Sample records for broaden significantly indicating

  1. The use of effect size indices to determine practical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Styn jr.


    Full Text Available The determination of significance of differences in means and of relationships between variables is of importance in many empirical studies. Usually only statistical significance is reported, which does not necessarily indicate an important (practically significant difference or relationship. With studies based on probability samples, effect size indices should be reported in addition to statistical significance tests in order to comment on practical significance. Where complete populations or convenience samples are worked with, the determination of statistical significance is strictly speaking no longer relevant, while the effect size indices can be used as a basis to judge significance. In this article attention is paid to the use of effect size indices in order to establish practical significance. It is also shown how these indices are utilized in a few fields of statistical application and how it receives attention in statistical literature and computer packages. The use of effect sizes is illustrated by a few examples from the research literature.

  2. Significance of neonatal body indices in identifying fetal macrosomia. (United States)

    Song, Y; Zhang, S; Song, W


    To explore the significance of neonatal body indices in identifying macrosomic infants, we compared the neonatal birth weight, body length, head circumference, chest circumference, neonatal body indices, Quetelet index (QI), Kaup Index (KI), head circumference to chest circumference ratio (HC/CC) and maternal fasting blood glucose (BG) for both diabetic and healthy mothers. This is a retrospective study of 177 macrosomic neonates, 100 having been born to normal mothers and 77 to diabetic mothers. Multiple regression analyses were done between neonatal body indices and maternal fasting BG. Fetal QI and KI indices of macrosomic infants of diabetic mothers were higher compared with those born to healthy mothers, whereas the HC/CC was the reverse. The multiple regression equation used to compare neonatal physical development indices to maternal fasting BG was BG=6.959+0.031QI-(4.482 × HC/CC). QI and HC/CC had linear relationships to maternal fasting BG (P<0.05). As birth weight had no direct correlation with maternal fasting BG, it was not introduced into the regression equation. Higher QI and KI along with lower HC/CC may be a predictor of macrosomia due to maternal diabetes when compared with birth weight alone.

  3. Suffering from Loneliness Indicates Significant Mortality Risk of Older People

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    Reijo S. Tilvis


    Full Text Available Background. The harmful associates of suffering from loneliness are still in dispute. Objective. To examine the association of feelings of loneliness with all-cause mortality in a general aged population. Methods. A postal questionnaire was sent to randomly selected community-dwelling of elderly people (>74 years from the Finnish National Population Register. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, living conditions, functioning, health, and need for help. Suffering from loneliness was assessed with one question and participants were categorized as lonely or not lonely. Total mortality was retrieved from the National Population Information System. Results. Of 3687 respondents, 39% suffered from loneliness. Lonely people were more likely to be deceased during the 57-month follow-up (31% than subjects not feeling lonely (23%, <.001. Excess mortality (HR=1.38, 95% CI=1.21-1.57 of lonely people increased over time. After controlling for age and gender, the mortality risk of the lonely individuals was 1.33 (95% CI=1.17-1.51 and after further controlling for subjective health 1.17 (CI=1.02-1.33. The excess mortality was consistent in all major subgroups. Conclusion. Suffering from loneliness is common and indicates significant mortality risk in old age.

  4. The study and forensic significance of drill bit use indicators. (United States)

    Lang, Gui-Hua L; Klees, Gregory S


    A case study involving an improvised pipe bomb with a drilled fuse hole is presented. This case study and its accompanying research details drill bit use and/or nonuse indicators. These indicators are then further classified to develop relevant conclusion criteria. These criteria are: (1) trace deposits in the form of particulate and/or smears on the drill bit, especially inside the flute and the tip area, (2) physical damage including chipping, abrasion, and fissuring on the drill bit which mostly occurred on the flute edge bevels and lip edges, and (3) thermal damage. One or any combination of these indicators could be used as effective criteria for concluding drill bit usage. This study also determined that a drill bit produces well-defined toolmarks on swarf shavings that could be identified back to that particular tool, and there is no mechanical break-in period for obtaining reproducible toolmarks on newly manufactured or unused bits.

  5. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels. (United States)

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M


    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Low arousing positive affect broadens visual attention and alters the thought-action repertoire while broadened visual attention does not

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    Daniel Thomas Jäger


    Full Text Available The Broaden-and-Build Theory states that positive emotions broaden cognition and therefore build personal resources. However, missing theoretical precision regarding the interaction of the cognitive processes involved offers a variety of possible explanations for the mechanisms of broadening and building. In Experiment 1 we tested the causality assumption which states that positive emotions first broaden visual attention which in turn leads to broadened cognition. We examined the effects of a broadened, narrowed or neutral attentional scope of 72 subjects (30 men on their momentary thought-action repertoire. Results showed that there were no significant differences between groups regarding the breadth or the content of the thought-action repertoire. In Experiment 2 we studied the non-causality hypothesis which assumes a non-causal relationship between cognitive processes. We did so by investigating the effects of negative, neutral, and positive affect on the visual attentional scope of 85 subjects (41 men in Experiment 2a, as well as on the thought-action repertoire of 85 participants (42 men in Experiment 2b. Results revealed an attentional broadening effect in Experiment 2a but no differences between groups concerning the breadth of the thought-action repertoire in Experiment 2b. However, a theory driven content analysis showed that positive affect promoted social actions whereas negative affect endorsed resource protecting actions. Thus, our results favor the non-causality assumption. Moreover, results indicate that positive emotions do not target personal resources in general but rather resources associated with social behavior. In conclusion, we argue that the Broaden-and-Build Theory should be refined.

  7. Kernel density surface modelling as a means to identify significant concentrations of vulnerable marine ecosystem indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Kenchington

    Full Text Available The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105, concerning sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, calls for the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME from destructive fishing practices. Subsequently, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO produced guidelines for identification of VME indicator species/taxa to assist in the implementation of the resolution, but recommended the development of case-specific operational definitions for their application. We applied kernel density estimation (KDE to research vessel trawl survey data from inside the fishing footprint of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO Regulatory Area in the high seas of the northwest Atlantic to create biomass density surfaces for four VME indicator taxa: large-sized sponges, sea pens, small and large gorgonian corals. These VME indicator taxa were identified previously by NAFO using the fragility, life history characteristics and structural complexity criteria presented by FAO, along with an evaluation of their recovery trajectories. KDE, a non-parametric neighbour-based smoothing function, has been used previously in ecology to identify hotspots, that is, areas of relatively high biomass/abundance. We present a novel approach of examining relative changes in area under polygons created from encircling successive biomass categories on the KDE surface to identify "significant concentrations" of biomass, which we equate to VMEs. This allows identification of the VMEs from the broader distribution of the species in the study area. We provide independent assessments of the VMEs so identified using underwater images, benthic sampling with other gear types (dredges, cores, and/or published species distribution models of probability of occurrence, as available. For each VME indicator taxon we provide a brief review of their ecological function which will be important in future assessments of significant adverse impact on these habitats here

  8. Multi-level significance of vulnerability indicators. Case study: Eastern Romania (United States)

    Stanga, I. C.; Grozavu, A.


    Vulnerability assessment aims, most frequently, to emphasize internal fragility of a system comparing to a reference standard, to similar systems or in relation to a given hazard. Internal fragility, either biophysical or structural, may affect the capacity to predict, to prepare for, to cope with or to recover from a disaster. Thus, vulnerability is linked to resilience and adaptive capacity. From local level to global one, vulnerability factors and corresponding indicators are different and their significance must be tested and validated in a well-structured conceptual and methodological framework. In this paper, the authors aim to show the real vulnerability of rural settlements in Eastern Romania in a multi-level approach. The research area, Tutova Hills, counts about 3421 and more than 200.000 inhabitants in 421 villages characterized by deficient accessibility, lack of endowments, subsistential agriculture, high pressure on natural environment (especially on forest and soil resources), poverty and aging process of population. Factors that could influence the vulnerability of these rural settlements have been inventoried and assigned into groups through a cluster analysis: habitat and technical urban facilities, infrastructure, economical, social and demographical indicators, environment quality, management of emergency situations etc. Firstly, the main difficulty was to convert qualitative variable in quantitative indicators and to standardize all values to make possible mathematical and statistical processing of data. Secondly, the great variability of vulnerability factors, their different measuring units and their high amplitude of variation require different method of standardization in order to obtain values between zero (minimum vulnerability) and one (maximum vulnerability). Final vulnerability indicators were selected and integrated in a general scheme, according to their significance resulted from an appropriate factor analysis: linear and

  9. Urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio indicative of significant proteinuria in normotensive pregnant women. (United States)

    Baba, Yosuke; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Usui, Rie; Takahashi, Hironori; Matsubara, Shigeki


    In hypertensive pregnant women, the protein-to-creatinine (P/C) ratio is well correlated with 24-h proteinuria and a P/C ratio of 0.27 (g/gCr) is used to reflect significant proteinuria (>0.3 g/day). The aim of this study was to obtain data on normotensive pregnant women, which have so far been lacking. The study population consisted of 74 pregnant women who met the following criteria: (i) ≥22 gestational weeks; (ii) a positive result (≥1+) on dipstick test; (iii) a positive result (>0.27) for P/C ratio; and (iv) 24-h urine test performed within 2 days of the P/C ratio. The correlation between the P/C ratio and 24-h proteinuria, the incidence rates of significant proteinuria according to P/C ratios, and appropriate threshold of the P/C ratio to rule in significant proteinuria were determined using the appropriate statistical methods. The P/C ratio was moderately correlated with the 24-h proteinuria, with a correlation coefficient of 0.64 (95% confidence interval, 0.487-0.76). The area under the receiver-operator curve was 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.87); however, no clear shoulder was identifiable. The incidence rates of significant proteinuria according to P/C ratios of 0.27-0.49, 0.50-0.74, 0.75-0.99, and >1 were 41, 66, 100, and 100%, respectively, indicating that all normotensive pregnant women with a P/C ratio > 0.75 had significant proteinuria. Normotensive pregnant women showed a significant correlation between the P/C ratio and 24-h urine protein level. All normotensive pregnant women with a P/C ratio > 0.75 had significant proteinuria, suggesting that a P/C ratio > 0.75 may be the 'rule-in' threshold of significant proteinuria in this population. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Power broadening and collision broadening of gas laser transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolwijn, P.T.; Alkemade, C.T.J.


    From measured tuning characteristics of the amplitude of laser power modulation in single-mode operation, power broadening as well as collision broadening of the laser transition is shown to be relatively important and can be studied separately. It is also found that the d.c. laser power is

  11. When will climate scenario runs show a statistically significant change in drought indices? (United States)

    Thejll, P.; Fox Maule, C.; Hesselbjerg Christensen, J.


    Climate models can be used to evaluate the consequences of various emission scenarios. A common application is to look at scenario runs and find out what will happen to e.g. temperature or precipitation in the future. Typically, the result is that some model observable will increase or decrease in the mean as time passes in the model. Given the model level of variability it is possible to ask when a particular quantity rises (or falls) so much that the change, relative to some base period, can be said to be statistically significant. We investigate when the mean of two drought indices - the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) - change by a statistically significant amount over regions of Europe in the A1B scenario runs from the ENSEMBLES project. Assessment of the statistical significance hinges on a thorough understanding of the number of degrees of freedom - N - in the model fields - in time and space. We use a simple approach and set upper and lower limits on N, and calculate the probabilities corresponding to model field mean changes. The results are that a statistically significant change in the mean scPDSI index occurs in some of the European regions in the models - with good uniformity across the range of models. For the SPI a similar result is found, but less distinctly, with the most similar results in the NW and SW tending to occur a little later than for the scPDSI. Typically the clearest change-signals are seen in the North-West and South-West of Europe. The scPDSI depends on temperature as well as precipitation so the clarity of the signal in the scPDSI may be due to the more robustly modelled future temperature changes. A similar analysis of the changes of drought-index variance has not yielded any clear results. We use these findings to discuss the extent to which scenario runs may be used in predictions of real-world drought-condition changes across Europe.

  12. The use of concept maps as an indicator of significant learning in Calculus

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    Naíma Soltau Ferrão


    Full Text Available This paper contains reflections and results of a research that aimed to apply and analyze the use of concept maps in Higher Education as an indicator of significant learning concerning derivative as mathematical object with students that finished Differential and Integral Calculus. This is a qualitative approach, situated in the area of mathematics education, based on Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning and on technique of Novak's Concept Mapping. As data acquisition instruments, use of classroom observations, questionnaire, brainstorming and digital conceptual mapping, made by an undergraduate physics course. To analyze we defined four aspects to be observed in the maps constructed by students: (i validity of propositions formed with concepts, (ii hierarchization, (iii cross-links between the propositions, and (vi the presence of applications. The identification of these elements, taken as reference to analyze the maps, allowed the collection of information about how each student has structured and correlated the set of concepts learned on the derivative of a function along their course. Based on the results, we have identified in the digital conceptual maps effective tools to evaluate the students in terms of meaningful learning about specific contents of Differential and Integral Calculus by the hierarchy of concepts, progressive differentiation and integrative reconciliation as defined in the Theory of Meaningful Learning.

  13. Nonlocal inhomogeneous broadening in plasmonic nanoparticle ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.

    )] or realistic noble metals, following sharp or smooth size distribution functions around an ensemble mean value, and identify examples where inhomogeneous broadening can be significant. We also explain how its role becomes less important in most experimentally accessible situations, provided that all...

  14. Significant Remote Sensing Vegetation Indices: A Review of Developments and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jinru Xue; Baofeng Su


      Vegetation Indices (VIs) obtained from remote sensing based canopies are quite simple and effective algorithms for quantitative and qualitative evaluations of vegetation cover, vigor, and growth dynamics, among other applications...

  15. The significance of demographic factors on key-indicator variables of consumer credit decisions


    Simangaliso Biza-Khupe


    The literature on consumer financial behaviour identifies a myriad of factors that influence individuals’ financial decisions and choices. Among the key-indicator variables of consumer credit behaviour are Credit Search, Financial Risk and Credit Terms Considered. These indicator variables have been well researched and measured in the literature. Personal attributes, and in particular demographic variables, have largely been regarded as moderating variables in the literature. Although demogra...

  16. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344382710


    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world’s poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  17. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development (United States)

    Beumer, Koen


    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world's poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. П. Пасмор


    Full Text Available The common methods and criteria for evaluation of research impact factor (IF – Index of decisiveness of scientific journal that is indexed by the most famous international scientometric platforms, interdisciplinary databases: Web of Science (WoS, Index Copernicus, SciVerse Scopus have been discussed. It has been proved that this Scientometric indicator is an important formal numerical factor of a scientific journal criterion for evaluation of information essence, has been used by publishers to study the market, denotes the meneg,ent tool of advanced payment of revenues of journal collections to the libraries. The scientometric indicators for assessing the quality and citation of scientific periodical affect: carrying out of competitive funding of scientific research works, personnel decisions in conditions of employment of scientific and pedagogical specialists, processing of new models of publication system of national scientific periodicals, determination of brand factors of scientific institutions or institution of higher education in the world and national ratings have been confirmed.

  19. The Proposal of Key Performance Indicators in Facility Management and Determination the Weights of Significance (United States)

    Rimbalová, Jarmila; Vilčeková, Silvia


    The practice of facilities management is rapidly evolving with the increasing interest in the discourse of sustainable development. The industry and its market are forecasted to develop to include non-core functions, activities traditionally not associated with this profession, but which are increasingly being addressed by facilities managers. The scale of growth in the built environment and the consequential growth of the facility management sector is anticipated to be enormous. Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are measure that provides essential information about performance of facility services delivery. In selecting KPI, it is critical to limit them to those factors that are essential to the organization reaching its goals. It is also important to keep the number of KPI small just to keep everyone's attention focused on achieving the same KPIs. This paper deals with the determination of weights of KPI of FM in terms of the design and use of sustainable buildings.

  20. Long-Range Periodic Patterns in Microbial Genomes Indicate Significant Multi-Scale Chromosomal Organization.

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    Full Text Available Genome organization can be studied through analysis of chromosome position-dependent patterns in sequence-derived parameters. A comprehensive analysis of such patterns in prokaryotic sequences and genome-scale functional data has yet to be performed. We detected spatial patterns in sequence-derived parameters for 163 chromosomes occurring in 135 bacterial and 16 archaeal organisms using wavelet analysis. Pattern strength was found to correlate with organism-specific features such as genome size, overall GC content, and the occurrence of known motility and chromosomal binding proteins. Given additional functional data for Escherichia coli, we found significant correlations among chromosome position dependent patterns in numerous properties, some of which are consistent with previously experimentally identified chromosome macrodomains. These results demonstrate that the large-scale organization of most sequenced genomes is significantly nonrandom, and, moreover, that this organization is likely linked to genome size, nucleotide composition, and information transfer processes. Constraints on genome evolution and design are thus not solely dependent upon information content, but also upon an intricate multi-parameter, multi-length-scale organization of the chromosome.

  1. An Illustration of Errors in Using the P Value to Indicate Clinical Significance or Epidemiological Importance of a Study Finding. (United States)

    Kang, Joseph; Hong, Jaeyoung; Esie, Precious; Bernstein, Kyle T; Aral, Sevgi


    We conducted a simulation study to illustrate that P values can suggest but not confirm statistical significance; and they may not indicate epidemiological significance (importance). We recommend that researchers consider reporting effect sizes as P values in conjunction with confidence intervals or point estimates with standard errors to indicate precision (uncertainty).

  2. On the Application of Stark Broadening Data Determined with a Semiclassical Perturbation Approach

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    Milan S. Dimitrijević


    Full Text Available The significance of Stark broadening data for problems in astrophysics, physics, as well as for technological plasmas is discussed and applications of Stark broadening parameters calculated using a semiclassical perturbation method are analyzed.

  3. Hydrogen Stark Broadened Brackett lines

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    C. Stehlé


    Full Text Available Stark-broadened lines of the hydrogen Brackett series are computed for the conditions of stellar atmospheres and circumstellar envelopes. The computation is performed within the Model Microfield Method, which includes the ion dynamic effects and makes the bridge between the impact limit at low density and the static limit at high density and in the line wings. The computation gives the area normalized line shape, from the line core up to the static line wings.

  4. Understanding Doppler Broadening of Gamma Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sullivan, John P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Doppler-broadened gamma ray peaks are observed routinely in the collection and analysis of gamma-ray spectra. If not recognized and understood, the appearance of Doppler broadening can complicate the interpretation of a spectrum and the correct identification of the gamma ray-emitting material. We have conducted a study using a simulation code to demonstrate how Doppler broadening arises and provide a real-world example in which Doppler broadening is found. This report describes that study and its results.

  5. Solar Wind Strahl Broadening by Self-Generated Plasma Waves (United States)

    Pavan, J.; Vinas, A. F.; Yoon, P. H.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.


    This Letter reports on the results of numerical simulations which may provide a possible explanation for the strahl broadening during quiet solar conditions. The relevant processes involved in the broadening are due to kinetic quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. Making use of static analytical electron distribution in an inhomogeneous field, it is found that self-generated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency, i.e., Langmuir waves, are capable of scattering the strahl component, resulting in energy and pitch-angle diffusion that broadens its velocity distribution significantly. The present theoretical results provide an alternative or complementary explanation to the usual whistler diffusion scenario, suggesting that self-induced electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency might play a key role in broadening the solar wind strahl during quiet solar conditions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, J.; Gaelzer, R. [UFPEL, Pelotas (Brazil); Vinas, A. F. [NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Yoon, P. H. [IPST, UMD, College Park, MD (United States); Ziebell, L. F., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil)


    This Letter reports on the results of numerical simulations which may provide a possible explanation for the strahl broadening during quiet solar conditions. The relevant processes involved in the broadening are due to kinetic quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. Making use of static analytical electron distribution in an inhomogeneous field, it is found that self-generated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency, i.e., Langmuir waves, are capable of scattering the strahl component, resulting in energy and pitch-angle diffusion that broadens its velocity distribution significantly. The present theoretical results provide an alternative or complementary explanation to the usual whistler diffusion scenario, suggesting that self-induced electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency might play a key role in broadening the solar wind strahl during quiet solar conditions.

  7. HBV DNA level could predict significant liver fibrosis in HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B patients with biopsy indication. (United States)

    Praneenararat, Surat; Chamroonkul, Naichaya; Sripongpun, Pimsiri; Kanngurn, Samornmas; Jarumanokul, Roongrueng; Piratvisuth, Teerha


    Non-invasive models and methods to substitute liver biopsy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were investigated but their roles as predictors of significant liver histology for diagnosis of HBeAg-negative CHB patients who had indication for liver biopsy according to The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and The Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) guidelines are still unknown. This study was designed to identify predictors of significant liver necroinflammation as defined by a Histology Activity Index of necroinflammatory score ≥ 4 or Metavir necroinflammatory activity score ≥ 2 and significant liver fibrosis as defined by a Metavir fibrosis score ≥ 2 in HBeAg-negative CHB patients that had a hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level ≥ 2,000 IU/ml and age ≥ 40 years or elevated alanine aminotransferase level between 1-2 times the upper limit of normal. Twenty-two patients were prospectively included and performed liver biopsies. Clinical and laboratory parameters including age, gender, underlying disease, family history of cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, body mass index (BMI), HBV DNA level, HBsAg level, liver function test, complete blood count, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index and transient elastography were collected and analyzed with liver histology profiles. Five patients (23%) had significant liver inflammation and 7 patients (32%) had significant liver fibrosis. Factors associated with significant liver inflammation were a lower BMI and higher alkaline phosphatase level while a factor associated with significant liver fibrosis was lower age. On multivariate analysis, only HBV DNA level > 5.5 log IU/ml could predict significant liver fibrosis (odds ratio 28.012, 95% CI, 1.631-481.240, p = 0.022) and its sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 71.4%, 93.3%, 83.3% and 87.5% respectively. An HBV DNA level

  8. Calculations of H2O microwave line broadening in collisions with He atoms - Sensitivity to potential energy surfaces (United States)

    Green, Sheldon; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.


    Theoretical computations of broadening parameters are reported for three microwave lines of H2O in a bath of He atoms. The potential-energy surfaces employed are corrected for basis-set superposition error, and their reliability is checked by repeating the calculations with a different basis set for orbital expansion. The results are presented in extensive tables and discussed in detail. The corrections applied are shown to have a significant impact on the accuracy of the room-temperature broadenings determined: 8.9 sq A for the 22.2-GHz line, 11.8 sq A for the 183,3-GHz line, and 10.0 sq A for the 380.2-GHz line, in good agreement with published experimental data. The importance of collisional broadening for the atmospheric transmission of radiation and for remote-sensing applications is indicated.

  9. The significance of citation impact indicators of research performance in the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japhet Bakuwa


    Full Text Available This paper argues that Sub-Saharan Africa needs to produce more journals indexed by ISI Web of Science (WoS. Researchers from the region should also publish in other ISI indexed, reputable and high impact journals such as Nature and Science. Inevitably, this will make Sub-Saharan African researchers visible and globally competitive. The Sub- Saharan African region has only about 40 journals out of over 12 000 journals that have been indexed by the ISI Web of Science (WoS. Arguably, ranking of universities across the globe and qualification for Nobel Prizes are determined by metrics-based evaluation of research performance. Sub-Saharan Africa is poorly represented on the world university rankings. The region has also produced only six Nobel Prize award winners from 1901 to 2010. In the same period, USA, UK and Germany produced 326, 116 and 102 recipients respectively. While there are some limitations on the use of citation indicators to evaluate research output, this researcher argues that citation impact indicators of research performance provide policymakers, researchers and funding agencies with an objective measure for assessing research performance and therefore are of great significance in the developing countries of Sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. Stark broadening data for stellar plasma research. (United States)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.

    Results of an effort to provide to astrophysicists and physicists an as much as possible complete set of Stark broadening parameters needed for stellar opacity calculations, stellar atmosphere modelling, abundance determinations and diagnostics of different plasmas in astrophysics, physics and plasma technology, are presented. Stark broadening has been considered within the semiclassical perturbation, and the modified semiempirical approaches.

  11. Phonon broadening in high entropy alloys (United States)

    Körmann, Fritz; Ikeda, Yuji; Grabowski, Blazej; Sluiter, Marcel H. F.


    Refractory high entropy alloys feature outstanding properties making them a promising materials class for next-generation high-temperature applications. At high temperatures, materials properties are strongly affected by lattice vibrations (phonons). Phonons critically influence thermal stability, thermodynamic and elastic properties, as well as thermal conductivity. In contrast to perfect crystals and ordered alloys, the inherently present mass and force constant fluctuations in multi-component random alloys (high entropy alloys) can induce significant phonon scattering and broadening. Despite their importance, phonon scattering and broadening have so far only scarcely been investigated for high entropy alloys. We tackle this challenge from a theoretical perspective and employ ab initio calculations to systematically study the impact of force constant and mass fluctuations on the phonon spectral functions of 12 body-centered cubic random alloys, from binaries up to 5-component high entropy alloys, addressing the key question of how chemical complexity impacts phonons. We find that it is crucial to include both mass and force constant fluctuations. If one or the other is neglected, qualitatively wrong results can be obtained such as artificial phonon band gaps. We analyze how the results obtained for the phonons translate into thermodynamically integrated quantities, specifically the vibrational entropy. Changes in the vibrational entropy with increasing the number of elements can be as large as changes in the configurational entropy and are thus important for phase stability considerations. The set of studied alloys includes MoTa, MoTaNb, MoTaNbW, MoTaNbWV, VW, VWNb, VWTa, VWNbTa, VTaNbTi, VWNbTaTi, HfZrNb, HfMoTaTiZr.

  12. On the use of broadened admission criteria in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, A. Susan M.; Meijer, Rob R.

    There is an increasing interest in the use of broadened criteria for admission to higher education, often assessed through noncognitive instruments. We argue that there are several reasons why, despite some significant progress, the use of noncognitive predictors to select students is problematic in

  13. Optical coherent control in semiconductors: Fringe contrast and inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    in the interplay between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings are measured. Based on these experiments, a coherent control model describing the optical fringe contrast using different detection schemes, such as photoluminescence or four-wave mixing, is established. Significant spectral modulation...

  14. Exciton broadening in WS2/graphene heterostructures (United States)

    Hill, Heather M.; Rigosi, Albert F.; Raja, Archana; Chernikov, Alexey; Roquelet, Cyrielle; Heinz, Tony F.


    We have used optical spectroscopy to observe spectral broadening of WS2 exciton reflectance peaks in heterostructures of monolayer WS2 capped with mono- to few-layer graphene. The broadening is found to be similar for the A and B excitons and on the order of 5-10 meV. No strong dependence on the number of graphene layers was observed within experimental uncertainty. The broadening can be attributed to charge- and energy-transfer processes between the two materials, providing an observed lower bound for the corresponding time scales of 65 fs.

  15. Assessing significance of peripheral blood indicators for differential diagnosis and prognosis of thrombotic complications in polycythemia vera and secondary erythrocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostiukevych O.M.


    Full Text Available The aim of the study – determining of changes in peripheral blood (PB in patients with secondary erythrocytosis (SE and polycythemia vera (PV, detection of discriminatory parameters levels of PB indicators and analyzing of their operating characteristics for differentiation of erythrocytosis and predicting of thrombotic events in patients with PV. Materials and methods. The material for the study was the results of clinical trials of 210 patients with erythrocytosis who underwent differential diagnosis between PV and SE. Results and discussion. The optimal threshold for differential diagnosis of red blood cells content between PV and SE is >6.08•1012/ L, the diagnostic value of the marker equals to the level of a good diagnostic marker (AUC=0.82; 95% CI=0.77-0.87, p 57.5% with its capacity – 0.72 (0.66-0.78, p 8.9•109/L, and the boundary of marker is consistent with a good level of efficiency (AUC=0.79, 95% CI=0.72-0.84, p287•109 /L" to differentiate erythrocytosis is 0.90 (0.86-0.94, p 55%" and "WBC >12.3•109 /L", according to the AUC (AUC=0.65; 95% CI=0.52-0.79, p=0.021 and AUC=0.66; 95% CI=0.55-0.77, p=0.003, respectively, corresponds to the average power level. Conclusion. Hemoglobin has not confirmed its value for the differential diagnosis between PV and SE. Using other parameters of PB with the aim of differentiating PV and SE is rational, but their discriminatory power levels greatly depend on the group erythrocytosis. In our cohort were obtained the following most appropriate criteria for inclusion of patients in the group of patients with PV: "WBC >8.9•109/L", "red blood cells >6.08•1012/L" and "hematocrit >57.5%". The most significant marker of general clinical blood test to differentiate between PV and SE is "platelets >287•109/L". Hematocrit over 55% and WBC over 12.3•109/L are valuable prognostic markers of thrombosis in PV patients, but their use is appropriate only in a cohort of patients with PV without

  16. Optimizing the use of biological indicators for detection of significant pollutant types. Optimierung verschiedener Bioindikationsverfahren zur Erfassung wichtiger Immissionstypen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.D.


    Bioindication methods to determine the different pollutant types have been compared using the accumulation indicators Halian ryegrass (cloned material) and pine (Picea abies) and the sensitive indicator species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), gladiolus (G. hybridus), tulip (T. gesneriana), leek (A. porrum), clover (T. pratense), alfalfa (M. sativa), spinach (S. oleracea), petunia (P. hybrida), pelargonium (P. zonale), French marigold (T. patula), salvia (S. splendens) and ipomoea (I. purpurea). Field tests were carried out on 15 different sites in Bavaria. By means of the accumulation indicators, inorganic pollutants (S, F, Cl, Pb, Cd, Zn) were to be determined by analyses of the plant material. In the sensitive indicator plants, growth and flowering were studied with regard to external damage. In tobacco plants, also the physiological parameters and the total nitrogen concentration were determined. The following recommendations can be made for region with unknown pollutant levels: Accumulation indicators can be used in large areas; they yield valid information in case of high pollutant levels and react in a highly differentiated manner to site-specific pollutant levels already within the normal concentration range. Sensitive indicators are of use only in the direct vicinity of large-scale pollution sources. They have a signal function and may warn of high air pollution levels.

