Jennifer; Horning, Ned; Kaplin, Beth A; Laporte, Nadine; Leidner, Allison; Leimgruber, Peter; Morisette, Jeffrey; Musinsky, John; Pintea, Lilian; Prados, Ana; Radeloff, Volker C; Rowen, Mary; Saatchi, Sassan; Schill, Steve; Tabor, Karyn; Turner, Woody; Vodacek, Anthony; Vogelmann, James; Wegmann, Martin; Wilkie, David; Wilson, Cara

    2015-04-01

    In an effort to increase conservation effectiveness through the use of Earth observation technologies, a group of remote sensing scientists affiliated with government and academic institutions and conservation organizations identified 10 questions in conservation for which the potential to be answered would be greatly increased by use of remotely sensed data and analyses of those data. Our goals were to increase conservation practitioners' use of remote sensing to support their work, increase collaboration between the conservation science and remote sensing communities, identify and develop new and innovative uses of remote sensing for advancing conservation science, provide guidance to space agencies on how future satellite missions can support conservation science, and generate support from the public and private sector in the use of remote sensing data to address the 10 conservation questions. We identified a broad initial list of questions on the basis of an email chain-referral survey. We then used a workshop-based iterative and collaborative approach to whittle the list down to these final questions (which represent 10 major themes in conservation): How can global Earth observation data be used to model species distributions and abundances? How can remote sensing improve the understanding of animal movements? How can remotely sensed ecosystem variables be used to understand, monitor, and predict ecosystem response and resilience to multiple stressors? How can remote sensing be used to monitor the effects of climate on ecosystems? How can near real-time ecosystem monitoring catalyze threat reduction, governance and regulation compliance, and resource management decisions? How can remote sensing inform configuration of protected area networks at spatial extents relevant to populations of target species and ecosystem services? How can remote sensing-derived products be used to value and monitor changes in ecosystem services? How can remote sensing be used to

  17. Is There a Conservative Ideology of Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas H.

    This paper discusses: (1) the link between the conservative education policies of Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher and conservative educational thinking; (2) political, economic, and sociological conservative theories; and (3) characteristics of conservative thinking in education. The extent to which conservatives hold congruent or distinctive…

  18. Identifying potential indicators of conservation value using natural heritage occurrence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Peter B; Penskar, Michael R; Schools, Edward H; Enander, Helen D

    2006-02-01

    Conservation planning based on the occurrence of rare species has been criticized as being too limited in scope to conserve biodiversity as a whole. Conversely, planning based on indicator taxa may lack sufficient focus to conserve those species in greatest need of conservation. An alternative approach is to identify a variety of species at risk that are associated with areas of conservation value, which is defined based on species-independent characteristics. We identified potential indicators of conservation value using occurrence data on species at risk and independent information on conservation value that incorporated indices of ecosystem integrity. We propose a taxonomically diverse group of indicator species that are strongly associated with areas of exceptional ecosystem integrity, to serve as a focus for further research and in planning for biodiversity conservation. We identify potential indicator species by defining a null model in which species at risk are equally associated with areas of high ecosystem integrity, then by conducting randomization tests to identify noncompliant species in the state of Michigan, USA. Areas of high ecosystem integrity are selected using criteria to flag (1) secure biotic communities with structural integrity and few exotic species, (2) natural areas subjected to expert review, (3) contiguous relict areas of forest interior, (4) contiguous areas of unmodified wetland, and (5) all these areas combined. We determine the spatial occurrence of species at risk using data from Michigan's statewide Natural Heritage database. The potential indicators include plants, insects, and birds. Their species identity and distribution of occurrences varies with the five scenarios, and together the species broadly cover the entire state. These species at risk, many of which occur throughout the Great Lakes region, may be used to identify additional areas potentially high in conservation value and to monitor their conservation. The ecological

  19. [Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans, Krakow, Poland, 2013: A tribute to Pál Mihály Müller / R.H.B. Fraaije, M. Hyžný, J.W.M. Jagt, M. Krobicki & B.W.M. van Bakel (eds.)]: Decapod crustacean ‘odds and ends’ from the Maastrichtian type area (southeast Netherlands, northeast Belgium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, J.W.M.; Fraaije, R.H.B.; Bakel, van B.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Strata of latest Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian) and earliest Paleogene (early Paleocene) age in the (extended) type area of the Maastrichtian Stage are comparatively rich in decapod crustaceans. Particularly common are chelae of the callianassoid Mesostylus faujasi (Desmarest, 1822), followed by ca

  20. Contests In Conservation and Horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    Growing interest in conservation and horticulture in New York State has caused the addition of these specialized areas to the annual statewide agricultural education contests. Contest categories in both areas are listed. (MF)

  1. Field equations or conservation laws?

    CERN Document Server

    Francaviglia, Mauro; Winterroth, Ekkehart

    2013-01-01

    We explicate some epistemological implications of stationary principles and in particular of Noether Theorems. Noether's contribution to the problem of covariance, in fact, is epistemologically relevant, since it moves the attention from equations to conservation laws.

