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Sample records for broadening line

  1. Line broadening by focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt

  2. LINE BROADENING AND THE SOLAR OPACITY PROBLEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krief, M.; Feigel, A.; Gazit, D., E-mail: menahem.krief@mail.huji.ac.il [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-06-20

    The calculation of line widths constitutes theoretical and computational challenges in the calculation of opacities of hot, dense plasmas. Opacity models use line broadening approximations that are untested at stellar interior conditions. Moreover, calculations of atomic spectra of the Sun indicate a large discrepancy in the K-shell line widths between several atomic codes and the Opacity-Project (OP). In this work, the atomic code STAR is used to study the sensitivity of solar opacities to line broadening. Variations in the solar opacity profile due to an increase of the Stark widths resulting from discrepancies with OP, are compared, in light of the solar opacity problem, with the required opacity variations of the present day Sun, as imposed by helioseismic and neutrino observations. The resulting variation profile is much larger than the discrepancy between different atomic codes, agrees qualitatively with the missing opacity profile, recovers about half of the missing opacity nearby the convection boundary, and has a little effect in the internal regions. Since it is hard to estimate quantitatively the uncertainty in the Stark widths, we show that an increase of all line widths by a factor of about ∼100 recovers quantitatively the missing opacity. These results emphasize the possibility that photoexcitation processes are not modeled properly, and more specifically, highlight the need for a better theoretical characterization of the line broadening phenomena at stellar interior conditions, and of the uncertainty due to the way it is implemented by atomic codes.

  3. Determination of line broadening constants in high pressure discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M; Schubert, H; Meier, S; Born, M; Reiter, D; Stroesser, M

    2005-01-01

    A numerical model of the radiative transfer in high pressure metal halide discharge lamps is used to determine line broadening parameters for atomic scandium lines. The determined broadening constants are in qualitative agreement with theoretical estimates in many cases, but significant deviations exist. The data obtained from this paper can, therefore, be used to further improve modelling of radiative contributions to the energy balance in such types of discharge lamps

  4. Quasi-elastic neutron line broadening in nematic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvikl, B.; Dimic, V.; Dusic, M.; Kristof, E.; Srebotnjak, E.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of a new random walk torsional oscillations model of the amplitude φ 0 of rigid flat molecules a quasi-elastic neutron line broadening has been calculated and the results compared to the measurements obtained on the sample of cholesteryl propionate. A good agreement was obtained. (author)

  5. BROADENING OF BALMER LINES FOR HIGH QUANTUM NUMBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, B. H.

    1963-10-15

    It is shown that the impact theory breakdown at sufficiently large distances from the line center in effect lowers the principle quantum number at which electron broadening might otherwise be assumed to dominate. Since the impact theory breaks down and effectively the impact widths decrease progressively for the line components more distant from the center, the contributions of the components to the folding integral decrease rapidly except at their own positions. (R.E.U.)

  6. Hydrogen Balmer Line Broadening in Solar and Stellar Flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Adam F. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, 2000 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Allred, Joel C. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Uitenbroek, Han [National Solar Observatory, University of Colorado Boulder, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV47AL (United Kingdom); Brown, Stephen [School of Physics and Astronomy, Kelvin Building, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Carlsson, Mats [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Osten, Rachel A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Hawley, Suzanne L., E-mail: Adam.Kowalski@lasp.colorado.edu [University of Washington Department of Astronomy, 3910 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    The broadening of the hydrogen lines during flares is thought to result from increased charge (electron, proton) density in the flare chromosphere. However, disagreements between theory and modeling prescriptions have precluded an accurate diagnostic of the degree of ionization and compression resulting from flare heating in the chromosphere. To resolve this issue, we have incorporated the unified theory of electric pressure broadening of the hydrogen lines into the non-LTE radiative-transfer code RH. This broadening prescription produces a much more realistic spectrum of the quiescent, A0 star Vega compared to the analytic approximations used as a damping parameter in the Voigt profiles. We test recent radiative-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of the atmospheric response to high nonthermal electron beam fluxes with the new broadening prescription and find that the Balmer lines are overbroadened at the densest times in the simulations. Adding many simultaneously heated and cooling model loops as a “multithread” model improves the agreement with the observations. We revisit the three-component phenomenological flare model of the YZ CMi Megaflare using recent and new RHD models. The evolution of the broadening, line flux ratios, and continuum flux ratios are well-reproduced by a multithread model with high-flux nonthermal electron beam heating, an extended decay phase model, and a “hot spot” atmosphere heated by an ultrarelativistic electron beam with reasonable filling factors: ∼0.1%, 1%, and 0.1% of the visible stellar hemisphere, respectively. The new modeling motivates future work to understand the origin of the extended gradual phase emission.

  7. Hydrogen Balmer Line Broadening in Solar and Stellar Flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Allred, Joel C.; Uitenbroek, Han; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Brown, Stephen; Carlsson, Mats; Osten, Rachel A.; Wisniewski, John P.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    2017-01-01

    The broadening of the hydrogen lines during flares is thought to result from increased charge (electron, proton) density in the flare chromosphere. However, disagreements between theory and modeling prescriptions have precluded an accurate diagnostic of the degree of ionization and compression resulting from flare heating in the chromosphere. To resolve this issue, we have incorporated the unified theory of electric pressure broadening of the hydrogen lines into the non-LTE radiative-transfer code RH. This broadening prescription produces a much more realistic spectrum of the quiescent, A0 star Vega compared to the analytic approximations used as a damping parameter in the Voigt profiles. We test recent radiative-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of the atmospheric response to high nonthermal electron beam fluxes with the new broadening prescription and find that the Balmer lines are overbroadened at the densest times in the simulations. Adding many simultaneously heated and cooling model loops as a “multithread” model improves the agreement with the observations. We revisit the three-component phenomenological flare model of the YZ CMi Megaflare using recent and new RHD models. The evolution of the broadening, line flux ratios, and continuum flux ratios are well-reproduced by a multithread model with high-flux nonthermal electron beam heating, an extended decay phase model, and a “hot spot” atmosphere heated by an ultrarelativistic electron beam with reasonable filling factors: ∼0.1%, 1%, and 0.1% of the visible stellar hemisphere, respectively. The new modeling motivates future work to understand the origin of the extended gradual phase emission.

  8. Theory of Moessbauer line broadening due to diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, K.; Wolf, D.; Dederichs, P.H.

    1981-12-01

    We have calculated the line broadening of the Moessbauer line due to diffusion of Moessbauer atoms via single vacanices. We take into account the perturbation of vacancy jumps in the neighbourhood of an impurity Moessbauer atom (e.g. Fe in Al) using the 5-frequency model. The anisotropy of the line width is given by the Fourier transform of the final distribution of a Moessbauer atom after an encounter with a vacancy. This distribution is calculated by Monte Carlo computer simulation. 3 figures, 1 tables

  9. Correlations in the quantum theory of plasma line broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufty, J.W.; Boercker, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    A unified theory of plasma line broadening is obtained from a quantum kinetic equation, paralleling existing results for a classical plasma. The atom-electron interactions are shielded by equilibrium electron correlation functions and a frequency dependent dielectric function. A 'ring' approximation is used to replace the classical plasma parameter expansion, for typical laboratory conditions. Atom-electron correlations are included as well as electron-electron correlations. (author)

  10. Stark broadening of Ca IV spectral lines of astrophysical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Medina, A.; Colón, C.

    2014-12-01

    Ca IV emission lines are under the preview of Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation device aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Also, lines of the Ca IV in planetary nebulae NGC 7027 were detected with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory. These facts justify an attempt to provide new spectroscopic parameters of Ca IV. There are no theoretical or experimental Stark broadening data for Ca IV. Using the Griem semi-empirical approach and the COWAN code, we report in this paper calculated values of the Stark broadening parameters for 467 lines of Ca IV. They were calculated using a set of wavefunctions obtained by using Hartree-Fock relativistic calculations. These lines arising from 3s23p4ns (n = 4, 5), 3s23p44p, 3s23p4nd (n = 3, 4) configurations. Stark widths and shifts are presented for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 10 000, 20 000 and 50 200 K. As these data cannot be compared to others in the literature, we present an analysis of the different regularities of the values presented in this work.

  11. Stark Broadening of Cr III Spectral Lines: DO White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan S. Dimitrijević

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the modified semiempirical method of Dimitrijević and Konjević, Stark widths have been calculated for six Cr III transitions, for an electron density of 10 17 cm ‒ 3 and for temperatures from 5000–80,000 K. Results have been used for the investigation of the influence of Stark broadening on spectral lines in cool DO white dwarf atmospheres. Calculated Stark widths will be implemented in the STARK-B database, which is also a part of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC.

  12. Correlation function and electronic spectral line broadening in relativistic plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douis S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrons dynamics and the time autocorrelation function Cee(t for the total electric microfield of the electrons on positive charge impurity embedded in a plasma are considered when the relativistic dynamic of the electrons is taken into account. We have, at first, built the effective potential governing the electrons dynamics. This potential obeys a nonlinear integral equation that we have solved numerically. Regarding the electron broadening of the line in plasma, we have found that when the plasma parameters change, the amplitude of the collision operator changes in the same way as the time integral of Cee(t. The electron-impurity interaction is taken at first time as screened Deutsh interaction and at the second time as Kelbg interaction. Comparisons of all interesting quantities are made with respect to the previous interactions as well as between classical and relativistic dynamics of electrons.

  13. Comparing the line broadened quasilinear model to Vlasov code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghantous, K.; Berk, H. L.; Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2014-01-01

    The Line Broadened Quasilinear (LBQ) model is revisited to study its predicted saturation level as compared with predictions of a Vlasov solver BOT [Lilley et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 195003 (2009) and M. Lilley, BOT Manual. The parametric dependencies of the model are modified to achieve more accuracy compared to the results of the Vlasov solver both in regards to a mode amplitude's time evolution to a saturated state and its final steady state amplitude in the parameter space of the model's applicability. However, the regions of stability as predicted by LBQ model and BOT are found to significantly differ from each other. The solutions of the BOT simulations are found to have a larger region of instability than the LBQ simulations

  14. Comparing the line broadened quasilinear model to Vlasov code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghantous, K. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Berk, H. L. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, 2100 San Jacinto Blvd, Austin, Texas 78712-1047 (United States); Gorelenkov, N. N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    The Line Broadened Quasilinear (LBQ) model is revisited to study its predicted saturation level as compared with predictions of a Vlasov solver BOT [Lilley et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 195003 (2009) and M. Lilley, BOT Manual. The parametric dependencies of the model are modified to achieve more accuracy compared to the results of the Vlasov solver both in regards to a mode amplitude's time evolution to a saturated state and its final steady state amplitude in the parameter space of the model's applicability. However, the regions of stability as predicted by LBQ model and BOT are found to significantly differ from each other. The solutions of the BOT simulations are found to have a larger region of instability than the LBQ simulations.

  15. Comparing the line broadened quasilinear model to Vlasov code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghantous, K.; Berk, H. L.; Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2014-03-01

    The Line Broadened Quasilinear (LBQ) model is revisited to study its predicted saturation level as compared with predictions of a Vlasov solver BOT [Lilley et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 195003 (2009) and M. Lilley, BOT Manual. The parametric dependencies of the model are modified to achieve more accuracy compared to the results of the Vlasov solver both in regards to a mode amplitude's time evolution to a saturated state and its final steady state amplitude in the parameter space of the model's applicability. However, the regions of stability as predicted by LBQ model and BOT are found to significantly differ from each other. The solutions of the BOT simulations are found to have a larger region of instability than the LBQ simulations.

  16. Wall-collision line broadening of molecular oxygen within nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Can T.; Lewander, Maerta; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svensson, Tomas; Svanberg, Sune [Department of Physics, Lund University, P. O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Adolfsson, Erik [Ceramic Materials, SWEREA IVF, Box 104, SE-431 22 Moelndal (Sweden)

    2011-10-15

    Wall-collision broadening of near-infrared absorption lines of molecular oxygen confined in nanoporous zirconia is studied by employing high-resolution diode-laser spectroscopy. The broadening is studied for pores of different sizes under a range of pressures, providing new insights on how wall collisions and intermolecular collisions influence the total spectroscopic line profile. The pressure series show that wall-collision broadening is relatively more prominent under reduced pressures, enabling sensitive means to probe pore sizes of porous materials. In addition, we show that the total wall-collision-broadened profile strongly deviates from a Voigt profile and that wall-collision broadening exhibits an additive-like behavior to the pressure and Doppler broadening.

  17. Line broadening in multiphoton processes with a resonant intermediate transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.C.; James, J.V.; Xia, J.

    1983-01-01

    The linewidth of the excitation spectrum for multiphoton ionization is found to be broadened much more severely than the cascade fluorescence originating from the resonant intermediate level. These results are due to the mutual effects of the ionizing and resonating transitions, which are not properly accounted for in perturbative treatments

  18. Simultaneous influence of Stark effect and excessive line broadening on the Hα line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanović, Nikola; Ivković, Saša S.; Obradović, Bratislav M.; Kuraica, Milorad M.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the combined influence of the Stark effect and the excessive Doppler broadening on the Balmer alpha line in hydrogen discharges. Since this line is a good candidate for measuring electric field in various types of discharges with different gas compositions, a simple method for field measurement based on polarization spectroscopy is developed, that includes all the excitation mechanisms. To simultaneously test the flexibility of the fitting procedure and investigate the excessive broadening, we applied the fitting procedure on line profiles obtained at a range of conditions from two different discharges. The range of pressures and voltages was examined in an abnormal glow and in dielectric barrier discharge operating with hydrogen gas. The model fitting function was able to respond and follow the change in the line profile caused by the change of conditions. This procedure can therefore be recommended for electric field measurement. Contribution to the "Topical Issue: Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2016)", edited by Goran Poparic, Bratislav Obradovic, Dragana Maric and Aleksandar Milosavljevic.

  19. Excitation dependence of resonance line self-broadening at different atomic densities

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hebin; Sautenkov, Vladimir A.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2009-01-01

    We study the dipole-dipole spectral broadening of a resonance line at high atomic densities when the self-broadening dominates. The selective reflection spectrum of a weak probe beam from the interface of the cell window and rubidium vapor are recorded in the presence of a far-detuned pump beam. The excitation due to the pump reduces the self-broadening. We found that the self-broadening reduction dependence on the pump power is atomic density independent. These results provide experimental e...

  20. Stark broadening of the Hα line of hydrogen at low densities: quantal and semiclassical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, C.; Feautrier, N.

    1984-01-01

    Stark profiles of the Hα lines of hydrogen are computed at low densities in the 'impact' theory. By a comparison with quantal results, it is shown that a simple semiclassical perturbational approach with appropriate cutoffs is sufficient to give accurate profiles in the line centre. Neglecting the natural broadening and the fine-structure effects, the authors prove that the electronic broadening is negligible and that the profile has a Lorentzian shape. An analytical expression of the half width is given. (author)

  1. Collisional broadening of depolarized spectral lines of hydrogen gases at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hout, K.D. van den.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the collisional broadening and shift of H 2 , D 2 and HD rotational Raman and depolarized Rayleigh lines at various temperatures between 25 K and 300 K. These are then discussed within the context of current theoretical concepts. For a few temperatures the line broadening cross sections are also reported as a function of the ortho-para composition for H 2 and D 2 . (C.F.)

  2. Shift and broadening of emission lines in Nd 3: YAG laser crystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. Shift and broadening of emission lines in Nd3+:YAG laser crystal influenced by input energy. POURMAND SEYED EBRAHIM REZAEI ... Keywords. Nd3+:YAG crystal; heat generation; three-level emission lines; four-level emission lines; input energy.

  3. Resonance broadening of Hg lines as a density diagnostic in high intensity discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J E

    2004-01-01

    The use of width measurements on resonance broadened lines of Hg as a density diagnostic in high intensity discharge (HID) lamps is reviewed and further developed in this paper. Optical depths of Hg I lines at 491.6 nm, 577.0 nm, and 1014 nm are computed as a function of temperature to confirm that these lines are optically thin in most HID lamps. The effect of quadratic and quartic radial temperature variation on the width of resonance broadened lines is computed for arc core temperatures from 4000 K to 7000 K. Such variations in temperature, and inverse variations in Hg density, are found to increase the line widths by less than 10% for 'side-on' emission measurements averaged over the arc radius. Theoretical profiles of resonance broadened spectral lines, both radially averaged and as a function of chord offset, are presented. Observations of resonance broadened lines in a metal-halide HID lamp are presented and analysed. It is concluded that the widths of resonance broadened lines provide a convenient and reliable diagnostic for the arc core Hg density but are generally not very sensitive to the radial temperature and Hg density gradient

  4. Stochastic theory of relaxation and collisional broadening of spectral line shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faid, K.

    1986-01-01

    A complete stochastic theory of relaxation is developed in terms of a homogeneous equation for the averaged density matrix of a system immersed in a thermal bath. This theory is then used as the basis of a new stochastic approach to the phenomenon of collisional broadening of spectral line shapes. Single-photon and multiphoton processes are studied. The features of a line shape are linked by simple expressions to the statistical properties of a stochastic hermitian Hamiltonian. The ordinary line shape predicted by Kubo's approach is generalized. The present approach predicts broadening as well as asymmetry and shift. A representation of line shapes in multiphoton processes by diagrams is also developed

  5. Line broadening mechanisms of the orth-H2 pair spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statt, B.W.; Hardy, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    Three broadening mechanisms for the ortho pair spectrum in solid hydrogen are investigated. First, theoretical predictions of the phonon induced lifetime broadening are presented. Next a theory is developed which gives the inhomogeneous broadening due to the presence of ortho molecules surrounding the pairs. An unexpected result is that certain lines remain unbroadened, at least to within the approximation made. Strain effects due to isotopic mass defect impurities are also considered. These predictions are then compared with experimental results. No temperature dependence of the lineshapes is observed, setting an upper limit on the phonon broadening contribution to the linewidth. This limit is an order of magnitude lower than the theory predicts. The predictions of the ortho broadening theory, on the other hand, are in good agreement with experiment. Samples doped with isotopic impurities are also investigated. (auth)

  6. Stark broadening measurements of Xe III spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaez, R J; Cirisan, M; Djurovic, S; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2006-01-01

    This work reports measured Stark widths of doubly ionized xenon lines. Pulsed arc was used as a plasma source. Measured electron densities and temperatures were in the ranges of (0.2 - 1.6) x 10 23 m -3 and 18 300-25 500 K, respectively. Stark halfwidths of lines from 6s-6p, 6s-4f and 5d-6p transitions have been measured and compared with available experimental and theoretical data

  7. Argon line broadening by neutral atoms and application to the measurement of oscillator strengths of AI resonance lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, O.; Ranson, P.; Chapelle, J.

    1977-01-01

    AI line broadening was studied from collisions between neutral argon atoms (3p 5 4p-3p 5 4s transitions) in a weakly ionised plasma jet (neutral atoms temperature T 0 approximately 4000K, electrons temperature Tsub(e) approximately 6000K, electronic density Nsub(e) 15 cm -3 , ionisation rate α -4 , and pressure range from 1 to 3 kg/cm 2 ). A satisfactory description of Van der Waals broadened lines is obtained by means of a Lennard-Jones potential. Measurement of line widths whose corresponding transitions occur on resonant levels, gives with relatively good accuracy the oscillator strength of the argon resonance lines [fr

  8. An experimental investigation into power broadening of the Na-D lines in a flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcar, R.A. van.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations are described aimed at the verification of the existence of power broadening in fluorescence, as predicted by theory in the case of a broadband excitation source. Measurements were performed on a vapour of sodium (Na) atoms in a pre-mixed H 2 -O 2 -Ar flame under 1 atm pressure. The easily excited first resonance (or D) lines of Na were chosen for the observation of power broadening in fluorescence. (Auth.)

  9. Kinetic theory of spectral line broadening in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussey, T.W.

    1974-01-01

    A formal kinetic theory is used to cast the line shape function into a form that, while similar to the ''unified'' theories of Smith, Cooper, and Vidal and of Voslamber, does not introduce some of the usual approximations. The resulting line shape function explicitly includes the initial correlations between the atom and perturbers, and also demonstrates the natural separation of plasma mean field and collisional effects. The classical path and no-quenching approximations are discussed and ultimately employed; however, they are not required in the formal development. The weak coupling limit is considered as a systematic approximation to the formal results. It is shown tha different ways of applying this limit lead to different expressions for the memory operator, some of which correspond to existing theories. One approximation is considered which systematically incorporates the effects of electron correlations within the framework of a unified theory. In addition, a practical approximation suitable for a strongly interacting plasma is discussed

  10. Repetitive display system of line profiles for Doppler broadening measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, A.; Narihara, K.; Haba, K.

    1982-10-01

    Line profiles of impurities in visible and ultraviolet regions are repetitively displayed on a CRT with an interval of 250 mu s or 500 mu s, using a system composed of a Czerny-Turner monochromator with 1 m F.L., a self-resonant optical scanner, a photomultiplier shielded against hard X-rays and electronic circuits. The profile resolution is 0.035 nm FWHM. This system can be used in the environment of strong hard X-rays. (author)

  11. Study of ion line broadening in the Tormac discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.S.

    1980-07-01

    Tormac (Toroidal Magnetic Cusp) is a magnetic confinement plasma concept having absolute minimum-B geometry. Two versions of Tormac are considered here. Tormac T IV-c has a glass vessel of rectangular cross section, 0.5 m in diameter. The confinement field rises to approx. 4.5 kG in approx. 8.3 μsec. Tormac T V has a T-shaped glass vessel, 1 m in diameter, with a field of approx. 3 kG, rising in approx. 10 μsec. Gaussian HeII 4686 A spectral lines having full widths at half maximum over 2 A have been observed in both Tormac plasmas

  12. Oxygen, nitrogen and air broadening of HCN spectral lines at terahertz frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chun; Buldyreva, Jeanna; Gordon, Iouli E.; Rohart, Francois; Cuisset, Arnaud; Mouret, Gael; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis

    2008-01-01

    The room-temperature nitrogen- and oxygen-broadening coefficients of hydrogen cyanide spectral lines have been measured in the 0.5-3 THz (17-100 cm -1 ) frequency range (purely rotational transitions with 5≤J≤36) by a continuous-wave terahertz spectrometer based on a photomixing source. An improved version of the Robert and Bonamy semiclassical formalism has been used to calculate the oxygen-broadening coefficients and resulted in a good agreement with these measurements. The nitrogen and oxygen data are combined to provide the air-broadening coefficients as used by the HITRAN database. A significant difference is observed between the measured and tabulated values for transitions with high values of the rotational quantum number. A new polynomial representation is suggested for inclusion in HITRAN. A similar polynomial expression has been derived for the nitrogen broadening to aid the studies of Titan's atmosphere

  13. Oxygen, nitrogen and air broadening of HCN spectral lines at terahertz frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Chun [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere, UMR CNRS 8101, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, 189A Av. Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Buldyreva, Jeanna [Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Universite de Franche-Comte, 16, Route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Gordon, Iouli E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); Rohart, Francois [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molecules, UMR CNRS 8523, Batiment P5-135, Universite de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Cuisset, Arnaud; Mouret, Gael; Bocquet, Robin [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere, UMR CNRS 8101, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, 189A Av. Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Hindle, Francis [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere, UMR CNRS 8101, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, 189A Av. Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)], E-mail: francis.hindle@univ-littoral.fr

    2008-11-15

    The room-temperature nitrogen- and oxygen-broadening coefficients of hydrogen cyanide spectral lines have been measured in the 0.5-3 THz (17-100 cm{sup -1}) frequency range (purely rotational transitions with 5{<=}J{<=}36) by a continuous-wave terahertz spectrometer based on a photomixing source. An improved version of the Robert and Bonamy semiclassical formalism has been used to calculate the oxygen-broadening coefficients and resulted in a good agreement with these measurements. The nitrogen and oxygen data are combined to provide the air-broadening coefficients as used by the HITRAN database. A significant difference is observed between the measured and tabulated values for transitions with high values of the rotational quantum number. A new polynomial representation is suggested for inclusion in HITRAN. A similar polynomial expression has been derived for the nitrogen broadening to aid the studies of Titan's atmosphere.

  14. Line broadening interference for high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra under inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhiliang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Youhe

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy serves as an important tool for analyzing chemicals and biological metabolites. However, its performance is subject to the magnetic-field homogeneity. Under inhomogeneous fields, peaks are broadened to overlap each other, introducing difficulties for assignments. Here, we propose a method termed as line broadening interference (LBI) to provide high-resolution information under inhomogeneous magnetic fields by employing certain gradients in the indirect dimension to interfere the magnetic-field inhomogeneity. The conventional spectral-line broadening is thus interfered to be non-diagonal, avoiding the overlapping among adjacent resonances. Furthermore, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to recover the high-resolution information from LBI spectra. Theoretical deductions are performed to offer systematic and detailed analyses on the proposed method. Moreover, experiments are conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed method for yielding high-resolution spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

  15. Studies of solar flares: Homology and X-ray line broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranns, Neale David Raymond

    This thesis starts with an introduction to the solar atmosphere and the physics that governs its behaviour. The formation processes of spectral lines are presented followed by an explanation of employed plasma diagnostic techniques and line broadening mechanisms. The current understanding on some principle concepts of flare physics are reviewed and the topics of flare homology and non-thermal line broadening are introduced. The many solar satellites and instrumentation that were utilised during this thesis are described. Analysis techniques for some instruments are also presented. A series of solar flares that conform to the literature definition for homologous flares are examined. The apparent homology is shown to be caused by emerging flux rather than continual stressing of a single, or group of, magnetic structure's. The implications for flare homology are discussed. The analysis of a solar flare with a rise and peak in the observed non-thermal X-ray line broadening (Vnt) is then performed. The location of the hot plasma within the flare area is determined and consequently the source of Vnt is located to be within and above the flare loops. The flare footpoints are therefore discarded as a possible source location. Viable source locations are discussed with a view to determining the dominant mechanism for the generation of line broadening. The timing relationships between the hard X-ray (HXR) flux and Vnt in many solar flares are then examined. I show that there is a causal relationship between these two parameters and that the HXR rise time is related to the time delay between the maxima of HXR flux and Vnt. The temporal evolution of Vnt is shown to be dependent upon the shape of the HXR burst. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of determining the line broadening mechanism and the limitations of the data. A summary of the results in this thesis is then presented together with suggestions for future research.

  16. Calculation of the density shift and broadening of the transition lines in pionic helium: Computational problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Dimitar, E-mail: dbakalov@inrne.bas.bg [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, INRNE (Bulgaria)

    2015-08-15

    The potential energy surface and the computational codes, developed for the evaluation of the density shift and broadening of the spectral lines of laser-induced transitions from metastable states of antiprotonic helium, fail to produce convergent results in the case of pionic helium. We briefly analyze the encountered computational problems and outline possible solutions of the problems.

  17. LBQ2D, Extending the Line Broadened Quasilinear Model to TAE-EP Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghantous, Katy; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Berk, Herbert

    2012-10-01

    The line broadened quasilinear model was proposed and tested on the one dimensional electrostatic case of the bump on tailfootnotetextH.L Berk, B. Breizman and J. Fitzpatrick, Nucl. Fusion, 35:1661, 1995 to study the wave particle interaction. In conventional quasilinear theory, the sea of overlapping modes evolve with time as the particle distribution function self consistently undergo diffusion in phase space. The line broadened quasilinear model is an extension to the conventional theory in a way that allows treatment of isolated modes as well as overlapping modes by broadening the resonant line in phase space. This makes it possible to treat the evolution of modes self consistently from onset to saturation in either case. We describe here the model denoted by LBQ2D which is an extension of the proposed one dimensional line broadened quasilinear model to the case of TAEs interacting with energetic particles in two dimensional phase space, energy as well as canonical angular momentum. We study the saturation of isolated modes in various regimes and present the analytical derivation and numerical results. Finally, we present, using ITER parameters, the case where multiple modes overlap and describe the techniques used for the numerical treatment.

  18. Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm - Selected intensities, N2-collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.

  19. Low pressure broadening and shift of the 540.06 nm line of neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielski, A.; Dokurno, W.; Szudy, J.; Wolnikowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    The collision broadening and shift of the 540.06 nm line of neon emitted from a low pressure glow discharge in pure neon and a neon-helium mixture have been measured. The values of the broadening and shift coefficients were determined and compared with the results of calculations based on the Lindholm-Foley impact theory assuming a Lennard-Jones potential. The results for pure neon demonstrate the inadequacy of the Lennard-Jones potential for the Ne-Ne interaction. (orig.)

  20. The effect of line-broadening on the overall width of transition arrays in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoarty, D.J.; Bentley, C.D.; Crowley, B.J.B.; Davidson, S.J.; Gales, S.G.; Graham, P.; Harris, J.W.O.; Iglesias, C.A.; James, S.F.; Smith, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have been performed, using the HELEN laser, to measure absorption spectra in the temperature range 20-60 eV and density range 0.5-3 g/cm 3 . K-shell spectra of aluminium were studied to investigate the effect of the plasma environment on the absorption spectrum. The experiments show the effect, at high-density, of array broadening and the merging of high series lines. Comparisons of the experimental absorption data to different opacity models are discussed. The experimental data are compared to calculations of the CASSANDRA opacity model, with and without the inclusion of electron impact broadening. The CASSANDRA code is in better agreement with experiment with electron impact broadening included. The data were also compared to the OPAL detailed term accounting model with reasonable agreement

  1. Line-Broadening in Low-Temperature Solid-State NMR Spectra of Fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas; Dotta, Claudio; Balacescu, Livia; Gath, Julia; Hunkeler, Andreas [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [Université de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, UMR 5086 CNRS (France); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    The temperature-dependent resonance-line broadening of HET-s(218–289) in its amyloid form is investigated in the range between 110 K and 280 K. Significant differences are observed between residues in the structured hydrophobic triangular core, which are broadened the least and can be detected down to 100 K, and in the solvent-exposed parts, which are broadened the most and often disappear from the observed spectrum around 200 K. Below the freezing of the bulk water, around 273 K, the protein fibrils are still surrounded by a layer of mobile water whose thickness decreases with temperature, leading to drying out of the fibrils.

  2. Stark broadening of the 1640- and 4686-A lines of ionized helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Stark-broadened profiles of the 1640- and 4686-A lines of ionized helium have been calculated using an approximation to the electron broadening operator in the unified classical-path theory of Smith, Vidal, and Cooper. The approximation is such that the results reproduce the time-ordered impact-theory results in the line center, and the ionized-radiator quasistatic results in the far wings. Sample calculations at n/sub e/ = 10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ and T = 40 000 degreeK are found to give significantly more narrow profiles than the corresponding modified-impact-theory results because of a different treatment of the lower-state interaction. Indirect comparison with experiment indicates that the calculated lines are too narrow, but it is expected that the inclusion of neglected effects of ion dynamics and inelastic collisions would improve agreement

  3. Line broadening analysis of implosion core conditions at Z using argon K-shell spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris-Mog, T.J. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)]. E-mail: burris@physics.unr.edu; Mancini, R.C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Bailey, J.E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Chandler, G.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Rochau, G. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Dunham, G. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Lake, P.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Peterson, K. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Slutz, S.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Mehlhorn, T.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Golovkin, I.E. [Prism Computational Sciences, Madison, WI 53703 (United States); MacFarlane, J.J. [Prism Computational Sciences, Madison, WI 53703 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We report on spectral line broadening analysis of Ar K-shell lines from argon-doped implosion cores driven by a dynamic hohlraum z-pinch. The observed Ar spectra include emissions from the resonance series in H- and He-like Ar ions, i.e., Ly{alpha}, Ly{beta} and Ly{gamma}, and He{alpha}, He{beta}, He{gamma} and He{delta} lines, respectively. The analysis accounts for opacity and Stark broadening to determine electron density, N{sub e}, and areal-density, N{delta}R, values for the ground state populations of H- and He-like Ar ions. Furthermore, these results are combined with the ratio of H- and He-like ground state populations to extract the electron temperature, T{sub e}.

  4. Line broadening analysis of implosion core conditions at Z using argon K-shell spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris-Mog, T.J.; Mancini, R.C.; Bailey, J.E.; Chandler, G.A.; Rochau, G.; Dunham, G.; Lake, P.W.; Peterson, K.; Slutz, S.A.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Golovkin, I.E.; MacFarlane, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    We report on spectral line broadening analysis of Ar K-shell lines from argon-doped implosion cores driven by a dynamic hohlraum z-pinch. The observed Ar spectra include emissions from the resonance series in H- and He-like Ar ions, i.e., Lyα, Lyβ and Lyγ, and Heα, Heβ, Heγ and Heδ lines, respectively. The analysis accounts for opacity and Stark broadening to determine electron density, N e , and areal-density, NΔR, values for the ground state populations of H- and He-like Ar ions. Furthermore, these results are combined with the ratio of H- and He-like ground state populations to extract the electron temperature, T e

  5. Line positions, intensities and self-broadening coefficients for the ν5 band of methyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbouchi Ramchani, A.; Jacquemart, D.; Dhib, M.; Aroui, H.

    2013-01-01

    High resolution Fourier transform spectra have been recorded around 6.9 μm at room temperature using a rapid scan Bruker IFS 120 HR interferometer (unapodized Bruker resolution=0.005 cm −1 ). Transitions of both 12 CH 3 35 Cl and 12 CH 3 37 Cl isotopologues belonging to the ν 5 perpendicular band have been studied. Line positions, intensities, and self-broadening coefficients have been retrieved using a multispectrum fitting procedure that allowed to fit simultaneously the whole set of experimental spectra recorded at various pressures of CH 3 Cl. The wavenumber calibration has been performed using the frequencies of CO 2 transitions. The transition dipole moments squared have been determined for each measured line and the whole set of measurements has been compared with previous measurements and with values from HITRAN and GEISA databases. The rotational J and K dependencies of the self-broadening coefficients have been clearly observed and modeled using empirical polynomial expansions. The average accuracy of the line parameters obtained in this work has been estimated to be between 0.1×10 −3 and 1×10 −3 cm −1 for line positions, between 2% and 5% for line intensities and between 5% and 10% for self-broadening coefficients depending on the transitions. -- Highlights: ► Fourier-transform spectra of the ν 5 band of CH 3 Cl at room temperature. ► Measurements of line positions, intensities and self-broadening coefficients. ► Analysis of the J- and K-rotational dependences of self-widths. ► Comparisons with literature

  6. Spectral line shape simulation for electron stark-broadening of ion emitters in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, Emmanuelle; Calisti, Annette; Talin, Bernard; Gigosos, Marco A.; Gonzalez, Manuel A.; Dufty, Jim W.

    2002-01-01

    Electron broadening for ions in plasmas is investigated in the framework of a simplified semi-classical model involving an ionic emitter imbedded in an electron gas. A regularized Coulomb potential that removes the divergence at short distances is postulated for the ion-electron interaction. Line shape simulations based on Molecular Dynamics for the ion impurity and the electrons, accounting for all the correlations, are reported. Comparisons with line shapes obtained with a quasi-particle model show expected correlation effects. Through an analysis of the results with the line shape code PPP, it is inferred that the correlation effect results mainly from the microfield dynamic properties

  7. Broadening of some He I and He II lines in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.; Sauerbrey, G.

    1975-01-01

    The broadening of the He I and He II lines was investigated in a wall-stabilized discharge (duration approximately 500 μs, Ne approximately 2 x 10 16 cm -3 , T approximately 37,000 K). The xi factor calculated by Kriener and Schlueter could be used for the Ne determination from the continuum radiation. For the line width of the He I line 501.4 nm, the discrepancy of a factor 1.7 to Griem, Baranger, Kolb, Oertel reported by Kusch was confirmed. Also confirmed was the theoretical dependence of the distance between the group peaks on the electron densities for the He I lines 447.1 nm and 492.1 nm, first reported by Griem and Barnard et al. The line widths of the He II lines 320.3 nm and 408.6 nm are between the values given by Kepple and Griem, and Griem, Kolb, Shen. (orig./AK) [de

  8. On the line broadening and shifts of Al laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She Yongbo; Chen Yunfang; Zhao Ruwen; Zhang Xiulan; Pan Guangyan

    1985-01-01

    We have studied the spatially resolved spectra of Al laser produced plasma. In the range from 2300-4000A about thirty emission lines have been observed belonging to the neutral, singly and doubly ionized Al species. Their line widths and shifts vary with the distance between the plasma and the Al-target surface. Five lines from differently ionized species have been examined with the aid of the theoretical formula given by Griem, and the distribution of electron density near the target has been determined semi-empirically. We found that the line broadening of the different species coincided well with each other, and could be used as a measure of electron density in the range from 1.10 17 to 5.10 18 cm -3 . But the coincidence between the line shifts seems not so good, especially for the lines of 3587 A of Al II and 3610 A of Al III. It remains to be further investigated

  9. Measurement of collisional self broadening of atomic resonance lines in selective reflection experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papoyan, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    A method is developed to measure directly the collisional self broadening rate for a dense atomic vapor from selective reflection spectra. Experimental realization for the atomic D 1 and D 2 resonance lines of Rb confirms a validity of the proposed technique. The deflection of experimentally measured values is not more than 20% from theoretically predicted ones in the atomic number density range of 7· 10 16 - 7· 10 17 cm - 3 . 10 refs

  10. Calculation of the Raman line broadening on carbonation in synthetic hydroxyapatite

    OpenAIRE

    de Mul, F.F.M.; Otto, Cornelis; Greve, Jan; Arends, J.; ten Bosch, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The position and broadening of the Raman band associated with the phosphate symmetric stretching vibration in hydroxyapatite are simulated using a simple inter- and intra-ionic potential. The results are compared with experimental values. This comparison was made as a function of the incorporation of carbonate ions in the lattice for a number of substitution models. The line width of the phosphate symmetric stretching vibration is shown both theoretically and experimentally to be dependent on...

  11. Fast analytic formulas for the modified Bessel functions of imaginary order for spectral line broadening calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poquerusse, A.; Alexiou, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this work we review the status of the standard line broadening theory for plasmas and fill in the existing gap, i.e., the partially overlapping case for ions lines, by deriving expressions as well as fast and accurate numerical approximations for the relevant functions, namely the modified Bessel function of imaginary order and its derivative with respect to argument. These functions also arise in the context of the theory of Coulomb excitation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Stark broadening of resonant Cr II 3d5-3d44p spectral lines in hot stellar atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simić, Z.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Sahal-Bréchot, S.

    2013-07-01

    New Stark broadening parameters of interest for the astrophysical, laboratory and technological plasma modelling, investigations and analysis for nine resonant Cr II multiplets have been determined within the semiclassical perturbation approach. In order to demonstrate one possibility for their usage in astrophysical plasma research, obtained results have been applied to the analysis of the Stark broadening influence on stellar spectral line shapes.

  13. Techniques for obtaining velocity distributions of atoms or ions from Doppler-broadened spectral line profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, T.G.

    1986-12-01

    Analysis of the doppler-broadened profiles of spectral lines radiated by atoms or ions in plasmas yields information about their velocity distributions. Researchers have analysed profiles of lines radiated by atoms in isotropic velocity distributions in several ways, one being the inversion of the integral equation which relates the velocity distribution to the line profile. This inversion formula was derived for a separate application and was given to within an arbitrary multiplicative constant. This paper presents a new derivation which obtains the inversion exactly, using a method which is easily generalized for determination of anisotropic velocity distribution functions. The technique to obtain an anisotropic velocity distribution function from line profiles measured at different angles is outlined

  14. Determination of foreign broadening coefficients for Methane Lines Targeted by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) on the Mars Curiosity Rover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, Jagadeeshwari; Bui, Thinh Q.; Webster, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular line parameters of foreign- broadening by air, carbon dioxide, and helium gas have been experimentally determined for infrared ro-vibrational spectral lines of methane isotopologues ("1"2CH_4 and "1"3CH_4) at 3057 cm"−"1 targeted by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover. From multi-spectrum analyses with the speed-dependent Voigt line profile with Rosenkrantz line-mixing, speed-dependence and line-mixing effects were quantified for methane spectra at total pressures up to 200 mbar. The fitted air-broadening coefficients deviated from 8–25% to those reported in the HITRAN-2012 database. - Highlights: • Measurements of foreign broadening coefficients for Mars-TLS specific methane lines. • Spectral parameters were deduced from Speed-dependent Voigt profile with line mixing effects taken into account. • A thorough comparison of different line profile fits for the Mars-TLS methane lines. The fitted broadening coefficients and areas deviated up to 30% and 4%, respectively, when comparing the speed-dependent Voigt profile (with Rosenkrantz line-mixing) with the simplest Voigt profile. • Foreign broadening coefficients were measured within a precision of 2.2%.

  15. Applications of Fourier analysis to broadening of stellar line profiles. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.; Frisch, H.

    1976-01-01

    Turbulence dominated by eddies of a finite size produces effects on a line profile which are similar to both macro- and micro-turbulence but which are at the same time neither. It is suggested that one of these effects in the Fourier transform domain, namely the narrowing of the first natural sidelobe relative to the width of the main lobe, can be used as an indicator of the dominance of finite-sized eddies ('mesoturbulence'). An examination of some existing solar data shows that finite-sized eddy models fit the observed sidelobe widths better than do models computed with any reasonable combination of micro- and macro-turbulent broadenings. (Auth.)

  16. Spectral line profile analysis for evaluation of Gaussian and Lorentzian widths and collisional broadening coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhate, S.G.; Ahmad, S.A.; Pushpa; Rao, M.; Saksena, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    Deconvolution of atomic line profiles, recorded on PC interfaced recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer, into its Lorentzian and Gaussian component has been carried out. Effect of various parameters of hollow cathode discharge lamp (light source) such as discharge current, bath temperature and gas pressure on Lorentzian and Gaussian width has been studied. The value of the self-broadening coefficient for neon-neon atomic interaction for the transition 2p 5 4P-2P 5 3s (λ=3472.571 A) has been determined. (author). 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  17. NMR line broadening in solids by slowing down of spin fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehring, M.; Sinning, G.; Pines, A.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1976-01-01

    The 109 Ag nuclear magnetic resonance line in a sample of polycrystalline AgF is observed to broaden substantially when the 19 F spins are irradiated near the magic angle in their rotating frame. This is due to the reduction of 19 F- 19 F dipolar coupling, which normally causes fluctuations in the 19 F- 109 Ag interactions (Abragam and Winter), inducing an exchange narrowing analogous to classical motional narrowing. The 109 Ag linewidths obtained over the entire motional range at different 19 F frequencies are compared with those calculated exactly from the ratio of second to fourth moment. (orig.) [de

  18. Stark broadening parameters and transition probabilities of persistent lines of Tl II

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés-García, I.; Colón, C.; Fernández-Martínez, F.

    2018-05-01

    The presence of singly ionized thallium in the stellar atmosphere of the chemically peculiar star χ Lupi was reported by Leckrone et al. in 1999 by analysis of its stellar spectrum obtained with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Atomic data about the spectral line of 1307.50 Å and about the hyperfine components of the spectral lines of 1321.71 Å and 1908.64 Å were taken from different sources and used to analyse the isotopic abundance of thallium II in the star χ Lupi. From their results the authors concluded that the photosphere of the star presents an anomalous isotopic composition of Tl II. A study of the atomic parameters of Tl II and of the broadening by the Stark effect of its spectral lines (and therefore of the possible overlaps of these lines) can help to clarify the conclusions about the spectral abundance of Tl II in different stars. In this paper we present calculated values of the atomic transition probabilities and Stark broadening parameters for 49 spectral lines of Tl II obtained by using the Cowan code including core polarization effects and the Griem semiempirical approach. Theoretical values of radiative lifetimes for 11 levels (eight with experimental values in the bibliography) are calculated and compared with the experimental values in order to test the quality of our results. Theoretical trends of the Stark width and shift parameters versus the temperature for spectral lines of astrophysical interest are displayed. Trends of our calculated Stark width for the isoelectronic sequence Tl II-Pb III-Bi IV are also displayed.

  19. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  20. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, F., E-mail: francesco.filippi@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Zigler, A. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-09-01

    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  1. X-ray diffraction line broadening due to dislocations in non-cubic materials. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimanek, P.; Kuzel, R. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Use is made of the theory of dislocation-induced X-ray diffraction line broadening in the form presented by Krivoglaz, Martynenko and Ryaboshapka to express the so-called orientation factors occurring in the relations of diffraction profile parameters (e.g. Fourier coefficients, line widths) in a form which systematically takes into account both the lattice geometry and the elastic behaviour of the scattering crystals. The formalism can be used, in principle, for any materials and types of dislocations. In the case of elastically isotropic media the orientation factors can be described by analytical expressions. The application of the formalism is demonstrated in some detail for various slip systems in hexagonal polycrystals with random orientation of grains. (orig.)

  2. Stark broadening of several Bi IV spectral lines of astrophysical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, C.; Moreno-Díaz, C.; de Andrés-García, I.; Alonso-Medina, A.

    2017-09-01

    The presence of spectral lines of bismuth in stellar atmospheres has been reported in different stars. The anomalous values of the spectral intensities of Bi II and Bi III, compared to the theoretical Local Termodinamic Equilibrium (LTE) standards of Bi I/Bi II/Bi III, have been reported in the spectra obtained with the High Resolution Spectrograph of the Hubble/Goddard Space Telescope in the chemically peculiar stars HgMn stars χ Lupi and HR 7775. Spectral lines of 1436.8, 1902.3, 2630.9 and 2936.7 Å of Bi II and 1423.4 Å of Bi III were reported and their relative intensities were measured in these studies Litzén & Wahlgren 2002. These lines are overlapped with spectral lines of 1437.65, 2630.1 and 2937.1 Å of Bi IV. A study of the Stark broadening parameters of Bi IV spectral lines can help to study these overlaps. In this paper, using the Griem semi-empirical approach, we report calculated values of the Stark parameters for 64 spectral lines of Bi IV. The matrix elements used in these calculations have been determined from 17 configurations of Bi IV. They were calculated using the cowan code including core polarization effects. Data are displayed for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 10 000-160 000 K. Also calculated radiative lifetimes for 12 levels with experimental lifetime are presented, in order to test the goodness of our calculations. Theoretical trends of the Stark width and shift parameters versus the temperature for spectral lines of astrophysical interest are displayed.

  3. ON THE ANTI-CORRELATION BETWEEN SPECTRAL LINE BROADENING AND INTENSITY IN CORONAL STRUCTURES OBSERVED WITH EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    The advance in spectral resolution of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging (EIS) spectrometer on board Hinode has allowed for more detailed analysis of coronal spectral lines. Large line broadening and blueshifted velocities have been found in the periphery of active region (AR) cores and near the footpoints of coronal loops. This line broadening is yet to be understood. We study the correlation of intensity and line width for entire ARs and sub-regions selected to include coronal features. The results show that although a slight positive correlation can be found when considering whole images, many sub-regions have a negative correlation between intensity and line width. Sections of a coronal loop display some of the largest anti-correlations found for this study with the increased line broadening occurring directly adjacent to the footpoint section of the loop structure, not at the footpoint itself. The broadened lines may be due to a second Doppler-shifted component that is separate from the main emitting feature such as a coronal loop, but related in their excitation. The small size of these features forces the considerations of investigator and instrumental effects. Preliminary analyses are shown that indicate the possibility of a point-spread function that is not azimuthally symmetric and may affect velocity and line profile measurements.

  4. WHY IS NON-THERMAL LINE BROADENING OF SPECTRAL LINES IN THE LOWER TRANSITION REGION OF THE SUN INDEPENDENT OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pontieu, B.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; McIntosh, S.; Peter, H.; Pereira, T. M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral observations of the solar transition region (TR) and corona show broadening of spectral lines beyond what is expected from thermal and instrumental broadening. The remaining non-thermal broadening is significant (5–30 km s −1 ) and correlated with intensity. Here we study spectra of the TR Si iv 1403 Å line obtained at high resolution with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). We find that the large improvement in spatial resolution (0.″33) of IRIS compared to previous spectrographs (2″) does not resolve the non-thermal line broadening which, in most regions, remains at pre-IRIS levels of about 20 km s −1 . This invariance to spatial resolution indicates that the processes behind the broadening occur along the line-of-sight (LOS) and/or on spatial scales (perpendicular to the LOS) smaller than 250 km. Both effects appear to play a role. Comparison with IRIS chromospheric observations shows that, in regions where the LOS is more parallel to the field, magneto-acoustic shocks driven from below impact the TR and can lead to significant non-thermal line broadening. This scenario is supported by MHD simulations. While these do not show enough non-thermal line broadening, they do reproduce the long-known puzzling correlation between non-thermal line broadening and intensity. This correlation is caused by the shocks, but only if non-equilibrium ionization is taken into account. In regions where the LOS is more perpendicular to the field, the prevalence of small-scale twist is likely to play a significant role in explaining the invariance and correlation with intensity. (letters)

  5. Shape of argon spectral lines emitted from an electric arc (P=760 Torr). Study and application of pressure broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzas, Dimitrios.

    1978-01-01

    We have studied the broadening and shift of argon spectral lines corresponding to 3p 5 5p-3p 5 4s and 3p 5 4p-3p 5 4s transitions emitted from an electric arc burning under atmospheric pressure. We have revealed the broadening due to neutral atoms pressure effect, distinguishing the transitions whose lower level is a metastable one (1s 3 and 1s 5 ) or a level of strong (1s 2 ) or feeble resonance (1s 4 ). In this study we have employed a mixture of argon (98%) and hydrogen (2%); hydrogen's feeble proportion does not perturb much the discharge and is very suitable for the measure of the electronic density. The important departure of L.T.E. has guided us to imagine and apply an original method to measure the temperature and the overpopulation of the neutral atoms in the fondamental state. Our method which is independent of the existence of L.T.E. is based on the different behavior of the spectral lines which are under the influence of the resonance or Van der Waals broadening. The measure of the broadening constants which in the resonance case are independent of the temperature and vary as Tsup(0,3) for V.d.W's broadening, give us a suitable tool to measure the density and the temperature of the neutral atoms [fr

  6. A comparative study of the broadening effect on rotational lines by methane and noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircz, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    Line broadening measurements for the mixtures HCl-CH 4 and HCl-CD 4 have been performed and the results of these experiments are reported. Current theoretical models for the systems studied are briefly discussed. In order to identify specific effects the authors have tried to find a generalisation for linewidth cross-sections for the HCl-noble gas systems. This is done in the spirit of the well known corresponding state treatment in statistical mechanics in an attempt to find, in terms of reduced variables, a generalised intermolecular potential for these systems. Extensive calculations on the HCl-Ar and HCl-Kr intermolecular potentials, as derived from linewidth measurements, are reported in an attempt to extract a more exact potential for these systems. The results are compared with other recent results from the literature. The use of a semi-empirical method for the evaluation of the experimental data is described. This empirical method has been used in a comparison between the HCl-noble gas experiments and the present experiments of HCl-methane. The possibility of splitting the observed data into a 'noble gas' part and a 'extra' part due to the intermolecular interactions which result from the coupling of the HCl rotations with the internal degrees of freedom of the methane molecules is discussed. (Auth.)

  7. FPSPH DFPSPF, Line Shape Function for Doppler Broadened Resonance Cross-Sections Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribon, P.

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: In the computation of Doppler- broadened resonance cross sections, use is made of the symmetric and anti-symmetric line shape functions. These functions usually denoted as Psi and Phi (Psi and Chi in Anglo-Saxon formalism) are defined in terms of the real and imaginary parts of the error function for complex arguments. They are the product of the convolution of a Gaussian function with the symmetric and anti-symmetric Breit-Wigner functions, respectively. FPSPH and DFPSPH compute these functions. 2 - Method of solution: For (1+x 2 ) > 20 Beta 2 , the calculation is based upon the asymptotic expansion: Psi+(i*Phi) = 1/(1-ix)*(1-t+3t 2 -3.5t 3 +3.5+7t 4 ---), with: t = 1/(2z 2 ); z = (1-ix)/Beta. The half-plane (Beta,x) is split in several parts, and use is made of PADE approximants. For 1 + x 2 2 , the calculation is based upon the relation with the erf function: Psi + i*Phi = SQRT(Pi)/Beta*(e (z 2 ) )*(1-erf(z)) (z = (1-ix)/Beta, and erf(z) being calculated from its analytic expansion: erf(z) = 2/SQRT(Pi)*z*e (-z 2 ) *(1+z 2 /3+z 4 /(3*5) + z 6 /(3*5*7)+---). PADE approximants are used to compute the expansion and e z 2

  8. The importance of nuclear quantum effects in spectral line broadening of optical spectra and electrostatic properties in aromatic chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Y. K.; Hassanali, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we examine the importance of nuclear quantum effects on capturing the line broadening and vibronic structure of optical spectra. We determine the absorption spectra of three aromatic molecules indole, pyridine, and benzene using time dependent density functional theory with several molecular dynamics sampling protocols: force-field based empirical potentials, ab initio simulations, and finally path-integrals for the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects. We show that the absorption spectrum for all these chromophores are similarly broadened in the presence of nuclear quantum effects regardless of the presence of hydrogen bond donor or acceptor groups. We also show that simulations incorporating nuclear quantum effects are able to reproduce the heterogeneous broadening of the absorption spectra even with empirical force fields. The spectral broadening associated with nuclear quantum effects can be accounted for by the broadened distribution of chromophore size as revealed by a particle in the box model. We also highlight the role that nuclear quantum effects have on the underlying electronic structure of aromatic molecules as probed by various electrostatic properties.