  17. Stark broadening parameter tables for In II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević M.S.


    Full Text Available Electron-, proton-, and ionized helium-impact broadening parameter tables for In II spectral lines, are presented as a function of the temperature and the perturber density. Calculations have been performed within the semiclassical perturbation approach.

  18. Red cell distribution width as a significant indicator of medication and prognosis in type 2 diabetic patients. (United States)

    Xiong, Xiao-Fen; Yang, Yuan; Chen, Xianghui; Zhu, Xuejing; Hu, Chun; Han, Yachun; Zhao, Li; Liu, Fuyou; Sun, Lin


    Whether red cell distribution width (RDW) can be a potential indicator for diabetic nephropathy (DN) is unknown. A total of 809 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) patients were divided into 4 groups according to the quartiles (Q) of the RDW (%): Q1 ≤ 12.4 (n = 229), 12.4 channel blockers and antiplatelet therapy also showed higher frequencies in Q3 or Q4 group compared to Q1. Logistic regression indicated that the antiplatelet therapy (OR = 2.065), hypertension (OR = 2.819), creatinine (OR = 4.473) and proteinuria (OR = 2.085) were positively associated with level of Q4 group, but higher hemoglobin (OR = 0.021) and serum Ca2+ (OR = 0.178) were negatively associated with Q4. This data suggest that high level of RDW in T2D patients indicates a higher risk and a poor prognosis for DN.

  19. A Validation Study of the Performance Indicators and Learner Outcomes of Kentucky's Alternate Assessment for Students with Significant Disabilities. (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L.; Kearns, Jacqui Farmer


    A survey of 44 national authorities in best practices for students with severe cognitive disabilities found a high degree of professional congruence on the core of best practices embodied in the performance criteria for Kentucky's alternate assessment for students with significant disabilities. Concerns about more limited learner outcomes are…

  20. Is diffusion-weighted imaging a significant indicator of the development of vascularization in hypovascular hepatocellular lesions? (United States)

    Takara, Kenichi; Saito, Kazuhiro; Saguchi, Toru; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Taira, Junichi; Imai, Yasuharu; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Akata, Soichi; Tokuuye, Koichi


    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in predicting the development of vascularization in hypovascular hepatocellular lesions (HHLs). Forty-two HHLs that were diagnosed by computed tomographic (CT) arteriography were evaluated retrospectively. The lesion on DWI was classified as isointense, hypointense, or hyperintense. Follow-up studies that included intravenous dynamic CT or magnetic resonance imaging were performed. The 730-day cumulative developments of vascularization in hypointense, isointense, and hyperintense lesions were 17%, 30%, and 40%, respectively. The differences among these developments were not statistically significant. The signal intensity on DWI showed no significant difference in the development of vascularization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of H2O broadening effect on atmospheric CO and N2O detection near 4.57 μm (United States)

    Deng, Hao; Sun, Juan; Liu, Ningwu; Wang, Hongliang; Yu, Benli; Li, Jingsong


    A tunable quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS) was used to study H2O broadening coefficients for CO and N2O transitions at 4.57 μm region, which contains well-characterized and relatively isolated transitions of appropriate line strengths for sensitive gas detection. The influence of H2O broadening effect on CO R(11) and N2O P(38e) transitions at 2186.639 cm-1 and 2187.099 cm-1, respectively, was detailed investigated. Our measurements indicate that H2O broadening coefficients are 1.8 and 1.9 times higher than the corresponding air-broadening parameters, respectively. Based on the experimental data, our simulation confirmed that the WMS-2f shapes of CO and N2O lines will be significantly affected by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio, while no significant dependence on target concentration, and prove that the difference between air- and H2O-broadenings thus cannot be neglected if one wants to measure gas concentrations in a high humid environment with a sub-percent precision.

  2. Phytoliths indicate significant arboreal cover at Sahelanthropus type locality TM266 in northern Chad and a decrease in later sites. (United States)

    Novello, Alice; Barboni, Doris; Sylvestre, Florence; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Paillès, Christine; Bourlès, Didier L; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel


    We analyzed phytolith and diatom remains preserved at 45 Miocene and Pliocene localities dated between 8 and 1 Ma in northern Chad (16-17°N). Some of these localities yielded cranial remains, lower jaws, and teeth of the hominin species Australopithecus bahrelghazali (∼3.6 Ma) and Sahelanthropus tchadensis (∼7 Ma). Of the 111 sediment samples analyzed, 41 yielded phytoliths, 20 yielded diatoms, and seven yielded both phytoliths and diatoms. Freshwater planktonic and tychoplanktonic diatom species, indicative of lacustrine conditions, are dominant (>91%) in the samples. The phytolith assemblages indicate an opening of the vegetation and a general trend toward an expansion of grass-dominated environments during the time spanning the two hominin occurrences in Chad. The phytoliths suggest the presence of a mosaic environment, including closed forest patches, palm groves, and mixed/grassland formations, between 7.5 and 7 Ma, the replacement by palm grove-like vegetation at approximately 6.5-5 Ma, and the presence of exclusive grass-dominated formations after 4.5 Ma. The type-locality of S. tchadensis (TM266) was likely similar to modern palm grove formations with an arboreal cover percentage ≥40%. The type locality of A. bahrelghazali (KT12) was a grass-dominated ecosystem (likely savanna) with an unrated percentage of arboreal cover. Furthermore, the grass phytolith data support the existence of a (recurrent) Sahelian-like dry climate in northern Chad since at least 8 Ma. Therefore the local closed vegetation formations in the Djurab region at 7.5-7 Ma were sustained by aquatic systems (such as lakes or related rivers, marshes) rather than by extensive annual precipitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunity of intersubband polaritons to inhomogeneous broadening (United States)

    Manceau, J.-M.; Biasiol, G.; Tran, N. L.; Carusotto, I.; Colombelli, R.


    We demonstrate that intersubband (ISB) polaritons are robust to inhomogeneous effects originating from the presence of multiple quantum wells (MQWs). In a series of samples that exhibit mid-infrared ISB absorption transitions with broadenings varying by a factor of 5 (from 4 to 20 meV), we observed polariton linewidths always lying in the 4 to 7 meV range only. We experimentally verified the dominantly inhomogeneous origin of the broadening of the ISB transition, and that the linewidth reduction effect of the polariton modes persists up to room-temperature. This immunity to inhomogeneous broadening is a direct consequence of the coupling of the large number of ISB oscillators to a single photonic mode. It is a precious tool to gauge the natural linewidth of the ISB plasmon that is otherwise masked in such MQWs system, and is also beneficial in view of perspective applications such as intersubband polariton lasers.

  4. Does interest broaden or narrow attentional scope? (United States)

    Sung, Billy; Yih, Jennifer


    Theory proposes that interest is a positive emotion that may either broaden attention to facilitate processing of new information, or narrow attention to preserve engagement with new information. To our knowledge, no research has directly examined the effect of interest on attentional scope. Across four experiments, we show that traits associated with the propensity to experience interest-specifically, trait curiosity and internal boredom proneness-are associated with a narrower scope of attention. We also find that, instead of broadening, interest actually narrows attentional scope in comparison to a neutral state and awe. Challenging the conventional notion that all positive emotions broaden cognition and attention, our findings suggest that specific emotions influence attention in ways that extend beyond a general emotional valence effect.

  5. Line broadening in the PXRD patterns of layered hydroxides: The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Common among the disorders are stacking faults, which broaden the ℎ0ℓ/0ℓ reflections. Interstratification selectively broadens the 00ℓ reflections and turbostratic disorder broadens the 0ℓ reflections. The line broadening caused by structural disorder has to be discounted before estimates of particle size are made by ...

  6. On the Use of Broadened Admission Criteria in Higher Education. (United States)

    Niessen, A Susan M; Meijer, Rob R


    There is an increasing interest in the use of broadened criteria for admission to higher education, often assessed through noncognitive instruments. We argue that there are several reasons why, despite some significant progress, the use of noncognitive predictors to select students is problematic in high-stakes educational selection and why the incremental validity will often be modest, even when studied in low-stakes contexts. Furthermore, we comment on the use of broadened admission criteria in relation to reducing adverse impact of testing on some groups, and we extend the literature by discussing an approach based on behavioral sampling, which showed promising results in Europe. Finally, we provide some suggestions for future research.

  7. Fundamental edge broadening effects during focused electron beam induced nanosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Schmied


    Full Text Available The present study explores lateral broadening effects of 3D structures fabricated through focused electron beam induced deposition using MeCpPt(IVMe3 precursor. In particular, the scaling behavior of proximity effects as a function of the primary electron energy and the deposit height is investigated through experiments and validated through simulations. Correlated Kelvin force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy measurements identified conductive and non-conductive proximity regions. It was determined that the highest primary electron energies enable the highest edge sharpness while lower energies contain a complex convolution of broadening effects. Moreover, it is demonstrated that intermediate energies lead to even more complex proximity effects that significantly reduce lateral edge sharpness and thus should be avoided if desiring high lateral resolution.

  8. Doppler broadening effects in plasmonic quantum dots (United States)

    Alves, R. A.; Silva, Nuno A.; Costa, J. C.; Gomes, M.; Guerreiro, A.


    In this paper we analyse the effects of the Doppler shift on the optical response of a nanoplasmonic system. Through the development of a simplified model based on the Hydrodynamic Drude model we analyse the response of a quantum dot embed in a moving fluid, predicting the Doppler broadening and the shift of the spectral line.

  9. Broadening Our View of Linguistic Diversity (United States)

    O'Neal, Debra; Ringler, Marjorie


    The definition of English language learners needs to be broadened to include the marginalized dialects of English. Not all native speakers speak Standard English, and even those who do need to learn Academic English to succeed in school. By using strategies developed for ELLs, teachers can help all students become fluent in the language of school.

  10. Broadening of Cortical Inhibition Mediates Developmental Sharpening of Orientation Selectivity (United States)

    Li, Ya-tang; Ma, Wen-pei; Pan, Chen-jie; Zhang, Li I.; Tao, Huizhong W.


    Orientation selectivity (OS) of visual cortical neurons is progressively sharpened during development. However, synaptic circuit mechanisms underlying the OS sharpening remain unclear. In the current study, in vivo whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from layer 4 excitatory neurons in the developing mouse primary visual cortex revealed changes of orientation tuning profiles of their excitatory and inhibitory inputs during a post eye-opening period when OS of their spiking responses becomes sharpened. Besides a parallel strengthening of excitation and inhibition during this developmental period, the orientation tuning of excitatory inputs keeps relatively constant, whereas the tuning of inhibitory inputs is broadened, and becomes significantly broader than that of excitatory inputs. Neuron modelling and dynamic-clamp recording demonstrated that this developmental broadening of the inhibitory tuning is sufficient for sharpening OS. Depriving visual experience by dark rearing impedes the normal developmental strengthening of excitation, but a similar broadening of inhibitory tuning, likely caused by a non-selective strengthening of inhibitory connections, results in the apparently normal OS sharpening in excitatory neurons. Our results thus provide the first demonstration that an inhibitory synaptic mechanism can primarily mediate the functional refinement of cortical neurons. PMID:22442065

  11. Determination of Van der Waals broadening at temperatures of astrophysical interest. (United States)

    Evans, J. M., Jr.; Cooper, J.


    Discussion of the results of experiments analyzing the widths of shock-excited emission lines at temperatures of about 5000 K. The width of two neutral silicon lines (4102 and 5948 A) were measured as broadened by argon, and the shift of one of these lines (4102 A) was determined. Likewise, the width one of the lines of cesium (4593 A) was measured as broadened by argon and neon. These data are compared with other experimental data to determine the temperature dependence of the broadening. Significant disagreements with simple theory are found, the experimental values of the widths being larger than the theoretical values by factors of 1.5-2.

  12. Lifetime broadening in angle-resolved photoemission (United States)

    McLean, A. B.; Mitchell, C. E. J.; Hill, I. G.


    The register line formalism of angle-resolved photoemission is applied to the special case where electrons are excited from sp surface states. By considering lifetime broadening alone, it is demonstrated that it is possible to explain why photoemission linewidths increase as the initial states disperse towards the Fermi level. Favourable comparisons are made between the theory and with measurements of the surface state widths on Cu(111) and Al(001).

  13. Line Broadening in White Dwarf Photospheres (United States)

    Winget, D. E.


    White dwarfs are the simplest stars with the simplest surface chemical compositions known. Spectroscopically we detect only hydrogen in surfaces of the vast majority of these stars. The remainders are of various types, including stars with surfaces of nearly pure helium and some apparently massive stars with carbon and oxygen at the photosphere. We will examine the potential offered by the white dwarf stars in the context of both astrophysics and physics. This potential includes studying cosmochronology--establishing the age and evolutionary history of our galaxy and an independent lower limit on the age of the universe, constraining the properties of axions and WIMPS in the context of dark matter models, constraining dark energy by establishing the properties of the massive progenitors of type Ia supernovae, studying nucleosynthesis from their internal composition structure, and crystallization in dense Coulomb plasmas, among many others. Realizing this tremendous scientific potential depends on the determination of two boundary conditions for each star: the surface gravity and effective temperature. To do this, we must establish the photospheric plasma conditions, density and temperature, using observations of the stellar absorption spectra. Our understanding of line broadening appears to be an obstacle, at present. We will discuss the evidence for past theoretical inadequacies in line broadening theory and the hope for recent and future calculations. We will discuss how the experiments underway on the Z-facility at Sandia National Laboratories --where we can create macroscopic uniform plasmas under white dwarf photospheric conditions--will provide the benchmarks for improving our understanding of line broadening under white dwarf photospheric plasma conditions. These experiments will guide future theory and improve our understanding of the white dwarf stars and, through them, the contents and evolution of the cosmos.

  14. Observation of plasmon line broadening in single gold nanorods (United States)

    Qiu, Le; Larson, Timothy A.; Smith, Danielle; Vitkin, Edward; Modell, Mark D.; Korgel, Brian A.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.; Hanlon, Eugene B.; Itzkan, Irving; Perelman, Lev T.


    Attempts to realize the important potential of gold nanorods as extremely bright molecular markers have been limited by the broad spectroscopic linewidths usually observed. We identify the origin of this broadening as inhomogeneous broadening due to the extreme sensitivity of the surface plasmon resonance to the nanorod aspect ratio. Using confocal light scattering spectroscopic microscopy, we observed the narrow homogeneously broadened plasmon lines of single gold nanorods and obtained the first quantitative measurements of this homogeneous broadening. We show that homogeneous broadening can be predicted from first principals.

  15. Broadening Participation in the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. (United States)

    Wilga, Cheryl A D; Nishiguchi, Michele; Tsukimura, Brian


    The goal of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology's Broadening Participation Committee (SICB BPC) is to increase the number of underrepresented group (URG) members within the society and to expand their capabilities as future researchers and leaders within SICB. Our short-term 10-year goal was to increase the recruitment and retention of URG members in the society by 10%. Our long-term 25-year goal is to increase the membership of URG in the society through recruitment and retention until the membership demographic mirrors that of the US Census. Our plans to accomplish this included establishment of a formal standing committee, establishment of a moderate budget to support BPC activities, hosting professional development workshops, hosting diversity and mentor socials, and obtaining grant funds to supplement our budget. This paper documents broadening participation activities in the society, discusses the effectiveness of these activities, and evaluates BPC goals after 5 years of targeted funded activities. Over the past 5 years, the number of URG members rose by 5.2% to a total of 16.2%, members who report ethnicity and gender increased by 25.2% and 18%, respectively, and the number of members attending BPC activities has increased to 33% by 2016. SICB has made significant advances in broadening participation, not only through increased expenditures, but also with a commitment by its members and leadership to increase diversity. Most members realize that increasing diversity will both improve the Society's ability to develop different approaches to tackling problems within integrative biology, and help solve larger global issues that are evident throughout science and technology fields. In addition, having URG members as part of the executive committee would provide other URG members role models within the society, as well as have a voice in the leadership that represents diversity and inclusion for all scientists. © The Author 2017. Published by

  16. Ab Initio Computation of Dynamical Properties: Pressure Broadening (United States)

    Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Drouin, Brian


    Rotational spectroscopy of polar molecules is the main observational tool in many areas of astrophysics, for gases of low densities (n ˜ 102 - 108 cm-3). Spectral line shapes in astrophysical media are largely dominated by turbulence-induced Doppler effects and natural line broadening are negligible. However line broadening remains an important tool for denser gases, like planetary high atmospheres. Understanding the excitation schemes of polar molecules requires the knowledge of excitation transfer rate due to collisional excitation, between the polar molecule and the ambient gas, usually H2. Transport properties in ionized media also require a precise knowledge of momentum transfer rates by elastic collisions. In order to assess the theoretically computed cross section and energy/momentum transfer rates, direct absolute experiments are scarce. The best way is to measure not individual scattering events but rather the global effect of the buffer gas, thanks to the pressure broadening cross sections, whose magnitude can be measured without any scaling parameters. At low temperatures, both elastic and inelastic scattering amplitudes are tested. At higher temperature, depending on the interaction strength, only inelastic scattering cross section are shown to play a significant role 1 ,2. Thanks to the advances of computer capabilities, it has become practical to compute spectral line parameters fromab initio quantum chemistry. In particular, the theory of rotational line broadening is readily incorporated into scattering quantum dynamical theory, like close-coupling schemes. The only approximations used in the computation are the isolated collision/isolated line approximations. We compute the non-binding interaction potential with high precision quantum chemistry and fit the resulting ab initio points onto a suitable functional. We have recently computed several such systems, for molecules in H2 buffer gas: H2O,3 H2CO,4 HCO+ .5 Detailed computations taking into

  17. Differential effects of K(+) channel blockers on frequency-dependent action potential broadening in supraoptic neurons. (United States)

    Hlubek, M D; Cobbett, P


    Recordings were made from magnocellular neuroendocrine cells dissociated from the supraoptic nucleus of the adult guinea pig to determine the role of voltage gated K(+) channels in controlling the duration of action potentials and in mediating frequency-dependent action potential broadening exhibited by these neurons. The K(+) channel blockers charybdotoxin (ChTx), tetraethylammonium (TEA), and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) increased the duration of individual action potentials indicating that multiple types of K(+) channel are important in controlling action potential duration. The effect of these K(+) channel blockers was almost completely reversed by simultaneous blockade of voltage gated Ca(2+) channels with Cd(2+). Frequency-dependent action potential broadening was exhibited by these neurons during trains of action potentials elicited by membrane depolarizing current pulses presented at 10 Hz but not at 1 Hz. 4-AP but not ChTx or TEA inhibited frequency-dependent action potential broadening indicating that frequency-dependent action potential broadening is dependent on increasing steady-state inactivation of A-type K(+) channels (which are blocked by 4-AP). A model of differential contributions of voltage gated K(+) channels and voltage gated Ca(2+) channels to frequency-dependent action potential broadening, in which an increase of Ca(2+) current during each successive action potential is permitted as a result of the increasing steady-state inactivation of A-type K(+) channels, is presented.

  18. No significant improvement of cardiovascular disease risk indicators by a lifestyle intervention in people with Familial Hypercholesterolemia compared to usual care: results of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broekhuizen Karen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH may benefit from lifestyle changes supporting their primary treatment of dyslipidaemia. This project evaluated the efficacy of an individualised tailored lifestyle intervention on lipids (low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, glucose, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference in people with FH. Methods Adults with FH (n = 340, recruited from a Dutch cascade screening program, were randomly assigned to either a control group or an intervention group. The personalised intervention consisted of web-based tailored lifestyle advice and personal counselling. The control group received care as usual. Lipids, systolic blood pressure, glucose, BMI, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after 12 months. Regression analyses were conducted to examine differences between both groups. Results After 12 months, no significant between-group differences of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk indicators were observed. LDL-C levels had decreased in both the intervention and control group. This difference between intervention and control group was not statistically significant. Conclusions This project suggests that an individually tailored lifestyle intervention did not have an additional effect in improving CVD risk indicators among people with FH. The cumulative effect of many small improvements in all indicators on long term CVD risk remains to be assessed in future studies. Trial registration NTR1899 at

  19. 3D spectral synthesis and rotational line broadening


    Ludwig, Hans-G.


    Spectral synthesis calculations based on three-dimensional stellar atmosphere models are limited by the affordable angular resolution of the radiation field. This hampers an accurate treatment of rotational line broadening. We aim to find a treatment of rotational broadening of a spherical star when the radiation field is only available at a modest number of limb-angles. We apply a combination of analytical considerations of the line-broadening process and numerical tests. We obtain a method ...

  20. Doppler broadening thermometry based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, C -F; Sun, Y R; Tan, Y; Kang, P; Hu, S -M


    A Doppler broadening thermometry (DBT) instrument is built based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for precise determination of the Boltzmann constant. Compared with conventional direct absorption methods, the high-sensitivity of CRDS allows to reach a satisfied precision at lower sample pressures, which also reduces the influence due to collisions. By recording the spectrum of C$_2$H$_2$ at 787 nm, we demonstrate a statistical uncertainty of 6 ppm (part per million) in the determined linewidth values by several hours' measurement at a sample pressure of 1.5 Pa. The influence on the spectroscopy-determined temperatures has been investigated, including the "hidden" weak lines overlapped with the selected transition for DBT measurements. The reproducibility has also been examined to be better than 10 ppm, and it indicates that the instrument is feasible for DBT measurement toward a precision at the ppm level.

  1. The usefulness of vibration perception threshold as a significant indicator for erectile dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus at a primary diabetes mellitus clinic. (United States)

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Imao, Tetsuya; Seki, Masaya; Takemae, Katsurou; Ohta, Yasuharu; Sakai, Sumi; Ohta, Hisae


    The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship of erectile dysfunction (ED) and diabetes mellitus (DM) parameters (referred to with '1'), including peripheral neuropathy (referred to with '2'). (1) The DM parameters including age, serum levels of blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, duration of DM and number of DM complications were obtained from 145 patients at a general DM clinic. (2) The peripheral neuropathy examinations by vibration perception threshold (VPT) and Achilles tendon reflex were performed in 97 DM patients. Erectile functions in DM patients were evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF 5). The DM patients' parameters were compared with the IIEF 5 scores. (1) The data showed IIEF 5 scores were significantly correlated with patient age, duration of DM and number of DM complications. (2) IIEF 5 scores were significantly correlated with VPT time. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis revealed that patient age and VPT time were independent risk factors for predicting ED in DM patients. The severity of ED in DM patients depended on age, duration of DM, number of DM complications and VPT. Significantly, the age of DM patients and the measurement of VPT are considered to be simple and useful indicators to diagnose ED in DM patients. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Broadening the definition of resilience and "reappraising" the use of appetitive motivation. (United States)

    Soenke, Melissa; O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Greenberg, Jeff


    Kalisch et al.'s PASTOR model synthesizes current knowledge of resilience, focusing on mechanisms as a common pathway to outcomes and highlighting neuroscience as a method for exploring this. We propose the model broaden its definition of resiliency to include positive indices of recovery, include positive affect as a mechanism, and approach motivation as distinct from overcoming aversive motivation.

  3. Significant Association between Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Uranium-Reducing Microbial Communities as Revealed by a Combined Massively Parallel Sequencing-Indicator Species Approach▿ † (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Jardine, Philip M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Marsh, Terence L.; Tiedje, James M.


    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared. PMID:20729318

  4. Brillouin resonance broadening due to structural variations in nanoscale waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Christian; Steel, Michael J; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Poulton, Christopher G


    We study the impact of structural variations (that is slowly varying geometry aberrations and internal strain fields) on the resonance width and shape of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in nanoscale waveguides. We find that they lead to an inhomogeneous resonance broadening through two distinct mechanisms: firstly, the acoustic frequency is directly influenced via mechanical nonlinearities; secondly, the optical wave numbers are influenced via the opto-mechanical nonlinearity leading to an additional acoustic frequency shift via the phase-matching condition. We find that this second mechanism is proportional to the opto-mechanical coupling and, hence, related to the SBS-gain itself. It is absent in intra-mode forward SBS, while it plays a significant role in backward scattering. In backward SBS increasing the opto-acoustic overlap beyond a threshold defined by the fabrication tolerances will therefore no longer yield the expected quadratic increase in overall Stokes amplification. Our results can be tra...

  5. Digital nonlinearity compensation in high-capacity optical communication systems considering signal spectral broadening effect. (United States)

    Xu, Tianhua; Karanov, Boris; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Liga, Gabriele; Killey, Robert I; Bayvel, Polina


    Nyquist-spaced transmission and digital signal processing have proved effective in maximising the spectral efficiency and reach of optical communication systems. In these systems, Kerr nonlinearity determines the performance limits, and leads to spectral broadening of the signals propagating in the fibre. Although digital nonlinearity compensation was validated to be promising for mitigating Kerr nonlinearities, the impact of spectral broadening on nonlinearity compensation has never been quantified. In this paper, the performance of multi-channel digital back-propagation (MC-DBP) for compensating fibre nonlinearities in Nyquist-spaced optical communication systems is investigated, when the effect of signal spectral broadening is considered. It is found that accounting for the spectral broadening effect is crucial for achieving the best performance of DBP in both single-channel and multi-channel communication systems, independent of modulation formats used. For multi-channel systems, the degradation of DBP performance due to neglecting the spectral broadening effect in the compensation is more significant for outer channels. Our work also quantified the minimum bandwidths of optical receivers and signal processing devices to ensure the optimal compensation of deterministic nonlinear distortions.

  6. Superfluorescence in the presence of inhomogeneous broadening and relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I.W.; Silk, J.D.; Vuduc, R.; Neuberger, J.W


    In this paper we show how inhomogeneous broadening produces dephasing, inhibits cooperative emission and thus reduces the intensity of the SF pulse. We also show how electronic relaxation or time-dependent hyperfine interactions can mollify the effect of inhomogeneous broadening so that SF can be recovered.

  7. Stark Broadening Parameters for Neutral Oxygen Spectral Lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Stark broadening parameters for nine neutral oxygen (O I) lines have been determined within the impact approximation and the semiclassical perturbation method. The atomic data have been taken from the TOPbase and NIST atomic databases. The electron and proton Stark widths and shifts and ion broadening ...

  8. Stark Broadening in Compact Stars: Xe VI Lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Compact stars like white dwarfs, pre-white dwarfs and neutron stars are particularly interesting for the applications of Stark broadening research, since in their atmo- spheres this broadening ...... 2015 Scientific Meeting of the. Labex Plas@par, which is a part of the programme “Investissements d'avenir” under.

  9. Inhomogeneous broadening in non-interacting nonlocal plasmonic ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.


    The importance of inhomogeneous broadening due to the size dependence of plasmon resonances in few-nm metallic particle ensembles is investigated through different models describing the nonlocal optical response of plasmonic nanospheres. Modal shifts and plasmon line broadening are shown to becom...

  10. Line broadening in the PXRD patterns of layered hydroxides: The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    reflections and turbostratic disorder broadens the 0k´ reflections. The line broadening caused by struc- tural disorder has to be discounted before estimates of particle size are made by applying the Scherrer formula. Keywords. Layered double hydroxides; pyroaurite; structural disorder; stacking faults; turbostraticity;.

  11. Effect of repetitive daily ethanol intoxication on adult rat brain: significant changes in phospholipase A2 enzyme levels in association with increased PARP-1 indicate neuroinflammatory pathway activation. (United States)

    Tajuddin, Nuzhath F; Przybycien-Szymanska, Magdalena M; Pak, Toni R; Neafsey, Edward J; Collins, Michael A


    Collaborating on studies of subchronic daily intoxication in juvenile and adult rats, we examined whether the repetitive ethanol treatments at these two life stages altered levels of key neuroinflammation-associated proteins-aquaporin-4 (AQP4), certain phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes, PARP-1 and caspase-3-in hippocampus (HC) and entorhinal cortex (EC). Significant changes in the proteins could implicate activation of specific neuroinflammatory signaling pathways in these rats as well as in severely binge-intoxicated adult animals that are reported to incur degeneration of vulnerable neurons in HC and EC. Male Wistar rats, ethanol-intoxicated (3 g/kg i.p.) once daily for 6 days over an 8-day interval beginning at 37 days old and repeated at age 68-75 days, were sacrificed 1 h after the day 75 dose (blood ethanol, 200- 230 mg/dl). Analysis of HC with an immunoblot technique showed that AQP4, Ca(+2)-dependent PLA2 (cPLA2 IVA), phosphorylated (activated) p-cPLA2, cleaved (89 kD) PARP (c-PARP), and caspase-3 levels were significantly elevated over controls, whereas Ca(+2)-independent PLA2 (iPLA2 VIA) was reduced ∼70%; however, cleaved caspase-3 was undetectable. In the EC, AQP4 was unchanged, but cPLA2 and p-cPLA2 were significantly increased while iPLA2 levels were diminished (∼40%) similar to HC, although just outside statistical significance (p = 0.06). In addition, EC levels of PARP-1 and c-PARP were significantly increased. The ethanol-induced activation of cPLA2 in association with reduced iPLA2 mirrors PLA2 changes in reports of neurotrauma and also of dietary omega-3 fatty acid depletion. Furthermore, the robust PARP-1 elevations accompanied by negligible caspase-3 activation indicate that repetitive ethanol intoxication may be potentiating non-apoptotic neurodegenerative processes such as parthanatos. Overall, the repetitive ethanol treatments appeared to instigate previously unappreciated neuroinflammatory pathways in vivo. The data provide insights

  12. Line-Broadening in Low-Temperature Solid-State NMR Spectra of Fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas; Dotta, Claudio; Balacescu, Livia; Gath, Julia; Hunkeler, Andreas [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: [Université de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, UMR 5086 CNRS (France); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)


    The temperature-dependent resonance-line broadening of HET-s(218–289) in its amyloid form is investigated in the range between 110 K and 280 K. Significant differences are observed between residues in the structured hydrophobic triangular core, which are broadened the least and can be detected down to 100 K, and in the solvent-exposed parts, which are broadened the most and often disappear from the observed spectrum around 200 K. Below the freezing of the bulk water, around 273 K, the protein fibrils are still surrounded by a layer of mobile water whose thickness decreases with temperature, leading to drying out of the fibrils.