  2. Public and Conservation Trust Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — A 1:100,000 polygon features class representing public, conservation and trust land ownership in the state of California. Developed for the California Resources...

  3. Chronic toxicity of contaminated sediments on reproduction and histopathology of the crustacean Gammarus fossarum and relationship with the chemical contamination and in vitro effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurova, Edita; Hilscherova, Klara; Sidlova-Stepankova, Tereza; Blaha, Ludek [Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic); Koehler, Heinz R. [Animal Physiological Ecology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Triebskorn, Rita [Steinbeis-Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology, Rottenburg (Germany); Jungmann, Dirk [Inst. of Hydrobiology, Dresden Univ. of Tech. (Germany); Giesy, John P. [Dept. of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Zoology Dept., National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, and Center for Integrative Toxicology Center, and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Biology and Chemistry Dept., City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of the Environment, Nanjing Univ. (China)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible relationships between the sediment contaminants and the occurrence of intersex in situ. Two of the studied sediments were from polluted sites with increased occurrence of intersex crustaceans (Lake Pilnok, black coal mining area in the Czech Republic, inhabited by the crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus population with 18% of intersex; creek Lockwitzbach in Germany with Gammarus fossarum population with about 7% of intersex). Materials and methods Sediments were studied by a combined approach that included (1) determination of concentrations of metals and traditionally analyzed organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (2) examination of the in vitro potencies to activate aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), estrogen (ER), and androgen receptor-mediated responses; and (3) in vivo whole sediment exposures during a 12-week reproduction toxicity study with benthic amphipod G. fossarum. (orig.)

  4. Immunological relationships between neuropeptides from the sinus gland of the lobster Homarus americanus, with special references to the vitellogenesis inhibiting hormone and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusy, J J; Soyez, D

    1991-03-01

    Antisera raised in guinea pigs against four major neuropeptides purified from sinus glands of the lobster, Homarus americanus, were used to study the immunological relationships between several sinus gland peptides. On the basis of their behavior in ELISA and in absorption procedures, three groups of peptides are defined. Two groups may be related to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH groups); the third one is composed of three immunologically identical peptides and, since one of these peptides was characterized in previous studies as a vitellogenesis inhibitor, is referred to as VIH group. This closely meets our present knowledge about the physiological effects and biochemical characteristics of these neuropeptides and gives immunological insights on the question of molecular polymorphism of lobster neurohormones.

  5. Epibionts and parasites on crustaceans (Copepoda, Cladocera, Cirripedia larvae inhabiting the Gulf of Gdańsk (Baltic Sea in very large numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Bielecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of epizoic filter-feeding Protozoa (Vorticella and Zoothamnium and parasitic Protozoa (Ellobiopsis on Calanoida was noticed in the Gulf of Gdańsk in 1998, 1999 and 2006. The relatively high (4-16% of all calanoids level of infestation varied depending on the type of infestation (0.1-13% of the population of particular taxa. The dominant copepods – Acartia spp., Temora longicornis and Centropages hamatus - were attacked the most frequently (from 10.5% to 54% of all infested calanoids. Epibiosis and parasitism were observed on all copepod developmental stages (adults, juveniles and nauplii. Epibionts and parasites were located on different parts of the body, but mainly on the prosome. Infestation by epibionts and parasites was not restricted to calanoid copepods: it was also detected in non-negligible numbers on other crustaceans, namely, Harpacticoida, Cladocera (Bosmina sp. and Cirripedia larvae (nauplii in the Gulf of Gdańsk.

  6. Revising the definition of the crustacean seta and setal classification systems based on examinations of the mouthpart setae of seven species of decapods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik

    2004-01-01

    The crustacean cuticle has numerous projections and some of these projections, the setae, have important mechanical as well as sensory functions. The setae display a wide diversity in their external morphology, which has led to great problems separating setae from other projections in the cuticle...... and problems in making a consistent classification system. Here, the cuticular projections on the mouthparts of seven species of decapods are examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A new definition is given: a seta is an elongate projection with a more or less circular base and a continuous...... lumen; the lumen has a semicircular arrangement of sheath cells basally From the details of the external morphology the mouthpart setae are divided into seven types: pappose, plumose, serrulate, serrate, papposerrate, simple and cuspidate setae, which are suggested to reflect mechanical functions...

  7. The political economy of conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A political economic purview of energy conservation in the United States was delineated. The concepts of substitution and elasticity are distinguished, and further distinctions are made between short run price elasticity, cross price elasticity, and available fund elasticity. An assessment of the role which cost factors can play in conservation is given. The structure of the petroleum industry and foreign petroleum resources is discussed. Also discussed is the role of government, industry and the consumer with the economic sphere.