  9. Matrix Methods for Solving Hartree-Fock Equations in Atomic Structure Calculations and Line Broadening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gomez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atomic structure of N-electron atoms is often determined by solving the Hartree-Fock equations, which are a set of integro-differential equations. The integral part of the Hartree-Fock equations treats electron exchange, but the Hartree-Fock equations are not often treated as an integro-differential equation. The exchange term is often approximated as an inhomogeneous or an effective potential so that the Hartree-Fock equations become a set of ordinary differential equations (which can be solved using the usual shooting methods. Because the Hartree-Fock equations are an iterative-refinement method, the inhomogeneous term relies on the previous guess of the wavefunction. In addition, there are numerical complications associated with solving inhomogeneous differential equations. This work uses matrix methods to solve the Hartree-Fock equations as an integro-differential equation. It is well known that a derivative operator can be expressed as a matrix made of finite-difference coefficients; energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be obtained by using linear-algebra packages. The integral (exchange part of the Hartree-Fock equation can be approximated as a sum and written as a matrix. The Hartree-Fock equations can be solved as a matrix that is the sum of the differential and integral matrices. We compare calculations using this method against experiment and standard atomic structure calculations. This matrix method can also be used to solve for free-electron wavefunctions, thus improving how the atoms and free electrons interact. This technique is important for spectral line broadening in two ways: it improves the atomic structure calculations, and it improves the motion of the plasma electrons that collide with the atom.

  10. Stark Broadening of Carbon and Oxygen Lines in Hot DQ White Dwarf Stars: Recent Results and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufour P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available White dwarf stars are traditionally found to have surface compositions made primarily of hydrogen or helium. However, a new family has recently been uncovered, the so-called hot DQ white dwarfs, which have surface compositions dominated by carbon and oxygen with little or no trace of hydrogen and helium (Dufour et al. 2007, 2008, 2010. Deriving precise atmospheric parameters for these objects (such as the effective temperature and the surface gravity requires detailed modeling of spectral line profiles. Stark broadening parameters are of crucial importance in that context. We present preliminary results from our new generation of model atmospheres including the latest Stark broadening calculations for C II lines and discuss the implications as well as future work that remains to be done.

  11. Broadening of the x-ray emission line due to the instrumental function of the double-crystal spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochio, T.; Ito, Y.; Omote, K.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the instrumental function on the Cu Kα 1 emission line was investigated for the case of a double-crystal spectrometer. The magnitude of broadening for both Si(220) and Si(440) was calculated for a Lorentzian emission line with the width of 1-5 eV; the broadening for Si(220) is 0.12-0.18 eV while that for Si(440) is only 0.015-0.043 eV. The former is too large to be neglected, so the correction for the instrumental function is important. The spectrum affected by the instrumental function seems to keep the shape of Lorentzian though its width is larger. The fact indicates that the Lorentzian fitting analysis is effective if the appropriate correction for width is done

  12. Calculation of the Raman line broadening on carbonation in synthetic hydroxyapatite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mul, F.F.M.; Otto, Cornelis; Greve, Jan; Arends, J.; ten Bosch, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The position and broadening of the Raman band associated with the phosphate symmetric stretching vibration in hydroxyapatite are simulated using a simple inter- and intra-ionic potential. The results are compared with experimental values. This comparison was made as a function of the incorporation

  13. Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Tomas; Lewander, Märta; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-08-02

    We demonstrate high-resolution tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina. Strong multiple light scattering results in long photon pathlengths (1 m through a 6 mm sample). We report on strong line broadening due to frequent wall collisions (gas-surface interactions). For the water vapor line at 935.685 nm, the HWHM of confined molecules are about 4.3 GHz as compared to 2.9 GHz for free molecules (atmospheric pressure). Gas diffusion is also investigated, and in contrast to molecular oxygen (that moves rapidly in and out of the alumina), the exchange of water vapor is found very slow.

  14. A far wing line shape theory and its application to the foreign-broadened water continuum absorption. III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The far wing line shape theory developed previously and applied to the calculation of the continuum absorption of pure water vapor is extended to foreign-broadened continua. Explicit results are presented for H2O-N2 and H2O-CO2 in the frequency range from 0 to 10,000/cm. For H2O-N2 the positive and negative resonant frequency average line shape functions and absorption coefficients are computed for a number of temperatures between 296 and 430 K for comparison with available laboratory data. In general the agreement is very good.

  15. Ion temperature measurements of turbulently heated TRIAM-1 plasmas by the Doppler-broadening of visible lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Toi, K; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1980-07-01

    The ion temperature of the turbulently heated TRIAM-1 plasma is obtained from the Doppler-broadening of visible lines. The radial profiles of the volume emission of visible lines are measured beforehand to examine whether the volume emissions are localized at a specified position of the minor cross-section of the plasma or not. The ion temperature of the specified position is determined from these profiles. The time behaviour of thus obtained Doppler ion temperature shows a good agreement with that of the one derived from the Neutral Energy Analyzer.

  16. Non-impact modeling of electron broadening of hydrogen spectral lines in dense but relatively cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, S.; Buescher, S.; Wrubel, Th.; Kunze, H.-J.; Calisti, A.; Stamm, R.; Talin, B.

    2001-01-01

    The standard static-ion/impact-electron theory of line broadening is assessed with calculations of hydrogen lines over a broad range of plasma conditions. In most cases, discrepancies between results from theory and experiments are explained by the neglect of ion-dynamics effects. Nevertheless, recent experiments involving high density but low temperature plasmas indicate that ion-dynamics/impact-electron models may seriously overestimate the broadening for such conditions. We show that the observed discrepancies are not due to the ion modeling but due to the impact approximation of the electrons in the Original Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM). This situation arises for plasma conditions where the interactions with the electrons are a major broadening mechanism and quasi-static, i.e. non-binary, electron effects are important. An alternative approach to a binary collision operator is therefore proposed by means of the FFM code generalized to the two components (ions and electrons) of the plasma. Accurate simulations accounting for the electron plus ion field dynamics have been used to corroborate the FFM as applied to both ion and electron perturbers, and good agreement is found with recent experiments on H α and P α for dense but relatively cold plasmas

  17. Pressure broadening measurement of submillimeter-wave lines of O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.M.; Amano, T.

    2005-01-01

    The pressure broadening coefficients and their temperature dependences for two submillimeter-wave transitions of ozone, one being monitored with Odin and the other to be monitored with JEM/SMILES and EOS-MLS, have been determined by using a BWO based submillimeter-wave spectrometer. The measurements have also been extended to one of the symmetric isotopic species, 16 O 18 O 16 O. The isotopic species is observed in natural abundance and as a consequence the temperature dependence is not determined due to weak signal intensity. The pressure broadening parameters are determined with better than 1% accuracy, while the temperature dependence exponents are obtained within 1.5-3% accuracy for the normal species transitions

  18. Analysis of self-broadened pure rotational and rovibrational lines of methyl chloride at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, C.; Jacquemart, D.; Lacome, N.; Guinet, M.; Cuisset, A.; Eliet, S.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.; Rohart, F.; Buldyreva, J.

    2013-02-01

    Rovibrational absorption spectra of methyl chloride in the spectral region between 2800 and 3200 cm-1 were recorded with a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. A multispectrum fitting procedure was used to analyze 527 transitions of the ν1 band and to retrieve the self-broadening coefficients for various J- and K-values with an estimated accuracy around 8%. Pure rotational transitions of CH3Cl in the submillimeter/terahertz region (0.2-1.4 THz) were also investigated using two complementary techniques of frequency-multiplication and continuous-wave photomixing. Forty-three pure rotational self-broadening coefficients were extracted with the accuracy between 3 and 5%. The whole set of measured values was used to model the J- and K-rotational dependences of the self-broadening coefficients by second-order polynomials. In addition, semi-classical calculations were performed, based on the real symmetric-top geometry of the active molecule, an intermolecular potential model including not only the dominant electrostatic but also the short-range forces, as well as on an exact classical treatment of the relative translational motion of the colliding partners. Comparison of all experimental and theoretical results shows similar rotational dependences and no significant vibrational dependence, so that extrapolations to other spectral regions should be straightforward.

  19. Microscopic nature of inhomogeneous line broadening: Analysis of the excitation-line-narrowing spectra of Cf4+ in CeF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, G.K.; Huang, J.; Beitz, J.V.

    1993-01-01

    Optical transitions between 5f states of tetravalent californium ion doped (1 metal-atom %) into CeF 4 exhibit unusually large inhomogeneous broadening. The nature of the inhomogeneous broadening in this system has been studied by using fluorescence line narrowing and excitation line narrowing (ELN). It is shown that the energy distributions of different electronic states of Cf 4+ in this system are correlated. In the ELN experiments, reduced excitation linewidth was obtained when selectively monitoring fluorescence emission. A linear relation was observed between the excitation energies of crystal-field states of the 5 G 4' manifold and the fluorescence wavelength monitored across the inhomogeneous profile of a 5 G 6' -- 7 F 6' transition. Analysis of these results by means of a microscopic theory proposed by Laird and Skinner [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3880 (1989)] has provided insights into the structural properties of this disordered system

  20. Experimental determination of the Stark broadening of Cu I spectral lines in a plasma of a capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandolache, G.; Zoita, V.; Bauchire, M.; Le Menn, E.; Gentils, F.; Fleurier, C.

    2001-01-01

    Copper lines are frequently observed in various types of plasma device and industrial plasmas and then it is desirable to develop methods of plasma diagnostics using the emission spectrum of copper lines. The aim of this work is to create a database for the neutral copper spectral lines directly usable for the diagnostic of plasmas with metal vapors. An experimental device has been developed to create a metal plasma having the required metrological properties to facilitate the spectroscopic measurements. A capillary discharge technique has been used to create a plasma jet representing a radially symmetric light source. The copper-hydrogen plasma jet was produced by the ablation of the capillary wall consisting of a copper-embedded elastomer. The plasma jet was observed side-on using the high-resolution spectrometers equipped with ICCD detectors. The 2D square matrix ICCD detectors have permitted the observation of cross sections of the plasma jet. The high-speed time resolved camera equipped with interference filters has been used to check the cylindrical shape and the homogeneity of the plasma jet. The electron density of the plasma jet was obtained by using the H α spectral line of the hydrogen component plasma. The temperature was determined by applying the relative intensity method to the measured intensities of the neutral copper spectral lines emitted by the plasma jet. The hydrogen and copper lines were broadened principally by the Stark effect. The measured temperatures were about 15,000 K and the electron density of about 2x10 17 cm -3 . The results of the Stark broadening of the neutral cooper concerned particularly the lines 453.9 nm, 465.1 nm, 515.3 nm and 529.2 nm. (authors)

  1. Collision broadening and shift of the potassium 4P-7S and 4P-5D lines by argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohimer, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    A two-step laser excitation technique has been used to investigate the collisional broadening and shift of excited-state potassium transitions. Values for the argon collisional broadening and shift constants for the potassium 4p-7s and 4p-5d transitions were determined from line shapes for argon pressures up to 100 Torr. The values of these constants (in units of 10 -9 rad s -1 atom -1 cm 3 ) are (4P/sub 1/2/-7S/sub 1/2/): γ=11.60 +- 0.07, β=-6.68 +- 0.11; (4P/sub 3/2/-7S/sub 1/2/): γ=11.49 +- 0.15, β=-6.82 +- 0.14; (4P/sub 1/2/-5D/sub 3/2/): γ=8.64 +- 0.07, β=-4.62 +- 0.04; (4P/sub 3/2/-5D/sub 3/2/): γ=8.58 +- 0.10, β=-3.49 +- 0.32; (4P/sub 3/2/-5D/sub 5/2/): γ=9.13 +- 0.10, β=-4.73 +- 0.09. These broadening and shift constants are interpreted in terms of a Lennard-Jones interaction potential

  2. Terahertz spectroscopy applied to the measurement of strengths and self-broadening coefficients for high- J lines of OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matton, S.; Rohart, F.; Bocquet, R.; Mouret, G.; Bigourd, D.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.

    2006-10-01

    A spectrometer operating in the 100-2000 GHz range and allowing for absolute line strength measurements has been developed. The continuous wave terahertz radiation is generated by mixing two Ti:Sapphire laser beams in a vertically integrated low temperature grown GaAs (LTG-GaAs) photomixer. Pure rotational lines of 16O 12C 32S in the ground vibrational state have been considered for J values up to 90. Observed self-broadening parameters are in agreement with those deduced from infrared experiments. For the first time in the submillimeter range, absolute line strengths have been determined, allowing for a determination of the electric dipole moment in good agreement with the value previously obtained from Stark effect measurements.

  3. Temperature dependence of the helium induced broadening and shift of the Rb D1 and D2 lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wooddy S.; Rice, Christopher A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2018-02-01

    The rates for collisional broadening and shifting of the Rb D1 (52S1/2 - 52P1/2) and D2 (52S1/2 - 52P3/2) transition induced by 4He have been measured at elevated temperatures of 373-723 K. The shift coefficients exhibit an increase of 20% from 4.36 MHz/Torr to 5.35 MHz/Torr for the D1 line and an 80% increase from 0.42 MHz/Torr to 0.99 MHz/Torr for the D2 line over the observed temperature range. Broadening coefficients exhibit a 6% increase from 17.8 MHz/Torr to 18.9 MHz/Torr and 10% from 18.5 MHz/Torr to 20.5 MHz/Torr for the D1 and D2 lines, respectively. The experimental values agree well with prior reported values within the temperature overlap regions of T < 394 K. Comparison to prior predictions from the Anderson-Talman theory using spin orbit multi reference (SOCI) ab initio potentials are superior to quantum treatments involving Allard and Baranger coupling.

  4. Ion temperature measurements of turbulently heated tokamak plasma by Doppler-broadening of visible lines in TRIAM-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Toi, K; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1981-01-01

    In the turbulent heating experiment of the high-field tokamak TRIAM-1, the bulk ion heating shown by the neutral energy analyzer measurement is confirmed by the Doppler broadening measurement of visible lines. The increasing rate and decay time of the Doppler ion temperature are almost the same as those derived from the neutral energy analyzer measurement. From both methods of ion temperature measurements, it is shown that the ion temperature has a parabolic profile within 50 ..mu..s after the application of the heating pulse.

  5. Instrumental broadening of spectral line profiles due to discrete representation of a continuous physical quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulov, E.N.; Khripunov, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is the usual situation in spectroscopy that a continuous physical quantity, which plays the role of a spectral function argument (i.e. the abscissa of a spectrum), is sampled electronically as discrete point clouds or channels. Each channel corresponds to the midpoint of a small interval of the continuous argument. The experimentally registered value of intensity in the channel describes the averaged spectral intensity in this interval. However, an approximation of spectra by a continuous theoretical model function often assumes that the interval is small enough, and tabulation of the theoretical model function may be used without appreciable disadvantages for the fitting results. At this point, a new type of approximation error appears, such as the error of midpoint approximation to a definite integral in the rectangle method of numeric integration. This paper aims at quantitative estimation of this error in the cases of a pure Lorentz lineshape and a generalized Voigt contour. It is shown that discrete representation of continuous spectral data leads to some non-physical broadening in comparison with the tabulated model function. As a first approximation it is normal broadening. We show that even in the case of a Lorentz true lineshape we must use the tabulated Voigt function measured in channels fixed Gauss linewidth rather than a tabulated Lorentzian. Application of the results of this paper is demonstrated on Moessbauer spectra

  6. Determination of ion temperatures from Zeeman broadened spectral lines in the edge of Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepper, C.C.; Isler, R.C.; Tobin, S.J.; Hogan, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Fusion Energy Div.; Hess, W.R. [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la Fusion Controlee, St-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache

    1994-09-01

    The authors have examined a {sup 3}P {yields} {sup 3}S multiplet of C III in Tore Supra in order to assess the possibility of determining the ion temperatures from transitions where the Zeeman effect cannot be neglected compared to the Doppler broadening. The preliminary studies lead them to believe that with good quality data the temperatures can be determined within about 20% in the 20--30 eV range and within about 50% in the neighborhood of 5 eV by fitting the entire multiplet rather than a semi-isolated feature, even though certain parameters important for the analysis, such as polarization effects of the optics, are not well characterized. In order to quantify these conclusions more precisely, future work will concentrate on developing numerical fitting routines and on examining the validity of the assumption that the distribution function for low ionization stages is Maxwellian.

  7. Determination of ion temperatures from Zeeman broadened spectral lines in the edge of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, C.C.; Isler, R.C.; Tobin, S.J.; Hogan, J.T.; Hess, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have examined a 3 P → 3 S multiplet of C III in Tore Supra in order to assess the possibility of determining the ion temperatures from transitions where the Zeeman effect cannot be neglected compared to the Doppler broadening. The preliminary studies lead them to believe that with good quality data the temperatures can be determined within about 20% in the 20--30 eV range and within about 50% in the neighborhood of 5 eV by fitting the entire multiplet rather than a semi-isolated feature, even though certain parameters important for the analysis, such as polarization effects of the optics, are not well characterized. In order to quantify these conclusions more precisely, future work will concentrate on developing numerical fitting routines and on examining the validity of the assumption that the distribution function for low ionization stages is Maxwellian

  8. Pressure broadening and frequency shift of the D 1 and D 2 lines of K in the presence of Ne and Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xulin; Chen, Yao; Quan, Wei; Chi, Haotian; Fang, Jiancheng

    2018-02-01

    We present the results of pressure broadening and frequency shift of K D 1 and D 2 lines in presence of 1-4 amg of Neon gas and 1-5 amg of Krypton gas by laser absorption spectroscopy. Both pressure broadening and frequency shift are linearly related to gas density with high accuracy. The asymmetry of the absorption line shape caused by van der Waals potential was first found in the near-line wings of large density Kr in the experiment. We have also investigated the temperature dependence of the pressure broadening and frequency shift in a range of 353-403 K in Neon and 373-417 K in Krypton and compared the results of the pressure broadening and frequency shift with previous values.

  9. Asymmetry of Stark-broadened Layman lines from laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, R.F.; Woltz, L.A.; Hooper, C.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses three significant causes of spectral line asymmetry: the ion-quadrupole interaction, the quadratic Stark effect and fine structure splitting that are included in the calculation of Lyman line profiles emitted by highly-ionized hydrogenic radiators in a dense, hot plasma. The line asymmetries are shown to be strongly dependent on the plasma density, indicating that the asymmetry may be of use as a density diagnostic

  10. Lifetime broadening of atomic lines produced upon ultrafast dissociation of HCl and HBr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lablanquie, P., E-mail: pascal.lablanquie@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LCPMR, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); CNRS, LCPMR (UMR 7614), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Iwayama, H. [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Penent, F. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LCPMR, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); CNRS, LCPMR (UMR 7614), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Soejima, K. [Department of Environmental Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Shigemasa, E. [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Ultrafast dissociation of HCl is triggered by 2p{sub 3/2} → σ* excitation. • Ultrafast dissociation of HBr is triggered by 3d{sub 5/2} → σ* excitation. • Photoelectron spectroscopy reveals sharp vibrational molecular lines and broad atomic lines. • The profiles of the atomic lines are analyzed in detail. • We extract the lifetime of the inner shell hole in the neutral atomic fragment. - Abstract: Ultrafast dissociation of the HCl and HBr molecules excited respectively to the 2p{sub 3/2} → σ* and 3d{sub 5/2} → σ* resonances are studied with high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. Sharp vibrational molecular lines and broad atomic lines are observed. The analysis of the profile of the atomic lines gives access to the lifetimes of the inner shell 2p{sub 3/2} hole in the Cl* (2p{sub 3/2}){sup −1} 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6} configuration, and the inner shell 3d{sub 5/2} hole in the Br* (3d{sub 5/2}){sup −1} 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 6} configuration.

  11. Stark broadening of isolated lines from high-Z emitters in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisheit, J.C.; Pollock, E.L.

    1980-09-01

    The joint distribution of the electric microfield and its longitudinal derivative is required for the calculation of line profiles for the He-like ions in very dense plasmas. We used a molecular dynamics code to compute exact distributions in single- and multi-component plasmas, and then we investigated various analytical approximations to these results. We found that a simplified, two-nearest-neighbor scheme leads to surprisingly accurate distribution functions. Our results are illustrated by sample profiles for Ne +8 and Ar +16 resonance lines

  12. Shift and broadening of emission lines in Nd :YAG laser crystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Optics and Laser Engineering, Estahban Branch, Islamic Azad ... Nd3+:YAG crystal; heat generation; three-level emission lines; four-level emission ... Modelling of high-power solid-state lasers requires precise knowledge of ...

  13. New information on the $\\beta$-decay of $^{11}$Li from Doppler broadened $\\gamma$-lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fynbo, H O U; Cederkäll, J; Courtin, S; Dessagne, P; Jonson, B; Le Scornet, G; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G H; Poirier, E; Riisager, K; Tengblad, O; Wilhelmsen, K

    2004-01-01

    The $\\gamma$-ray spectrum following $\\beta$-decay of $^{11}$Li has been remeasured at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. Two new transitions were observed through the use of large Ge-detectors. Most $\\gamma$-decays will follow P-delayed neutron emission. Information on the energy of the neutron is derived from analysis of the $\\gamma$-line-shape and used to construct a partial decay scheme for $^{11}$Li. Lifetime values for the 1$^{-}$ and 2$^{-}$ levels in $^{10}$Be are also derived. A new partial decay scheme is presented. (43 refs).

  14. Stress-strain relationship and XRD line broadening in [0001] textured hexagonal polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ryouichi

    2011-01-01

    Stress analysis with X-ray diffraction (XRD) for hexagonal polycrystalline materials in the Laue classes 6/mmm and 6/m has been studied on the basis of the crystal symmetry of the constituent crystallites which was proposed by R. Yokoyama and J. Harada ['Re-evaluation of formulae for X-ray stress analysis in polycrystalline specimens with fibre texture', Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol.42, pp.185-191 (2009)]. The relationship between the stress and strain observable by XRD in a hexagonal polycrystalline material with [0001] fibre texture was formulated in terms of the elastic compliance defined for its single crystal. As a result, it was shown that the average strains obtained in the crystallites for both symmetries of 6/mmm and 6/m are different from each other under the triaxial or biaxial stress field. Then, it turned out that the line width of XRD changes depending on the measurement direction. (author)

  15. Using the van der Waals broadening of the spectral atomic lines to measure the gas temperature of an argon microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yubero, C.; Dimitrijevic, M.S.; Garcia, M.C.; Calzada, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The ro-vibrational emission spectra of the molecular species are usually used to measure the gas temperature of a discharge at atmospheric pressure. However, under some experimental conditions, it is difficult to detect them. In order to overcome this difficulty and obtain the temperature, there are methods based on the relation between the gas temperature and the van der Waals broadening of argon atomic spectral lines with a Stark contribution negligible. In this work, we propose a method based on this relation but for lines with a Stark broadening comparable with the van der Waals one

  16. Focused ion-beam line profiles: A study of some factors affecting beam broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, I.M.; Champion, H.G.

    1995-01-01

    The current--density profile of a focused ion beam (FIB) has a central peak accompanied by broader ''wings'' that, while unimportant in lithographic applications, can lead to unwanted effects during an implantation operation. The origin of the wings, and hence the best way to minimize them, is not clear and needs further study. We have measured the line profiles of several of the ions available in our FIB machine as a function of a number of variables, under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. No effects are observed from changes in emission current or deliberate defocusing of the objective lens. There are some changes with beam aperture and/or current, but the biggest differences seem to be associated with a change of source type and hence, possibly, with a change in the source/extractor configuration or in the alloy and the emission process. The wing amplitudes are appreciably lower than many previously observed, and their profiles, at least for the lighter ions studied (Be ++ , Be + , and B + ), are Gaussian rather than exponential. It seems possible that our UHV conditions may have eliminated a scattering mechanism responsible for the larger, exponential wings previously observed. The corresponding beam and rectangle-edge profiles have been calculated. copyright 1995 American Vacuum Society

  17. Using the Doppler broadened γ line of the {sup 10}B(n,αγ){sup 7}Li reaction for thermal neutron detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Galim, Y., E-mail: ybgx3@walla.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University (BGU) of the Negev (Israel); Wengrowicz, U. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University (BGU) of the Negev (Israel); NRC-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Moreh, R. [Physics Department, Ben Gurion University (BGU) of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Orion, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University (BGU) of the Negev (Israel); Raveh, A. [Advanced Coatings Center at Rotem Industries Ltd., MishorYamin D.N. Arava 86800 (Israel)

    2016-02-21

    When a thermal neutron is absorbed by {sup 10}B in the {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li reaction, there is a chance of 94% that a 478 keV photon be emitted by an excited {sup 7}Li nucleus. This reaction is exothermic with a Q-value of 2.31 MeV and the nuclei are emitted with kinetic energies of E(α)=1.47 MeV and E({sup 7}Li*)=0.84 MeV. This implies that the 478 keV γ line is emitted by a moving {sup 7}Li nucleus and hence is expected to be Doppler broadened. In the present work we suggest to use this broadening of the γ line as a fingerprint for the detection of thermal neutrons using a high resolution gamma spectrometer. We thus developed a Monte Carlo program using a MATLAB code based on a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with a Boron Carbide (B{sub 4}C) sheet to calculate the γ line broadening. Our simulation shows that the FWHM width of the resulting γ line is 12.6 keV, in good agreement with our measurement. Hence the broadened γ line emitted by the {sup 10}B(n,αγ){sup 7}Li reaction and detected by a HPGe detector shows that this method is an effective tool for neutron detection while maintaining good gamma discrimination. - Highlights: • Thermal neutron detection by measuring the Doppler broadened 478 keV γ line from the {sup 10}B(n,αγ){sup 7}Li interaction. • Natural Boron Carbide coupled with a HPGe detector were used in this study. • A mathematical Monte-Carlo model for the suggested detector was introduced. • A calibration tool for the suggested detector is introduced. • Experimental results show that the suggested method can be used for neutron detection.

  18. Self-broadening and shifting of the Li(2s-2p) and K(4s-4p) line cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reggami, L.; Bouledroua, M.; Allouche, A.R.; Aubert-Frecon, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine quantum mechanically the width Γ and the shift Δ of the lithium Li(2p→2s) and potassium K(4p→4s) resonance lines when these atoms are evolving in their parent gases. The interaction potentials along which the atoms Li(2p)+Li(2s) and K(4p)+K(4s) approach each other are constructed from reliable data. The radial wave equation is then solved numerically by using these potentials to compute the elastic phase shifts. By adopting the simplified Baranger model for the pressure broadening, which assumes the impact approximation, the cross sections effective in linewidth and lineshift are analyzed. The analysis leads in particular to the determination of the width and shift rates and the computations show that these rates have constant values and, mainly, do not depend on temperature. An approximate method is further applied to the calculations of the cross sections. The results reveal the influence of the long-range -C 3 /R 3 interactions and confirm the universality of the obtained formulas of Γ and Δ

  19. Collision broadening and shift of the potassium 4p-ns and 4p-nd lines by argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohimer, J.P.; Gee, J.

    1982-01-01

    A two-step laser excitation technique was used to investigate the collisional broadening and shift of excited-state potassium transitions. Measurements were also made to determine that the broadening and shift constants were unaffected by optical pumping and saturation effects. Values for the argon collisional-broadening and shift constants for the potassium 4p-ns (n = 8--11) and 4p-nd (n = 6--9) transitions were determined from line-shape measurements. The values of these constants (in units of 10 -9 rad s -1 atom -1 cm 3 at 110 0 C) and their one-sigma statistical uncertainties are (4P/sub 1/2/-8S/sub 1/2/): γ = 17.03 +- 0.15, β = -14.58 +- 0.29; (4P/sub 3/2/-8S/sub 1/2/): γ = 17.45 +- 0.24, β = -14.71 +- 0.30; (4P/sub 1/2/-9S/sub 1/2/): γ = 17.29 +- 0.15, β = -24.16 +- 0.15; (4P/sub 3/2/-9S/sub 1/2/): γ = 17.35 +- 0.12, β = -24.16 +- 0.09; (4P/sub 1/2/-10S/sub 1/2/): γ = 15.62 +- 0.07, β = -29.49 +- 0.22; (4P/sub 3/2/-10S/sub 1/2/): γ = 15.80 +- 0.11, β = -29.86 +- 0.27; (4P/sub 1/2/-11S/sub 1/2/): γ = 12.69 +- 0.09, β = -33.66 +- 0.11; (4P/sub 3/2/-11S/sub 1/2/): γ = 12.85 +- 0.17, β = -35.10 +- 0.23; (4P/sub 1/2/-6D/sub 3/2/): γ = 13.75 +- 0.27, β = -8.28 +- 0.16; (4P/sub 3/2/-6D/sub 5/2/): γ = 15.15 +- 0.41, β = -8.96 +- 0.10; (4P/sub 1/2/-7D/sub 3/2/): γ = 18.60 +- 0.21, β = -16.00 +- 0.18; (4P/sub 3/2/-7D/sub 5/2/): γ = 19.64 +- 0.25, β = -15.16 +- 0.21; (4P/sub 1/2/-8D/sub 3/2/): γ = 19.94 +- 0.09, β = -24.14 +- 0.22; (4P/sub 3/2/-8D/sub 5/2/): γ = 19.80 +- 0.06, β = -24.16 +- 0.18; (4P/sub 1/2/-9D/sub 3/2/): γ = 17.40 +- 0.13, β = -30.17 +- 0.28; (4P/sub 3/2/-9D/sub 5/2/): γ = 17.50 +- 0.27, β = -29.47 +- 0.12. The overall accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be about 5%

  20. Speed dependence of CH335Cl–O2 line-broadening parameters probed on rotational transitions: Measurements and semi-classical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldyreva, J.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R.A.; Rohart, F.

    2013-01-01

    Relaxation parameters for K-components (K≤6) of six J→J+1 rotational transitions (J=6, 10, 17, 22, 31 and 33) of CH 3 35 Cl perturbed by O 2 are measured at room temperature with Voigt, speed-dependent Voigt and Galatry profiles in order to probe the speed-dependence effects. With respect to the previous study of CH 3 35 Cl–N 2 system [Guinet et al., J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 2012;113:1113], higher active-gas pressures are reached, providing better signal-to-noise ratios, and the exact expression of the Beer–Lambert law is introduced in the fitting procedure, leading, among other advantages, to much more realistic low-pressure results. The broadening parameters of the considered lines are also computed by a semi-classical method for various relative velocities of colliders and the powers characterizing the dependence of the collisional cross-sections on relative speeds are deduced as functions of the rotational numbers J and K. Additional calculations performed with the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution of velocities show no significant difference with the earlier results [Buldyreva et al., Phys Chem Chem Phys 2011;13:20326] obtained within the mean thermal velocity approximation. Weighted sums of the presently measured Voigt-profile O 2 -broadening parameters and of the previously published N 2 -broadening ones are calculated to yield experimental air-broadening coefficients for spectroscopic databases. -- Highlights: • Analysis of the speed dependence of relaxation rates of CH 3 Cl lines. • Introduction of the Beer–Lambert law in analysis of line-shapes recorded by FM technique. • Comparison of Maxwell–Boltzmann averaging and mean thermal velocity calculations. • Estimation of air-induced broadening for CH 3 Cl rotational lines

  1. Using the Pairs of Lines Broadened by Collisions with Neutral and Charged Particles for Gas Temperature Determination of Argon Non-Thermal Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Yubero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The spectroscopic method for gas temperature determination in argon non-thermal plasmas sustained at atmospheric pressure proposed recently by Spectrochimica Acta Part B 129 14 (2017—based on collisional broadening measurements of selected pairs of argon atomic lines, has been applied to other pairs of argon atomic lines, and the discrepancies found in some of these results have been analyzed. For validation purposes, the values of the gas temperature obtained using the different pairs of lines have been compared with the rotational temperatures derived from the OH ro-vibrational bands, using the Boltzmann-plot technique.

  2. Pulse-forming and line-broadening in AM mode locking of the TEA-CO2laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, W.J.; Olbertz, A.H.M.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper describes AM mode locking for homogeneously broadened systems, a procedure for measuring linewidths under laser conditions, and finally, experimental results for a 1-atm CO2laser. Working in the frequency domain, analytic solutions are given for the pulse bandwidth and pulse shape

  3. Laser enhancement of the collisional broadening of the 4713 and 3188 A lines in a helium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignolet, P.

    1986-01-01

    The enhancement of the electron collisional broadening of the 4s 3 S 1 and 4p 3 P 0 sub(2,1,0) levels in a helium glow discharge (nsub(e) = 10 13 -10 14 cm -3 ), induced by the non-resonant interaction of the 4s 3 S 1 and 4p 3 P 0 sub(2,1,0) levels with a CO 2 laser field, is reported. This extra broadening depends on the product of the electron density with the laser field amplitude and manifests itself on the 4713 and 3188 A linewidths. This effect results from the destruction, by electronic collisions, of the coherence induced by the laser field between the 4s 3 S 1 and 4p 3 P 0 sub(2,1,0) levels, and can be viewed as an electron-atom collisional fluorescence redistribution process at relatively large laser detuning. (author)

  4. Using the van der Waals broadening of spectral atomic lines to measure the gas temperature of an argon-helium microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, J.; Dimitrijevic, M.S.; Yubero, C.; Calzada, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    The applications of plasmas generated with gas mixtures have become increasingly common in different scientific and technological fields. In order to understand the advantages of these discharges, for instance in chemical analysis, it is necessary to know the gas temperature (T g , kinetic energy of the heavy particles) since it has a great influence on the atomization reactions of the molecules located in the discharge, along with the dependence of the reaction rate on this parameter. The ro-vibrational emission spectra of the molecular species are usually used to measure the gas temperature of a discharge at atmospheric pressure although under some experimental conditions, these are difficult to detect. In such cases, the gas temperature can be determined from the van der Waals broadening of the emitted atomic spectral lines related to this parameter. The method proposed is based on the van der Waals broadening taking into account two perturbers

  5. X-ray line broadening studies on aluminum nitride, titanium carbide and titanium diboride modified by high pressure shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morosin, B.; Graham, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Powders of AlN, TiC and TiB 2 have been subjected to controlled shock loading with peak pressures in the samples between 14 to 27 GPa and preserved for post-shock study. Broadened x-ray diffraction peak profiles are analyzed by a simplified method and show increases in residual lattice strain and small decreases in crystallite size. Strain values range from 10 -5 to 10 -4 for TiB 2 and to values larger than 10 -3 for TiC and AlN

  6. Alfvén Wave Turbulence as a Coronal Heating Mechanism: Simultaneously Predicting the Heating Rate and the Wave-induced Emission Line Broadening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oran, R. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Landi, E.; Holst, B. van der; Sokolov, I. V.; Gombosi, T. I., E-mail: roran@mit.edu [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We test the predictions of the Alfvén Wave Solar Model (AWSoM), a global wave-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the solar atmosphere, against high-resolution spectra emitted by the quiescent off-disk solar corona. AWSoM incorporates Alfvén wave propagation and dissipation in both closed and open magnetic field lines; turbulent dissipation is the only heating mechanism. We examine whether this mechanism is consistent with observations of coronal EUV emission by combining model results with the CHIANTI atomic database to create synthetic line-of-sight spectra, where spectral line widths depend on thermal and wave-related ion motions. This is the first time wave-induced line broadening is calculated from a global model with a realistic magnetic field. We used high-resolution SUMER observations above the solar west limb between 1.04 and 1.34 R {sub ⊙} at the equator, taken in 1996 November. We obtained an AWSoM steady-state solution for the corresponding period using a synoptic magnetogram. The 3D solution revealed a pseudo-streamer structure transversing the SUMER line of sight, which contributes significantly to the emission; the modeled electron temperature and density in the pseudo-streamer are consistent with those observed. The synthetic line widths and the total line fluxes are consistent with the observations for five different ions. Further, line widths that include the contribution from the wave-induced ion motions improve the correspondence with observed spectra for all ions. We conclude that the turbulent dissipation assumed in the AWSoM model is a viable candidate for explaining coronal heating, as it is consistent with several independent measured quantities.

  7. Homogeneous Emission Line Broadening in the Organo Lead Halide Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrenfennig, Christian; Liu, Mingzhen; Snaith, Henry J; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2014-04-17

    The organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) and the partially chlorine-substituted mixed halide CH3NH3PbI3-xClx emit strong and broad photoluminescence (PL) around their band gap energy of ∼1.6 eV. However, the nature of the radiative decay channels behind the observed emission and, in particular, the spectral broadening mechanisms are still unclear. Here we investigate these processes for high-quality vapor-deposited films of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx using time- and excitation-energy dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy. We show that the PL spectrum is homogenously broadened with a line width of 103 meV most likely as a consequence of phonon coupling effects. Further analysis reveals that defects or trap states play a minor role in radiative decay channels. In terms of possible lasing applications, the emission spectrum of the perovskite is sufficiently broad to have potential for amplification of light pulses below 100 fs pulse duration.

  8. Stark broadening of potassium ns-4p and nd-4p lines in a wall-stabilized arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohimer, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Stark-width measurements are reported for lines in the ns-4p (n = 7--10) and nd-4p (n = 5--8) series in neutral potassium (K I). These measurements were made by observing the end-on emission from a low pressure (20 Torr) potassium-argon wall-stabilized arc source. The on-axis electron density and temperature in the 20-A arc were (2.0 +- 0.2) x 10 15 cm -3 and 2955 +- 100 K, respectively. The experimentally determined Stark widths were compared with the theoretical values calculated by Griem. The measured Stark widths agreed with theory to within 30% for lines in the ns-4p series; while the measured Stark widths of the nd-4p series lines were only one-third of the theoretical values

  9. Simulation of X-ray diffraction-line broadening due to dislocations in a model composite material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Cleveringa, H.H.M.; Delhez, R; van der Giessen, E.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray diffraction-line profiles of two-dimensional, plastically deformed model composite materials are calculated and analysed in detail. The composite consists of elastic reinforcements in a crystalline solid and is subjected to macroscopic shear. Slip occurs in the matrix only due to the

  10. Stark broadening parameter regularities and interpolation and critical evaluation of data for CP star atmospheres research: Stark line shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Tankosic, D.

    1998-04-01

    In order to find out if regularities and systematic trends found to be apparent among experimental Stark line shifts allow the accurate interpolation of new data and critical evaluation of experimental results, the exceptions to the established regularities are analysed on the basis of critical reviews of experimental data, and reasons for such exceptions are discussed. We found that such exceptions are mostly due to the situations when: (i) the energy gap between atomic energy levels within a supermultiplet is equal or comparable to the energy gap to the nearest perturbing levels; (ii) the most important perturbing level is embedded between the energy levels of the supermultiplet; (iii) the forbidden transitions have influence on Stark line shifts.

  11. Stark Broadening and White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Milan S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available White dwarf and pre-white dwarfs are the best types of stars for the application of Stark broadening research results in astrophysics, since in the atmospheres of these stars physical conditions are very favorable for this line broadening mechanism - in hot hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs and pre-white dwarfs Teff = 75 000–180 000 K and log g = 5.5–8 [cgs]. Even for much cooler DA and DB white dwarfs with the typical effective temperatures 10 000-20 000 K, Stark broadening is usually the dominant broadening mechanism. In this review, Stark broadening in white dwarf spectra is considered, and the attention is drawn to the STARK-B database (http://stark-b.obspm.fr/, containing the parameters needed for analysis and synthesis of white dwarf spectra, as well as for the collective efforts to develop the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center.

  12. ¹⁴N Quadrupole Resonance line broadening due to the earth magnetic field, occuring only in the case of an axially symmetric electric field gradient tensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissani, Sarra; Guendouz, Laouès; Marande, Pierre-Louis; Canet, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    As demonstrated before, the application of a weak static B0 magnetic field (less than 10 G) may produce definite effects on the ¹⁴N Quadrupole Resonance line when the electric field gradient tensor at the nitrogen nucleus level is of axial symmetry. Here, we address more precisely the problem of the relative orientation of the two magnetic fields (the static field and the radio-frequency field of the pure NQR experiment). For a field of 6G, the evolution of the signal intensity, as a function of this relative orientation, is in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions. There is in particular an intensity loss by a factor of three when going from the parallel configuration to the perpendicular configuration. By contrast, when dealing with a very weak magnetic field (as the earth field, around 0.5 G), this effect drops to ca. 1.5 in the case Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT).This is explained by the fact that the Zeeman shift (due to the very weak magnetic field) becomes comparable to the natural line-width. The latter can therefore be determined by accounting for this competition. Still in the case of HMT, the estimated natural line-width is half the observed line-width. The extra broadening is thus attributed to earth magnetic field. The latter constitutes therefore the main cause of the difference between the natural transverse relaxation time (T₂) and the transverse relaxation time derived from the observed line-width (T₂(⁎)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical removal of background signals from high-throughput 1H NMR line-broadening ligand-affinity screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, Bradley; Sisco, Nicholas J.; Powers, Robert

    2015-01-01

    NMR ligand-affinity screens are vital to drug discovery, are routinely used to screen fragment-based libraries, and used to verify chemical leads from high-throughput assays and virtual screens. NMR ligand-affinity screens are also a highly informative first step towards identifying functional epitopes of unknown proteins, as well as elucidating the biochemical functions of protein–ligand interaction at their binding interfaces. While simple one-dimensional 1 H NMR experiments are capable of indicating binding through a change in ligand line shape, they are plagued by broad, ill-defined background signals from protein 1 H resonances. We present an uncomplicated method for subtraction of protein background in high-throughput ligand-based affinity screens, and show that its performance is maximized when phase-scatter correction is applied prior to subtraction

  14. Theoretical Stark broadening parameters for spectral lines arising from the 2p5ns, 2p5np and 2p5nd electronic configurations of Mg III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, C.; Moreno-Díaz, C.; Alonso-Medina, A.

    2013-10-01

    In the present work we report theoretical Stark widths and shifts calculated using the Griem semi-empirical approach, corresponding to 237 spectral lines of Mg III. Data are presented for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 0.5-10.0 (104K). The matrix elements used in these calculations have been determined from 23 configurations of Mg III: 2s22p6, 2s22p53p, 2s22p54p, 2s22p54f and 2s22p55f for even parity and 2s22p5ns (n = 3-6), 2s22p5nd (n = 3-9), 2s22p55g and 2s2p6np (n = 3-8) for odd parity. For the intermediate coupling (IC) calculations, we use the standard method of least-squares fitting from experimental energy levels by means of the Cowan computer code. Also, in order to test the matrix elements used in our calculations, we present calculated values of 70 transition probabilities of Mg III spectral lines and 14 calculated values of radiative lifetimes of Mg III levels. There is good agreement between our calculations and experimental radiative lifetimes. Spectral lines of Mg III are relevant in astrophysics and also play an important role in the spectral analysis of laboratory plasma. Theoretical trends of the Stark broadening parameter versus the temperature for relevant lines are presented. No values of Stark parameters can be found in the bibliography.

  15. Concentration dependence of the wings of a dipole-broadened magnetic resonance line in magnetically diluted lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zobov, V. E., E-mail: rsa@iph.krasn.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirenskii Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Kucherov, M. M. [Siberian Federal University, Institute of Space and Information Technologies (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The singularities of the time autocorrelation functions (ACFs) of magnetically diluted spin systems with dipole–dipole interaction (DDI), which determine the high-frequency asymptotics of autocorrelation functions and the wings of a magnetic resonance line, are studied. Using the self-consistent fluctuating local field approximation, nonlinear equations are derived for autocorrelation functions averaged over the independent random arrangement of spins (magnetic atoms) in a diamagnetic lattice with different spin concentrations. The equations take into account the specificity of the dipole–dipole interaction. First, due to its axial symmetry in a strong static magnetic field, the autocorrelation functions of longitudinal and transverse spin components are described by different equations. Second, the long-range type of the dipole–dipole interaction is taken into account by separating contributions into the local field from distant and near spins. The recurrent equations are obtained for the expansion coefficients of autocorrelation functions in power series in time. From them, the numerical value of the coordinate of the nearest singularity of the autocorrelation function is found on the imaginary time axis, which is equal to the radius of convergence of these expansions. It is shown that in the strong dilution case, the logarithmic concentration dependence of the coordinate of the singularity is observed, which is caused by the presence of a cluster of near spins whose fraction is small but contribution to the modulation frequency is large. As an example a silicon crystal with different {sup 29}Si concentrations in magnetic fields directed along three crystallographic axes is considered.

  16. The scavenging of the precursors of the solvated electrons fom the positron lifetime spectroscopy and the Doppler broadening of annihilation line shape technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbe, J.C.; Duplatre, G.; Maddock, A.G.; Haessler, A.

    1979-01-01

    The electron scavenging properties in water of two series of solutes are investigated, using the positron as a probe. For a better interpretation of the data, both the lifetime specroscopy and the Doppler broadening of annihilation line shape technique are used. All solutes inhibit the positronium (Ps) formation, by the scavenging of electron. The first series consists of the halate ions, that should follow the Hunt linear relation between the rate constant for reaction with the solvated electrons, ksub(e - sub(aq)+S) and that for its precursors(s), 1/C 37 . The Ps inhibition constants, k, are 0.14, 1.44 and 3.45M -1 for ClO 3 - , BrO 3 - and IO 3 - respectively. This sequence is quantitatively consistent with that of the respective ksub(e - sub(aq)+S). The second series includes the SeO 4 -- , Te(OH) 6 and BrO 4 - species, and the Ps inhibition constants are 5.62, 10.5 and 14.3 respectively. Theses values are much higher than expected from the ksub(e - sub(aq)+S) constants, on basis of the Hunt relation, in agreement with previous results from pulse radiolysis experiments

  17. Measurement of the Dissociation-Equilibrium Constants for Low Affinity Antibiotic Binding Interaction with Bacterial Ribosomes by the T2 (CPMG) and Line-Broadening Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, L.; Gharbi-Benarous, J.; Bertho, G.; Mauvais, P.; Girault, J.-P.

    1999-10-01

    In this study the dissociation constants of the low antibiotic-ribosomes interaction were determined by the T2 (CPMG), the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill spin-echo decay rate and the line-broadening methods. Three MLSB antibiotics were studied, a macrolide roxithromycin, a ketolide HMR 3647 and a lincosamide clindamycin for their weak interaction with three bacterial ribosomes, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus sensitive and resistant to erythromycin. Nous avons mesuré la constante de dissociation, Kd correspondant à l'interaction faible antibiotique-ribosome bactérien pour des antibiotiques de différentes classes, un macrolide (roxithromycine), un kétolide (HMR 3647) et une lincosamide (clindamycine) avec des ribosomes de différentes souches bactériennes (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus sensible ou résistant à l'erythromycin) par deux méthodes : l'une basée sur la variation des largeurs de raies et l'autre sur les temps de relaxation transversaux T2 en utilisant une séquence CPMG.

  18. Development of a routine method for the determination of mean crystallite dimensions in nuclear materials by X-ray diffraction line broadening. An application example using U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imakuma, K; Sato, I M; Cretella Neto, J; Costa, M I

    1975-03-01

    A method for mean crystallite size determination by X-ray diffraction line broadening was established. Both step-scanning and methods were extensivly tested and the precision of the data obtained as a function of the crystallite size is discussed. Emphasis is given to our contribution in order to eliminate instrumental effects as well as K sub(..cap alpha../sub 1/)/Ksub(..cap alpha../sub 2/) doublet effect upon line broadening. Instrumental correction was performed with a monocrystalline Si sample having mean crystallite size well above 13,000 A improving the accuracy of experimental data. Ksub(..cap alpha../sub 2/) and Ksub(..cap alpha../sub 2/) peaks determined instead of taking it for granted as 5. The mean crystallite dimension of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ was calculated and the results show the dependence of this parameter on the quality of the microspheres.

  19. Collision induced broadening of ν1 band and ground state spectral lines of sulfur dioxide perturbed by N2 and O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceselin, Giorgia; Tasinato, Nicola; Puzzarini, Cristina; Charmet, Andrea Pietropolli; Stoppa, Paolo; Giorgianni, Santi

    2017-09-01

    To monitor the constituents and trace pollutants of Earth atmosphere and understand its evolution, accurate spectroscopic parameters are fundamental information. SO2 is produced by both natural and anthropogenic sources and it is one of the principal causes of acid rains as well as an important component of fine aerosol particles, once oxidized to sulfate. The present work aims at determining SO2 broadening parameters using N2 and O2 as atmospherically relevant damping gases. Measurements are carried out in the infrared (IR) and mm-/sub-mm wave regions, around 8.8 μm and in the 104 GHz-1.1 THz interval, respectively. IR ro-vibrational transitions are recorded by using a tunable diode laser spectrometer, whereas the microwave spectra are recorded by using a frequency-modulated millimeter-/submillimeter-wave spectrometer. SO2-N2 and SO2-O2 collisional cross sections are retrieved for several ν1 band ro-vibrational transitions of 32S16O2, for some transitions belonging to either ν1 + ν2 - ν2 of 32S16O2 or ν1 of 34S16O2 as well as for about 20 pure rotational transitions in the vibrational ground state of the main isotopic species. From N2- and O2- broadening coefficients the broadening parameters of SO2 in air are derived. The work is completed with the study of the dependence of foreign broadening coefficients on the rotational quantum numbers.

  20. Quantum Cascade Laser Measurements of Line Intensities, N2-, O2- and Ar- Collisional Broadening Coefficients of N2O in the  3 Band Near 4.5  m

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2016-04-19

    This study deals with precise measurements of absolute line intensities, N2-, O2- and Ar- collisional broadening coefficients of N2O in the P-branch of the ν3 vibrational band near 4.5 μm. Collisional broadening coefficients of N2O-air are derived from the N2- and O2- broadening contributions by considering an ideal atmospheric composition. Studies are performed at room temperature for 10 rotational transitions over 2190-2202 cm-1 spectral range using a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser. To retrieve spectroscopic parameters for each individual transition, measured absorption line shape is simulated within Voigt and Galatry profiles. The obtained results compare well with previous experimental data available in the literature: the discrepancies being less than 4% for most of the probed transitions. The spectroscopic data reported here are very useful for the design of sensors used to monitor the abundance of N2O in earth\\'s atmosphere. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Quantum Cascade Laser Measurements of Line Intensities, N2-, O2- and Ar- Collisional Broadening Coefficients of N2O in the  3 Band Near 4.5  m

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Deli, Meriem; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with precise measurements of absolute line intensities, N2-, O2- and Ar- collisional broadening coefficients of N2O in the P-branch of the ν3 vibrational band near 4.5 μm. Collisional broadening coefficients of N2O-air are derived from the N2- and O2- broadening contributions by considering an ideal atmospheric composition. Studies are performed at room temperature for 10 rotational transitions over 2190-2202 cm-1 spectral range using a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser. To retrieve spectroscopic parameters for each individual transition, measured absorption line shape is simulated within Voigt and Galatry profiles. The obtained results compare well with previous experimental data available in the literature: the discrepancies being less than 4% for most of the probed transitions. The spectroscopic data reported here are very useful for the design of sensors used to monitor the abundance of N2O in earth's atmosphere. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. The Relaxation Matrix for Symmetric Tops with Inversion Symmetry. I. Effects of Line Coupling on Self-Broadened v (sub 1) and Pure Rotational Bands of NH3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Robert-Bonamy formalism has been commonly used to calculate half-widths and shifts of spectral lines for decades. This formalism is based on several approximations. Among them, two have not been fully addressed: the isolated line approximation and the neglect of coupling between the translational and internal motions. Recently, we have shown that the isolated line approximation is not necessary in developing semi-classical line shape theories. Based on this progress, we have been able to develop a new formalism that enables not only to reduce uncertainties on calculated half-widths and shifts, but also to model line mixing effects on spectra starting from the knowledge of the intermolecular potential. In our previous studies, the new formalism had been applied to linear and asymmetric-top molecules. In the present study, the method has been extended to symmetric-top molecules with inversion symmetry. As expected, the inversion splitting induces a complete failure of the isolated line approximation. We have calculated the complex relaxation matrices of selfbroadened NH3. The half-widths and shifts in the ?1 and the pure rotational bands are reported in the present paper. When compared with measurements, the calculated half-widths match the experimental data very well, since the inapplicable isolated line approximation has been removed. With respect to the shifts, only qualitative results are obtained and discussed. Calculated off-diagonal elements of the relaxation matrix and a comparison with the observed line mixing effects are reported in the companion paper (Paper II).

  3. Measurement and computations of line shape parameters for the 12201 ← 03301, 11101 ← 10002 and 12201 ← 11102 self-broadened CO2 Q-branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mashwood, Abdullah; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Devi, V. Malathy; Rozario, Hoimonti; Billinghurst, Brant

    2018-06-01

    Pure CO2 spectra recorded at room temperature and different pressures (0.2-140 Torr) have been analyzed with the help of a fitting routine that takes into account asymmetries arising in the spectral lines due to pressure induced effects such as line mixing. The fitting procedure used in this study allows one to adjust the ro-vibrational constants for the band rather than fitting for individual line parameters. These constrained parameters greatly reduce the measurement uncertainties and allow us to observe the behavior of the weak lines corresponding to high J quantum numbers. We have also calculated line mixing parameters using approximations based on exponential nature of the energy difference between ground and upper vibrational states involved in the ro-vibrational band transitions. The calculated results show good agreement when compared with the experimentally determined parameters.