  13. Acousto-optics bandwidth broadening in a Bragg cell based on arbitrary synthesized signal methods. (United States)

    Peled, Itay; Kaminsky, Ron; Kotler, Zvi


    In this work, we present the advantages of driving a multichannel acousto-optical deflector (AOD) with a digitally synthesized multifrequency RF signal. We demonstrate a significant bandwidth broadening of ∼40% by providing well-tuned phase control of the array transducers. Moreover, using a multifrequency, complex signal, we manage to suppress the harmonic deflections and return most of the spurious energy to the main beam. This method allows us to operate the AOD with more than an octave of bandwidth with negligible spurious energy going to the harmonic beams and a total bandwidth broadening of over 70%.

  14. The palaeoclimatic significance of Eurasian Giant Salamanders (Cryptobranchidae: Zaissanurus, Andrias) - indications for elevated humidity in Central Asia during global warm periods (Eocene, late Oligocene warming, Miocene Climate Optimum) (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Böhme, Madelaine; Winklhofer, Michael


    Cryptobranchids represent a group of large sized (up to 1.8 m) tailed amphibians known since the Middle Jurassic (Gao & Shubin 2003). Two species are living today in eastern Eurasia: Andrias davidianus (China) and A. japonicus (Japan). Cenozoic Eurasian fossil giant salamanders are known with two genera and two or three species from over 30 localities, ranging from the Late Eocene to the Early Pliocene (Böhme & Ilg 2003). The Late Eocene species Zaissanurus beliajevae is restricted to the Central Asian Zaissan Basin (SE-Kazakhstan, 50°N, 85°E), whereas the Late Oligocene to Early Pliocene species Andrias scheuchzeri is distributed from Central Europe to the Zaissan Basin. In the latter basin the species occur during two periods; the latest Oligocene and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Chkhikvadse 1982). Andrias scheuchzeri is osteological indistinguishable from both recent species, indicating a similar ecology (Westfahl 1958). To investigate the palaeoclimatic significance of giant salamanders we analyzed the climate within the present-day distribution area and at selected fossil localities with independent palaeoclimate record. Our results indicate that fossil and recent Andrias species occur in humid areas where the mean annual precipitation reach over 900 mm (900 - 1.300 mm). As a working hypothesis (assuming a similar ecology of Andrias and Zaissanurus) we interpret occurrences of both fossil Eurasian giant salamanders as indicative for humid palaeoclimatic conditions. Based on this assumption the Late Eocene, the latest Oligocene (late Oligocene warming) and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Miocene Climatic Optimum) of Central Asia (Zaissan Basin) are periods of elevated humidity, suggesting a direct (positive) relationship between global climate and Central Asian humidity evolution. Böhme M., Ilg A. 2003: fosFARbase, Chkhikvadze V.M. 1982. On the finding of fossil Cryptobranchidae in the USSR and Mongolia. Vertebrata

  15. Ultrasonographic caval indices do not significantly contribute to predicting fluid responsiveness immediately after coronary artery bypass grafting when compared to passive leg raising. (United States)

    Sobczyk, Dorota; Nycz, Krzysztof; Andruszkiewicz, Pawel; Wierzbicki, Karol; Stapor, Maciej


    Appropriate fluid management is one of the most important elements of early goal-directed therapy after cardiothoracic surgery. Reliable determination of fluid responsivenss remains the fundamental issue in volume therapy. The purpose of the study was to assess the usefulness of dynamic IVC-derived parameters (collapsibility index, distensibility index) in comparison to passive leg raising, in postoperative fluid management in mechanically ventilated patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 30 %, immediately after elective coronary artery bypass grafting. Prospective observational case series study including 35 patients with LVEF ≥ 30 %, undergoingelective coronary artery bypass grafting was conducted. Transthoracic echocardiography, passive leg raising and intravenous administration of saline were performed in all study subjects. Dynamic parameters derived from ultrasonographic assessment of the IVC diameter (collapsibility index-CI and distensibility index-DI), cardiac output There were 24 (68.57 %) responders in the study population. There were no statistical differences between the groups in relation to: clinical parameters, pre- and postoperative LVEF, fluid balance and CVP. Change in cardiac output after passive leg raising correlated significantly with that after the volume expansion (p=0.000, r=0.822). Dynamic IVC derivatives were slightly higher in fluid responders, however this trend did not reach statistical significance. None of the caval indices correlated with fluid responsiveness. Dynamic IVC-derived parameters do not predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients with preserved ejection fraction immediately after elective coronary artery bypass grafting. Passive leg raising is not inferior to volume expansion in differentiating between fluid responders and nonresponders. Immediate fluid challenge after CABG is safe and well tolerated.

  16. A scheme comparison of Autler-Townes based slow light in inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Mørk, Jesper


    We propose a method to achieve significant optical signal delays exploiting the effect of Autler–Townes splitting (ATS) in an inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot medium. The absorption and slowdown effects are compared for three schemes i.e., Ξ, V, and Λ, corresponding to different excitation c...

  17. Self broadening in the nu-1 band of NH3 (United States)

    Markov, V. N.; Pine, A. S.; Buffa, G.; Tarrini, O.


    Self-broadening coefficients, pressure shifts, and integrated intensities have been measured for Q- and R-branch transitions in the nu-1 fundamental band of ammonia using a difference-frequency laser spectrometer. A strong, systematic J and K dependence of the broadening coefficients, reminiscent of the ground-state inversion transitions, is observed and compared with semiclassical line broadening calculations. Dicke narrowing is evident at intermediate pressures for the sharpest lines, primarily the R(J, 0) transitions. Incipient line mixing is apparent in the Q branch at pressures above about 0.1 bar.

  18. Pressure broadening of acetylene rotational Raman lines by argon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceruti, M.; Frenkel, D.; McTaque, J.P.


    The anisotropic interaction between acetylene and argon has been studied by observing the density dependence of the acetylene pure rotational Raman line broadening. The observed cross sections are approximately twice that predicted from the known polarizabilities and acetylene molecular quadrupole

  19. Stark broadening parameter tables for neutral calcium spectral lines, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević M.S.


    Full Text Available Electron-, proton-, and ionized helium-impact broadening parameter tables for neutral calcium spectral lines, have been presented as a function of the temperature and the perturber density. Calculations have been performed within the semiclassical perturbation approach.

  20. Recovery of superfluorescence in inhomogeneously broadened systems through rapid relaxation (United States)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I. W.; Vuduc, R.; Neuberger, J. W.


    This paper shows that time-dependent hyperfine interactions of the nucleus with electrons can enhance the superfluorescence (SF) intensity by countering the destructive effect of inhomogeneous broadening on SF.

  1. Probing transverse momentum broadening in heavy ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Mueller


    Full Text Available We study the dijet azimuthal de-correlation in relativistic heavy ion collisions as an important probe of the transverse momentum broadening effects of a high energy jet traversing the quark–gluon plasma. We take into account both the soft gluon radiation in vacuum associated with the Sudakov logarithms and the jet PT-broadening effects in the QCD medium. We find that the Sudakov effects are dominant at the LHC, while the medium effects can play an important role at RHIC energies. This explains why the LHC experiments have not yet observed sizable PT-broadening effects in the measurement of dijet azimuthal correlations in heavy ion collisions. Future investigations at RHIC will provide a unique opportunity to study the PT-broadening effects and help to pin down the underlying mechanism for jet energy loss in a hot and dense medium.

  2. Doppler radar spectral width broadening due to beamwidth and wind shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Nastrom


    Full Text Available The spectral width observed by Doppler radars can be due to several effects including the atmospheric turbulence within the radar sample volume plus effects associated with the background flow and the radar geometry and configuration. This study re-examines simple models for the effects due to finite beamwidth and vertical shear of the horizontal wind. Analytic solutions of 1- and 2-dimensional models are presented. Comparisons of the simple 2-dimensional model with numerical integrations of a 3-dimensional model with a symmetrical Gaussian beam show that the 2-dimensional model is usually adequate. The solution of the 2-dimensional model gives a formula that can be applied easily to large data sets. Analysis of the analytic solutions of the 2-dimensional model for off-vertical beams reveals a term that has not been included in mathematical formulas for spectral broadening in the past. This term arises from the simultaneous effects of the changing geometry due to curvature within a finite beamwidth and the vertical wind shear. The magnitude of this effect can be comparable to that of the well-known effects of beam-broadening and wind shear, and since it can have either algebraic sign, it can significantly reduce (or increase the expected spectral broadening, although under typical conditions it is smaller than the beam-broadening effect. The predictions of this simple model are found to be consistent with observations from the VHF radar at White Sands Missile Range, NM.

  3. Doppler radar spectral width broadening due to beamwidth and wind shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Nastrom

    Full Text Available The spectral width observed by Doppler radars can be due to several effects including the atmospheric turbulence within the radar sample volume plus effects associated with the background flow and the radar geometry and configuration. This study re-examines simple models for the effects due to finite beamwidth and vertical shear of the horizontal wind. Analytic solutions of 1- and 2-dimensional models are presented. Comparisons of the simple 2-dimensional model with numerical integrations of a 3-dimensional model with a symmetrical Gaussian beam show that the 2-dimensional model is usually adequate. The solution of the 2-dimensional model gives a formula that can be applied easily to large data sets. Analysis of the analytic solutions of the 2-dimensional model for off-vertical beams reveals a term that has not been included in mathematical formulas for spectral broadening in the past. This term arises from the simultaneous effects of the changing geometry due to curvature within a finite beamwidth and the vertical wind shear. The magnitude of this effect can be comparable to that of the well-known effects of beam-broadening and wind shear, and since it can have either algebraic sign, it can significantly reduce (or increase the expected spectral broadening, although under typical conditions it is smaller than the beam-broadening effect. The predictions of this simple model are found to be consistent with observations from the VHF radar at White Sands Missile Range, NM.

  4. Origins of spectral broadening of incoherent waves: Catastrophic process of coherence degradation (United States)

    Xu, G.; Garnier, J.; Rumpf, B.; Fusaro, A.; Suret, P.; Randoux, S.; Kudlinski, A.; Millot, G.; Picozzi, A.


    We revisit the mechanisms underlying the process of spectral broadening of incoherent optical waves propagating in nonlinear media on the basis of nonequilibrium thermodynamic considerations. A simple analysis reveals that a prerequisite for the existence of a significant spectral broadening of the waves is that the linear part of the energy (Hamiltonian) has different contributions of opposite signs. It turns out that, at variance with the expected soliton turbulence scenario, an increase of the amount of disorder (incoherence) in the system does not require the generation of a coherent soliton structure. We illustrate the idea by considering the propagation of two wave components in an optical fiber with opposite dispersion coefficients. A wave turbulence approach to the problem reveals that the increase of kinetic energy in one component is offset by the negative reduction in the other component, so that the waves exhibit, as a general rule, virtually unlimited spectral broadening. More precisely, a self-similar solution of the kinetic equations reveals that the spectra of the incoherent waves tend to relax toward a homogeneous distribution in the wake of a front that propagates in frequency space with a decelerating velocity. We discuss this catastrophic process of spectral broadening in the light of different important phenomena, in particular supercontinuum generation, soliton turbulence, wave condensation, and the runaway motion of mechanical systems composed of positive and negative masses.

  5. Faecal microbiota transplantation in patients with Clostridium difficile and significant comorbidities as well as in patients with new indications: A case series. (United States)

    Lahtinen, Perttu; Mattila, Eero; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Tillonen, Jyrki; Teittinen, Matti; Nevalainen, Pasi; Salminen, Seppo; Satokari, Reetta; Arkkila, Perttu


    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). Knowledge of the safety and efficacy of FMT treatment in immune deficient patients is scarce. FMT has been suggested as a potential method for an increasing number of new indications besides rCDI. Among our FMT-treated rCDI patients, we reviewed those with major comorbidities: two human immunodeficiency virus patients, six haemodialysis patients, two kidney transplant patients, two liver transplant patients and a patient with chronic lymphatic leukaemia. We also reviewed those treated with FMT for indications other than rCDI: Salmonella carriage (two patients), trimethylaminuria (two patients), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO; one patient), and lymphocytic colitis (one patient), as well as a common variable immunodeficiency patient with chronic norovirus infection and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) carriage. Of the thirteen rCDI patients treated with FMT, eleven cleared the CDI. The observed adverse events were not directly attributable to FMT. Concerning the special indications, both Salmonellas and ESBL-producing E. coli were eradicated. One trimethylaminuria patient and one SIBO-patient reported a reduction of symptoms. Three patients did not experience a benefit from FMT: chronic norovirus, lymphocytic colitis and the other fish malodour syndrome. There were no reported side effects in this group. FMT appeared to be safe and effective for immunocompromised patients with rCDI. FMT showed promise for the eradication of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, but further research is warranted.

  6. Music-induced positive mood broadens the scope of auditory attention


    Putkinen, Vesa; Makkonen, Tommi; Eerola, Tuomas


    Abstract Previous studies indicate that positive mood broadens the scope of visual attention, which can manifest as heightened distractibility. We used event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate whether music-induced positive mood has comparable effects on selective attention in the auditory domain. Subjects listened to experimenter-selected happy, neutral or sad instrumental music and afterwards participated in a dichotic listening task. Distractor sounds in the unattended channel elicite...

  7. Prognostic significance of 2-dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler echo indices of right ventricular function in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. (United States)

    Kassem, Eias; Humpl, Tilman; Friedberg, Mark K


    Echocardiographic measures of right ventricular (RV) function are associated with adverse outcomes in adults with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH) but have not been adequately studied in children. We investigated the prognostic value of 2D, M-mode and Doppler indices of RV function in relation to death or lung transplant in children with iPAH and PAH associated with congenital heart diseases (cPAH). Children with iPAH and cPAH were studied. Two echocardiograms were analyzed for each patient: at diagnosis and at last follow-up. Clinical data, catheter hemodynamics and 6-minute walk distance were recorded. Echo indices of RV function were compared between the first and follow-up echo, between iPAH and cPAH patients, and between iPAH patients alive at follow-up versus those who had died or had undergone lung transplant. Survival probability stratified by RV function was analyzed. Fifty-four children were studied: 36 cPAH patients (7.5 ± 5.9 years) and 18 iPAH patients (8.9 ± 5.7 years) of whom 12 were alive and 6 had died or were transplanted. Despite similar pulmonary hemodynamics, RV function, including right atrial volume, tricuspid annular planar excursion, fractional area of change, and left ventricular eccentricity index were worse in iPAH at presentation and at follow-up. At last echo there was further worsening of RV function in iPAH patients, particularly in those who had died or were transplanted, compared with improved or unchanged indices in cPAH patients or iPAH survivors. Conventional echo RV functional parameters are valuable to identify risk for transplant or death in children with PAH. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Significance of indicator microorganisms in the assessment of a microbial risk in the occurrence of epidemic hazard in drinking water use]. (United States)

    Aleshnia, V V; Zhuravlev, P V; Golovina, S V; Panasovets, O P; Nedachin, A E; Artemova, T Z; Ivanova, L V; Talaeva, Iu G; Zagaĭnova, A V; Butorina, N N; Ibragimova, L M; Kolbasnikova, I A; Glukhov, A A; Shcheglova, E I; Martynov, G A; Kovalevskaia, O L; Gordeev, V A; Beloglazova, M D; Subbotina, V I; Chernogorova, T N


    Summary. The paper provides comparative characteristics of water quality in the assessment of a risk for intestinal infections in drinking water use. It has shown that of the greatest predictive value is direct detection of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, as well as the integral indicator determined by glucose fermentation, such as glucose-positive coliform bacteria. Estimation of the per cent of nonstandard samples of water before its entering the distribution network and in the latter, including glucose-positive Escherichia coli GPEC, is recommended. The samples containing GPEC in a quantity of more than 2 CFU/100 ml should be singly taken into account.

  9. In vivo imaging of the spectral line broadening of the human lung in a single breathhold. (United States)

    Carinci, Flavio; Meyer, Cord; Breuer, Felix A; Jakob, Peter M


    To present a technique, which allows for the in vivo quantification of the spectral line broadening of the human lung in a single breathhold. The line broadening is an interesting parameter of the lung because it can provide information about important lung properties, namely: inflation and oxygen uptake. The proposed technique integrates the asymmetric spin-echo (ASE) approach, which is commonly used to quantify the line broadening, with a single shot turbo spin-echo pulse sequence with half-Fourier acquisition (HASTE), to reduce the acquisition times. Imaging experiments were performed at 1.5 Tesla on 14 healthy volunteers, using a ASE-prepared HASTE sequence. The line broadening was quantified using a two-points method. Data were acquired at different breathing states: functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity (TLC), and with different breathing gases: room-air and pure-oxygen. Image acquisition was accomplished within a single breathhold of approximately 15 s duration. The violation of the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill conditions, deriving from inhomogeneities of the static magnetic field, was overcome by means of radiofrequency-phase cycling and generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (GRAPPA) reconstruction. Significant increase of the line broadening was observed with both lung inflation and oxygen concentration (P lung parenchyma at different breathing states (1.48 ± 0.29 ppm at FRC and 1.95 ± 0.43 ppm at TLC) are in agreement with previous reports and show excellent reproducibility, with a coefficient of variation lung in vivo. Image acquisition can be accomplished in a single breathhold, which could be suitable for clinical applications on patients with lung diseases. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:745-757. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Broadening effects on opacity calculation of CH plasmas (United States)

    Ghorashi, Seyed Alaeddin; Mahdavi, Mohammad


    Opacity is a function of the temperature and electron density of plasma. The plasma density can be determined by measurements of Stark-broadened K-shell spectral lines. The purpose of this work is to obtain a more detailed structure of opacity with regard to broadening effects. For this aim, the opacity frequency dependency and mean opacity of mixed plasmas are calculated under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. The LTE state in inertial confinement fusion occurs when the collisional deexcitation rate from the upper level to the lower level greatly exceeds the spontaneous decay rate. Since the thermal radiation can be absorbed by the CH-ablator, by studying the behavior of the CH Polystyrene opacity, one can obtain the temperature and density of the plasma in investigations of matter found in stellar interiors, inertial fusion implosions, and Z pinches as a diagnostic technique. The main aspect of diagnostic application is spectrum broadening. The final results show that the Stark-broadened line shape is dependent on the density. Also, it is shown that the resonance peak and spectrum broadening of the opacity spectrum of a mixed plasma such as the CH-plasma is larger than a single atom plasma such as Carbon.

  11. Family Reunions: Broadened Kinship, Celebrated Rurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Menasche


    Full Text Available This articletakes family reunions held among peasants as a focus of study. During these events,keycultural categories come to light from which the analyzed group builds up ideas about kinship and also the relations that are implied in it. We observe that, in these cases, there are also indications of specific elements through which people express a valorization of rurality. To carry out this study, we collected data as part of an ethnographic research project conducted at a family reunion and in a rural community settled by German descendent immigrants, located in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

  12. Lignin isolated from primary walls of hybrid aspen cell cultures indicates significant differences in lignin structure between primary and secondary cell wall. (United States)

    Christiernin, Maria; Ohlsson, Anna B; Berglund, Torkel; Henriksson, Gunnar


    Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) cell cultures were grown for 7, 14 and 21 days. The cell cultures formed primary cell walls but no secondary cell wall according to carbohydrate analysis and microscopic characterization. The primary walls were lignified, increasingly with age, according to Klason lignin analysis. Presence of lignin in the primary walls, with a higher content in 21-day old cells than in 7-day old cells, was further supported by phloroglucinol/HCl reagent test and confocal microscopy after both immunolocalization and staining with acriflavin. Both laccase and peroxidase activity were found in the cultures and the activity increased during lignin formation. The lignin from the cell culture material was compared to lignin from mature aspen wood, where most of the lignin originates in the secondary cell wall, and which served as our secondary cell wall control. Lignin from the cell walls was isolated and characterized by thioacidolysis followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The lignin in the cell cultures differed from lignin of mature aspen wood in that it consisted exclusively of guaiacyl units, and had a more condensed structure. Five lignin structures were identified by mass spectrometry in the cell suspension cultures. The results indicate that the hybrid aspen cell culture used in this investigation may be a convenient experimental system for studies of primary cell wall lignin.

  13. Apolipoprotein A-I in Labeo rohita: Cloning and functional characterisation reveal its broad spectrum antimicrobial property, and indicate significant role during ectoparasitic infection. (United States)

    Mohapatra, Amruta; Karan, Sweta; Kar, Banya; Garg, L C; Dixit, A; Sahoo, P K


    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the most abundant and multifunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) having a major role in lipid transport and potent antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microbes. In this study, a complete CDS of 771 bp of Labeo rohita (rohu) ApoA-I (LrApoA-I) encoding a protein of 256 amino acids was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Tissue specific transcription analysis of LrApoA-I revealed its expression in a wide range of tissues, with a very high level of expression in liver and spleen. Ontogenic study of LrApoA-I expression showed presence of transcripts in milt and 3 h post-fertilization onwards in the larvae. The expression kinetics of LrApoA-I was studied upon infection with three different types of pathogens to elucidate its functional significance. Its expression was found to be up-regulated in the anterior kidney of L. rohita post-infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. Similarly following poly I:C (poly inosinic:cytidylic) stimulation, the transcript levels increased in both the anterior kidney and liver tissues. Significant up-regulation of LrApoA-I expression was observed in skin, mucous, liver and anterior kidney of the fish challenged with the ectoparasite Argulus siamensis. Immunomodulatory effect of recombinant LrApoA-I (rApoA-I) produced in Escherichia coli was demonstrated against A. hydrophila challenge in vivo. L. rohita administered with rApoA-I at a dose of 100 μg exhibited significantly higher protection (∼55%) upon challenge with A. hydrophila 12 h post-administration of the protein, in comparison to that observed in control group, along with higher level of expression of immune-related genes. The heightened expression of ApoA-I observed post-infection reflected its involvement in immune responses against a wide range of infections including bacterial, viral as well as parasitic pathogens. Our results also suggest the possibility of using rApoA-I as an immunostimulant, particularly rendering protection

  14. Inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening effects on nuclear resonance experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I.W.; Nicoll, J.; Silk, J.D.; Herling, G


    Inhomogeneous broadening of resonance lines causes a reduction of absorption in nuclear resonance experiments. This is particularly devastating to the observation of the Moessbauer effect in isomers like {sup 107}Ag with a half-life of 44s. It has been suggested in the literature that homogeneous broadening can provide overlap of resonance lines and thus the Moessbauer effect can be recovered. The analysis presented in this paper shows that this is not the case for Moessbauer experiments, unless the radiative width {gamma}{sub {gamma}} also increases. Although overlap occurs when the lines are homogeneously broadened to a total width {gamma}{sub H} which exceeds the natural width {gamma}, and the inhomogeneous width {delta}, the Moessbauer absorption remains low because it is proportional to the factor of {gamma}{sub {gamma}}/{gamma}{sub H}.

  15. Inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening effects onnuclear resonance experiments (United States)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I. W.; Nicoll, J.; Silk, J. D.; Herling, G.


    Inhomogeneous broadening of resonance lines causes a reduction of absorption in nuclear resonance experiments. This is particularly devastating to the observation of the Mössbauer effect in isomers like 107Ag with a half-life of 44s.It has been suggested in the literature that homogeneous broadening can provide overlap of resonance lines and thus theMössbauer effect can be recovered. The analysis presented in this paper shows that this is not the case for Mössbauer experiments, unless the radiative width ΓΓ also increases. Although overlap occurs when the lines are homogeneously broadened to a total width Γ_H which exceeds the natural width Γ, and the inhomogeneous width Δ, the Mössbauer absorption remains low because it is proportional to the factor of Γγ/Γ H.

  16. Significant prevalence of sickle cell disease in Southwest Germany: results from a birth cohort study indicate the necessity for newborn screening. (United States)

    Kunz, Joachim B; Awad, Saida; Happich, Margit; Muckenthaler, Lena; Lindner, Martin; Gramer, Gwendolyn; Okun, Jürgen G; Hoffmann, Georg F; Bruckner, Thomas; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Kulozik, Andreas E


    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) benefit from newborn screening, because life-threatening complications can be prevented by pre-symptomatic diagnosis. In Germany, the immigration of people from endemic countries is steadily growing. Comprehensive data about the epidemiology and prevalence of SCD in Germany are however lacking, and SCD is not included in the national newborn screening program. We provide data on the prevalence of SCD in a population from both urban and rural areas in Southwest Germany. Anonymized dried blood spots from 37,838 unselected newborns were analyzed by allele-specific PCR for the HbS mutation. Samples tested positive were subjected to Sanger sequencing of the entire β-globin coding sequence firstly to validate the screening and secondly to identify compound heterozygous SCD patients with other mutations of the β-globin gene. We identified 83 carriers of the sickle cell trait, three compound heterozygous SCD patients (two with sickle cell-β-thalassemia, one with sickle cell-Hb Tianshui) but no homozygous SCD patients. The novel molecular method and strategy for newborn screening for SCD presented here compares favorably in terms of sensitivity (1.0 for homozygous HbS, 0.996 for heterozygous HbS), specificity (0.996), practicability, and costs with conventional biochemical screening. Our results demonstrate a significant prevalence of SCD of approximately 1:12,000 in an unselected urban and rural population in Southwest Germany. Together with previously published even higher results from exclusively urban populations in Berlin and Hamburg, our data provide the basis for the decision on a newborn screening program for SCD in Germany.

  17. Combustion technology overview. [the use of broadened property aircraft fuels (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, R. W.


    An overview of combustor technology developments required for use of broadened property fuels in jet aircraft is presented. The intent of current investigations is to determine the extent to which fuel properties can be varied, to obtain a data base of combustion - fuel quality effects, and to determine the trade-offs associated with broadened property fuels. Subcomponents of in-service combustors such as fuel injectors and liners, as well as air distributions and stoichiometry, are being altered to determine the extent to which fuel flexibility can be extended. Finally, very advanced technology consisting of new combustor concepts is being evolved to optimize the fuel flexibility of gas turbine combustors.

  18. Multigroup Free-atom Doppler-broadening Approximation. Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Mark Girard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Multigroup cross sections at a one target temperature can be Doppler-broadened to multigroup cross sections at a higher target temperature by matrix multiplication if the group structure suf- ficiently resolves the original temperature continuous energy cross section. Matrix elements are the higher temperature group weighted averages of the integral over the lower temperature group boundaries of the free-atom Doppler-broadening kernel. The results match theory for constant and 1/v multigroup cross sections at 618 lanl group structure resolution.

  19. Broadening of the thermal component of the prompt GRB emission due to rapid temperature evolution (United States)

    Bharali, Priya; Sahayanathan, Sunder; Misra, Ranjeev; Boruah, Kalyanee


    The observations of the prompt emission of gamma ray bursts (GRB) by GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM), on board Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, suggest the presence of a significant thermal spectral component, whose origin is not well understood. Recently, it has been shown that for long duration GRBs, the spectral width as defined as the logarithm of the ratio of the energies at which the spectrum falls to half its peak value, lie in the range of 0.84-1.3 with a median value of 1.07. Thus, while most of the GRB spectra are found to be too narrow to be explained by synchrotron emission from an electron distribution, they are also significantly broader than a blackbody spectrum whose width should be 0.54. Here, we consider the possibility that an intrinsic thermal spectrum from a fire-ball like model, may be observed to be broadened if the system undergoes a rapid temperature evolution. We construct a toy-model to show that for bursts with durations in the range 5-70 s, the widths of their 1 second time-averaged spectra can be at the most ≲ 0.557. Thus, while rapid temperature variation can broaden the detected spectral shape, the observed median value of ˜ 1.07 requires that there must be significant sub-photospheric emission and/or an anisotropic explosion to explain the broadening for most GRB spectra.

  20. Communicating Science with Batiks: Broadening the Audience (United States)

    Pilkey, O. H.; Fraser, M. E.


    Batik artist Fraser and coastal geologist Pilkey began their collaboration in 1994 at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum. Since that time they have made over 25 joint presentations and produced 25 educational art exhibitions, some with as many as 60 batiks on silk, each large-scale artwork accompanied by a brief wall description of its geologic significance. Among other venues, the exhibitions have been housed at The National Academy of Sciences, The National Science Foundation, Duke University's Museum of Art, and the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. They were also featured in a National Geographic TV special and have been widely picked up in cyberspace. In addition, the duo has published 2 books. One, A Celebration of the World's Barrier Islands (2003), combines color images with batiks, and the second, Global Climate Change: A Primer (2011), is illustrated exclusively with batiks. The creation of each batik is preceded by a scientist-artist conference wherein they discuss the salient features of the natural system to be depicted. The objective is to show the majesty of selected natural features or processes and at the same time to communicate the science behind them. From the artist's standpoint, this collaboration has given focus and purpose to her art and fulfills her desire to support environmental causes. The science-art alliance has been highly successful in attracting a new audience to the problems facing barrier islands and also to the broader subject of global climate change. A feared backlash from hardnosed science colleagues over "dilution" or "softening" of science has not materialized. A future collaboration with the "American Rivers" society will highlight the problems facing rivers.A batik of an iceberg showing the typical proportion of underwater versus above-water ice volumes.