  8. Linearization of conservative nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, A; Alvarez, M L [Departamento de Fisica, IngenierIa de Sistemas y TeorIa de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, E; Pascual, I [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y AnatomIa, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es

    2009-03-11

    A linearization method of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force which allows us to obtain a frequency-amplitude relation which is valid not only for small but also for large amplitudes and, sometimes, for the complete range of oscillation amplitudes. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the technique.

  9. NCSU solar energy and conservation house. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    A passive solar energy house has been built adjacent to the NCSU McKimmon Continuing Education Center. The house contains a two-story embedded sunspace, two Trombe walls, active solar hot water heating, thermal storage in a rock filled ceiling/floor, and numerous research treatments, and energy conservation features. (See attached photo brochure; Appendix 1). The house is completely decorated and furnished in an attractive manner and the exterior architecture is traditional and has broad consumer appeal. It is also thoroughly instrumented to monitor performance. The house is open to the public on weekends and numerous people come to visit on their own initiative and others take advantage of the close proximity to McKimmon while there attending conferences. The house will influence and motivate large numbers of people to consider solar and energy conservation facets in their homes and will provide data to substantiate performance to prospective home buyers and meaningful data on design and construction for builders.

  10. Targeted gene flow for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens.

  11. 77 FR 32381 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... and 430 RIN 1904-AB90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and...

  12. 76 FR 57897 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power... exclude external power supplies used in specific applications from certain energy conservation standards prescribed under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). Congress enacted this exclusion,...

  13. 78 FR 42389 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air.... SUMMARY: This final rule corrects the energy conservation standards for room air conditioners. In the direct final rule establishing amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers...

  14. 78 FR 72533 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ...-AD08 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products AGENCY... energy conservation standards enacted through the American Energy Manufacturing Technical Corrections Act, among which were a revised definition and revised energy conservation standards for small duct...

  15. A simple disc wind model for broad absorption line quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, N.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Sim, S. A.; Matthews, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 20 per cent of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) exhibit broad, blue-shifted absorption lines in their ultraviolet spectra. Such features provide clear evidence for significant outflows from these systems, most likely in the form of accretion disc winds. These winds may represent the `quasar' mode of feedback that is often invoked in galaxy formation/evolution models, and they are also key to unification scenarios for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and QSOs. To test these ideas, we construct a simple benchmark model of an equatorial, biconical accretion disc wind in a QSO and use a Monte Carlo ionization/radiative transfer code to calculate the ultraviolet spectra as a function of viewing angle. We find that for plausible outflow parameters, sightlines looking directly into the wind cone do produce broad, blue-shifted absorption features in the transitions typically seen in broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. However, our benchmark model is intrinsically X-ray weak in order to prevent overionization of the outflow, and the wind does not yet produce collisionally excited line emission at the level observed in non-BAL QSOs. As a first step towards addressing these shortcomings, we discuss the sensitivity of our results to changes in the assumed X-ray luminosity and mass-loss rate, Ṁwind. In the context of our adopted geometry, Ṁwind ˜ Ṁacc is required in order to produce significant BAL features. The kinetic luminosity and momentum carried by such outflows would be sufficient to provide significant feedback.

  16. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60.

  17. VLBA imaging of radio-loud Broad Absorption Line QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Montenegro-Montes, F M; Benn, C R; Carballo, R; Dallacasa, D; González-Serrano, J I; Holt, J; Jiménez-Luján, F

    2009-01-01

    Broad Absorption Line Quasars (BAL QSOs) have been found to be associated with extremely compact radio sources. These reduced dimensions can be either due to projection effects or these objects might actually be intrinsically small. Exploring these two hypotheses is important to understand the nature and origin of the BAL phenomenon because orientation effects are an important discriminant between the different models proposed to explain this phenomenon. In this work we present VLBA observations of 5 BAL QSOs and discuss their pc-scale morphology.

  18. Broad-band photometric evolution of star clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Girardi, Leo

    2001-01-01

    I briefly introduce a database of models that describe the evolution of star clusters in several broad-band photometric systems. Models are based on the latest Padova stellar evolutionary tracks - now including the alpha-enhanced case and improved AGB models - and a revised library of synthetic spectra from model atmospheres. As of today, we have revised isochrones in Johnson-Cousins-Glass, HST/WFPC2, HST/NICMOS, Thuan-Gunn, and Washington systems. Several other filter sets are included in a ...