  4. Broadening of spectral lines of CO2, N2O , H2CO, HCN, and H2S by pressure of gases dominant in planetary atmospheres (H2, He and CO2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Shanelle; Gordon, Iouli; Tan, Yan

    2018-01-01

    HITRAN1,2 is a compilation of spectroscopic parameters that a variety of computer codes use to predict and simulate the transmission and emission of light in planetary atmospheres. The goal of this project is to add to the potential of the HITRAN database towards the exploration of the planetary atmospheres by including parameters describing broadening of spectral lines by H2, CO2, and He. These spectroscopic data are very important for the study of the hydrogen and helium-rich atmospheres of gas giants as well as rocky planets with volcanic activities, including Venus and Mars, since their atmospheres are dominated by CO2. First step in this direction was accomplished by Wilzewski et al.3 where this was done for SO2, NH3, HF, HCl, OCS and C2H2. The molecules investigated in this work were CO2, N2O, H2CO, HCN and H2S. Line-broadening coefficients, line shifts and temperature-dependence exponents for transitions of these molecules perturbed by H2, CO2 and He have been assembled from available peer-reviewed experimental and theoretical sources. The data was evaluated and the database was populated with these data and their extrapolations/interpolations using semi-empirical models that were developed to this end.Acknowledgements: Financial support from NASA PDART grant NNX16AG51G and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Latino Initiative Program from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center is gratefully acknowledged.References: 1. HITRAN online http://hitran.org/2. Gordon, I.E., Rothman, L.S., Hill, C., Kochanov, R.V., Tan, Y., et al., 2017. The HITRAN2016 Molecular Spectroscopic Database. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2017.06.0383. Wilzewski, J.S., Gordon, I.E., Kochanov, R. V., Hill, C., Rothman, L.S., 2016. H2, He, and CO2 line-broadening coefficients, pressure shifts and temperature-dependence exponents for the HITRAN database. Part 1: SO2, NH3, HF, HCl, OCS and C2H2. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat

  5. Spectral shapes of Ar-broadened HCl lines in the fundamental band by classical molecular dynamics simulations and comparison with experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, H., E-mail: ha.tran@lisa.u-pec.fr [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Domenech, J.-L. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-14

    Spectral shapes of isolated lines of HCl perturbed by Ar are investigated for the first time using classical molecular dynamics simulations (CMDS). Using reliable intermolecular potentials taken from the literature, these CMDS provide the time evolution of the auto-correlation function of the dipole moment, whose Fourier-Laplace transform leads to the absorption spectrum. In order to test these calculations, room temperature spectra of various lines in the fundamental band of HCl diluted in Ar are measured, in a large pressure range, with a difference-frequency laser spectrometer. Comparisons between measured and calculated spectra show that the CMDS are able to predict the large Dicke narrowing effect on the shape of HCl lines and to satisfactorily reproduce the shapes of HCl spectra at different pressures and for various rotational quantum numbers.

  6. SMM observations of gamma-ray transients. 3: A search for a broadened, redshifted positron annihilation line from the direction of the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael J.; Share, Gerald H.; Leising, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    We have searched for 1980-1988 Solar Maximum Mission gamma-ray spectrometer data for transient emission on timescales from hours to approximately 12 days of broad gamma-ray lines at energies approximately 400 keV, which were reported by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) 1 and SIGMA experiments from two sources lying toward the Galactic center. The lines have been interpreted as the product of the annihilation of positrons in pair plasmas surrounding the black hole candidate 1E 1740.7-2942 and the X-ray binary 1H 1822-371. Our results from a combined exposure of approximately 1.5 x 10(exp 7)s provide no convincing evidence for transient emission of this line on any timescale between approximately 9 hr and approximately 1 yr. Our 3 sigma upper limits on the line flux during approximately 12 day intervals are characteristically 4.8 x 10(exp -3) photon/sq cm/s, while for approximately 1 day intervals our 3 sigma upper limits are characteristically 4.9 x 10(exp -3) photon/sq cm/s. These results imply a duty cycle of less than 1.3% for the transient line measured from 1H 1822-371 during a approximately 3 week interval in 1977 by HEAO 1, and a duty cycle of less than or = 0.8% for the transient line detected in 1990 and 1992 from 1E 1740.7-2942 on approximately 1 day timescales by SIGMA.

  7. Extended analysis of the high resolution FTIR spectrum of 32S16O2 in the region of the ν2 band: Line positions, strengths, and pressure broadening widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Gromova, O. V.; Quack, M.; Mellau, G. Ch.; Sydow, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2018-05-01

    The high resolution infrared spectra of sulfur dioxide (32S16O2) were recorded with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Zürich prototype ZP2001) in combination with a Ge:Cu detector and analyzed in the ν2 fundamental band region (400-650 cm-1 , ν0 ˜ = 517.8725691(77) cm-1). More than 4200 transitions were assigned in the experimental spectra to the ν2 band (the maximum values of the quantum numbers are Jmax. = 96 and Kamax. = 25). The subsequent weighted fit of experimentally assigned transitions was made with the Watson Hamiltonian. The 148 highly accurate MW transitions known from the literature have been also taken into account in the fit, resulting in a set of 33 parameters which reproduces the initial 1295 infrared ro-vibrational energy values from more than 4200 experimental line positions with a root mean square deviation drms = 1.5 ×10-4 cm-1. An analysis of 992 experimental ro-vibrational line intensities of the ν2 band was made, and a set of four effective dipole moment parameters was obtained which reproduces the initial experimental line intensities with a relative drms = 5.7 % . The half-widths of 146 ro-vibrational lines (Jmax. = 53 and Kamax. = 20) were analyzed from the multi-spectrum fit, and self-pressure broadening coefficients were determined.

  8. Level width broadening effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingshang

    2003-01-01

    In file-6 for double-differential cross sections, the level width broadening effect should be taken into account properly due to Heisenberg' uncertainty. Besides level width broadening effect, the energy resolution in the measurements is also needed in fitting measurement procedure. In general, the traditional normal Gaussian expansion is employed. However, to do so in this way the energy balance could not be held. For this reason, the deformed Gaussian expansion functions with exponential form for both the single energy point and continuous spectrum are introduced, with which the normalization and energy balance conditions could be held exactly in the analytical form. (author)

  9. Correction of Doppler broadening of {gamma}-ray lines induced by particle emission in heavy-ion induced fusion-evaporation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, J; Seweryniak, D; Fahlander, C; Insua-Cao, P [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences; Johnson, A; Cederwall, B [Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Adamides, E; Piiparinen, M [National Centre for Scientific Research, Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Atac, A; Norlin, L O [Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Ideguchi, E; Mitarai, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Tormanen, S; Virtanen, A [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Karczmarczyk, W; Kownacki, J [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Schubart, R [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1992-08-01

    The effect of particle emission on the peak shape of {gamma}-ray lines have been investigated using the NORDBALL detector system. By detecting neutrons, protons and {alpha} particles emitted in the {sup 32}S (95 MeV) + {sup 27}Al reaction, the energy and direction of emission of the residual nuclei could be determined and subsequently used for an event-by -event Doppler correction of the detected {gamma} rays. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study how the different Doppler phenomena influence the peak shape and in particular which particle detector properties are important for the Doppler correction. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  10. The STARK-B database VAMDC node: a repository for spectral line broadening and shifts due to collisions with charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahal-Bréchot, S.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Moreau, N.; Ben Nessib, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate spectroscopic diagnostics and modeling require the knowledge of numerous collisional line profiles. Access to such data via an online database has become indispensable. The STARK-B database is aimed at meeting these needs for widths and shifts of isolated lines of neutral and ionized elements due to electron and ion impacts. This database of the Paris Observatory is a result of scientific cooperation between S Sahal-Bréchot (LERMA) and M S Dimitrijević (AOB). Access to it is free, and it was opened online at the end of 2008. STARK-B is a node of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) and thus complies with VAMDC and Virtual Observatory standards. VAMDC is a European Union-funded collaboration among groups involved in the generation and use of interoperable atomic and molecular data. STARK-B now contains all our semiclassical-perturbation (SCP) calculated data for more than 123 neutral or ionized elements as published in international refereed journals. It is devoted to modeling and spectroscopic diagnostics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes, laboratory plasmas, laser equipment, and technological plasmas. Hence, the range of temperatures and densities covered by the tables is broad and depends on the ionization degree of the radiating atom. The modified semiempirical (MSE) results of calculations have begun to be implemented. In this paper, we highlight the key points of the method and the assumptions used in the calculations, which have lately been revisited. Then we present the database and its recent developments, as well as our ongoing work and our plans for the future.

  11. The STARK-B database VAMDC node: a repository for spectral line broadening and shifts due to collisions with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahal-Bréchot, S; Moreau, N; Dimitrijević, M S; Nessib, N Ben

    2015-01-01

    Accurate spectroscopic diagnostics and modeling require the knowledge of numerous collisional line profiles. Access to such data via an online database has become indispensable. The STARK-B database is aimed at meeting these needs for widths and shifts of isolated lines of neutral and ionized elements due to electron and ion impacts. This database of the Paris Observatory is a result of scientific cooperation between S Sahal-Bréchot (LERMA) and M S Dimitrijević (AOB). Access to it is free, and it was opened online at the end of 2008. STARK-B is a node of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) and thus complies with VAMDC and Virtual Observatory standards. VAMDC is a European Union-funded collaboration among groups involved in the generation and use of interoperable atomic and molecular data. STARK-B now contains all our semiclassical-perturbation (SCP) calculated data for more than 123 neutral or ionized elements as published in international refereed journals. It is devoted to modeling and spectroscopic diagnostics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes, laboratory plasmas, laser equipment, and technological plasmas. Hence, the range of temperatures and densities covered by the tables is broad and depends on the ionization degree of the radiating atom. The modified semiempirical (MSE) results of calculations have begun to be implemented. In this paper, we highlight the key points of the method and the assumptions used in the calculations, which have lately been revisited. Then we present the database and its recent developments, as well as our ongoing work and our plans for the future. (paper)

  12. Broadening the radiography spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waswa, L.; Mutwasi, O.; Kioko, J.

    2006-05-01

    The text discuses the mammography in breast screening and evaluation of breast cancer; Small parts ultrasounds at plaza imaging solutions; role of a Radiographer in mammography-new perspective; Medical imaging education in africa; Caring for the paediatric patient as to broaden radiotherapy spectrum; Problems and challenges in care for children undergoing radiotherapy; Paediatric radiotherapy, management and side effects; The principles of pattern recognition of skeletal structures; the place of distance learning education in broadening the radiography spectrum; the curriculum and budgeting image; sonographer's guide; Computed radiography- X-Ray with vision; digital Radiography in Kenya today; Particle Therapy at Ithemba Labs; The role of lung perfusion and ventilation study in the evaluation of the pulmonary embolism and lastly, an overview of Head and neck treatment at Kenyatta National hospital radiotherapy

  13. Experimental study of population inversion and spectral line broadening in a plasma containing a mixture of high Z and low Z ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.

    1988-10-01

    In our work this past year at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics we have studied laser-produced plasmas using spherical targets continuing layers of high Z and low Z materials. Our emphasis was on quantitative spectroscopy of ions in a very dense, recombining plasma. The targets used consisted of carbon-copper, carbon-gold, and aluminum-gold mixtures, instead of the originally proposed Fe or Mo mixtures with carbon. The thickness of the Cu and the Au layers were varied in order to study the effect of higher Z ions cooling the plasma. Indeed a pronounced cooling effect was observed by increasing the thickness of the Au layer in targets with Al-Au layers. Electron temperatures were studied by measuring the 1s-2p/1s 2 -1s2p line ratio of Al XIII to Al XII. Our experimental measurements, together with a collisional-radiative model and a 1-D hydrodynamic code, indicate that the electron temperature falls from 1500 eV with no gold to 950 eV with a 500 angstrom layer of gold. A detailed discussion of our results with Al-Au targets can be found in the enclosed preprint entitled Radiation Cooling in Laser-Produced Plasmas Due to High-Z Layers

  14. Ferromagnetic resonance frequency increase and resonance line broadening of a ferromagnetic Fe–Co–Hf–N film with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy by high-frequency field perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seemann, K.; Leiste, H.; Krüger, K.

    2013-01-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-Co-Hf-N films, produced by reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering, are useful to study the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) by means of frequency domain permeability measurements up to the GHz range. Films with the composition Fe 33 Co 43 Hf 10 N 14 exhibit a saturation polarisation J s of around 1.35 T. They are consequently considered as being uniformly magnetised due to an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy of approximately μ 0 H u ≈4.5 m T after annealing them, e.g., at 400 °C in a static magnetic field for 1 h. Being exposed to a high-frequency field, the precession of magnetic moments leads to a marked frequency-dependent permeability with a sharp Lorentzian shaped imaginary part at around 2.33 GHz (natural resonance peak), which is in a very good agreement with the modified Landau–Lifschitz–Gilbert (LLG) differential equation. A slightly increased FMR frequency and a clear increase in the resonance line broadening due to an increase of the exciting high-frequency power (1–25.1 mW), considered as an additional perturbation of the precessing system of magnetic moments, could be discovered. By solving the homogenous LLG differential equation with respect to the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy, it was revealed that the high-frequency field perturbation impacts the resonance peak position f FMR and resonance line broadening Δf FMR characterised by a completed damping parameter α=α eff +Δα. Adapted from this result, the increase in f FMR and decrease in lifetime of the excited level of magnetic moments associated with Δf FMR , similar to a spin-½ particle in a static magnetic field, was theoretically elaborated as well as compared with experimental data. - Highlights: • Impact on the resonance frequency and resonance line by the high-frequency power. • Theoretic approach by solving the LLG differential equation. • Experimental verification and magnon processes. • Theoretical and experimental determination of the resonance state

  15. Line-broadened quasilinear burst model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Wong, H.V.; Fitzpatrick, J.

    1995-07-01

    A quasilinear model is developed to produce realistic self-consistent saturation levels when modes do not overlap, and give self-consistent diffusion and wave evolution when modes do overlap. Both regimes give steady or pulsating behavior in weakly driven systems with classical relaxation and background dissipation present. An avalanche response is demonstrated: wave momentum release caused by the overlap of closely spaced modes can produce mode overlap of more widely spaced modes (a domino effect) or the growth of modes which would be stable in systems unaffected by the closely-spaced modes' diffusion. Detailed analysis and calculations are performed for the bump-on-tail instability, and extension of the method to more general problems is briefly discussed

  16. A study on the microstructural parameters of Zn {sub (1-x)}La{sub x}Zr{sub x}O nanopowders by X-ray line broadening analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenari, Hossein Mahmoudi; Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Rezaee, Omid, E-mail: mahmoudi_hossein@guilan.ac.ir, E-mail: hmahmodiph@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the present study, the pure and La-Zr co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel technique using zinc acetate dehydrate (Zn(Ac){sub 2} ·{sub 2}H{sub 2} O), lanthanum nitrate hexahydrate (La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} ·6H{sub 2}O) and zirconium chloride (ZrCl{sub 4} ) as precursor. The structure and morphology of the prepared nanoparticle samples were studied using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements. X-ray diffraction results indicated that all the samples have crystalline wurtzite phase. TEM showed that powder was polycrystalline in nature with random distribution of the pure and La-Zr doped ZnO nanoparticles. We demonstrate strain-size evaluations for pure and doped ZnO nanoparticles from the x-ray line profile analysis. The microstructural effects of crystalline materials in terms of crystallite sizes and lattice strain on the peak broadening were investigated using Williamson-Hall (W-H) analysis and size- strain plot (SSP) method. The average crystallite size of Zn {sub (1-x)}La{sub x} Zr{sub x} O nanoparticles estimated from the W-H analysis and SSP method varied as the doping concentration increased. The incorporation of Zr{sup 4+} ion in the place of Zn{sup {sub 2}{sub +}} caused an increase in the size of nanocrystals as compared to undoped ZnO. The average particle sizes of co-doped ZnO nanoparticles estimated from the USDM model is in good agreement with the TEM results. (author)

  17. Towards Broadening the Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakimoto, P. J.

    2008-06-01

    The strand Towards Broadening the Audience was intended to seed thoughtful conversations about building bridges for outreach programs across cultural barriers. Many participants spoke about progress in increasing the diversity of their outreach audiences, but it was new voices from time-honored sources that offered fundamentally new wisdom. From the religious traditions and tensions that mark the Holy Land came the simple concept of bringing unity through teaching the commonalities found in basic concepts of the observed sky. From Mayan traditions, both contemporary and ancient, came the reminder that the sky is intimately connected to all aspects of our lives. Astronomy outreach should therefore be a part of much larger family and community celebrations. Ideas such as these offer renewed hope for major advances in bringing space science outreach to much broader audiences. They tell us about the importance of learning from voices with perspectives different from our own, and of building partnerships based upon genuine cross-cultural understanding and mutual love of the sky.

  18. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, K.

    2016-01-01

    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world’s poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  19. Broadening the spectrum through curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel-Hills P

    2006-01-01

    Radiography has experienced changes and challenges from a number of sources. The rapid technological changes in imaging an radiation treatment, changes in the professional context and social transformation have had an impact on the shape and structure of the radiography curriculum. It too must change to prepare graduates for the broadening radiography spectrum

  20. Doppler broadening of cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckler, P.A.C.; Pull, I.C.

    1962-12-01

    Expressions for temperature dependent cross-sections in terms of resonance parameters are obtained, involving generalisations of the conventional Doppler functions, ψ and φ. Descriptions of Fortran sub-routines, which calculate broadened cross-sections in accordance with the derived formulae, are included. (author)

  1. Anomalous broadening of the N2+ first negative band system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robben, F.; Cattolica, R.; Coe, D.; Talbot, L.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the fluorescence excited by a high energy electron beam has become a standard technique for measurement of density, rotational temperature of nitrogen, and translational temperature of helium and argon in rarefied gas dynamics. To obtain translational temperature the Doppler broadening of the fluorescence is determined by measuring the spectral line shape with a Fabry-Perot interferometer. To apply this technique to nitrogen a single rotational line must be selected from the band spectrum for analysis by the Fabry-Perot interferometer. As supported by extensive additional measurements, there is an anomalous broadening of the rotational lines of the N 2 + first negative band system with a width equivalent to about a 70 0 K translational temperature of nitrogen. It appears that the line width of approximately 0.03 cm -1 is an inherent property of this nitrogen band when excited by electron impact directly from the ground state

  2. Homogenization of Doppler broadening in spin-noise spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, M. Yu.; Ryzhov, I. I.; Smirnov, D. S.; Belyaev, L. Yu.; Potekhin, R. A.; Glazov, M. M.; Kulyasov, V. N.; Kozlov, G. G.; Aleksandrov, E. B.; Zapasskii, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    The spin-noise spectroscopy, being a nonperturbative linear optics tool, is still reputed to reveal a number of capabilities specific to nonlinear optics techniques. The effect of the Doppler broadening homogenization discovered in this work essentially widens these unique properties of spin-noise spectroscopy. We investigate spin noise of a classical system—cesium atoms vapor with admixture of buffer gas—by measuring the spin-induced Faraday rotation fluctuations in the region of D 2 line. The line, under our experimental conditions, is strongly inhomogeneously broadened due to the Doppler effect. Despite that, optical spectrum of the spin-noise power has the shape typical for the homogeneously broadened line with a dip at the line center. This fact is in stark contrast with the results of previous studies of inhomogeneous quantum dot ensembles and Doppler broadened atomic systems. In addition, the two-color spin-noise measurements have shown, in a highly spectacular way, that fluctuations of the Faraday rotation within the line are either correlated or anticorrelated depending on whether the two wavelengths lie on the same side or on different sides of the resonance. The experimental data are interpreted in the frame of the developed theoretical model which takes into account both kinetics and spin dynamics of Cs atoms. It is shown that the unexpected behavior of the Faraday rotation noise spectra and effective homogenization of the optical transition in the spin-noise measurements are related to smallness of the momentum relaxation time of the atoms as compared with their spin-relaxation time. Our findings demonstrate abilities of spin-noise spectroscopy for studying dynamic properties of inhomogeneously broadened ensembles of randomly moving spins.

  3. A method to enhance the resolution of broadened spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral P, A.; Jimenez D, H.; Torres V, M.; Azorin N, J.; Gutierrez C, A.; Gonzalez M, P.R.; Lopez E, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Fuentes Z, G.A.; Cordoba, A. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1992-02-15

    A deconvolution method to analyze line overlapping broadened spectra is presented. Two approximation expressions from which the user can remove, either a Lorentzian or a Gaussian line from observed spectra are utilized. Moessbauer spectra, EPR and Thermoluminescence spectroscopies are analyzed. It is shown that in each case, the de convolved spectrum may provide valuable data to get a much closer characterization of a substance. (Author)

  4. A method to enhance the resolution of broadened spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral P, A.; Jimenez D, H.; Torres V, M.; Azorin N, J.; Gutierrez C, A.; Gonzalez M, P.R.; Lopez E, J.; Fuentes Z, G.A.; Cordoba, A.

    1992-02-01

    A deconvolution method to analyze line overlapping broadened spectra is presented. Two approximation expressions from which the user can remove, either a Lorentzian or a Gaussian line from observed spectra are utilized. Moessbauer spectra, EPR and Thermoluminescence spectroscopies are analyzed. It is shown that in each case, the de convolved spectrum may provide valuable data to get a much closer characterization of a substance. (Author)

  5. Stark broadening in hot, dense laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, R.J.; Hooper, C.F. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Broadened Lyman-α x-ray lines from neon X and argon XVIII radiators, which are immersed in a hot, dense deuterium or deuterium-tritium plasma, are discussed. In particular, these lines are analyzed for several temperature-density cases, characteristic of laser-produced plasmas; special attention paid to the relative importance of ion, electron, and Doppler effects. Static ion microfield distribution functions are tabulated

  6. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  7. Absorption of Ultrashort Electromagnetic Pulses on Broadened Dipole Transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svita, S Yu; Astapenko, V A

    2014-01-01

    The study is devoted to the theoretical analysis of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses (USP) absorption on broadened dipole transitions. Calculations are made in the frame of perturbation theory with the use of the basic formula for energy absorbed during all time of the action of USP on dipole transition. Dependences of absorbed energy upon pulse duration and carrier frequency are obtained and analyzed for different types of spectral line shape and USP parameters

  8. Resonance broadening in an intense light field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, S.P.; Lisitsa, V.S.

    1977-01-01

    Collisions of identical atoms in a strong resonance radiation field E 0 cosωt, for which the atomic oscillation period is comparable to the collision time of the atoms, are considered. The problem is treated in terms of the simplest two-level atomic model. The problem of light absorption in such collisions is reduced to the problem of inelastic transitions in a three-level compound system of two atoms and an electromagnetic field. Corresponding probabilities and inelastic scattering integral cross sections for transitions between energy levels in such a system are calculated for two extreme cases- the impact (rapid collisions) and the static one (slow collisions). In the general case the cross sections depend nonlinearly on Esub(0). For small Esub(0) as compared to a certain critical Esub(0)* the results are similar to those of the well-known linear theory of resonance broadening. For Esub(0)>>Esub(0)* the absorption in the line wing is found to decrease (with increase of Esub(0)-the medium becomes more ''transparent''). The kinetics of light absorption in the medium of identical atoms with constant absorption capacity is analysed

  9. The Frequency Evolution of Interstellar Pulse Broadening from Radio Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhmer, O.; Mitra, D.; Gupta, Y.; Kramer, M.; Ahuja, A.

    2004-10-01

    Using radio pulsars as probes of the interstellar medium (ISM) we study the frequency evolution of interstellar scattering. The frequency dependence of scatter broadening times, τsc, for most of the pulsars with low and intermediate dispersion measures (DM ≲ 400 pc cm-3) is consistent with the Kolmogorov spectrum of electron density fluctuations in a turbulent medium. In contrast, the measured τsc's for highly dispersed pulsars in the central region of the Galaxy are larger than expected and show a spectrum which is flatter than the Kolmogorov law. We analyse the first measurements of spectral indices of scatter broadening over the full known DM range and discuss possible explanations for the anomalous scattering behaviour along peculiar lines of sight (LOS).

  10. Coincidence Doppler broadening study on hydrocarbons with pi and sigma valence electrons: positronium correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djourelov, N.; Suzuki, T.; Yu, R.S.; Ito, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) technique was applied to study the electron momentum distribution in anthracene, diphenyl, naphthalene, and polystyrene. A method for separation of the positron and positronium (Ps) components from the Doppler-broadened annihilation line (DBAL) was developed further to be applicable to hydrocarbons with different π and σ valence electron distributions. This method allows extraction of the electron momentum distribution (EMD) from DBAL for samples when Ps formation occurs. The annihilation on π valence electrons was detected as broadening of the EMD compared to that obtained for a polymer sample only with σ valence electrons. The broadening appeared as a significant change in the shape of the CDB ratio of the corresponding positronium-corrected curves: a slight enhancement above the unity line in the low-momentum region and a drop in the momentum region, 10-20x10 -3 m o c

  11. Exciton broadening in WS2 /graphene heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Heather M.; Rigosi, Albert F.; Raja, Archana

    2017-01-01

    Here, we have used optical spectroscopy to observe spectral broadening of WS 2 exciton reflectance peaks in heterostructures of monolayer WS 2 capped with mono- to few-layer graphene. The broadening is found to be similar for the A and B excitons and on the order of 5–10 meV. No strong dependence on the number of graphene layers was observed within experimental uncertainty. The broadening can be attributed to charge- and energy-transfer processes between the two materials, providing an observed lower bound for the corresponding time scales of 65 fs.

  12. Quasi-particle lifetime broadening in normal-superconductor junctions with UPt3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, T. de; Argonne National Lab., IL; Klapwijk, T.M.; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; Jansen, A.G.M.; Heil, J.; Wyder, P.

    1996-01-01

    For the Andreev-reflection process of quasi-particles at a normal-metal-superconductor interface the influence of lifetime broadening of the quasi-particles on the current-voltage characteristics of NS point contacts is analyzed along the lines of the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model. The anomalous Andreev-reflection spectra obtained for the heavy-fermion compound UPt 3 cannot be explained by lifetime broadening alone. Instead, an anisotropic superconducting order parameter has to be assumed which, if also lifetime broadening is included, leads to a fairly good agreement with the data. (orig.)

  13. Line broadening in the PXRD patterns of layered hydroxides: The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Kloprogge J T, Wharton D, Hickey L and Frost R L. 2002 Am. Miner. 87 623. 17. Dobos D 1975 Electrochemical data. A handbook for electrochemists in industry and universities (Amster- dam: Elseivier Scientific) p. 221. 18. Bookin A S and Drits V A 1993 Clays Clay Miner. 41 551. 19. Bookin A S, Cherkashin V I and Drits ...

  14. Quasilinear Line Broadened Model for Energetic Particle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghantous, Katy; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Berk, Herbert

    2011-10-01

    We present a self-consistent quasi-linear model that describes wave-particle interaction in toroidal geometry and computes fast ion transport during TAE mode evolution. The model bridges the gap between single mode resonances, where it predicts the analytically expected saturation levels, and the case of multiple modes overlapping, where particles diffuse across phase space. Results are presented in the large aspect ratio limit where analytic expressions are used for Fourier harmonics of the power exchange between waves and particles, . Implemention of a more realistic mode structure calculated by NOVAK code are also presented. This work is funded by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  15. Stark Broadening Parameters for Neutral Oxygen Spectral Lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fundamental state; its fundamental configuration is 2s22p4 and is subdivided into 3 even terms: 3P ... μ the reduced mass of the system atom-perturber). Recently ... where We(VALD) are the widths taken from the VALD database for T = 10000.

  16. H{sub {beta}} Stark broadening in cold plasmas with low electron densities calibrated with Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares, J.M., E-mail: j.m.palomares-linares@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Huebner, S.; Carbone, E.A.D.; Vries, N. de; Veldhuizen, E.M. de [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Sola, A.; Gamero, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    In the present work Stark broadening measurements have been carried out on low electron density (n{sub e} < 5{center_dot}10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) and (relatively) low gas temperature (T{sub g} < 1100 K) argon-hydrogen plasma, under low-intermediate pressure conditions (3 mbar-40 mbar). A line fitting procedure is used to separate the effects of the different broadening mechanisms (e.g. Doppler and instrumental broadening) from the Stark broadening. A Stark broadening theory is extrapolated to lower electron density values, below its theoretical validity regime. Thomson scattering measurements are used to calibrate and validate the procedure. The results show an agreement within 20%, what validates the use of this Stark broadening method under such low density conditions. It is also found that Stark broadened profiles cannot be assumed to be purely Lorentzian. Such an assumption would lead to an underestimation of the electron density. This implies that independent information on the gas temperature is needed to find the correct values of n{sub e}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stark broadening measurements at low density and temperature conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calibration with Thomson scattering Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Indications of the non-Lorentzian shape of the Stark broadening Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impossibility of simultaneous diagnostic of gas temperature and electron density.

  17. Dynamic Stark broadening as the Dicke narrowing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisti, A.; Mosse, C.; Ferri, S.; Talin, B.; Rosmej, F.; Bureyeva, L. A.; Lisitsa, V. S.

    2010-01-01

    A very fast method to account for charged particle dynamics effects in calculations of spectral line shape emitted by plasmas is presented. This method is based on a formulation of the frequency fluctuation model (FFM), which provides an expression of the dynamic line shape as a functional of the static distribution of frequencies. Thus, the main numerical work rests on the calculation of the quasistatic Stark profile. This method for taking into account ion dynamics allows a very fast and accurate calculation of Stark broadening of atomic hydrogen high-n series emission lines. It is not limited to hydrogen spectra. Results on helium-β and Lyman-α lines emitted by argon in microballoon implosion experiment conditions compared with experimental data and simulation results are also presented. The present approach reduces the computer time by more than 2 orders of magnitude as compared with the original FFM with an improvement of the calculation precision, and it opens broad possibilities for its application in spectral line-shape codes.

  18. Collisional broadening of alkali doublets by helium perturbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullamphy, D F T [School of Mathematics, Physics and Information Technology, James Cook University, Townsville 4811 (Australia); Peach, G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Venturi, V [School of Mathematics, Physics and Information Technology, James Cook University, Townsville 4811 (Australia); Whittingham, I B [School of Mathematics, Physics and Information Technology, James Cook University, Townsville 4811 (Australia); Gibson, S J [School of Mathematics, Physics and Information Technology, James Cook University, Townsville 4811 (Australia)

    2007-03-28

    We report results for the Lorentzian profiles of the Li I, Na I and K I doublets and the Na I subordinate doublet broadened by helium perturbers for temperatures up to 3000 K. They have been obtained from a fully quantum-mechanical close-coupling description of the colliding atoms, the Baranger theory of line shapes and new ab initio potentials for the alkali-helium interaction. For all lines except the 769.9 nm K I line, the temperature dependence of the widths over the range 70 {<=} T {<=} 3000 K is accurately represented by the power law form w = aT{sup bb} with 0.38 < b < 0.43. The 769.9 nm K I line has this form for 500 {<=} T {<=} 3000 K with b having the higher value of 0.49. Although the shifts have a more complex temperature dependence, they all have the general feature of increasing with temperature above T {approx} 500 K apart from the 769.9 K I line whose shift decreases with temperature.

  19. Determination of the Ion Velocity Distribution in a Rotating Plasma from Measurements of Doppler Broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard

    1979-01-01

    The Doppler-broadened profile of the He II 4685.75 AA line was measured along a chord in a rotating plasma, transverse to the magnetic field. Using a single-particle orbit picture, the corresponding velocity spectrum of ions confirm the measurements, so it can be concluded that the single-particl...

  20. Quasi-particle lifetime broadening in normal-superconductor junctions with UPt3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deWilde, Y; Klapwijk, TM; Jansen, AGM; Heil, J; Wyder, P

    For the Andreev-reflection process of quasi-particles at a normal-metal-superconductor interface the influence of lifetime broadening of the quasi-particles on the current-voltage characteristics of NS point contacts is analyzed along the lines of the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model. The anomalous

  1. Broadening and Simplifying the First SETI Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, M. A. G.

    The Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence, known informally as the First SETI Protocol, is the primary existing international guidance on this subject. During the fifteen years since the document was issued, several people have suggested revisions or additional protocols. This article proposes a broadened and simplified text that would apply to the detection of alien technology in our solar system as well as to electromagnetic signals from more remote sources.

  2. Narrowing of electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in a Doppler-broadened medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javan, Ali; Kocharovskaya, Olga; Lee Hwang; Scully, Marlan O.

    2002-01-01

    We derive an analytic expression for the linewidth of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonance in a Doppler-broadened system. It is shown here that for relatively low intensity of the driving field the EIT linewidth is proportional to the square root of intensity and is independent of the Doppler width, similar to the laser-induced line narrowing effect described by Feld and Javan. In the limit of high intensity we recover the usual power-broadening case where the EIT linewidth is proportional to the intensity and inversely proportional to the Doppler width

  3. Doppler broadening measurements of positron annihilation spectroscopy using a 22 Na source made in IFIN-HH Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racolta, P.M.; Craciun, L.; Plostinaru, D.; Catana, D.; Muresan, O.; Serban, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Doppler-broadening technique requires an energy-dispersive system. Compared with the angular correlation technique, a compact and relatively simple setup is possible and, thus spectrometers are used in almost all positron laboratories. The energy broadening of the annihilation line is measured by a high-resolution energy-dispersive detector system. The paper describes the principia of this method, experimental arrangement used, and data treatment. (authors)

  4. Optimized coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy using deconvolution algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.F.; Ching, H.M.; Cheng, K.W.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Ng, K.P.

    2004-01-01

    In the last few years a number of excellent deconvolution algorithms have been developed for use in ''de-blurring'' 2D images. Here we report briefly on one such algorithm we have studied which uses the non-negativity constraint to optimize the regularization and which is applied to the 2D image like data produced in Coincidence Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy (CDBS). The system instrumental resolution functions are obtained using the 514 keV line from 85 Sr. The technique when applied to a series of well annealed polycrystalline metals gives two photon momentum data on a quality comparable to that obtainable using 1D Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation (ACAR). (orig.)

  5. Commitment to Broadening Participation at NOAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmany, Catharine D.; Norman, D.

    2011-01-01

    AURA and NOAO take seriously the importance of Broadening Participation in Astronomy. At the request of the AURA President, each of the AURA centers (NOAO, NSO, STSCI, Gemini) appointed a Diversity Advocates (DA). At NOAO this job is shared by Dara Norman and Katy Garmany, who were appointed by Dave Silva in Jan 2009. The DA's are members of the AURA Committee on Workforce and Diversity (WDC), a designated subcommittee of the AURA Board of Directors. The role of this committee includes reviewing activities and plans on an AURA wide basis aimed at broadening the participation within AURA, and reviewing AURA wide policies on the workforce. At NOAO, the role of the DAs spans a number of departments and activities. They serve on observatory search committees, and offer suggestions on how NOAO job searches can reach the most diverse audience. The DA's job is to insure that NOAO actively pursues every opportunity to increase diversity: to this end they are involved in outreach and educational activities that focus on workplace development and encourage inclusion of woman, minorities and persons with disabilities.

  6. A broadened typology on energy and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    A broadened typology describing the interconnection between energy and security is developed in this paper, with the aim of improving understanding of the relationship between energy and security by applying different research and policy perspectives. One approach involves studying energy as an object exposed to security threats, using concepts such as security of supply or security of demand. Another approach involves studying the role of the energy system as the subject in generating or enhancing insecurity. The latter approach includes studying the conflict-generating potential inherent in the economic value of energy, the risk of accidents and antagonistic attacks to energy infrastructure and the security risks related to the negative environmental impact of the energy system. In order to make a comprehensive analysis of the security consequences of proposed energy policies or strategies, all these aspects should be taken into account to varying degrees. The typology proposed here could be a valuable tool for ensuring that all security aspects have been considered. - Highlights: • The paper presents a broadened typology of energy and security, useful for policy analysis. • The energy system can be an object for security threats and as a subject generating or contributing to insecurity. • Energy as an object for security threats includes the concepts of security of supply and security of demand. • The economic value of energy can contribute to insecurity. • Technological and environmental risks of specific energy systems also provide potential threats to human security

  7. CH3Cl self-broadening coefficients and their temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudaryonok, A.S.; Lavrentieva, N.N.; Buldyreva, J.V.

    2013-01-01

    CH 3 35 Cl self-broadening coefficients at various temperatures of atmospheric interest are computed by a semi-empirical method particularly suitable for molecular systems with strong dipole–dipole interactions. In order to probe the dependence on the rotational number K, the model parameters are adjusted on extensive room-temperature measurements for K≤7 and allow reproducing fine features of J-dependences observed for K≤3; for higher K up to 20, the fitting is performed on specially calculated semi-classical values. The temperature exponents for the standard power law are extracted and validated by calculation of low-temperature self-broadening coefficients comparing very favorably with available experimental data. An extensive line-list of self-broadening coefficients at the reference temperature 296 K and associated temperature exponents for 0≤J≤70, 0≤K≤20 is provided as Supplementary material for their use in atmospheric applications and spectroscopic databases. -- Highlights: • We calculated methyl chloride self-broadening coefficients using two methods. • Rotational quantum numbers were J from 0 till 70 and K from 0 till 20. • The temperature exponents were calculated for every mentioned line

  8. Expansion and broadening of coronal loop transients: A theoretical explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouschovias, T.C.; Poland, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    We explore the consequences of the assumption that a coronal loop transient (observed by the white-light coronagraph aboard Skylab) is a twisted rope of magnetic field lines expanding and broadening in the background coronal plasma and magnetic field. We show that the expansion (i.e., the outward motion of the loop top) can be accounted for by the azimuthal component of the field, B/sub az/; the observed broadening of the loop as it moves outward can be accounted for by the longitudinal component of the field, B/sub l/. In order to have a net outward force and at the same time avoid a classicial pinch (sausage) instability, the two components of the field must satisfy the inequality 1.41 B/sub l/>B/sub az/>B/sub l/.We predict that, as the loop rises, the width (h) of its top portion should vary proportionally with the distance (R) from the Sun's center. This is in good agreement with measurements that show hproportionalR/sup 0.8/. Our prediction, that the radius of curvature (R/sub c/) of the top portion of the loop should be proportional to R, differs from the measured variation R/sub c/proportionalR/sup 1.6/. The difference could be accounted for by a drag due to the background coronal field that flattens the loop's top. A statistical study that can test this possibility is suggested. We also calculate the magnetic field within the top section of the loop. It is approximately equal to 1 gauss at R=2 R/sub sun/ and varies somewhat more slowly than R -2 during expansion

  9. Intensities, broadening and narrowing parameters in the ν3 band of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    The P-branch of methane's ν3 band is probed to carry out an extensive study of the 2905-2908cm-1 infrared spectral region. Absolute line intensities as well as N2-, O2-, H2-, He-, Ar- and CO2-broadening coefficients are determined for nine transitions at room temperature. Narrowing parameters due to the Dicke effect have also been investigated. A narrow emission line-width (~0.0001cm-1) difference-frequency-generation (DFG) laser system is used as the tunable light source. To retrieve the CH4 spectroscopic parameters, Voigt and Galatry profiles were used to simulate the measured line shape of the individual transitions.

  10. Nonlocal inhomogeneous broadening in plasmonic nanoparticle ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.

    Nonclassical effects are increasingly more relevant in plasmonics as modern nanofabrication techniques rapidly approach the extreme nanoscale limits, for which departing from classical electrodynamics becomes important. One of the largest-scale necessary corrections towards this direction...... is to abandon the local response approximation (LRA) and take the nonlocal response of the metal into account, typically through the simple hydrodynamic Drude model (HDM), which predicts a sizedependent deviation of plasmon modes from the quasistatic (QS) limit. While this behaviour has been explored for simple...... metallic nanoparticles (NPs) or NP dimers, the possibility of inhomogeneous resonance broadening due to size variation in a large NP collection and the resulting spectral overlap of modes (as depicted in Fig. 1), has been so far overlooked. Here we study theoretically the effect of nonlocality on ensemble...

  11. Gamma-ray induced doppler broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The ultra high resolving power of the GAMS4 double-flat crystal spectrometer (M.S. Dewey et al Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 284 (1989) 151.) has been used to observe the Doppler broadening of gamma-rays emitted by nuclei recoiling at speeds as low as 10 -6 c. Such recoils may be induced by the previous emission of gamma-radiation following thermal neutron capture. If the population mechanism of an excited state is known (or can be approximated) and the slowing down mechanism can be modeled, then this technique can be used to extract the lifetime of excited nuclear states. The combination of this technique and the neutron capture reaction allows the study of states which cannot necessarily be accessed by other means. This has allowed the resolution of a number of long standing questions in low-spin nuclear structure. The basis of the technique is discussed and a number of examples given

  12. Phonon broadening in high entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körmann, Fritz; Ikeda, Yuji; Grabowski, Blazej; Sluiter, Marcel H. F.

    2017-09-01

    Refractory high entropy alloys feature outstanding properties making them a promising materials class for next-generation high-temperature applications. At high temperatures, materials properties are strongly affected by lattice vibrations (phonons). Phonons critically influence thermal stability, thermodynamic and elastic properties, as well as thermal conductivity. In contrast to perfect crystals and ordered alloys, the inherently present mass and force constant fluctuations in multi-component random alloys (high entropy alloys) can induce significant phonon scattering and broadening. Despite their importance, phonon scattering and broadening have so far only scarcely been investigated for high entropy alloys. We tackle this challenge from a theoretical perspective and employ ab initio calculations to systematically study the impact of force constant and mass fluctuations on the phonon spectral functions of 12 body-centered cubic random alloys, from binaries up to 5-component high entropy alloys, addressing the key question of how chemical complexity impacts phonons. We find that it is crucial to include both mass and force constant fluctuations. If one or the other is neglected, qualitatively wrong results can be obtained such as artificial phonon band gaps. We analyze how the results obtained for the phonons translate into thermodynamically integrated quantities, specifically the vibrational entropy. Changes in the vibrational entropy with increasing the number of elements can be as large as changes in the configurational entropy and are thus important for phase stability considerations. The set of studied alloys includes MoTa, MoTaNb, MoTaNbW, MoTaNbWV, VW, VWNb, VWTa, VWNbTa, VTaNbTi, VWNbTaTi, HfZrNb, HfMoTaTiZr.

  13. Study of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering in hot stellar atmospheres. A purely electron-photon scattering media is assumed to have plane parallel geometry with an input radia­tion field localized on one side of the slab. The method is based on the discrete space theory of radiative transfer for the intensity of emitted radiation. The solution is developed to study the importance of scattering of radiation by free electrons in high temperature stellar atmospheres which produces a brodening and shift in spectral lines because of the Compton effect and the Doppler effect arising from mass and thermal motions of scattering electrons. It is noticed that the Comptonized spectrum depends on three parameters: the optical depth of the medium, the temperature of the thermal electrons and the viewing angle. We also showed that the Compton effect produces red shift and asymmetry in the line. These two effects increase as the optical depth increases. It is also noticed that the emergent specific intensities become completely asymmetric for higher optical depths.

  14. Study of Compton Broadening Due to Electron-Photon Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering in hot stellar atmospheres. A purely electron-photon scattering media is assumed to have plane parallel geometry with an input radiation field localized on one side of the slab. The method is based on the discrete space theory of radiative transfer for the intensity of emitted radiation.The solution is developed to study the importance of scattering of radiation by free electrons in high temperature stellar atmospheres which produces a brodening and shift in spectral lines because of the Compton effect and the Doppler effect arising from mass and thermal motions of scattering electrons.It is noticed that the Comptonized spectrum depends on three parameters: the optical depth of the medium, the temperature of the thermal electrons and the viewing angle.We also showed that the Compton effect produces red shift and asymmetry in the line. These two effects increase as the optical depth increases. It is also noticed that the emergent specific intensities become completely asymmetric for higher optical depths.

  15. Broadening of hydrogenic X rays emitted by a laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Hoe; Grumberg, J.; Caby, M.; Leboucher, E.; Coulaud, G.

    1980-01-01

    This study is devoted to X-rays broadened by laser impact or implosion. In addition to usual broadening processes due to the high and low components of plasma microfield, we have examined the influence of the self-generated magnetic field B which is correlated to the Doppler effect by the motional electric field. Concerning the interaction between plasma electrons and radiating ions with high charge number Zsub(E), it is shown that the curvature of electron trajectories must be taken into account in the broadening operator calculation. The influence of this curvature consists in reducing the contribution of dipolar interaction and enhancing the contribution of multipolar interactions with higher order. As a particular consequence on the half-width of Lyman-α-lines we have found values ten times larger than those obtained from the usual dipolar approximation. In the other hand, spectral lines emitted from the plasma critical region exhibits a strong self-generated magnetic field effect. Principally, it consists in polarizing the spectral profiles and introducing a large dependence with respect to the observation direction k. Particularly, profiles observed in the direction parallel to the magnetic field exhibit a deep central minimum which must be taken into account in a quantitative study of the line absorption properties [fr

  16. Virus-Specific T Cells: Broadening Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, A John; Prockop, Susan; Bollard, Catherine M

    2018-01-01

    Virus infection remains an appreciable cause of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although pharmacotherapy and/or antibody therapy may help prevent or treat viral disease, these drugs are expensive, toxic, and often ineffective due to primary or secondary resistance. Further, effective treatments are limited for many infections (eg, adenovirus, BK virus), which are increasingly detected after alternative donor transplants. These deficiencies in conventional therapeutics have increased interest in an immunotherapeutic approach to viral disorders, leading to adoptive transfer of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (VSTs), which can rapidly reconstitute antiviral immunity post-transplantation without causing graft-versus-host disease. This review will explore how the VST field has improved outcomes for many patients with life-threatening viral infections after HSCT, and how to broaden applicability beyond the "patient-specific" products, as well as extending to other viral diseases even outside the context of HSCT. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic Field Measurements In Magnetized Plasmas Using Zeeman Broadening Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Showera; Wallace, Matthew; Presura, Radu; Neill, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The Zeeman effect has been used to measure the magnetic field in high energy density plasmas. This method is limited when plasma conditions are such that the line broadening due to the high plasma density and temperature surpasses the Zeeman splitting. We have measured magnetic fields in magnetized laser plasmas under conditions where the Zeeman splitting was not spectrally resolved. The magnetic field strength was determined from the difference in widths of two doublet components, using an idea proposed by Tessarin et al. (2011). Time-gated spectra with one-dimensional space-resolution were obtained at the Nevada Terawatt Facility for laser plasmas created by 20 J, 1 ns Leopard laser pulses, and expanding in the azimuthal magnetic field produced by the 0.6 MA Zebra pulsed power generator. We explore the response of the Al III 4s 2S1/2 - 4p 2P1 / 2 , 3 / 2 doublet components to the external magnetic field spatially along the plasma. Radial magnetic field and electron density profiles were measured within the plasma plume. This work was supported by the DOE/OFES Grant DE-SC0008829 and DOE/NNSA contract DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  18. Deconvolution of 2D coincident Doppler broadening spectroscopy using the Richardson-Lucy algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.D.; Zhou, T.J.; Cheung, C.K.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Ng, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Coincident Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy (CDBS) measurements are popular in positron solid-state studies of materials. By utilizing the instrumental resolution function obtained from a gamma line close in energy to the 511 keV annihilation line, it is possible to significantly enhance the quality of the CDBS spectra using deconvolution algorithms. In this paper, we compare two algorithms, namely the Non-Negativity Least Squares (NNLS) regularized method and the Richardson-Lucy (RL) algorithm. The latter, which is based on the method of maximum likelihood, is found to give superior results to the regularized least-squares algorithm and with significantly less computer processing time

  19. Doppler and time-travel broadening in ICR plasma isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskii, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    Isotopically-selective ion-cyclotron resonance (ICR) heating is one of the most promising plasma isotope separation methods. The separation degree of ICR separation in a plasma depends on the resonance heating selectivity. The selectivity is due to the isotopically-adjacent accelerated ions resonance curve overlapping and therefore, is determined by the width of the resonance curves. In the case of a collisionless plasma in an ideal homogeneous longitudinal magnetic field, the line broadening is mainly determined by Doppler and time-travel effects. These effects differ in nature, and one has some difficulties in distinguishing them when interpreting the resonance curves because both broadenings depend on ion axial velocities. We consider the simplest case: the extrenal heating alternating electric field does not depend on the axial coordinate (the wave number γ = 0). Hence, in this case the Doppler effect does not occur

  20. Positron life time and annihilation Doppler broadening measurements on transition metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levay, B.; Burger, K.

    1982-01-01

    Positron life time and annihilation Doppler broadening measurements have been carried out on 44 solid coordination compounds. Several correlations have been found between the annihilation life time (tau 1 ) and line shape parameters (L) and the chemical structure of the compounds. Halide ligands were the most active towards positrons. This fact supports the assumption on the possible formation of [e + X - ] positron-halide bound state. The life time was decreasing and the annihilation energy spectra were broadening with the increasing negative character of the halides. The aromatic base ligands affected the positron-halide interaction according to their basicity and space requirement and thus they indirectly affected the annihilation parameters, too. In the planar and tetrahedral complexes the electron density on the central met--al ion affected directly the annihilation parameters, while in the octahedral mixed complexes it had only an ind--irect effect through the polarization of the halide ligands. (author)

  1. Calculation of the Doppler broadening function using Fourier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Alessandro da Cruz

    2010-01-01

    An efficient and precise method for calculation of Doppler broadening function is very important to obtain average group microscopic cross sections, self shielding factors, resonance integrals and others reactor physics parameter. In this thesis two different methods for calculation of Doppler broadening function and interference term will be presented. The main method is based on a new integral form for Doppler broadening function ψ(x,ζ) which gives a mathematical interpretation of the approximation proposed by Bethe and Placzek, as the convolution of the Lorentzian function with a Gaussian function. This interpretation besides leading to a new integral form for ψ(x,ζ), enables to obtain a simple analytic solution for the Doppler broadening function. (author)

  2. SOLAR WIND STRAHL BROADENING BY SELF-GENERATED PLASMA WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, J.; Gaelzer, R. [UFPEL, Pelotas (Brazil); Vinas, A. F. [NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Yoon, P. H. [IPST, UMD, College Park, MD (United States); Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br, E-mail: rudi@ufpel.edu.br, E-mail: adolfo.vinas@nasa.gov, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br [UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-06-01

    This Letter reports on the results of numerical simulations which may provide a possible explanation for the strahl broadening during quiet solar conditions. The relevant processes involved in the broadening are due to kinetic quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. Making use of static analytical electron distribution in an inhomogeneous field, it is found that self-generated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency, i.e., Langmuir waves, are capable of scattering the strahl component, resulting in energy and pitch-angle diffusion that broadens its velocity distribution significantly. The present theoretical results provide an alternative or complementary explanation to the usual whistler diffusion scenario, suggesting that self-induced electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency might play a key role in broadening the solar wind strahl during quiet solar conditions.

  3. Digital setup for Doppler broadening spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizek, J; Vlcek, M; Prochazka, I

    2011-01-01

    New digital spectrometer for measurement of the Doppler shift of annihilation photons was developed and tested in this work. Digital spectrometer uses a fast 12-bit digitizer for direct sampling of signals from HPGe detectors. Analysis of sampled waveforms is performed off-line in software. Performance of the new digital setup was compared with its traditional analogue counterpart. Superior energy resolution was achieved in the digital setup. Moreover, the digital setup allows for a better control of the shape of detector signals. This enables to eliminate undesired signals damaged by pile-up effects or by ballistic deficit.

  4. Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Ozdal; Indukuri, Tejaswi; Jalali, Bahram

    2004-03-01

    The prospect for generating supercontinuum pulses on a silicon chip is studied. Using ~4ps optical pulses with 2.2GW/cm2 peak power, a 2 fold spectral broadening is obtained. Theoretical calculations, that include the effect of two-photon-absorption, indicate up to 5 times spectral broadening is achievable at 10x higher peak powers. Representing a nonlinear loss mechanism at high intensities, TPA limits the maximum optical bandwidth that can be generated.

  5. Pressure broadening and pressure shift of diatomic iodine at 675 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Erich N.

    Doppler-limited, steady-state, linear absorption spectra of 127 I2 (diatomic iodine) near 675 nm were recorded with an internally-referenced wavelength modulation spectrometer, built around a free-running diode laser using phase-sensitive detection, and capable of exceeding the signal-to-noise limit imposed by the 12-bit data acquisition system. Observed I2 lines were accounted for by published spectroscopic constants. Pressure broadening and pressure shift coefficients were determined respectively from the line-widths and line-center shifts as a function of buffer gas pressure, which were determined from nonlinear regression analysis of observed line shapes against a Gaussian-Lorentzian convolution line shape model. This model included a linear superposition of the I2 hyperfine structure based on changes in the nuclear electric quadrupole coupling constant. Room temperature (292 K) values of these coefficients were determined for six unblended I 2 lines in the region 14,817.95 to 14,819.45 cm-1 for each of the following buffer gases: the atoms He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe; and the molecules H2, D2, N2, CO2, N2O, air, and H2O. These coefficients were also determined at one additional temperature (388 K) for He and CO2, and at two additional temperatures (348 and 388 K) for Ar. Elastic collision cross-sections were determined for all pressure broadening coefficients in this region. Room temperature values of these coefficients were also determined for several low-J I2 lines in the region 14,946.17 to 14,850.29 cm-1 for Ar. A line shape model, obtained from a first-order perturbation solution of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for randomly occurring interactions between a two-level system and a buffer gas treated as step-function potentials, reveals a relationship between the ratio of pressure broadening to pressure shift coefficients and a change in the wave function phase-factor, interpreted as reflecting the "cause and effect" of state-changing events in the

  6. Research on Fast-Doppler-Broadening of neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.; Wang, K.; Yu, G.

    2012-01-01

    A Fast-Doppler-Broadening method is developed in this work to broaden Continuous Energy neutron cross-sections for Monte Carlo calculations. Gauss integration algorithm and parallel computing are implemented in this method, which is unprecedented in the history of cross section processing. Compared to the traditional code (NJOY, SIGMA1, etc.), the new Fast-Doppler-Broadening method shows a remarkable speedup with keeping accuracy. The purpose of using Gauss integration is to avoid complex derivation of traditional broadening formula and heavy load of computing complementary error function that slows down the Doppler broadening process. The OpenMP environment is utilized in parallel computing which can take full advantage of modern multi-processor computers. Combination of the two can reduce processing time of main actinides (such as 238 U, 235 U) to an order of magnitude of 1∼2 seconds. This new method is fast enough to be applied to Online Doppler broadening. It can be combined or coupled with Monte Carlo transport code to solve temperature dependent problems and neutronics-thermal hydraulics coupled scheme which is a big challenge for the conventional NJOY-MCNP system. Examples are shown to determine the efficiency and relative errors compared with the NJOY results. A Godiva Benchmark is also used in order to test the ACE libraries produced by the new method. (authors)

  7. How Might Industry Governance Be Broadened To Include Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    Broadening industry governance to support nonproliferation could provide significant new leverage in preventing the spread/diversion of nuclear, radiological, or dual-use material or technology that could be used in making a nuclear or radiological weapon. Industry is defined broadly to include (1) the nuclear industry, (2) dual-use industries, and (3) radioactive source manufacturers and selected radioactive source-user industries worldwide. This paper describes how industry can be an important first line of defense in detecting and thwarting proliferation, such as an illicit trade network or an insider theft case, by complementing and strengthening existing governmental efforts. For example, the dual-use industry can play a critical role by providing export, import, or security control information that would allow a government or the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to integrate this information with safeguards, export, import, and physical protection information it has to create a more complete picture of the potential for proliferation. Because industry is closest to users of the goods and technology that could be illicitly diverted throughout the supply chain, industry information can potentially be more timely and accurate than other sources of information. Industry is in an ideal position to help ensure that such illicit activities are detected. This role could be performed more effectively if companies worked together within a particular industry to promote nonproliferation by implementing an industry-wide self-regulation program. Performance measures could be used to ensure their materials and technologies are secure throughout the supply chain and that customers are legitimately using and/or maintaining oversight of these items. Nonproliferation is the overarching driver that industry needs to consider in adopting and implementing a self-regulation approach. A few foreign companies have begun such an approach to date; it is believed that

  8. Low arousing positive affect broadens visual attention and alters the thought-action repertoire while broadened visual attention does not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas Jäger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Broaden-and-Build Theory states that positive emotions broaden cognition and therefore build personal resources. However, missing theoretical precision regarding the interaction of the cognitive processes involved offers a variety of possible explanations for the mechanisms of broadening and building. In Experiment 1 we tested the causality assumption which states that positive emotions first broaden visual attention which in turn leads to broadened cognition. We examined the effects of a broadened, narrowed or neutral attentional scope of 72 subjects (30 men on their momentary thought-action repertoire. Results showed that there were no significant differences between groups regarding the breadth or the content of the thought-action repertoire. In Experiment 2 we studied the non-causality hypothesis which assumes a non-causal relationship between cognitive processes. We did so by investigating the effects of negative, neutral, and positive affect on the visual attentional scope of 85 subjects (41 men in Experiment 2a, as well as on the thought-action repertoire of 85 participants (42 men in Experiment 2b. Results revealed an attentional broadening effect in Experiment 2a but no differences between groups concerning the breadth of the thought-action repertoire in Experiment 2b. However, a theory driven content analysis showed that positive affect promoted social actions whereas negative affect endorsed resource protecting actions. Thus, our results favor the non-causality assumption. Moreover, results indicate that positive emotions do not target personal resources in general but rather resources associated with social behavior. In conclusion, we argue that the Broaden-and-Build Theory should be refined.