  1. GIS based spatial noise impact analysis (SNIA of the broadening of national highway in Sikkim Himalayas: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polash Banerjee


    Full Text Available Mountainous areas create a complex and challenging environment to conduct noise impact analysis of development projects. This paper presents a noise impact analysis methodology using Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Traffic Noise Model (FHWA TNM 2.5 to portray spatial distribution of noise due to the broadening of the national highway in the mountainous terrain of East Sikkim. Two noise level indices viz., Hourly Equivalent Sound Level (Leq(H and Day and Night Average Sound Level (Ldn were calculated for the year 2004 as pre-project scenario, 2014 as project implementation scenario and 2039 as post-project scenario. The overall trend shows that the proportion of area under adverse noise level decreases from pre-project scenario to project implementation scenario. Over the time the adverse noise impact in the post-project scenario reaches very close to pre-project scenario in case of both the noise indices. Overlay analysis of noise based landuse maps over actual landuse map show that non-compliance of noise based landuse will show similar trend. This trend is mainly attributed to traffic composition and highway broadening induced-traffic volume. The study shows that TNM and spatial interpolation of noise data using Empirical Bayesian Kriging (EBK are reliable tools to perform noise impact analysis in mountainous areas. Multiple regression analysis show that, radial distance and elevation difference of noise receivers from the nearest point in the highway are significant predictors of Leq(H and Ldn at lower percentage of heavy trucks in traffic composition.

  2. Some Strategies From SOARS for Broadening Participation in the Geosciences (United States)

    Haacker-Santos, R.; Pandya, R.; Calhoun, A.


    The mission of SOARS® is to broaden participation in the geosciences by increasing the number of Black or African-American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic or Latino, female, and first-generation college students who enroll and succeed in graduate school in the atmospheric and related sciences. This mission contributes to national goals of developing a diverse, internationally competitive, and globally engaged workforce of scientists and engineers. SOARS is a multiyear undergraduate-to-graduate bridge program that uses three strategies: a strong learning community, a multidimensional mentoring program, and experience in research. Our presentation will describe SOARS' strategies in more detail, with an eye toward how such strategies might be adapted for other programs. To do this, we will draw upon recent research that documents how these strategies can be successfully implemented, including: - A survey of over 124 higher-education based STEM programs - A workshop report from the American Chemical Society emphasizing cooperation between industry and academia - An independent ethnographic study of the Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric and Related Science (SOARS®) program, administered by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) In the 11 years since SOARS' founding, 104 students have participated in the program. Of those participants, 16 are still enrolled as undergraduates, and 60 have gone on to purse graduate school in STEM. Overall, this represents a success rate 91%. Of the 35 SOARS participants who have entered the workforce, 26 are in STEM related disciplines. Four SOARS participants have already earned their PhD, and additional 17 are in PhD programs. Seventeen protégés have earned Master's and entered the workforce, and 17 more protégés are enrolled in Master's programs.

  3. Broadening the Legal Academy, the Study of Customary Law: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    Scotland. Email Date published. 26 October 2017. Editor Prof P du Plessis. How to cite this article. Griffiths A "Broadening the Legal. Academy ... established legal curriculum that had to be up and running within a very ... and apply them to the creation of courses that in the case of family law would.

  4. Stark broadening parameter tables for in II: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević M.S.


    Full Text Available Electron-, proton-, and ionized helium-impact broadening parameter tables for 101 In II multiplets, are presented as a function of temperature for the perturber density of 1016cm-3. Calculations have been performed within the semiclassical perturbation approach.

  5. Impact of optical gain broadening on characteristics of response ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Computationally, we have solved the rate equation for two-state InAs QD semiconductor lasers and the effect of inhomogeneous broadening on response function and output power due to variation of QD parameters have been investigated in the presence and absence of tunnelling. Also, we have studied these effects on ...

  6. The STARS Alliance: Viable Strategies for Broadening Participation in Computing (United States)

    Dahlberg, Teresa; Barnes, Tiffany; Buch, Kim; Rorrer, Audrey


    The Students and Technology in Academia, Research, and Service (STARS) Alliance is a nationally-connected system of regional partnerships among higher education, K-12 schools, industry and the community with a mission to broaden the participation of women, under-represented minorities and persons with disabilities in computing (BPC). Each regional…

  7. Impact of optical gain broadening on characteristics of response ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Sep 11, 2017 ... graphene and carbon-based materials. So, considering exciton dephasing time is a subtle issue to improve the performance of semiconductor QD lasers. In recent years, the study of homogeneous broadening has been an essential case in the literature to understand the lasing process. Exciton–phonon ...

  8. Coherent excitonic nonlinearity versus inhomogeneous broadening in single quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    The coherent response of excitons in semiconductor nanostructures, as measured in four wave mixing (FWM) experiments, depends strongly on the inhomogeneous broadening of the exciton transition. We investigate GaAs-AlGaAs single quantum wells (SQW) of 4 nm to 25 nm well width. Two main mechanisms ...

  9. Stark broadening tables for He I 4922 A (United States)

    Barnard, A. J.; Cooper, J.; Smith, E. W.


    The Stark broadening of the He I 4922-A line and its forbidden components by both ions and electrons is calculated using a theory that includes ion dynamic effects. Tables are presented for temperatures from 5000 K to 40,000 K covering the density range 10 trillion to 10 quadrillion per cu cm for both helium and hydrogen ionic perturbers.-

  10. Broadening the concept of international entrepreneurship: 'Consumers as international entrepreneurs'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra, Y.; Coviello, N.


    We integrate theories from international business, entrepreneurship, innovation, marketing and network economics to develop a four-part typology of ‘consumers as international entrepreneurs’. This broadens the concept of international entrepreneurship and complements the firm-level focus customary

  11. Toward a broadband astro-comb: effects of nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fibers. (United States)

    Chang, Guoqing; Li, Chih-Hao; Phillips, David F; Walsworth, Ronald L; Kärtner, Franz X


    We propose and analyze a new approach to generate a broadband astro-comb by spectral broadening of a narrowband astro-comb inside a highly nonlinear optical fiber. Numerical modeling shows that cascaded four-wave-mixing dramatically degrades the input comb's side-mode suppression and causes side-mode amplitude asymmetry. These two detrimental effects can systematically shift the center-of-gravity of astro-comb spectral lines as measured by an astrophysical spectrograph with resolution approximately 100,000; and thus lead to wavelength calibration inaccuracy and instability. Our simulations indicate that this performance penalty, as a result of nonlinear spectral broadening, can be compensated by using a filtering cavity configured for double-pass. As an explicit example, we present a design based on an Yb-fiber source comb (with 1 GHz repetition rate) that is filtered by double-passing through a low finesse cavity (finesse = 208), and subsequent spectrally broadened in a 2-cm, SF6-glass photonic crystal fiber. Spanning more than 300 nm with 16 GHz line spacing, the resulting astro-comb is predicted to provide 1 cm/s (approximately 10 kHz) radial velocity calibration accuracy for an astrophysical spectrograph. Such extreme performance will be necessary for the search for and characterization of Earth-like extra-solar planets, and in direct measurements of the change of the rate of cosmological expansion.

  12. GOLD: Building capacity for broadening participation in the Geosciences (United States)

    Adams, Amanda; Patino, Lina; Jones, Michael B.; Rom, Elizabeth


    The geosciences continue to lag other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines in the engagement, recruitment and retention of traditionally underrepresented and underserved minorities, requiring more focused and strategic efforts to address this problem. Prior investments made by the National Science Foundation (NSF) related to broadening participation in STEM have identified many effective strategies and model programs for engaging, recruiting, and retaining underrepresented students in the geosciences. These investments also have documented clearly the importance of committed, knowledgeable, and persistent leadership for making local progress in broadening participation in STEM and the geosciences. Achieving diversity at larger and systemic scales requires a network of diversity "champions" who can catalyze widespread adoption of these evidence-based best practices and resources. Although many members of the geoscience community are committed to the ideals of broadening participation, the skills and competencies that empower people who wish to have an impact, and make them effective as leaders in that capacity for sustained periods of time, must be cultivated through professional development. The NSF GEO Opportunities for Leadership in Diversity (GOLD) program was implemented in 2016, as a funding opportunity utilizing the Ideas Lab mechanism. Ideas Labs are intensive workshops focused on finding innovative solutions to grand challenge problems. The ultimate aim of this Ideas Lab, organized by the NSF Directorate for Geosciences (GEO), was to facilitate the design, pilot implementation, and evaluation of innovative professional development curricula that can unleash the potential of geoscientists with interests in broadening participation to become impactful leaders within the community. The expectation is that mixing geoscientists with experts in broadening participation research, behavioral change, social psychology, institutional

  13. Hydrogen Balmer Line Broadening in Solar and Stellar Flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Adam F. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, 2000 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Allred, Joel C. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Uitenbroek, Han [National Solar Observatory, University of Colorado Boulder, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV47AL (United Kingdom); Brown, Stephen [School of Physics and Astronomy, Kelvin Building, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Carlsson, Mats [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Osten, Rachel A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Hawley, Suzanne L., E-mail: [University of Washington Department of Astronomy, 3910 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)


    The broadening of the hydrogen lines during flares is thought to result from increased charge (electron, proton) density in the flare chromosphere. However, disagreements between theory and modeling prescriptions have precluded an accurate diagnostic of the degree of ionization and compression resulting from flare heating in the chromosphere. To resolve this issue, we have incorporated the unified theory of electric pressure broadening of the hydrogen lines into the non-LTE radiative-transfer code RH. This broadening prescription produces a much more realistic spectrum of the quiescent, A0 star Vega compared to the analytic approximations used as a damping parameter in the Voigt profiles. We test recent radiative-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of the atmospheric response to high nonthermal electron beam fluxes with the new broadening prescription and find that the Balmer lines are overbroadened at the densest times in the simulations. Adding many simultaneously heated and cooling model loops as a “multithread” model improves the agreement with the observations. We revisit the three-component phenomenological flare model of the YZ CMi Megaflare using recent and new RHD models. The evolution of the broadening, line flux ratios, and continuum flux ratios are well-reproduced by a multithread model with high-flux nonthermal electron beam heating, an extended decay phase model, and a “hot spot” atmosphere heated by an ultrarelativistic electron beam with reasonable filling factors: ∼0.1%, 1%, and 0.1% of the visible stellar hemisphere, respectively. The new modeling motivates future work to understand the origin of the extended gradual phase emission.

  14. The dangers of resource myopia in work and organisational psychology: a plea for broadening and integration broadening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, P.J.D.; Heller, F.A.


    In this essay the limitations of the traditional quantitative approach in work and organisational psychology are put forward. It is argued that an extension of the methods, a broadening of the type of problems to be addressed, and a stronger integration with associated disciplines as well as with

  15. Peak broadening in paper chromatography and related techniques : III. Peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligny, C.L. de; Remijnse, A.G.


    The mechanism of peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder was investigated by comparing the peak widths obtained in chromatography with those caused only by diffusion in the cellulose powder, for a set of amino acids of widely differing RF values and six kinds of cellulose

  16. Does the radial-tangential macroturbulence model adequately describe the spectral line broadening of solar-type stars?* (United States)

    Takeda, Yoichi; UeNo, Satoru


    In incorporating the effect of atmospheric turbulence in the broadening of spectral lines, the so-called radial-tangential macroturbulence (RTM) model has been widely used in the field of solar-type stars, which was devised from intuitive appearance of the granular velocity field of the Sun. Since this model assumes that turbulent motions are restricted to only radial and tangential directions, it has a special broadening function with notably narrow width due to the projection effect, the validity of which has not yet been confirmed in practice. With the aim of checking whether this RTM model adequately represents the actual solar photospheric velocity field, we carried out an extensive study on the non-thermal velocity dispersion along the line of sight (Vlos) by analyzing spectral lines at various points of the solar disk based on locally averaged as well as high-spatial-resolution spectra, and found the following results. First, the center-to-limb run of Vlos derived from ground-based low-resolution spectra is simply monotonic with a slightly increasing tendency, which contradicts the specific trend (an appreciable peak at θ ≃ 45°) predicted from RTM. Second, the Vlos values derived from a large number of spectra based on high-resolution space observation were revealed to follow a nearly normal distribution, without any sign of the peculiar distribution expected for the RTM case. These two observational facts indicate that the actual solar velocity field is not simply dichotomous as assumed in RTM, but directionally more chaotic. We thus conclude that RTM is not an adequate model, at least for solar-type stars, as it would significantly overestimate the turbulent velocity dispersion by a factor of ˜2. The classical Gaussian macroturbulence model should be more reasonable in this respect.

  17. Non-global and rapidity logarithms in narrow jet broadening (United States)

    Becher, Thomas; Rahn, Rudi; Shao, Ding Yu


    We derive an all-order factorization theorem for the narrow jet broadening event shape, a measure of the transverse momentum in jet events. This is a non-global observable which receives logarithmically enhanced contributions associated with the large rapidity difference between soft and collinear radiation and which is also sensitive to soft recoil effects. Our work is the first factorization analysis of an observable of this type and we show that with regard to the non-global nature, the rapidity logarithms do not constitute an essential complication since they can be tied to the jet function, which is the same as for global observables. As a consequence, the leading non-global logarithms in narrow jet broadening are encoded in the same overall factor relevant for the hemisphere soft function and light jet mass.

  18. Positive emotions and the social broadening effects of Barack Obama. (United States)

    Ong, Anthony D; Burrow, Anthony L; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E


    Past experiments have demonstrated that the cognitive broadening produced by positive emotions may extend to social contexts. Building on this evidence, we hypothesized that positive emotions triggered by thinking about Barack Obama may broaden and expand people's sense of self to include others. Results from an expressive-writing study demonstrated that African American college students prompted to write about Obama immediately prior to and after the 2008 presidential election used more plural self-references, fewer other-references, and more social references. Mediation analyses revealed that writing about Obama increased positive emotions, which in turn increased the likelihood that people thought in terms of more-inclusive superordinate categories (we and us rather than they and them). Implications of these findings for the role of positive emotions in perspective-taking and intergroup relations are considered.

  19. Collisional broadening of angular correlations in a multiphase transport model (United States)

    Edmonds, Terrence; Li, Qingfeng; Wang, Fuqiang


    Systematic comparisons of jetlike correlation data to radiative and collisional energy loss model calculations are essential to extract transport properties of the quark-gluon medium created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. This paper presents a transport study of collisional broadening of jetlike correlations, by following parton-parton collision history in a multiphase transport (AMPT) model. The correlation shape is studied as functions of the number of parton-parton collisions suffered by a high transverse momentum probe parton (Ncoll) and the azimuth of the probe relative to the reaction plane (ϕfin.probe). Correlation is found to broaden with increasing Ncoll and ϕfin.probe from in- to out-of-plane direction. This study provides a transport model reference for future jet-medium interaction studies.

  20. Common-Mode Spectral Broadening for Coherent Beam Combination (PREPRINT) (United States)


    Common-Mode Spectral Broadening for Coherent Beam Combination Jason E. Langseth,∗ Andrew J. Benedick, Steven J. Augst, Michael S. Riley, and T.Y. Fan...which effectively suppresses SBS in the amplifier yet allows for efficient CBC. The fringe contrast at low and high power was greater than 96%. OCIS...large inten- sity fluctuation caused by the misaligned PRBS phase modulation disappears and clear interference fringes are observed. The SPGD phase

  1. A method to enhance the resolution of broadened spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral P, A.; Jimenez D, H.; Torres V, M.; Azorin N, J.; Gutierrez C, A.; Gonzalez M, P.R.; Lopez E, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Fuentes Z, G.A.; Cordoba, A. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    A deconvolution method to analyze line overlapping broadened spectra is presented. Two approximation expressions from which the user can remove, either a Lorentzian or a Gaussian line from observed spectra are utilized. Moessbauer spectra, EPR and Thermoluminescence spectroscopies are analyzed. It is shown that in each case, the de convolved spectrum may provide valuable data to get a much closer characterization of a substance. (Author)

  2. Hydrogen Stark broadening by different kinds of model microfields (United States)

    Seidel, J.


    A new model microfield is defined (the theta process) which in conjunction with the kangaroo process, is used to demonstrate the effects of different model microfields on hydrogen line profiles. The differences in the statistical features of the models give an estimate of the uncertainties associated with the method of model microfields. Stark broadening of hydrogen Lyman lines by either electrons or ions is investigated specifically.

  3. Somatic currents contribute to frequency-dependent spike-broadening in supraoptic neuroendocrine cells. (United States)

    O'Regan, M H; Cobbett, P


    Voltage-gated K and Ca currents were recorded in acutely dissociated neuroendocrine cells of the supraoptic nucleus. The effect of repeated activation of the currents by trains of (10) voltage pulses over a range of pulse-repetition frequencies were examined. There was a significant reduction of K-current amplitude and a significant increase of Ca-current amplitude during trains with high repetition frequencies. Frequency-dependent changes in K and Ca conductances may contribute to frequency-dependent spike-broadening which is exhibited during bursts of action potentials generated by these neurons.

  4. Line broadening in the neutral and ionized mercury spectra (United States)

    Gavrilov, M.; Skočić, M.; Burger, M.; Bukvić, S.; Djeniže, S.


    The neutral, singly, doubly and triply ionized mercury (Hg I-IV, respectively) spectral line shapes and line center positions have been investigated in the laboratory helium plasma at electron densities ranging between 9.3 × 1022 m-3 and 1.93 × 1023 m-3 and electron temperatures around 19,500 K, both interesting for astrophysics. The mercury (natural isotope composition) atoms were sputtered from the cylindrical amalgamated gold plates located in the homogenous part of the pulsed helium discharge operating at a pressure of 665 Pa in a flowing regime. The mercury spectral line profiles were recorded using the McPherson model 209 spectrograph and the Andor ICCD camera as the detection system. This research presents Stark broadening parameters, the width (W) and the shift (d), of one Hg I, 19 Hg II, 6 Hg III and 4 Hg IV lines, not investigated so far. Our experimental W values were compared with the data calculated applying various approaches. The shape and intensity of astrophysically important 398.4 nm Hg II spectral line was discussed taking into account the isotope shift, hyperfine structure and Penning effects. At the mentioned plasma parameters the Stark broadening is found to be a main line broadening mechanism of the lines (λ > 200 nm) in the Hg I-IV spectra.

  5. Music-induced positive mood broadens the scope of auditory attention. (United States)

    Putkinen, Vesa; Makkonen, Tommi; Eerola, Tuomas


    Previous studies indicate that positive mood broadens the scope of visual attention, which can manifest as heightened distractibility. We used event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate whether music-induced positive mood has comparable effects on selective attention in the auditory domain. Subjects listened to experimenter-selected happy, neutral or sad instrumental music and afterwards participated in a dichotic listening task. Distractor sounds in the unattended channel elicited responses related to early sound encoding (N1/MMN) and bottom-up attention capture (P3a) while target sounds in the attended channel elicited a response related to top-down-controlled processing of task-relevant stimuli (P3b). For the subjects in a happy mood, the N1/MMN responses to the distractor sounds were enlarged while the P3b elicited by the target sounds was diminished. Behaviorally, these subjects tended to show heightened error rates on target trials following the distractor sounds. Thus, the ERP and behavioral results indicate that the subjects in a happy mood allocated their attentional resources more diffusely across the attended and the to-be-ignored channels. Therefore, the current study extends previous research on the effects of mood on visual attention and indicates that even unfamiliar instrumental music can broaden the scope of auditory attention via its effects on mood. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Global wild annual Lens collection: a potential resource for lentil genetic base broadening and yield enhancement. (United States)

    Singh, Mohar; Bisht, Ishwari Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Dutta, Manoranjan; Bansal, Kailash Chander; Karale, Moreshwar; Sarker, Ashutosh; Amri, Ahmad; Kumar, Shiv; Datta, Swapan Kumar


    Crop wild relatives (CWRs) are invaluable gene sources for various traits of interest, yet these potential resources are themselves increasingly threatened by the impact of climate change as well as other anthropogenic and socio-economic factors. The prime goal of our research was to cover all aspects of wild Lens genetic resource management like species characterization, agro-morphological evaluation, diversity assessment, and development of representative sets for its enhanced utilization in lentil base broadening and yield improvement initiatives. We characterized and evaluated extensively, the global wild annual Lens taxa, originating from twenty seven counties under two agro-climatic conditions of India consecutively for three cropping seasons. Results on various qualitative and quantitative characters including two foliar diseases showed wide variations for almost all yield attributing traits including multiple disease resistance in the wild species, L. nigricans and L. ervoides accessions. The core set developed from the entire Lens taxa had maximum representation from Turkey and Syria, indicating rich diversity in accessions originating from these regions. Diversity analysis also indicated wide geographical variations across genepool as was reflected in the core set. Potential use of core set, as an initial starting material, for genetic base broadening of cultivated lentil was also suggested.

  7. Stabilizing effect of line broadening in Raman fiber lasers (United States)

    Krause, Michael; Cierullies, Sven; Renner, Hagen


    We show phenomenologically that power-dependent Stokes line broadening can stabilize Raman fiber lasers (RFLs) against pump power changes. To this aim we assume, according to experimental observations in the literature, that an increase of the Stokes power in any cavity increases the corresponding spectral linewidth. This reduces the effective reflectivity of the fiber Bragg gratings of the cavity and thus increases the total cavity loss. The latter counteracts the power increase and thus stabilizes the RFL. While single-wavelength RFLs are only slightly affected, the stabilizing effect for multi-wavelength RFLs can be particularly strong.

  8. Numerical computation of doppler-broadening in the resonance domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Mathematiques Appliquees, CEA DEN DM2S/SERMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Hewko, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Mathematiques Appliquees, CEA DEN DM2S/SERMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); AREVA NP/PEPDD-F, Tour Areva, Place J. Millier, 92084 La Defense (France); Santandrea, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Mathematiques Appliquees, CEA DEN DM2S/SERMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)


    We have implemented an accurate and fast calculation of the Doppler-broadened kernel PT(E {yields} E') for neutron elastic scattering based on a gas model. An exponential cutoff which accounts for the asymptotic behavior of the error function helps limit the range of integration while eliminating difference effects. This allows for calculating a kernel library for {sup 238}U over a very fine energy grid covering the resonance range in only a few hours in a laptop. We give an example showing the impact of {sup 238}U elastic up-scattering on the values of self shielded cross sections. (authors)

  9. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: broadening DNA investigative intelligence. (United States)

    Vidaki, Athina; Kayser, Manfred


    Human genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We envision future forensic applications of DNA methylation analysis that will broaden DNA-based forensic intelligence. Together with genetic prediction of appearance and biogeographic ancestry, epigenomic lifestyle prediction is expected to increase the ability of police to find unknown perpetrators of crime who are not identifiable using current forensic DNA profiling.

  10. Probing transverse momentum broadening via dihadron and hadron-jet angular correlations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen


    Full Text Available Dijet, dihadron, hadron-jet angular correlations have been reckoned as important probes of the transverse momentum broadening effects in relativistic nuclear collisions. When a pair of high-energy jets created in hard collisions traverse the quark–gluon plasma produced in heavy-ion collisions, they become de-correlated due to the vacuum soft gluon radiation associated with the Sudakov logarithms and the medium-induced transverse momentum broadening. For the first time, we employ the systematical resummation formalism and establish a baseline calculation to describe the dihadron and hadron-jet angular correlation data in pp and peripheral AA collisions where the medium effect is negligible. We demonstrate that the medium-induced broadening 〈p⊥2〉 and the so-called jet quenching parameter qˆ can be extracted from the angular de-correlations observed in AA collisions. A global χ2 analysis of dihadron and hadron-jet angular correlation data renders 〈p⊥2〉∼13−4+5 GeV2 for a quark jet at RHIC top energy. Further experimental and theoretical efforts along the direction of this work shall significantly advance the quantitative understanding of transverse momentum broadening and help us acquire unprecedented knowledge of jet quenching parameter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  11. Probing transverse momentum broadening via dihadron and hadron-jet angular correlations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Qin, Guang-You; Wei, Shu-Yi; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Han-Zhong


    Dijet, dihadron, hadron-jet angular correlations have been reckoned as important probes of the transverse momentum broadening effects in relativistic nuclear collisions. When a pair of high-energy jets created in hard collisions traverse the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy-ion collisions, they become de-correlated due to the vacuum soft gluon radiation associated with the Sudakov logarithms and the medium-induced transverse momentum broadening. For the first time, we employ the systematical resummation formalism and establish a baseline calculation to describe the dihadron and hadron-jet angular correlation data in pp and peripheral AA collisions where the medium effect is negligible. We demonstrate that the medium-induced broadening 〈 p⊥2 〉 and the so-called jet quenching parameter q ˆ can be extracted from the angular de-correlations observed in AA collisions. A global χ2 analysis of dihadron and hadron-jet angular correlation data renders 〈p⊥ 2 〉 ∼13-4+5 GeV2 for a quark jet at RHIC top energy. Further experimental and theoretical efforts along the direction of this work shall significantly advance the quantitative understanding of transverse momentum broadening and help us acquire unprecedented knowledge of jet quenching parameter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  12. An Experimental and Theoretical Study of Nitrogen-Broadened Acetylene Lines (United States)

    Thibault, Franck; Martinez, Raul Z.; Bermejo, Dionisio; Ivanov, Sergey V.; Buzykin, Oleg G.; Ma, Qiancheng


    We present experimental nitrogen-broadening coefficients derived from Voigt profiles of isotropic Raman Q-lines measured in the 2 band of acetylene (C2H2) at 150 K and 298 K, and compare them to theoretical values obtained through calculations that were carried out specifically for this work. Namely, full classical calculations based on Gordon's approach, two kinds of semi-classical calculations based on Robert Bonamy method as well as full quantum dynamical calculations were performed. All the computations employed exactly the same ab initio potential energy surface for the C2H2N2 system which is, to our knowledge, the most realistic, accurate and up-to-date one. The resulting calculated collisional half-widths are in good agreement with the experimental ones only for the full classical and quantum dynamical methods. In addition, we have performed similar calculations for IR absorption lines and compared the results to bibliographic values. Results obtained with the full classical method are again in good agreement with the available room temperature experimental data. The quantum dynamical close-coupling calculations are too time consuming to provide a complete set of values and therefore have been performed only for the R(0) line of C2H2. The broadening coefficient obtained for this line at 173 K and 297 K also compares quite well with the available experimental data. The traditional Robert Bonamy semi-classical formalism, however, strongly overestimates the values of half-width for both Qand R-lines. The refined semi-classical Robert Bonamy method, first proposed for the calculations of pressure broadening coefficients of isotropic Raman lines, is also used for IR lines. By using this improved model that takes into account effects from line coupling, the calculated semi-classical widths are significantly reduced and closer to the measured ones.

  13. Investigation of the collision line broadening problem as applicable to the NASA Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) system, phase 1 (United States)

    Dean, Timothy C.; Ventrice, Carl A.


    As a final report for phase 1 of the project, the researchers are submitting to the Tennessee Tech Office of Research the following two papers (reprinted in this report): 'Collision Line Broadening Effects on Spectrometric Data from the Optical Plume Anomaly System (OPAD),' presented at the 30th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, 27-29 June 1994, and 'Calculation of Collision Cross Sections for Atomic Line Broadening in the Plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME),' presented at the IEEE Southeastcon '95, 26-29 March 1995. These papers fully state the problem and the progress made up to the end of NASA Fiscal Year 1994. The NASA OPAD system was devised to predict concentrations of anomalous species in the plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) through analysis of spectrometric data. The self absorption of the radiation of these plume anomalies is highly dependent on the line shape of the atomic transition of interest. The Collision Line Broadening paper discusses the methods used to predict line shapes of atomic transitions in the environment of a rocket plume. The Voigt profile is used as the line shape factor since both Doppler and collisional line broadening are significant. Methods used to determine the collisional cross sections are discussed and the results are given and compared with experimental data. These collisional cross sections are then incorporated into the current self absorbing radiative model and the predicted spectrum is compared to actual spectral data collected from the Stennis Space Center Diagnostic Test Facility rocket engine. The second paper included in this report investigates an analytical method for determining the cross sections for collision line broadening by molecular perturbers, using effective central force interaction potentials. These cross sections are determined for several atomic species with H2, one of the principal constituents of the SSME plume environment, and compared with experimental data.

  14. Effect of Pressure Broadening on Emission and Transmission Spectra of H2O Modeled for sub-Neptune/super-Earth exoplanets: An Application to JWST (United States)

    Gharib Nezhad, Ehsan; Line, Michael R.; Lyons, James R.


    Water is the most readily detected molecule over a diverse range of exoplanet properties (solar composition hot-Jupiters to high metallicity super-earths/neptunes). It is also one of the most important sources of opacity that govern radiative energy balance. It is well known that pressure/collisional broadening significantly influences the opacity of a given molecule. Laboratory spectroscopic studies have shown that the line-broadening (i.e. Doppler, Lorentzian) is influence by several factors including temperature, pressure, dipole moment of the broadeners (or bath gases), and the rotational quantum numbers. Since absorption cross-sections (or opacities) are central to both atmospheric modeling and observational research, there is a critical need to investigate the effect of pressure line-broadening on the absorption cross-sections and subsequent influence on observed transmission and emission spectra of transiting exoplanets. Typical data-model comparisons (either forward modeling or retrieval's) generally rely upon pre-computed grids of absorption cross-sections that assume trace molecules are broadened by a solar composition mixture (e.g., mainly H2 and He as a bath gas). However, as the metallicity of a planetary atmosphere increases, as anticipated for smaller planets in the sub-Neptune-Super Earth range, broadening due to other gases (e.g., N2, CO2, H2O, CH4, CO) can become significant and the H2-He broadening is no longer appropriate. In this work, we assess the influence of different background broadeners on the absorption cross-section of water, and subsequent influence on observed transmission/emission spectra. Initial results suggest that the choice of foreign broadener can result in up to a factor of ~5 increase in pressure broadened wings of the absorption cross sections, resulting in a factor of 1.6x reduction in the atmospheric spectral modulation. Such a difference will be detectible in the hi-resolution/SNR spectra anticipated with JWST, and will

  15. Workshops Without Walls: broadening access to science around the world. (United States)

    Arslan, Betül K; Boyd, Eric S; Dolci, Wendy W; Dodson, K Estelle; Boldt, Marco S; Pilcher, Carl B


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astrobiology Institute (NAI) conducted two "Workshops Without Walls" during 2010 that enabled global scientific exchange--with no travel required. The second of these was on the topic "Molecular Paleontology and Resurrection: Rewinding the Tape of Life." Scientists from diverse disciplines and locations around the world were joined through an integrated suite of collaborative technologies to exchange information on the latest developments in this area of origin of life research. Through social media outlets and popular science blogs, participation in the workshop was broadened to include educators, science writers, and members of the general public. In total, over 560 people from 31 US states and 30 other nations were registered. Among the scientific disciplines represented were geochemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology and evolution, and microbial ecology. We present this workshop as a case study in how interdisciplinary collaborative research may be fostered, with substantial public engagement, without sustaining the deleterious environmental and economic impacts of travel.