  19. All eyes on the next generation of HIV vaccines: strategies for inducing a broadly neutralizing antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Jeffrey D

    2014-04-01

    HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNAbs) develop after several years of infection through a recursive process of memory B cell adaptation and maturation against co-evolving virus quasispecies. Advances in single-cell sorting and memory B cell antibody cloning methods have identified many new HIV BNAbs targeting conserved epitopes on the HIV envelope (env) protein. 3D crystal structures and biophysical analyses of BNAbs bound to invariant virus structures expressed on monomeric gp120, epitope scaffolds, core structures, and native trimers have helped us to visualize unique binding interactions and paratope orientations that have been instrumental in guiding vaccine design. A paradigm shift in the approach to structure-based design of HIV-1 envelope immunogens came recently after several laboratories discovered that native viral envelopes or "env-structures" reverse-engineered to bind with high affinity to a handful of broadly neutralizing antibodies did not in fact bind the predicted germline precursors of these broadly neutralizing antibodies. A major challenge for HIV-1 B cell vaccine development moving forward is the design of new envelope immunogens that can trigger the selection and expansion of germline precursor and intermediate memory B cells to recapitulate B cell ontogenies associated with the maturation of a broadly neutralizing antibody response. Equally important for vaccine development is the identification of delivery systems, prime-boost strategies, and synergistic adjuvant combinations that can induce the magnitude and quality of antigen-specific T follicular helper (TFH) cell responses needed to drive somatic hypermutation (SHM) and B cell maturation against heterologous primary virus envelopes. Finding the combination of multi-protein envelope immunogens and immunization strategies that can evolve a potent broadly neutralizing antibody response portends to require a complex vaccine regimen that might be difficult to implement on any scale

  20. Conservation and management of crayfishes: Lessons from Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, D.A.; Bouchard, R.W.; Carline, R.F.; Nuttall, T.R.; Wallace, J.R.; Burkholder, C.L.

    2011-01-01

    North America's crayfish fauna is diverse, ecologically important, and highly threatened. Unfortunately, up-to-date information is scarce, hindering conservation and management efforts. In Pennsylvania and nearby states, recent efforts allowed us to determine the conservation status of several native crayfishes and develop management strategies for those species. Due to rarity and proximity to urban centers and introduced (exotic) crayfishes, Cambarus (Puncticambarus) sp., an undescribed member of the Cambarus acuminatus complex, is critically imperiled in Pennsylvania and possibly range-wide. Orconectes limosus is more widespread; however, recent population losses have been substantial, especially in Pennsylvania and northern Maryland, where its range has declined (retreated eastward) by greater than 200 km. Introduced congeners likely played a major role in those losses. Although extirpated from some areas, Cambarus bartonii bartonii remains widespread and is not an immediate conservation concern. In light of these findings, the role of barriers (e.g., dams), environmental protection, educational programs, and regulations in preventing crayfish invasions and conserving native crayfishes is discussed, and management initiatives centered on those factors are presented. The need for methods to eliminate exotics and monitor natives is highlighted. Although tailored to a specific regional fauna, these ideas have broad applicability and would benefit many North American crayfishes. ?? copyright 2011. Periodicals postage paid at Bethesda.

  1. Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve (Biscay, Spain): Conservation against development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Eguskitza, Nekane; Rescia, Alejandro J; Onaindia, Miren

    2017-03-15

    The protected area approach has extended from conserving biodiversity to improving human well-being. However, the relationship between conservation and socioeconomic and cultural development continues to be controversial. This paper combines land use variables with socioeconomic and cultural variables through multivariate ordination analysis and evaluates their evolution in two areas inside and outside a Biosphere Reserve since the approval of the Governance Plan for Use and Management in the Reserve. The results indicate a similar tendency in the two areas, from the abandonment of traditional rural activities and decline in pine plantations to naturalness, urban sprawl and the growth of the tertiary economic sector, welfare indicators and sustainability index. However, it can be broadly observed that the region included inside the protected area presents better conservation features (native forest) and rural systems (forestry and primary economic sector) than the region outside the protected area while maintaining similar socioeconomic and cultural conditions. We suggest that the designation of the Biosphere Reserve does not influence the local population negatively but does safeguard its conservation, which could have enhanced socioeconomic and cultural development. Thus, even though certain changes must be made to replace the conifer plantations and encourage agricultural activities, the designation of the protected area fulfills its sustainability goal and enhances the local population's quality of life.

  2. Characterization of JG024, a pseudomonas aeruginosa PB1-like broad host range phage under simulated infection conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Manfred

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes lung infections in patients suffering from the genetic disorder Cystic Fibrosis (CF. Once a chronic lung infection is established, P. aeruginosa cannot be eradicated by antibiotic treatment. Phage therapy is an alternative to treat these chronic P. aeruginosa infections. However, little is known about the factors which influence phage infection of P. aeruginosa under infection conditions and suitable broad host range phages. Results We isolated and characterized a phage, named JG024, which infects a broad range of clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa strains. Sequencing of the phage genome revealed that the phage JG024 is highly related to the ubiquitous and conserved PB1-like phages. The receptor of phage JG024 was determined as lipopolysaccharide. We used an artificial sputum medium to study phage infection under conditions similar to a chronic lung infection. Alginate production was identified as a factor reducing phage infectivity. Conclusions Phage JG024 is a suitable broad host range phage which could be used in phage therapy. Phage infection experiments under simulated chronic lung infection conditions showed that alginate production reduces phage infection efficiency.