  9. Experimental studies by complementary terahertz techniques and semi-classical calculations of N2- broadening coefficients of CH335Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinet, M.; Rohart, F.; Buldyreva, J.; Gupta, V.; Eliet, S.; Motiyenko, R.A.; Margulès, L.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.

    2012-01-01

    Room-temperature N 2 -broadening coefficients of methyl chloride rotational lines are measured over a large interval of quantum numbers (6≤J≤50, 0≤K≤18) by a submillimeter frequency-multiplication chain (J≤31) and a terahertz photomixing continuous-wave spectrometer (J≥31). In order to check the accuracy of both techniques, the measurements of identical lines are compared for J=31. The pressure broadening coefficients are deduced from line fits using mainly a Voigt profile model. The excellent signal-to-noise ratio of the frequency-multiplication scheme highlights some speed dependence effect on the line shape. Theoretical values of these coefficients are calculated by a semi-classical approach with exact trajectories. An intermolecular potential including atom-atom interactions is used for the first time. It is shown that, contrary to the previous theoretical predictions, the contributions of short-range forces are important for all values of the rotational quantum numbers. Additional testing of modifications required in the semi-classical formalism for a correct application of the cumulant expansion is also performed. It is stated that the use of the cumulant average on the rotational states of the perturbing molecule leads, for high J and small K values, to slightly higher line-broadening coefficients, as expected for the relatively strong interacting CH 3 Cl-N 2 system. The excellent agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results ensures the reliability of these data.

  10. Experimental studies by complementary terahertz techniques and semi-classical calculations of N2- broadening coefficients of CH335Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinet, M.; Rohart, F.; Buldyreva, J.; Gupta, V.; Eliet, S.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.

    2012-07-01

    Room-temperature N2-broadening coefficients of methyl chloride rotational lines are measured over a large interval of quantum numbers (6≤J≤50, 0≤K≤18) by a submillimeter frequency-multiplication chain (J≤31) and a terahertz photomixing continuous-wave spectrometer (J≥31). In order to check the accuracy of both techniques, the measurements of identical lines are compared for J=31. The pressure broadening coefficients are deduced from line fits using mainly a Voigt profile model. The excellent signal-to-noise ratio of the frequency-multiplication scheme highlights some speed dependence effect on the line shape. Theoretical values of these coefficients are calculated by a semi-classical approach with exact trajectories. An intermolecular potential including atom-atom interactions is used for the first time. It is shown that, contrary to the previous theoretical predictions, the contributions of short-range forces are important for all values of the rotational quantum numbers. Additional testing of modifications required in the semi-classical formalism for a correct application of the cumulant expansion is also performed. It is stated that the use of the cumulant average on the rotational states of the perturbing molecule leads, for high J and small K values, to slightly higher line-broadening coefficients, as expected for the relatively strong interacting CH3Cl-N2 system. The excellent agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results ensures the reliability of these data.

  11. Intensities, broadening and narrowing parameters in the ν3 band of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2014-12-01

    The P-branch of methane\\'s ν3 band is probed to carry out an extensive study of the 2905-2908cm-1 infrared spectral region. Absolute line intensities as well as N2-, O2-, H2-, He-, Ar- and CO2-broadening coefficients are determined for nine transitions at room temperature. Narrowing parameters due to the Dicke effect have also been investigated. A narrow emission line-width (~0.0001cm-1) difference-frequency-generation (DFG) laser system is used as the tunable light source. To retrieve the CH4 spectroscopic parameters, Voigt and Galatry profiles were used to simulate the measured line shape of the individual transitions.

  12. Degenerate four-wave mixing in a resonant homogeneously broadened system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, R.C.; Steel, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Detailed measurements have been made of degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) in a resonant homogeneously broadened gas. The measurements were performed in SF 6 using a CO 2 laser operated on the 10.4-μm branch. The experimental results were compared to a two-level theory for a resonant saturable absorber developed by Abrams and Lind. The measured value of 7% reflectivity on the P(20) line was in excellent agreement with Abrams and Lind when corrected for thermal motion. A peak reflectivity of 38% was observed for off-resonant operation on the P(8) line. In addition to the usual two-level nonlinear response, discussion and measurement of the coherent three-level nonlinearity is also presented. A two-photon contribution in SF 6 using the P(16) line of CO 2 equals the one-photon response. Initial observations of coherent propagation effects are also presented

  13. Practical Model for First Hyperpolarizability Dispersion Accounting for Both Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Broadening Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Jochen; Wenseleers, Wim; Hales, Joel M; Makarov, Nikolay S; Perry, Joseph W

    2012-08-16

    A practical yet accurate dispersion model for the molecular first hyperpolarizability β is presented, incorporating both homogeneous and inhomogeneous line broadening because these affect the β dispersion differently, even if they are indistinguishable in linear absorption. Consequently, combining the absorption spectrum with one free shape-determining parameter Ginhom, the inhomogeneous line width, turns out to be necessary and sufficient to obtain a reliable description of the β dispersion, requiring no information on the homogeneous (including vibronic) and inhomogeneous line broadening mechanisms involved, providing an ideal model for practical use in extrapolating experimental nonlinear optical (NLO) data. The model is applied to the efficient NLO chromophore picolinium quinodimethane, yielding an excellent fit of the two-photon resonant wavelength-dependent data and a dependable static value β0 = 316 × 10(-30) esu. Furthermore, we show that including a second electronic excited state in the model does yield an improved description of the NLO data at shorter wavelengths but has only limited influence on β0.

  14. Direct measurement of electron density in microdischarge at atmospheric pressure by Stark broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lifang; Ran Junxia; Mao Zhiguo

    2005-01-01

    We present a method and results for measurement of electron density in atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge. The electron density of microdischarge in atmospheric pressure argon is measured by using the spectral line profile method. The asymmetrical deconvolution is used to obtain Stark broadening. The results show that the electron density in single filamentary microdischarge at atmospheric pressure argon is 3.05x10 15 cm -3 if the electron temperature is 10,000 K. The result is in good agreement with the simulation. The electron density in dielectric barrier discharge increases with the increase of applied voltage

  15. Doppler Broadening of In-Flight Positron Annihilation Radiation due to Electron Momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A. W.; Cassidy, D. B.; Sterne, P. A.; Cowan, T. E.; Howell, R. H.; Lynn, K. G.; Golevchenko, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    We report the first observation of electron momentum contributions to the Doppler broadening of radiation produced by in-flight two-photon annihilation in solids. In these experiments an approximately 2.5 MeV positron beam impinged on thin polyethylene, aluminum, and gold targets. Since energetic positrons easily penetrate the nuclear Coulomb potential and do not cause a strong charge polarization, the experimental annihilation line shapes agree well with calculations based on a simple independent-particle model. Moreover, annihilations with the deepest core electrons are greatly enhanced

  16. Beam broadening of polar molecules and clusters in deflection experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulthuis, J; Kresin, V V

    2012-01-07

    A beam of rotating dipolar particles (molecules or clusters) will broaden when passed through an electric or magnetic field gradient region. This broadening, which is a common experimental observable, can be expressed in terms of the variance of the distribution of the resulting polarization orientation (the direction cosine). Here, the broadening for symmetric-top and linear rotors is discussed. These two types of rotors have qualitatively different low-field orientation distribution functions, but behave similarly in a strong field. While analytical expressions for the polarization variance can be derived from first-order perturbation theory, for experimental guidance it is important to identify the applicability and limitations of these expressions, and the general dependence of the broadening on the experimental parameters. For this purpose, the analytical results are compared with the full diagonalization of the rotational Stark-effect matrices. Conveniently for experimental estimations, it is found that for symmetric tops, the dependence of the broadening parameter on the rotational constant, the axial ratio, and the field strength remains similar to the analytical expression even outside of the perturbative regime. Also, it is observed that the shape envelope, the centroid, and the width of the orientation distribution function for a symmetric top are quite insensitive to the value of its rotational constant (except at low rotational temperatures).

  17. Broadening Industry Governance to Include Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

    2008-11-11

    As industry is the first line of defense in detecting and thwarting illicit trade networks, the engagement of the private sector is critical to any government effort to strengthen existing mechanisms to protect goods and services throughout the supply chain. This study builds on previous PNNL work to continue to evaluate means for greater industry engagement to complement and strengthen existing governmental efforts to detect and stem the trade of illicit goods and to protect and secure goods that could be used in making a weapon of mass destruction. Specifically, the study evaluates the concept of Industry Self Regulation, defined as a systematic voluntary program undertaken by an industry or by individual companies to anticipate, implement, supplement, or substitute for regulatory requirements in a given field, generally through the adoption of best practices. Through a series of interviews with companies with a past history of non-compliance, trade associations and NGOs, the authors identify gaps in the existing regulatory infrastructure, drivers for a self regulation approach and the form such an approach might take, as well as obstacles to be overcome. The authors conclude that it is at the intersection of industry, government, and security that—through collaborative means—the effectiveness of the international nonproliferation system—can be most effectively strengthened to the mutual benefit of both government and the private sector. Industry has a critical stake in the success of this regime, and has the potential to act as an integrating force that brings together the existing mechanisms of the global nonproliferation regime: export controls, physical protection, and safeguards. The authors conclude that industry compliance is not enough; rather, nonproliferation must become a central tenant of a company’s corporate culture and be viewed as an integral component of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

  18. Start broadened profiles with self-consistent radiation transfer and atomic kinetics in plasmas produced by high intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.L.; Comly, J.C.; La Gattuta, J.K.; Kilcrease, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Spectral line shapes and line strengths have long been used to diagnose plasma temperatures and densities. In dense plasmas, the additional broadening due to Stark effects give additional information about the plasma density. We present calculations that are self-consistent in that the radiation fields of the line transitions and the atomic kinetics are iterated to convergence. Examples are given for simple plasmas with temperature gradients, density gradients, and velocity fields. Then a more complex example of a laser produced plasma is presented

  19. Deconvolution of shift-variant broadening for Compton scatter imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Brian L.; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Roggemann, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    A technique is presented for deconvolving shift-variant Doppler broadening of singly Compton scattered gamma rays from their recorded energy distribution. Doppler broadening is important in Compton scatter imaging techniques employing gamma rays with energies below roughly 100 keV. The deconvolution unfolds an approximation to the angular distribution of scattered photons from their recorded energy distribution in the presence of statistical noise and background counts. Two unfolding methods are presented, one based on a least-squares algorithm and one based on a maximum likelihood algorithm. Angular distributions unfolded from measurements made on small scattering targets show less evidence of Compton broadening. This deconvolution is shown to improve the quality of filtered backprojection images in multiplexed Compton scatter tomography. Improved sharpness and contrast are evident in the images constructed from unfolded signals

  20. Study of peak broadening effect in floor time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, R.S.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1996-01-01

    Seismic design of secondary systems such components and piping is usually carried out by using the floor motions at their support points. These floor motions can be in the form of Floor Response Spectra (FRS) or the Floor Time Histories (FTH). In order to account for the various uncertainties in generating these floor motions, these motions should be peak broadened and smoothened as per the regulatory codes. Presented here in this paper is the methodology to account for such peak broadening effect in the FTH. Results of this study have been compared with the FRS approach and various important conclusions have been arrived at based on the study

  1. Doppler-broadening of positron annihilation in a biological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrisi, L.; La Mela, C.; Catania, Univ.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Doppler effect of the 511 keV γ peak from positron annihilation in biological matter: The broadening of the annihilation peak is due to positron annihilation with electrons that have high momentum. In aqueous solutions annihilation depends on the temperature and it is linked positronium formation. Measurements in vivo, on human brain, were taken during the diagnosis of positron emission tomography (PET) on healthy patients by injecting them with the beta emitter of short lifetime 18F . The Doppler-broadening in biological tissues rich in water content decreased significantly compared to biological solutions and water

  2. Submillimeter-wave measurements of the pressure broadening of BrO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.M.; Kobayashi, M.; Habara, H.; Amano, T.; Drouin, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    The N 2 and O 2 pressure broadening coefficients of the J=23.5 ↔ 22.5 and J=25.5 ↔ 24.5 rotational transitions in the ground vibronic state X 2 Π 3/2 of 81 BrO at 624.768 and 650.178 GHz have been independently measured at Ibaraki University and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These lines are expected to be monitored by the superconducting submillimeter-wave limb emission sounder in the Japanese Experiment Module on the International Space Station (JEM/SMILES) as well as the earth observing system microwave limb sounder (EOS-MLS). This work provides temperature-dependent pressure broadening parameters of BrO needed by the space station and satellite based observations. The BrO pressure broadening coefficients and their 1σ uncertainties are: γ 0 (N 2 )=3.24±0.05 MHz/Torr and γ 0 (O 2 )=2.33±0.06 MHz/Torr for the 624.768 GHz transition at room temperature (296 K). For the 650.178 GHz line, the results are: γ 0 (N 2 )=3.20±0.07 MHz/Torr and γ 0 (O 2 )=2.41±0.06 MHz/Torr. The temperature dependence exponents and their 1σ error are determined to be: n(N 2 )=-0.76±0.05 and n(O 2 )=-0.93±0.07 for the 624.768 GHz transition, and n(N 2 )=-0.84±0.07 and n(O 2 )=-0.70±0.07 for the 650.178 GHz transition

  3. Spectral Line Shapes in Plasmas and Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oks, E.; Dalimier, D.; Stamm, R.; Stehle, CH.; Gonzalez, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The subject of spectral line shapes (SLS), a.k.a. spectral line broadening, which embraces both shapes and shifts of spectral lines, is of both fundamental and practical importance. On the fundamental side, the study of the spectral line profiles reveals the underlying atomic and molecular interactions. On the practical side, the spectral line profiles are employed as powerful diagnostic tools for various media, such as neutral gases, technological gas discharges, magnetically confined plasmas for fusion, laser- and Z-pinch-produced plasmas (for fusion and other purposes), astrophysical plasmas (most importantly, solar plasmas), and planetary atmospheres. The research area covered by this special issue includes both the SLS dominated by various electric fields (including electron and ion micro fields in strongly ionized plasmas) and the SLS controlled by neutral particles. In the physical slang, the former is called plasma broadening while the latter is called neutral broadening (of course, the results of neutral broadening apply also to the spectral line broadening in neutral gases)

  4. NDT oriented equipment for observing the Doppler broadening of radiation produced by the annihilation of positrons in cylindrical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.F.; Smith, F.A.; Hughes, A.E.

    1976-11-01

    This report describes the development of equipment for measuring annihilation line broadening in cylindrical samples a few millimetres in diameter, suitable for use in fatigue testing programs. A detached positron source is employed, allowing the samples to be scanned both longitudinally (resolution approximately 1 cm) and in azimuth. Some of the advantages of and problems associated with this configuration are discussed. The statistical precision of a number of parameters

  5. An easy way to determine simultaneously the electron density and temperature in high-pressure plasmas by using Stark broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J; Jonkers, J; Sande, M J van de; Mullen, J J A M van der; Gamero, A; Sola, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of determining, at the same time, both the electron density and temperature in a discharge produced at atmospheric pressure using the Stark broadening of lines spontaneously emitted by a plasma. This direct method allows us to obtain experimental results that are in good agreement with others previously obtained for the same type of discharge. Its advantages and disadvantages compared to other direct methods of diagnostics, namely Thomson scattering, are also discussed. (rapid communication)

  6. Study of Doppler broadened annihilation spectra in zinc and zinc-containing 0.05 at. % iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troev, T.; Zolov, R.; Dimova, V.; Levay, B.

    1979-01-01

    The Doppler broadening of annihilation gamma spectra obtained from positron-electron annihilation in pure polycrystalline zinc and zinc-containing 0.05 at. % iron have been investigated. The line shapes were measured by a Ge(Li) detector in coincidence with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The results are quite consistent with those expected from the trapping model. The positrons are trapped by impurity atoms and vacancy-impurity pairs in zinc containing 0.05 at. % iron. (author)

  7. Coherent excitonic nonlinearity versus inhomogeneous broadening in single quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    The coherent response of excitons in semiconductor nanostructures, as measured in four wave mixing (FWM) experiments, depends strongly on the inhomogeneous broadening of the exciton transition. We investigate GaAs-AlGaAs single quantum wells (SQW) of 4 nm to 25 nm well width. Two main mechanisms...

  8. On the Fly Doppler Broadening Using Multipole Representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khassenov, Azamat; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung

    2015-01-01

    On the Fly Doppler broadening is the technique to avoid pre-generation of the microscopic cross section, in other words, reduce the amount of storage. Currently, there are different types of formalisms used by NJOY code to generate reaction cross section and accomplish its Doppler broadening. Single-Level Breit-Wigner (SLBW) formalism is limited to well-separated resonances, in other words, it does not consider interference between energy levels. Multi-Level Breit- Wigner formalism (MLBW) was tested as the candidate for the cross section generation in the Monte Carlo code, which is under development in UNIST. According to the results, MLBW method requires huge amount of computational time to produce cross section at certain energy point. Reich-Moore (RM) technique can generate only 0K cross section, which means that it cannot produce broaden cross section directly from resonance parameters. The first step was to convert resonance parameters given in nuclear data file into multipoles. MPR shows very high potential to be used as the formalism in the on-the-fly Doppler broadening module of MCS. One of the main reasons is that comparison of the time cost shown in Table IV supports application of multipole representation

  9. Optical coherent control in semiconductors: Fringe contrast and inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    in the interplay between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings are measured. Based on these experiments, a coherent control model describing the optical fringe contrast using different detection schemes, such as photoluminescence or four-wave mixing, is established. Significant spectral modulation...

  10. Electromagnetically-induced transparency in Doppler-broadened ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... triple EIT windows depending on the amplitude and detuning of the coupling fields. Keywords. Electromagnetically-induced transparency; atomic ... photon transparency [6] and the effect of spontaneously generated coherence on EIT [7] using homogenously broadened models. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol.

  11. Transboundary natural area protection: Broadening the definition of national security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven B. Cook

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at the definition and concept of national security, and examines how the environment is linked with national security. The traditional, state view of national security that guides most foreign policy includes the concepts of military power, sovereignty and geopolitical stability. This paper advocates broadening the definition of security to include...

  12. Model, software and database for line-mixing effects in the ν 3 and ν 4 bands of CH4 and tests using laboratory and planetary measurements-II: H2 (and He) broadening and the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.; Flaud, P.-M.; Fouchet, T.; Gabard, T.; Hartmann, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    The absorption shapes of the ν 2 , ν 3 and ν 4 infrared bands of CH 4 perturbed by H 2 in large ranges of pressure and temperature have been measured in the laboratory. In order to model these spectra, the theoretical approach accounting for line-mixing effects proposed for CH 4 -N 2 and CH 4 -air and successfully tested in the companion paper (I), is used. As before, state-to-state rotational rates are used together with some empirical parameters that are deduced from a fit of a single room temperature spectrum of the ν 3 band at about 50 atm. The comparisons between measured and calculated spectra in the ν 3 and ν 4 regions under a vast variety of conditions (9-300 atm, 80-300 K) then demonstrate the quality and consistency of the proposed model. In the case of the ν 2 band, which is of E symmetry, specific parameters, different from those adapted to the ν 3 and ν 4 transitions of F 2 symmetry, are used for proper modeling of the spectral shape. Furthermore, as shown previously, a broad absorption feature grows underneath the ν 2 band with increasing H 2 density. The latter, for which an empirical model is proposed, is attributed to a collision-induced absorption (CIA) process in methane. From the developed models, a database and associated software are built for the updating of planetary atmospheres radiative transfer codes. The quality of these tools is then further demonstrated using emission measurements of the Jovian and Saturnian atmospheres in the ν 4 region (7-10 μm) recorded by the Short Wave Spectrometer of the Infrared Space Observatory and the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on-board Cassini. Comparisons between measured radiances and predictions confirm the failure of the purely Lorentzian approach and the quality of the proposed line-mixing model. Furthermore, it is shown that the methane CIA contribution has a significant influence on the planetary emission beyond 1400 cm -1

  13. GOLD: Building capacity for broadening participation in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Amanda; Patino, Lina; Jones, Michael B.; Rom, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    The geosciences continue to lag other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines in the engagement, recruitment and retention of traditionally underrepresented and underserved minorities, requiring more focused and strategic efforts to address this problem. Prior investments made by the National Science Foundation (NSF) related to broadening participation in STEM have identified many effective strategies and model programs for engaging, recruiting, and retaining underrepresented students in the geosciences. These investments also have documented clearly the importance of committed, knowledgeable, and persistent leadership for making local progress in broadening participation in STEM and the geosciences. Achieving diversity at larger and systemic scales requires a network of diversity "champions" who can catalyze widespread adoption of these evidence-based best practices and resources. Although many members of the geoscience community are committed to the ideals of broadening participation, the skills and competencies that empower people who wish to have an impact, and make them effective as leaders in that capacity for sustained periods of time, must be cultivated through professional development. The NSF GEO Opportunities for Leadership in Diversity (GOLD) program was implemented in 2016, as a funding opportunity utilizing the Ideas Lab mechanism. Ideas Labs are intensive workshops focused on finding innovative solutions to grand challenge problems. The ultimate aim of this Ideas Lab, organized by the NSF Directorate for Geosciences (GEO), was to facilitate the design, pilot implementation, and evaluation of innovative professional development curricula that can unleash the potential of geoscientists with interests in broadening participation to become impactful leaders within the community. The expectation is that mixing geoscientists with experts in broadening participation research, behavioral change, social psychology, institutional

  14. Peak broadening in paper chromatography and related techniques : III. Peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligny, C.L. de; Remijnse, A.G.

    1968-01-01

    The mechanism of peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder was investigated by comparing the peak widths obtained in chromatography with those caused only by diffusion in the cellulose powder, for a set of amino acids of widely differing RF values and six kinds of cellulose

  15. Dependence of inhomogeneous vibrational linewidth broadening on attractive forces from local liquid number densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, S.M.; Harris, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of inhomogeneous vibrational linewidth broadening on attractive forces form slowly varying local liquid number densities is examined. The recently developed Schweizer--Chandler theory of vibrational dephasing is used to compute absolute inhomogeneous broadening linewidths. The computed linewidths are compared to measured inhomogeneous broadening linewidths determined using picosecond vibrational dephasing experiments. There is a similarity between correlations of the Schweizer--Chandler and George--Auweter--Harris predicted inhomogeneous broadening linewidths and the measured inhomogeneous broadening linewidths. For the methyl stretches under investigation, this correspondence suggests that the width of the number density distribution in the liquid determines the relative inhomogeneous broadening magnitudes

  16. A SYSTEMATIC SURVEY FOR BROADENED CO EMISSION TOWARD GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpatrick, Charles D.; Bieging, John H.; Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We present molecular spectroscopy toward 50 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) taken at millimeter wavelengths in {sup 12}CO J = 2 − 1. These observations are part of a systematic survey for broad molecular line (BML) regions indicative of interactions with molecular clouds (MCs). We detected BML regions toward 19 SNRs, including 9 newly identified BML regions associated with SNRs (G08.3–0.0, G09.9–0.8, G11.2–0.3, G12.2+0.3, G18.6–0.2, G23.6+0.3, 4C–04.71, G29.6+0.1, and G32.4+0.1). The remaining 10 SNRs with BML regions confirm previous evidence for MC interaction in most cases (G16.7+0.1, Kes 75, 3C 391, Kes 79, 3C 396, 3C 397, W49B, Cas A, and IC 443), although we confirm that the BML region toward HB 3 is associated with the W3(OH) H ii region, not the SNR. Based on the systemic velocity of each MC, molecular line diagnostics, and cloud morphology, we test whether these detections represent SNR–MC interactions. One of the targets (G54.1+0.3) had previous indications of a BML region, but we did not detect broadened emission toward it. Although broadened {sup 12}CO J = 2 − 1 line emission should be detectable toward virtually all SNR–MC interactions, we find relatively few examples; therefore, the number of interactions is low. This result favors mechanisms other than supernova feedback as the basic trigger for star formation. In addition, we find no significant association between TeV gamma-ray sources and MC interactions, contrary to predictions that SNR–MC interfaces are the primary venues for cosmic ray acceleration.

  17. Doppler broadening measurements in FRX-C/LSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, M.H.; Chrien, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements obtained in situ during field reversed configuration (FRC) formation show that the Doppler broadening ion temperature T CV is larger by a factor of two or more than the ion temperature T i derived from pressure balance and Thomson scattering. After a time comparable to an ion-ion equilibrium time, T CV and T i come into agreement with each other. An exception to this picture occurs in the lowest fill pressure condition (2 mtorr), for which T CV > T i is maintained throughout the FRC lifetime. Earlier Doppler broadening measurements in FRX-B and FRX-C also showed persistent, anomalously high T CV at low fill pressure. The initially high values of T CV are probably caused by convective motion generated by the radial implosion. The low fill pressure results suggest an enhanced ohmic power input to the carbon ions. 7 refs., 3 figs

  18. Positive emotions and the social broadening effects of Barack Obama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Anthony D; Burrow, Anthony L; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E

    2012-10-01

    Past experiments have demonstrated that the cognitive broadening produced by positive emotions may extend to social contexts. Building on this evidence, we hypothesized that positive emotions triggered by thinking about Barack Obama may broaden and expand people's sense of self to include others. Results from an expressive-writing study demonstrated that African American college students prompted to write about Obama immediately prior to and after the 2008 presidential election used more plural self-references, fewer other-references, and more social references. Mediation analyses revealed that writing about Obama increased positive emotions, which in turn increased the likelihood that people thought in terms of more-inclusive superordinate categories (we and us rather than they and them). Implications of these findings for the role of positive emotions in perspective-taking and intergroup relations are considered.

  19. Pion broadening and low-mass dilepton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, H.-J.; Blaschke, D.

    2002-01-01

    Mass and transverse momentum spectra of dileptons produced in Pb + Au (158 GeV/u) collisions within a pion annihilation model are determined. A fit to the data requires simultaneous mass reduction and broadening of the in-medium rho propagator. The introduction of a finite pion width, as required within self-consistent approaches to the interacting pion gas, further improves the agreement with the data

  20. Broadening failure rate distributions in PRA uncertainty analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F.

    1984-01-01

    Several recent nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) have utilized broadened Reactor Safety Study (RSS) component failure rate population variability curves to compensate for such things as expert overvaluation bias in the estimates upon which the curves are based. A simple two-components of variation empirical Bayes model is proposed for use in estimating the between-expert variability curve in the presence of such biases. Under certain conditions this curve is a population variability curve. Comparisons are made with the existing method. The popular procedure appears to be generally much more conservative than the empirical Bayes method in removing such biases. In one case the broadened curve based on the popular method is more than two orders of magnitude broader than the empirical Bayes curve. In another case it is found that the maximum justifiable degree of broadening of the RSS curve is to increase α from 5% to 12%, which is significantly less than 20% value recommended in the popular approach. 15 references, 1 figure, 5 tables

  1. Importance of Doppler broadening in Compton scatter imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Seltzer, S. M.; Hubbell, John H.; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Akatsuka, Takao; Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Gigante, Giovanni E.

    2001-12-01

    Compton scattering is a potential tool for the determination of bone mineral content or tissue density for dose planning purposes, and requires knowledge of the energy distribution of the X-rays through biological materials of medical interest in the X-ray and (gamma) -ray region. The energy distribution is utilized in a number of ways in diagnostic radiology, for example, in determining primary photon spectra, electron densities in separate volumes, and in tomography and imaging. The choice of the X-ray energy is more related to X-ray absorption, where as that of the scattering angle is more related to geometry. The evaluation of all the contributions are mandatory in Compton profile measurements and is important in X-ray imaging systems in order to achieve good results. In view of this, Compton profile cross-sections for few biological materials are estimated at nineteen K(alpha) X-ray energies and 60 keV (Am-241) photons. Energy broadening, geometrical broadening from 1 to 180 degree(s), FWHM of J(Pz) and FWHM of Compton energy broadening has been evaluated at various incident photon energies. These values are estimated around the centroid of the Compton profile with an energy interval of 0.1 keV and 1.0 keV for 60 keV photons. The interaction cross sections for the above materials are estimated using fractions-by-weight of the constituent elements. Input data for these tables are purely theoretical.

  2. Search for Magnetically Broadened Cascade Emission from Blazars with VERITAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, S.; Griffin, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Archer, A.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Alonso, M. Fernández [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67—Suc. 28, (C1428ZAA) Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fleischhack, H.; Hütten, M. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Fortson, L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Furniss, A. [Department of Physics, California State University—East Bay, Hayward, CA 94542 (United States); Hervet, O.; Johnson, C. A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Holder, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Humensky, T. B., E-mail: elisa.pueschel@ucd.ie, E-mail: weisgarber@physics.wisc.edu [Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); and others

    2017-02-01

    We present a search for magnetically broadened gamma-ray emission around active galactic nuclei (AGNs), using VERITAS observations of seven hard-spectrum blazars. A cascade process occurs when multi-TeV gamma-rays from an AGN interact with extragalactic background light (EBL) photons to produce electron–positron pairs, which then interact with cosmic microwave background photons via inverse-Compton scattering to produce gamma-rays. Due to the deflection of the electron–positron pairs, a non-zero intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) would potentially produce detectable effects on the angular distribution of the cascade emission. In particular, an angular broadening compared to the unscattered emission could occur. Through non-detection of angularly broadened emission from 1ES 1218+304, the source with the largest predicted cascade fraction, we exclude a range of IGMF strengths around 10{sup −14} G at the 95% confidence level. The extent of the exclusion range varies with the assumptions made about the intrinsic spectrum of 1ES 1218+304 and the EBL model used in the simulation of the cascade process. All of the sources are used to set limits on the flux due to extended emission.

  3. On-the-fly doppler broadening for Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yesilyurt, G.; Martin, W. R.; Brown, F. B.

    2009-01-01

    A methodology to allow on-the-fly Doppler broadening of neutron cross sections for use in Monte Carlo codes has been developed. The Monte Carlo code only needs to store 0 K cross sections for each isotope and the method will broaden the 0 K cross sections for any isotope in the library to any temperature in the range 77 K-3200 K. The methodology is based on a combination of Taylor series expansions and asymptotic series expansions. The type of series representation was determined by investigating the temperature dependence of U3o8 resonance cross sections in three regions: near the resonance peaks, mid-resonance, and the resonance wings. The coefficients for these series expansions were determined by a regression over the energy and temperature range of interest. Since the resonance parameters are a function of the neutron energy and target nuclide, the ψ and χ functions in the Adler-Adler multi-level resonance model can be represented by series expansions in temperature only, allowing the least number of terms to approximate the temperature dependent cross sections within a given accuracy. The comparison of the broadened cross sections using this methodology with the NJOY cross sections was excellent over the entire temperature range (77 K-3200 K) and energy range. A Monte Carlo code was implemented to apply the combined regression model and used to estimate the additional computing cost which was found to be less than <1%. (authors)

  4. Characterization of ion-irradiated ODS Fe–Cr alloys by doppler broadening spectroscopy using a positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, P.; Leguey, T. [Departamento de Física and IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Castro, V. de, E-mail: vanessa.decastro@uc3m.es [Departamento de Física and IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Gigl, T.; Reiner, M.; Hugenschmidt, C. [FRM II and Physics Department, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching (Germany); Pareja, R. [Departamento de Física and IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    The damage profile of oxide dispersion strengthened steels after single-, or simultaneous triple-ion irradiation at different conditions has been characterized using a low energy positron beam in order to provide information on microstructural changes induced by irradiation. Doppler broadening and coincident Doppler broadening measurements of the positron annihilation line have been performed on different Fe–Cr–(W,Ti) alloys reinforced with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, to identify the nature and stability of irradiation-induced open-volume defects and their possible association with the oxide nanoparticles. It was found that irradiation induced vacancy clusters are associated with Cr atoms. The results are of highest interest for modeling the damage induced by 14 MeV neutrons in reduced activation Fe–Cr alloys relevant for fusion devices.

  5. Characterization of ion-irradiated ODS Fe–Cr alloys by doppler broadening spectroscopy using a positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parente, P.; Leguey, T.; Castro, V. de; Gigl, T.; Reiner, M.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Pareja, R.

    2015-01-01

    The damage profile of oxide dispersion strengthened steels after single-, or simultaneous triple-ion irradiation at different conditions has been characterized using a low energy positron beam in order to provide information on microstructural changes induced by irradiation. Doppler broadening and coincident Doppler broadening measurements of the positron annihilation line have been performed on different Fe–Cr–(W,Ti) alloys reinforced with Y 2 O 3 , to identify the nature and stability of irradiation-induced open-volume defects and their possible association with the oxide nanoparticles. It was found that irradiation induced vacancy clusters are associated with Cr atoms. The results are of highest interest for modeling the damage induced by 14 MeV neutrons in reduced activation Fe–Cr alloys relevant for fusion devices

  6. On the Application of Stark Broadening Data Determined with a Semiclassical Perturbation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan S. Dimitrijević

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The significance of Stark broadening data for problems in astrophysics, physics, as well as for technological plasmas is discussed and applications of Stark broadening parameters calculated using a semiclassical perturbation method are analyzed.

  7. H2-broadening, shifting and mixing coefficients of the doublets in the ν2 and ν4 bands of PH3 at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jamel; Blanquet, Ghislain; Lepère, Muriel; Younes, Rached ben

    2018-05-01

    The broadening, shifting and mixing coefficients of the doublet spectral lines in the ν2 and ν4 bands of PH3 perturbed by H2 have been determined at room temperature. Indeed, the collisional spectroscopic parameters: intensities, line widths, line shifts and line mixing parameters, are all grouped together in the collisional relaxation matrix. To analyse the collisional process and physical effects on spectra of phosphine (PH3), we have used the measurements carried out using a tunable diode-laser spectrometer in the ν2 and ν4 bands of PH3 perturbed by hydrogen (H2) at room temperature. The recorded spectra are fitted by the Voigt profile and the speed-dependent uncorrelated hard collision model of Rautian and Sobelman. These profiles are developed in the studies of isolated lines and are modified to account for the line mixing effects in the overlapping lines. The line widths, line shifts and line mixing parameters are given for six A1 and A2 doublet lines with quantum numbers K = 3n, (n = 1, 2, …) and overlapped by collisional broadening at pressures of less than 50 mbar.

  8. Software for analysis of waveforms acquired by digital Doppler broadening spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, M; Čížek, J; Procházka, I

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution digital spectrometer for coincidence measurement of Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation was recently developed and tested. In this spectrometer pulses from high purity Ge (HPGe) detectors are sampled in the real time by fast digitizers and subsequently analyzed off-line by software. We present description of the software routines used for pulse shape analysis in two spectrometer configurations: (i) semi-digital setup in which detector pulses shaped in spectroscopic amplifiers (SA's) are digitized; (ii) pure digital setup in which pulses from detector pre-amplifiers are digitized directly. Software developed in this work will be freely available in the form of source code and pre-compiled binaries.

  9. Opacity broadening and interpretation of suprathermal CO linewidths: Macroscopic turbulence and tangled molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacar, A.; Alves, J.; Burkert, A.; Goldsmith, P.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Since their first detection in the interestellar medium, (sub-)millimeter line observations of different CO isotopic variants have routinely been employed to characterize the kinematic properties of the gas in molecular clouds. Many of these lines exhibit broad linewidths that greatly exceed the thermal broadening expected for the low temperatures found within these objects. These observed suprathermal CO linewidths are assumed to originate from unresolved supersonic motions inside clouds. Aims: The lowest rotational J transitions of some of the most abundant CO isotopologues, 12CO and 13CO, are found to present large optical depths. In addition to well-known line saturation effects, these large opacities present a non-negligible contribution to their observed linewidths. Typically overlooked in the literature, in this paper we aim to quantify the impact of these opacity broadening effects on the current interpretation of the CO suprathermal line profiles. Methods: Combining large-scale observations and LTE modeling of the ground J = 1-0 transitions of the main 12CO, 13CO, C18O isotopologues, we have investigated the correlation of the observed linewidths as a function of the line opacity in different regions of the Taurus molecular cloud. Results: Without any additional contributions to the gas velocity field, a large fraction of the apparently supersonic (ℳ ~ 2-3) linewidths measured in both 12CO and 13CO (J = 1-0) lines can be explained by the saturation of their corresponding sonic-like, optically thin C18O counterparts assuming standard isotopic fractionation. Combined with the presence of multiple components detected in some of our C18O spectra, these opacity effects also seem to be responsible for most of the highly supersonic linewidths (ℳ > 8-10) detected in some of the broadest 12CO and 13CO spectra in Taurus. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that most of the suprathermal 12CO and 13CO linewidths reported in nearby clouds like Taurus

  10. Spatial dispersion effects in spectral line broadening by pressure. I. The Bouguer Law and absorption coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkasov, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the general principles of semiclassical electrodynamics, the Bouguer law is derived, and the expression for the absorption coefficient is obtained, formally including all effects related to the phenomenon of spatial dispersion

  11. Modeling of stochastic broadening in a poloidally diverted discharge with piecewise analytic symplectic mapping flux functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima; Evans, Todd; Boozer, Allen

    2008-01-01

    A highly accurate calculation of the magnetic field line Hamiltonian in DIII-D [J. L. Luxon and L. E. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)] is made from piecewise analytic equilibrium fit data for shot 115467 3000 ms. The safety factor calculated from this Hamiltonian has a logarithmic singularity at an ideal separatrix. The logarithmic region inside the ideal separatrix contains 2.5% of toroidal flux inside the separatrix. The logarithmic region is symmetric about the separatrix. An area-preserving map for the field line trajectories is obtained in magnetic coordinates from the Hamiltonian equations of motion for the lines and a canonical transformation. This map is used to calculate trajectories of magnetic field lines in DIII-D. The field line Hamiltonian in DIII-D is used as the generating function for the map and to calculate stochastic broadening from field-errors and spatial noise near the separatrix. A very negligible amount (0.03%) of magnetic flux is lost from inside the separatrix due to these nonaxisymmetric fields. It is quite easy to add magnetic perturbations to generating functions and calculate trajectories for maps in magnetic coordinates. However, it is not possible to integrate across the separatrix. It is also difficult to find the physical position corresponding to magnetic coordinates. For open field lines, periodicity in the poloidal angle is assumed, which is not satisfactory. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the efficacy of the symplectic mapping approach rather than using realistic DIII-D parameters or modeling specific experimental results

  12. Broadening Participation in the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga, Cheryl A D; Nishiguchi, Michele; Tsukimura, Brian

    2017-07-01

    The goal of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology's Broadening Participation Committee (SICB BPC) is to increase the number of underrepresented group (URG) members within the society and to expand their capabilities as future researchers and leaders within SICB. Our short-term 10-year goal was to increase the recruitment and retention of URG members in the society by 10%. Our long-term 25-year goal is to increase the membership of URG in the society through recruitment and retention until the membership demographic mirrors that of the US Census. Our plans to accomplish this included establishment of a formal standing committee, establishment of a moderate budget to support BPC activities, hosting professional development workshops, hosting diversity and mentor socials, and obtaining grant funds to supplement our budget. This paper documents broadening participation activities in the society, discusses the effectiveness of these activities, and evaluates BPC goals after 5 years of targeted funded activities. Over the past 5 years, the number of URG members rose by 5.2% to a total of 16.2%, members who report ethnicity and gender increased by 25.2% and 18%, respectively, and the number of members attending BPC activities has increased to 33% by 2016. SICB has made significant advances in broadening participation, not only through increased expenditures, but also with a commitment by its members and leadership to increase diversity. Most members realize that increasing diversity will both improve the Society's ability to develop different approaches to tackling problems within integrative biology, and help solve larger global issues that are evident throughout science and technology fields. In addition, having URG members as part of the executive committee would provide other URG members role models within the society, as well as have a voice in the leadership that represents diversity and inclusion for all scientists. © The Author 2017. Published by

  13. Approximation of the Doppler broadening function by Frobenius method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Daniel A.P.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C.

    2005-01-01

    An analytical approximation of the Doppler broadening function ψ(x,ξ) is proposed. This approximation is based on the solution of the differential equation for ψ(x,ξ) using the methods of Frobenius and the parameters variation. The analytical form derived for ψ(x,ξ) in terms of elementary functions is very simple and precise. It can be useful for applications related to the treatment of nuclear resonances mainly for the calculations of multigroup parameters and self-protection factors of the resonances, being the last used to correct microscopic cross-sections measurements by the activation technique. (author)

  14. The derivation of the Doppler broadening function using Frobenius method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Daniel A.P.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C.

    2006-01-01

    An analytical approximation of the Doppler broadening function ψ(ξ,x) is proposed. This approximation is based on the solution of the differential equation for ψ(ξ,x) using the methods of Frobenius and parameters variation. The analytical form derived for ψ(ξ,x) in terms of elementary functions is very simple and precise. It can be useful for applications related to the treatment of nuclear resonances, mainly for calculations of multigroup parameters and resonances self-protection factors, the latter being used to correct microscopic cross section measurements by the activation technique. (author)

  15. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: broadening DNA investigative intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaki, Athina; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-12-21

    Human genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We envision future forensic applications of DNA methylation analysis that will broaden DNA-based forensic intelligence. Together with genetic prediction of appearance and biogeographic ancestry, epigenomic lifestyle prediction is expected to increase the ability of police to find unknown perpetrators of crime who are not identifiable using current forensic DNA profiling.

  16. Strategies for broadening public involvement in space developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    There is widespread public interest in and goodwill toward the space program. For NASA's plans for the next 25 years to be achieved, this public reservoir of support needs to be tapped and channeled. NASA endeavors have to reach out beyond the scientific, technological, and aerospace communities to foster wider participation in space exploration and exploitation. To broaden NASA support and spread out the financing of space activities, recommendations for consideration are offered in the area of economics, political, institutional, international, and managerial areas.

  17. GOSAT-2014 methane spectral line list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A.V.; Lyulin, O.M.; Mikhailenko, S.N.; Perevalov, V.I.; Filippov, N.N.; Grigoriev, I.M.; Morino, I.; Yoshida, Y.; Matsunaga, T.

    2015-01-01

    The updated methane spectral line list GOSAT-2014 for the 5550–6240 cm −1 region with the intensity cutoff of 5×10 –25 cm/molecule at 296 K is presented. The line list is based on the extensive measurements of the methane spectral line parameters performed at different temperatures and pressures of methane without and with buffer gases N 2 , O 2 and air. It contains the following spectral line parameters of about 12150 transitions: line position, line intensity, energy of lower state, air-induced and self-pressure-induced broadening and shift coefficients and temperature exponent of air-broadening coefficient. The accuracy of the line positions and intensities are considerably improved in comparison with the previous version GOSAT-2009. The improvement of the line list is done mainly due to the involving to the line position and intensity retrieval of six new spectra recorded with short path way (8.75 cm). The air-broadening and air-shift coefficients for the J-manifolds of the 2ν 3 (F 2 ) band are refitted using the new more precise values of the line positions and intensities. The line assignment is considerably extended. The lower state J-value was assigned to 6397 lines representing 94.4% of integrated intensity of the considering wavenumber region. The complete assignment was done for 2750 lines. - Highlights: • The upgrade of the GOSAT methane line list in the 5550–6240 cm −1 region is done. • 12,146 experimental methane line positions and intensities are retrieved. • 6376 lower energy levels for methane lines are determined

  18. Spectral-Kinetic Coupling and Effect of Microfield Rotation on Stark Broadening in Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Demura

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with two conceptual problems in the theory of Stark broadening by plasmas. One problem is the assumption of the density matrix diagonality in the calculation of spectral line profiles. This assumption is closely related to the definition of zero wave functions basis within which the density matrix is assumed to be diagonal, and obviously violated under the basis change. A consistent use of density matrix in the theoretical scheme inevitably leads to interdependence of atomic kinetics, describing the population of atomic states with the Stark profiles of spectral lines, i.e., to spectral-kinetic coupling. The other problem is connected with the study of the influence of microfield fluctuations on Stark profiles. Here the main results of the perturbative approach to ion dynamics, called the theory of thermal corrections (TTC, are presented, within which the main contribution to effects of ion dynamics is due to microfield fluctuations caused by rotations. In the present study the qualitative behavior of the Stark profiles in the line center within predictions of TTC is confirmed, using non-perturbative computer simulations.

  19. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadlinger, Heather A; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states.

  20. Improving Program Design and Assessment with Broadening Participation Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, D.; Johnson, A.; Thomas, S. H.; Fauver, A.; Detrick, L.

    2012-12-01

    Many theoretical and research-based approaches suggest how to best use mentoring to enhance an undergraduate research program. The Institute for Broadening Participation's Pathways to Engineering and Pathways to Ocean Sciences projects synthesized a set of mentoring studies, theoretical sources, and other texts pertinent to undergraduate research program design into a suite of practical tools that includes an online mentoring manual, an online reference library of mentoring and diversity literature, and practical guides such as Using Social Media to Build Diversity in Your REU. The overall goal is to provide easy-to-access resources that can assist faculty and program directors in implementing or honing the mentoring elements in their research programs for undergraduates. IBP's Online Mentoring Manual addresses common themes, such as modeling, student self-efficacy, career development, retention and evaluation. The Online Diversity Reference Library provides a comprehensive, annotated selection of key policy documents, research studies, intervention studies, and other texts on broadening participation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. IBP's suite of tools provides the theoretical underpinnings and research findings that can help leaders in education integrate site-appropriate mentoring elements into their educational programs. Program directors and faculty from a variety of program types and disciplines have benefitted from using the Manual and other resources. IBP continues the work of translating and synthesizing theory to practice and welcomes your participation and partnership in that effort.

  1. N2 and O2 pressure broadening and pressure shift in the 4ν2 band of 16O12C32S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galalou, S.; Ben Mabrouk, K.; Aroui, H.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Willaert, F.; Flaud, J.-M.

    2011-01-01

    To measure accurately OCS concentrations in planetary atmospheres, it is important to know precisely nitrogen and oxygen pressure broadening and pressure-induced shift coefficients for the lines used in the retrievals. We present in this study the corresponding coefficients for lines of the P and R branches of the 4ν 2 band of the primary isotopologue of carbonyl sulfide ( 16 O 12 C 32 S). For this purpose, infrared absorption spectra of a natural carbonyl sulfide (OCS) gas sample were recorded at an unapodized resolution of 0.004 cm -1 , at room temperature for different pressures of N 2 and O 2 , using a Bruker IFS125HR spectrometer at the LISA Laboratory in France. The line parameters were derived using the multispectrum fitting method applied to the measured shapes of the lines, including the interference effects caused by the line overlaps. The results are compared with earlier measurements and with values calculated using a semi-classical model based upon the Robert and Bonamy formalism that reproduces rather well the experimental m (m=-J for P(J) lines and m=J+1 for R(J) lines) quantum number dependence of the N 2 and O 2 broadening coefficients. On the other hand most of the lines studied here have positive shift coefficients, which do not show any systematic dependence on m. However, in previous studies of the ν 3 , 2ν 3 and ν 2 bands, these coefficients were negative for all lines.

  2. Tunable diode laser measurement of self broadening versus temperature of five close ammonia transitions of the v2 band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldacchini, G.; D'Amato, F.; Buffa, G.; Tarrini, O.; Ciucci, A.

    1995-08-01

    Self broadening coefficients have been measured as a functional of temperature form 192 to 377 K for five transition lines of the band of ammonia. The results have been compared with theoretical calculations performed in the semiclassical impact approximation, and although one hot transition does not fit well in this scheme, there is in general a fairly good agreement. Moreover there is also an experimental and theoretical evidence against the commonly assumed power law for the temperature dependence. More measurements are needed to clarify the position of the hot transitions in this respect and to verify the extent of validity of the power law in general

  3. Doppler broadening and its contribution to Compton energy-absorption cross sections: An analysis of the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    Compton energy absorption cross sections are calculated using the formulas based on a relativistic impulse approximation to assess the contribution of Doppler broadening and to examine the Compton profile literature and explore what, if any, effect our knowledge of this line broadening has on the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient. Compton energy-absorption cross sections are evaluated for all elements, Z=1-100, and for photon energies 1 keV-100 MeV. Using these cross sections, the Compton component of the mass-energy absorption coefficient is derived in the energy region from 1 keV to 1 MeV for all the elements Z=1-100. The electron momentum prior to the scattering event should cause a Doppler broadening of the Compton line. The momentum resolution function is evaluated in terms of incident and scattered photon energy and scattering angle. The overall momentum resolution of each contribution is estimated for x-ray and γ-ray energies of experimental interest in the angular region 1 deg. -180 deg. . Also estimated is the Compton broadening using nonrelativistic formula in the angular region 1 deg. -180 deg., for 17.44, 22.1, 58.83, and 60 keV photons for a few elements (H, C, N, O, P, S, K, and Ca) of biological importance

  4. Doppler Broadening and its Contribution to Compton Energy-Absorption Cross Sections: An Analysis of the Compton Component in Terms of Mass-Energy Absorption Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. V.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G. E.

    2002-09-01

    Compton energy absorption cross sections are calculated using the formulas based on a relativistic impulse approximation to assess the contribution of Doppler broadening and to examine the Compton profile literature and explore what, if any, effect our knowledge of this line broadening has on the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient. Compton energy-absorption cross sections are evaluated for all elements, Z=1-100, and for photon energies 1 keV-100 MeV. Using these cross sections, the Compton component of the mass-energy absorption coefficient is derived in the energy region from 1 keV to 1 MeV for all the elements Z=1-100. The electron momentum prior to the scattering event should cause a Doppler broadening of the Compton line. The momentum resolution function is evaluated in terms of incident and scattered photon energy and scattering angle. The overall momentum resolution of each contribution is estimated for x-ray and γ-ray energies of experimental interest in the angular region 1°-180°. Also estimated is the Compton broadening using nonrelativistic formula in the angular region 1°-180°, for 17.44, 22.1, 58.83, and 60 keV photons for a few elements (H, C, N, O, P, S, K, and Ca) of biological importance.

  5. E-cigarettes: a need to broaden the debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, E; Nair, M

    2016-11-01

    The unregulated market for e-cigarettes continues to grow, with debates on their efficacy and impact on global public health. E-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDs), are marketed as a 'safe' alternative to tobacco products and a tool for 'harm reduction'. Some public health experts are calling it a 'game changer' and favour the 'harm reduction' strategy, while others dispute this claim. In our opinion, the debate needs to be broadened to encompass other related concerns and effects on non-users and affected stakeholders. As with tobacco control, a holistic approach is needed to build a raft of policies that effectively address the issue from all angles and look beyond the direct health implications of e-cigarette use to explore the social, economic, political and environmental aspects of this debate, putting 'harm reduction' in context.

  6. Leveraging biology interest to broaden participation in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, S.; Conner, L.; Oxtoby, L.

    2017-12-01

    It has been well documented that female participation in the geoscience workforce is low. By contrast, the biology workforce has largely reached gender parity. These trends are rooted in patterns of interest among youth. Specifically, girls tend to like biology and value social and societal connections to science (Brotman & Moore 2008). Our NSF-funded project, "BRIGHT Girls," offers two-week summer academies to high school-aged girls, in which the connections between the geosciences and biology are made explicit. We are conducting qualitative research to trace the girls' identity work during this intervention. Using team-based video interaction analysis, we are finding that the fabric of the academy allows girls to "try on" new possible selves in science. Our results imply that real-world, interdisciplinary programs that include opportunities for agency and authentic science practice may be a fruitful approach for broadening participation in the geosciences.