  16. Correlation function and electronic spectral line broadening in relativistic plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douis S.


    Full Text Available The electrons dynamics and the time autocorrelation function Cee(t for the total electric microfield of the electrons on positive charge impurity embedded in a plasma are considered when the relativistic dynamic of the electrons is taken into account. We have, at first, built the effective potential governing the electrons dynamics. This potential obeys a nonlinear integral equation that we have solved numerically. Regarding the electron broadening of the line in plasma, we have found that when the plasma parameters change, the amplitude of the collision operator changes in the same way as the time integral of Cee(t. The electron-impurity interaction is taken at first time as screened Deutsh interaction and at the second time as Kelbg interaction. Comparisons of all interesting quantities are made with respect to the previous interactions as well as between classical and relativistic dynamics of electrons.

  17. E-cigarettes: a need to broaden the debate. (United States)

    Latif, E; Nair, M


    The unregulated market for e-cigarettes continues to grow, with debates on their efficacy and impact on global public health. E-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDs), are marketed as a 'safe' alternative to tobacco products and a tool for 'harm reduction'. Some public health experts are calling it a 'game changer' and favour the 'harm reduction' strategy, while others dispute this claim. In our opinion, the debate needs to be broadened to encompass other related concerns and effects on non-users and affected stakeholders. As with tobacco control, a holistic approach is needed to build a raft of policies that effectively address the issue from all angles and look beyond the direct health implications of e-cigarette use to explore the social, economic, political and environmental aspects of this debate, putting 'harm reduction' in context.

  18. Contaminant-State Broadening Mechanism in a Driven Dissipative Rydberg System (United States)

    Porto, J. V.


    The strong interactions in Rydberg atoms make them an ideal system for the study of correlated many-body physics, both in the presence and absence of dissipation. Using such highly excited atomic states requires addressing challenges posed by the dense spectrum of Rydberg levels, the detrimental effects of spontaneous emission, and strong interactions. A full understanding of the scope and limitations of many Rydberg-based proposals requires simultaneously including these effects, which typically cannot be described by a mean-field treatment due to correlations in the quantum coherent and dissipative processes. We study a driven, dissipative system of Rydberg atoms in a 3D optical lattice, and observe substantial deviation from single-particle excitation rates, both on and off resonance. The observed broadened spectra cannot be explained by van der Waals interactions or a mean-field treatment of the system. Based on the magnitude of the broadening and the scaling with density and two-photon Rabi frequency, we attribute these effects to unavoidable blackbody-induced transitions to nearby Rydberg states of opposite parity, which have large, resonant dipole-dipole interactions with the state of interest. Even at low densities of Rydberg atoms, uncontrolled production of atoms in other states significantly modifies the energy levels of the remaining atoms. These off-diagonal exchange interactions result in complex many-body states of the system and have implications for off-resonant Rydberg dressing proposals. This work was partially supported by the ARL-CDQI program.

  19. Quantification of tip-broadening in non-contact atomic force microscopy with carbon nanotube tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinander, Kristoffer; Jensen, Thomas N.; Simonsen, Soren B.


    Carbon nanotube terminated atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes have been used for the imaging of 5 nm wide surface supported Pt nanoclusters by non-contact (dynamic mode) AFM in an ultra-high vacuum. The results are compared to AFM measurements done with conventional Si-tips, as well as with tra......Carbon nanotube terminated atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes have been used for the imaging of 5 nm wide surface supported Pt nanoclusters by non-contact (dynamic mode) AFM in an ultra-high vacuum. The results are compared to AFM measurements done with conventional Si-tips, as well...... as with transmission electron microscopy images, which give accurate measures for cluster widths. Despite their ideal aspect ratio, tip-broadening is concluded to be a severe problem even when imaging with carbon nanotube tips, which overestimates the cluster width by several times the nominal width of the nanotube...... tip. This broadening is attributed to a bending of the carbon nanotubes, and not to pure geometrical factors, which coincidentally results in a significant improvement for relative height measurements of tightly spaced high aspect ratio structures, as compared to what can be achieved...

  20. Longitudinal mode selection in a delay-line homogeneously broadened oscillator with a fast saturable amplifier. (United States)

    Fleyer, Michael; Horowitz, Moshe


    Homogeneously broadened delay-line oscillators such as lasers or optoelectronic oscillators (OEOs) can potentially oscillate in a large number of cavity modes that are supported by their amplifier bandwidth. In a continuous wave operating mode, the oscillating mode is selected between one or few cavity modes that experience the highest small-signal gain. In this manuscript, we show that the oscillation mode of a homogeneously broadened oscillator can be selected from a large number of modes in a frequency region that can be broader than the full width at half maximum of the effective cavity filter. The mode is selected by a short-time injection of an external signal into the oscillator. After the external signal is turned off, the oscillation is maintained in the selected mode even if this mode has a significantly lower small-signal gain than that of other cavity modes. The stability of the oscillation is obtained due to nonlinear saturation effect in the oscillator amplifier. We demonstrate, experimentally and theoretically, mode selection in a long cavity OEO. We could select any desired mode between 400 cavity modes while maintaining ultra-low phase noise in the selected mode and in the non-oscillating modes. No mode-hopping was observed during our maximum measurement duration of about 24 hours.

  1. On the Stark broadening of Cr VI spectral lines in astrophysical plasma (United States)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.; Simić, Z.; Sahal-Bréchot, S.


    Stark broadening parameters for Cr VI lines have been calculated using semiclassical perturbation method for conditions of interest for stellar plasma. Here are presented, as an example of obtained results, Stark broadening parameters for electron- and proton-impact broadening for Cr VI 4s 2S-4p 2P° λ = 1430 Å and Cr VI 4p 2P°-5s 2S λ = 611.8 Å multiplets. The obtained results are used to demonstrate the importance of Stark broadening of Cr VI in DO white dwarf atmospheres. Also the obtained results will enter in STARK-B database which is included in Virtual Atomic and Molecula Data Center - VAMDC.

  2. ELM-free and inter-ELM divertor heat flux broadening induced by edge harmonics oscillation in NSTX (United States)

    Gan, K. F.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Zweben, S. J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Scotti, F.; Maingi, R.; Park, J.-K.; Canal, G. P.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Mclean, A. G.; Wirth, B. D.


    A new n  =  1 dominated edge harmonic oscillation (EHO) has been found in NSTX. The new EHO, rotating toroidally in the counter-current direction and the opposite direction of the neutral beam, was observed during certain inter-ELM and ELM-free periods of H-mode operation. This EHO is associated with a significant broadening of the integral heat flux width ({λ\\operatorname{int}} ) by up to 150%, and a decrease in the divertor peak heat flux by  >60%. An EHO induced filament was also observed by the gas puff imaging diagnostic. The toroidal rotating filaments could change the edge magnetic topology resulting in toroidal rotating strike point splitting and heat flux broadening. Experimental result of the counter current rotation of strike points splitting is consistent with the counter-current EHO.

  3. Broadening the Participation of Native Americans in Earth Science (United States)

    Bueno Watts, Nievita

    Climate change is not a thing of the future. Indigenous people are being affected by climate changes now. Native American Earth scientists could help Native communities deal with both climate change and environmental pollution issues, but are noticeably lacking in Earth Science degree programs. The Earth Sciences produce the lowest percentage of minority scientists when compared with other science and engineering fields. Twenty semi-structured interviews were gathered from American Indian/ Alaska Native Earth Scientists and program directors who work directly with Native students to broaden participation in the field. Data was analyzed using qualitative methods and constant comparison analysis. Barriers Native students faced in this field are discussed, as well as supports which go the furthest in assisting achievement of higher education goals. Program directors give insight into building pathways and programs to encourage Native student participation and success in Earth Science degree programs. Factors which impede obtaining a college degree include financial barriers, pressures from familial obligations, and health issues. Factors which impede the decision to study Earth Science include unfamiliarity with geoscience as a field of study and career choice, the uninviting nature of Earth Science as a profession, and curriculum that is irrelevant to the practical needs of Native communities or courses which are inaccessible geographically. Factors which impede progress that are embedded in Earth Science programs include educational preparation, academic information and counseling and the prevalence of a Western scientific perspective to the exclusion of all other perspectives. Intradepartmental relationships also pose barriers to the success of some students, particularly those who are non-traditional students (53%) or women (80%). Factors which support degree completion include financial assistance, mentors and mentoring, and research experiences. Earth scientists

  4. Action Potential Broadening in Capsaicin-Sensitive DRG Neurons from Frequency-Dependent Reduction of Kv3 Current. (United States)

    Liu, Pin W; Blair, Nathaniel T; Bean, Bruce P


    Action potential (AP) shape is a key determinant of cellular electrophysiological behavior. We found that in small-diameter, capsaicin-sensitive dorsal root ganglia neurons corresponding to nociceptors (from rats of either sex), stimulation at frequencies as low as 1 Hz produced progressive broadening of the APs. Stimulation at 10 Hz for 3 s resulted in an increase in AP width by an average of 76 ± 7% at 22°C and by 38 ± 3% at 35°C. AP clamp experiments showed that spike broadening results from frequency-dependent reduction of potassium current during spike repolarization. The major current responsible for frequency-dependent reduction of overall spike-repolarizing potassium current was identified as Kv3 current by its sensitivity to low concentrations of 4-aminopyridine (IC 50 <100 μm) and block by the peptide inhibitor blood depressing substance I (BDS-I). There was a small component of Kv1-mediated current during AP repolarization, but this current did not show frequency-dependent reduction. In a small fraction of cells, there was a component of calcium-dependent potassium current that showed frequency-dependent reduction, but the contribution to overall potassium current reduction was almost always much smaller than that of Kv3-mediated current. These results show that Kv3 channels make a major contribution to spike repolarization in small-diameter DRG neurons and undergo frequency-dependent reduction, leading to spike broadening at moderate firing frequencies. Spike broadening from frequency-dependent reduction in Kv3 current could mitigate the frequency-dependent decreases in conduction velocity typical of C-fiber axons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Small-diameter dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons mediating nociception and other sensory modalities express many types of potassium channels, but how they combine to control firing patterns and conduction is not well understood. We found that action potentials of small-diameter rat DRG neurons showed spike

  5. Mass transfer kinetics, band broadening and column efficiency. (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges


    Important progress was recently made in our understanding of the physico-chemical aspects of mass transfer kinetics in chromatographic columns, in methods used for accurate determination of the different contributions to the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP), and in the application of these advances to the elucidation of mass transfer mechanisms in columns packed with recent chromatographic supports (sub-2 μm fully porous particles, sub-3 μm core-shell particles, and monoliths). The independent contributions to the HETP are longitudinal diffusion, eddy dispersion, liquid-solid mass transfer (including trans-particle or trans-skeleton mass transfer and external film mass transfer), and the contributions caused by the thermal heterogeneity of the column. The origin and importance of these contributions are investigated in depth. This work underlines the areas in which improvements are needed, an understanding of the contribution of the external film mass transfer term, a better design of HPLC instruments providing a decrease of the extra-column band broadening contributions to the apparent HETP, the development of better packing procedures giving more radially homogeneous column beds, and new packing materials having a higher thermal conductivity to eliminate the nefarious impact of heat effects in very high pressure liquid chromatography (vHPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cavity-ring-down Doppler-broadening primary thermometry (United States)

    Gotti, Riccardo; Moretti, Luigi; Gatti, Davide; Castrillo, Antonio; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Gianfrani, Livio; Marangoni, Marco


    A step forward in Doppler-broadening thermometry is demonstrated using a comb-assisted cavity-ring-down spectroscopic approach applied to an isolated near-infrared line of carbon dioxide at thermodynamic equilibrium. Specifically, the line-shape of the Pe(12 ) line of the (30012 )←(00001 ) band of C O2 at 1.578 µm is accurately measured and its Doppler width extracted from a refined multispectrum fitting procedure accounting for the speed dependence of the relaxation rates, which were found to play a role even at the very low pressures explored, from 1 to 7 Pa. The thermodynamic gas temperature is retrieved with relative uncertainties of 8 ×10-6 (type A) and 11 ×10-6 (type B), which ranks the system at the first place among optical methods. Thanks to a measurement time of only ≈5 h , the technique represents a promising pathway toward the optical determination of the thermodynamic temperature with a global uncertainty at the 10-6 level.

  7. Workshops Without Walls: broadening access to science around the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül K Arslan


    Full Text Available The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI conducted two "Workshops Without Walls" during 2010 that enabled global scientific exchange--with no travel required. The second of these was on the topic "Molecular Paleontology and Resurrection: Rewinding the Tape of Life." Scientists from diverse disciplines and locations around the world were joined through an integrated suite of collaborative technologies to exchange information on the latest developments in this area of origin of life research. Through social media outlets and popular science blogs, participation in the workshop was broadened to include educators, science writers, and members of the general public. In total, over 560 people from 31 US states and 30 other nations were registered. Among the scientific disciplines represented were geochemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology and evolution, and microbial ecology. We present this workshop as a case study in how interdisciplinary collaborative research may be fostered, with substantial public engagement, without sustaining the deleterious environmental and economic impacts of travel.

  8. Egyptian government broadens ban on female genital mutilation. (United States)


    An estimated 70-90% of girls in Egypt are subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM) before reaching puberty. Many Egyptians believe the practice to be ordained by Islam. Whether this is true, however, remains an issue of debate among Muslim scholars. Some Egyptian Christians also secure FGM for their girls. Egyptian law prohibits anyone without medical training from performing FGM, and any physician or health worker who causes permanent damage to a girl may face 3-10 years of hard labor. However, the law is frequently ignored, especially in rural areas, where village barbers and midwives perform the operations. In October 1995, Egyptian state hospitals were banned from performing FGM. Egypt has since broadened its ban to bar all health care workers in both state-run hospitals and private clinics from performing the procedure. No health care worker affiliated with the Ministry of Health is therefore allowed to perform FGM. Almost all Egyptian doctors are affiliated with the Ministry. While this recent move by the Health Minister is laudable, it remains to be seen whether he can enforce it. The secretary-general of the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights has urged parliament to enact legislation criminalizing FGM.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Retna Rahadjeng


    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the performing of an agency applying nuturing institutional capital markets through built Broaden approach to improve the performance of securities institution. This phenomenological study was conducted on securities agency in Malang. The data has been collected by using participant observation, indepth interviews, and questionnaires. The data was anlyzed by using content analysis. Based on the result, the researcher concluded that the variables (x1 Emotional Resiliency; (x2 Cognitive Resiliency; (x3 social resiliency; and Financial Resiliency (x4 have jointly significant influence on the performance of securities agency. Similarly, each variable partially has an influence on financial performance. The dominant variable influencing the performance of securities agency is cognitive resiliency variable that has the highest value of regression coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis stated about there is an influence of emotional resiliency; cognitive resiliency; social resiliency; and financial resiliency variables towards the performance of the securities agency in Malang is accepted.

  10. Bandwidth broadening of a linear polarization converter by near-field metasurface coupling. (United States)

    Gao, Xi; Singh, Leena; Yang, Wanli; Zheng, Jingjing; Li, Haiou; Zhang, Weili


    We experimentally demonstrate a highly efficient, broadband linear polarization converter functioning at terahertz frequencies. The linear polarization converter is composed of three metasurfaces and two dielectric layers interlaced with each other. The neighboring unit cells of the central metasurface layer of the linear polarization converter exhibit strong electromagnetic coupling, which increases the number of resonances and results in significant bandwidth broadening. The simulation and experimental results show that in the frequency range of 0.2 to 0.4 THz, the proposed polarization converter has a flat transmission curve and exhibits a transmission efficiency that is higher than 80%. High performance terahertz polarization conversion is desirable in many fields, such as terahertz spectroscopy, imaging, and communications.

  11. Plasma motions and non-thermal line broadening in flaring twisted coronal loops (United States)

    Gordovskyy, M.; Kontar, E. P.; Browning, P. K.


    Context. Observation of coronal extreme ultra-violet (EUV) spectral lines sensitive to different temperatures offers an opportunity to evaluate the thermal structure and flows in flaring atmospheres. This, in turn, can be used to estimate the partitioning between the thermal and kinetic energies released in flares. Aims: Our aim is to forward-model large-scale (50-10 000 km) velocity distributions to interpret non-thermal broadening of different spectral EUV lines observed in flares. The developed models allow us to understand the origin of the observed spectral line shifts and broadening, and link these features to particular physical phenomena in flaring atmospheres. Methods: We use ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to derive unstable twisted magnetic fluxtube configurations in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere. The evolution of these twisted fluxtubes is followed using resistive MHD with anomalous resistivity depending on the local density and temperature. The model also takes thermal conduction and radiative losses in the continuum into account. The model allows us to evaluate average velocities and velocity dispersions, which would be interpreted as non-thermal velocities in observations, at different temperatures for different parts of the models. Results: Our models show qualitative and quantitative agreement with observations. Thus, the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity dispersions demonstrate substantial correlation with the temperature, increasing from about 20-30 km s-1 around 1 MK to about 200-400 km s-1 near 10-20 MK. The average LOS velocities also correlate with velocity dispersions, although they demonstrate a very strong scattering compared to the observations. We also note that near footpoints the velocity dispersions across the magnetic field are systematically lower than those along the field. We conclude that the correlation between the flow velocities, velocity dispersions, and temperatures are likely to indicate that the same heating

  12. Power broadening effects on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in $^{20}$Ne vapor

    CERN Document Server

    Lubotzky, Boaz; Kong, Tao; Katz, Nadav; Ron, Guy


    We report here the first observation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in $^{20}$Ne. The power broadening of the EIT linewidth is measured as a function of neon pressure and RF excitation power. Doppler effects on the EIT broadening are found even at low pressures and low intensities, where the linewidth should be governed only by homogeneous effects.

  13. Compensation of loss-induced beam broadening in HMMs by a μ-negative HMM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repan, T.; Novitsky, Andrey; Willatzen, Morten


    Losses play a crucial role when realistic hyperbolic metamaterials are considered. Importantly, losses lead to a broadening of beams propagating through a hyperbolic medium. Here we show that a part of the loss-induced broadening can be attributed to phase accumulation of plane-wave components...

  14. Compensation of loss-induced beam broadening in HMMs by a 휇-negative HMM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repän, Taavi; Novitsky, Andrey; Willatzen, Morten


    Losses play a crucial role when realistic hyperbolic metamaterials are considered. Importantly, losses lead to a broadening of beams propagating through a hyperbolic medium. Here we show that a part of the loss-induced broadening can be attributed to phase accumulation of plane-wave components...

  15. Doppler broadening as a probe of the chemical environment following oxygen-14 decay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickles, RJ; Jensen, M; Paans, AMJ; Holm, S; Schueller, MJ; Vaalburg, W


    A search for the Doppler broadening following the beta decay of oxygen-14 was conducted with high resolution gamma spectroscopy on the 2313 keV gamma ray. Such a broadening should signal the mass of the labeled molecule and the nature of the stopping medium. Oxygen-14 labeled H2O, O-2 and CO2

  16. A Simple Analytical Approximation to an Inhomogeneously-Broadened Dispersion Spectrum. Application to Absorption-Dispersion Admixtures. (United States)

    Bales, Barney L


    A simple analytical approximation to an inhomogeneously-broadened dispersion signal is proposed and tested with resonance lines broadened by unresolved hyperfine structure. Spectral parameters may be rapidly and accurately extracted using a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm. Combining the new approximation to a dispersion signal with a well-known approximation to the absorption signal allows dispersion-absorption admixtures, a problem of growing importance, to be analyzed quickly and accurately. For pure dispersion signals, the maximum difference between the fit and the signal for unresolved lines is 1.1 % of the maximum intensity. For pure absorption, the difference is 0.33 % of the peak-to-peak intensity, and for admixtures up to 40 % dispersion (maximum intensity/peak-to-peak intensity), the difference is 0.7 %. The accuracy of the recovered spectral parameters depends on the degree of inhomogeneously-broadened and the percentage admixture, but they are generally about 1 % at most. A significant finding of the work is that the parameters pertinent to the dispersion or the absorption are insignificantly different when fitting isolated lines vs. fitting admixtures. Admixtures with added noise or an unsuspected extraneous line are investigated.

  17. A comparison between different X-ray diffraction line broadening analysis methods for nanocrystalline ball-milled FCC powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimanian, V. [Shahrekord University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahrekord University, Nanotechnology Research Center, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mojtahedi, M. [Pooya Gharb Branch of University of Applied Science and Technology, Department of Materials Engineering, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The microstructural characteristics of aluminum, copper and nickel powders are investigated using different X-ray diffraction line broadening analysis approaches. Prior to analysis, the powders were ball-milled to produce a nanocrystalline structure with high density of probable types of lattice defects. A variety of methods, including Scherrer, Williamson-Smallman, Williamson-Hall, Warren-Averbach, modified Williamson-Hall, modified Warren-Averbach, Rietveld refinement and whole powder pattern modeling (WPPM) approaches are applied. In this way, microstructural characteristics such as crystallite size, microstrain, dislocation density, effective outer cut-off radius of dislocations and the probability of twining and stacking faults are calculated. On the other hand, the results of conventional and advanced line broadening analysis methods are compared. It is revealed that the density of linear and planar defects in the mechanically deformed aluminum powder is significantly smaller than that of copper and nickel, as well as the level of anisotropic strain broadening. Moreover, the WPPM procedure provided a better profile fitting with more accurate results. (orig.)

  18. Correction of Doppler-broadened Rayleigh backscattering effects in H2O dial measurements (United States)

    Ansmann, A.; Bosenberg, J.


    A general method of solutions for treating effects of Doppler-broadened Rayleigh backscattering in H2O Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements are described and discussed. Errors in vertical DIAL measuremtns caused by this laser line broadening effect can be very large and, therfore, this effect has to be accounted for accurately. To analyze and correct effects of Doppler-broadened Rayleigh backscattering in DIAL experiments, a generalized DIAL approximation was derived starting from a lidar equation, which includes Doppler broadening. To evaluate the accuracy of H2O DIAL measurements, computer simulations were performed. It was concluded that correction of Doppler broadened Rayleigh backscattering is possible with good accuracy in most cases of tropospheric H2O DIAL measurements, but great care has to be taken when layers with steep gradients of Mie backscattering like clouds or inversion layers are present.

  19. Spectral broadening in narrow linewidth, continuous-wave high power fiber amplifiers (United States)

    Feng, Yujun; Wang, Xiaojun; Ke, Weiwei; Sun, Yinhong; Zhang, Kai; Ma, Yi; Li, Tenglong; Wang, Yanshan; Wu, Juan


    We present an investigation on the spectrum broadening in continuous-wave, sub-nanometer linewidth high power fiber amplifiers caused by the multiple four-wave mixing (FWM) process. The spectrum broadening employing two different types of narrow linewidth seeds, including the multi-longitudinal-mode seed and the broadened single frequency seed generated by high speed phase modulation, is studied. It is shown both theoretically and experimentally that the multi-longitudinal-mode seed experiences serious spectrum broadening induced by the FWM among various longitudinal modes, while the modulated seed can maintain the spectrum profile during the amplifying process even with some noise fluctuation. The different broadening results are mainly caused by the random phase distribution of the multiple waves. It is further explained by an exact solution of the degenerate FWM with three waves. The theoretical predictions on the spectrum and power dependence of the output laser linewidth are in quantitative agreement with the experimental results up to kilowatt.

  20. Doppler Broadening Thermometry Based on Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (United States)

    Hu, Shui-Ming; Cheng, Cunfeng; Wang, Jin; Tan, Yan; Sun, Yu Robert; Liu, An-Wen; Zhang, Jin-Tao


    A Doppler broadening thermometry is implemented using a laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer [1,2] combined with a temperature-stabilized sample cell. The temperature fluctuation of the gas sample cell is kept below 1 mK for hours. The probing laser is frequency locked at a longitudinal mode of a Fabry-Pérot interferometer made of ultra-low-expansion glass, and the spectral scan is implemented by scanning the sideband produced by an electro-optic modulator. As a result, a kHz precision has been maintained during the measurement of the spectrum of 10 GHz wide. A ro-vibrational line of C_2H_2 is measured at sample pressures of a few Pa. Using a pair of mirrors with a reflectivity of 0.99997 at 787 nm, we are able to detect absorption line profiles with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10^5. Fitting of the recorded spectra allows us to determine the Doppler width with a statistical uncertainty of 10 ppm. Further improvements on the experimental reproducibility and investigations on the collision effects will probably lead to an optical determination of the Boltzmann constant with an uncertainty of a few ppm. H. Pan, C.-F. Cheng, Y. R. Sun, B. Gao, A.-W. Liu, S.-M. Hu, ``Laser-locked, continuously tunable high resolution cavity ring-down spectrometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 103110 (2011) Y. R. Sun, H. Pan, C.-F. Cheng, A.-W. Liu, J.-T. Zhang, S.-M. Hu, ``Application of cavity ring-down spectroscopy to the Boltzmann constant determination," Opt. Express, 19, 19993 (2011)

  1. Cardiovascular RNA interference therapy: the broadening tool and target spectrum. (United States)

    Poller, Wolfgang; Tank, Juliane; Skurk, Carsten; Gast, Martina


    Understanding of the roles of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) within complex organisms has fundamentally changed. It is increasingly possible to use ncRNAs as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in medicine. Regarding disease pathogenesis, it has become evident that confinement to the analysis of protein-coding regions of the human genome is insufficient because ncRNA variants have been associated with important human diseases. Thus, inclusion of noncoding genomic elements in pathogenetic studies and their consideration as therapeutic targets is warranted. We consider aspects of the evolutionary and discovery history of ncRNAs, as far as they are relevant for the identification and selection of ncRNAs with likely therapeutic potential. Novel therapeutic strategies are based on ncRNAs, and we discuss here RNA interference as a highly versatile tool for gene silencing. RNA interference-mediating RNAs are small, but only parts of a far larger spectrum encompassing ncRNAs up to many kilobasepairs in size. We discuss therapeutic options in cardiovascular medicine offered by ncRNAs and key issues to be solved before clinical translation. Convergence of multiple technical advances is highlighted as a prerequisite for the translational progress achieved in recent years. Regarding safety, we review properties of RNA therapeutics, which may immunologically distinguish them from their endogenous counterparts, all of which underwent sophisticated evolutionary adaptation to specific biological contexts. Although our understanding of the noncoding human genome is only fragmentary to date, it is already feasible to develop RNA interference against a rapidly broadening spectrum of therapeutic targets and to translate this to the clinical setting under certain restrictions.

  2. Doppler Broadening Thermometry Based on Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Sun, Yu Robert; Cheng, Cunfeng; Tao, Lei-Gang; Tan, Yan; Kang, Peng; Liu, An-Wen; Hu, Shui-Ming


    A Doppler broadening thermometry (DBT) instrument is implemented based on a laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer. [1,2] It can be used to determine the Boltzmann constant by measuring the Doppler width of a molecular ro-vibrational transition in the near infrared. Compared with conventional direct absorption methods, the high-sensitivity of CRDS allows to reach satisfied precision at lower sample pressures, which reduces the influence due to collisions. By measuring the ro-vibrational transition of C_2H_2 at 787 nm, we demonstrate a statistical uncertainty of 6 ppm (part per million) in the determined linewidth by several hours' measurement at a sample pressure of 1.5 Pa. [3] However, the complicity in the spectrum of a polyatomic molecule induces potential systematic influence on the line profile due to nearby ``hidden'' lines from weak bands or minor isotopologues. Recently, the instrument has been upgraded in both sensitivity and frequency accuracy. A narrow-band fiber laser frequency-locked to a frequency comb is applied, and overtone transitions at 1.56 μm of the 12C16O molecule are used in the CRDS-DBT measurements. The simplicity of the spectrum of the diatomic CO molecule eliminates the potential influence from ``hidden'' lines. Our preliminary measurements and analysis show that it is feasible to pursue a DBT measurement toward the 1 ppm precision. H. Pan, et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 103110 (2011) Y. R. Sun, et al., Opt. Expr., 19, 19993 (2011) C.-F. Cheng, et al., Metrologia, 52, S385 (2015)

  3. Magnetic transition broadening and local lattice distortion in the negative thermal expansion antiperovskite Cu1-xSnxNMn3 (United States)

    Tong, P.; Louca, Despina; King, Graham; Llobet, Anna; Lin, J. C.; Sun, Y. P.


    The local distortion indicated by the split of the Cu/Sn-Mn bonds for the negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials Cu1-xSnxNMn3 (x = 0.1 and 0.5) was observed using neutron pair distribution function. The distribution of Cu/Sn-Mn bonds upon Sn doping is suggested to be attributable to the fluctuation in the hybridization of Mn d with Sn p orbitals. Accordingly, the antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling mediated by the p-d hybridization fluctuates in strength. Consequently, the AFM transition closely coupled with the volume change is broadened, leading to the NTE.

  4. The effect of broadened linewidth induced by dispersion on the performance of resonant optical gyroscope (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Wenxiu; Han, Peng; Chang, Xiaoyang; Liu, Jiaming; Lin, Jian; Xue, Xia; Zhu, Fang; Yang, Yang; Liu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Xiaofu; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong; Fang, Jiancheng


    Anomalous dispersion enhancement physical mechanism for Sagnac effect is described by special relativity derivation, and three kinds of definitions of minimum detectable angular rate of resonance optical gyroscope (ROG) are compared and the relations among them are investigated. The effect of linewidth broadening induced by anomalous dispersion on the sensitivity of ROG is discussed in this paper. Material dispersion-broadened resonance linewidth deteriorates the performance of a passive ROG and dispersion enhancement effect, while the sensitivity of a structural dispersion ROG is enhanced by two orders of magnitude even considering the dispersion-broadened resonance linewidth.