  3. Multivalent dendritic molecules as broad spectrum bacteria agglutination agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuzhang; Abu-Esba, Lica; Turkyilmaz, Serhan; White, Alexander G; Smith, Bradley D

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the first set of synthetic molecules that act as broad spectrum agglutination agents and thus are complementary to the specific targeting of antibodies. The molecules have dendritic architecture and contain multiple copies of zinc(II)-dipicolylamine (ZnDPA) units that have selective affinity for the bacterial cell envelope. A series of molecular structures were evaluated, with the number of appended ZnDPA units ranging from four to thirty-two. Agglutination assays showed that the multivalent probes rapidly cross-linked ten different strains of bacteria, regardless of Gram-type and cell morphology. Fluorescence microscopy studies using probes with four ZnDPA units indicated a high selectivity for bacteria agglutination in the presence of mammalian cells and no measurable effect on the health of the cells. The high bacterial selectivity was confirmed by conducting in vivo optical imaging studies of a mouse leg infection model. The results suggest that multivalent ZnDPA molecular probes with dendritic structures have great promise as selective, broad spectrum bacterial agglutination agents for infection imaging and theranostic applications.

  4. Broad Ly alpha Emission from Three Nearby BL Lacertae Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Stocke, John T; Perlman, Eric S

    2011-01-01

    We present far-UV HST/COS spectra of four nearby BL Lac Objects. BL Lac spectra are dominated by a smooth, power-law continuum which arises in a relativistic jet. However, the spectra are not necessarily featureless; weak, broad- and/or narrow-line emission is sometimes seen in high-quality optical spectra. We present detections of Lya emission in HST/COS spectra of Mrk421 (z=0.030) and PKS2005-489 (z=0.071) as well as an archival HST/GHRS observation of Mrk501 (z=0.0337). Archival HST/STIS observations of PKS2155-304 (z=0.116) show no Lya emission to a very low upper limit. Using the assumption that the broad-line region (BLR) clouds are asymmetrically placed around the AGN, we use these measured Lya emission features to constrain either the relativistic Gamma values for the ionizing continuum produced by the jet (in the ionization-bounded case) or the mass of warm gas (in the density-bounded case). While realistic Gamma values can be obtained for all four cases, the values for Mrk421 and PKS2155-304 are hig...

  5. Broad spectrum microarray for fingerprint-based bacterial species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Jürg E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are powerful tools for DNA-based molecular diagnostics and identification of pathogens. Most target a limited range of organisms and are based on only one or a very few genes for specific identification. Such microarrays are limited to organisms for which specific probes are available, and often have difficulty discriminating closely related taxa. We have developed an alternative broad-spectrum microarray that employs hybridisation fingerprints generated by high-density anonymous markers distributed over the entire genome for identification based on comparison to a reference database. Results A high-density microarray carrying 95,000 unique 13-mer probes was designed. Optimized methods were developed to deliver reproducible hybridisation patterns that enabled confident discrimination of bacteria at the species, subspecies, and strain levels. High correlation coefficients were achieved between replicates. A sub-selection of 12,071 probes, determined by ANOVA and class prediction analysis, enabled the discrimination of all samples in our panel. Mismatch probe hybridisation was observed but was found to have no effect on the discriminatory capacity of our system. Conclusions These results indicate the potential of our genome chip for reliable identification of a wide range of bacterial taxa at the subspecies level without laborious prior sequencing and probe design. With its high resolution capacity, our proof-of-principle chip demonstrates great potential as a tool for molecular diagnostics of broad taxonomic groups.

  6. Peculiar Broad Absorption Line Quasars found in DPOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, R J; Djorgovski, S G; Gal, R R; Mahabal, A A; Lopes, P A A; De Carvalho, R R; Odewahn, S C; Castro, S; Thompson, D; Chaffee, F; Darling, J; Desai, V; Brunner, Robert J.; Hall, Patrick B.

    2003-01-01

    With the recent release of large (i.e., > hundred million objects), well-calibrated photometric surveys, such as DPOSS, 2MASS, and SDSS, spectroscopic identification of important targets is no longer a simple issue. In order to enhance the returns from a spectroscopic survey, candidate sources are often preferentially selected to be of interest, such as brown dwarfs or high redshift quasars. This approach, while useful for targeted projects, risks missing new or unusual species. We have, as a result, taken the alternative path of spectroscopically identifying interesting sources with the sole criterion being that they are in low density areas of the g - r and r - i color-space defined by the DPOSS survey. In this paper, we present three peculiar broad absorption line quasars that were discovered during this spectroscopic survey, demonstrating the efficacy of this approach. PSS J0052+2405 is an Iron LoBAL quasar at a redshift z = 2.4512 with very broad absorption from many species. PSS J0141+3334 is a reddened...