  7. Reprint of: Virus-Specific T Cells: Broadening Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, A John; Prockop, Susan; Bollard, Catherine M

    2018-03-01

    Virus infection remains an appreciable cause of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although pharmacotherapy and/or antibody therapy may help prevent or treat viral disease, these drugs are expensive, toxic, and often ineffective due to primary or secondary resistance. Further, effective treatments are limited for many infections (eg, adenovirus, BK virus), which are increasingly detected after alternative donor transplants. These deficiencies in conventional therapeutics have increased interest in an immunotherapeutic approach to viral disorders, leading to adoptive transfer of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (VSTs), which can rapidly reconstitute antiviral immunity post-transplantation without causing graft-versus-host disease. This review will explore how the VST field has improved outcomes for many patients with life-threatening viral infections after HSCT, and how to broaden applicability beyond the "patient-specific" products, as well as extending to other viral diseases even outside the context of HSCT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Spectral broadening of planetary radar signals by the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.K.; Coles, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    The microturbulence spectrum of the solar wind is estimated using the spectral broadening of planetary radar signals. Observations were made with the two radars (12.6 cm and 70 cm) at Arecibo Observatory during the 1979 and 1981 superior conjunctions of Venus. These observations, which span the solar distance range of 5.4 to 25.5 R/sub sun/, are the first of their type to be reported. The data are consistent with earlier observations where comparisons can be made. The flattening of the high-frequency portion of the spectrum near the Sun reported by Woo and Armstrong is confirmed. In one case clear evidence for an inner scale in the vicinity of 2 km is found. Two transients, 1979 August 15 and 1981 April 24-25, with rather different characteristics were observed

  9. Investigation of mechanisms for He-I emission radial profile broadening in a weakly ionized cylindrical helium plasma with recombining edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Brandt, C.; Hudson, B.; Nishijima, D.; Pigarov, A. Yu. [University of California–San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Kumar, D. [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles St., Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements of He-I line emission are used to study the causes of emission profile broadening radially across the cylinder of a weakly ionized helium plasma. The plasma consists of an ionizing core (r < 2 cm) surrounded by a recombining edge (r > 2 cm) plasma. The brightness profiles of low-n EUV He-I resonance lines are shown to be strongly radially broadened due to opacity. The brightness profiles of high-n visible lines are also found to be strongly radially broadened, but dominantly due to edge recombination. Visible low-n lines are less strongly radially broadened, apparently by a combination of both recombination and EUV opacity. The low-n visible He-I line ratio method with central opacity correction is found to calculate central electron density and temperature well, with poor agreement at the edge, as expected for recombining plasma. In the recombining edge, high-n Boltzmann analysis is found to accurately measure the cold (T{sub e} < 0.2 eV) edge temperature. Near the core, however, high-n Boltzmann analysis can be complicated by electron-impact excitation, giving incorrect (T{sub e}≈ 0.1 eV) apparent temperatures. Probe measurements were not able to capture the cold edge temperature accurately, probably due to large potential fluctuations, even when using fast triple probe measurements. Fast spectroscopic measurements show that this discrepancy is not explained by recombining plasma alternating with ionizing plasma in the edge region.

  10. Broadening soybean genetic basis in the northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJinling

    1994-01-01

    The bottle neek of advancement of soybean breeding inthe Northeast of China is the lack of genetic diversity of the parents used in cross breeding.In order to overcome this constrained condition,under the sponsorship of China National Committe of Natural Science Fundation,a network project with the topic"Broadening and Improving of the Genetic Basis of the Northeast Soybeans" was established in 1990,and the Northeast agricultural University was apointed to take charge of the project.The project included the following four items:I.Breeding high yield and improved quality Northeast Soybeans,directed by Hcilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciencee .II.Development of new soybean gerplasms highly resistant to diseases epidemic in Northeast China directed by Northeast Agricultural University.Ⅲ.Exploitation of the potential of wild and semicultivated soybeans for broadening and improving the genetic basis of Northeast soybeans,directed by Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science.Ⅳ.Improving methods and technique for development of new soybean genetic resources.directed by Nanjing Agricultural University .Each item contained several research subjects conducted by research workers of different institutes of agricultural sicences.During the period 1991-1992.considerable promising new germplasms had been discovered or developed.The new germplasms not only possessed specific improved characters but also behaved with appropriate ecological types adapted to different conditions of Northeast.Among the numerous new germplasms developed.Gong Jio 8757-3 had a protein content of 49.41%,100 seed weight 16-17g,and acceptable agronomic characters,which was considered a very valuable new high protein content germplasm.Such developed new germplasma with enforced and imprved genetic basis will be used primarily as parents in soybean cross breeding.

  11. Broadening of nuclear engineering programs: An engineering physics approach at Rensselaer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaviya, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    With the maturing of nuclear engineering as an academic discipline and the uncertainty surrounding the nuclear industry, attention is being increasingly turned to ways in which the base of traditional nuclear engineering programs in universities can be broadened to make them more attractively useful to a wider class of potential students and employers while maintaining the strengths in mainstream areas of nuclear technology. An approach that seems to provide a natural evolution combining the existing programmatic strengths, infrastructure, and resources with the trending needs of a broad segment of diversified industries is the development and initiation of an engineering physics degree program as an adjunct to an established nuclear engineering curriculum. In line with these developments, a new comprehensive academic program offering baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral degrees in engineering physics has been developed and formally instituted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). It provides a valuable opportunity for students to pursue education and research that cuts across traditional disciplinary lines, leading to a wide variety of career opportunities in industry, government, national research and defense laboratories, and academia

  12. OPACITY BROADENING OF {sup 13}CO LINEWIDTHS AND ITS EFFECT ON THE VARIANCE-SONIC MACH NUMBER RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, C.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 (Brazil); Burkhart, B.; Lazarian, A. [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 North Charter Street, WI 53711 (United States); Ossenkopf, V.; Stutzki, J. [Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Kainulainen, J. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kowal, G., E-mail: caioftc@dfte.ufrn.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 (Brazil)

    2014-04-10

    We study how the estimation of the sonic Mach number (M{sub s} ) from {sup 13}CO linewidths relates to the actual three-dimensional sonic Mach number. For this purpose we analyze MHD simulations that include post-processing to take radiative transfer effects into account. As expected, we find very good agreement between the linewidth estimated sonic Mach number and the actual sonic Mach number of the simulations for optically thin tracers. However, we find that opacity broadening causes M{sub s} to be overestimated by a factor of ≈1.16-1.3 when calculated from optically thick {sup 13}CO lines. We also find that there is a dependence on the magnetic field: super-Alfvénic turbulence shows increased line broadening compared with sub-Alfvénic turbulence for all values of optical depth for supersonic turbulence. Our results have implications for the observationally derived sonic Mach number-density standard deviation (σ{sub ρ/(ρ)}) relationship, σ{sub ρ/〈ρ〉}{sup 2}=b{sup 2}M{sub s}{sup 2}, and the related column density standard deviation (σ {sub N/(N)}) sonic Mach number relationship. In particular, we find that the parameter b, as an indicator of solenoidal versus compressive driving, will be underestimated as a result of opacity broadening. We compare the σ {sub N/(N)}-M{sub s} relation derived from synthetic dust extinction maps and {sup 13}CO linewidths with recent observational studies and find that solenoidally driven MHD turbulence simulations have values of σ {sub N/(N)}which are lower than real molecular clouds. This may be due to the influence of self-gravity which should be included in simulations of molecular cloud dynamics.

  13. Hβ Stark broadening in cold plasmas with low electron densities calibrated with Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares, J.M.; Hübner, S.; Carbone, E.A.D.; Vries, N. de; Veldhuizen, E.M. de; Sola, A.; Gamero, A.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    In the present work Stark broadening measurements have been carried out on low electron density (n e 19 m −3 ) and (relatively) low gas temperature (T g e . - Highlights: ► Stark broadening measurements at low density and temperature conditions ► Calibration with Thomson scattering ► Indications of the non-Lorentzian shape of the Stark broadening ► Impossibility of simultaneous diagnostic of gas temperature and electron density

  14. CH3D photomixing spectroscopy up to 2.5 THz: New set of rotational and dipole parameters, first THz self-broadening measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Cédric; Cuisset, Arnaud; Hindle, Francis; Bocquet, Robin; Mouret, Gaël; Drouin, Brian J.

    2017-03-01

    Several previously unmeasured transitions of 12CH3D have been recorded by a terahertz photomixing continuous-wave spectrometer up to QR(10) branch at 2.5 THz. An improved set of rotational constants has been obtained utilizing a THz frequency metrology based on a frequency comb that achieved an averaged frequency position better than 150 kHz on more than fifty ground-state transitions. A detailed analysis of the measured line intensities was undertaken using the multispectrum fitting program and has resulted in a determination of new dipole moment parameters. Measurements at different pressures of the QR(7) transitions provide the first determination of self-broadening coefficients from pure rotational CH3D lines. The THz rotational measurements are consistent with IR rovibrational data but no significant vibrational dependence of self-broadening coefficient may be observed by comparison.

  15. Self-broadening coefficients and positions of acetylene around 1.533 μm studied by high-resolution diode laser absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingsong; Durry, Georges; Cousin, Julien; Joly, Lilian; Parvitte, Bertrand; Zeninari, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    The self-broadening coefficients of acetylene at room temperature have been measured for 10 lines in the P branch of the ν 1 +ν 3 (Σ u + )-0(Σ g + ) bands of 12 C 2 H 2 and 13 C 12 CH 2 near 1.533 μm, using a high resolution tunable diode laser spectrometer developed for the Martian space mission PHOBOS-Grunt. The collisional widths are obtained by fitting each recorded line with the Voigt profile as well as the Rautian profile accounting for the collisional Dicke narrowing effect. The standard Voigt model provides slightly smaller broadening coefficients than the Rautian model. Our data are thoroughly compared to the main atmospheric molecule database HITRAN and previous values in various bands of acetylene. Moreover, it is worth noting that a large number of new transitions not listed in the latest HITRAN08 were measured and identified for the first time.

  16. CO2-, He- and H2-broadening coefficients of SO2 for ν1 band and ground state transitions for astrophysical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceselin, Giorgia; Tasinato, Nicola; Puzzarini, Cristina; Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Stoppa, Paolo; Giorgianni, Santi

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of the Universe and of the interstellar medium (ISM) is based on the knowledge of the molecules that are present in those places. Most of our understanding about the composition of the ISM and planetary atmospheres has been made possible almost entirely thanks to spectroscopic observations. Sulfur dioxide, SO2, is one of the about 200 molecules that have been detected in the ISM or circumstellar shells. In addition to its astrophysical relevance, SO2 has a proved role in the Earth's atmosphere. It origins from biomass burning and volcanic eruptions and directly enters in the sulfur cycle. In this work high-resolution tunable diode laser (TDL) infrared (IR) spectroscopy and mm-/sub-mm wave spectroscopy are exploited to retrieve the broadening parameters of sulfur dioxide perturbed by H2, He and CO2. IR measurements are carried out for ν1 band transitions around 9 μm by using He and CO2 as damping gases. As far as the vibrational ground state is concerned, about 20 rotational transitions are analyzed by means of the speed dependent Voigt profile to retrieve H2- and He-broadening coefficients. From the experimental results some conclusions about the quantum number dependence of the H2-, CO2- and He-collisional cross sections are drawn. Both IR and MW experiments highlight a very weak dependence of He broadening parameters on the Ka and J rotational quantum numbers. In a similar way, also SO2-H2 broadening coefficients show a negligible dependence on the rotational quantum numbers. Conversely, when CO2 is employed as perturbing species, the observed collisional cross sections tend to decrease with increasing Ka values and to increase against J, at least over the range of quantum numbers considered. The present results provide the first systematic determination of line-by-line SO2-CO2 broadening coefficients and they are of relevance to increase the potential use of spectroscopic databases for astronomical applications.

  17. Broadening the Participation of Native Americans in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Watts, Nievita

    Climate change is not a thing of the future. Indigenous people are being affected by climate changes now. Native American Earth scientists could help Native communities deal with both climate change and environmental pollution issues, but are noticeably lacking in Earth Science degree programs. The Earth Sciences produce the lowest percentage of minority scientists when compared with other science and engineering fields. Twenty semi-structured interviews were gathered from American Indian/ Alaska Native Earth Scientists and program directors who work directly with Native students to broaden participation in the field. Data was analyzed using qualitative methods and constant comparison analysis. Barriers Native students faced in this field are discussed, as well as supports which go the furthest in assisting achievement of higher education goals. Program directors give insight into building pathways and programs to encourage Native student participation and success in Earth Science degree programs. Factors which impede obtaining a college degree include financial barriers, pressures from familial obligations, and health issues. Factors which impede the decision to study Earth Science include unfamiliarity with geoscience as a field of study and career choice, the uninviting nature of Earth Science as a profession, and curriculum that is irrelevant to the practical needs of Native communities or courses which are inaccessible geographically. Factors which impede progress that are embedded in Earth Science programs include educational preparation, academic information and counseling and the prevalence of a Western scientific perspective to the exclusion of all other perspectives. Intradepartmental relationships also pose barriers to the success of some students, particularly those who are non-traditional students (53%) or women (80%). Factors which support degree completion include financial assistance, mentors and mentoring, and research experiences. Earth scientists

  18. A temporally and spatially resolved electron density diagnostic method for the edge plasma based on Stark broadening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, A., E-mail: zafara@ornl.gov [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Martin, E. H.; Isler, R. C.; Caughman, J. B. O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Shannon, S. C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An electron density diagnostic (≥10{sup 10} cm{sup −3}) capable of high temporal (ms) and spatial (mm) resolution is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The diagnostic is based on measuring the Stark broadened, Doppler-free spectral line profile of the n = 6–2 hydrogen Balmer series transition. The profile is then fit to a fully quantum mechanical model including the appropriate electric and magnetic field operators. The quasi-static approach used to calculate the Doppler-free spectral line profile is outlined here and the results from the model are presented for H-δ spectra for electron densities of 10{sup 10}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}. The profile shows complex behavior due to the interaction between the magnetic substates of the atom.

  19. Broadening Participation: Mentoring Community College Students in a Geoscience REU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Osborn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Increasingly, REUs are recruiting from community colleges as a means of broadening participation of underrepresented minorities, women, and low-income students in STEM. As inclusion of community college students becomes normalized, defining the role of science faculty and preparing them to serve as mentors to community college students is a key component of well-designed programs. This session will present empirical research regarding faculty mentoring in the first two years of an NSF-REU grant to support community college students in a university's earth and environmental science labs. Given the documented benefits of undergraduate research on students' integration into the scientific community and their career trajectory in STEM, the focus of the investigation has been on the processes and impact of mentoring community college STEM researchers at a university serving a more traditionally privileged population; the degree to which the mentoring relationships have addressed community college students needs including their emotional, cultural and resource needs; and gaps in mentor training and the mentoring relationship identified by mentors and students.

  20. On broadened definitions of instability for stars in thermal imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.R.

    1977-01-01

    The classical theory of stability of dynamical systems is employed to demonstrate that traditional definitions of pulsational instability cannot be directly applied to stars in thermal imbalance. In particular, it is shown that, for the case of thermal imbalance, pulsational displacements and pulsational velocities have separate and distinct e-folding times. This being true, a broadened set of definitions becomes necessary, and such a set is formulated again with reference to the classical theory. In accordance with the new definitions, it is argued that the development of observable pulsations requires as a necessary condition infinitesimal instability of both absolute displacement and velocity. If either one is unstable without the other, this constitutes a class of (probably) non-pulsational instability, not previously treated in the astrophysical literature. Finally, it is shown that the stability of stars in thermal imbalance may be evaluated according to the present definitions by employing either of two existing theories - the energy approach due to Demaret (1974; 1975; 1976) or the small perturbation technique of Cox et al. (1973). (Auth.)

  1. Workshops Without Walls: broadening access to science around the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül K Arslan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI conducted two "Workshops Without Walls" during 2010 that enabled global scientific exchange--with no travel required. The second of these was on the topic "Molecular Paleontology and Resurrection: Rewinding the Tape of Life." Scientists from diverse disciplines and locations around the world were joined through an integrated suite of collaborative technologies to exchange information on the latest developments in this area of origin of life research. Through social media outlets and popular science blogs, participation in the workshop was broadened to include educators, science writers, and members of the general public. In total, over 560 people from 31 US states and 30 other nations were registered. Among the scientific disciplines represented were geochemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology and evolution, and microbial ecology. We present this workshop as a case study in how interdisciplinary collaborative research may be fostered, with substantial public engagement, without sustaining the deleterious environmental and economic impacts of travel.

  2. Interferometric measurement of lines shift in flames in connection with interpretation of lined absorption method in atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'vov, B.V.; Polzik, L.K.; Katskov, D.A.; Kruglikova, L.P.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is concerned with interferometric measuring of the line shift in flames in the view of interpretation of absorption lines in the atomic absorption spectroscopy. The newly measured line shifts were compared to the known data on Lorentz broadening of the same lines obtained by methods free of the systematic errors. The resonant lines of the alkaline earth elements (Sr, Ca, Ba) were investigated. To reduce self-absorption in the flame the solutions with minimum concentrations of the elements were used. The computation scheme includes the spectrometer apparatus width and line broadening due to the self-absorption. Formulae are given for computing the values studied. Good agreement was observed between the computed and experimental results. Error analysis was performed. It was concluded that any line shifts in the hydrocarbons were correctly taken into an account in the absolute computations of absorption

  3. Building 1D resonance broadened quasilinear (RBQ) code for fast ions Alfvénic relaxations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Duarte, Vinicius; Berk, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    The performance of the burning plasma is limited by the confinement of superalfvenic fusion products, e.g. alpha particles, which are capable of resonating with the Alfvénic eigenmodes (AEs). The effect of AEs on fast ions is evaluated using a resonance line broadened diffusion coefficient. The interaction of fast ions and AEs is captured for cases where there are either isolated or overlapping modes. A new code RBQ1D is being built which constructs diffusion coefficients based on realistic eigenfunctions that are determined by the ideal MHD code NOVA. The wave particle interaction can be reduced to one-dimensional dynamics where for the Alfvénic modes typically the particle kinetic energy is nearly constant. Hence to a good approximation the Quasi-Linear (QL) diffusion equation only contains derivatives in the angular momentum. The diffusion equation is then one dimensional that is efficiently solved simultaneously for all particles with the equation for the evolution of the wave angular momentum. The evolution of fast ion constants of motion is governed by the QL diffusion equations which are adapted to find the ion distribution function.

  4. Some Strategies From SOARS for Broadening Participation in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker-Santos, R.; Pandya, R.; Calhoun, A.

    2006-12-01

    The mission of SOARS® is to broaden participation in the geosciences by increasing the number of Black or African-American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic or Latino, female, and first-generation college students who enroll and succeed in graduate school in the atmospheric and related sciences. This mission contributes to national goals of developing a diverse, internationally competitive, and globally engaged workforce of scientists and engineers. SOARS is a multiyear undergraduate-to-graduate bridge program that uses three strategies: a strong learning community, a multidimensional mentoring program, and experience in research. Our presentation will describe SOARS' strategies in more detail, with an eye toward how such strategies might be adapted for other programs. To do this, we will draw upon recent research that documents how these strategies can be successfully implemented, including: - A survey of over 124 higher-education based STEM programs - A workshop report from the American Chemical Society emphasizing cooperation between industry and academia - An independent ethnographic study of the Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric and Related Science (SOARS®) program, administered by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) In the 11 years since SOARS' founding, 104 students have participated in the program. Of those participants, 16 are still enrolled as undergraduates, and 60 have gone on to purse graduate school in STEM. Overall, this represents a success rate 91%. Of the 35 SOARS participants who have entered the workforce, 26 are in STEM related disciplines. Four SOARS participants have already earned their PhD, and additional 17 are in PhD programs. Seventeen protégés have earned Master's and entered the workforce, and 17 more protégés are enrolled in Master's programs.

  5. Revised Line Profile Function for Hydrogenic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapar A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analytical series expansions for the hydrogenic spectral line profile functions are derived starting from the three single expressions, obtained by integrating twice the convolution of the Holtsmark, Lorentz and Doppler line profile functions. We get well converging series expansions for the line wings and centers by reducing the number of arguments in the profile function by one, introducing the module of the Holtsmark and Lorentz profiles as a new argument. In the intermediate part of the line, the parabolic cylinder functions expressed via the confluent hypergeometric series, are used. The multi-component Stark splitting of the hydrogenic spectral lines and the modeled stochastic electron transitions in the electric field of the adjacent ions generate wide Doppler plateaux at the line centers, with the characteristic widths estimated from the fit to the characteristic width of the Holtsmark profile. This additional Doppler broadening of the line profile function removes the central dip typical to the Holtsmark profile.

  6. Chemical analysis using coincidence Doppler broadening and supporting first-principles theory: Applications to vacancy defects in compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkonen, I.; Rauch, C.; Mäki, J.-M.; Tuomisto, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Doppler broadening of the positron annihilation radiation contains information on the chemical environment of vacancy defects trapping positrons in solids. The measured signal can, for instance, reveal impurity atoms situated next to vacancies. As compared to integrated quantities such as the positron annihilation rate or the annihilation line shape parameters, the full Doppler spectrum measured in the coincidence mode contains much more useful information for defect identification. This information, however, is indirect and complementary understanding is needed to fully interpret the results. First-principles calculations are a valuable tool in the analysis of measured spectra. One can construct an atomic-scale model for a given candidate defect, calculate from first principles the corresponding Doppler spectrum, and directly compare results between experiment and theory. In this paper we discuss recent examples of successful combinations of coincidence Doppler broadening measurements and supporting first-principles calculations. These demonstrate the predictive power of state-of-the-art calculations and the usefulness of such an approach in the chemical analysis of vacancy defects.

  7. Line-shape asymmetry of water vapor absorption lines in the 720-nm wavelength region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1991-01-01

    Spectral line-shape analyses were performed for water vapor lines broadened by argon, oxygen, and xenon in the 720-nm wavelength region. A line-shape asymmetry was observed, which is attributed to statistical dependence or correlation between velocity- and state-changing collisions. The generalized (asymmetric) Galatry profile, which results from the soft-collision profile and includes correlation between velocity- and state-changing collisions, was fitted to the observed line shapes and was found to compare favorably with the observed data. The most prominent asymmetries were observed with xenon as the buffer gas.

  8. Autoionization spectral line shapes in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosmej, F.B.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Suess, W.; Geissel, M.

    2001-01-01

    The distortion of resonance line shapes due to the accumulation of a large number of satellite transitions is discovered by means of X-ray optical methods with simultaneous high spectral (λ/δλ≅8000) and spatial resolution (δx≅7 μm). Disappearance of the He α resonance line emission near the target surface is observed while Rydberg satellite intensity accumulates near the resonance line position. He β and He γ resonance line shapes are also shown to be seriously affected by opacity, higher-order line emissions from autoionizing states and inhomogeneous spatial emission. Opposite to resonance line emissions the He β satellites originate only from a very narrow spatial interval. New temperature and density diagnostics employing the 1s2131' and 1s3131'-satellites are developed. Moreover, even-J components of the satellite line emissions were resolved in the present high resolution experiments. Line transitions from the autoionizing states 1s2131' are therefore also proposed for space resolved Stark broadening analysis and local high density probing. Theorists are encouraged to provide accurate Stark broadening data for the transitions 1s2131 ' →1s 2 21+hv

  9. Application of Energy Window Concept in Doppler Broadening of {sup 238}U Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khassnov, Azamat; Choi, Soo Young; Lee, Deok Jung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Currently, the NJOY code is used for construction and Doppler broadening of microscopic cross sections. There exist several methods or formalisms to produce microscopic cross sections and there are also different methods of Doppler broadening. In this paper, Multi-Level Breit-Wigner (MLBW) formalism and the Psi method are used for generation and Doppler broadening of the resonance cross section. Accuracy of the energy window concept applied MLBW (EW MLBW) Doppler broadened cross section was compared with that of the cross section generated by conventional MLBW (Con MLBW) formalism for {sup 2}38U isotope using MATLAB. The conventional method requires Doppler broadening of all resonances, including resonances far from the target energy point, which do not change much with respect to the temperature change. The energy window concept makes Doppler broadening possible with a smaller number of resonances neighboring to the energy point we are interested in, and just adds up 0 K temperature cross sections of other resonances. Multi-level Breit-Wigner formalism and the Doppler broadening method were used to construct microscopic cross sections of {sup 238}U at different temperatures. The energy window concept was applied only for the 1st resonance energy region (4.5∼11.2 eV). The energy window concept demonstrates high competitiveness because the relative differences were less than 0.0016% for all types of cross sections. The advantage of the energy window concept is that the number of resonances broadened for every energy point is significantly reduced, which allows a reduction of computation time by almost 45 % of Doppler broadening time of the cross section generation at temperatures higher than 0 K.

  10. Doppler Broadening Calculations of Compton Scattering for Molecules, Plastics, Tissues, and Few Biological Materials in the X-Ray Region: An Analysis in Terms of Compton Broadening and Geometrical Energy Broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. V.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G. E.; Akatsuka, T.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.

    2004-09-01

    Relativistic and nonrelativistic Compton profile cross sections for H, C, N, O, P, and Ca and for a few important biological materials such as water, polyethylene, lucite, polystyrene, nylon, polycarbonate, bakelite, fat, bone and calcium hydroxyapatite are estimated for a number of Kα x-ray energies and for 59.54 keV (Am-241) γ photons. Energy broadening and geometrical broadening (ΔG) is estimated by assuming θmin and θmax are symmetrically situated around θ=90°. FWHM of J(PZ) and FWHM of Compton energy broadening are evaluated at various incident photon energies. These values are estimated around the centroid of the Compton profile with an energy interval of 0.1 and 1.0 keV for 59.54 keV photons. Total Compton, individual shell, and Compton energy-absorption scattering cross sections are evaluated in the energy region from 0.005 to 0.5 MeV. It is an attempt to know the effect of Doppler broadening for single atoms, many of which constitute the biological materials.

  11. On the relict recombination lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershtejn, I.N.; Bernshtejn, D.N.; Dubrovich, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Accurate numerical calculation of intensities and profiles of hydrogen recombination lines of cosmological origin is made. Relie radiation distortions stipulated by recombination quantum release at the irrevocable recombination are investigated. Mean number calculation is given for guantums educing for one irrevocably-lost electron. The account is taken of the educed quantums interraction with matter. The main quantum-matter interrraction mechanisms are considered: electronic blow broadening; free-free, free-bound, bound-bound absorptions Recombination dynamics is investigated depending on hydrogen density and total density of all the matter kinds in the Universe

  12. Application of coincidence Doppler-broadening spectroscopy to different carbon phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Djourelov, N.; Suzuki, T.; Kondo, K.; Ito, Y.; Shantarovich, V.; Onoe, J.

    2004-01-01

    Coincidence Doppler-broadening spectroscopy was applied to C60 and C70 fullerenes and other carbon phases, such as nanotubes and graphites. Remarkable differences were observed in the Doppler-broadening of the positron annihilation γ-rays in these materials, which reflect the different densities distribution of the momentum for electrons annihilated with positrons. This would be caused by the different composition of the π and σ electrons in annihilation with positrons. This result shows the sensitivity of the coincidence Doppler-broadening method to determine the density distribution of electrons sampled by positrons. (orig.)

  13. The effect of broadened linewidth induced by dispersion on the performance of resonant optical gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Wenxiu; Han, Peng; Chang, Xiaoyang; Liu, Jiaming; Lin, Jian; Xue, Xia; Zhu, Fang; Yang, Yang; Liu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Xiaofu; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong; Fang, Jiancheng

    2018-01-01

    Anomalous dispersion enhancement physical mechanism for Sagnac effect is described by special relativity derivation, and three kinds of definitions of minimum detectable angular rate of resonance optical gyroscope (ROG) are compared and the relations among them are investigated. The effect of linewidth broadening induced by anomalous dispersion on the sensitivity of ROG is discussed in this paper. Material dispersion-broadened resonance linewidth deteriorates the performance of a passive ROG and dispersion enhancement effect, while the sensitivity of a structural dispersion ROG is enhanced by two orders of magnitude even considering the dispersion-broadened resonance linewidth.

  14. Spectral broadening of acoustic tones generated by unmanned aerial vehicles in a turbulent atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Wilson, D. K.; Finn, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The acoustic spectrum emitted by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and other aircraft can be distorted by propagation through atmospheric turbulence. Since most UAVs are propeller-based, they generate a series of acoustic tones and harmonics. In this paper, spectral broadening of these tones due......, spectral broadening is calculated and analyzed for typical meteorological regimes of the atmospheric boundary layer and different flight trajectories of UAVs. Experimental results are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. Spectral broadening might also provide a means for remotely sensing...

  15. Comparing energy loss and pperpendicular -broadening in perturbative QCD with strong coupling N=4 SYM theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, Fabio; Marquet, C.; Mueller, A.H.; Wu Bin; Xiao, Bo-Wen

    2008-01-01

    We compare medium induced energy loss and p perpendicular -broadening in perturbative QCD with that of the trailing string picture of SYM theory. We consider finite and infinite extent matter as well as relativistic heavy quarks which correspond to those being produced in the medium or external to it. When expressed in terms of the appropriate saturation momentum, we find identical parametric forms for energy loss in perturbative QCD and SYM theory. We find simple correspondences between p perpendicular -broadening in QCD and in SYM theory although p perpendicular -broadening is radiation dominated in SYM theory and multiple scattering dominated in perturbative QCD

  16. High-resolution spectroscopy for Doppler-broadening ion temperature measurements of implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J. A.; Stewart, R. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Shepherd, R.; Schneider, M. B.; Miles, A. R.; Scott, H. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Hsing, W. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-493, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Future implosion experiments at the national ignition facility (NIF) will endeavor to simultaneously measure electron and ion temperatures with temporal and spatial resolution in order to explore non-equilibrium temperature distributions and their relaxation toward equilibrium. In anticipation of these experiments, and with understanding of the constraints of the NIF facility environment, we have explored the use of Doppler broadening of mid-Z dopant emission lines, such as krypton He-{alpha} at 13 keV, as a diagnostic of time- and potentially space-resolved ion temperature. We have investigated a number of options analytically and with numerical raytracing, and we have identified several promising candidate spectrometer designs that meet the expected requirements of spectral and temporal resolution and data signal-to-noise ratio for gas-filled exploding pusher implosions, while providing maximum flexibility for use on a variety of experiments that potentially include burning plasma.

  17. Disorder-induced resonance shifts and mode edge broadening in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, N.; Javadi, Alisa; Garcia-Fernandez, Pedro David

    2014-01-01

    We present theory and measurements for systematically disordered slow-light photonic crystal waveguides and find a pronounced disorder-induced blueshift and broadening of the photon density of states....

  18. Extensional-wave stopband broadening across the joint of pipes of different thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuanda; Tang, Xiaoming; Liu, Yukai; Xu, Song; Zhuang, Chunxi

    2015-11-01

    The stopband of pipe extensional waves is an interesting natural phenomenon. This study demonstrates an important extension of this phenomenon. That is, the stopband can be effectively broadened by transmitting the waves across the joint of pipes of different thickness. The theoretical and experimental results reveal the detailed process of stopband forming along the pipe and the band broadening across the pipe joint. The result can be utilized to provide a method for logging while drilling acoustic isolation design.

  19. Photon Sieve Bandwidth Broadening by Reduction of Chromatic Aberration Effects Using Second-Stage Diffractive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-MS-15-M-086 PHOTON SIEVE BANDWIDTH BROADENING BY REDUCTION OF CHROMATIC ABERRATION...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENP-MS-15-M-086 PHOTON SIEVE BANDWIDTH BROADENING BY REDUCTION OF CHROMATIC ABERRATION EFFECTS USING...A photon sieve is a lightweight diffractive optic which can be useful for space- based imaging applications. It is limited by chromatic

  20. Magnon Broadening Effect by Magnon-Phonon Interaction in Colossal Magnetoresistance Manganites

    OpenAIRE

    Furukawa, Nobuo

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the magnetic excitation behaviors in colossal magnetoresistance manganites, a magnon-phonon interacting system is investigated. Sudden broadening of magnon linewidth is obtained when a magnon branch crosses over an optical phonon branch. Onset of the broadening is approximately determined by the magnon density of states. Anomalous magnon damping at the brillouine zone boundary observed in low Curie temperature manganites is explained.

  1. Chemical exchange effects in spectral line shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, M.A.; Veguillas, J.

    1990-01-01

    A theory of spectral-line shapes has been extended to the case in which relaxation broadening may be influenced by reactive interactions. This extension is valid for gaseous systems in the same way it is valid for condensed media, and particularly, for such chemical mechanisms as isomerizations. The dependence of the spectral rate on the chemical exchange rate is clarified. Finally, a discussion concerning the above aspects and their applications has been included. (author)

  2. Broadening the Study of Participation in the Life Sciences: How Critical Theoretical and Mixed-Methodological Approaches Can Enhance Efforts to Broaden Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This research methods Essay details the usefulness of critical theoretical frameworks and critical mixed-methodological approaches for life sciences education research on broadening participation in the life sciences. First, I draw on multidisciplinary research to discuss critical theory and methodologies. Then, I demonstrate the benefits of these…

  3. An In-situ method for the study of strain broadening usingsynchrotronx-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chiu C.; Lynch, Peter A.; Cheary, Robert W.; Clark, Simon M.

    2006-12-15

    A tensonometer for stretching metal foils has beenconstructed for the study of strain broadening in x-ray diffraction lineprofiles. This device, which is designed for use on the powderdiffractometer in Station 2.3 at Daresbury Laboratory, allows in-situmeasurements to be performed on samples under stress. It can be used fordata collection in either transmission or reflection modes using eithersymmetric or asymmetric diffraction geometries. As a test case,measurements were carried out on a 18mum thick copper foil experiencingstrain levels of up to 5 percent using both symmetric reflection andsymmetric transmission diffraction. All the diffraction profilesdisplayed peak broadening and asymmetry which increased with strain. Themeasured profiles were analysed by the fundamental parameters approachusing the TOPAS peak fitting software. All the observed broadenedprofiles were modelled by convoluting a refineable diffraction profile,representing the dislocation and crystallite size broadening, with afixed instrumental profile pre-determined usinghigh quality LaB6reference powder. The de-convolution process yielded "pure" sampleintegral breadths and asymmetry results which displayed a strongdependence on applied strain and increased almost linearly with appliedstrain. Assuming crystallite size broadening in combination withdislocation broadening arising from fcc a/2<110>111 dislocations,we have extracted the variation of mechanic al property with strain. Theobservation of both peak asymmetry and broadening has been interpreted asa manifestation of a cellular structure with cell walls and cellinteriors possessing high and low dislocation densities.

  4. Using refractive optics to broaden the focus of an X-ray mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal; Dhamgaye, Vishal

    2017-07-01

    X-ray mirrors are widely used at synchrotron radiation sources for focusing X-rays into focal spots of size less than 1 µm. The ability of the beamline optics to change the size of this spot over a range up to tens of micrometres can be an advantage for many experiments such as X-ray microprobe and X-ray diffraction from micrometre-scale crystals. It is a requirement that the beam size change should be reproducible and it is often essential that the change should be rapid, for example taking less than 1 s, in order to allow high data collection rates at modern X-ray sources. In order to provide a controlled broadening of the focused spot of an X-ray mirror, a series of refractive optical elements have been fabricated and installed immediately before the mirror. By translation, a new refractive element is moved into the X-ray beam allowing a variation in the size of the focal spot in the focusing direction. Measurements using a set of prefabricated refractive structures with a test mirror showed that the focused beam size could be varied from less than 1 µm to over 10 µm for X-rays in the energy range 10-20 keV. As the optics is in-line with the X-ray beam, there is no effect on the centroid position of the focus. Accurate positioning of the refractive optics ensures reproducibility in the focused beam profile and no additional re-alignment of the optics is required.

  5. Case studies on recent Stark broadening calculations and STARK-B database development in the framework of the European project VAMDC (Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahal-Brechot, S

    2010-01-01

    Stark broadening theories and calculations have been extensively developed for about 50 years. The theory can now be considered as mature for many applications, especially for accurate spectroscopic diagnostics and modelling. In astrophysics, with the increasing sensitivity of observations and spectral resolution, in all domains of wavelengths from far UV to infrared, it has become possible to develop realistic models of interiors and atmospheres of stars and interpret their evolution and the creation of elements through nuclear reactions. For hot stars, especially white dwarfs, Stark broadening is the dominant collisional line broadening process. This requires the knowledge of numerous profiles, especially for trace elements, which are used as useful probes for modern spectroscopic diagnostics. Hence, calculations based on a simple but enough accurate and fast method, are necessary for obtaining numerous results. Ab initio calculations are a growing domain of development. Nowadays, the access to such data via an on line database becomes crucial. This is the object of STARK-B, which is a collaborative project between the Paris Observatory and the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade. It is a database of calculated widths and shifts of isolated lines of atoms and ions due to electron and ion collisions. It is devoted to modelling and spectroscopic diagnostics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes. In addition, it is relevant to laboratory plasmas, laser equipments and technological plasmas. It is a part of VAMDC (Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre), which is an European Union funded collaboration between groups involved in the generation and use of atomic and molecular data.

  6. Influence of gamma rays colimation on Mosbauer lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Llamas, H.; Jimenez-Dominguez, Homero

    1989-01-01

    The effect of gamma rays collimation in Mossbauer absorption spectra was investigated when thin absorbers are used. A simple model is proposed to study shift and broadening of spectral lines. This model along with some approximations, makes the calculations easily done. The results are in good agreement with those in the literature. (author)

  7. The Second Workshop on Lineshape Code Comparison: Isolated Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiros Alexiou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we briefly summarize the theoretical aspects of isolated line broadening. We present and discuss test run comparisons from different participating lineshape codes for the 2s-2p transition for LiI, B III and NV.

  8. Radio Recombination Lines Their Physics and Astronomical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, MA

    2008-01-01

    Includes the history of RRL detections, the astrophysics underlying their intensities and line shapes including topics like departures from LTE and Stark broadening, the maximum possible size of an atom, and descriptions of the astronomical topics for which RRLs have proved to be effective tools.

  9. Tunable diode laser measurement of self broadening versus temperature of five close ammonia transitions of the v{sub 2} band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G; D` Amato, F [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Buffa, G; Tarrini, O [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica; Ciucci, A

    1995-08-01

    Self broadening coefficients have been measured as a functional of temperature form 192 to 377 K for five transition lines of the band of ammonia. The results have been compared with theoretical calculations performed in the semiclassical impact approximation, and although one hot transition does not fit well in this scheme, there is in general a fairly good agreement. Moreover there is also an experimental and theoretical evidence against the commonly assumed power law for the temperature dependence. More measurements are needed to clarify the position of the hot transitions in this respect and to verify the extent of validity of the power law in general.

  10. Line radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamp Inga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic and molecular line emission from protoplanetary disks contains key information of their detailed physical and chemical structures. To unravel those structures, we need to understand line radiative transfer in dusty media and the statistical equilibrium, especially of molecules. I describe here the basic principles of statistical equilibrium and illustrate them through the two-level atom. In a second part, the fundamentals of line radiative transfer are introduced along with the various broadening mechanisms. I explain general solution methods with their drawbacks and also specific difficulties encountered in solving the line radiative transfer equation in disks (e.g. velocity gradients. I am closing with a few special cases of line emission from disks: Radiative pumping, masers and resonance scattering.

  11. Spectral line profiles in weakly turbulent plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capes, H.; Voslamber, D.

    1976-07-01

    The unified theory of line broadening by electron perturbers is generalized to include the case of a weakly turbulent plasma. The collision operator in the line shape expression is shown to be the sum of two terms, both containing effects arising from the non-equilibrium nature of the plasma. One of the two terms represents the influence of individual atom-particle interactions occuring via the nonequilibrium dielectric plasma medium. The other term is due to the interaction of the atom with the turbulent waves. Both terms contain damping and diffusion effects arising from the plasma turbulence

  12. Digital nonlinearity compensation in high-capacity optical communication systems considering signal spectral broadening effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianhua; Karanov, Boris; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Liga, Gabriele; Killey, Robert I; Bayvel, Polina

    2017-10-11

    Nyquist-spaced transmission and digital signal processing have proved effective in maximising the spectral efficiency and reach of optical communication systems. In these systems, Kerr nonlinearity determines the performance limits, and leads to spectral broadening of the signals propagating in the fibre. Although digital nonlinearity compensation was validated to be promising for mitigating Kerr nonlinearities, the impact of spectral broadening on nonlinearity compensation has never been quantified. In this paper, the performance of multi-channel digital back-propagation (MC-DBP) for compensating fibre nonlinearities in Nyquist-spaced optical communication systems is investigated, when the effect of signal spectral broadening is considered. It is found that accounting for the spectral broadening effect is crucial for achieving the best performance of DBP in both single-channel and multi-channel communication systems, independent of modulation formats used. For multi-channel systems, the degradation of DBP performance due to neglecting the spectral broadening effect in the compensation is more significant for outer channels. Our work also quantified the minimum bandwidths of optical receivers and signal processing devices to ensure the optimal compensation of deterministic nonlinear distortions.

  13. Curriculum of broaden education and theory of teaching activity in school Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirléia Silvano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the conception of curriculum with broaden character in Physical Education and Davidov and Leontiev’s learning theory as possibility of focusing on human education in the omnilateral perspective. We endorse the necessity that the curriculum dynamics – dealing with knowledge, school systematization and standardization of school practices – becomes effective in a curriculum of broaden character. We consider that dealing with knowledge involves the necessity to create conditions that promote the transmission and assimilation of school knowledge. We refer therefore to a scientific direction of the teaching process, in other words, that the teacher leads the student to enter into study activity; from abstract knowledge rising to concrete theoretical knowledge, which is brought about by curriculum organization from a broaden conception.

  14. Analysis of neutron diffraction peak broadening caused by internal stresses in composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, R.I.; Borsa, C.; Derby, B.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is an essential tool in the study of internal stresses in composite materials. In most work only the peak shifts caused by the related elastic strains are considered, but other valuable information exists in the form of peak shape changes. The conditions under which the pure diffraction profile of the composite (i.e. the profile when all sources of broadening not caused by the residual stresses are removed) represents the probability distribution of the peak shifts corresponding to the strains are examined. It is shown that in these conditions, the pure diffraction profile has no attributes of particle size broadening (and vice versa), thereby providing a test for the validity of results interpreted in this way. The experimental derivation of measured strain distributions in Al 2 O 3 /SiCp composites using neutron diffraction is described. No apparent particle size broadening was detected, demonstrating the validity of the results, which also satisfied other tests for consistency

  15. Position- and time-resolved Stark broadening diagnostics of a non-thermal laser-induced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hao; Truscott, Benjamin S; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Stark-broadened line shapes of silicon ions in a laser-induced plasma using a model constructed, without assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), using a Druyvesteyn electron energy distribution function (EEDF). The method is applied to temporally and spatially resolved measurements of Si 2+ and Si 3+ emissions from a transient plasma expanding into vacuum, produced by 1064 nm, nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a Si (1 0 0) target. The best-fitting simulated line shapes and the corresponding electron number densities and temperatures (or equivalently, Druyvesteyn average energies) are compared with those returned assuming LTE (i.e. for a Maxwellian EEDF). Non-thermal behavior is found to dominate at all but the very earliest stages of expansion close to the target surface, consistent with McWhirter’s criterion for the establishment of LTE. The Druyvesteyn EEDF always yields an equivalent or better model of the experimental measurements, and the observed increasingly strong departure from the Maxwellian case with time and distance from the ablation event highlights the essential invalidity of the LTE assumption for moderate-power, nanosecond laser-induced plasma expanding in vacuo. (paper)

  16. The density broadening in a sodium F=2 condensate detected by a pulse train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Han

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dipole-blockaded sodium clock transition has been detected by high resolution microwave spectroscopy, the multiple-pulse spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique has been first used to detect the density broadening and shifting in a Sodium Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC by probing the sodium clock-transition. Moreover, by narrowing the pulse-width of the pulses, some of the broadening mechanisms can be partially reduced. The results reported here are essential steps toward the ground-state quantum computing, few-body spectroscopy, spin squeezing and quantum metrology.

  17. Effect of the potential well on low temperature pressure broadening in CO-He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, A.; Green, S.

    1986-01-01

    Previously reported low-temperature pressure-broadening calculations (Green, 1985) for CO-He interacting via an SCF-CI potential are compared with new calculations in which the attractive part of the potential is either reduced by half or eliminated entirely. Results demonstrate that the attractive well is responsible for low-temperature enhancement of pressure-broadening cross sections and suggest that agreement with recent experimental values at 4 K (Messer and DeLucia, 1984) can be obtained by a modest reduction, probably within the expected uncertainty, in the attractive part of the SCF-CI potential.

  18. Saturation broadening effect in an InP photonic-crystal nanocavity switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yi; Palushani, Evarist; Heuck, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Pump-probe measurements on InP photonic-crystal nanocavities show large-contrast fast switching at low pulse energy. For large pulse energies, large resonance shifts passing across the probe lead to switching contrast saturation and switching time-window broadening. © 2014 OSA.......Pump-probe measurements on InP photonic-crystal nanocavities show large-contrast fast switching at low pulse energy. For large pulse energies, large resonance shifts passing across the probe lead to switching contrast saturation and switching time-window broadening. © 2014 OSA....

  19. Broadening of ICRH produced fast ion profiles due to orbit effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.-G.; Porcelli, F.

    1991-01-01

    In the JET tokamak, minority ions accelerated by ICRH reach energies in the MeV range. Near the plasma magnetic axis, the standard trapped particle ''banana'' orbit is distorted into a ''potato'' or ''fat banana'' orbit. The zero banana width approximation which is used in most Fokker-Planck calculations of velocity distributions of resonating ions is often not valid in JET. The inclusion of finite banana width effects will, in general, lead to a lowering of the averaged tail energy and a broadening of pressure profiles, power transfer profiles etc. A model for calculating orbit broadened profiles is presented. (Author)

  20. Acousto-optics bandwidth broadening in a Bragg cell based on arbitrary synthesized signal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Itay; Kaminsky, Ron; Kotler, Zvi

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present the advantages of driving a multichannel acousto-optical deflector (AOD) with a digitally synthesized multifrequency RF signal. We demonstrate a significant bandwidth broadening of ∼40% by providing well-tuned phase control of the array transducers. Moreover, using a multifrequency, complex signal, we manage to suppress the harmonic deflections and return most of the spurious energy to the main beam. This method allows us to operate the AOD with more than an octave of bandwidth with negligible spurious energy going to the harmonic beams and a total bandwidth broadening of over 70%.

  1. Self-pulsing and chaos in inhomogeneously broadened single mode lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R; Cho, Y

    1983-08-01

    A four-dimensional model and a six-dimensional model describing the self-pulsing instabilities and chaotic dynamics of inhomogeneously broadened single-mode lasers are derived as the first two steps of an infinite hierarchy of approximations increasing in accuracy and complexity. The results of a linear stability analysis of the time-independent states and some numerical solutions are given to show the various types of dynamic behavior which can occur in these models. The dynamic behavior is found to be much more complex than in the homogeneously broadened case and is obtained under physically more realistic conditions. 10 references.

  2. Uncovering tacit knowledge: a pilot study to broaden the concept of knowledge in knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita R; Bickford, Julia J; Edwards, Nancy; Dobbins, Maureen J; Meyer, Mechthild

    2011-08-18

    All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews), legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation

  3. Deconvolution of X-ray diffraction profiles using series expansion: a line-broadening study of polycrystalline 9-YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Bajo, F. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica; Ortiz, A.L.; Cumbrera, F.L. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica

    2001-07-01

    Deconvolution of X-ray diffraction profiles is a fundamental step in obtaining reliable results in the microstructural characterization (crystallite size, lattice microstrain, etc) of polycrystalline materials. In this work we have analyzed a powder sample of 9-YSZ using a technique based on the Fourier series expansion of the pure profile. This procedure, which can be combined with regularization methods, is specially powerful to minimize the effects of the ill-posed nature of the linear integral equation involved in the kinematical theory of X-ray diffraction. Finally, the deconvoluted profiles have been used to obtain microstructural parameters by means of the integral-breadth method. (orig.)

  4. Submillimeter-wave measurements of N2 and O2 pressure broadening for HO2 radical generated by Hg-photosensitized reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, A.; Yagi, T.; Kondo, K.; Sato, T.O.; Kanamori, H.

    2012-01-01

    The N 2 and O 2 pressure broadening coefficients of the pure rotational transitions at 625.66 GHz (N KaKc =10 1-9 -10 0-10 , J=10.5-10.5) and 649.70 GHz (N KaKc =10 2-9 -9 2-8 , J=9.5-8.5) in the vibronic ground state X 2 A′ of the perhydroxyl (HO 2 ) radical have been determined by precise laboratory measurements. For the production of HO 2 , the mercury-photosensitized reaction of the H 2 and O 2 precursors was used to provide an optimum condition for measurement of the pressure broadening coefficient. The Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) was designed to monitor the volume mixing ratio of trace gases including HO 2 in the Earth's upper atmosphere using these transitions. The precise measurement of pressure broadening coefficient γ in terms of the half width at half maximum is required in order to retrieve the atmospheric volume mixing ratio. In this work, γ coefficients of the 625.66 GHz transition were determined for N 2 and O 2 at room temperature as γ(N 2 )=4.085±0.049 MHz/Torr and γ(O 2 )=2.578±0.047 MHz/Torr with 3σ uncertainty. Similarly, the coefficients of the 649.70 GHz transition were determined as γ(N 2 )=3.489±0.094 MHz/Torr and γ(O 2 )=2.615±0.099 MHz/Torr. The air broadening coefficients for the 625.66 GHz and 649.70 GHz lines were estimated at γ(air)=3.769±0.067 MHz and 3.298±0.099 MHz respectively, where the uncertainty includes possible systematic errors. The newly determined coefficients are compared with previous results and we discuss the advantage of the mercury-photosensitized reaction for HO 2 generation. In comparison with those of other singlet molecules, the pressure broadening coefficients of the HO 2 radical are not much affected by the existence of an unpaired electron.

  5. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  6. Broadening of Plasmonic Resonance Due to Electron Collisions with Nanoparticle Boundary: а Quantum Mechanical Consideration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander; Protsenko, Igor E.; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a quantum mechanical approach to calculate broadening of plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures due to collisions of electrons with the surface of the structure. The approach is applicable if the characteristic size of the structure is much larger than the de Broglie electron...

  7. Broaden Engineering Technology students' knowledge through hands-on with motion robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skills and knowledge that employers value most are not always well-aligned with undergraduate engineering technology programs. With the support of a federal grant, we identify and propose to broaden the undergraduate student experience to include training in transferable skills with agricultura...

  8. Doppler broadened positron annihilation studies in YBa2Cu3Osub(7-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, P.K.; Manohar, S.B.; Datta, T.; Prakash, S.; Gopalakrishnan, I.K.; Sastry, P.V.P.S.S.; Phatak, G.M.; Iyer, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    DBAR (Doppler Broadened Positron Annihilation Radiation) has been measured as a function of temperature in a superconducting (orthorhombic) and a nonsuperconducting (tetragonal) YBCO compound. Each spectrum is deconvoluted off the instrumental resolution function and analysed using PAACFIT. An electronic structural change leading to higher momentum state of the oxygen valence electron and increase in electron density at the oxygen vacancy sites are suggested. (author)

  9. A scheme comparison of Autler-Townes based slow light in inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method to achieve significant optical signal delays exploiting the effect of Autler–Townes splitting (ATS) in an inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot medium. The absorption and slowdown effects are compared for three schemes i.e., Ξ, V, and Λ, corresponding to different excitation c...

  10. Creation of problem-dependent Doppler-broadened cross sections in the KENO Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Shane W.D.; Celik, Cihangir; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Leal, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A quick method of Doppler broadening one- and two-dimensional cross sections has been added to KENO. • The method uses a finite difference method to broaden data to user defined temperatures. • Various problems and benchmarks were run to showcase results. • Results with the Doppler broadened cross sections are closer to benchmark results. - Abstract: This paper introduces a quick method for improving the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations by generating one- and two-dimensional cross sections at a user-defined temperature before performing transport calculations. A finite difference method is used to Doppler-broaden cross sections to the desired temperature, and unit-base interpolation is done to generate the probability distributions for double differential two-dimensional thermal moderator cross sections at any arbitrarily user-defined temperature. The accuracy of these methods is tested using a variety of contrived problems. In addition, various benchmarks at elevated temperatures are modeled, and results are compared with benchmark results. The problem-dependent cross sections are observed to produce eigenvalue estimates that are closer to the benchmark results than those without the problem-dependent cross sections.

  11. Deconvolving instrumental and intrinsic broadening in core-shell x-ray spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fister, T. T.; Seidler, G. T.; Rehr, J. J.; Kas, J. J.; Nagle, K. P.; Elam, W. T.; Cross, J. O.

    2007-01-01

    Intrinsic and experimental mechanisms frequently lead to broadening of spectral features in core-shell spectroscopies. For example, intrinsic broadening occurs in x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements of heavy elements where the core-hole lifetime is very short. On the other hand, nonresonant x-ray Raman scattering (XRS) and other energy loss measurements are more limited by instrumental resolution. Here, we demonstrate that the Richardson-Lucy (RL) iterative algorithm provides a robust method for deconvolving instrumental and intrinsic resolutions from typical XAS and XRS data. For the K-edge XAS of Ag, we find nearly complete removal of ∼9.3 eV full width at half maximum broadening from the combined effects of the short core-hole lifetime and instrumental resolution. We are also able to remove nearly all instrumental broadening in an XRS measurement of diamond, with the resulting improved spectrum comparing favorably with prior soft x-ray XAS measurements. We present a practical methodology for implementing the RL algorithm in these problems, emphasizing the importance of testing for stability of the deconvolution process against noise amplification, perturbations in the initial spectra, and uncertainties in the core-hole lifetime

  12. The Broadening of Activities in the Financial System : Implications for Financial Stability and Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    Conglomeration and consolidation in the financial system broaden the activities financial institutions are undertaking and cause them to become more homogenous.Although resulting diversification gains make each institution appear less risky, we argue that financial stability may not improve as total

  13. Broadening Educational Outcomes: Social Relations, Skills Development, and Employability for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejaeghere, Joan; Wiger, Nancy Pellowski; Willemsen, Laura Wangsness

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that, if a global development aim is to address educational inequalities, the post-2015 agenda needs to conceptually and practically broaden the focus of learning to include social relations as important processes and outcomes for achieving educational equity. We draw on Sen's capability approach and Bourdieu's forms of capital…

  14. An exact formalism for Doppler-broadened neutron cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catsaros, Nicolas.