  5. Spectral broadening of acoustic tones generated by unmanned aerial vehicles in a turbulent atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Wilson, D. K.; Finn, Anthony


    The acoustic spectrum emitted by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and other aircraft can be distorted by propagation through atmospheric turbulence. Since most UAVs are propeller-based, they generate a series of acoustic tones and harmonics. In this paper, spectral broadening of these tones due......, spectral broadening is calculated and analyzed for typical meteorological regimes of the atmospheric boundary layer and different flight trajectories of UAVs. Experimental results are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. Spectral broadening might also provide a means for remotely sensing...

  6. Effects of positive mood on attention broadening for self-related information. (United States)

    Grol, Maud; Koster, Ernst H W; Bruyneel, Lynn; De Raedt, Rudi


    Studies on cognitive effects of positive emotions have associated positive emotions to broadened attention. Given the widely investigated relationship between self-focused attention and mood, it is important to investigate the effect of positive mood on visuospatial attention for self-related information. We used a performance-based measure to assess fluctuations in attentional broadening from self-related contrasted to not-self-related information. In Experiment 1, we checked that the self-related versus not-self-related stimuli did not evoke differential attention effects in general. In Experiment 2, we manipulated mood and found that an increase in positive mood was associated with a relative broadening of attention for self-related information. These results suggest that the meaning of the target of attention provides an interesting dimension for further investigation into the relation between positive emotions and attentional broadening.

  7. Analysis of compressive failure of layered materials by kink band broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Myhre


    Failure by steady state kink band broadening in uni-directional fibre composites or layered materials is analysed. An incremental scheme for calculation of kink band broadening stresses and lock-up conditions in the band for arbitrary material behaviour is presented. The method is illustrated by ...... by material data which are representative for polymer matrix composites for which experimental work exists. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Phonon characteristics of high {Tc} superconductors from neutron Doppler broadening measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trela, W.J.; Kwei, G.H.; Lynn, J.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Meggers, K. [Univ. of Kiel (Germany)


    Statistical information on the phonon frequency spectrum of materials can be measured by neutron transmission techniques if they contain nuclei with low energy resonances, narrow enough to be Doppler-broadened, in their neutron cross sections. The authors have carried out some measurements using this technique for materials of the lanthanum barium cuprate class, La{sub 2{minus}x}Ba{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. Two samples with slightly different concentrations of oxygen, one being superconductive, the other not, were examined. Pure lanthanum cuprate was also measured. Lanthanum, barium and copper all have relatively low energy narrow resonances. Thus it should be possible to detect differences in the phonons carried by different kinds of atom in the lattice. Neutron cross section measurements have been made with high energy resolution and statistical precision on the 59m flight path of LANSCE, the pulsed spallation neutron source at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Measurements on all three materials were made over a range of temperatures from 15K to 300K, with small steps through the critical temperature region near 27K. No significant changes in the mean phonon energy of the lanthanum atoms were observed near the critical temperature of the super-conducting material. It appears however that the mean phonon energy of lanthanum in the superconductor is considerably higher than that in the non-superconductors. The samples used in this series of experiments were too thin in barium and copper to determine anything significant about their phonon spectra.

  9. Broadening not strengthening of the Agulhas Current since the early 1990s (United States)

    Beal, Lisa M.; Elipot, Shane


    Western boundary currents—such as the Agulhas Current in the Indian Ocean—carry heat poleward, moderating Earth’s climate and fuelling the mid-latitude storm tracks. They could exacerbate or mitigate warming and extreme weather events in the future, depending on their response to anthropogenic climate change. Climate models show an ongoing poleward expansion and intensification of the global wind systems, most robustly in the Southern Hemisphere, and linear dynamical theory suggests that western boundary currents will intensify and shift poleward as a result. Observational evidence of such changes comes from accelerated warming and air-sea heat flux rates within all western boundary currents, which are two or three times faster than global mean rates. Here we show that, despite these expectations, the Agulhas Current has not intensified since the early 1990s. Instead, we find that it has broadened as a result of more eddy activity. Recent analyses of other western boundary currents—the Kuroshio and East Australia currents—hint at similar trends. These results indicate that intensifying winds may be increasing the eddy kinetic energy of boundary currents, rather than their mean flow. This could act to decrease poleward heat transport and increase cross-frontal exchange of nutrients and pollutants between the coastal ocean and the deep ocean. Sustained in situ measurements are needed to properly understand the role of these current systems in a changing climate.

  10. Anomalous front broadening during spontaneous imbibition in a matrix with elongated pores (United States)

    Gruener, Simon; Sadjadi, Zeinab; Hermes, Helen E.; Kityk, Andriy V.; Knorr, Klaus; Egelhaaf, Stefan U.; Rieger, Heiko; Huber, Patrick


    During spontaneous imbibition, a wetting liquid is drawn into a porous medium by capillary forces. In systems with comparable pore length and diameter, such as paper and sand, the front of the propagating liquid forms a continuous interface. Sections of this interface advance in a highly correlated manner due to an effective surface tension, which restricts front broadening. Here we investigate water imbibition in a nanoporous glass (Vycor) in which the pores are much longer than they are wide. In this case, no continuous liquid–vapor interface with coalesced menisci can form. Anomalously fast imbibition front roughening is experimentally observed by neutron imaging. We propose a theoretical pore-network model, whose structural details are adapted to the microscopic pore structure of Vycor glass and show that it displays the same large-scale roughening characteristics as observed in the experiment. The model predicts that menisci movements are uncorrelated, indicating that despite the connectivity of the network the smoothening effect of surface tension on the imbibition front roughening is negligible. These results suggest a new universality class of imbibition behavior, which is expected to occur in any matrix with elongated, interconnected pores of random radii. PMID:22689951

  11. Study of pressure broadening effects of H2 on CO2 and CO in the near infrared region between 6317 and 6335 cm-1 at room temperature (United States)

    Padmanabhan, A.; Tzanetakis, T.; Chanda, A.; Thomson, M. J.


    In this absorption spectroscopy study of CO2 and CO in the near-infrared (NIR) region between 6317 and 6335 cm-1, we focus on the broadening effect of H2 at room temperature (296 K). Absorption spectra were collected using a Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) operating in the NIR for various gas mixtures filled in a monel gas cell. The experimental parameters chosen in this study are highly relevant to combustion-related industrial applications where TDL sensors are employed to monitor CO2 and CO emissions. In many such applications H2 is always present and there is a need to understand the broadening effect of H2 on CO2 and CO to improve the detection quality of such sensors. Voigt profile analysis was performed to retrieve the experimental parameters. CO2-H2 broadening coefficients are presented for room temperature. From our study on the CO-H2 broadening effect at room temperature, we conclude that within the sensitivity of the measurements made, the presence of H2 has no significant effect in this region. The parameters calculated in this study are intended to be an addition to spectroscopic databases such as HITRAN.

  12. The use of 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging for therapeutic decisions in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices and significant neurological, neurosurgical and neuro-oncology diagnostic indications. (United States)

    Hawryluk, Łukasz; Sterliński, Maciej; Marczak, Magdalena; Miśko, Jolanta; Podgórski, Jan Krzysztof; Szwed, Hanna


    Between September 2009 and May 2014 the classification of 36 patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) in terms of the feasibility of MRI scanning due to strong clinical indications was carried out. Finally MRI examinations were performed in 20 patients, of whom 27 studies were conducted and a total number of 35 anatomical regions were scanned. Neurological, neurosurgical and neuro-oncology indications for MRI were reported in 19 patients (95%) in whom 26 MRI studies (96.3%) were performed, and 34 anatomical regions (97.1%) were scanned. One patient had indications for MRI in the field of cardiology. Medical information obtained from 27 MRI studies allowed decisions to be made regarding the treatment in all patients. After 8 studies (29.6%), patients were classified into 9 different neurosurgical procedures. In the case of the remaining 19 studies (70.4%), there were no indications for surgical treatment and the decisions to implement conservative treatment were made. There were no complications related to the implanted CIEDs observed: neither immediate nor in the follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Strategies for Broadening Participation in the Geosciences: Lessons Learned From the UCAR-SOARSr Program (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.


    Broadening participation in the geosciences will advance our research, enhance our education and training, and improve our ability to meet societal needs. By attracting more diverse students, we will be better postioned to provide all our students the increasingly necessary and relevant experience of working in diverse teams. Because some traditionally underrepresented groups, particularly Latinos & Hispanics, are growing much faster than the population as a whole, broader participation will enlarge the pool of talented individuals contributing to the next generation of research. Finally the geosciences will be more effective and credible when the diversity of our nation is reflected in our workforce, especially as civic discourse includes more and more complex decisions about society's interactions with the Earth and its resources. The Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) seeks to broaden participation in geosciences by helping undergraduate students successfully transition to graduate programs in the atmospheric and related sciences. SOARS combines multiple research experiences, multifaceted mentoring, an encouraging community, and financial support to help students enter and succeed in graduate school. A central feature of the SOARS program is a ten-week summer immersion program in which protégés (SOARS participants) conduct scientific research at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) or at laboratories of SOARS sponsors. During this summer research experience, SOARS protégés are supported by up to four mentors: a science research mentor, a writing mentor, a community mentor, and a peer mentor. SOARS protégés collaborate with their mentors to perform original research, prepare scientific papers, and present their research at a colloquium. SOARS also provides extensive leadership and communication training; support for conference presentations and for graduate school; and a strong scholarly community that

  14. Broadening the Educational Evaluation Lens with Communicative Evaluation (United States)

    Brooks-LaRaviere, Margaret; Ryan, Katherine; Miron, Luis; Samuels, Maurice


    Outcomes-based accountability in the form of test scores and performance indicators are a primary lever for improving student achievement in the current educational landscape. The article presents communicative evaluation as a complementary evaluation approach that may be used along with the primary methods of school accountability to provide a…

  15. Influence of resonant collisions on the self-broadening of acetylene (United States)

    Lehmann, Kevin K.


    Iwakuni et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 143902 (2016)] have reported an ortho-para alternation of ˜10% in the self pressure broadening coefficients for ro-vibrational lines of the C2H2 transitions in the ν1+ν3 C-H (local mode) overtone band near 197 THz (1.52 μm). These authors attributed this effect to the contribution of resonant collisions, where the rotational energy change of one molecule is exactly compensated by the rotational energy change of its collision partner. Resonant collisions are known to be important in the case of self pressure broadening of highly polar molecules, such as HCN, but have not previously been invoked in the case of nonpolar molecules, such as acetylene, where the long range potential is dominated by the quadrupole-quadrupole electrostatic interaction. In the present work, the simple semiclassical Anderson-theory approach is used to estimate the rates of C2H2-C2H2 rotationally inelastic collisions and these used to predict pressure broadening rates, ignoring other contributions to the broadening, which should not have resonant enhancements. It is found that exactly resonant collisions do not make a major contribution to the broadening and these calculations predict an ortho-para alternation of the pressure broadening coefficients far below what was inferred by Iwakuni et al. The present results are consistent with a large body of published work that reported self-broadening coefficients of C2H2 ro-vibrational transitions that found negligible dependence on the vibrational transition and no even-odd alternation, even for Q and S branch transitions where any such effect is predicted to be much larger than for the P and R branch transitions studied by Iwakuni et al.

  16. Stark broadening parameter tables for Sc X, Sc XI, Ti XI and Ti XII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević M.S.


    Full Text Available By using the semiclassical-perturbation formalism, we have calculated electron-, proton-, and He III-impact line widths and shifts for 4 Sc X, 10 Sc XI, 4 Ti XI and 27 Ti XII multiplets, significant for investigation and modeling of different plasmas in astrophysics and physics. For Sc X calculations have been performed within the temperature range from 200,000 K to 5,000,000 K, and for perturber densities 1019cm−3 - 1022cm−3. Stark broadening data for Sc XI are tabulated for temperatures from 500,000 K to 5,000,000 K, and perturber densities 1018cm−3 - 1022cm−3. For Ti XI calculations were performed within the temperature range from 500,000 K to 5,000,000 K, and perturber densities 1018cm−3 - 1022cm−3, while for Ti XII results are given for temperatures from 500,000 K to 6,000,000 K, and perturber densities 1018cm−3 - 1023cm−3.

  17. Happy heart, smiling eyes: A systematic review of positive mood effects on broadening of visuospatial attention. (United States)

    Vanlessen, Naomi; De Raedt, Rudi; Koster, Ernst H W; Pourtois, Gilles


    Positive mood contributes to mental and physical wellbeing. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 2001) proposed that the beneficial effects of positive mood on life quality result from attentional broadening. In this article, we systematically review (following PRISMA guidelines; Moher et al., 2009), a host of studies investigating the nature and extent of attentional changes triggered by the experience of positive mood, with a focus on vision. While several studies reported a broadening of attention, others found that positive mood led to a more diffuse information processing style. Positive mood appears to lessen attention selectivity in a way that is context-specific and bound to limitations. We propose a new framework in which we postulate that positive mood impacts the balance between internally and externally directed attention, through modulations of cognitive control processes, instead of broadening attention per se. This novel model is able to accommodate discrepant findings, seeks to translate the phenomenon of the so-called broadening of attention with positive mood into functional terms, and provides plausible neurobiological mechanisms underlying this effect, suggesting a crucial role of the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex in this interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coherent control of polarization state rotation via Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity in a spinning fast light medium (United States)

    Rahman, Habibur; Hizbullah; Jabar, M. S. Abdul; Khan, Anwar Ali; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Amin Bacha, Bakht


    We propose a four-level experimental N-type atomic configuration to observe the propagation of a light pulse in a spinning dispersive medium. In this model a fast propagating light pulse is observed in which the polarization states of the light and their transmitted images are rotated in the opposite direction to the spinning medium. We investigate the effects of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity on fast light propagation in a spinning medium. Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity strongly influence the rotation of the polarization states of the light and images of fast light in a spinning medium. A pulse of group velocity -c/2000.5 ms-1 is enhanced to -c/80000 ms-1 due to the the Kerr effect and a significant increase is observed in the rotation of the polarization states of the light and images. At a specific parameter, a 25% fraction change is observed due to the Kerr effect. These results provide different rotation states for image coding.

  19. Curriculum of broaden education and theory of teaching activity in school Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirléia Silvano


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the conception of curriculum with broaden character in Physical Education and Davidov and Leontiev’s learning theory as possibility of focusing on human education in the omnilateral perspective. We endorse the necessity that the curriculum dynamics – dealing with knowledge, school systematization and standardization of school practices – becomes effective in a curriculum of broaden character. We consider that dealing with knowledge involves the necessity to create conditions that promote the transmission and assimilation of school knowledge. We refer therefore to a scientific direction of the teaching process, in other words, that the teacher leads the student to enter into study activity; from abstract knowledge rising to concrete theoretical knowledge, which is brought about by curriculum organization from a broaden conception.

  20. Gamma-ray emission spectrum from thermonuclear fusion reactions without intrinsic broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nocente, M.; Källne, J.; Salewski, Mirko


    First principle calculations of the gamma-ray energy spectrum arising from thermonuclear reactions without intrinsic broadening in fusion plasmas are presented, extending the theoretical framework needed to interpret measurements up to the accuracy level enabled by modern high resolution instrume......First principle calculations of the gamma-ray energy spectrum arising from thermonuclear reactions without intrinsic broadening in fusion plasmas are presented, extending the theoretical framework needed to interpret measurements up to the accuracy level enabled by modern high resolution...... information that can be extracted from the gamma-ray emission spectrum of fusion reactions without intrinsic broadening and are of relevance for applications to high performance plasmas of present and next generation devices....

  1. The broadened-specification fuels combustion technology program at Pratt and Whitney Aircraft (United States)

    Lohmann, R. P.


    The impact of the use of broadened specification fuels on combustor design was investigated. Particular emphasis was placed on establishing the viability of various combustor modifications to permit the use of broadened specification fuels while meeting exhaust emissions and performance specifications and maintaining acceptable combustor operational and durability characteristics. Three different combustor concepts will be evaluated. Various design modifications on the operating capability of each of the combustor concepts with experimental referee broadened specification Fuel. The modifications that were evaluated included perturbations of the combustor airflow schedules to alter local stoichiometry and residence time histories revisions to the fuel injectors, and variations in liner cooling including the use of thermal barrier coatings and/or advanced cooling concepts.

  2. The effect of Kerr nonlinearity and Doppler broadening on slow light propagation (United States)

    Ali, Hazrat; Ziauddin; Ahmad, Iftikhar


    The influence of Kerr nonlinearity and Doppler broadening on the slow light propagation of a dispersive atomic medium is revisited using a four-level Λ-type (87Rb) atomic system under the condition of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The medium exhibits an EIT process which is accompanied by normal dispersion, i.e., sub-luminal (slow light) pulse propagation. In the presence of Kerr nonlinearity and the Doppler broadening effect the dispersion property of the proposed atomic medium is modified, which leads to enhancement of the positive group index of the medium. The combined effect of Kerr nonlinearity and Doppler broadening on slow light propagation inside the medium is the major motivation for this work.

  3. Ghost features in Doppler-broadened spectra of rovibrational transitions in trapped HD$^+$ ions

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Sayan


    Doppler broadening plays an important role in laser rovibrational spectroscopy of trapped deuterated molecular hydrogen ions (HD$^+$), even at the millikelvin temperatures achieved through sympathetic cooling by laser-cooled beryllium ions. Recently, Biesheuvel \\textit{et al.} \\cite{Biesheuvel2016} presented a theoretical lineshape model for such transitions which not only considers linestrengths and Doppler broadening, but also the finite sample size and population redistribution by blackbody radiation, which are important in view of the long storage and probe times achievable in ion traps. Here, we employ the rate equation model developed by Biesheuvel \\textit{et al.} to theoretically study the Doppler-broadened hyperfine structure of the $(v,L):(0,3)\\rightarrow(4,2)$ rovibrational transition in HD$^+$ at 1442~nm. We observe prominent yet hitherto unrecognized ghost features in the simulated spectrum, whose positions depend on the Doppler width, transition rates, and saturation levels of the hyperfine compo...

  4. GEANT4 simulation of the effects of Doppler energy broadening in Compton imaging. (United States)

    Uche, C Z; Cree, M J; Round, W H


    A Monte Carlo approach was used to study the effects of Doppler energy broadening on Compton camera performance. The GEANT4 simulation toolkit was used to model the radiation transport and interactions with matter in a simulated Compton camera. The low energy electromagnetic physics model of GEANT4 incorporating Doppler broadening developed by Longo et al. was used in the simulations. The camera had a 9 × 9 cm scatterer and a 10 × 10 cm absorber with a scatterer to-absorber separation of 5 cm. Modelling was done such that only the effects of Doppler broadening were taken into consideration and effects of scatterer and absorber thickness and pixelation were not taken into account, thus a 'perfect' Compton camera was assumed. Scatterer materials were either silicon or germanium and the absorber material was cadmium zinc telluride. Simulations were done for point sources 10 cm in front of the scatterer. The results of the simulations validated the use of the low energy model of GEANT4. As expected, Doppler broadening was found to degrade the Compton camera imaging resolution. For a 140.5 keV source the resulting full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the point source image without accounting for Doppler broadening and using a silicon scatterer was 0.58 mm. This degraded to 7.1 mm when Doppler broadening was introduced and degraded further to 12.3 mm when a germanium scatterer was used instead of silicon. But for a 511 keV source, the FWHM was better than for a 140 keV source. The FWHM improved to 2.4 mm for a silicon scatterer and 4.6 mm for a germanium scatterer. Our result for silicon at 140.5 keV is in very good agreement with that published by An et al.

  5. Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels (United States)

    Reck, G. M.


    Factors which will determine the future supply and cost of aviation turbine fuels are discussed. The most significant fuel properties of volatility, fluidity, composition, and thermal stability are discussed along with the boiling ranges of gasoline, naphtha jet fuels, kerosene, and diesel oil. Tests were made to simulate the low temperature of an aircraft fuel tank to determine fuel tank temperatures for a 9100-km flight with and without fuel heating; the effect of N content in oil-shale derived fuels on the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester breakpoint temperature was measured. Finally, compatibility of non-metallic gaskets, sealants, and coatings with increased aromatic content jet fuels was examined.

  6. The density broadening in a sodium F=2 condensate detected by a pulse train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Han


    Full Text Available The dipole-blockaded sodium clock transition has been detected by high resolution microwave spectroscopy, the multiple-pulse spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique has been first used to detect the density broadening and shifting in a Sodium Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC by probing the sodium clock-transition. Moreover, by narrowing the pulse-width of the pulses, some of the broadening mechanisms can be partially reduced. The results reported here are essential steps toward the ground-state quantum computing, few-body spectroscopy, spin squeezing and quantum metrology.

  7. Single photon quantum non-demolition measurements in the presence of inhomogeneous broadening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greentree, Andrew D; Hollenberg, L C L; Prawer, S [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Beausoleil, R G [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Rd, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1123 (United States); Munro, W J; Spiller, T P [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Filton Road, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS34 8QZ (United Kingdom); Nemoto, Kae [National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has often been proposed for generating nonlinear optical effects at the single photon level; in particular, as a means to effect a quantum non-demolition measurement of a single-photon field. Previous treatments have usually considered homogeneously broadened samples, but realizations in any medium will have to contend with inhomogeneous broadening. Here we reappraise an earlier scheme (Munro et al 2005 Phys. Rev. A 71 033819) with respect to inhomogeneities and show an alternative mode of operation that is preferred in an inhomogeneous environment. We further show the implications of these results on a potential implementation in diamond-containing nitrogen-vacancy colour centres.

  8. Single photon quantum non-demolition measurements in the presence of inhomogeneous broadening (United States)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Beausoleil, R. G.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Munro, W. J.; Nemoto, Kae; Prawer, S.; Spiller, T. P.


    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has often been proposed for generating nonlinear optical effects at the single photon level; in particular, as a means to effect a quantum non-demolition measurement of a single-photon field. Previous treatments have usually considered homogeneously broadened samples, but realizations in any medium will have to contend with inhomogeneous broadening. Here we reappraise an earlier scheme (Munro et al 2005 Phys. Rev. A 71 033819) with respect to inhomogeneities and show an alternative mode of operation that is preferred in an inhomogeneous environment. We further show the implications of these results on a potential implementation in diamond-containing nitrogen-vacancy colour centres.

  9. Broadening the search for minority science and engineering doctoral starts (United States)

    Brazziel, William E.; Brazziel, Marian E.


    This analysis looked at doctorate completion in science and engineering (S&E) by underrepresented minorities: blacks, Hispanics and Indian Americans. These are the groups we must increasingly depend upon to make up for shortfalls in science and engineering doctorate production among American citizens. These shortfalls derive from truncated birth rates among white people, for the most part. The analysis answered several questions officials will need to know the answers to if we are to plan effectively to develop the talents of these individuals. Specifically, the National Science Foundation asked us to look at the feasibility of involving nontraditional minority science and engineering graduates (baccalaureates at 25+) as doctoral starts, along with minority S&E graduates who had taken jobs with corporations to pay off student loans and military personnel involved in S&E study and S&E work (see NSF report of research under grant SED-9107756). We found that nontraditional minority S&E doctorate recipients matched their traditional counterparts in elapsed time to degree and similar indicators. They had less in the way of support for doctoral study, however. We found that minority S&E graduates who took jobs in corporations were keenly interested in returning to campus to complete degrees. We also found that many bright minority youngsters are studying S&E subjects in the Community College of the Air Force and in U.S. Army SOC colleges. Some have enrolled in baccalaureate programs on university campuses and plan to continue on to the PhD. We concluded that money is important in tapping these talent pools to make up for the demographically driven shortfalls discussed above.

  10. Study of acetylene diluted in xenon by diode-laser spectroscopy: I. Temperature dependence of the broadening coefficients (United States)

    Dhyne, Miguël; Joubert, Pierre; Populaire, Jean-Claude; Blanquet, Ghislain; Lepère, Muriel


    In this paper, we present the Xe-broadening coefficients of 18 rovibrational lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C212H2 (near 1330 cm-1) determined at five temperatures, ranging from 173.2 K to 298.2 K. The measurement of these coefficients was realized with a tunable diode-laser spectrometer. A low temperature cell was coupled with the spectrometer in order to determine their temperature dependence. The line parameters were obtained by fitting the experimental profiles by the Voigt lineshape and the Rautian and the Galatry models, which take into account the collisional narrowing. The results were compared with previous experimental data reporting for other vibrational bands and agree with them. This indicates that they are insensitive to vibrational excitation.

  11. Mortality salience and positive affect influence adolescents' attitudes toward peers with physical disabilities: terror management and broaden and build theories. (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora


    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown either a picture depicting an adolescent sitting on a regular chair or in a wheelchair and were asked to assess the characteristics of the person in the picture and their willingness to be in his or her company. The findings suggest that both types of manipulations enhanced the personality assessment and social acceptance of adolescents with disabilities compared to adolescents without disabilities and compared to the control condition. Girls reported more favorable attitudes toward another adolescent than boys did. The study indicates that seemingly contradictory manipulations may lead to social acceptance of adolescents with disabilities.

  12. Broadened population-level frequency tuning in human auditory cortex of portable music player users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko Okamoto

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many people use portable players to enrich their daily life with enjoyable music. However, in noisy environments, the player volume is often set to extremely high levels in order to drown out the intense ambient noise and satisfy the appetite for music. Extensive and inappropriate usage of portable music players might cause subtle damages in the auditory system, which are not behaviorally detectable in an early stage of the hearing impairment progress. Here, by means of magnetoencephalography, we objectively examined detrimental effects of portable music player misusage on the population-level frequency tuning in the human auditory cortex. We compared two groups of young people: one group had listened to music with portable music players intensively for a long period of time, while the other group had not. Both groups performed equally and normally in standard audiological examinations (pure tone audiogram, speech test, and hearing-in-noise test. However, the objective magnetoencephalographic data demonstrated that the population-level frequency tuning in the auditory cortex of the portable music player users was significantly broadened compared to the non-users, when attention was distracted from the auditory modality; this group difference vanished when attention was directed to the auditory modality. Our conclusion is that extensive and inadequate usage of portable music players could cause subtle damages, which standard behavioral audiometric measures fail to detect in an early stage. However, these damages could lead to future irreversible hearing disorders, which would have a huge negative impact on the quality of life of those affected, and the society as a whole.

  13. Second harmonic generation of spectrally broadened femtosecond ytterbium laser radiation in a gas-filled capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didenko, N V; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Kostryukov, P V; Losev, Leonid L; Tenyakov, S Yu


    A 300-fs radiation pulse of an ytterbium laser with a wavelength of 1030 nm and energy of 150 {mu}J were converted to a 15-fs pulse with a wavelength of 515 nm by broadening the emission spectrum in a capillary filled with xenon and by generating the second harmonic in a KDP crystal. The energy efficiency of the conversion was 30 %.

  14. Broaden Engineering Technology students' knowledge through hands-on with motion robotics (United States)

    The skills and knowledge that employers value most are not always well-aligned with undergraduate engineering technology programs. With the support of a federal grant, we identify and propose to broaden the undergraduate student experience to include training in transferable skills with agricultura...

  15. Calculation of the density shift and broadening of the transition lines in pionic helium: Computational problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Dimitar, E-mail: [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, INRNE (Bulgaria)


    The potential energy surface and the computational codes, developed for the evaluation of the density shift and broadening of the spectral lines of laser-induced transitions from metastable states of antiprotonic helium, fail to produce convergent results in the case of pionic helium. We briefly analyze the encountered computational problems and outline possible solutions of the problems.

  16. On quantum-mechanical unified theories of collisional spectral line broadening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, F.; Nienhuis, G.


    We compare the Baranger-type unified theory of line broadening with a quantum version of the binary-collision approach. For the simple model system of a two-state atom, where both treatments are well-defined, the binary-collision theory results only from the exact formalism after an inversion of an

  17. On magnetic field stochasticity and nonthermal line broadening in solar flares (United States)

    Antonucci, E.; Rosner, R.; Tsinganos, K.


    Observations of nonthermal line broadening seen in solar flares by the Solar Maximum Mission satellite are discussed in light of recent results on the generation of magnetic field stochasticity. It is shown that a consistent model for the data can be constructed by assuming that the observations signal the destruction of an ambient magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium.

  18. Reframing the land grab debate: The need to broaden and deepen the agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, A.; van Westen, A.C.M.


    This article does not present new evidence about the land rush, but reveals the urgent need of broadening the debate by including a few key issues that are so far neglected. Transnational land acquisitions are a logical outcome of globalisation and neoliberal policies resulting in processes of

  19. Broadening Educational Outcomes: Social Relations, Skills Development, and Employability for Youth (United States)

    Dejaeghere, Joan; Wiger, Nancy Pellowski; Willemsen, Laura Wangsness


    This article argues that, if a global development aim is to address educational inequalities, the post-2015 agenda needs to conceptually and practically broaden the focus of learning to include social relations as important processes and outcomes for achieving educational equity. We draw on Sen's capability approach and Bourdieu's forms of capital…

  20. Homogeneous broadening effect on temperature dependence of green upconversion luminescence in erbium doped fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egatz-Gómez, A. [Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Arcos de Jalón 118, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Calderón, Oscar G., E-mail: [Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Arcos de Jalón 118, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Melle, Sonia; Carreño, F.; Antón, M.A. [Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Arcos de Jalón 118, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Gort, Elske M. [Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Arcos de Jalón 118, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)


    We study the green upconversion luminescence of Er{sup 3+} ions in an aluminosilicate optical fiber upon near infrared excitation at 787 nm. The dependence of the upconversion luminescence on temperature has been determined. As temperature drops from room to cryogenic temperatures, the upconversion green emission reaches a maximum around 40 K, and then decreases. A nearly quadratic dependence of the upconversion luminescence with excitation power is found, which is consistent with a sequential stepwise two-photon absorption process. These results have been explained with a semiclassical model that considers the inhomogeneous broadening of the optical transitions due to glass imperfections, and the dependence of the homogeneous linewidth broadening on temperature. -- Highlights: ► We study green upconversion luminescence of Er{sup 3+} ions in a fiber excited at 787 nm. ► Upconversion luminescence variation from room to cryogenic temperature is analyzed. ► Upconversion emission consists in a sequential two-photon absorption process. ► A semiclassical model considering inhomogeneous broadening explains the results. ► Homogeneous broadening is responsible for the upconversion temperature dependence.