  7. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Tinggui; Xing, Feijun; Zhang, Kai; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z=1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature, and refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with hot dust indicator (beta_NIR) and other quasar physical parameters, such as Eddington ratio, luminosity and UV continuum slope, are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here beta_NIR is the near-infrared continuum slope, a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depends on Eddington ratio, UV slope and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with beta_NIR in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasa...

  8. A prism based magnifying hyperlens with broad-band imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Md. Samiul; Stefani, Alessio; Atakaramians, Shaghik; Fleming, Simon C.; Argyros, Alexander; Kuhlmey, Boris T.

    2017-03-01

    Magnification in metamaterial hyperlenses has been demonstrated using curved geometries or tapered devices, at frequencies ranging from the microwave to the ultraviolet spectrum. One of the main issues of such hyperlenses is the difficulty in manufacturing. In this letter, we numerically and experimentally study a wire medium prism as an imaging device at THz frequencies. We characterize the transmission of the image of two sub-wavelength apertures, observing that our device is capable of resolving the apertures and producing a two-fold magnified image at the output. The hyperlens shows strong frequency dependent artefacts, a priori limiting the use of the device for broad-band imaging. We identify the main source of image aberration as the reflections supported by the wire medium and also show that even the weaker reflections severely affect the imaging quality. In order to correct for the reflections, we devise a filtering technique equivalent to spatially variable time gating so that ultra-broad band imaging is achieved.

  9. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial polycarbonate hydrogels with fast degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Ana; Tan, Jeremy P K; Yuen, Alex; Chan, Julian M W; Coady, Daniel J; Mecerreyes, David; Hedrick, James L; Yang, Yi Yan; Sardon, Haritz

    2015-04-13

    In this study, a new family of broad-spectrum antimicrobial polycarbonate hydrogels has been successfully synthesized and characterized. Tertiary amine-containing eight-membered monofunctional and difunctional cyclic carbonates were synthesized, and chemically cross-linked polycarbonate hydrogels were obtained by copolymerizing these monomers with a poly(ethylene glycol)-based bifunctional initiator via organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization using 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene catalyst. The gels were quaternized using methyl iodide to confer antimicrobial properties. Stable hydrogels were obtained only when the bifunctional monomer concentration was equal to or higher than 12 mol %. In vitro antimicrobial studies revealed that all quaternized hydrogels exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), and Candida albicans (fungus), while the antimicrobial activity of the nonquaternized hydrogels was negligible. Moreover, the gels showed fast degradation at room temperature (4-6 days), which makes them ideal candidates for wound healing and implantable biomaterials.

  10. More Is Better: Selecting for Broad Host Range Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alexa; Ward, Samantha; Hyman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. In this perspective, we discuss several aspects of a characteristic feature of bacteriophages, their host range. Each phage has its own particular host range, the range of bacteria that it can infect. While some phages can only infect one or a few bacterial strains, other phages can infect many species or even bacteria from different genera. Different methods for determining host range may give different results, reflecting the multiple mechanisms bacteria have to resist phage infection and reflecting the different steps of infection each method depends on. This makes defining host range difficult. Another difficulty in describing host range arises from the inconsistent use of the words "narrow" and especially "broad" when describing the breadth of the host range. Nearly all bacteriophages have been isolated using a single host strain of bacteria. While this procedure is fairly standard, it may more likely produce narrow rather than broad host range phage. Our results and those of others suggest that using multiple host strains during isolation can more reliably produce broader host range phages. This challenges the common belief that most bacteriophages have a narrow host range. We highlight the implications of this for several areas that are affected by host range including horizontal gene transfer and phage therapy.

  11. The UV-Optical Albedo of Broad Emission Line Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Korista, K T; Korista, Kirk; Ferland, Gary

    1997-01-01

    We explore the effective UV-optical albedos of a variety of types of broad emission line clouds, as well as their possible effects on the observed spectra of AGN. An important albedo source in moderately ionized ionization-bounded clouds is that due to neutral hydrogen: Rayleigh scattering of continuum photons off the extreme damping wings of Lya. The photons resulting from this scattering mechanism may contribute significantly to the Lya emission line, especially in the very broad wings. In addition, line photons emitted near 1200 Angstroms (e.g., N V 1240) that stream toward the neutral portion of the cloud may be reflected off this Rayleigh scattering mirror, so that they preferentially escape from the illuminated face. Inclusion of this effect can alter predicted emission line strengths and profiles. In more highly-ionized ionization-bounded clouds, Thompson scattering dominates the UV-optical albedo, but this albedo is lessened by the hydrogen gas opacity. These clouds are most reflective on the long wav...