    1985-07-01

    An exact formalism (Ψ, Φ) is proposed for the calculation of Breit-Wigner or Adler-Adler Doppler-broadened neutron cross-sections. The well-known (Ψ, Φ) formalism is shown to be a zero-order approximation of the generalized (Ψ, Φ) formalism. (author)

  15. Spectrally resolved four-wave mixing in semiconductors: Influence of inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erland, J.; Pantke, K.-H.; Mizeikis, V.

    1994-01-01

    We study the influence of inhomogeneous broadening on results obtained from spectrally resolved transient four-wave mixing. In particular, we study the case where more resonances are coherently excited, leading to polarization interference or quantum beats, depending on the microscopic nature of ...

  16. Pressure broadening of atomic oxygen two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinov, D.; Drag, C.; Blondel, C.; Guaitella, O.; Golda, J.; Klarenaar, B.L.M.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Booth, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, considered to be a determining reactant in plasma applications at ambient pressure, is routinely detected by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF). Here, pressure broadening of the (2p 4 3 P 2  →  3p 3 P J=0,1,2) two-photon transition in oxygen atoms was

  17. Research component in MIS curriculum: A move towards broadening the radiography spectrum in scaling professional heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilaha, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide an insight into what research is, why it is important for radiographers (Medical Imaging Technologists), the process of carrying out research in imaging technology, the potential areas for evidence - based research activities in the profession and how research can broaden the radiography spectrum in a bid to scale the professional heights

  18. Development and validation of the fast doppler broadening module coupled within RMC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiankai; Liang Jin'gang; Yu Ganglin; Wang Kan

    2015-01-01

    It is one of the efficient approach to reduce the memory consumption in Monte Carlo based reactor physical simulations by using the On-the-fly Doppler broadening for temperature dependent nuclear cross sections. RXSP is a nuclear cross sections processing code being developed by REAL team in Department of Engineering Physics in Tsinghua University, which has an excellent performance in Doppler broadening the temperature dependent continuous energy neutron cross sections. To meet the dual requirements of both accuracy and efficiency during the Monte Carlo simulations with many materials and many temperatures in it, this work enables the capability of on-the-fly pre-Doppler broadening cross sections during the neutron transport by coupling the Fast Doppler Broaden module in RXSP code embedded in the RMC code also being developed by REAL team in Tsinghua University. Additionally, the original OpenMP-based parallelism has been successfully converted into the MPI-based framework, being fully compatible with neutron transport in RMC code, which has achieved a vast parallel efficiency improvement. This work also provides a flexible approach to solve Monte Carlo based full core depletion calculation with many temperatures feedback in many isotopes. (author)

  19. The Organization as Client: Broadening the Concept of Employee Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googins, Bradley; Davidson, Bruce N.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that many employee assistance programs (EAPs) are broadening their function to address rapidly changing human and social issues of environments in which they operate, refocusing practice to include organization as the client. Discusses traditional EAP practice, evolution of EAPs, changes confronting corporations, and alternative model in…

  20. Influence of multiple small-angle neutron scattering on diffraction peak broadening in ferritic steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Woo, W.; Em, V.; Shin, E.; Mikula, Pavol; Ryukhtin, Vasyl

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, APR (2015), s. 350-356 ISSN 0021-8898 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : peak broadening * small-angle neutron scattering * neutron diffraction * magnetic domain Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2014

  1. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  2. Broadening the genetic base of Abyssinian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun through introgression of genes from related allotetraploid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq A. Sheikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brassica carinata (BBCC, 2n=34 has still to emerge as a major oilseed crop owing to poor agronomic attributes like long stature, long maturity duration and low seed yield. The restricted amount of genetic variability available in natural B. carinata necessitates utilization of new sources of variability for broadening its genetic base. Interspecific hybridization followed by selection in selfed and back cross progenies was employed to generate useful variability into B. carinata cv ˈPC5ˈ from elite lines of Brassica napus (AACC, 2n=38 and Brassica juncea (AABB, 2n=36. The morphological evaluation of 24 stable introgressed progenies revealed wide range of variability for key economic traits. The progenies with mean maturity duration of 161 ± 2.1 days, short stature of 139.5 ± 6.5 cm and seed yield per plant of 18.6 ± 2.0 g in comparison to the corresponding figures of 168 ± 4.6 days, 230.6 ± 12.7 cm and 12.0 ± 2.4 g in ˈPC5ˈ (recurrent parent were recovered. Diversity analysis at morphological level revealed that 22 out of 24 stable introgressed progenies were grouped with B. carinata ˈPC5ˈ at average taxonomic distance of 1.19. The diversity at molecular level using 25 polymorphic and reproducible RAPD primers revealed that 19 out of 21 introgressed progenies grouped with B. carinata ˈPC5ˈ at a similarity coefficient of 0.68. The clusters in general represent a wide range of genetic diversity in the back cross lines of B. carinata as a result of introgression of genes from elite lines of B. napus and B. juncea parents.

  3. SIGMA1-2007, Doppler Broadening ENDF Format Linear-Linear. Interpolated Point Cross Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SIGMA-1 Doppler broadens evaluated Cross sections given in the linear-linear interpolation form of the ENDF/B Format to one final temperature. The data is Doppler broadened, thinned, and output in the ENDF/B Format. IAEA0854/15: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. 2 - Modifications from previous versions: Sigma-1 VERS. 2007-1 (Jan. 2007): checked against all ENDF/B-VII; increased page size from 60,000 to 360,000 energy points 3 - Method of solution: The energy grid is selected to ensure that the broadened data is linear-linear interpolable. SIGMA-1 starts from the free-atom Doppler broadening equations and adds the assumptions of linear data within the table and constant data outside the range of the table. If the Original data is not at zero Kelvin, the data is broadened by the effective temperature difference to the final temperature. If the data is already at a temperature higher than the final temperature, Doppler broadening is not performed. 4 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The input to SIGMA-1 must be data which vary linearly in energy and cross section between tabulated points. The LINEAR program provides such data. LINEAR uses only the ENDF/B BCD Format tape and copies all sections except File 3 as read. Since File 3 data are in identical Format for ENDF/B Versions I through VI, the program can be used with all these versions. - The present version Doppler broadens only to one final temperature

  4. Peak-Broadening of Floor Response Spectra for Base Isolated Nuclear Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Heekun; Choun, Young-Sun; Kim, Min-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, uncertainties in developing FRS are explained first. Then FDRS of a fixed structure is computed using a conventional method as an example. Lastly FRS of a base-isolated structure is computed and suitability of current peak-broadening method is examined. Uncertainties in the material property of structure influence FRS of fixed structures significantly, but their effect on FRS of base-isolated structures is negligible. Nuclear structures should be designed to ensure the safety of equipment and components mounted on their floors. However, coupled analysis of a structure and components is complex, so equipment is separately analyzed using floor response spectra (FRS). FRS calculated from dynamic analysis of structural model should be modified to create floor design response spectra (FDRS), the input for seismic design of equipment. For nuclear structures, smoothing and broadening peaks of FRS is required to account for uncertainties owing to material properties of structures, soil, modeling techniques, and others. The peak broadening method proposed for fixed based structures may not be appropriate for base-isolated structures because of additional uncertainties in the property of isolation bearings. For base-isolated structures, mechanical property of isolator plays a dominant role on the change of FRS. As base-isolated nuclear plants should meet the ASCE provisions, uncertainty in the isolation system would be around 10%. For the base isolated 3-storied beam model with 2.5-sec isolation period, 6.9% of broadening ratio was enough for development of FDRS at the required variation condition. Also for the models with various isolation periods, less than 10% of broadening ratio was sufficient

  5. A new formulation for the Doppler broadening function relaxing the approximations of Beth–Plackzec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Daniel A.P.; Gonçalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Mesquita, Amir Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • One of the Beth–Placzek approximation were relaxed. • An additional term in the form of an integral is obtained. • A new mathematical formulation for the Doppler broadening function is proposed. - Abstract: In all nuclear reactors some neutrons can be absorbed in the resonance region and, in the design of these reactors, an accurate treatment of the resonant absorptions is essential. Apart from that, the resonant absorption varies with fuel temperature due to the Doppler broadening of the resonances. The thermal agitation movement in the reactor core is adequately represented in the microscopic cross-section of the neutron-core interaction through the Doppler broadening function. This function is calculated numerically in modern systems for the calculation of macro-group constants, necessary to determine the power distribution of a nuclear reactor. It can also be applied to the calculation of self-shielding factors to correct the measurements of the microscopic cross-sections through the activation technique and used for the approximate calculations of the resonance integrals in heterogeneous fuel cells. In these types of application we can point at the need to develop precise analytical approximations for the Doppler broadening function to be used in the calculation codes that calculate the values of this function. However, the Doppler broadening function is based on a series of approximations proposed by Beth–Plackzec. In this work a relaxation of these approximations is proposed, generating an additional term in the form of an integral. Analytical solutions of this additional term are discussed. The results obtained show that the new term is important for high temperatures.

  6. Quasar Black Hole Mass Estimates from High-Ionization Lines: Breaking a Taboo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marziani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Can high ionization lines such as CIV λ 1549 provide useful virial broadening estimators for computing the mass of the supermassive black holes that power the quasar phenomenon? The question has been dismissed by several workers as a rhetorical one because blue-shifted, non-virial emission associated with gas outflows is often prominent in CIV λ 1549 line profiles. In this contribution, we first summarize the evidence suggesting that the FWHM of low-ionization lines like H β and MgII λ 2800 provide reliable virial broadening estimators over a broad range of luminosity. We confirm that the line widths of CIV λ 1549 is not immediately offering a virial broadening estimator equivalent to the width of low-ionization lines. However, capitalizing on the results of Coatman et al. (2016 and Sulentic et al. (2017, we suggest a correction to FWHM CIV λ 1549 for Eddington ratio and luminosity effects that, however, remains cumbersome to apply in practice. Intermediate ionization lines (IP ∼ 20–30 eV; AlIII λ 1860 and SiIII] λ 1892 may provide a better virial broadening estimator for high redshift quasars, but larger samples are needed to assess their reliability. Ultimately, they may be associated with the broad-line region radius estimated from the photoionization method introduced by Negrete et al. (2013 to obtain black hole mass estimates independent from scaling laws.

  7. Ultrafast method of calculating the dynamic spectral line shapes for integrated modelling of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsa, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    An ultrafast code for spectral line shape calculations is presented to be used in the integrated modelling of plasmas. The code is based on the close analogy between two mechanisms: (i) Dicke narrowing of the Doppler-broadened spectral lines and (ii) transition from static to impact regime in the Stark broadening. The analogy makes it possible to describe the dynamic Stark broadening in terms of an analytical functional of the static line shape. A comparison of new method with the widely used Frequency Fluctuating Method (FFM) developed by the Marseille University group (B. Talin, R. Stamm, et al.) shows good agreement, with the new method being faster than the standard FFM by nearly two orders of magnitude. The method proposed may significantly simplify the radiation transport modeling and opens new possibilities for integrated modeling of the edge and divertor plasma in tokamaks. (author)

  8. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, situating it within the field of positive psychology. The theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn build their enduring personal resources (physical, intellectual, social, and psychological). Reviews…

  9. Magnon Broadening Effects in Double Layered Manganite La_1.2 Sr_1.8 Mn_2 O_7

    OpenAIRE

    Furukawa, Nobuo; Hirota, Kazuma

    1999-01-01

    Magnon linewidth of La_1.2 Sr_1.8 Mn_2 O_7 near the Brillouin zone boundary is investigated from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Abrupt magnon broadening is ascribed to a strong magnon-phonon coupling. Magnon broadening observed in cubic perovskite manganites is also discussed.

  10. Line formation in microturbulent magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domke, H.; Pavlov, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of Zeeman lines in Gaussian microturbulent magnetic fields is considered assuming LTE. General formulae are derived for the local mean values of the transfer matrix elements. The cases of one-dimensional (longitudinal), isotropic, and two-dimensional (transversal) magnetic microturbulence are studied in some detail. Asymptotic formulae are given for small mean as well as for small microturbulent magnetic fields. Characteristic effects of magnetic microturbulence on the transfer coefficients are: (i) the broadening of the frequency contours, although only for the case of longitudinal Zeeman effect and longitudinal magnetic microturbulence this effect can be described analogous to Doppler broadening, (ii) the appearance of a pseudo-Zeeman structure for nonlongitudinal magnetic microturbulence, (iii) the reduction of maximal values of circular polarization, and (iv) the appearance of characteristic linear polarization effects due to the anisotropy of the magnetic microturbulence. Line contours and polarization of Zeeman triplets are computed for Milne-Eddington atmospheres. It is shown that magnetic intensification due to microturbulent magnetic fields may be much more efficient than that due to regular fields. The gravity center of a Zeeman line observed in circularly polarized light remains a reasonable measure of the line of sight component of the mean magnetic field for a line strength eta 0 < approx. 2. For saturated lines, the gravity center distance depends significantly on the magnetic microturbulence and its anisotropy. The influence of magnetic microturbulence on the ratio of longitudinal field magnetographic signals shows that unique conclusions about the magnetic microstructure can be drawn from the line ratio measurements only in combination with further spectroscopic data or physical reasoning. (orig.)

  11. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation and gaussian broaden techniques for full energy peak of characteristic X-ray in EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhe; Liu Min; Shi Rui; Wu Xuemei; Tuo Xianguo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Non-standard analysis (NSA) technique is one of the most important development directions of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Purpose: This NSA technique is mainly based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and full energy peak broadening, which were studied preliminarily in this paper. Methods: A kind of MC model was established for Si-PIN based EDXRF setup, and the flux spectra were obtained for iron ore sample. Finally, the flux spectra were broadened by Gaussian broaden parameters calculated by a new method proposed in this paper, and the broadened spectra were compared with measured energy spectra. Results: MC method can be used to simulate EDXRF measurement, and can correct the matrix effects among elements automatically. Peak intensities can be obtained accurately by using the proposed Gaussian broaden technique. Conclusions: This study provided a key technique for EDXRF to achieve advanced NSA technology. (authors)

  13. PUMPING UP THE [N I] NEBULAR LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferland, G. J.; Porter, R. L.; Henney, W. J.; O'Dell, C. R.; Van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.

    2012-01-01

    The optical [N I] doublet near 5200 Å is anomalously strong in a variety of emission-line objects. We compute a detailed photoionization model and use it to show that pumping by far-ultraviolet (FUV) stellar radiation previously posited as a general explanation applies to the Orion Nebula (M42) and its companion M43; but, it is unlikely to explain planetary nebulae and supernova remnants. Our models establish that the observed nearly constant equivalent width of [N I] with respect to the dust-scattered stellar continuum depends primarily on three factors: the FUV to visual-band flux ratio of the stellar population, the optical properties of the dust, and the line broadening where the pumping occurs. In contrast, the intensity ratio [N I]/Hβ depends primarily on the FUV to extreme-ultraviolet ratio, which varies strongly with the spectral type of the exciting star. This is consistent with the observed difference of a factor of five between M42 and M43, which are excited by an O7 and B0.5 star, respectively. We derive a non-thermal broadening of order 5 km s –1 for the [N I] pumping zone and show that the broadening mechanism must be different from the large-scale turbulent motions that have been suggested to explain the line widths in this H II region. A mechanism is required that operates at scales of a few astronomical units, which may be driven by thermal instabilities of neutral gas in the range 1000-3000 K. In an Appendix A, we describe how collisional and radiative processes are treated in the detailed model N I atom now included in the CLOUDY plasma code.

  14. Line Shape Modeling for the Diagnostic of the Electron Density in a Corona Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Rosato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of spectra observed in a corona discharge designed for the study of dielectrics in electrical engineering. The medium is a gas of helium and the discharge was performed at the vicinity of a tip electrode under high voltage. The shape of helium lines is dominated by the Stark broadening due to the plasma microfield. Using a computer simulation method, we examine the sensitivity of the He 492 nm line shape to the electron density. Our results indicate the possibility of a density diagnostic based on passive spectroscopy. The influence of collisional broadening due to interactions between the emitters and neutrals is discussed.

  15. Solitary waves of surface plasmon polariton via phase shifts under Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Ahmad, A.; Bacha, B. A.; Khan, A. A.; Abdul Jabar, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) are theoretically investigated at the interface of a dielectric metal and gold. The output pulse from the dielectric is used as the input pulse for the generation of SPPs. The SPPs show soliton-like behavior at the interface. The solitary form of a SPP is maintained under the effects of Kerr nonlinearity, Doppler broadening and Fresnel dragging whereas its phase shift is significantly modified. A 0.3radian phase shift is calculated in the presence of both Kerr nonlinearity and Fresnel dragging in the absence of plasma motion. The phase shift is enhanced to 60radian due to the combined effect of Doppler broadening, Kerr nonlinearity and Fresnel dragging. The results may have significant applications in nano-photonics, optical tweezers, photovoltaic devices, plasmonster and sensing technology.

  16. In-medium jet evolution: interplay between broadening and decoherence effects

    CERN Document Server

    Apolinário, Liliana; Milhano, Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The description of the modifications of the coherence pattern in a parton shower, in the presence of a QGP, has been actively addressed in recent studies. Among the several achievements, finite energy corrections, transverse momentum broadening due to medium interactions and interference effects between successive emissions have been extensively improved as they seem to be essential features for a correct description of the results obtained in heavy-ion collisions. In this work, based on the insights of our previous work [1], we explore the physical interplay between broadening and decoherence, by generalising previous studies of medium-modifications of the antenna spectrum [2, 3, 4] - so far restricted to the case where transverse motion is neglected. The result allow us to identify two quantities controlling the decoherence of a medium modified shower that can be used as building blocks for a successful future generation of jet quenching Monte Carlo simulators: a generalisation of the $\\Delta_{med}$ paramet...

  17. A new expression for doppler broadening function based on Fourier Cosine Transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Alessandro da C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mails: agoncalves@con.ufrj.br; aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br; fernando@con.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of this paper consists of the derivation of an analytical solution for the Doppler broadening function {psi} ({xi}, x). The analytical solution is derived from a new integral expression for the {psi} ({xi}, x) function, which can be interpreted as a Fourier cosine transform. The expression obtained for {psi} ({xi}, x) in terms of elementary functions, proved quite simple and accurate, leading to a similar solution obtained through the differential equation for the {psi} ({xi}, x) function, using the methods of Frobenius and of parameter variation. The Doppler broadening function is widely used in applications related to the treatment of nuclear resonances, calculations of multigroup parameters and resonance self-shielding factors, and to correct microscopic cross section measurements through the activation technique. (author)

  18. A new expression for doppler broadening function based on Fourier Cosine Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Alessandro da C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. da

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper consists of the derivation of an analytical solution for the Doppler broadening function Ψ (ξ, x). The analytical solution is derived from a new integral expression for the Ψ (ξ, x) function, which can be interpreted as a Fourier cosine transform. The expression obtained for Ψ (ξ, x) in terms of elementary functions, proved quite simple and accurate, leading to a similar solution obtained through the differential equation for the Ψ (ξ, x) function, using the methods of Frobenius and of parameter variation. The Doppler broadening function is widely used in applications related to the treatment of nuclear resonances, calculations of multigroup parameters and resonance self-shielding factors, and to correct microscopic cross section measurements through the activation technique. (author)

  19. Resonant Magnetization Tunneling in Molecular Magnets: Where is the Inhomogeneous Broadening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Sarachik, M. P.

    1998-03-01

    Since the discovery(J. R. Friedman, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 3830 (1996) of resonant magnetization tunneling in the molecular magnet Mn_12 there has been intense research into the underlying mechanism of tunneling. Most current theories( V. Dobrovitski and A. Zvezdin, Europhys. Lett. 38), 377 (1997); L. Gunther, Europhys. Lett. 39, 1 (1997); D Garanin and E. Chudnovsky, Phys. Rev. B 56, 11102 (1997). suggest that a local internal (hyperfine or dipole) field transverse to the easy magnetization axis induces tunneling. These theories predict a resonance width orders of magnitude smaller than that actually observed. This discrepancy is attributed to inhomogeneous broadening of the resonance by the random internal fields. We present a detailed study of the tunnel resonance lineshape and show that it is Lorentzian, suggesting it has a deeper physical origin. Since the hyperfine fields are believed to be comparable to the observed width, it is surprising that there is no Gaussian broadening.

  20. Gamma-ray induced Doppler broadening and the determination of lifetimes of excited nuclear states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, H.G.; Jolie, J.; Robinson, S.J.; Kessler, E.G.; Dewey, S.M.; Greene, G.; Deslattes, R.; Ulbig, S.; Lieb, K.P.; Casten, R.F.; Krusche, B.; Cizewski, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of lifetimes of excited states in nuclei yield crucial information for sensitive tests of nuclear models. Here a novel method will be discussed which involves the GRID (Gamma Ray Induced Doppler broadening) technique, in which Doppler broadening is observed in a transition from a nucleus recoiling from the emission of a previous gamma ray. As the recoil energy is extremely small, ultra-high energy resolving power has to be used. To date all such experiments have been carried out at ILL using the GAMS4 double flat crystal spectrometer which is operated in a NIST-ILL collaboration. The method can be used for all lifetimes below a few picoseconds. The wide range of applicability, together with the very exhaustive set of data often obtained, is an advantage with respect to many other methods. The characteristic features of GRID will be discussed using some selected examples. 21 refs., 8 figs

  1. Broadening participation in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at the University of Maryland Baltimore County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rous, Philip

    2013-03-01

    Over the past two decades, UMBC has undertaken a series of efforts to broaden participation in the natural sciences and mathematics, beginning with the establishment of the Meyerhoff program. Using as examples the multiple initiatives that followed, and with a focus on the challenge of increasing access and success of all students who enter as both freshmen and transfer students, I will describe a model of culture change that we have employed repeatedly to understand and guide our efforts in broadening participation. Particular attention will be paid to the concept of cultural capital, the role of innovators and the challenge of scaling small-scale innovations towards institutional change. Supported by the National Science Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  2. Red Shift and Broadening of Backward Harmonic Radiation from Electron Oscillations Driven by Femtosecond Laser Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Youwei; Yu Wei; Lu Peixiang; Senecha, Vinod K; Han, Xu; Deng Degang; Li Ruxin; Xu Zhizhan

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of backward harmonic radiation due to electron oscillations driven by a linearly polarized fs laser pulse are analysed considering a single electron model. The spectral distributions of the electron's backward harmonic radiation are investigated in detail for different parameters of the driver laser pulse. Higher order harmonic radiations are possible for a sufficiently intense driving laser pulse. We have shown that for a realistic pulsed photon beam, the spectrum of the radiation is red shifted as well as broadened because of changes in the longitudinal velocity of the electrons during the laser pulse. These effects are more pronounced at higher laser intensities giving rise to higher order harmonics that eventually leads to a continuous spectrum. Numerical simulations have further shown that by increasing the laser pulse width the broadening of the high harmonic radiations can be controlled

  3. Compact extended model for doppler broadening of neutron absorption resonances in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, A. J; Granada, J.R

    2009-01-01

    We present a simplified compact model for calculating Doppler broadening of neutron absorption resonances in an incoherent Debye solid. Our model extends the effective temperature gas model to cover the whole range of energies and temperatures, and reduces the information of the dynamical system to a minimum content compatible with a much better accuracy of the calculation. This model is thus capable of replacing the existing algorithm in standard codes for resonance cross sections preparation aimed at neutron and reactor physics calculations. The model is applied to the 238 U 6.671 eV effective broadened cross section. We also show how this model can be used for thermometry in an improved fashion compared to the effective temperature gas model. Experimental data of the same resonance at low and high temperatures are also shown and the performances of each model are put to the test on this basis. [es

  4. Energy level broadening effect on the equation of state of hot dense Al and Au plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Yong; Jin Fengtao; Yuan Jianmin

    2007-01-01

    In the hot dense matter regime, the isothermal equation of state (EOS) of Al and Au is calculated using an average-atom (AA) model in which the broadening of energy levels of atoms and ions are accounted for by using with a Gaussian distribution of the density of states. The distribution of bound electrons in the energy bands is determined by the continuum Fermi-Dirac distribution. With a self-consistent field average atoms scheme, it is shown that the energy-level broadening has a significant effect on the isothermal equation of state (EOS) of Al and Au in the hot dense matter regime. The jumps in the equation of state (EOS) induced by pressure ionization of the one-electron orbital with the increase in density, which often occur in the normal average-atom model and have been avoided by generally introducing the pseudo-shape resonance states, disappear naturally

  5. Optical bistability in the oscillation of an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-three-level laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junhai; Tian, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical modeling analysis is presented to study the optical bistability exhibited in the oscillation of an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-three-level laser. All the major characteristics of optical bistability depend on two normalized parameters, f and x a , which are defined by f = I sat,a /I sat,m and x a = 2α a0 p a /δ and are related to measurable properties of the laser medium. In comparison with the case of a homogeneously broadened laser, the essential condition for the occurrence of such bistability, f a /(x a + 1), turns out to be the same, whereas the intensities at the up- and down-thresholds are substantially increased and the bistability range is reduced. (paper)

  6. Thoracic and diaphragmatic endometriosis: Single-institution experience using a novel broadened diagnostic criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraín, Demetrio; Suárez, Francisco; Braun, Hernán; Chapochnick, Javier; Diaz, Lidia; Rojas, Iván

    2018-06-05

    To describe our experience with the multidisciplinary management of both thoracic/diaphragmatic endometriosis (TED), applying a broadened definition of the “thoracic endometriosis syndrome (TES)” to define cases. We present a retrospective series of consecutive patients affected by pathology-proven TED, treated at our institution, during a period of 7 years. Five women were included. Two cases were referred due to catamenial chest/shoulder pain, one due to recurrent catamenial pneumothorax, one due to new-onset diaphragmatic hernia. One patient had not thoracic symptoms, and diaphragmatic endometriosis was found during gynecologic laparoscopy for pelvic endometriosis. Endometriosis was histologically confirmed in all cases. After follow-up all patients remain asymptomatic. Broadened TES criteria could increase the incidence of TED and determine better knowledge of this condition. Multidisciplinary, minimally invasive surgery is effective and safe, but should be reserved to tertiary referral centers.

  7. Exciton broadening and band renormalization due to Dexter-like intervalley coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Villamil, Ivan; Berghäuser, Gunnar; Selig, Malte; Niehues, Iris; Schmidt, Robert; Schneider, Robert; Tonndorf, Philipp; Erhart, Paul; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Bratschitsch, Rudolf; Knorr, Andreas; Malic, Ermin

    2018-04-01

    A remarkable property of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is the possibility to selectively address single valleys by circularly polarized light. In the context of technological applications, it is very important to understand possible intervalley coupling mechanisms. Here, we show how the Dexter-like intervalley coupling mixes A and B states from opposite valleys leading to a significant broadening γB_{1s} of the B1s exciton. The effect is much more pronounced in tungsten-based TMDs, where the coupling excitonic states are quasi-resonant. We calculate a ratio γB_{1s}/γA_{1s}≈ 4.0 , which is in good agreement with the experimentally measured value of 3.9+/-0.7 . In addition to the broadening effect, the Dexter-like intervalley coupling also leads to a considerable energy renormalization resulting in an increased energetic distance between A1s and B1s states.

  8. The linewidth and contrast of electromagnetically induced transparency in a homogeneously broadened system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lijun; Zhang Lianshui; Guo Qinglin; Fu Guangsheng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical study of the linewidth and contrast of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The EIT is associated with a homogenously broadened three-level system interacting with a couple and a probe laser field in a Λ configuration. The optical Bloch equation is solved, from which analytic solutions for the EIT linewidth and contrast are derived. It is shown that the analytical results are in good agreement with the numerical calculation of the EIT spectrum and gives a satisfactory account of the power-broadening behavior for a broad range of the couple laser Rabi frequency where the EIT evolves from a narrow spectral hole into well-separated dynamic Stark doublet

  9. Electromigration-induced plastic deformation in passivated metal lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, B. C.; Bravman, J. C.; Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Spolenak, R.; Brown, W. L.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-11-01

    We have used scanning white beam x-ray microdiffraction to study microstructural evolution during an in situ electromigration experiment on a passivated Al(Cu) test line. The data show plastic deformation and grain rotations occurring under the influence of electromigration, seen as broadening, movement, and splitting of reflections diffracted from individual metal grains. We believe this deformation is due to localized shear stresses that arise due to the inhomogeneous transfer of metal along the line. Deviatoric stress measurements show changes in the components of stress within the line, including relaxation of stress when current is removed.

  10. Time Sequence Spectroscopy of AW UMa. The 518 nm Mg i Triplet Region Analyzed With Broadening Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Slavek M.

    2015-02-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic observations of AW UMa, obtained on three consecutive nights with a median time resolution of 2.1 minutes, have been analyzed using the broadening function method in the spectral window of 22.75 nm around the 518 nm Mg i triplet region. Doppler images of the system reveal the presence of vigorous mass motions within the binary system; their presence puts into question the solid-body rotation assumption of the contact binary model. AW UMa appears to be a very tight, semi-detached binary; the mass transfer takes place from the more massive to the less massive component. The primary, a fast-rotating star with Vsin i=181.4+/- 2.5 km s-1, is covered with inhomogeneities: very slowly drifting spots and a dense network of ripples more closely participating in its rotation. The spectral lines of the primary show an additional broadening component (called the “pedestal”) that originates either in the equatorial regions, which rotate faster than the rest of the star by about 50 km s-1, or in an external disk-like structure. The secondary component appears to be smaller than predicted by the contact model. The radial velocity field around the secondary is dominated by accretion of matter transferred from (and possibly partly returned to) the primary component. The parameters of the binary are Asin i=2.73+/- 0.11 {{R}⊙ } and {{M}1}{{sin }3}i=1.29+/- 0.15 {{M}⊙ }, {{M}2}{{sin }3}i=0.128+/- 0.016 {{M}⊙ }. The mass ratio, {{q}sp}={{M}2}/{{M}1}=0.099+/- 0.003, while still the most uncertain among the spectroscopic elements, is substantially different from the previous numerous and mutually consistent photometric investigations which were based on the contact model. It should be studied why photometry and spectroscopy give such discrepant results and whether AW UMa is an unusual object or if only very high-quality spectroscopy can reveal the true nature of W UMa-type binaries. Based on observations obtained at the Canada

  11. Time sequence spectroscopy of AW UMa. The 518 nm Mg I triplet region analyzed with broadening functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, Slavek M.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic observations of AW UMa, obtained on three consecutive nights with a median time resolution of 2.1 minutes, have been analyzed using the broadening function method in the spectral window of 22.75 nm around the 518 nm Mg i triplet region. Doppler images of the system reveal the presence of vigorous mass motions within the binary system; their presence puts into question the solid-body rotation assumption of the contact binary model. AW UMa appears to be a very tight, semi-detached binary; the mass transfer takes place from the more massive to the less massive component. The primary, a fast-rotating star with Vsini=181.4±2.5 km s −1 , is covered with inhomogeneities: very slowly drifting spots and a dense network of ripples more closely participating in its rotation. The spectral lines of the primary show an additional broadening component (called the “pedestal”) that originates either in the equatorial regions, which rotate faster than the rest of the star by about 50 km s −1 , or in an external disk-like structure. The secondary component appears to be smaller than predicted by the contact model. The radial velocity field around the secondary is dominated by accretion of matter transferred from (and possibly partly returned to) the primary component. The parameters of the binary are Asini=2.73±0.11 R ⊙ and M 1 sin 3 i=1.29±0.15 M ⊙ , M 2 sin 3 i=0.128±0.016 M ⊙ . The mass ratio, q sp =M 2 /M 1 =0.099±0.003, while still the most uncertain among the spectroscopic elements, is substantially different from the previous numerous and mutually consistent photometric investigations which were based on the contact model. It should be studied why photometry and spectroscopy give such discrepant results and whether AW UMa is an unusual object or if only very high-quality spectroscopy can reveal the true nature of W UMa-type binaries.

  12. Kramers–Kronig relation in a Doppler-broadened Λ-type three-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meng; Lu Xiao-Gang; Bai Jin-Hai; Miao Xing-Xu; Gao Yan-Lei; Wu Ling-An; Fu Pan-Ming; Wang Ru-Quan; Zuo Zhan-Chun; Pei Li-Ya; Yang Shi-Ping; Pang Zhao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    We measure the absorption and dispersion in a Doppler-broadened Λ-type three level system by resonant stimulated Raman spectroscopy with homodyne detection. Through studying the dressed state energies of the system, it is found that the absorption and dispersion satisfy the Kramers–Kronig relation. The absorption and dispersion spectra calculated by employing this relation agree well with our experimental observations. (rapid communication)

  13. Quantum Interference between Autonomous Single-Photon Sources from Doppler-Broadened Atomic Ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Teak; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Park, Jiho; Kim, Heonoh; Moon, Han Seb

    2017-01-01

    To realize a quantum network based on quantum entanglement swapping, bright and completely autonomous sources are essentially required. Here, we experimentally demonstrate Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) quantum interference between two independent bright photon pairs generated via the spontaneous four-wave mixing in Doppler-broadened ladder-type 87Rb atoms. Bright autonomous heralded single photons are operated in a continuous-wave (CW) mode with no synchronization or supplemental filters. The four-fol...

  14. Quantum memory for nonstationary light fields based on controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, B.; Tittel, W.; Gisin, N.; Nilsson, M.; Kroell, S.; Cirac, J. I.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a method for efficient storage and recall of arbitrary nonstationary light fields, such as, for instance, single photon time-bin qubits or intense fields, in optically dense atomic ensembles. Our approach to quantum memory is based on controlled, reversible, inhomogeneous broadening and relies on a hidden time-reversal symmetry of the optical Bloch equations describing the propagation of the light field. We briefly discuss experimental realizations of our proposal

  15. Solution of the Doppler broadening function based on the fourier cosine transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Alessandro da C [COPPE/UFRJ - Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: agoncalves@con.ufrj.br; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. da [COPPE/UFRJ - Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    This paper provides a new integral representation for the Doppler broadening function {psi}({xi}, x), which is interpreted as being a Fourier cosine transform. This integral form allows the obtaining of an analytical solution in a simple and accurate functional manner as regards the elementary functions. The solution obtained through the new integral representation can be widely used in several applications such as the calculation of self-shielding factors and measurement corrections for the microscopic cross section through the activation technique.

  16. Solution of the Doppler broadening function based on the fourier cosine transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Alessandro da C; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. da

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a new integral representation for the Doppler broadening function ψ(ξ, x), which is interpreted as being a Fourier cosine transform. This integral form allows the obtaining of an analytical solution in a simple and accurate functional manner as regards the elementary functions. The solution obtained through the new integral representation can be widely used in several applications such as the calculation of self-shielding factors and measurement corrections for the microscopic cross section through the activation technique

  17. Decomposing Revenue Effects of Tax Evasion, Base Broadening and Tax Rate Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; Arindam Das-Gupta

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for evaluating the impact of tax reform on tax revenues and the distribution of the tax burden. The technique consists of decomposing actual revenue relative to potential revenue into components attributable to (i) changes in the tax rate structure (ii) deductions and (iii) tax evasion. If the standard reform package is successful, revenue loss from deductions should be curtailed by base broadening. Furthermore, revenues lost by lowering tax rates should be more t...

  18. Effects of Self-Similar Collisions in the Theory of Pressure Broadening and Shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharintsev, S.S.; Salakhov, M.Kh.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper the self-similar collision model is developed in terms of fractal Brownian motion. Within this model framework, collisions are assumed to carry a non-Markovian character and, therefore, possible memory collisional effects are not taken into account. Applying a self-similar collision model for the motion of the radiator and Anderson-Talman phase-shift theory of collisional broadening, a general formula for the correlation function in the impact limit is described. (author)

  19. GOLD (GEO Opportunities for Leadership in Diversity): Building capacity for broadening participation in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Adams, A.

    2017-12-01

    The geosciences continue to lag other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines in the engagement, recruitment and retention of traditionally underrepresented and underserved groups, requiring more focused and strategic efforts to address this problem. Prior investments made by the National Science Foundation (NSF) related to broadening participation in STEM have identified many effective strategies and model programs for engaging, recruiting, and retaining underrepresented students in the geosciences. These investments also have documented clearly the importance of committed, knowledgeable, and persistent leadership for making local progress in this area. Achieving diversity at larger and systemic scales requires a network of diversity "champions" who can catalyze widespread adoption of these evidence-based best practices and resources. Although many members of the geoscience community are committed to the ideals of broadening participation, the skills and competencies to achieve success must be developed. The NSF GEO Opportunities for Leadership in Diversity (GOLD) program was implemented in 2016, as a funding opportunity utilizing the Ideas Lab mechanism. Ideas Labs are intensive workshops focused on finding innovative solutions to grand challenge problems. The ultimate aim of this Ideas Lab, organized by the NSF Directorate for Geosciences (GEO), was to facilitate the design, pilot implementation, and evaluation of innovative professional development curricula that can unleash the potential of geoscientists with interests in broadening participation to become impactful leaders within the community. The expectation is that mixing geoscientists with experts in broadening participation research, behavioral change, social psychology, institutional change management, leadership development research, and pedagogies for professional development will not only engender fresh thinking and innovative approaches for preparing and empowering

  20. Analysis of a quantum memory for photons based on controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Simon, Christoph; Afzelius, Mikael; Gisin, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a quantum memory for photons based on controlled and reversible inhomogeneous broadening. The explicit solution of the equations of motion is obtained in the weak excitation regime, making it possible to gain insight into the dependence of the memory efficiency on the optical depth, and on the width and shape of the atomic spectral distributions. We also study a simplified memory protocol which does not require any optical control fields

  1. Temperature dependence of the hydrogen-broadening coefficient for the nu 9 fundamental of ethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, G. W.; Hillman, J. J.; Nadler, Shacher; Jennings, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental results for the temperature dependence of the H2-broadening coefficient for the nu 9 fundamental of ethane are reported. Measurements were made over the temperature range 95-300 K using a novel low-temperature absorption cell. These spectra were recorded with the Doppler-limited diode laser spectrometer at NASA Goddard. The results are compared with recent measurements and model predictions.

  2. Vacancy defects in electron-irradiated ZnO studied by Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. Q.; Betsuyaku, K.; Kawasuso, A.

    2008-03-01

    Vacancy defects in ZnO induced by electron irradiation were characterized by the Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation measurements together with the local density approximation calculations. Zinc vacancies (VZn) are responsible for positron trapping in the as-irradiated state. These are annealed out below 200°C . The further annealing at 400°C results in the formation of secondary defects attributed to the complexes composed of zinc vacancies and zinc antisites (VZn-ZnO) .

  3. Positron mobility in thermally grown SiO2 measured by Doppler broadening technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Y.; Leung, T.C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    The positron mobility in thermally grown SiO 2 is deduced from Doppler broadening lineshape data on a metal-oxide-semiconductor sample for positrons implanted into the oxide layer. The fitted mobility is ∼13(10)x10 -3 cm 2 /s V. This value is between that of the electron and hole mobilities in the same system and is two orders of magnitude smaller than the previous estimate from positron measurements

  4. Linear and nonlinear light propagations in a Doppler-broadened medium via electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liang; Huang Guoxiang

    2010-01-01

    We present a systematic theoretical study to deal with linear and nonlinear light propagations in a Doppler-broadened three-level Λ system via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), with incoherent population exchange between two lower energy levels taken into account. Through a careful analysis of base state and linear excitation, we show that the EIT condition of the system is given by |Ω c | 2 γ 31 >>2γ 21 Δω D 2 , where Ω c is half the Rabi frequency of the control field, Δω D is the Doppler width, and γ jl is the decay rate of the coherence between states |j> and |l>. Under this condition, the effect of incoherent population exchange is insignificant, while dephasing dominates the decoherence of the system. This condition also ensures the validity of the weak nonlinear perturbation theory used in this work for solving the Maxwell-Bloch equations with inhomogeneous broadening. We then investigate the nonlinear propagation of the probe field and show that it is possible to form temporal optical solitons in the Doppler-broadened medium. Such solitons have ultraslow propagating velocity and can be generated in very low light power. The possibility of realizing (1+1)-dimensional and (2+1)-dimensional spatial optical solitons in the adiabatic regime of the system is also discussed.

  5. Homogeneous spectral broadening of pulsed terahertz quantum cascade lasers by radio frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, W J; Li, H; Cao, J C

    2018-01-22

    The authors present an experimental investigation of radio frequency modulation on pulsed terahertz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting around 4.3 THz. The QCL chip used in this work is based on a resonant phonon design which is able to generate a 1.2 W peak power at 10 K from a 400-µm-wide and 4-mm-long laser with a single plasmon waveguide. To enhance the radio frequency modulation efficiency and significantly broaden the terahertz spectra, the QCLs are also processed into a double-metal waveguide geometry with a Silicon lens out-coupler to improve the far-field beam quality. The measured beam patterns of the double-metal QCL show a record low divergence of 2.6° in vertical direction and 2.4° in horizontal direction. Finally we perform the inter-mode beat note and terahertz spectra measurements for both single plasmon and double-metal QCLs working in pulsed mode. Since the double-metal waveguide is more suitable for microwave signal transmission, the radio frequency modulation shows stronger effects on the spectral broadening for the double-metal QCL. Although we are not able to achieve comb operation in this work for the pulsed lasers due to the large phase noise, the homogeneous spectral broadening resulted from the radio frequency modulation can be potentially used for spectroscopic applications.

  6. Frequency spectral broadening of lower hybrid waves in tokamak plasmas - causes and effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V; Giannone, L.; Bartiromo, R [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Rome (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia Frascati

    1994-04-01

    The frequency spectral broadening of lower hybrid (LH) waves injected into tokamak plasmas is extensively analyzed with reference mostly to experimental data from the ASDEX tokamak. The link between the magnitude of the pump spectral width and the degradation of the LH current drive efficiency (up to a factor of 2), pointed out in previous works, is explained. The experimental behaviour of LH power absorption is also well reproduced, even in situations when the access of the launched LH waves to the core plasma should be largely forbidden. Experiments are described that are aimed at determined whether parametric decay instabilities (PDIs) or scattering of LH waves by density fluctuations in the plasma edge are causes of the broadening of the LH pump frequency spectrum. Fluctuations emerge as the largely dominant process, while no signature of PDI processes is observed. Careful measurements of the density fluctuations in the ASDEX scrape-off layer plasma allow the analytical description given by Andrews and Perkins to be assumed as the appropriate model of LH scattering. Indeed, it supplies the correct magnitude for the frequency spectral width of the LH pump, and explains quantitatively, together with a ray tracing code, why the CD efficiency decreases with the broadening of the pump spectrum. It can also account for the observed LH power absorption coefficient. (author). 48 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs.

  7. Measurements of NH3 linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients in N2, O2, CO2, and H2O near 1103.46cm-1

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle

    2013-05-01

    Laser-based ammonia gas sensors have useful applications in many fields including combustion, atmospheric monitoring, and medical diagnostics. Calibration-free trace gas sensors require the spectroscopic parameters including linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients to be known. Ammonia\\'s strong ν2 vibrational band between 9 - 12 μm has the high absorption strength needed for sensing small concentrations. Within this band, the 1103.46cm-1 feature is one of the strongest and has minimal interference from CO2 and H2O. However, the six rotational transitions that make up this feature have not been studied previously with absorption spectroscopy due to their small line spacing ranging from 0.004 to 0.029cm-1. A tunable quantum cascade laser was used to accurately study these six transitions. A retrieval program was used to determine the linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients based on Voigt and Galatry profiles. The experiments were performed with ammonia mixtures in nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide at room temperature in an optical cell. These data are going to aid in the development of quantitative ammonia sensors utilizing this strong absorption feature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Theoretical study of electromagnetically induced transparency in a five-level atom and application to Doppler-broadened and Doppler-free Rb atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Dipankar; Ray, Biswajit; Ghosh, Pradip N

    2007-01-01

    We report theoretical studies of a Λ-type five-level atomic system. The density matrix equations are set up and solved numerically to obtain the probe absorption line shape of Rb D 2 transitions for cold (Doppler-free) and room temperature (Doppler-broadened) atoms. Simulated spectra for Doppler-broadened systems lead to four velocity-selective dips along with an electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT) peak as observed earlier from the co-propagating pump-probe spectroscopy of Rb D 2 transitions. Effects of pump power and spontaneous decay rate from the upper levels on the simulated spectra are also studied. For cold atoms a very pronounced EIT peak is observed when the pump frequency is on resonance with one allowed transition. We find that lower pump power leads to a much sharper EIT signal in this case. A simulated dispersion curve shows a rapid variation of the refractive index that may lead to a sharp reduction of the group velocity of photons

  9. Relationship between electromagnetically-induced transparency and Autler–Townes splitting in a Doppler-broadened system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Li-Ya; Qu Yi-Zhi; Niu Jin-Yan; Wang Ru-Quan; Zuo Zhan-Chun; Wu Ling-An; Fu Pan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) and Autler–Townes (AT) splitting in a cascade three-level Doppler-broadened system. By comparing the absorption spectrum with the fluorescence excitation spectrum, it is found that for a Doppler-broadened system, EIT resonance cannot be explained as the result of quantum interference, unlike the case of a homogeneously broadened system. Instead, the macroscopic polarization interference plays an important role in determining the spectra of EIT and AT splitting, which can be explained within the same framework when being detected by the absorption spectra. (paper)

  10. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  11. Selenium x-ray laser line profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.; Matthews, D.L.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss our recent measurements of the spectral width of the 206.38 Angstrom laser in Ne-like Se. These measurements were performed over a wide range of amplifier length indicate an intrinsic line width of 50 m Angstrom FWHM (full-width at half-maximum), show gain narrowing to 10 m Angstrom in intermediate length amplifiers and show no significant re-broadening in We briefly discuss the experiments and interpretations

  12. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  13. Line selection in celestial masers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, M.S.

    1978-09-01

    The primary themes of this work concern the applicability of the Cook (1975) filter mechanism to line selection in hydroxyl masers, and the question of whether interstellar hydroxyl, water, and silicon monoxide masers are saturated. Whether the Cook filter is operative in celestial masers has not thus far been decided, even though it has been shown that such an effect might be occurring. The theory in its present form does not account for line broadening, nor have its consequences with regard to microwave maser emission from excited states of hydroxyl been explored. Both these topics are discussed and the findings are compared with the observations of NGC 6334A, a source which is interesting because of the strong evidence for Zeeman splitting which can be seen in some of its observed spectra. The question of whether interstellar masers are saturated has been much discussed, but a simple method for determining the state of saturation of observed masers does not exist. In particular, the importance of background radiation and of different cloud geometries on the state of saturation of interstellar masers up to now has not been fully appreciated. Both these topics are discussed. (author)

  14. Calculation of the Doppler broadening function using Fourier analysis;Calculo da funcao de alargamento Doppler utilizando analise de Fourier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Alessandro da Cruz

    2010-07-01

    An efficient and precise method for calculation of Doppler broadening function is very important to obtain average group microscopic cross sections, self shielding factors, resonance integrals and others reactor physics parameter. In this thesis two different methods for calculation of Doppler broadening function and interference term will be presented. The main method is based on a new integral form for Doppler broadening function {psi}(x,{zeta}) which gives a mathematical interpretation of the approximation proposed by Bethe and Placzek, as the convolution of the Lorentzian function with a Gaussian function. This interpretation besides leading to a new integral form for {psi}(x,{zeta}), enables to obtain a simple analytic solution for the Doppler broadening function. (author)

  15. Introgressing subgenome components from Brassica rapa and B. carinata to B. juncea for broadening its genetic base and exploring intersubgenomic heterosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea (AjAjBjBj, is an allotetraploid that arose from two diploid species, B. rapa (ArAr and B. nigra (BnBn. It is an old oilseed crop with unique favorable traits, but the genetic improvement on this species is limited. We developed an approach to broaden its genetic base within several generations by intensive selection. The Ar subgenome from the Asian oil crop B. rapa (ArAr and the Bc subgenome from the African oil crop B. carinata (BcBcCcCc were combined in a synthesized allohexaploid (ArArBcBcCcCc, which was crossed with traditional B. juncea to generate pentaploid F1 hybrids (ArAjBcBjCc, with subsequent self-pollination to obtain newly synthesized B. juncea (Ar/jAr/jBc/jBc/j. After intensive cytological screening and phenotypic selection of fertility and agronomic traits, a population of new-type B. juncea was obtained and was found to be genetically stable at the F6 generation. The new-type B. juncea possesses good fertility and rich genetic diversity and is distinctly divergent but not isolated from traditional B. juncea, as revealed by population genetic analysis with molecular markers. More than half of its genome was modified, showing exotic introgression and novel variation. In addition to the improvement in some traits of the new-type B. juncea lines, a considerable potential for heterosis was observed in inter-subgenomic hybrids between new-type B. juncea lines and traditional B. juncea accessions. The new-type B. juncea exhibited a stable chromosome number and a novel genome composition through multiple generations, providing insight into how to significantly broaden the genetic base of crops with subgenome introgression from their related species and the potential of exploring inter-subgenomic heterosis for hybrid breeding.

  16. Temperature Dependences for Air-broadened Widths and Shift Coefficients in the 30013 - 00001 and 30012 - 00001 Bands of Carbon Dioxide near 1600 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M.; Predoi-Cross, A.; McKellar, R.; Benner, C.; Miller, C. E.; Toth, R. A.; Brown, L. R.

    2008-12-01

    Nearly 40 high resolution spectra of air-broadened CO2 recorded at temperatures between 215 and 294 K were analyzed using a multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique to determine temperature dependences of air-broadened half width and air-induced pressure shift coefficients in the 30013-00001 and 30012-00001 bands of 12CO2. Data were recorded with two different Fourier transform spectrometers (Kitt Peak FTS at the National Solar Observatory in Arizona and the Bomem FTS at NRC, Ottawa) with optical path lengths ranging between 25 m and 121 m. The sample pressures varied between 11 torr (pure CO2) and 924 torr (CO2-air) with volume mixing ratios of CO2 in air between ~ 0.015 and 0.11. To minimize systematic errors and increase the accuracy of the retrieved parameters, we constrained the multispectrum nonlinear least squares fittings to use quantum mechanical expressions for the rovibrational energies and intensities rather than retrieving the individual positions and intensities line-by-line. The results suggest minimal vibrational dependence for the temperature dependence coefficients.1 1 A. Predoi-Cross and R. Mckellar are grateful for financial support from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. The research at the Jet Propulsion laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, was performed under contract with National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The support received from the National Science Foundation under Grant No. ATM-0338475 to the College of William and Mary is greatly appreciated. The authors thank Mike Dulick of the National Solar Observatory for his assistance in obtaining the data recorded at Kitt Peak.

  17. Broadening engineering education: bringing the community in : commentary on "social responsibility in French engineering education: a historical and sociological analysis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Eddie

    2013-12-01

    Two issues of particular interest in the Irish context are (1) the motivation for broadening engineering education to include the humanities, and an emphasis on social responsibility and (2) the process by which broadening can take place. Greater community engagement, arising from a socially-driven model of engineering education, is necessary if engineering practice is to move beyond its present captivity by corporate interests.

  18. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting ...

  19. Foreign gas pressure broadening and shifts of the 2S-4S two-photon transition in lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGraffenreid, W; Campbell, Sarah C; Sansonetti, Craig J

    2003-01-01

    We have observed broadening and shift of the 2S-4S Doppler-free two-photon transition of atomic Li by collisions with neon and argon buffer gases in a heat-pipe oven. Measured broadening and shift rates are presented and compared with theoretical predictions calculated in the impact approximation using three different interaction potentials. A superposition of polarization and modified Fermi potentials gives good agreement with the experimental data

  20. A method to achieve large tunable delays based on EIT in an inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We propose a scheme for reducing the impact of inhomogeneous broadening on quantum dot based EIT for slow light. Field propagation calculations show superior performance in delay compared to traditionally investigated EIT schemes.......We propose a scheme for reducing the impact of inhomogeneous broadening on quantum dot based EIT for slow light. Field propagation calculations show superior performance in delay compared to traditionally investigated EIT schemes....

  1. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE SCATTER BROADENING OF FAST RADIO BURST PULSES AND ASTROPHYSICAL IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Siyao; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been identified as extragalactic sources that can probe turbulence in the intergalactic medium (IGM) and their host galaxies. To account for the observed millisecond pulses caused by scatter broadening, we examine a variety of possible electron density fluctuation models in both the IGM and the host galaxy medium. We find that a short-wave-dominated power-law spectrum of density, which may arise in highly supersonic turbulence with pronounced local dense structures of shock-compressed gas in the host interstellar medium (ISM), can produce the required density enhancements at sufficiently small scales to interpret the scattering timescale of FRBs. This implies that an FRB residing in a galaxy with efficient star formation in action tends to have a broadened pulse. The scaling of the scattering time with the dispersion measure (DM) in the host galaxy varies in different turbulence and scattering regimes. The host galaxy can be the major origin of scatter broadening, but contributes to a small fraction of the total DM. We also find that the sheet-like structure of the density in the host ISM associated with folded magnetic fields in a viscosity-dominated regime of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence cannot give rise to strong scattering. Furthermore, valuable insights into the IGM turbulence concerning the detailed spatial structure of density and magnetic field can be gained from the observed scattering timescale of FRBs. Our results favor the suppression of micro-plasma instabilities and the validity of the collisional-MHD description of turbulence properties in the collisionless IGM.