  1. Line broadening in a photoionization spectrometer due to elastic electron--atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butikov, E.I.; Mishchenko, E.D.; Tumarkin, Y.N.


    Line broadening in a photoionization spectrometer due to elastic collisions between photoelectrons and atoms of the working gas is considered. Expressions are obtained for the stationary electron energy distribution function and for the initial part of the current-voltage characteristic in the case of monochromatic ionizing radiation for intensities of the retarding field close to the initial photoelectron energy.

  2. Saturation broadening effect in an InP photonic-crystal nanocavity switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yi; Palushani, Evarist; Heuck, Mikkel


    Pump-probe measurements on InP photonic-crystal nanocavities show large-contrast fast switching at low pulse energy. For large pulse energies, large resonance shifts passing across the probe lead to switching contrast saturation and switching time-window broadening. © 2014 OSA....

  3. Effects of Level Broadening on the Magnetothermal Oscillations in Two-Dimensional Electron Systems. (United States)


    On the other hand, Gerhardts (1976) arrived at a Gaussin form for level broadening. A In what follows in the present article, we remark on the case...Soc. (London) A 211 517 V A %l Gerhardts R R 1976 Surf. Sei. 58 227 fvi Isihara A and Kojima D Y 1979 Phys. Rev. B 19 846 and Shiva Y 1983

  4. Broadening of Plasmonic Resonance Due to Electron Collisions with Nanoparticle Boundary: а Quantum Mechanical Consideration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander; Protsenko, Igor E.; Mortensen, N. Asger


    We present a quantum mechanical approach to calculate broadening of plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures due to collisions of electrons with the surface of the structure. The approach is applicable if the characteristic size of the structure is much larger than the de Broglie electron...

  5. Suffering from Loneliness Indicates Significant Mortality Risk of Older People


    Tilvis, Reijo S; Venla Laitala; Routasalo, Pirkko E.; Pitkälä, Kaisu H.


    Background. The harmful associates of suffering from loneliness are still in dispute. Objective. To examine the association of feelings of loneliness with all-cause mortality in a general aged population. Methods. A postal questionnaire was sent to randomly selected community-dwelling of elderly people (>74 years) from the Finnish National Population Register. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, living conditions, functioning, health, and need for help. Suffering from lone...

  6. Organizational Change Effectiveness: A Few Significant Indicators for Romanian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Voica


    Full Text Available This paper examines organizational change, focusing on the outputs of the implementation process. Through a questionnaire-based survey, we sought after factors that characterize the outputs of organizational changes within Romanian companies. We have shown that among various outputs, a few of them characterize the successful achievement of the change’s goals.

  7. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)


    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  8. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian


    to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also......In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...

  9. Vibrational Dependence of Line Coupling and Line Mixing in Self-Broadened Parallel Bands of NH3 (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.


    Line coupling and line mixing effects have been calculated for several self-broadened NH3 lines in parallel bands involving an excited v2 mode. It is well known that once the v2 mode is excited, the inversion splitting quickly increases as this quantum number increases. In the present study, we have shown that the v2 dependence of the inversion splitting plays a dominant role in the calculated line-shape parameters. For the v2 band with a 36 cm-1 splitting, the intra-doublet couplings practically disappear and for the 2v2 and 2v2 - v2 bands with much higher splitting values, they are completely absent. With respect to the inter-doublet coupling, it becomes the most efficient coupling mechanism for the v2 band, but it is also completely absent for bands with higher v2 quantum numbers. Because line mixing is caused by line coupling, the above conclusions on line coupling are also applicable for line mixing. Concerning the check of our calculated line mixing effects, while the present formalism has well explained the line mixing signatures observed in the v1 band, there are large discrepancies between the measured Rosenkranz mixing parameters and our calculated results for the v2 and 2v2 bands. In order to clarify these discrepancies, we propose to make some new measurements. In addition, we have calculated self-broadened half-widths in the v2 and 2v2 bands and made comparisons with several measurements and with the values listed in HITRAN 2012. In general, the agreements with measurements are very good. In contrast, the agreement with HITRAN 2012 is poor, indicating that the empirical formula used to predict the HITRAN 2012 data has to be updated.

  10. Inhomogeneous broadening of phosphorus donor lines in the far-infrared spectra of single-crystalline SiGe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, S. A.; Matmon, G.; Pavlov, S. G.; Litvinenko, K. L.; Redlich, B.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Hubers, H. W.


    The origins of line broadening in the far-infrared spectrum of phosphorus donors in SiGe are investigated. Using a combination of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and time-resolved pump-probe measurements, we show that the line shapes are dominated by inhomogenous broadening.

  11. Solar Indices (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. RBC indices (United States)

    ... this. The results are used to diagnose different types of anemia . ... These test results indicate the type of anemia: MCV below normal. Microcytic anemia (may be due to low iron levels, lead poisoning, or thalassemia ). MCV normal. Normocytic anemia (may ...

  13. Geographical Indications


    Anechitoae Constantin; Grigoru? Lavinia-Maria


    “The denomination of origin” may be the name of a region, a specific place or country used to describe an agricultural or food product. "The geographical indication" may be the name of a region, a specific place or a country, used to describe an agricultural or food product. The indication of provenance and the denomination of origin serve to identify the source and origin of goods or services.

  14. Uncovering Tacit Knowledge: A Pilot Study to Broaden the Concept of Knowledge in Knowledge Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Nancy


    important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation of explicit research findings. This indicates a need to broaden the scope of knowledge translation to include other forms of knowledge beyond explicit knowledge acquired through research. Strategies that recognize and support the use of tacit knowledge, such as communities of practice or networks, may be important components of a comprehensive approach to knowledge translation. This study provides support for further investigation of the role of tacit knowledge in the planning and delivery of effective public health services.

  15. Position indicator (United States)

    Tanner, David E.


    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  16. Collisional electron broadening of Stark sublevels of an atom of hydrogen in a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholin, G.V.; Demura, A.V.; Lisitsa, V.S.


    A theoretical examination was made of the contours of the hydrogen lines in plasma, excited as a result of the static interaction of ions and collisional electrons with consideration of the special characteristics connected with the presence of supplementary degeneration in the Coulomb field. General expressions were obtained for the half-width of the Stark component of every line of the hydrogen spectrum in parabolic coordinates. A subsequent analysis was carried out of the transition from the overlapping of the Stark component to the isolated lines. It was found that such a transition is accompanied by annulment of the nondiagornl matrix elements of the operator of the collisional electron broadening. The form of the interference member in the operator of the collisional electron broadening is corrected with consideration of the perturbation of the upper and lower levels. The calculations carried out made it possible to improve the agreement between theory and experiment for lines with strong central components. (tr-auth)

  17. Spectral broadening in anatase titanium dioxide waveguides at telecommunication and near-visible wavelengths. (United States)

    Evans, Christopher C; Shtyrkova, Katia; Bradley, Jonathan D B; Reshef, Orad; Ippen, Erich; Mazur, Eric


    We observe spectral broadening of femtosecond pulses in single-mode anatase-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) waveguides at telecommunication and near-visible wavelengths (1565 and 794 nm). By fitting our data to nonlinear pulse propagation simulations, we quantify nonlinear optical parameters around 1565 nm. Our fitting yields a nonlinear refractive index of 0.16 × 10(-18) m(2)/W, no two-photon absorption, and stimulated Raman scattering from the 144 cm(-1) Raman line of anatase with a gain coefficient of 6.6 × 10(-12) m/W. Additionally, we report on asymmetric spectral broadening around 794 nm. The wide wavelength applicability and negligible two-photon absorption of TiO(2) make it a promising material for integrated photonics.

  18. Broadening participation in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (United States)

    Rous, Philip


    Over the past two decades, UMBC has undertaken a series of efforts to broaden participation in the natural sciences and mathematics, beginning with the establishment of the Meyerhoff program. Using as examples the multiple initiatives that followed, and with a focus on the challenge of increasing access and success of all students who enter as both freshmen and transfer students, I will describe a model of culture change that we have employed repeatedly to understand and guide our efforts in broadening participation. Particular attention will be paid to the concept of cultural capital, the role of innovators and the challenge of scaling small-scale innovations towards institutional change. Supported by the National Science Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  19. Controllability of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Doppler Broadened Four-Level Atomic System (United States)

    Abd-Elnabi, Somia; Osman, K. I.


    The influence of Doppler broadening on a four-level N-type atomic system has been investigated in the presence of spontaneous generating coherence. The atomic system interacting with three electromagnetic fields and includes the nonradiative decay, the effect of co- and counter-propagation of the fields is considered. The probe susceptibility behaviors can be modified by Doppler broadening via nonperturbative treatments of the density matrix elements solution in the absence and presence of the spontaneous generating coherence. Some interesting features are enhanced for the spectral behaviors and controllability of electromagnetically induced transparency, which were found to be in good agreement to some experimental results without including Zeeman sublevels to the system.

  20. Seeing the world through target-tinted glasses: Positive mood broadens perceptual tuning. (United States)

    Uddenberg, Stefan; Shim, Won Mok


    Research shows that positive mood can serve to broaden the scope of attention at both the perceptual and conceptual level (e.g., increasing the size of spatial attentional focus and semantic access to remote associates). We investigated whether this relaxation of attentional filters by positive affect reduces their selectivity for basic visual features. We induced positive, neutral, or negative affect and asked observers to identify a target motion direction in a series of rapid random moving dot displays. Using a reverse correlation method, we examined the differential effects of emotion on observers' perceptual tuning curves for motion direction. Here we find that positive affect reduces selectivity for motion direction by broadening observers' perceptual tuning relative to both neutral and negative affect conditions. These findings provide the first behavioral evidence that positive emotion influences selectivity for basic visual features through modulation of tuning properties. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. From discrete to continuous the broadening of number concepts in early modern England

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, Katherine


    In the early modern period, a crucial transformation occurred in the classical conception of number and magnitude. Traditionally, numbers were merely collections of discrete units that measured some multiple. Magnitude, on the other hand, was usually described as being continuous, or being divisible into parts that are infinitely divisible. This traditional idea of discrete number versus continuous magnitude was challenged in the early modern period in several ways. This detailed study explores how the development of algebraic symbolism, logarithms, and the growing practical demands for an expanded number concept all contributed to a broadening of the number concept in early modern England. An interest in solving practical problems was not, in itself, enough to cause a generalisation of the number concept. It was the combined impact of novel practical applications together with the concomitant development of such mathematical advances as algebraic notation and logarithms that produced a broadened number conce...

  2. In-medium jet evolution: interplay between broadening and decoherence effects

    CERN Document Server

    Apolinário, Liliana; Milhano, Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A.


    The description of the modifications of the coherence pattern in a parton shower, in the presence of a QGP, has been actively addressed in recent studies. Among the several achievements, finite energy corrections, transverse momentum broadening due to medium interactions and interference effects between successive emissions have been extensively improved as they seem to be essential features for a correct description of the results obtained in heavy-ion collisions. In this work, based on the insights of our previous work [1], we explore the physical interplay between broadening and decoherence, by generalising previous studies of medium-modifications of the antenna spectrum [2, 3, 4] - so far restricted to the case where transverse motion is neglected. The result allow us to identify two quantities controlling the decoherence of a medium modified shower that can be used as building blocks for a successful future generation of jet quenching Monte Carlo simulators: a generalisation of the $\\Delta_{med}$ paramet...

  3. Ab initio computation of the broadening of water rotational lines by molecular hydrogen


    Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Faure, Alexandre


    Theoretical cross sections for the pressure broadening by hydrogen of rotational transitions of water are compared to the latest available measurements in the temperature range 65-220 K. A high accuracy interaction potential is employed in a full close coupling calculation. A good agreement with experiment is observed above ~80 K while the sharp drop observed experimentally at lower temperatures is not predicted by our calculations. Possible explanations for this discrepancy include the failu...

  4. Spectrally resolved four-wave mixing in semiconductors: Influence of inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erland, J.; Pantke, K.-H.; Mizeikis, V.


    We study the influence of inhomogeneous broadening on results obtained from spectrally resolved transient four-wave mixing. In particular, we study the case where more resonances are coherently excited, leading to polarization interference or quantum beats, depending on the microscopic nature of ...... of the resonances. To demonstrate the ideas, we present experimental results from bulk CdSe and from GaAs multiple quantum wells....

  5. Doppler broadening effect on collision cross section functions - Deconvolution of the thermal averaging (United States)

    Bernstein, R. B.


    The surprising feature of the Doppler problem in threshold determination is the 'amplification effect' of the target's thermal energy spread. The small thermal energy spread of the target molecules results in a large dispersion in relative kinetic energy. The Doppler broadening effect in connection with thermal energy beam experiments is discussed, and a procedure is recommended for the deconvolution of molecular scattering cross-section functions whose dominant dependence upon relative velocity is approximately that of the standard low-energy form.

  6. yield indicators

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YIELD INDICATORS. P. NTAWURUHUNGA, P.R. RUBAIHAYOI, J.B.A. WHYTE, A.G.O. DIXONZ and use. osnzu1. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, East and Southern Africa, Centre, PO. Box 7878, l Kampala ... most important sources of food energy in several ... efficiency in selecting and identifying cassava.

  7. Anthropometric indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, V. M.; Nwose, E. U.; Skinner, T. C.


    BACKGROUND: The current anthropometric indices used for diagnosis of cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) in sub-Saharan Africa are those widely validated in the western world. We hereby aim to compare the sensitivity and specificity of these tools in identifying risk factors for CMS. METHOD: The study...

  8. Proton Lateral Broadening Distribution Comparisons Between GRNTRN, MCNPX, and Laboratory Beam Measurements (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Moyers, Michael F.; Walker, Steven A.; Tweed, John


    Recent developments in NASA s deterministic High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN) code have included lateral broadening of primary ion beams due to small-angle multiple Coulomb scattering, and coupling of the ion-nuclear scattering interactions with energy loss and straggling. This new version of HZETRN is based on Green function methods, called GRNTRN, and is suitable for modeling transport with both space environment and laboratory boundary conditions. Multiple scattering processes are a necessary extension to GRNTRN in order to accurately model ion beam experiments, to simulate the physical and biological-effective radiation dose, and to develop new methods and strategies for light ion radiation therapy. In this paper we compare GRNTRN simulations of proton lateral broadening distributions with beam measurements taken at Loma Linda University Proton Therapy Facility. The simulated and measured lateral broadening distributions are compared for a 250 MeV proton beam on aluminum, polyethylene, polystyrene, bone substitute, iron, and lead target materials. The GRNTRN results are also compared to simulations from the Monte Carlo MCNPX code for the same projectile-target combinations described above.

  9. Biological indicators and biological indication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseloff, H.P.


    Pollutants in the environment cause more and more situations of burden for living beings. In certain organisms, i.e. in biological indicators, there is a correlation between the extent of the damage and the degree of the burden. That is why environmental burdens can be recognized and, in part, be quantitatively recorded. Depending of the choice of materials and the damage parameters the respective differentiated statements can be made. Compared to technical measuring stations biological indicators facilitate the assessment of situations of burden with the help of biological-ecological parameters.

  10. CO2-broadened half-widths and CO2-induced line shifts of 12C16O relevant to the atmospheric spectra of Venus and Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Keeyoon [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3G1 (Canada); Varanasi, Prasad [Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States)]. E-mail:


    CO2-broadened half-widths and CO2-induced line shifts were measured in the fundamental (1-0) of 12C16O at 201, 244, and 300K using a Fourier-transform spectrometer and a multi-spectral-line-fitting technique. The parameters were also measured in the first (2-0) overtone and the second (3-0) overtone bands at 298K. While the line widths are practically the same in the three bands, there is significant variation of the collision-induced line shifts with the vibrational quantum number of the upper energy level.

  11. Calculation of the Doppler broadening function using Fourier analysis;Calculo da funcao de alargamento Doppler utilizando analise de Fourier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Alessandro da Cruz


    An efficient and precise method for calculation of Doppler broadening function is very important to obtain average group microscopic cross sections, self shielding factors, resonance integrals and others reactor physics parameter. In this thesis two different methods for calculation of Doppler broadening function and interference term will be presented. The main method is based on a new integral form for Doppler broadening function {psi}(x,{zeta}) which gives a mathematical interpretation of the approximation proposed by Bethe and Placzek, as the convolution of the Lorentzian function with a Gaussian function. This interpretation besides leading to a new integral form for {psi}(x,{zeta}), enables to obtain a simple analytic solution for the Doppler broadening function. (author)

  12. Broadening engineering education: bringing the community in : commentary on "social responsibility in French engineering education: a historical and sociological analysis". (United States)

    Conlon, Eddie


    Two issues of particular interest in the Irish context are (1) the motivation for broadening engineering education to include the humanities, and an emphasis on social responsibility and (2) the process by which broadening can take place. Greater community engagement, arising from a socially-driven model of engineering education, is necessary if engineering practice is to move beyond its present captivity by corporate interests.

  13. Influence of Electron–Acoustic-Phonon Scattering on Intensity Power Broadening in a Coherently Driven Quantum-Dot–Cavity System


    C. Roy; S. Hughes


    We present a quantum optics formalism to study the intensity power broadening of a semiconductor quantum dot interacting with an acoustic-phonon bath and a high-Q microcavity. Power broadening is investigated using a time-convolutionless master equation in the polaron frame, which allows for a nonperturbative treatment of the interaction of the quantum dot with the phonon reservoir. We calculate the full non-Lorentzian photoluminescence (PL) line shapes and numerically extract the intensity l...

  14. On the Origin of the Scatter Broadening of Fast Radio Burst Pulses and Astrophysical Implications (United States)

    Xu, Siyao; Zhang, Bing


    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been identified as extragalactic sources that can probe turbulence in the intergalactic medium (IGM) and their host galaxies. To account for the observed millisecond pulses caused by scatter broadening, we examine a variety of possible electron density fluctuation models in both the IGM and the host galaxy medium. We find that a short-wave-dominated power-law spectrum of density, which may arise in highly supersonic turbulence with pronounced local dense structures of shock-compressed gas in the host interstellar medium (ISM), can produce the required density enhancements at sufficiently small scales to interpret the scattering timescale of FRBs. This implies that an FRB residing in a galaxy with efficient star formation in action tends to have a broadened pulse. The scaling of the scattering time with the dispersion measure (DM) in the host galaxy varies in different turbulence and scattering regimes. The host galaxy can be the major origin of scatter broadening, but contributes to a small fraction of the total DM. We also find that the sheet-like structure of the density in the host ISM associated with folded magnetic fields in a viscosity-dominated regime of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence cannot give rise to strong scattering. Furthermore, valuable insights into the IGM turbulence concerning the detailed spatial structure of density and magnetic field can be gained from the observed scattering timescale of FRBs. Our results favor the suppression of micro-plasma instabilities and the validity of the collisional-MHD description of turbulence properties in the collisionless IGM.

  15. Quantum Memory for Microwave Photons in an Inhomogeneously Broadened Spin Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julsgaard, Brian; Grezes, Cécile; Bertet, Patrice


    We propose a multi-mode quantum memory protocol able to store the quantum state of the field in a microwave resonator into an ensemble of electronic spins. The stored information is protected against inhomogeneous broadening of the spin ensemble by spin-echo techniques resulting in memory times...... orders of magnitude longer than previously achieved. By calculating the evolution of the first and second moments of the spin-cavity system variables for realistic experimental parameters, we show that a memory based on NV center spins in diamond can store a qubit encoded on the |0> and |1> Fock states...

  16. Biexcitonic bound and continuum states of homogeneously and inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, W.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    We investigate the influence of excitonic localization on the corresponding biexcitonic states in GaAs quantum wells by spectrally resolved four-wave mixing. With increasing localization, the biexciton binding energy increases, while the biexciton continuum shifts to higher energies....... The localization leads to an inhomogeneous broadening of the biexciton binding energy and the biexciton continuum edge. Simultaneously, the oscillator strength of the biexciton continuum-edge is reduced. This is interpreted as a result of the different localization of biexcitonic and excitonic states by the random...

  17. Characterization of film surface treated with ECR plasma by Doppler broadening

    CERN Document Server

    Nishijima, S; Hirata, K; Kobayashi, Y; Honda, Y; Tagawa, S


    Doppler broadened positron annihilation measurements were carried out using the positron beam technique on plasma treated polyethylene films as a function of incident positron energy. In addition, surface properties of the treated films also have been measured using other conventional techniques such as FT-IR, SEM and AFM. The surface tension of the films was also determined using sessile drop method. The S-parameter is seen to decrease on the surface upon plasma treatment that introduces polar groups such as hydroxyl and carbonyl on the surface. The results are discussed.

  18. On quantum-mechanical unified theories of collisional spectral line broadening


    Schuller, F.; Nienhuis, G.


    We compare the Baranger-type unified theory of line broadening with a quantum version of the binary-collision approach. For the simple model system of a two-state atom, where both treatments are well-defined, the binary-collision theory results only from the exact formalism after an inversion of an integration variable in an integral equation. On the other hand, the binary-collision theory is applicable to more general systems. In the limiting cases of the impact and the quasistatic theories,...

  19. Ultraslow Light Propagation in an Inhomogeneously Broadened Rare-Earth Ion-Doped Crystal (United States)

    Baldit, E.; Bencheikh, K.; Monnier, P.; Levenson, J. A.; Rouget, V.


    We show that coherent population oscillations effect allows us to burn a narrow spectral hole (26 Hz) within the homogeneous absorption line of the optical transition of an erbium ion-doped crystal. The large dispersion of the index of refraction associated with this hole permits us to achieve a group velocity as low as 2.7m/s with a transmission of 40%. We especially benefit from the inhomogeneous absorption broadening of the ions to tune both the transmission coefficient, from 40% to 90%, and the light group velocity from 2.7m/s to 100m/s.

  20. Broadening of a spectrum line by finite spectrometer resolution. [FORTRAN IV; SAL, KAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engleman, R. Jr.


    The distortion of a spectrum line by the finite resolving power of a spectrometer is discussed in terms of a mathematical model. Particular attention is given to the case where either a Gaussian or Cauchy slit function broadens an isolated Doppler, Lorentz, or Voigt absorption line. Corrections to the peak absorption, the line width, and the integrated absorption coefficient are calculated and discussed for different combinations of slit functions and line shapes. Several new series expansions for the corrections are derived. Two general FORTRAN IV programs that calculate these corrections are described and some sample correction curves are given. 27 references.

  1. Calculation of line parameters of the ν3 band of monodeuterated methane: Nitrogen broadening (United States)

    Lavrentieva, N. N.; Dudaryonok, A. S.; Buldyreva, J. V.


    Halfwidths and shifts of CH3D lines are calculated for the case of nitrogen broadening. The calculations are performed for room temperature (296 K) for vibrational-rotational lines in the ν3 parallel band, with the rotational quantum numbers varying in the ranges of 0 ≤ J ≤ 70 and 0 ≤ K ≤ 20. For each line, the temperature-dependence characteristics are calculated in the range of 200-400 K recommended for the HITRAN database. The calculations are carried out using a semiempirical method with a correction factor the parameters of which are adjusted on a number of experimental values.

  2. Chemical analysis of precipitates in metallic alloys using coincidence Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, Y; Hasegawa, M


    Two-detector coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) method of positron annihilation radiation is applied to the study of precipitates in metals. As the first step, the CDB spectra for many kinds of elements are measured to obtain the 'fingerprint' of each element for the chemical analysis of the precipitates in metals. Utilizing the fingerprint of Cu, we made chemical analysis of nano-particles formed in the initial stage of thermal aging in a Fe-Cu alloy, and found that the particles are consisting of Cu only and free from vacancies, which demonstrates the usefulness of this method in the study of the precipitates.

  3. Spectral broadening of picosecond pulses forming dispersive shock waves in optical fibers. (United States)

    Parriaux, A; Conforti, M; Bendahmane, A; Fatome, J; Finot, C; Trillo, S; Picqué, N; Millot, G


    We investigate analytically, numerically, and experimentally the spectral broadening of pulses that undergo the formation of dispersive shocks, addressing in particular pulses in the range of tens of ps generated via electro-optic modulation of a continuous-wave laser. We give an analytical estimate of the maximal spectral extension and show that super-Gaussian waveforms favor the generation of flat-topped spectra. We also show that the weak residual background of the modulator produces undesired spectral ripples. Spectral measurements confirm our estimates and agree well with numerical integration of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  4. Determination of the Ion Velocity Distribution in a Rotating Plasma from Measurements of Doppler Broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard


    The Doppler-broadened profile of the He II 4685.75 AA line was measured along a chord in a rotating plasma, transverse to the magnetic field. Using a single-particle orbit picture, the corresponding velocity spectrum of ions confirm the measurements, so it can be concluded that the single......-particle orbit picture is valid for the discharge period under investigation, except for the first few microseconds during breakdown when a strong interaction between plasma and remaining neutral gas takes place by Alfvens critical velocity mechanism. A simple relation is given between the measured half...

  5. Spectral broadening due to long-range Coulomb interactions in the molecular metal TTF-TCNQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, E.; Dolfen, A. [Inst. fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Cano-Cortes, L.; Merino, J. [Univ. Autonona de Madrid (Spain); Behler, J.; Reuter, K. [Fritz-Haber-Inst., Berlin (Germany); Delley, B. [Paul-Scherrer-Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)


    We employ density-functional theory to calculate realistic parameters for an extended Hubbard model of the molecular metal TTF-TCNQ. Considering both intra- and intermolecular screening in the crystal, we find that longer-range Coulomb interactions along the molecular stacks, as well as inter-stack coupling are of importance. Contrary to past belief, these terms do not lead to the formation of a Wigner lattice, but simply broaden the spectral function. We show how this can be understood already in perturbation theory. Moreover we calculate the effect of the nearest neighbor repulsion on the Luttinger parameter. (orig.)

  6. Broadening the regulated-river management paradigm: A case study of the forgotten dead zone hindering Pallid Sturgeon recovery (United States)

    Guy, Christopher S.; Treanor, Hilary B.; Kappenman, Kevin M.; Scholl, Eric A.; Ilgen, Jason E.; Webb, Molly A. H.


    The global proliferation of dams within the last half century has prompted ecologists to understand the effects of regulated rivers on large-river fishes. Currently, much of the effort to mitigate the influence of dams on large-river fishes has been focused on downriver effects, and little attention has been given to upriver effects. Through a combination of field observations and laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that abiotic conditions upriver of the dam are the mechanism for the lack of recruitment in Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), an iconic large-river endangered species. Here we show for the first time that anoxic upriver habitat in reservoirs (i.e., the transition zone between the river and reservoir) is responsible for the lack of recruitment in Pallid Sturgeon. The anoxic condition in the transition zone is a function of reduced river velocities and the concentration of fine particulate organic material with high microbial respiration. As predicted, the river upstream of the transition zone was oxic at all sampling locations. Our results indicate that transition zones are an ecological sink for Pallid Sturgeon. We argue that ecologists, engineers, and policy makers need to broaden the regulated-river paradigm to consider upriver and downriver effects of dams equally to comprehensively mitigate altered ecosystems for the benefit of large-river fishes, especially for the Pallid Sturgeon.

  7. Theory and Simulation of Exoplanetary Atmospheric Haze: Giant Spectral Line Broadening (United States)

    Sadeghpour, Hossein; Felfeli, Zineb; Kharchenko, Vasili; Babb, James; Vrinceanu, Daniel


    Prominent spectral features in observed transmission spectra of exoplanets are obscured. Atmospheric haze is the leading candidate for the flattening of spectral transmission of expolanetray occultation, but also for solar system planets, Earth and cometary atmospheres. Such spectra which carry information about how the planetary atmospheres become opaque to stellar light in transit, show broad absorption where strong absorption lines from sodium or potassium and water are predicted to exist. In this work, we develop a detailed atomistic theoretical model, taking into account interaction between an atomic or molecular radiator with dust and haze particulates. Our model considers a realistic structure of haze particulates from small seed particles up to sub-micron irregularly shaped aggregates. This theory of interaction between haze and radiator particles allows to consider nearly all realistic structure, size and chemical composition of haze particulates. The computed shift and broadening of emission spectra will include both quasi-static (mean field) and collisional (pressure) shift and broadening. Our spectral calculations will be verified with available laboratory experimental data on spectra of alkali atoms in liquid droplet, solid ice, dust and dense gaseous environments. The simplicity, elegance and generality of the proposed model makes it amenable to a broad community of users in astrophysics and chemistry. The verified models can be used for analysis of emission and absorption spectra of alkali atoms from exoplanets, solar system planets, satellites and comets.

  8. The effect of density fluctuations on electron cyclotron beam broadening and implications for ITER (United States)

    Snicker, A.; Poli, E.; Maj, O.; Guidi, L.; Köhn, A.; Weber, H.; Conway, G.; Henderson, M.; Saibene, G.