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on antinutritional factors in broad bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kaisey, M.T. E-mail: istd@uruklink.net; Alwan, A.-K.H.; Mohammad, M.H.; Saeed, A.H

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the level of antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor (TI), phytic acid and oligosaccharides) of broad bean was investigated. The seeds were subjected to gamma irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively using cobalt-60 gamma radiation with a dose rate 2.37 kGy/h. TI activity was reduced by 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.2% at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiation at 10.2, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.2 kGy reduced the phytic acid content. The flatulence causing oligosaccharides were decreased as the radiation dose increased. The chemical composition (protein, oil, ash and total carbohydrates) of the tested seeds was determined. Gamma radiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the quality of broad bean from the nutritional point of view.

  13. Communicating Science Broadly: An NSF Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinen, M. S.

    2006-12-01

    In the view of NSF, communicating about both the process of doing science and about scientific results are of paramount importance. But those of us in the agency are not the ones who do the science or generate the results. Thus, our policy is to encourage the community we fund to communicate their results as broadly as possible. Why does NSF feel so strongly about communicating scientific results? First, science only moves forward when there is free and open debate about scientific results through public mechanisms in which there is an opportunity for thorough analysis (e.g. scientific literature, professional meetings and workshops). Second, the research we support is done for the good of the public and should be communicated to the public. Third, scientific results are critical to many important decision-making processes and policy-making processes. Democracies thrive when an informed public is engaged, so communicating science broadly to the lay public is important. Why does NSF feel so strongly about communicating about the process of science? Science is a habit of mind; an orderly process for testing ideas. But many do not understand how science is done, the difference between fact and conjecture, why speculation, hypotheses and theory are critical to progress, or why the culture of constructive criticism is essential to progress. Without this context, science can be misunderstood as magic, opinion, or argument. Thus the efforts that we fund to enhance scientific education and outreach are critical to having discourse about scientific results.

  14. The response of rodents to scent marks: four broad hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkin, Michael H

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Many terrestrial mammals must be able to distinguish between the myriad of scent marks they encounter in order for them to facilitate or deter direct interactions with their scent donors. I review studies that examine how rodents, mainly meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), respond when they encounter the scent marks of conspecifics and heterospecifics, and how context, as well as the age and condition of senders and receivers, affect their responses. The review uses four broad hypotheses to discuss the response of rodents to scent marks. The four hypotheses are as follows: 1) Scent marks convey accurate information to the receiver about the sender's state and phenotype and genotype. 2) Scent marks are individually distinct. 3) The response of receivers to scent marks is flexible and would be modulated by the cognitive abilities of receivers. 4) Receivers respond to the information contained or conveyed by the scent mark in a manner that will increase their survival and fitness. The studies cited in this review show that scent marks signal accurate information about the sender's phenotype, genotype, and condition, which receivers use to distinguish among the scent marks of different conspecifics and heterospecifics, and by doing so, receivers tailor their response accordingly to increase their survival and fitness. Thus, the four broad hypotheses may serve as guide to increase our understanding of the response of receivers to scent marks and provide a conceptual framework for future research and the development of additional hypotheses.

  15. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  16. Conserved Endonuclease Function of Hantavirus L Polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Rothenberger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are important emerging pathogens belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. Like other segmented negative strand RNA viruses, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp also known as L protein of hantaviruses lacks an intrinsic “capping activity”. Hantaviruses therefore employ a “cap snatching” strategy acquiring short 5′ RNA sequences bearing 5′cap structures by endonucleolytic cleavage from host cell transcripts. The viral endonuclease activity implicated in cap snatching of hantaviruses has been mapped to the N-terminal domain of the L protein. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure–function analysis we confirm and extend these findings providing evidence for high conservation of the L endonuclease between Old and New World hantaviruses. Recombinant hantavirus L endonuclease showed catalytic activity and a defined cation preference shared by other viral endonucleases. Based on the previously reported remarkably high activity of hantavirus L endonuclease, we established a cell-based assay for the hantavirus endonuclase function. The robustness of the assay and its high-throughput compatible format makes it suitable for small molecule drug screens to identify novel inhibitors of hantavirus endonuclease. Based on the high degree of similarity to RdRp endonucleases, some candidate inhibitors may be broadly active against hantaviruses and other emerging human pathogenic Bunyaviruses.