  2. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE SCATTER BROADENING OF FAST RADIO BURST PULSES AND ASTROPHYSICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Siyao; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: syxu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been identified as extragalactic sources that can probe turbulence in the intergalactic medium (IGM) and their host galaxies. To account for the observed millisecond pulses caused by scatter broadening, we examine a variety of possible electron density fluctuation models in both the IGM and the host galaxy medium. We find that a short-wave-dominated power-law spectrum of density, which may arise in highly supersonic turbulence with pronounced local dense structures of shock-compressed gas in the host interstellar medium (ISM), can produce the required density enhancements at sufficiently small scales to interpret the scattering timescale of FRBs. This implies that an FRB residing in a galaxy with efficient star formation in action tends to have a broadened pulse. The scaling of the scattering time with the dispersion measure (DM) in the host galaxy varies in different turbulence and scattering regimes. The host galaxy can be the major origin of scatter broadening, but contributes to a small fraction of the total DM. We also find that the sheet-like structure of the density in the host ISM associated with folded magnetic fields in a viscosity-dominated regime of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence cannot give rise to strong scattering. Furthermore, valuable insights into the IGM turbulence concerning the detailed spatial structure of density and magnetic field can be gained from the observed scattering timescale of FRBs. Our results favor the suppression of micro-plasma instabilities and the validity of the collisional-MHD description of turbulence properties in the collisionless IGM.

  3. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  4. Spectral broadening of VLF transmitter signals and sideband structure observed on Aureol 3 satellite at middle latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hayakawa, M.; Lagoutte, D.; Lefeuvre, F.; Tajima, S.

    1987-01-01

    Electric and magnetic field wave data acquired on Aureol 3 satellite demonstrate the existence of a spectral broadening effect in which VLF transmitter signals from Alpha station (geographic coordinates, 50.5 degree N, 137 degree E) in USSR undergo a significant spectral broadening on electric fields as they propagate through the ionosphere up to the spacecraft in the altitude range of 500-2,000 km at middle latitudes (L ∼ 2). The spectral broadening phenomena may be divided into two types: (1) spectrally broadened components occurring without any association with ELF/VLF emissions under disturbed ionospheric conditions and (2) spectrally broadened components with predominant sideband structure in association with ELF emissions. Bicoherence computation results suggest a nonlinear mode coupling between the transmitter signal and ELF emission which produces sidebands that are quasi-electrostatic in nature. However, faint spectral broadened components in both types 1 and 2 may be connected with Doppler shift of quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves with a broad spectrum of k near the resonance cone, due to scattering of the transmitter signals from ionospheric irregularities in the F region

  5. Macroscopic effects in electromagnetically-induced transparency in a Doppler-broadened system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Li-Ya; Qu Yi-Zhi; Niu Jin-Yan; Wang Ru-Quan; Wu Ling-An; Fu Pan-Ming; Zuo Zhan-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We study the electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) in a Doppler-broadened cascaded three-level system. We decompose the susceptibility responsible for the EIT resonance into a linear and a nonlinear part, and the EIT resonance reflects mainly the characteristics of the nonlinear susceptibility. It is found that the macroscopic polarization interference effect plays a crucial role in determining the EIT resonance spectrum. To obtain a Doppler-free spectrum there must be polarization interference between atoms of different velocities. A dressed-state model, which analyzes the velocities at which the atoms are in resonance with the dressed states through Doppler frequency shifting, is employed to explain the results. (paper)

  6. Effects of phonon broadening on x-ray near-edge spectra in molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, John; Jach, Terrence; Elam, Tim; Denlinger, Jonathon

    2014-03-01

    Calculations of near-edge x-ray spectra are often carried out using the average atomic coordinates from x-ray or neutron scattering experiments or from density functional theory (DFT) energy minimization. This neglects disorder from thermal and zero-point vibrations. Here we look at the nitrogen K-edge of ammonium chloride and ammonium nitrate, comparing Bethe-Salpeter calculations of absorption and fluorescence to experiment. We find that intra-molecular vibrational effects lead to significant, non-uniform broadening of the spectra, and that for some features zero-point motion is the primary source of the observed shape.

  7. Protecting Public Health in Nuclear Emergencies-the Need to Broaden the Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Z.; Roebbel, N.; Weiss, W.; Abrahams, J.

    2016-01-01

    It is necessary for the radiation protection system to broaden beyond radioactive dose, the view on impact of nuclear accidents, taking in consideration the psychological, social and economic determinants impacting the vulnerability of the exposed population, as well as the impacts of emergency countermeasures. It is strongly recommended to pursue strategies, approaches and services that will address these aspects within the general health protection system and will be applied before, during and after an emergency. The paper raises awareness and proposes a three-step development process for an integrated framework based on the social determinants of health approach. (authors)

  8. The energy broadening resulting from electron stripping process of a low energy Au- beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniike, Akira; Sasao, Mamiko; Hamada, Yasuji; Fujita, Junji; Wada, Motoi.

    1994-12-01

    Energy loss spectra of Au + ions produced from Au - ions by electron stripping in He, Ar, Kr and Xe have been measured in the impact energy range of 24-44 keV. The energy broadening of the Au + beam increases as the beam energy increases, and the spectrum shows a narrower energy width for heavy target atoms. The dependence of the spectrum width upon the beam energy and that upon the target mass are well described by the calculation based on the unified potential and semi-classical internal energy transfer model of Firsov's. (author)

  9. The strongest spectral lines of stable elements with other interfering elements in compiled and plotted version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Weitkamp, C.

    1977-01-01

    The strongest spectra lines of the 85 stable chemical elements have been compiled and plotted along with lines from other elements that may interfere in applications like spectroscopic multielement analysis. For each line a wavelength range of +- 0.25 A.U. around the line of interest has been considered. The tables contain the wavelength, intensity and assignment to an ionization state of the emitting atom, the plots visualize the lines with a doppler broadening corresponding to 8,000 K. (orig.) [de

  10. Contaminant-State Broadening Mechanism in a Driven Dissipative Rydberg System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, J. V.

    2017-04-01

    The strong interactions in Rydberg atoms make them an ideal system for the study of correlated many-body physics, both in the presence and absence of dissipation. Using such highly excited atomic states requires addressing challenges posed by the dense spectrum of Rydberg levels, the detrimental effects of spontaneous emission, and strong interactions. A full understanding of the scope and limitations of many Rydberg-based proposals requires simultaneously including these effects, which typically cannot be described by a mean-field treatment due to correlations in the quantum coherent and dissipative processes. We study a driven, dissipative system of Rydberg atoms in a 3D optical lattice, and observe substantial deviation from single-particle excitation rates, both on and off resonance. The observed broadened spectra cannot be explained by van der Waals interactions or a mean-field treatment of the system. Based on the magnitude of the broadening and the scaling with density and two-photon Rabi frequency, we attribute these effects to unavoidable blackbody-induced transitions to nearby Rydberg states of opposite parity, which have large, resonant dipole-dipole interactions with the state of interest. Even at low densities of Rydberg atoms, uncontrolled production of atoms in other states significantly modifies the energy levels of the remaining atoms. These off-diagonal exchange interactions result in complex many-body states of the system and have implications for off-resonant Rydberg dressing proposals. This work was partially supported by the ARL-CDQI program.

  11. Covariance Matrix of a Double-Differential Doppler-Broadened Elastic Scattering Cross Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbanas, G.; Becker, B.; Dagan, R.; Dunn, M. E.; Larson, N. M.; Leal, L. C.; Williams, M. L.

    2012-05-01

    Legendre moments of a double-differential Doppler-broadened elastic neutron scattering cross section on 238U are computed near the 6.67 eV resonance at temperature T = 103 K up to angular order 14. A covariance matrix of these Legendre moments is computed as a functional of the covariance matrix of the elastic scattering cross section. A variance of double-differential Doppler-broadened elastic scattering cross section is computed from the covariance of Legendre moments. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  12. DISCOVERY OF SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE SCATTER-BROADENED IMAGE OF SGR A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwinn, C. R. [Physics Department, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Kovalev, Y. Y.; Soglasnov, V. A. [Astro Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya Str. 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Johnson, M. D., E-mail: cgwinn@physics.ucsb.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    We have detected substructure within the smooth scattering disk of the celebrated Galactic center radio source Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). We observed this structure at 1.3 cm wavelength with the Very Long Baseline Array together with the Green Bank Telescope, on baselines of up to 3000 km, long enough to completely resolve the average scattering disk. Such structure is predicted theoretically as a consequence of refraction by large-scale plasma fluctuations in the interstellar medium. Along with the much-studied θ{sub d}∝λ{sup 2} scaling of angular broadening θ{sub d} with observing wavelength λ, our observations indicate that the spectrum of interstellar turbulence is shallow with an inner scale larger than 300 km. The substructure is consistent with an intrinsic size of about 1 mas at 1.3 cm wavelength, as inferred from deconvolution of the average scattering. Further observations of the substructure can set stronger constraints on the properties of scattering material and on the intrinsic size of Sgr A*. These constraints will guide our understanding of the effects of scatter broadening and the emission physics near the black hole in images with the Event Horizon Telescope at millimeter wavelengths.

  13. Origins of extreme broadening mechanisms in near-edge x-ray spectra of nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, John; Jach, Terrence; Elam, W. T.; Denlinger, J. D.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate the observation of many-body lifetime effects in valence-band x-ray emission. A comparison of the N K α emission of crystalline ammonium nitrate to molecular-orbital calculations revealed an unexpected, extreme broadening of the NO σ recombination—so extensively as to virtually disappear. GW calculations establish that this disappearance is due to a large imaginary component of the self-energy associated with the NO σ orbitals. Building upon density-functional theory, we have calculated radiative transitions from the nitrogen 1 s level of ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride using a Bethe-Salpeter method to include electron-hole interactions. The absorption and emission spectra of both crystals evince large, orbital-dependent sensitivity to molecular dynamics. We demonstrate that many-body effects as well as thermal and zero-point motion are vital for understanding observed spectra. A computational approach using average atomic positions and uniform broadening to account for lifetime and phonon effects is unsatisfactory.

  14. Quasiparticle lifetime broadening in resonant x-ray scattering of NH4NO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, John; Jach, Terrence; Müller, Matthias; Unterumsberger, Rainer; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2016-07-01

    It has been previously shown that two effects cause dramatic changes in the x-ray absorption and emission spectra from the N K edge of the insulating crystal ammonium nitrate. First, vibrational disorder causes major changes in the absorption spectrum, originating not only from the thermal population of phonons, but, significantly, from zero-point motion as well. Second, the anomalously large broadening (˜4 eV) of the emission originating from nitrate σ states is due to the unusually short lifetimes of quasiparticles in an otherwise extremely narrow band. In this work, we investigate the coupling of these effects to core and valence excitons that are created as the initial x-ray excitation energy is progressively reduced toward the N edge. Using a G W /Bethe-Salpeter approach, we show the extent to which this anomalous broadening is captured by the G W approximation. The data and calculations demonstrate the importance that the complex self-energies (finite lifetimes) of the valence bands have on the interpretation of emission spectra. We produce a scheme to explain why extreme lifetimes should appear in σ states of other similar compounds.

  15. Rotational broadening and conservation of angular momentum in post-extreme horizontal branch stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, G.; Latour, M.

    2018-06-01

    We show that the recent realization that isolated post-extreme horizontal branch (post-EHB) stars are generally characterized by rotational broadening with values of V rot sini between 25 and 30 km s-1 can be explained as a natural consequence of the conservation of angular momentum from the previous He-core burning phase on the EHB. The progenitors of these evolved objects, the EHB stars, are known to be slow rotators with an average value of V rot sini of 7.7 km s-1. This implies significant spin-up between the EHB and post-EHB phases. Using representative evolutionary models of hot subdwarf stars, we demonstrate that angular momentum conservation in uniformly rotating structures (rigid-body rotation) boosts that value of the projected equatorial rotation speed by a factor 3.6 by the time the model has reached the region of the surface gravity-effective temperature plane where the newly-studied post-EHB objects are found. This is exactly what is needed to account for their observed atmospheric broadening. We note that the decrease of the moment of inertia causing the spin-up is mostly due to the redistribution of matter that produces more centrally-condensed structures in the post-EHB phase of evolution, not to the decrease of the radius per se.

  16. Approaches to characterise chromatographic column performance based on global parameters accounting for peak broadening and skewness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Baeza, J J; Pous-Torres, S; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2010-04-02

    Peak broadening and skewness are fundamental parameters in chromatography, since they affect the resolution capability of a chromatographic column. A common practice to characterise chromatographic columns is to estimate the efficiency and asymmetry factor for the peaks of one or more solutes eluted at selected experimental conditions. This has the drawback that the extra-column contributions to the peak variance and skewness make the peak shape parameters depend on the retention time. We propose and discuss here the use of several approaches that allow the estimation of global parameters (non-dependent on the retention time) to describe the column performance. The global parameters arise from different linear relationships that can be established between the peak variance, standard deviation, or half-widths with the retention time. Some of them describe exclusively the column contribution to the peak broadening, whereas others consider the extra-column effects also. The estimation of peak skewness was also possible for the approaches based on the half-widths. The proposed approaches were applied to the characterisation of different columns (Spherisorb, Zorbax SB, Zorbax Eclipse, Kromasil, Chromolith, X-Terra and Inertsil), using the chromatographic data obtained for several diuretics and basic drugs (beta-blockers). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quasiparticle Lifetime Broadening in Resonant X-ray Scattering of NH4NO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, John; Jach, Terrence; Müller, Matthias; Unterumsberger, Rainer; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2016-07-15

    It has been previously shown that two effects cause dramatic changes in the x-ray absorption and emission spectra from the N K edge of the insulating crystal ammonium nitrate. First, vibrational disorder causes major changes in the absorption spectrum, originating not only from the thermal population of phonons, but, significantly, from zero-point motion as well. Second, the anomalously large broadening ( ~ 4 eV) of the emission originating from nitrate σ states is due to unusually short lifetimes of quasiparticles in an otherwise extremely narrow band. In this work we investigate the coupling of these effects to core and valence excitons that are created as the initial x-ray excitation energy is progressively reduced toward the N edge. Using a GW /Bethe-Salpeter approach, we show the extent to which this anomalous broadening is captured by the GW approximation. The data and calculations demonstrate the importance that the complex self-energies (finite lifetimes) of valence bands have on the interpretation of emission spectra. We produce a scheme to explain why extreme lifetimes should appear in σ states of other similar compounds.

  18. Digital spectrometer for coincidence measurement of Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizek, J.; Vlcek, M.; Prochazka, I.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution digital coincidence Doppler broadening spectrometer equipped with two high-purity Ge detectors and two-channel 12-bit fast digitizer was developed and tested in this work. Two configurations were compared: (i) semi-digital setup which uses active analogue shaping of detector pulses prior to digitization to improve signal-to-noise ratio, and (ii) pure-digital setup which samples detector pulses directly. Software procedure developed for analysis of sampled waveforms, i.e. precise determination of energy of detected photon and rejection of distorted pulses, is described. Performance of digital coincidence spectrometer was compared with traditional analogue setup connected to the same detectors. It was found that digital spectrometer enables to achieve better energy resolution than in traditional analogue setup. Moreover, in digital configuration one has better control over shape of the signal. This allows efficient elimination of undesired distorted or damaged waveforms and to obtain spectrum of better clarity. The superior parameters of new digital coincidence Doppler broadening spectrometer are demonstrated by benchmark measurements of well defined Fe and Al specimens and also by the detection of rare annihilation in flight events.

  19. Spectral broadening measurement of the lower hybrid waves during long pulse operation in Tore Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-By, G.; Decampy, J.; Antar, G. Y.; Goniche, M.; Ekedahl, A.; Delpech, L.; Leroux, F.; Tore Supra Team

    2014-02-01

    On many tokamaks (C-Mod, EAST, FTU, JET, HT-7, TS), a decrease in current drive efficiency of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves is observed in high electron density plasmas. The cause of this behaviour is believed to be: Parametric Instabilities (PI) and Scattering from Density Fluctuations (SDF). For the ITER LH system, our knowledge must be improved to avoid such effects and to maintain the LH current drive efficiency at high density. The ITPA IOS group coordinates this effort [1] and all experimental data are essential to validate the numerical codes in progress. Usually the broadening of the LH wave frequency spectrum is measured by a probe located in the plasma edge. For this study, the frequency spectrum of a reflected power signal from the LH antenna was used. In addition, the spectrum measurements are compared with the density fluctuations observed on RF probes located at the antenna mouth. Several plasma currents (0.6 to 1.4 MA) and densities up to 5.2 × 1019 m-3 have been realised on Tore Supra (TS) long pulses and with high injected RF power, up to 5.4 MW-30s. This allowed using a spectrum analyser to make several measurements during the plasma pulse. The side lobe amplitude, shifted by 20-30MHz with respect to the main peak, grows with increasing density. Furthermore, for an increase of plasma current at the same density, the spectra broaden and become asymmetric. Some parametric dependencies are shown in this paper.

  20. Synthetic model for Doppler broadening of neutron absorption resonances in molecular fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, Alejandro J., E-mail: villanueva@cab.cnea.gov.a [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (RN) (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Granada, J.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (RN) (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina)

    2010-08-15

    A general and systematic approach expressed in modern language, accounting for molecular motion effects on Doppler Broadening of Neutron Absorption Resonances (DBNAR) is given the form of a new model. It relies on well validated hypothesis: The separability of atomic from nuclear degrees of freedom, the use of the Van Hove scattering formalism and the fact that a conceptually identical approach produced experimentally proved predictions when applied to DBNAR in solid systems. We treat the molecular internal degrees of freedom approximately as harmonic oscillators. As a second contribution of this work, a synthetic model is presented in order to make the more complete model mentioned above suitable for neutron calculation codes. This second synthetic model reduces to the exact expressions of the complete model in the low and high neutron energy regimes and provides a plausible transition in between. Numerical results are presented for a general hypothetical case to show its strengths and limitations. Also, both models are applied to a real case of the {sup 238}U 6.674 eV resonant effective broadened absorption cross-section in UF6 (uranium hexafluoride). A direct experimental validation of our models is still necessary for which a special high resolution neutron transmission experiment ought to be devised at low temperatures and pressures on a gaseous system. It is showed how the synthetic model can be used to make thermometric predictions in an improved fashion in comparison to the effective temperature gas model at low temperatures.

  1. Gamma-ray emission spectrum from thermonuclear fusion reactions without intrinsic broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nocente, M.; Källne, J.; Salewski, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    First principle calculations of the gamma-ray energy spectrum arising from thermonuclear reactions without intrinsic broadening in fusion plasmas are presented, extending the theoretical framework needed to interpret measurements up to the accuracy level enabled by modern high resolution instrume......First principle calculations of the gamma-ray energy spectrum arising from thermonuclear reactions without intrinsic broadening in fusion plasmas are presented, extending the theoretical framework needed to interpret measurements up to the accuracy level enabled by modern high resolution...... instruments. An analytical formula for the spectrum from Maxwellian plasmas, which extends to higher temperatures than the results previously available in the literature, has been derived and used to discuss the assumptions and limitations of earlier models. In case of radio-frequency injection, numerical...... results based on a Monte Carlo method are provided, focusing in particular on improved relations between the peak shift and width from the reaction and the temperature of protons accelerated by radio-frequency heating.The results presented in this paper significantly improve the accuracy of diagnostic...

  2. Aspects of the UV/IR correspondence : energy broadening and string fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Hatta, Y; Mueller, A H; Triantafyllopoulos, D N

    2011-01-01

    We show that a source which radiates in the vacuum of the strongly coupled N=4 SYM theory produces an energy distribution which, in the supergravity approximation, has the same space-time pattern as the corresponding classical distribution: the radiation propagates at the speed of light without broadening. We illustrate this on the basis of several examples: a small perturbation propagating down a steady string, a massless particle falling into AdS_5, and the decay of a time-like wave-packet. A similar observation was made in Phys. Rev. D81 (2010) 126001 for the case of a rotating string. In all these cases, the absence of broadening is related to the fact that the energy backreaction on the boundary arises exclusively from the bulk perturbation at, or near, the boundary. This is so since bulk sources which propagate in AdS_5 at the speed of light do not generate any energy on the boundary. We interpret these features as an artifact of the supergravity approximation, which fails to encode quantum mechanical f...

  3. Effect of optical pumping on absorption spectra for the doppler broadened rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seo Ro; Noh, Heung Ryoul

    2008-01-01

    The absorption of a laser beam in the Doppler broadened atomic vapor cell is one of the simplest problems in atomic physics. Although many reports on theoretical and experimental studies of linear absorption have been reported, the effect of optical pumping on the absorption coefficient has not been studied in detail. In this presentation, we present a theoretical and experimental study on linear absorption for the Doppler broadened rubidium vapor cell. The absorption coefficient of a σ"+"(or π)polarized laser beam was calculated as a function of the laser frequency for the various laser intensities. The calculated results were compared with the experimental results. Figure 1(a) shows the calculated absorption coefficient of the π polarized laser beam for the transition F"g"=1→F"e"=0,1,2 of the "87"Rb atom. The diameter of the laser beam was 3mm and the intensity was I=0 and I=0.1I"8"(I"8"=16.2W/m"2"). The peak values for various intensities are shown in Fig. 1(b). We found that the absorption coefficient for the transition from the lower hyperfine state decreased with the increased laser intensity, whereas that for the transition from the upper hyperfine state increased(decreased)for the σ"+"(π)polarized laser beam

  4. Music-induced positive mood broadens the scope of auditory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkinen, Vesa; Makkonen, Tommi; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that positive mood broadens the scope of visual attention, which can manifest as heightened distractibility. We used event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate whether music-induced positive mood has comparable effects on selective attention in the auditory domain. Subjects listened to experimenter-selected happy, neutral or sad instrumental music and afterwards participated in a dichotic listening task. Distractor sounds in the unattended channel elicited responses related to early sound encoding (N1/MMN) and bottom-up attention capture (P3a) while target sounds in the attended channel elicited a response related to top-down-controlled processing of task-relevant stimuli (P3b). For the subjects in a happy mood, the N1/MMN responses to the distractor sounds were enlarged while the P3b elicited by the target sounds was diminished. Behaviorally, these subjects tended to show heightened error rates on target trials following the distractor sounds. Thus, the ERP and behavioral results indicate that the subjects in a happy mood allocated their attentional resources more diffusely across the attended and the to-be-ignored channels. Therefore, the current study extends previous research on the effects of mood on visual attention and indicates that even unfamiliar instrumental music can broaden the scope of auditory attention via its effects on mood. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Stark widths of Xe II lines in a pulsed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurovic, S; Pelaez, R J; Cirisan, M; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a review of experimental work on Stark broadening of singly ionized xenon lines. Eighty lines, from close UV to the red region of the spectrum, have been studied. Stark halfwidths were compared with experimental data from the literature and modified semi-empirical calculations. A pulsed arc with 95% of helium and 5% xenon was used as a plasma source for this study. Measured electron densities N e and temperatures T were in the ranges of 0.2-1.6 x 10 23 m -3 and 18 300-25 500 K, respectively

  6. Coil extensions improve line shapes by removing field distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Mark S.; Altobelli, Stephen A.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2018-06-01

    The static magnetic susceptibility of the rf coil can substantially distort the field B0 and be a dominant source of line broadening. A scaling argument shows that this may be a particular problem in microcoil NMR. We propose coil extensions to reduce the distortion. The actual rf coil is extended to a much longer overall length by abutted coil segments that do not carry rf current. The result is a long and nearly uniform sheath of copper wire, in terms of the static susceptibility. The line shape improvement is demonstrated at 43.9 MHz and in simulation calculations.

  7. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFORMATIONSTRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF RAMMED MICRO-PILES WITH A BROADENED AGGREGATE BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Alekhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Experimental and theoretical determination of dependencies of strength characteristics of bored micropiles with a pedestal formed by rammed rubble on: casing diameter, fraction, and volume of crushed stone for collapsing macroporous clays. Method. Laboratory and field experiments were carried out; numerical calculations in two-dimensional and threedimensional arrangement for the determination of strain-stress analysis of the foundation using a MIDAS GTS_NX software system, implementing the finite element method and developed for complex geotechnical problems; some recommendations for implementation are provided. Results The dependence of the load-bearing capacity of bored micropiles on a broadened base of rammed aggregate with vertical loading is determined. At the maximum broadening diameter of 3.5 of the micropiles shaft the load-bearing capacity of the subsoil is increased by between 1.8 and 6 times compared with micropiles without broadening depending on the diameter of the pile shaft. During the experimental and numerical studies of the dependencies of deformation-strength parameters of the deep foundation works consisting of a bored micropile with a broadened base, namely the pile diameter, aggregate particle size and volume, seal diameter of the subsoil soil half-space, as well as the development of the theory of formation of the end broadening geometry of rammed aggregate in the form of an ellipsoid of revolution were established. Conclusion The full-scale measurements of the broadening of bored micropiles showed that their shape is close to an ellipsoid of revolution, and the ratio of semi-axes is directly dependent on the characteristics of soil and gravel volume, which was taken into account in the construction of the finite element model in the numerical simulation experiment.The results of numerical studies of the bored micropile loading with broadened base on the MIDAS GTS show good agreement with the results of the

  9. A New Analysis of Stark and Zeeman Effects on Hydrogen Lines in Magnetized DA White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ny Kieu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available White dwarfs with magnetic field strengths larger than 10 T are understood to represent more than 10% of the total population of white dwarfs. The presence of such strong magnetic fields is clearly indicated by the Zeeman triplet structure visible on absorption lines. In this work, we discuss the line broadening mechanisms and focus on the sensitivity of hydrogen lines on the magnetic field. We perform new calculations in conditions relevant to magnetized DA stellar atmospheres using models inspired from magnetic fusion plasma spectroscopy. A white dwarf spectrum from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS database is analyzed. An effective temperature is provided by an adjustment of the background radiation with a Planck function, and the magnetic field is inferred from absorption lines presenting a Zeeman triplet structure. An order-of-magnitude estimate for the electron density is also performed from Stark broadening analysis.

  10. Unresolved dielectronic satellites of the resonance line of heliumlike iron (Fe XXV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Horton, R.; Johnson, D.; Roney, W.; Sauthoff, N.; Silver, E.; Stodiek, W.

    1981-02-01

    (1s 2 nl - 1s2pnl, n greater than or equal to 3) dielectronic satellites of the resonance line of Fe XXV at 1.85 A have been observed from PLT (Princeton Large Torus) tokamak discharges and are used for a detailed comparison with theory. The necessary corrections for Doppler broadening measurements are discussed, and accurate satellite to resonance line ratios allowing for a determination of the total dielectronic recombination rate of Fe XXV are derived

  11. The U-line line balancing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  12. Bandwidth broadening of a graphene-based circular polarization converter by phase compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xi; Yang, Wanli; Cao, Weiping; Chen, Ming; Jiang, Yannan; Yu, Xinhua; Li, Haiou

    2017-10-02

    We present a broadband tunable circular polarization converter composed of a single graphene sheet patterned with butterfly-shaped holes, a dielectric spacer, and a 7-layer graphene ground plane. It can convert a linearly polarized wave into a circularly polarized wave in reflection mode. The polarization converter can be dynamically tuned by varying the Fermi energy of the single graphene sheet. Furthermore, the 7-layer graphene acting as a ground plane can modulate the phase of its reflected wave by controlling the Femi energy, which provides constructive interference condition at the surface of the single graphene sheet in a broad bandwidth and therefore significantly broadens the tunable bandwidth of the proposed polarization converter.

  13. The natural sediment regime in rivers: broadening the foundation for ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen E.; Bledsoe, Brian P.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Rathburn, Sara L.; Walters, David M.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Water and sediment inputs are fundamental drivers of river ecosystems, but river management tends to emphasize flow regime at the expense of sediment regime. In an effort to frame a more inclusive paradigm for river management, we discuss sediment inputs, transport, and storage within river systems; interactions among water, sediment, and valley context; and the need to broaden the natural flow regime concept. Explicitly incorporating sediment is challenging, because sediment is supplied, transported, and stored by nonlinear and episodic processes operating at different temporal and spatial scales than water and because sediment regimes have been highly altered by humans. Nevertheless, managing for a desired balance between sediment supply and transport capacity is not only tractable, given current geomorphic process knowledge, but also essential because of the importance of sediment regimes to aquatic and riparian ecosystems, the physical template of which depends on sediment-driven river structure and function.

  14. Moving beyond the prostate: benefits in broadening the scope of research on men and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Lisa M; Oliffe, John L

    2013-03-01

    As researchers recognize the value in considering gender dynamics within the cancer experience, a majority of the masculinities work has centered on men with prostate cancer. This focus has positioned prostate cancer as the flagship of men's cancer (and perhaps men's health). There is value in this research. However, as 78% of men experience cancers of a different type, a narrow focus on prostate cancer does not necessarily account for broader intersections of cancer and masculinity. Argued here are the benefits to expanding the focus of research on men's cancer experiences. As researchers consider patterns and diversities among men managing an array of cancers, there is opportunity to broaden understanding of the challenges "cancer" can present for men, disrupt assumptions that the study of men's gendered experience of cancer must be tethered to male sex-specific biology, and enhance the relevance and impact of psychosocial interventions for men living with cancer.

  15. Nitride superluminescent diodes with broadened emission spectrum fabricated using laterally patterned substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafar, A; Stanczyk, S; Sarzynski, M; Grzanka, S; Goss, J; Targowski, G; Nowakowska-Siwinska, A; Suski, T; Perlin, P

    2016-05-02

    We demonstrate InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes with broadened emission spectra fabricated on surface-shaped bulk GaN (0001) substrates. The patterning changes the local vicinal angle linearly along the device waveguide, which results in an indium incorporation profile in InGaN quantum wells. The structure was investigated by microphotoluminescence mapping, showing a shift of central emission wavelength from 413 nm to 430 nm. Spectral full width at half maximum of processed superluminescent diodes is equal to 6.1 nm, while the reference chips show 3.4 nm. This approach may open the path for using nitride devices in applications requiring broad emission spectrum and high beam quality, such as optical coherence tomography.

  16. Measurement of the broadening and depolarization of a Gaussian beam to transmit in fog water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, G.; Reynoso, E; Davila, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a controlled experimental environment in the laboratory, a waterproof camera where it will introduce artificial fog and become a beam of linearly polarized Gaussian laser light, creating sprawl, broadening and depolarization is studied with a system capable of measuring such phenomena. Most studies on dispersion have focused on the lobes of backscattering, however the correct conditions with the incident light beam a substantial fraction of light is scattered in the forward direction forming a widened light lobe. With this light lobe formed could be studied with extreme precision many factors such as the existence of single or multiple scattering and the amount by which this is carried out. This is of great importance in the estimation of lidar returns because these foundations can learn important information such as extinction and backscatter coefficients, particulate pollutants in the atmosphere and thus understand the operation model of nature. (Author)

  17. Preliminary analysis of aircraft fuel systems for use with broadened specification jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, A. J.; Thomas, I.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted on the use of broadened specification hydrocarbon fuels in present day aircraft. A short range Boeing 727 mission and three long range Boeing 747 missions were used as basis of calculation for one-day-per-year extreme values of fuel loading, airport ambient and altitude ambient temperatures with various seasonal and climatic conditions. Four hypothetical fuels were selected; two high-vapor-pressure fuels with 35 kPa and 70 kPa RVP and two high-freezing-point fuels with -29 C and -18 C freezing points. In-flight fuel temperatures were predicted by Boeing's aircraft fuel tank thermal analyzer computer program. Boil-off rates were calculated for the high vapor pressure fuels and heating/insulation requirements for the high freezing point fuels were established. Possible minor and major heating system modifications were investigated with respect to heat output, performance and economic penalties for the high freezing point fuels.

  18. The Influence of Affirming Kindness and Community on Broadening Participation in STEM Career Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Eroy-Reveles, Alegra; Matsui, John

    2018-01-01

    The United States’ inability to achieve equitable workforce development in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career pathways is well-recognized and has been attributed to the poor retention of a diverse stream of students in academia. Social science theory and research provide evidence that social contextual variables—specifically kindness cues affirming social inclusion—influence chronic underrepresentation of some groups within STEM career pathways. Review of the literature suggests that the current STEM academic context does not consistently provide cues that affirm social inclusion to all members of the academic population, and that policies that address this disparity are essential to broadening STEM workforce development in the United States. PMID:29657577

  19. FAKTOR-FAKTOR BROADEN BUILD YANG MEMPENGARUHI KINERJA KELEMBAGAAN PADA LEMBAGA SEKURITAS DI MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Retna Rahadjeng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the performing of an agency applying nuturing institutional capital markets through built Broaden approach to improve the performance of securities institution. This phenomenological study was conducted on securities agency in Malang. The data has been collected by using participant observation, indepth interviews, and questionnaires. The data was anlyzed by using content analysis. Based on the result, the researcher concluded that the variables (x1 Emotional Resiliency; (x2 Cognitive Resiliency; (x3 social resiliency; and Financial Resiliency (x4 have jointly significant influence on the performance of securities agency. Similarly, each variable partially has an influence on financial performance. The dominant variable influencing the performance of securities agency is cognitive resiliency variable that has the highest value of regression coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis stated about there is an influence of emotional resiliency; cognitive resiliency; social resiliency; and financial resiliency variables towards the performance of the securities agency in Malang is accepted.

  20. Bandwidth broadening and asymmetric softening of collective spin waves in magnonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dependence on the applied field of the frequency/wavevector dispersion relations of collective spin waves in arrays of dots, close to a magnetic transition. In particular, we focus on the low frequency “soft” modes in three different cases: end modes in the transition between two different saturated states in ellipses, fundamental mode in the saturated-to-vortex transition in disks, and gyrotropic mode in the vortex-to-saturated transition in disks. Noteworthy, the spin waves with nonzero Bloch wavevector along the direction of the applied field happen to soften earlier than spin waves with a Bloch wavevector along different directions, and this feature is responsible for an asymmetric broadening of the bandwidth along the different lattice directions. This is particularly useful in magnonic/spin-logic device research, if different binary digits are associated to modes with the same cell function but different propagation directions.

  1. Effect of broadened-specification fuels on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A wide variety of studies on the potential effects of broadened-specification fuels on future aircraft engines and fuel systems are summarized. The compositions and characteristics of aircraft fuels that may be derived from current and future crude-oil sources are described, and the most critical properties that may affect aircraft engines and fuel systems are identified and discussed. The problems that are most likely to be encountered because of changes in selected fuel properties are described; and the related effects on engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance are discussed. The ability of current technology to accept possible future fuel-specification changes is discussed, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the potential problems are illustrated.

  2. MD and FFM Electron Broadening for Warm and Dense Hydrogen Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, S.; Calisti, A.; Mosse, C.; Talin, B.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Gigosos, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Direct integration of the semi-classical evolution equation based on Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD) and the Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM) have long been used to synthesize spectra accounting for ion dynamics. Cross comparisons of these approaches generally show results in good agreement. Recently, interest in low temperature (Te ∼ 1eV) and high density (Ne ∼ 1018 cm-3) hydrogen plasma spectroscopy has motivated extended applications of FFM. Arising discrepancies were found to originate in electron collision operators suggesting an improper use of impact approximations for warm and dense plasma conditions. In order to clarify this point, new useful cross comparisons between MD and FFM have been carried out for electron broadening

  3. Electromagnetically induced transparency in thermal Rydberg atoms: superatom model with finite Doppler broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Si-Yin; Bao, Qian-Qian; Tian, Xue-Dong; Liu, Yi-Mou; Wu, Jin-Hui

    2018-04-01

    We study the steady optical responses of a cold atomic ensemble driven into the three-level ladder configuration involving a Rydberg state at finite temperatures. By improving the superatom model with thermal movement included, we calculate relevant atomic coherence effects and find that the residual Doppler broadening at the mK-K temperatures will weaken the nonclassical properties of transmitted probe photons. Furthermore, propagation directions of the probe and coupling fields have a great influence on various properties related to electromagnetically induced transparency. That is, the residual Doppler effect is more destructive to relevant atomic coherence effects in the co-propagation case but can be partially eliminated in the counter-propagation case.

  4. Mn doping in ZnO nanoparticles: effects investigated by positron lifetime and Doppler broadening studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, B.; Karmakar, B.; Pal, M. [Department of Physics, University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan (India); Nambissan, P.M.G. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2009-11-15

    Positron lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements in nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) indicated the negatively charged trivacancy-type defects V{sub Zn+O+Zn} as the predominant positron trapping sites within the nanocrystallites. They got converted to neutral divacancies (V{sub Zn+O}) on doping with manganese (Mn). Further doping resulted in the reduction of the size of the nanocrystallites. At still increased doping concentrations, a new phase ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} was formed. It had a normal spinel structure with positron trapping centers at some of the tetrahedral and octahedral sites. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron micro-scopy studies confirmed these findings. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. THEORY AND SIMULATIONS OF REFRACTIVE SUBSTRUCTURE IN RESOLVED SCATTER-BROADENED IMAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gwinn, Carl R., E-mail: mjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    At radio wavelengths, scattering in the interstellar medium distorts the appearance of astronomical sources. Averaged over a scattering ensemble, the result is a blurred image of the source. However, Narayan and Goodman and Goodman and Narayan showed that for an incomplete average, scattering introduces refractive substructure in the image of a point source that is both persistent and wideband. We show that this substructure is quenched but not smoothed by an extended source. As a result, when the scatter-broadening is comparable to or exceeds the unscattered source size, the scattering can introduce spurious compact features into images. In addition, we derive efficient strategies to numerically compute realistic scattered images, and we present characteristic examples from simulations. Our results show that refractive substructure is an important consideration for ongoing missions at the highest angular resolutions, and we discuss specific implications for RadioAstron and the Event Horizon Telescope.

  6. Annealing effects on the microwave linewidth broadening of FeCuNbSiB ferromagnetic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, M. J. P.; Gonzalez-Chavez, D. E.; Sommer, R. L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bohn, F. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2015-03-28

    We systematically investigate the annealing effects on the microwave linewidth broadening of FeCuNbSiB ferromagnetic films with thickness of 100 nm. We correlate the non-uniform residual stress obtained from grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth due to effective field inhomogeneities measured from broadband ferromagnetic resonance absorption measurements. We also estimate the annealing temperature effect on the Gilbert and two-magnon scattering contributions to the total ferromagnetic resonance FMR linewidth. We show that the effective field inhomogeneities constitute the main contribution to the microwave linewidth, while this contribution is related to the non-uniform residual stress in the films which is reduced by thermal annealing.

  7. Cross Functional Career Navigation: The Way to Broaden Your Career Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Todd

    2000-03-01

    In today's rapid paced global environment, broadening career options for career development depends on successful cross-functional career navigation. For scientists and engineers, this means developing a diversity of skills in addition to a strong technical foundation. Fortunately, companies use cross-functional teams as one of the key tools for rapidly developing and commercializing products and services. Participation on these teams carries with it the additional benefit of allowing an individual to develop new skills, and to gain valuable expertise in areas that are critical to the growth of their company, their industry and, most importantly, their career. This talk will outline some of the important cross functional skills that can propel your career ahead and ways in which you can take charge of your career mapping and enhance your value and employability.

  8. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujingqin; Lanqin, L; Wenyi, W; Feng, J; Xiaofeng, W; Xiaomin, Z; Bin, L

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP

  9. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujingqin; Lanqin, L; Wenyi, W; Feng, J; Xiaofeng, W; Xiaomin, Z [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P. O. Box 919-988, Mianyang, China, 621900 (China); Bin, L [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu. China, 610031 (China)], E-mail: sujingqin@tom.com

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP.

  10. The Best and the Brightest in Geosciences: Broadening Representation in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, L.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience research in government agencies and universities across the US is anchored by data collection from field and lab experiments. In these settings, the composition and the culture of the environment can be less welcoming for individuals from groups that are traditionally underrepresented in the geosciences. Ongoing efforts to address diversity and inclusion in the field and lab include top-down approaches that provide support and training for established geoscience leaders and bottom-up approaches that offer research internships and fellowships for students. To achieve success, effective strategies for broadening representation in the field must be developed and shared across the geosciences community to advance scientific innovation and create opportunities for success.

  11. EIT enhanced self-Kerr nonlinearity in the three-level lambda system under Doppler broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doai, Le Van; Khoa, Dinh Xuan; Bang, Nguyen Huy

    2015-01-01

    Using density-matrix theory, an analytical expression of the self-Kerr nonlinear coefficient of a three-level lambda EIT medium for a weak probe light is derived. Influences of the coupling light and Doppler broadening on the self-Kerr coefficient are investigated and compared to experimental observation with a good agreement. The self-Kerr nonlinearity of the medium is modified and greatly enhanced in the spectral region of EIT window. Furthermore, sign, slope, and magnitude of the self-Kerr coefficient can be controlled with frequency and intensity of the coupling light and temperature of the medium. In particular, for a given set of fixed values of the parameter coupling and probe lights, it is possible to choose an optimized temperature with which to obtain the largest magnitude of the self-Kerr coefficient. Such a controllable Kerr nonlinearity can find interesting applications in optoelectronic devices working with low-light intensity at various temperature conditions. (paper)

  12. EIT enhanced self-Kerr nonlinearity in the three-level lambda system under Doppler broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh Xuan Khoa; Le Van Doai; Pham Van Trong; Tran Manh Cuong; Vu Ngoc Sau; Nguyen Huy Bang; Le Nguyen Mai Anh

    2014-01-01

    Using density-matrix theory, an analytical expression of the self-Kerr nonlinear coefficient of a three-level lambda EIT medium for a weak probe light is derived. Influences of the coupling light and Doppler broadening on the self-Kerr coefficient are investigated and compared to experimental observation with a good agreement. The self-Kerr nonlinearity of the medium is modified and greatly enhanced in the spectral region of EIT window. Furthermore, sign, slope, and magnitude of the self-Kerr coefficient can be controlled with frequency and intensity of the coupling light and temperature of the medium. Specially, for a given set of fixed values of the parameters of coupling and probe lights, it could be able to choose an optimized temperature to have largest magnitude of the self-Kerr coefficient. Such controllable Kerr nonlinearity can find interesting applications in optoelectronic devices working with low-light intensity at various temperature conditions. (author)

  13. The importance of system band broadening in modern size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyon, Alexandre; Guillarme, Davy; Fekete, Szabolcs

    2017-02-20

    In the last few years, highly efficient UHP-SEC columns packed with sub-3μm particles were commercialized by several providers. Besides the particle size reduction, the dimensions of modern SEC stationary phases (150×4.6mm) was also modified compared to regular SEC columns (300×6 or 300×8mm). Because the analytes are excluded from the pores in SEC, the retention factors are very low, ranging from -1 broadening, the apparent efficiency of SEC columns packed with sub-2μm particles can indeed be hampered when using inappropriate system. Considering the extra-column band broadening contribution of current UHPLC instruments, a further decrease of SEC column dimension is therefore not desired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spectral broadening measurement of the lower hybrid waves during long pulse operation in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger-By, G.; Decampy, J.; Goniche, M.; Ekedahl, A.; Delpech, L.; Leroux, F. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Antar, G. Y. [American University of Beirut, Riad el-Solh, Beirut 1107-2020 (Lebanon); Collaboration: Tore Supra Team

    2014-02-12

    On many tokamaks (C-Mod, EAST, FTU, JET, HT-7, TS), a decrease in current drive efficiency of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves is observed in high electron density plasmas. The cause of this behaviour is believed to be: Parametric Instabilities (PI) and Scattering from Density Fluctuations (SDF). For the ITER LH system, our knowledge must be improved to avoid such effects and to maintain the LH current drive efficiency at high density. The ITPA IOS group coordinates this effort [1] and all experimental data are essential to validate the numerical codes in progress. Usually the broadening of the LH wave frequency spectrum is measured by a probe located in the plasma edge. For this study, the frequency spectrum of a reflected power signal from the LH antenna was used. In addition, the spectrum measurements are compared with the density fluctuations observed on RF probes located at the antenna mouth. Several plasma currents (0.6 to 1.4 MA) and densities up to 5.2 × 10{sup 19} m−3 have been realised on Tore Supra (TS) long pulses and with high injected RF power, up to 5.4 MW-30s. This allowed using a spectrum analyser to make several measurements during the plasma pulse. The side lobe amplitude, shifted by 20-30MHz with respect to the main peak, grows with increasing density. Furthermore, for an increase of plasma current at the same density, the spectra broaden and become asymmetric. Some parametric dependencies are shown in this paper.

  15. Bibliography on atomic line shapes and shifts (June 1975 through June 1978). Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhr, J.R.; Miller, B.J.; Martin, G.A.

    1978-12-01

    This is the third supplement to the NBS Special Publication 366, Bibliography on Atomic Line Shapes and Shifts (1889 through March 1972). It contains about 600 references and covers the literature from June 1975 through June 1978. As before, the bibliography contains five major parts: (1) All general interest papers are catalogued according to the broadening mechanisms (and, further, according to special topics under several of the mechanisms) and as to whether the work is a general theory, a general review, a table of profiles or parameters, a comment on existing work, a study of general experimental measurement techniques, or an experimental effort of general importance. Also included are selected papers on important applications of line broadening and on miscellaneous topics relating to atomic spectral line shapes and shifts. (2) In Part 2 all papers containing numerical data are ordered as to element, ionization stage, and broadening mechanism (in the case of foreign gas broadening the perturbing species are listed), and it is indicated whether the data are experimentally or theoretically derived. (3) While in the two preceding parts of the bibliography the references are listed for brevity by identification numbers only, in Part 3 all references are listed completely by journal, authors, and title and are generally arranged by year of publication and alphabetically by authors' names within the year. (4) This section contains a list of all authors and their papers. (5) A final section provides corrections or additions to the second supplement to the original bibliography

  16. [Participatory potential and deliberative function: a debate on broadening the scope of democracy through the health councils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo Júnior, José Patrício; Gerschman, Sílvia

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects upon the relation between democracy and health councils. It seeks to analyze the councils as a space for broadening the scope of democracy. First, some characteristics and principles of the liberal democratic regime are presented, with an emphasis on the minimalist and procedural approach of decision-making. The fragilities of the representative model and the establishment of new relations between the Government and society are then discussed in light of the new social grammar and the complexity of the division between governmental and societal responsibilities. The principles of deliberative democracy and the idea of substantive democracy are subsequently presented. Broadening the scope of democracy is understood not only as the guarantee of civil and political rights, but also especially, of social rights. Lastly, based on discussion of the participation and deliberation categories, the health councils are analyzed as potential mechanisms for broadening the scope of democracy.

  17. The blues broaden, but the nasty narrows: attentional consequences of negative affects low and high in motivational intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2010-02-01

    Positive and negative affects high in motivational intensity cause a narrowing of attentional focus. In contrast, positive affects low in motivational intensity cause a broadening of attentional focus. The attentional consequences of negative affects low in motivational intensity have not been experimentally investigated. Experiment 1 compared the attentional consequences of negative affect low in motivational intensity (sadness) relative to a neutral affective state. Results indicated that low-motivation negative affect caused attentional broadening. Experiment 2 found that disgust, a high-motivation negative affect not previously investigated in attentional studies, narrowed attentional focus. These experiments support the conceptual model linking high-motivation affective states to narrowed attention and low-motivation affective states to broadened attention.

  18. Broadening of white-light continuum by filamentation in BK7 glass at its zero-dispersion point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jiaming; Zhong, Yue; Zheng, Yinghui; Zeng, Zhinan; Ge, Xiaochun; Li, Ruxin

    2015-01-01

    Broadening of white-light continuum is observed by filamentation of near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses with peak power exceeding the megawatt level in BK7 glass with the presence of the zero-dispersion point. The simulated results show that, due to the low dispersion at the zero-dispersion point, the broadening of white-light continuum can be wider and the filament can persist in propagating stably longer distance. - Highlights: • We observed the white-light continuum by filamentation at the zero-dispersion point. • Peak power significantly exceeding the critical value of self-focusing was used. • Wider spectral broadening was obtained around the zero-dispersion point

  19. Combined echo offset (Dixon) and line volume chemical shift imaging as a clinical imaging protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listerud, J.; Chan, T.; Lenkinski, R.E.; Kressel, H.Y.; Chao, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have studied the sensitivity and specificity of the line-volume chemical-shift imaging (CSI) method as compared with the Dixon method they have recently implemented on a Signa, which supports a variety of options. Potential sources or error for the Dixon method include line broadening due to susceptibility, field inhomogeneity, and errors form olefinic resonances associated with fat, which behave like water in the Dixon regime. The authors investigate whether a combined Dixon/line-volume CSI method could be used to improve the placement of the line volume and to provide higher sensitivity and specificity than does the Dixon method alone

  20. Electromagnetically induced transparency line shapes for large probe fields and optically thick media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, M. V.; Camacho, R. M.; Howell, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the line shape and linewidths for electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in optically thick, Doppler broadened media (buffer gasses are also considered). In generalizing the definition of the EIT linewidth to optically thick media, we find two different linewidth definitions apply depending on whether the experiment is pulsed or continuous wave (cw). Using the cw definition for the EIT line shape we derive analytic expressions describing the linewidth as a function of optical depth. We also review the EIT line shapes in optically thin media and provide physical arguments for how the line shapes change as a function of various parameters

  1. New approximations for the Doppler broadening function applied to the calculation of resonance self-shielding factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Daniel A.; Goncalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C.

    2008-01-01

    The activation technique allows much more precise measurements of neutron intensity, relative or absolute. The technique requires the knowledge of the Doppler broadening function ψ(x,ξ) to determine the resonance self-shielding factors in the epithermal range G epi (τ,ξ). Two new analytical approximations for the Doppler broadening function ψ(x,ξ) are proposed. The approximations proposed are compared with other methods found in literature for the calculation of the ψ(x,ξ) function, that is, the 4-pole Pade method and the Frobenius method, when applied to the calculation of G epi (τ,ξ). The results obtained provided satisfactory accuracy. (authors)

  2. Point defects in MnSi and YBCO studied by Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy using a positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiner, Markus

    2015-10-28

    The positron beam NEPOMUC was used in order to investigate MnSi and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (YBCO) single crystals. The Doppler broadening of the annihilation radiation of electron-positron pairs was analyzed. Thus, the concentration of Mn vacancies in MnSi crystals was determined. In thin YBCO films, the Doppler broadening is correlated with the oxygen deficiency δ. Its spatial distribution and its high-temperature behavior were studied using positrons.

  3. Calculation of the Doppler broadening of the electron-positron annihilation radiation in defect-free bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, V. J.; Alatalo, M.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K. G.; Kruseman, A. C.; Mijnarends, P. E.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a calculation of the Doppler broadening of the positron-electron annihilation radiation and positron lifetimes in a large number of elemental defect-free materials are presented. A simple scheme based on the method of superimposed atoms is used for these calculations. Calculated values of the Doppler broadening are compared with experimental data for a number of elemental materials, and qualitative agreement is obtained. These results provide a database which can be used for characterizing materials and identifying impurity-vacancy complexes. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  4. Water-vapor absorption line measurements in the 940-nm band by using a Raman-shifted dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiping; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Singh, Upendra N.

    1993-01-01

    We report water-vapor absorption line measurements that are made by using the first Stokes radiation (930-982 nm) with HWHM 0.015/cm generated by a narrow-linewidth, tunable dye laser. Forty-five absorption line strengths are measured with an uncertainty of 6 percent and among them are fourteen strong lines that are compared with previous measurements for the assessment of spectral purity of the light source. Thirty air-broadened linewidths are measured with 8 percent uncertainty at ambient atmospheric pressure with an average of 0.101/cm. The lines are selected for the purpose of temperature-sensitive or temperature-insensitive lidar measurements. Results for these line strengths and linewidths are corrected for broadband radiation and finite laser linewidth broadening effects and compared with the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption.