  17. The Conservation Status and Conservation Strategy of Picea neoveitchii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Deshun; Kim Yongshik; Mike Maunder; Li Xiufen

    2006-01-01

    Picea neoveitchii is an endemic species in China. It had been listed as an endangered species in red data books. It scatters in several locations of south slope of the Qinling Mountain of China. Upon reviewing the related literature, discussing with leading scholars on gymnosperm, ecology and plant conservation, the field survey was carried out in four locations. There are eleven mature individuals and two seedlings surviving in its natural habitats. With the survey of quadrat method in four locations, related community index were calculated such as relative important value (RIV), species richness,similarity index, diversity index and evenness index etc.The community could be sorted and characterized as three groups based on the community parameters. The analysis of vegetation table elucidates that Picea neoveitchii is a dominant species with low grouping rate in most surveyed sites.The RAPD analysis shows target species has intraspecific genetic variability. The estimation of Shannon's phenotypic diversity index (Ho) also explains the difference of genetic variations of different locations.Due to the lack of enough knowledge and professional guide of conservation biological perspective,Picea neoveitchii had been clear-cut for timber production. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy declined rapidly from 1950s to 1990s.According to the Conservation Category guideline proposed by the World Conservation Union, the conservation status of Picea neoveitchii was reevaluated as Critically Endangered (CR) B2b C2a D. Upon research in areas of ecology, molecular biology, cluster analysis of environmental parameters, a practical conservation strategy is recommended in this research.

  18. Sequence conserved for subcellular localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rajesh; Rost, Burkhard

    2002-01-01

    The more proteins diverged in sequence, the more difficult it becomes for bioinformatics to infer similarities of protein function and structure from sequence. The precise thresholds used in automated genome annotations depend on the particular aspect of protein function transferred by homology. Here, we presented the first large-scale analysis of the relation between sequence similarity and identity in subcellular localization. Three results stood out: (1) The subcellular compartment is generally more conserved than what might have been expected given that short sequence motifs like nuclear localization signals can alter the native compartment; (2) the sequence conservation of localization is similar between different compartments; and (3) it is similar to the conservation of structure and enzymatic activity. In particular, we found the transition between the regions of conserved and nonconserved localization to be very sharp, although the thresholds for conservation were less well defined than for structure and enzymatic activity. We found that a simple measure for sequence similarity accounting for pairwise sequence identity and alignment length, the HSSP distance, distinguished accurately between protein pairs of identical and different localizations. In fact, BLAST expectation values outperformed the HSSP distance only for alignments in the subtwilight zone. We succeeded in slightly improving the accuracy of inferring localization through homology by fine tuning the thresholds. Finally, we applied our results to the entire SWISS-PROT database and five entirely sequenced eukaryotes. PMID:12441382

  19. Assessing regional and interspecific variation in threshold responses of forest breeding birds through broad scale analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yntze van der Hoek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying persistence and extinction thresholds in species-habitat relationships is a major focal point of ecological research and conservation. However, one major concern regarding the incorporation of threshold analyses in conservation is the lack of knowledge on the generality and transferability of results across species and regions. We present a multi-region, multi-species approach of modeling threshold responses, which we use to investigate whether threshold effects are similar across species and regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modeled local persistence and extinction dynamics of 25 forest-associated breeding birds based on detection/non-detection data, which were derived from repeated breeding bird atlases for the state of Vermont. We did not find threshold responses to be particularly well-supported, with 9 species supporting extinction thresholds and 5 supporting persistence thresholds. This contrasts with a previous study based on breeding bird atlas data from adjacent New York State, which showed that most species support persistence and extinction threshold models (15 and 22 of 25 study species respectively. In addition, species that supported a threshold model in both states had associated average threshold estimates of 61.41% (SE = 6.11, persistence and 66.45% (SE = 9.15, extinction in New York, compared to 51.08% (SE = 10.60, persistence and 73.67% (SE = 5.70, extinction in Vermont. Across species, thresholds were found at 19.45-87.96% forest cover for persistence and 50.82-91.02% for extinction dynamics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Through an approach that allows for broad-scale comparisons of threshold responses, we show that species vary in their threshold responses with regard to habitat amount, and that differences between even nearby regions can be pronounced. We present both ecological and methodological factors that may contribute to the different model results, but propose that

  20. Conservative regularization of compressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnaswami, Govind S; Thyagaraja, Anantanarayanan

    2015-01-01

    Ideal Eulerian flow may develop singularities in vorticity w. Navier-Stokes viscosity provides a dissipative regularization. We find a local, conservative regularization - lambda^2 w times curl(w) of compressible flow and compressible MHD: a three dimensional analogue of the KdV regularization of the one dimensional kinematic wave equation. The regulator lambda is a field subject to the constitutive relation lambda^2 rho = constant. Lambda is like a position-dependent mean-free path. Our regularization preserves Galilean, parity and time-reversal symmetries. We identify locally conserved energy, helicity, linear and angular momenta and boundary conditions ensuring their global conservation. Enstrophy is shown to remain bounded. A swirl velocity field is identified, which transports w/rho and B/rho generalizing the Kelvin-Helmholtz and Alfven theorems. A Hamiltonian and Poisson bracket formulation is given. The regularized equations are used to model a rotating vortex, channel flow, plane flow, a plane vortex ...