  5. Strategies for Broadening Participation in the Geosciences: Lessons Learned From the UCAR-SOARSr Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    Broadening participation in the geosciences will advance our research, enhance our education and training, and improve our ability to meet societal needs. By attracting more diverse students, we will be better postioned to provide all our students the increasingly necessary and relevant experience of working in diverse teams. Because some traditionally underrepresented groups, particularly Latinos & Hispanics, are growing much faster than the population as a whole, broader participation will enlarge the pool of talented individuals contributing to the next generation of research. Finally the geosciences will be more effective and credible when the diversity of our nation is reflected in our workforce, especially as civic discourse includes more and more complex decisions about society's interactions with the Earth and its resources. The Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) seeks to broaden participation in geosciences by helping undergraduate students successfully transition to graduate programs in the atmospheric and related sciences. SOARS combines multiple research experiences, multifaceted mentoring, an encouraging community, and financial support to help students enter and succeed in graduate school. A central feature of the SOARS program is a ten-week summer immersion program in which protégés (SOARS participants) conduct scientific research at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) or at laboratories of SOARS sponsors. During this summer research experience, SOARS protégés are supported by up to four mentors: a science research mentor, a writing mentor, a community mentor, and a peer mentor. SOARS protégés collaborate with their mentors to perform original research, prepare scientific papers, and present their research at a colloquium. SOARS also provides extensive leadership and communication training; support for conference presentations and for graduate school; and a strong scholarly community that

  6. Strategies for broadening participation in the Maryland Sea Grant REU program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, F. C.; Kramer, J.; Allen, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    A core goal of the ocean science community is to increase gender and ethnic diversity in its scientific workforce. Maryland Sea Grant strives to provide women and students from underrepresented groups in marine science opportunities to participate in its NSF-supported Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program in estuarine processes. While women currently dominate the applicant student pool, and often the accepted student pool, we are trying a variety of strategies to increase the number of applicants and accepted students from underrepresented groups who might not otherwise be lured into marine science research and, ultimately, careers. For example, we have built partnerships with multicultural-focused undergraduate research programs and institutions, which can raise awareness about our REU program and its commitment to broadening diversity. Further, we work to attract first generation college students, students from small colleges with limited marine science opportunities and students from varied racial and ethnic backgrounds using such strategies as: 1) developing trust and partnerships with faculty at minority serving institutions; 2) expanding our outreach in advertising our program; 3) recruiting potential applicants at professional meetings; 4) targeting minority serving institutions within and beyond our region; 5) encouraging our REU alumni to promote our REU program among their peers; and 6) improving our application process. We believe these efforts contribute to the increase in the diversity of our summer-supported students and the change in the composition of our applicant pool over the last decade. Although we cannot definitively identify which strategies are the most effective at broadening participation in our program, we attribute most of our improvements to some combination of these strategies. In addition, pre- and post-surveying of our REU students improves our understanding of effective tools for recruiting and adapting our program

  7. An Age-Related Mechanism of Emotion Regulation: Regulating Sadness Promotes Children's Learning by Broadening Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation predicts positive academic outcomes like learning, but little is known about "why". Effective emotion regulation likely promotes learning by broadening the scope of what may be attended to after an emotional event. One hundred twenty-six 6- to 13-year-olds' (54% boys) regulation of sadness was examined for changes in…

  8. Theoretical evaluation of the Doppler broadening contribution to the angular resolution in CdZnTe Compton scattering detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Garcia, A.; Cabal Rodriguez, A.E.; Rubio Rodriguez, J. A.; Salicio Diez, J.; Perez Morales, J.M.; Vela Morales, O.; Willmott Zappacosta, C.; Van Espen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Electronically collimated Compton Cameras have been tested in Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) systems instead of mechanically collimated gamma detectors in order to improve their limited sensitivity. One of the main factors that contribute to the worsening of the angular resolution and thus to the deterioration of the system spatial resolution is Doppler broadening. Double differential Klein-Nishina equation is used to consider the random movement of electron inside the crystal. It is important to perform this analysis for each particular material because is difficult to infer one simple Doppler broadening dependency of the atomic number Z. In high Z materials the internal electrons are strongly linked to the nucleus and therefore there can be found high momentums, but they represent just a small portion of the electrons that suffers Compton scattering. This work estimates the influence of the Doppler broadening in CdZnTe semiconductor for different incoming photon energies. For this means there are analyzed main Compton broadening processes in semiconductor Cd 0,8 Zn 0,2 Te with density ρ=5,85g/cm 3 . (Author)

  9. Local Talent: By Tapping into the Resources Just outside Their School Walls, Music Teachers Can Help Broaden Their Students' Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Mac

    2009-01-01

    Many music teachers across the country have learned how beneficial it can be to tap into the communities around them. The author discusses how music teachers can help broaden their students' horizons by tapping into the resources just outside their school walls. One way is by employing local talents. Another is to put an ad in nearby music stores,…

  10. Does Positive Affect Broaden and Negative Affect Narrow Attentional Scope? A New Answer to an Old Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The current research challenges the common view that positive affect and negative affect generate a broadened or narrowed attentional focus, respectively. Contrary to this view, two studies found that the link between affect and attentional focus as measured by a traditional flanker task (Study 1) and a modified flanker task (Study 2) reflects…

  11. 77 FR 2031 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Market Research To Broaden and Deepen U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... (Census), and Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im) have formed a project team to conduct market segmentation research and analysis. The market segmentation is a systematic approach for identifying clusters of... Request; Market Research To Broaden and Deepen U.S. Exporter Base AGENCY: International Trade...

  12. Mortality Salience and Positive Affect Influence Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities: Terror Management and Broaden and Build Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown…

  13. Action Potential Broadening in Capsaicin-Sensitive DRG Neurons from Frequency-Dependent Reduction of Kv3 Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin W; Blair, Nathaniel T; Bean, Bruce P

    2017-10-04

    Action potential (AP) shape is a key determinant of cellular electrophysiological behavior. We found that in small-diameter, capsaicin-sensitive dorsal root ganglia neurons corresponding to nociceptors (from rats of either sex), stimulation at frequencies as low as 1 Hz produced progressive broadening of the APs. Stimulation at 10 Hz for 3 s resulted in an increase in AP width by an average of 76 ± 7% at 22°C and by 38 ± 3% at 35°C. AP clamp experiments showed that spike broadening results from frequency-dependent reduction of potassium current during spike repolarization. The major current responsible for frequency-dependent reduction of overall spike-repolarizing potassium current was identified as Kv3 current by its sensitivity to low concentrations of 4-aminopyridine (IC 50 action potentials of small-diameter rat DRG neurons showed spike broadening at frequencies as low as 1 Hz and that spike broadening resulted predominantly from frequency-dependent inactivation of Kv3 channels. Spike width helps to control transmitter release, conduction velocity, and firing patterns and understanding the role of particular potassium channels can help to guide new pharmacological strategies for targeting pain-sensing neurons selectively. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/379705-10$15.00/0.

  14. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  15. Influence of Projection Operator on Oxygen Line Shapes and its effect on Rosseland-Mean Opacity in Stellar Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Thomas; Nagayama, Taisukue; Kilcrease, David; Hansen, Stephanie; Montgomery, Mike; Winget, Don

    2018-01-01

    The Rosseland-Mean opacity (RMO) is an important quantity in determining radiation transport through stars. The solar-convection-zone boundary predicted by the standard solar model disagrees with helioseismology measurements by many sigma; a 14% increase in the RMO would resolve this discrepancy. Experiments at Sandia National Laboratories are now measuring iron opacity at solar-interior conditions, and significant discrepancies are already observed. Highly-ionized oxygen is one of the dominant contributions to the RMO. The strongest line, Lyman alpha, is at the peak of the Rosseland weighting function. The accuracy of line-broadening calculations has been called into question due to various experimental results and comparisons between theory. We have developed an ab-initio calculation to explore different physical effects, our current focus is treating penetrating collisions explicitly. The equation of motion used to calculate line shapes within the relaxation and unified theories includes a projection operator, which performs an average over plasma electron states; this is neglected due to past calculations approximate treatment of penetrations. We now include this projection term explicitly, which results in a significant broadening of spectral lines from highly-charged ions (low-Z elements are not much affected). The additional broadening raises the O Ly-alpha wing opacity by a factor of 5; we examine the consequences of this additional broadening on the Rosseland mean.

  16. Pre-precipitation studies in an Al-Zn alloy by positron Doppler broadening measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchanadeeswaran, S.; Plichta, M.R.; Byrne, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Positron annihilation studies using measurements of Doppler broadening of annihilation γ-rays have been carried out in an Al-8.5 wt% Zn alloy. More than 90% of positron trapping is believed to occur at GP zones formed on quenching the supersaturated solid solution. The dissolution of GP zones above 373 K was revealed by drastic narrowing of the Doppler energy spectrum for samples aged above 373 K. The kinetics of formation of GP zones at ambient temperatures is drastically reduced when the alloy containing GP zones formed during quenching from supersaturated solid solution was reverted at 403 K and reaged at ambient temperature. It was also observed that, even after long reageing, the total number of GP zones formed is much lower than in a directly quenched alloy. The kinetics of formation of GP zones are also reduced by quenching from a single phase to an intermediate temperature where GP zones are not stable, followed by ageing at ambient temperature. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the presence of dislocation loops in alloys quenched from temperature above 773 K. The sensitivity of positrons to the presence of dislocation loops was analysed using the R parameter analysis. (author)

  17. Doppler Broadening Analysis of Steel Specimens Using Accelerator Based In Situ Pair Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarashvili, V.; Wells, D. P.; Roy, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) techniques can be utilized as a sensitive probe of defects in materials. Studying these microscopic defects is very important for a number of industries in order to predict material failure or structural integrity. We have been developing gamma-induced pair-production techniques to produce positrons in thick samples (∼4-40 g/cm 2 , or ∼0.5-5 cm in steel). These techniques are called 'Accelerator-based Gamma-induced Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy'(AG-PAS). We have begun testing the capabilities of this technique for imaging of defect densities in thick structural materials. As a first step, a linear accelerator (LINAC) was employed to produce photon beams by stopping 15 MeV electrons in a 1 mm thick tungsten converter. The accelerator is capable of operating with 30-60 ns pulse width, up to 200 mA peak current at 1 kHz repetition rate. The highly collimated bremsstrahlung beam impinged upon our steel tensile specimens, after traveling through a 1.2 m thick concrete wall. Annihilation radiation was detected by a well-shielded and collimated high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Conventional Doppler broadening spectrometry (DBS) was performed to determine S, W and T parameters for our samples.

  18. Low Correlations between Intelligence and Big Five Personality Traits: Need to Broaden the Domain of Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Stankov

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The correlations between the measures of cognitive abilities and personality traits are known to be low. Our data based on the popular Big Five model of intelligence show that the highest correlations (up to r = 0.30 tend to occur with the Openness to Experience. Some recent developments in the studies of intelligence (e.g., emotional intelligence, complex problem solving and economic games indicate that this link may become stronger in future. Furthermore, our studies of the processes in the “no-man’s-land” between intelligence and personality suggest that the non-cognitive constructs are correlated with both. These include the measures of social conservatism and self-beliefs. Importantly, the Big Five measures do not tap into either the dark traits associated with social conservatism or self-beliefs that are known to be good predictors of academic achievement. This paper argues that the personality domain should be broadened to include new constructs that have not been captured by the lexical approach employed in the development of the Big Five model. Furthermore, since the measures of confidence have the highest correlation with cognitive performance, we suggest that the trait of confidence may be a driver that leads to the separation of fluid and crystallized intelligence during development.

  19. Application of Positron Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy to the Measurement of the Uniformity of Composite Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarles, C. A.; Sheffield, Thomas; Stacy, Scott; Yang, Chun

    2009-01-01

    The uniformity of rubber-carbon black composite materials has been investigated with positron Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy (DBS). The number of grams of carbon black (CB) mixed into one hundred grams of rubber, phr, is used to characterize a sample. A typical concentration for rubber in tires is 50 phr. The S parameter measured by DBS has been found to depend on the phr of the sample as well as the type of rubber and carbon black. The variation in carbon black concentration within a surface area of about 5 mm diameter can be measured by moving a standard Na-22 or Ge-68 positron source over an extended sample. The precision of the concentration measurement depends on the dwell time at a point on the sample. The time required to determine uniformity over an extended sample can be reduced by running with much higher counting rate than is typical in DBS and correcting for the systematic variation of S parameter with counting rate. Variation in CB concentration with mixing time at the level of about 0.5% has been observed.

  20. Phonon characteristics of high Tc superconductors from neutron Doppler broadening measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trela, W.J.; Kwei, G.H.; Lynn, J.E.; Meggers, K.

    1994-01-01

    Statistical information on the phonon frequency spectrum of materials can be measured by neutron transmission techniques if they contain nuclei with low energy resonances, narrow enough to be Doppler-broadened, in their neutron cross sections. The authors have carried out some measurements using this technique for materials of the lanthanum barium cuprate class, La 2-x Ba x CuO 4 . Two samples with slightly different concentrations of oxygen, one being superconductive, the other not, were examined. Pure lanthanum cuprate was also measured. Lanthanum, barium and copper all have relatively low energy narrow resonances. Thus it should be possible to detect differences in the phonons carried by different kinds of atom in the lattice. Neutron cross section measurements have been made with high energy resolution and statistical precision on the 59m flight path of LANSCE, the pulsed spallation neutron source at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Measurements on all three materials were made over a range of temperatures from 15K to 300K, with small steps through the critical temperature region near 27K. No significant changes in the mean phonon energy of the lanthanum atoms were observed near the critical temperature of the super-conducting material. It appears however that the mean phonon energy of lanthanum in the superconductor is considerably higher than that in the non-superconductors. The samples used in this series of experiments were too thin in barium and copper to determine anything significant about their phonon spectra

  1. Attenuating the alcohol allure: attentional broadening reduces rapid motivational response to alcohol pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, Nicole C; Neal, Lauren B; Gable, Philip A

    2017-04-01

    Past research has found that exposure to alcohol cues causes a narrowing of attentional scope and enhances the neural responses associated with approach motivation. The current research sought to determine if a manipulated broadened (global) attentional scope would reduce approach-motivated neural reactivity to alcohol pictures. In the current study, participants (n = 82) were exposed to alcohol and neutral pictures following either a global or local attentional scope manipulation. Early motivated attentional processing was assessed using the N1 event-related potential (ERP), a neurophysiological marker of rapid motivated attention. A global attentional scope reduced N1 amplitudes to alcohol pictures as compared to a local attentional scope. Self-reported binge drinking related to larger N1 amplitudes to alcohol pictures, but not to neutral pictures. Individuals with greater binge drinking experience demonstrated increased rapid motivated attentional processing to alcohol pictures. These results suggest that enhancing a global (vs. local) attentional scope attenuates rapid motivated attentional processing of alcohol pictures in comparison to neutral pictures. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  2. Helium implanted Eurofer97 characterized by positron beam Doppler broadening and Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, I., E-mail: i.carvalho@m2i.nl [Materials Innovation Institute (M2i), Delft (Netherlands); Schut, H. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Fedorov, A.; Luzginova, N. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Desgardin, P. [CEMHTI-CNRS, 3A Rue de la Férolerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex (France); Sietsma, J. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic steels are being extensively studied because of their foreseen application in fusion and Generation IV fission reactors. To produce irradiation induced defects, Eurofer97 samples were implanted with helium at energies of 500 keV and 2 MeV and doses of 1 × 10{sup 15}–10{sup 16} He/cm{sup 2}, creating atomic displacements in the range 0.07–0.08 dpa. The implantation induced defects were characterized by positron beam Doppler Broadening (DB) and Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS). Results show that up to ∼600 K peaks that can be attributed to He desorption from overpressured He{sub n}V{sub m} (n > m) clusters and vacancy assisted mechanism in the case of helium in the substitutional position. The temperature range 600–1200 K is related to the formation of larger clusters He{sub n}V{sub m} (n < m). The dissociation of the HeV and the phase transition attributed to a sharp peak in the TDS spectra at 1200 K. Above this temperature, the release of helium from bubbles is observed.

  3. The influence of coordinated defects on inhomogeneous broadening in cubic lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheson, P. L., E-mail: phil.matheson@uvu.edu; Sullivan, Francis P.; Evenson, William E. [Utah Valley University, Department of Physics (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The joint probability distribution function (JPDF) of electric field gradient (EFG) tensor components in cubic materials is dominated by coordinated pairings of defects in shells near probe nuclei. The contributions from these inner shell combinations and their surrounding structures contain the essential physics that determine the PAC-relevant quantities derived from them. The JPDF can be used to predict the nature of inhomogeneous broadening (IHB) in perturbed angular correlation (PAC) experiments by modeling the G{sub 2} spectrum and finding expectation values for V{sub zz} and η. The ease with which this can be done depends upon the representation of the JPDF. Expanding on an earlier work by Czjzek et al. (Hyperfine Interact. 14, 189–194, 1983), Evenson et al. (Hyperfine Interact. 237, 119, 2016) provide a set of coordinates constructed from the EFG tensor invariants they named W{sub 1} and W{sub 2}. Using this parameterization, the JPDF in cubic structures was constructed using a point charge model in which a single trapped defect (TD) is the nearest neighbor to a probe nucleus. Individual defects on nearby lattice sites pair with the TD to provide a locus of points in the W{sub 1}−W{sub 2} plane around which an amorphous-like distribution of probability density grows. Interestingly, however, marginal, separable PDFs appear adequate to model IHB relevant cases. We present cases from simulations in cubic materials illustrating the importance of these near-shell coordinations.

  4. Broadening perspectives on trauma and recovery: a socio-interpersonal view of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercker, Andreas; Hecker, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the very few mental disorders that requires by definition an environmental context-a traumatic event or events-as a precondition for diagnosis. Both trauma sequelae and recovery always occur in the context of social-interpersonal contexts, for example, in interaction with a partner, family, the community, and the society. The present paper elaborates and extends the social-interpersonal framework model of PTSD. This was developed to complement other intrapersonally focused models of PTSD, which emphasize alterations in an individual's memory, cognitions, or neurobiology. Four primary reasons for broadening the perspective from the individual to the interpersonal-societal contexts are discussed. The three layers of the model (social affects, close relationships, and culture and society) are outlined. We further discuss additional insights and benefits of the social-interpersonal perspective for the growing field of research regarding resilience after traumatic experiences. The paper closes with an outlook on therapy approaches and interventions considering this broader social-interpersonal perspective on PTSD.

  5. The HERMES recoil photon-detector and nuclear p{sub t}-Broadening at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarlem, Y. van

    2007-09-15

    The first part of this work consists of hardware research and development done in order to construct and test a photon-detector as one of the three detectors of the HERMES recoil detector. The HERMES recoil detector consists of a target cell, a silicon-detector, a scintillating fiber tracker, and a photon-detector. All are inside a super-conducting magnet. The silicon detector uses energy deposition to determine the momentum of the particle because in its energy range the energy deposition is an unambiguous function of the momentum of the particle. The scintillating fiber tracker is located outside the beam-vacuum and is surrounded by the photon-detector. It consists of two barrels with layers of scintillating fibers. It detects particles by converting their energy deposition into light. It measures two space points of a charged particle and from the bending of the assigned track (in the magnetic field provided by the super-conducting magnet) a momentum measurement can be derived. The photon-detector is located between the scintillating fiber tracker and the magnet. It consists (from the inside out) of three layers of tungsten showering material followed by scintillating strips. The second part of this work is an analysis performed concerning the transverse momentum broadening of hadrons produced in deep-inelastic scattering on a nuclear target compared to a D target. (orig.)

  6. Broadening the trans-contextual model of motivation: A study with Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cutre, D; Sicilia, Á; Beas-Jiménez, M; Hagger, M S

    2014-08-01

    The original trans-contextual model of motivation proposed that autonomy support from teachers develops students' autonomous motivation in physical education (PE), and that autonomous motivation is transferred from PE contexts to physical activity leisure-time contexts, and predicts attitudes, perceived behavioral control and subjective norms, and forming intentions to participate in future physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to test an extended trans-contextual model of motivation including autonomy support from peers and parents and basic psychological needs in a Spanish sample. School students (n = 400) aged between 12 and 18 years completed measures of perceived autonomy support from three sources, autonomous motivation and constructs from the theory of planned behavior at three different points in time and in two contexts, PE and leisure-time. A path analysis controlling for past physical activity behavior supported the main postulates of the model. Autonomous motivation in a PE context predicted autonomous motivation in a leisure-time physical activity context, perceived autonomy support from teachers predicted satisfaction of basic psychological needs in PE, and perceived autonomy support from peers and parents predicted need satisfaction in leisure-time. This study provides a cross-cultural replication of the trans-contextual model of motivation and broadens it to encompass basic psychological needs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dams and Displacement: Raising the Standards and Broadening the Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke McDonald-Wilmsen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams provided an analytical overview of the cumulative effects of years of dam development. A lack of commitment or capacity to cope with displacement or to consider the civil rights of, or risks to, displaced people led to the impoverishment and suffering of tens of millions and growing opposition to dams by affected communities worldwide. However, after the WCD, little has changed for the better in terms of resettlement policies. In fact, the standards of key agencies, like the Asian Development Bank, have been lowered and diluted compared to prior policies. Dam-induced development and displacement are stifled by a 'managerialist' approach to planning, in which solutions are sought internally and subordinated to the economics that underpins the existence of the project. The aim of successful resettlement is to prevent impoverishment and to enable displaced people to share in the project’s benefits. Within the field of dam-induced resettlement, this is a lofty goal rarely achieved. However, in other fields of resettlement, such as refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change, such a goal is regarded as a minimum standard. In this paper we seek to broaden the research agenda on dam-induced resettlement and to raise the standards of development projects that entail resettlement. We do this by importing some of the considerations and concerns from practice and research from the fields of refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change.

  8. Broadening perspectives on trauma and recovery: a socio-interpersonal view of PTSD†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Maercker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is one of the very few mental disorders that requires by definition an environmental context—a traumatic event or events—as a precondition for diagnosis. Both trauma sequelae and recovery always occur in the context of social–interpersonal contexts, for example, in interaction with a partner, family, the community, and the society. The present paper elaborates and extends the social–interpersonal framework model of PTSD. This was developed to complement other intrapersonally focused models of PTSD, which emphasize alterations in an individual's memory, cognitions, or neurobiology. Four primary reasons for broadening the perspective from the individual to the interpersonal–societal contexts are discussed. The three layers of the model (social affects, close relationships, and culture and society are outlined. We further discuss additional insights and benefits of the social–interpersonal perspective for the growing field of research regarding resilience after traumatic experiences. The paper closes with an outlook on therapy approaches and interventions considering this broader social–interpersonal perspective on PTSD.

  9. Helium implanted RAFM steels studied by positron beam Doppler Broadening and Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, I; Schut, H; Fedorov, A; Luzginova, N; Desgardin, P; Sietsma, J

    2013-01-01

    Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic steels are being extensively studied because of their foreseen application in fusion and Generation IV fission reactors. To mimic neutron irradiation conditions, Eurofer97 samples were implanted with helium ions at energies of 500 keV and 2 MeV and doses of 5x10 15 -10 16 He /cm 2 , creating atomic displacements in the range 0.07–0.08 dpa. The implantation induced defects were characterized by positron beam Doppler Broadening (DB) and Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS). The DB data could be fitted with one or two layers of material, depending on the He implantation energy. The S and W values obtained for the implanted regions suggest the presence of not only vacancy clusters but also positron traps of the type present in a sub-surface region found on the reference sample. The traps found in the implanted layers are expected to be He n V m clusters. For the 2 MeV, 10 16 He/cm 2 implanted sample, three temperature regions can be observed in the TDS data. Peaks below 450 K can be ascribed to He released from vacancies in the neighbourhood of the surface, the phase transition is found at 1180 K and the peak at 1350 K is likely caused by the migration of bubbles.

  10. Intrinsic homogeneous linewidth and broadening mechanisms of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Moody, Galan

    2015-09-18

    The band-edge optical response of transition metal dichalcogenides, an emerging class of atomically thin semiconductors, is dominated by tightly bound excitons localized at the corners of the Brillouin zone (valley excitons). A fundamental yet unknown property of valley excitons in these materials is the intrinsic homogeneous linewidth, which reflects irreversible quantum dissipation arising from system (exciton) and bath (vacuum and other quasiparticles) interactions and determines the timescale during which excitons can be coherently manipulated. Here we use optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy to measure the exciton homogeneous linewidth in monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2). The homogeneous linewidth is found to be nearly two orders of magnitude narrower than the inhomogeneous width at low temperatures. We evaluate quantitatively the role of exciton–exciton and exciton–phonon interactions and population relaxation as linewidth broadening mechanisms. The key insights reported here—strong many-body effects and intrinsically rapid radiative recombination—are expected to be ubiquitous in atomically thin semiconductors.

  11. Perceived workplace harassment experiences and problem drinking among physicians: broadening the stress/alienation paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J A; Flaherty, J A; Rospenda, K M

    1996-03-01

    Sociologists who embrace the stress or alienation paradigms generally focus on explaining problem drinking in low status occupations. By contrast, this paper argues that a broadened conceptualization of stress and alienation which incorporates abusive work relationships has utility for explaining male and female drinking outcomes in both high and low status occupations. We provide empirical data on the relationship between perceived abusive experiences and drinking outcomes in a cohort of male and female physicians in their internship year of training. The data show that perceived sexual harassment, discriminatory treatment and psychological humiliation relate to various drinking outcomes in men and women, controlling for drinking prior to the internship year. While females were more likely to report experiencing abuse, these perceived experiences had deleterious effects on drinking outcomes for both genders. Personal vulnerability (narcissism) brought into the training environment somewhat influenced the later reporting of abusive experiences by males but not by females. Regression analyses showed that, for both males and females, work-place abusive experiences in interaction with personality vulnerability best explained drinking outcomes. The implications of these results for the design of future alcohol-related work-place studies are discussed.

  12. Intensity dependence narrowing of electromagnetically induced absorption in a Doppler-broadened medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, J.; Arsenovic, D.; Jelenkovic, B. M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical model for studying the interaction between linearly polarized laser light and near-degenerated Zeeman sublevels for a multiple V-type atomic system of 2 S 1/2 F g =2→ 2 P 3/2 F e =3 transition in 87 Rb. We have calculated the laser absorption in a Hanle configuration, as well as the amplitudes and the widths of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in the range of laser intensities from 0.01 to 40 mW/cm 2 . Our results, showing nonvanishing EIA amplitude, a nonmonotonic increase of the EIA width for the increase of laser intensity, and pronounced shape differences of the Hanle EIA curves at different laser intensities, are in good agreement with recent experimental results. We have found that the EIA behaves differently than the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) as a function of the laser intensity. Both the amplitude and width of the EIA have narrow maximums at 1 to 2 mW/cm 2 . We have shown the strong influence of Doppler broadening of atomic transition on Hanle resonances and have suggested the explanation of it

  13. Broadening of cloud droplet spectra through turbulent entrainment and eddy hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abade, Gustavo; Grabowski, Wojciech; Pawlowska, Hanna

    2017-11-01

    This work discusses the effect of cloud turbulence and turbulent entrainment on the evolution of the cloud droplet-size spectrum. We simulate an ensemble of idealized turbulent cloud parcels that are subject to entrainment events, modeled as a random Poisson process. Entrainment events, subsequent turbulent mixing inside the parcel, supersaturation fluctuations, and the resulting stochastic droplet growth by condensation are simulated using a Monte Carlo scheme. Quantities characterizing the turbulence intensity, entrainment rate and the mean fraction of environmental air entrained in an event are specified as external parameters. Cloud microphysics is described by applying Lagrangian particles, the so-called superdroplets. They are either unactivated cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or cloud droplets that form from activated CCN. The model accounts for the transport of environmental CCN into the cloud by the entraining eddies at the cloud edge. Turbulent mixing of the entrained dry air with cloudy air is described using a linear model. We show that turbulence plays an important role in aiding entrained CCN to activate, providing a source of small cloud droplets and thus broadening the droplet size distribution. Further simulation results will be reported at the meeting.

  14. Phonon characteristics of high {Tc} superconductors from neutron Doppler broadening measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trela, W.J.; Kwei, G.H.; Lynn, J.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Meggers, K. [Univ. of Kiel (Germany)

    1994-12-01

    Statistical information on the phonon frequency spectrum of materials can be measured by neutron transmission techniques if they contain nuclei with low energy resonances, narrow enough to be Doppler-broadened, in their neutron cross sections. The authors have carried out some measurements using this technique for materials of the lanthanum barium cuprate class, La{sub 2{minus}x}Ba{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. Two samples with slightly different concentrations of oxygen, one being superconductive, the other not, were examined. Pure lanthanum cuprate was also measured. Lanthanum, barium and copper all have relatively low energy narrow resonances. Thus it should be possible to detect differences in the phonons carried by different kinds of atom in the lattice. Neutron cross section measurements have been made with high energy resolution and statistical precision on the 59m flight path of LANSCE, the pulsed spallation neutron source at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Measurements on all three materials were made over a range of temperatures from 15K to 300K, with small steps through the critical temperature region near 27K. No significant changes in the mean phonon energy of the lanthanum atoms were observed near the critical temperature of the super-conducting material. It appears however that the mean phonon energy of lanthanum in the superconductor is considerably higher than that in the non-superconductors. The samples used in this series of experiments were too thin in barium and copper to determine anything significant about their phonon spectra.

  15. ExoCross: Spectra from molecular line lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Al-Refaie, Ahmed; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2018-03-01

    ExoCross generates spectra and thermodynamic properties from molecular line lists in ExoMol, HITRAN, or several other formats. The code is parallelized and also shows a high degree of vectorization; it works with line profiles such as Doppler, Lorentzian and Voigt and supports several broadening schemes. ExoCross is also capable of working with the recently proposed method of super-lines. It supports calculations of lifetimes, cooling functions, specific heats and other properties. ExoCross converts between different formats, such as HITRAN, ExoMol and Phoenix, and simulates non-LTE spectra using a simple two-temperature approach. Different electronic, vibronic or vibrational bands can be simulated separately using an efficient filtering scheme based on the quantum numbers.

  16. Theoretical profiles of the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H.; Herman, L.; Drawin, H.W.

    1965-01-01

    The line-broadening problem of the hydrogen lines has been formulated in the quasistatic approximation as far as the ions are concerned, and in the classical path approximation as far as the broadening due to collisions with electrons is concerned. These electrons interfere in different numerical results only by the self-correlation function of the fluctuating electrical field strength created at each point in the plasma. The Lewis correction has been applied, but using the whole velocity distribution function of the electrons. The formula which represents the usual impact profile, valid only for frequencies much smaller than the plasma frequency, has been extended using another formula which will be valid up to the neighbourhood of that spectral region where the quasi-static approximation begins to be valid also for the electrons. As an example, the line profile of Ly α is given by some graphs for T = 10 4 deg. K and electron densities N = 10 17 cm -3 and N = 10 18 cm -3 . (authors) [fr

  17. Multimode electromagnetically induced transparency on a single atomic line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Geoff; Ordog, Anna; Lvovsky, A I

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally investigate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) created on an inhomogeneously broadened 5S 1/2 -5P 1/2 transition in rubidium vapor using a control field of a complex temporal shape. A comb-shaped transparency spectrum enhances the delay-bandwidth product and the light storage capacity for a matched probe pulse by a factor of about 50 compared to a single EIT line (Yavuz 2007 Phys. Rev. A 75 031801). If the temporal mode of the control field is slowly changed while the probe is propagating through the EIT medium, the probe will adiabatically follow, providing a means to perform frequency conversion and optical routing.

  18. Life on the Number Line: Routes to Understanding Fraction Magnitude for Students With Difficulties Learning Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, Russell; Schumacher, Robin F; Jordan, Nancy C

    Magnitude understanding is critical for students to develop a deep understanding of fractions and more advanced mathematics curriculum. The research reports in this special issue underscore magnitude understanding for fractions and emphasize number lines as both an assessment and an instructional tool. In this commentary, we discuss how number lines broaden the concept of fractions for students who are tied to the more general part-whole representations of area models. We also discuss how number lines, compared to other representations, are a superior and more mathematically correct way to explain fraction concepts.

  19. Statistical correlation of spectral broadening in VLF transmitter signal and low-frequency ionospheric turbulence from observation on DEMETER satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rozhnoi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In our earlier papers we have found the effect of VLF transmitter signal depression over epicenters of the large earthquakes from observation on the French DEMETER satellite that can be considered as new method of global diagnostics of seismic influence on the ionosphere. At present paper we investigate a possibility VLF signal-ionospheric turbulence interaction using additional characteristic of VLF signal-spectrum broadening. This characteristic is important for estimation of the interaction type: linear or nonlinear scattering. Our main results are the following:
    – There are two zones of increased spectrum broadening, which are centered near magnetic latitudes Φ=±10° and Φ=±40°. Basing on the previous case study research and ground ionosonde registrations, probably it is evidence of nonlinear (active scattering of VLF signal on the ionospheric turbulence. However occurrence rate of spectrum broadening in the middle-latitude area is higher than in the near-equatorial zone (~15–20% in comparison with ~100% in former area that is probably coincides with the rate of ionospheric turbulence.
    – From two years statistics of observation in the selected 3 low-latitude regions and 1 middle-latitude region inside reception area of VLF signal from NWC transmitter we find a correlation of spectrum broadening neither with ion-cyclotron noise (f=150–500 Hz, which possibly means poor representation of the turbulence by the noise due to its mixture with natural ELF emission (which correlates with whistler, nor with magnetic storm activity.
    – We find rather evident correlation of ion-cyclotron frequency noise, VLF signal depression and weak correlation of spectrum broadening with seismicity in the middle-latitude region over Japan. But in the low-latitude regions we do not find such a correlation. Statistical decrease of VLF signal supports our previous case study results. However rather weak spectrum broadening

  20. Study of early laser-induced plasma dynamics: Transient electron density gradients via Thomson scattering and Stark Broadening, and the implications on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, P.K.; Hahn, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    To further develop laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an analytical technique, it is necessary to better understand the fundamental processes and mechanisms taking place during the plasma evolution. This paper addresses the very early plasma dynamics (first 100 ns) using direct plasma imaging, light scattering, and transmission measurements from a synchronized 532-nm probe laser pulse. During the first 50 ns following breakdown, significant Thomson scattering was observed while the probe laser interacted with the laser-induced plasma. The Thomson scattering was observed to peak 15-25 ns following plasma initiation and then decay rapidly, thereby revealing the highly transient nature of the free electron density and plasma equilibrium immediately following breakdown. Such an intense free electron density gradient is suggestive of a non-equilibrium, free electron wave generated by the initial breakdown and growth processes. Additional probe beam transmission measurements and electron density measurements via Stark broadening of the 500.1-nm nitrogen ion line corroborate the Thomson scattering observations. In concert, the data support the finding of a highly transient plasma that deviates from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions during the first tens of nanoseconds of plasma lifetime. The implications of this early plasma transient behavior are discussed in the context of plasma-analyte interactions and the role on LIBS measurements

  1. Revisiting the four-level inverted-Y system under both Doppler-free and Doppler-broadened conditions: an analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Arindam; Islam, Khairul; Bandyopadhyay, Amitava; Bhattacharyya, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    We report the occurrence of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the simulated probe response signal for a four-level inverted-Y type system that is being acted upon by a weak coherent probe field, a strong coherent pump field and a coherent repump field. There are two ground energy levels, one intermediate energy level and one uppermost energy level. The weak probe field couples the lowest ground level to the intermediate level whereas the repump field connects the other ground level with the intermediate level. The strong control field couples the intermediate level with the uppermost energy level, thereby forming an inverted-Y type system. The density matrix based theoretical model has been developed and solved analytically for this four-level system and the probe response signal has been simulated at different values of the control and repump Rabi frequencies, control and repump frequency detunings and under both Doppler-free and Doppler-broadened conditions using the parameters of 87 Rb D 2 transition. Extremely low line width (few tens of kHz) for the EIT signal has been noticed under thermal averaging for copropagating probe, control and repump field configuration. The EIT signal is found to be immune to the variation in the control Rabi frequency. (paper)

  2. Understanding and diminishing the extra-column band broadening effects in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Ruben; Shoykhet Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

    2015-07-17

    Supercritical fluid chromatography, where a low-viscosity mobile phase such as carbon dioxide is used, proves to be an excellent technique for fast and efficient separations, especially when sub-2μm particles are used. However, to achieve high velocities when using these small particles, and in order to stay within the flow rate range of current SFC-instruments, narrow columns (e.g. 2.1mm ID) must be used. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art instrumentation is limiting the full separation power of these narrower columns due to significant extra-column band broadening effects. The present work identifies and quantifies the different contributions to extra-column band broadening in SFC such as the influence of the sample solvent, injection volume, extra-column volumes and detector cell volume/design. When matching the sample solvent to the mobile phase in terms of elution strength and polarity (e.g. using hexane/ethanol/isopropanol 85/10/5vol%) and lowering the injection volume to 0.4μL, the plate count can be increased from 7600 to 21,300 for a low-retaining compound (k'=2.3) on a 2.1mm×150mm column (packed with 1.8μm particles). The application of a water/acetonitrile mixture as sample solvent was also investigated. It was found that when the volumetric ratio of water/acetonitrile was optimized, only a slightly lower plate count was measured compared to the hexane-based solvent when minimizing injection and extra-column volume. This confirms earlier results that water/acetonitrile can be used if water-soluble samples are considered or when a less volatile solvent is preferred. Minimizing the ID of the connection capillaries from 250 to 65μm, however, gives no further improvement in obtained efficiency for early-eluting compounds when a standard system configuration with optimized sample solvent was used. When switching to a state-of-the-art detector design with reduced (dispersion) volume (1.7-0.6μL), an increase in plate count is observed (from 11,000 to 14

  3. A New Norm: Using Social Science to Create Disruptive Innovations for Broadening Participation in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessi L.

    2016-03-01

    Norms often operate outside conscious awareness and limit broad participation in physics and STEM fields more generally. This presentation identifies several of these norms and provides empirically tested disruptions at three academic points: faculty, graduate, and undergraduate. First, is a focus on broadening the participation of women science faculty through an intervention aimed at supporting faculty search committees. Using a randomized control trail design, results show searches in the intervention were 6.3 times more likely to make an offer to a woman candidate, and these women were 5.8 times more likely to accept the offer from an intervention search. A diverse faculty can help disrupt the norms of their field's understanding about brilliance and effort, which can appeal to -or repel- potential graduate students. Using a randomized control trial design, recruitment materials for a science graduate program were manipulated to emphasize effort versus innate ability as the norm. Results show emphasizing effort as normal to achieve success in the male-dominated graduate program elevated women's motivation to purse and persist in graduate studies. Of course, before a student will consider graduate school, they must see themselves as a scientist. Data from a survey at three universities showed undergraduate women in physics lab classes were less likely to identify as a scientist when they were concerned about being stereotyped and could not see how physics was useful or helpful to society. Identifying and disrupting social norms can help create an inclusive learning and working context with far-reaching benefits. National Science Foundation Award HRD-1208831 and HRD-1036767.

  4. Broadening participation in community problem solving: a multidisciplinary model to support collaborative practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Roz D; Weiss, Elisa S

    2003-03-01

    Over the last 40 years, thousands of communities-in the United States and internationally-have been working to broaden the involvement of people and organizations in addressing community-level problems related to health and other areas. Yet, in spite of this experience, many communities are having substantial difficulty achieving their collaborative objective, and many funders of community partnerships and participation initiatives are looking for ways to get more out of their investment. One of the reasons we are in this predicament is that the practitioners and researchers who are interested in community collaboration come from a variety of contexts, initiatives, and academic disciplines, and few of them have integrated their work with experiences or literatures beyond their own domain. In this article, we seek to overcome some of this fragmentation of effort by presenting a multidisciplinary model that lays out the pathways by which broadly participatory processes lead to more effective community problem solving and to improvements in community health. The model, which builds on a broad array of practical experience as well as conceptual and empirical work in multiple fields, is an outgrowth of a joint-learning work group that was organized to support nine communities in the Turning Point initiative. Following a detailed explication of the model, the article focuses on the implications of the model for research, practice, and policy. It describes how the model can help researchers answer the fundamental effectiveness and "how-to" questions related to community collaboration. In addition, the article explores differences between the model and current practice, suggesting strategies that can help the participants in, and funders of, community collaborations strengthen their efforts.

  5. An International Coastline Collaboratory to Broaden Scientific Impacts of a Subduction Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, P.

    2015-12-01

    A global Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO) presents an exciting opportunity to broaden involvement in scientific research and to ensure multidisciplinary impact. Most subduction zones feature dynamic interactions of the seafloor, the coastline, and the onshore environments also being perturbed by global climate change. Tectonic deformation, physical environment changes (temperature and chemistry), and resulting ecological shifts (intertidal population redistribution, etc.) are all basic observables for important scientific investigation. Yet even simple baseline studies like repeated transects of intertidal biological communities are rare. A coordinated program of such studies would document the local variability across time and spatial scales, permit comparisons with other subducting coastlines, and extend the reach and importance of other SZO studies. One goal is to document the patterns, and separate the component causes of, coastal uplift and subsidence and ecological response to a subduction zone earthquake using a database of pre-event biological and surveying observations. Observations would be directed by local scientists using students and trained volunteers as observers, under the auspices of local educational entities and using standardized sampling and reporting methods. The observations would be added to the global, Internet-accessible, database for use by the entire scientific community. Data acquisition and analysis supports the educational missions of local schools and universities, forming the basis for educational programs. All local programs would be coordinated by an international panel convened by the SZO. The facility would include a web-hosted lecture series and an annual web conference to aid organization and collaboration. Small grants could support more needy areas. This SZO collaboratory advances not only scientific literacy, but also multinational collaboration and scholarship, and (most importantly) produces important scientific results.

  6. Electron irradiation effect of polyurethane using coincidence doppler-broadening spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.J.; Zhang, J.D.; Leung, J.K.C.; Beling, C.D.; Liu, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: To understand the electron irradiation effects on polymer, polyether-urethane (ETPU) samples of 2m m in thickness and 1 0 m m in diameter were irradiated by a 1.8M eV electron beam with beam current of 3 ma at room temperature. The irradiated doses are 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 15 kGy, 30 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. ETPU was manufactured by mixing PTMG-100, TDI-100 and MOCA. The momentum density distributions (MMDs) of electrons taking part in the annihilation processes of positron-electron pairs in ETPU have been measured by coincidence Doppler-broadening spectroscopy (CDBS). By presenting the ratio of the counts in every channel of the measured CDB spectrum to the corresponding counts from a reference spectrum (pristine ETPU), we observed that the change in MMDs is not significant for doses lower than 10 kGy. However, high momentum part of MMDs exhibit an obvious decrease for dose exceeding 15 kGy and then slowly down to steady with doses until 150 kGy. This valley occurs at around 15 x1 0 3m οc and is well known as oxygen-specific, indicative of a less positron trapping by oxygen atoms in some samples of higher dose radiation. It is postulated that the radiation will break the crosslinkings, allowing the trace water and oxygen molecules to be released from the sample surface. Excess NCO groups in ETPU would crosslink with urethane and urea groups to produce allophanate and biuret groups. After receiving a certain amount of electron irradiation, crosslinked allophanate and biuret groups would produce degradation. Thus, residual water and oxygen trapped in ETPU by the crosslinking would diffuse out. However, the irradiation doses up to 150 kGy in this experiment are still not large enough to induce strong degradation of urethane and urea groups

  7. Genetic resources of perennial forage grasses in Serbia: Current state, broadening and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to historical background of vegetation development, geographical position, climate and relief, Serbia represents one of the 158 world biodiversity centres, based upon the number of plant species and territory size (biodiversity index 0.72. Large areas in Serbia are under natural grasslands and pastures, composed of forage grass species, and important as source of natural plant genetic diversity and germplasm for breeding. These eco-systems represent basic prerequisites for sustainable forage production, but very low potential of them is utilized and genetic resources are not protected. Family Poaceae is present in Serbia flora with 70 genera and among them from the aspect of forage production and quality, the most important are perennial Festuca, Lolium, Dactylis, Phleum, Bromus, Arrhenatherum, Poa and Agrostis species. Most of these grasses have been bred in Serbia and lot of cultivars were released. These cultivars contain autochthonous Serbian material and represent great and important resource of genetic variability. Therefore, collecting of new samples which are acclimatised to local eco-geographical conditions and including them in plant ex situ gene bank is of exceptional importance for further utilization in different plant breeding programmes as well as genetic resources protection. These autochthonous populations have natural variability and very often have satisfactory yielding performance in comparison with introduced cultivars, which referred them for direct phenotypic selection for cultivars release. Broadening of forage grasses genotypes collection is permanent objective of Serbian scientists. Collected accessions are being characterized and evaluated for important phenological, morphological and agronomical traits. In this paper genetic resources of forage grass species, their diversity and potentials, state of the grasses gene banks, as well as possibility for breeding of new cultivars has been analysed.

  8. Stark broadening in the laser-induced Cu I and Cu II spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skočić, M; Burger, M; Nikolić, Z; Bukvić, S; Djeniže, S

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present the Stark widths (W) of 22 neutral (Cu I) and 100 singly ionized (Cu II) copper spectral lines that have been measured at 18 400 K and 19 300 K electron temperatures and 6.3 × 10  22 m −3 and 2.1 × 10  23 m −3 electron densities, respectively. The experiment is conducted in the laser-induced plasma—the Nd:YAG laser, operating at 532 nm, was used to produce plasma from the copper sample in the residual air atmosphere at a pressure of 8 Pa. The electron temperature and density were estimated by the Boltzmann-plot method and from the Saha equation. The investigated Cu I lines belong to the 4s–4p′, 4s  2 –4p″ and 4p′–4d′ transitions while Cu II spectral lines belong to the 4s–4p, 4p–5s, 4p–4d, 4p–4s  2 , 4d–4f and 4d–v transitions. Comparison with existing experimental data was possible only in the case of 17 Cu II lines due to a lack of experimental and theoretical values. The rest of the data, Stark widths of 22 Cu I and 83 Cu II lines are published for the first time. (paper)

  9. Cable line engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong

    1998-02-01

    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  10. Scaling of the stochastic broadening from low mn, high mn, and peeling-ballooning magnetic perturbations in the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Michael; Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

    2009-11-01

    The equilibrium EFIT data for the DIII-D shot 115467 is used to construct the equilibrium generating function for magnetic field line trajectories in the DIII-D tokamak in natural canonical coordinates [A. Punjabi, and H. Ali, Phys. Plasmas 15, 122502 (2008)]. A canonical transformation is used to construct an area-preserving map for field line trajectories in the natural canonical coordinates in the DIII-D. Maps in natural canonical coordinates have the advantage that natural canonical coordinates can be inverted to calculate real space coordinates (R,Z,φ), and there is no problem in crossing the separatrix. This is not possible for magnetic coordinates [O. Kerwin, A. Punjabi, and H. Ali, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072504 (2008)]. This map is applied to calculate stochastic broadening from the low mn (m,n)=(1,1)+(1,-1); high mn (m,n)=(4,1)+(3,1); and the peeling-ballooning (m,n)=(40,10)+(30,10) magnetic perturbations. In all three cases, the scaling of the widths of stochastic layer near the X-point in the principal plane of the DIII-D deviates at most by 6% from the .5ex1 -.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 power Boozer-Rechester scaling [A. Boozer, and A. Rechester, Phys. Fluids 21, 682 (1978)]. This work is supported by US Department of Energy grants DE-FG02-07ER54937, DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793.

  11. ESR, thermoelectrical and positron annihilation Doppler broadening studies of CuZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-BaTiO{sub 3} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemeda, O.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Mahmoud, K.R. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh (Egypt); Sharshar, T. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Al-Hawiah, Taif, P.O. Box 888 Zip Code 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Elsheshtawy, M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Hamad, Mahmoud A., E-mail: m_hamad76@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); King Marriott Academy for Engineering & Technology, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2017-05-01

    Composite materials of Cu{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CZF) and barium titanate (BT) with different concentrations were prepared by high energy ball milling method. The composite samples of CZF and BT were studied using Infrared, ESR and positron annihilation Doppler broadening (PADB) spectroscopy techniques as well as thermo-electric power measurements. The results confirm formation of the composite, and presence of two ferrimagnetic and ferroelectric phases, simultaneously. In addition, Fe–O bond for both tetrahedral and octahedral sites, population and distribution of cations at A and B sites are varied with BT content. The values of resonance field, line width of ESR spectrum and charge carrier concentration increase by increasing BT content. The value of the g factor for our samples with low BT content is greater than g-factor value of the isolated free electron. On the contrary, the g-factor values for samples with high BT content are smaller than the free isolated electron. PADB line-shape S-parameter suggests that there are increases of the density of the delocalized electrons, defect size and concentration caused by highly adding BT phase. In addition, PADB results confirm the homogeneity of composite phases and same structure of defects in BT-CZF composite samples. - Highlights: • Composite materials of Cu{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CZF) and barium titanate (BT) were prepared. • The resonance field and charge carrier concentration increase by increasing BT. • there is increase of the density of delocalized electrons by highly adding BT. • In addition, PADB results confirm the homogeneity of composite phases.

  12. Inverse problem for a two-level medium with an inhomgeneously broadened transition in the field of a periodic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabolotskii, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The inverse problem is considered for a spectral problem, which is formally equivalent to a system of Bloch equations for an inhomogeneously broadened transition interacting with the electric field. Two cases are considered to demonstrate that, for any given frequency interval, one can determine the pulse of the shape which corresponds to the interaction with only this frequency interval. In the general case, the pulse shape is described by a nonlinear periodic wave. The first example is the resonance interaction of light with a gas of two-level atoms. The second example is interaction of a linearly polarized light with the molecular J-J transition, where J much-gt 1. In the latter case, the role of inhomogeneous broadening belongs to the frequency shift induced by the applied magnetic field. 10 refs

  13. Tunable diode laser measurements of air-broadened linewidths in the nu6 band of H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.; Fridovich, B.

    1986-01-01

    Air-broadened half-widths of 18 transitions in the nu6 band of H2O2 between 1252/cm and 1291/cm have been determined from spectra recorded at room temperature using a tunable diode laser spectrometer. The preparation of the H2O2 gas samples for the measurements is described, and the data analysis is discussed, including the derivation of Lorentz broadening coefficients and the contribution of molecular collisions to the measured Lorentz half-widths. For the 18 transitions, the half-widths varied from 0.0923/cm/atm to 0.1155/cm/atm at 296 K, with a mean value of 0.1020/cm/atm. An error of less than 10 percent is estimated for these results.

  14. New approximations for the Doppler broadening function applied to the calculation of resonance self-shielding factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Daniel A. [CEFET QUIMICA de Nilopolis/RJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Goncalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. [COPPE/UFRJ - Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The activation technique allows much more precise measurements of neutron intensity, relative or absolute. The technique requires the knowledge of the Doppler broadening function psi(x,xi) to determine the resonance self-shielding factors in the epithermal range G{sub epi} (tau,xi). Two new analytical approximations for the Doppler broadening function psi(x,xi) are proposed. The approximations proposed are compared with other methods found in literature for the calculation of the psi(x,xi) function, that is, the 4-pole Pade method and the Frobenius method, when applied to the calculation of G{sub epi} (tau,xi). The results obtained provided satisfactory accuracy. (authors)

  15. Spectral Analysis of Quantum-Dash Lasers: Effect of Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Active-Gain Region

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the active region inhomogeneity on the spectral characteristics of InAs/InP quantum-dash (Qdash) lasers is examined theoretically by solving the coupled set of carrier-photon rate equations. The inhomogeneity due to dash size or composition fluctuation is included in the model by considering dispersive energy states and characterized by a Gaussian envelope. In addition, the technique incorporates multilongitudinal photon modes and homogeneous broadening of the optical gain. The results predict a red shift in the central lasing wavelength of Qdash lasers on increasing the inhomogeneous broadening either explicitly or implicitly, which supports various experimental observations. The threshold current density and the lasing bandwidth are also found to increase. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Spectral Analysis of Quantum-Dash Lasers: Effect of Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Active-Gain Region

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2012-05-01

    The effect of the active region inhomogeneity on the spectral characteristics of InAs/InP quantum-dash (Qdash) lasers is examined theoretically by solving the coupled set of carrier-photon rate equations. The inhomogeneity due to dash size or composition fluctuation is included in the model by considering dispersive energy states and characterized by a Gaussian envelope. In addition, the technique incorporates multilongitudinal photon modes and homogeneous broadening of the optical gain. The results predict a red shift in the central lasing wavelength of Qdash lasers on increasing the inhomogeneous broadening either explicitly or implicitly, which supports various experimental observations. The threshold current density and the lasing bandwidth are also found to increase. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Preliminary performance evaluation of on-the-fly doppler broadening capability for Monte Carlo simulation in MCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khassenov, A.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Zhang, P.; Zheng, Y.; Lee, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines multipole representation of the cross section and its further Doppler broadening at the resolved resonance region. At the first step, a conversion is performed from nuclear data file resonance parameters to multipoles, which are corresponding poles and residues. The application of multipole representation allows generating the cross section at the target temperature, without pre-generation of 0K cross section libraries. In order to reduce the computational time for cross section generation, window energy concept was implemented and tested. On-the-fly Doppler broadening module based on multipole and windowed multipole representations were implemented into Monte Carlo code, and a pin cell problem was simulated. Simulation time and multiplication factors for different cases were compared with original Monte Carlo simulation results. (author)

  18. Influence of inhomogeneous broadening and deliberately introduced disorder on the width of the lasing spectrum of a quantum dot laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, V. V.; Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the shape and width of the lasing spectra of a quantum-dot (QD) laser in the case of a small (in comparison with the spectrum width) homogeneous broadening of the QD energy levels have been obtained. It is shown that the dependence of the lasing spectrum width on the output power at room temperature is determined by two dimensionless parameters: the width of QD distribution over the optical-transition energy, normalized to temperature, and the ratio of the optical loss to the maximum gain. The optimal dimensions of the laser active region have been found to obtain a specified width of the emission spectrum at a minimum pump current. The possibility of using multilayer structures with QDs to increase the lasing spectrum’s width has been analyzed. It is shown that the use of several arrays of QDs with deliberately variable optical-transition energies leads to broadening of the lasing spectra; some numerical estimates are presented.

  19. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and pressure by a single fiber Bragg grating with a broadened reflection spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tuan; Qiao, Xueguang; Jia, Zhenan; Zhao, Qida; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2006-05-01

    Simultaneous measurement of temperature and pressure with a single fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based on a broadened reflection spectrum is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A novel double-hole structure of a cantilever beam is designed, and a FBG is affixed on the nonuniform strain area of the cantilever beam. The Bragg reflection bandwidth is sensitive to the spatially gradient strain but is free from the spatially uniform temperature. The wavelength peak shift and the bandwidth broadening of the FBG with a change of temperature and pressure allow for simultaneous discrimination between the temperature and the pressure effects. Standard deviation errors of 1.4 degrees C and 1.8 kPa were obtained with temperature and pressure ranges of 20 degrees C-100 degrees C and 0-80 kPa, respectively. This novel and low-cost sensor approach has considerable potential applications for temperature-insensitive strain measurement.

  20. The deconvolution of Doppler-broadened positron annihilation measurements using fast Fourier transforms and power spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, J.P.; Shaughnessy, E.J.; Jones, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    A deconvolution procedure which corrects Doppler-broadened positron annihilation spectra for instrument resolution is described. The method employs fast Fourier transforms, is model independent, and does not require iteration. The mathematical difficulties associated with the incorrectly posed first order Fredholm integral equation are overcome by using power spectral analysis to select a limited number of low frequency Fourier coefficients. The FFT/power spectrum method is then demonstrated for an irradiated high purity single crystal sapphire sample. (orig.)