    We present state-of-the-art computations of propagation and absorption of electron cyclotron waves, retaining the effects of scattering due to electron density fluctuations. In ITER, injected microwaves are foreseen to suppress neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) by driving current at the q=2 and q=3/2 resonant surfaces. Scattering of the beam can spoil the good localization of the absorption and thus impair NTM control capabilities. A novel tool, the WKBeam code, has been employed here in order to investigate this issue. The code is a Monte Carlo solver for the wave kinetic equation and retains diffraction, full axisymmetric tokamak geometry, determination of the absorption profile and an integral form of the scattering operator which describes the effects of turbulent density fluctuations within the limits of the Born scattering approximation. The approach has been benchmarked against the paraxial WKB code TORBEAM and the full-wave code IPF-FDMC. In particular, the Born approximation is found to be valid for ITER parameters. In this paper, we show that the radiative transport of EC beams due to wave scattering in ITER is diffusive unlike in present experiments, thus causing up to a factor of 2–4 broadening in the absorption profile. However, the broadening depends strongly on the turbulence model assumed for the density fluctuations, which still has large uncertainties.

  9. Remembering Collective Violence: Broadening the Notion of Traumatic Memory in Post-Conflict Rehabilitation. (United States)

    Kevers, Ruth; Rober, Peter; Derluyn, Ilse; De Haene, Lucia


    In the aftermath of war and armed conflict, individuals and communities face the challenge of dealing with recollections of violence and atrocity. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of processes of remembering and forgetting histories of violence in post-conflict communities and to reflect on related implications for trauma rehabilitation in post-conflict settings. Starting from the observation that memory operates at the core of PTSD symptomatology, we more closely explore how this notion of traumatic memory is conceptualized within PTSD-centered research and interventions. Subsequently, we aim to broaden this understanding of traumatic memory and post-trauma care by connecting to findings from social memory studies and transcultural trauma research. Drawing on an analysis of scholarly literature, this analysis develops into a perspective on memory that moves beyond a symptomatic framing toward an understanding of memory that emphasizes its relational, political, moral, and cultural nature. Post-conflict memory is presented as inextricably embedded in communal relations, involving ongoing trade-offs between individual and collective responses to trauma and a complex negotiation of speech and silence. In a concluding discussion, we develop implications of this broadened understanding for post-conflict trauma-focused rehabilitation.

  10. Instrumental broadening of spectral line profiles due to discrete representation of a continuous physical quantity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulov, E.N. [Department of Physics, Kazan State University, 420008, Kremlevskaya st. 18, Kazan (Russian Federation)], E-mail:; Khripunov, D.M. [Department of Physics, Kazan State University, 420008, Kremlevskaya st. 18, Kazan (Russian Federation)


    It is the usual situation in spectroscopy that a continuous physical quantity, which plays the role of a spectral function argument (i.e. the abscissa of a spectrum), is sampled electronically as discrete point clouds or channels. Each channel corresponds to the midpoint of a small interval of the continuous argument. The experimentally registered value of intensity in the channel describes the averaged spectral intensity in this interval. However, an approximation of spectra by a continuous theoretical model function often assumes that the interval is small enough, and tabulation of the theoretical model function may be used without appreciable disadvantages for the fitting results. At this point, a new type of approximation error appears, such as the error of midpoint approximation to a definite integral in the rectangle method of numeric integration. This paper aims at quantitative estimation of this error in the cases of a pure Lorentz lineshape and a generalized Voigt contour. It is shown that discrete representation of continuous spectral data leads to some non-physical broadening in comparison with the tabulated model function. As a first approximation it is normal broadening. We show that even in the case of a Lorentz true lineshape we must use the tabulated Voigt function measured in channels fixed Gauss linewidth rather than a tabulated Lorentzian. Application of the results of this paper is demonstrated on Moessbauer spectra.

  11. Spectral broadening measurement of the lower hybrid waves during long pulse operation in Tore Supra (United States)

    Berger-By, G.; Decampy, J.; Antar, G. Y.; Goniche, M.; Ekedahl, A.; Delpech, L.; Leroux, F.; Tore Supra Team


    On many tokamaks (C-Mod, EAST, FTU, JET, HT-7, TS), a decrease in current drive efficiency of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves is observed in high electron density plasmas. The cause of this behaviour is believed to be: Parametric Instabilities (PI) and Scattering from Density Fluctuations (SDF). For the ITER LH system, our knowledge must be improved to avoid such effects and to maintain the LH current drive efficiency at high density. The ITPA IOS group coordinates this effort [1] and all experimental data are essential to validate the numerical codes in progress. Usually the broadening of the LH wave frequency spectrum is measured by a probe located in the plasma edge. For this study, the frequency spectrum of a reflected power signal from the LH antenna was used. In addition, the spectrum measurements are compared with the density fluctuations observed on RF probes located at the antenna mouth. Several plasma currents (0.6 to 1.4 MA) and densities up to 5.2 × 1019 m-3 have been realised on Tore Supra (TS) long pulses and with high injected RF power, up to 5.4 MW-30s. This allowed using a spectrum analyser to make several measurements during the plasma pulse. The side lobe amplitude, shifted by 20-30MHz with respect to the main peak, grows with increasing density. Furthermore, for an increase of plasma current at the same density, the spectra broaden and become asymmetric. Some parametric dependencies are shown in this paper.

  12. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, F., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Zigler, A. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)


    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  13. Loving-kindness meditation and the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. (United States)

    Kearney, David J; McManus, Carolyn; Malte, Carol A; Martinez, Michelle E; Felleman, Benjamin; Simpson, Tracy L


    Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is a practice intended to enhance feelings of kindness and compassion for self and others. To assess whether participation in a 12-week course of LKM for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with improved positive emotions, decentering, and personal resources. In an open-pilot trial, veterans were assessed at baseline, after the course, and 3 months later. Effect sizes were calculated from baseline to each follow-up point for each construct of interest. Measures were chosen as an initial investigation of the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. A total of 42 veterans with active PTSD (40% female) participated. Emotions, decentering, psychological wellbeing including autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations, purpose in life, self-acceptance, and sense of social support were measured at each time point. Significant increases in unactivated pleasant (d=0.73), but not activated pleasant, emotions were found over time. Activated and unactivated unpleasant emotions decreased over time (d=-0.69 and -0.53, respectively). There were also increases in environmental mastery (d=0.61), personal growth (d=0.54), purpose in life (d=0.71), self-acceptance (d=0.68), and decentering (d=0.96) at 3-month follow-up. Overall, positive emotions increased, and enhancement of personal resources occurred over time. Further investigation of LKM for PTSD is warranted.

  14. Characterizing methyl-bearing side chain contacts and dynamics mediating amyloid β protofibril interactions using ¹³C(methyl)-DEST and lifetime line broadening. (United States)

    Fawzi, Nicolas L; Libich, David S; Ying, Jinfa; Tugarinov, Vitali; Clore, G Marius


    Many details pertaining to the formation and interactions of protein aggregates associated with neurodegenerative diseases are invisible to conventional biophysical techniques. We recently introduced (15)N dark-state exchange saturation transfer (DEST) and (15)N lifetime line-broadening to study solution backbone dynamics and position-specific binding probabilities for amyloid β (Aβ) monomers in exchange with large (2-80 MDa) protofibrillar Aβ aggregates. Here we use (13)C(methyl)DEST and lifetime line-broadening to probe the interactions and dynamics of methyl-bearing side chains in the Aβ-protofibril-bound state. We show that all methyl groups of Aβ40 populate direct-contact bound states with a very fast effective transverse relaxation rate, indicative of side-chain-mediated direct binding to the protofibril surface. The data are consistent with position-specific enhancements of (13)C(methyl)-R₂(tethered) values in tethered states, providing further insights into the structural ensemble of the protofibril-bound state. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Resonance broadening of argon lines in a micro-scaled atmospheric pressure plasma jet (argon μAPPJ) (United States)

    Pipa, A. V.; Ionikh, Yu. Z.; Chekishev, V. M.; Dünnbier, M.; Reuter, S.


    Optical emission from atmospheric pressure micro-jet operating with pure argon (argon μAPPJ) flow has been detected with a moderate resolution spectrometer. Large broadening of the several argon (Ar) lines has been observed in the near infrared spectral region. This effect was attributed to resonance broadening of the s2 (Paschen notation) level in 3p54s configuration. In the present work, corresponding line profiles are suggested for plasma diagnostics. For this, a general case of resonance broadening coefficient of noble gases is discussed. As broadening reflects the Ar density, and the static gas pressure of the jet is in equilibrium with the ambient, the local gas temperature can be inferred. An estimation of gas temperature from the width of the 750 nm Ar line is in agreement with rotational temperature of OH radicals determined from the A2Σ+ → X2Π (0, 0) band. At low temperatures (300-600 K) and at partial Ar pressure near atmospheric, the resonance width of the suggested lines is very sensitive to small temperature variations. High temperature sensitivity and large width make the resonance broadened lines very attractive for diagnostics of low temperature discharges at elevated pressure, e.g., as they are used in plasma-medicine.

  16. Spectroscopic Study of Air-Broadened Nitrous Oxide in the ν_3 Band (United States)

    Hashemi, Robab; Naseri, Hossein; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Devi, V. Malathy


    We present results of a recent analysis of laboratory spectra to determine line positions, intensities, air-broadened half-widths and pressure-induced shifts and their temperature dependences in the ν_3 fundamental band of N_2O. The spectra used in this study were recorded using the 1-m McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer while it was located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, AZ. Multispectrum analysis software was used to retrieve the line parameters using the Voigt and speed-dependent Voigt line profiles. The line mixing coefficients were calculated using the Exponential Power Gap scaling law. Comparisons with similar published results will be presented. D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M. A. H. Smith, D. Atkins, JQSRT 53 (1995) 705-721.

  17. Particle size and strain broadening in energy-dispersive x-ray powder patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerward, Leif; Mørup, Steen; Topsøe, Haldor


    An energy-dispersive x-ray method for a rapid analysis of the broadening of diffraction lines in powder patterns has been developed. Experimental results are given for magnetite powders with sizes in the range 50–200 Å and compared with the results of standard angle-dispersive diffractometry and ...... studies. The method should be of special advantage for the study of solid-state reactions and processes such as sintering. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....... and electron microscopy. The greatest advantages of the energy-dispersive method compared with the angle-dispersive method are the absence of the Kalpha doublet, the simultaneous recording of a large part of the diffraction pattern, the fast data accumulation, and the adaptability of the technique to in situ...

  18. Generation of transport lattice code KARMA library with doppler broadening rejection correction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Jin; Cho, Jin Young; Park, Sang Yoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ser Gi [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee (United States)


    In order to solve the exact neutron transport equations, the temperature-dependent neutron cross sections including scattering kernel are needed. However, the current cross section generation systems such as NJOY do not generate the temperature dependent scatting kernels. In Monte Carlo (MC) code, the sampling of velocity of target nucleus method is used to determine the energy and direction of outgoing neutron by the approximated constant cross section model. Recently, the Doppler-broadening rejection correction (DBRC) and weight correction method are proposed for the exact sampling. In this study, the KARMA(Kernel Analyzer by Ray tracing Method for fuel Assembly) library system incorporating McCARD calculations with the DBRC method are established and the effect of improved Doppler treatment will be examined.

  19. Pressure Broadening of J=1<-0 Rotational Line of Fluoroform Caused by Spherical Perturbers (United States)

    Gierszal, S.; Galica, J.; Mis-Kuzmiñska, E.; Liber, A.


    The foreign-gas broadening parameter was measured for CHF3 molecule interacting with spherical (SF6, CF4, CH4, CCl4) perturbers and the pressure shift parameter of rotational transition J=1>-0 in the CHF3 molecule was obtained. For the systems of trifluoromethane molecule and four spherical molecules as perturbers the collision cross-sections were determined. Experimental line width parameters are interpreted using Anderson--Tsao--Curnutte as well as Murphy--Boggs theories. Accounting for the dispersive and inductive interactions the cross-section was determined. The theoretical values are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results, but the absolute values of the measured cross-section were larger than these calculated.

  20. Intensities, broadening and narrowing parameters in the ν3 band of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami


    The P-branch of methane\\'s ν3 band is probed to carry out an extensive study of the 2905-2908cm-1 infrared spectral region. Absolute line intensities as well as N2-, O2-, H2-, He-, Ar- and CO2-broadening coefficients are determined for nine transitions at room temperature. Narrowing parameters due to the Dicke effect have also been investigated. A narrow emission line-width (~0.0001cm-1) difference-frequency-generation (DFG) laser system is used as the tunable light source. To retrieve the CH4 spectroscopic parameters, Voigt and Galatry profiles were used to simulate the measured line shape of the individual transitions.

  1. Effect of broadened-specification fuels on aircraft engines and fuel systems (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.


    A wide variety of studies on the potential effects of broadened-specification fuels on future aircraft engines and fuel systems are summarized. The compositions and characteristics of aircraft fuels that may be derived from current and future crude-oil sources are described, and the most critical properties that may affect aircraft engines and fuel systems are identified and discussed. The problems that are most likely to be encountered because of changes in selected fuel properties are described; and the related effects on engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance are discussed. The ability of current technology to accept possible future fuel-specification changes is discussed, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the potential problems are illustrated.

  2. Benchmarking of alternate theories for Stark broadening against experimental data from DIII-D diagnostics (United States)

    Brooks, N. H.; Lisgo, S.; Oks, E.; Volodko, D.; Groth, M.; Leonard, A. W.


    Spectroscopy of high- n Balmer line transitions provides a means of measuring n e and T e in recombining plasmas [J. L. Terry et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1579 (1998)]. The relative intensities of Rydberg series lines near the ionization limit are a sensitive diagnostic of T e , for T e Academic, New York, 1974); E. Oks, Stark Broadening of Hydrogen and Hydrogenlike Spectral Lines in Plasmas: The Physical Insight (Alpha Science International, Oxford, UK, 2006)] is evaluated by comparing values of n e and T e measured on DIII-D by divertor Thomson scattering (DTS) with those deduced from spectral profile analysis of Balmer series deuterium lines. In particular, the detailed dependence of line width on principal quantum number provides a sensitive metric for distinguishing which model best accords with experiment.

  3. Theory and Simulations of Refractive Substructure in Resolved Scatter-broadened Images (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Gwinn, Carl R.


    At radio wavelengths, scattering in the interstellar medium distorts the appearance of astronomical sources. Averaged over a scattering ensemble, the result is a blurred image of the source. However, Narayan & Goodman and Goodman & Narayan showed that for an incomplete average, scattering introduces refractive substructure in the image of a point source that is both persistent and wideband. We show that this substructure is quenched but not smoothed by an extended source. As a result, when the scatter-broadening is comparable to or exceeds the unscattered source size, the scattering can introduce spurious compact features into images. In addition, we derive efficient strategies to numerically compute realistic scattered images, and we present characteristic examples from simulations. Our results show that refractive substructure is an important consideration for ongoing missions at the highest angular resolutions, and we discuss specific implications for RadioAstron and the Event Horizon Telescope.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Михайлович Преснов


    Full Text Available In the climatic conditions of Siberia pile foundations are working under the influence of forces of frost heave. Therefore, the length of piles accepted to take into account anchoring. However, in the construction of light buildings, bearing capacity of foundations used for no more than 30 to 40 % and most of the funds being spent inefficiently. In this work we consider the design of piles, resulting in lower costs for construction in these conditions is bored piles with the widening. From calculations it is seen that a variant of the bored piles with the broadening in comparison with the conventional reduces the volume of concrete production piles (and therefore cost 44% (almost 2 times.

  5. Broadening Participation of Women and Underrepresented Minorities in STEM through a Hybrid Online Transfer Program. (United States)

    Drew, Jennifer C; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Ardissone, Alexandria N; Triplett, Eric W


    The Microbiology and Cell Science (MCS) Department at the University of Florida (UF) developed a new model of a 2 + 2 program that uses a hybrid online approach to bring its science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum to students. In this paradigm, 2-year graduates transfer as online students into the Distance Education in MCS (DE MCS) bachelor of science program. The program has broadened access to STEM with a steadily increasing enrollment that does not draw students away from existing on-campus programs. Notably, half of the DE MCS students are from underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds and two-thirds are women, which represents a greater level of diversity than the corresponding on-campus cohort and the entire university. Additionally, the DE MCS cohort has comparable retention and academic performance compared with the on-campus transfer cohort. Of those who have earned a BS through the DE MCS program, 71% are women and 61% are URM. Overall, these data demonstrate that the hybrid online approach is successful in increasing diversity and provides another viable route in the myriad of STEM pathways. As the first of its kind in a STEM field, the DE MCS program serves as a model for programs seeking to broaden their reach. © 2016 J. C. Drew et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  6. Auger Recombination in Self-Assembled Quantum Dots: Quenching and Broadening of the Charged Exciton Transition. (United States)

    Kurzmann, Annika; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Lorke, Axel; Geller, Martin


    In quantum dots (QDs), the Auger recombination is a nonradiative process in which the electron-hole recombination energy is transferred to an additional carrier. It has been studied mostly in colloidal QDs, where the Auger recombination time is in the picosecond range and efficiently quenches the light emission. In self-assembled QDs, on the other hand, the influence of Auger recombination on the optical properties is in general neglected, assuming that it is masked by other processes such as spin and charge fluctuations. Here, we use time-resolved resonance fluorescence to analyze the Auger recombination and its influence on the optical properties of a single self-assembled QD. From excitation-power-dependent measurements, we find a long Auger recombination time of about 500 ns and a quenching of the trion transition by about 80%. Furthermore, we observe a broadening of the trion transition line width by up to a factor of 2. With a model based on rate equations, we are able to identify the interplay between tunneling and Auger rate as the underlying mechanism for the reduced intensity and the broadening of the line width. This demonstrates that self-assembled QDs can serve as an ideal model system to study how the charge recapture process, given by the band-structure surrounding the confined carriers, influences the Auger process. Our findings are not only relevant for improving the emission properties of colloidal QD-based emitters and dyes, which have recently entered the consumer market, but also of interest for more visionary applications, such as quantum information technologies, based on self-assembled quantum dots.

  7. High-temperature argon broadening of CO2 near 2190 cm-1 in a shock tube (United States)

    Mulvihill, C. R.; Petersen, E. L.


    Scanned-wavelength laser absorption measurements of CO2 diluted in Ar were performed behind reflected shock waves at high temperatures (1158-2017 K) and low pressures (5.1-108.4 kPa). High-resolution (0.001 cm-1) scans were conducted in 0.4-cm-1 increments from about 2188.8 to 2191.8 cm-1 at a scan rate of 2 kHz. The HITRAN 2004, HITRAN 2012, and CDSD-296 databases were all found to underestimate the absorption, typically by an order of magnitude or more. The HITEMP database, however, closely predicted the measured data. For the assumed form γ_{{{CO}_{ 2} - {Ar}}} (T) = γ_{{{CO}_{ 2} - {Ar}}} (T0 )(T0 /T)n with T0 = 296 K, an optimization routine was implemented to determine the values of γ_{{{CO}_{ 2} - {Ar}}} (T0 ) and n. From the optimization, values of 0.033 ± 0.004 cm-1 atm.-1 and 0.61 ± 0.04 were determined for γ_{{{CO}_{ 2} - {Ar}}} (T0 ) and n, respectively, which are in good agreement with historical values. These values describe an average CO2-Ar broadening coefficient in the frequency range studied herein and are reliable within the experimental temperature range. In addition, a set of fixed-wavelength measurements at 2190.0175 cm-1 were carried out at 122, 446, and 1115 kPa between 1100 and 2100 K, and the HITEMP predictions incorporating the proposed Ar-broadening parameters showed excellent agreement with these data.

  8. Citizen Science: Broadening Access and Engagement Through Community Partnerships, Aerospace Education and Water Quality Research (United States)

    Johnson, M. A.


    We applied a new approach to the design and development of citizen science learning opportunities to enhance outreach to diverse student populations, while advancing water quality research and aerospace education. This collaborative approach to informal science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and aerospace education required innovative partnerships between private general aviation pilots, researchers, teachers, and students. This research explored the development of active partnerships required to facilitate community engaged science, with an emphasis on increased participation of women and girls and people of color, while creating new exploratory pathways for broadening access to and engagement in STEM learning experiences. We developed an outreach program through collaborative planning with local schools to create new STEM learning experiences based upon basic aerospace education concepts and an existing water quality research project designed to track harmful algal blooms (HAB) that can produce toxins called cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, which can impact drinking, fishing, and recreational waters. General aviation pilots functioning as citizen scientists obtained high-resolution aerial images while flying over potentially impacted waters. Aerial data was made available to teachers and students, as well as researchers participating in the existing water quality program lead by NASA Glenn Research Center. Teachers used the images and results to educate in climate change and the dangers of HAB. Students were able to compare aerial data with their own observations, and also gained experience in aeronautical science through field trips to local airports, hands-on experience with private research aircraft, specialized equipment used for data collection, and advanced ground instruction from research pilots. As a result of reaching out to local educators serving diverse student populations and facilitating collaborative planning, we

  9. Complete compensation of pulse broadening in an amplifier-based slow light system using a nonlinear regeneration element. (United States)

    Chin, Sanghooon; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel; Thévenaz, Luc


    We experimentally demonstrate complete compensation of pulse broadening in an amplifier-based slow light system. The configuration of the delay line basically consists of two stages: a conventional Brillouin slow light system and a nonlinear regeneration element. Signal pulses experienced both time delay and temporal broadening through the Brillouin delay line and then the delayed pulses were delivered into a nonlinear optical loop mirror. Due to the nonlinear response of the transmission of the fiber loop, the inevitably broadened pulses were moderately compressed in the output of the loop, without loss in the capacity to delay the pulses. The overall result is that, for the maximum delay, the width of the pulse could be kept below the input width while the time delays introduced by the slow light element were preserved. Using this delay line, a signal pulse with duration of 27 ns at full width at half maximum was delayed up to 1.3-bits without suffering from signal distortion.

  10. [Participatory potential and deliberative function: a debate on broadening the scope of democracy through the health councils]. (United States)

    Bispo Júnior, José Patrício; Gerschman, Sílvia


    This article reflects upon the relation between democracy and health councils. It seeks to analyze the councils as a space for broadening the scope of democracy. First, some characteristics and principles of the liberal democratic regime are presented, with an emphasis on the minimalist and procedural approach of decision-making. The fragilities of the representative model and the establishment of new relations between the Government and society are then discussed in light of the new social grammar and the complexity of the division between governmental and societal responsibilities. The principles of deliberative democracy and the idea of substantive democracy are subsequently presented. Broadening the scope of democracy is understood not only as the guarantee of civil and political rights, but also especially, of social rights. Lastly, based on discussion of the participation and deliberation categories, the health councils are analyzed as potential mechanisms for broadening the scope of democracy.

  11. Quantification of optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light by phase modulated low coherence interferometry. (United States)

    Varghese, B; Rajan, V; van Leeuwen, T G; Steenbergen, W


    We show experimental validation of a novel technique to measure optical path length distributions and path length resolved Doppler broadening in turbid media for different reduced scattering coefficients and anisotropies. The technique involves a phase modulated low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with separate fibers for illumination and detection. Water suspensions of Polystyrene microspheres with high scattering and low absorption levels are used as calibrated scattering phantoms. The path length dependent diffusion broadening or Doppler broadening of scattered light is shown to agree with Diffusive Wave Spectroscopy within 5%. The optical path lengths are determined experimentally from the zero order moment of the phase modulation peak around the modulation frequency in the power spectrum and the results are validated with Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Quantification of optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light by phase modulated low coherence interferometry (United States)

    Varghese, B.; Rajan, V.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.


    We show experimental validation of a novel technique to measure optical path length distributions and path length resolved Doppler broadening in turbid media for different reduced scattering coefficients and anisotropies. The technique involves a phase modulated low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with separate fibers for illumination and detection. Water suspensions of Polystyrene microspheres with high scattering and low absorption levels are used as calibrated scattering phantoms. The path length dependent diffusion broadening or Doppler broadening of scattered light is shown to agree with Diffusive Wave Spectroscopy within 5%. The optical path lengths are determined experimentally from the zero order moment of the phase modulation peak around the modulation frequency in the power spectrum and the results are validated with Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Point defects in MnSi and YBCO studied by Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy using a positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiner, Markus


    The positron beam NEPOMUC was used in order to investigate MnSi and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (YBCO) single crystals. The Doppler broadening of the annihilation radiation of electron-positron pairs was analyzed. Thus, the concentration of Mn vacancies in MnSi crystals was determined. In thin YBCO films, the Doppler broadening is correlated with the oxygen deficiency δ. Its spatial distribution and its high-temperature behavior were studied using positrons.

  14. Strategies for broadening participation in the Maryland Sea Grant REU program (United States)

    Moser, F. C.; Kramer, J.; Allen, J. R.


    A core goal of the ocean science community is to increase gender and ethnic diversity in its scientific workforce. Maryland Sea Grant strives to provide women and students from underrepresented groups in marine science opportunities to participate in its NSF-supported Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program in estuarine processes. While women currently dominate the applicant student pool, and often the accepted student pool, we are trying a variety of strategies to increase the number of applicants and accepted students from underrepresented groups who might not otherwise be lured into marine science research and, ultimately, careers. For example, we have built partnerships with multicultural-focused undergraduate research programs and institutions, which can raise awareness about our REU program and its commitment to broadening diversity. Further, we work to attract first generation college students, students from small colleges with limited marine science opportunities and students from varied racial and ethnic backgrounds using such strategies as: 1) developing trust and partnerships with faculty at minority serving institutions; 2) expanding our outreach in advertising our program; 3) recruiting potential applicants at professional meetings; 4) targeting minority serving institutions within and beyond our region; 5) encouraging our REU alumni to promote our REU program among their peers; and 6) improving our application process. We believe these efforts contribute to the increase in the diversity of our summer-supported students and the change in the composition of our applicant pool over the last decade. Although we cannot definitively identify which strategies are the most effective at broadening participation in our program, we attribute most of our improvements to some combination of these strategies. In addition, pre- and post-surveying of our REU students improves our understanding of effective tools for recruiting and adapting our program

  15. Is it only the regulatory status? Broadening the debate on cisgenic plants. (United States)

    van Hove, Lilian; Gillund, Frøydis


    In current debates on emerging technologies for plant breeding in Europe, much attention has been given to the regulatory status of these techniques and their public acceptance. At present, both genetically modified plants with cisgenic approaches-using genes from crossable species-as well as transgenic approaches-using genes from different species-fall under GMO regulation in the EU and both are mandatorily labelled as GMOs. Researchers involved in the early development of cisgenic GM plants convey the message that the potential use and acceptance of cisgenic approaches will be seriously hindered if GMO regulations are not adjusted. Although the similar treatment and labelling of transgenic and cisgenic plants may be a legitimate concern for the marketability of a cisgenic GM plant, there are concerns around their commercialization that reach beyond the current focus on (de)regulation. In this paper, we will use the development of the cisgenic GM potato that aims to overcome 'late blight'-the most devastating potato disease worldwide-as a case to argue that it is important to recognize, reflect and respond to broader concerns than the dominant focus on the regulatory 'burden' and consumer acceptance. Based on insights we gained from discussing this case with diverse stakeholders within the agricultural sector and potato production in Norway during a series of workshops, we elaborate on additional issues such as the (technical) solution offered; different understandings of the late blight problem; the durability of the potato plant resistance; and patenting and ownership. Hence, this paper contributes to empirical knowledge on stakeholder perspectives on emerging plant breeding technologies, underscoring the importance to broaden the scope of the debate on the opportunities and challenges of agricultural biotechnologies, such as cisgenic GM plants. The paper offers policy-relevant input to ongoing efforts to broaden the scope of risk assessments of agricultural

  16. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  17. Quantification of Optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light with phase modulated low coherence interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt


    We show experimental validation of a novel technique to measure optical path length distributions and path length resolved Doppler broadening in turbid media for different reduced scattering coefficients and anisotropies. The technique involves a phase modulated low coherence Mach-Zehnder

  18. Linewidth broadening and emission saturation of a resonantly excited quantum dot monitored via an off-resonant cavity mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhaq, A.; Ates, Serkan; Weiler, S.


    We report on the robustness of a detuned mode channel for reading out the relevant s-shell properties of a resonantly excited coupled quantum dot (QD) in a pillar microcavity. The line broadening of the QD s-shell is “monitored” by the mode signal with high conformity to the directly measured QD...

  19. BASE (Broadening Access to Science Education): A Research and Mentoring Focused Summer STEM Camp Serving Underrepresented High School Girls (United States)

    Phelan, Shelley A.; Harding, Shannon M.; Harper-Leatherman, Amanda S.


    BASE (Broadening Access to Science Education) Camp is a hands-on, two-week residential summer science experience on the Fairfield University campus in Fairfield CT, USA. The annual program targets 24 young women who attend high school in the neighboring city of Bridgeport, CT, the most economically depressed city in CT. The camp, which is free to…

  20. An Age-Related Mechanism of Emotion Regulation: Regulating Sadness Promotes Children's Learning by Broadening Information Processing (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L.


    Emotion regulation predicts positive academic outcomes like learning, but little is known about "why". Effective emotion regulation likely promotes learning by broadening the scope of what may be attended to after an emotional event. One hundred twenty-six 6- to 13-year-olds' (54% boys) regulation of sadness was examined for changes in…

  1. Local Talent: By Tapping into the Resources Just outside Their School Walls, Music Teachers Can Help Broaden Their Students' Horizons (United States)

    Randall, Mac


    Many music teachers across the country have learned how beneficial it can be to tap into the communities around them. The author discusses how music teachers can help broaden their students' horizons by tapping into the resources just outside their school walls. One way is by employing local talents. Another is to put an ad in nearby music stores,…

  2. Mortality Salience and Positive Affect Influence Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities: Terror Management and Broaden and Build Theories (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora


    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown…

  3. Transformational Partnerships and Learning: broadening the experiences for a community organization, school and university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Long


    Full Text Available Partnerships between community organizations, schools and universities are becoming more widespread as education faculties seek to broaden the experiences of their preservice teachers (Kruger, Davies, Eckersley, Newell& Cherednichenko, 2009. The following paper reports on one such endeavour where a small group of six preservice teachers, drawn from teaching programs that included secondary, primary and primary/early childhood, were immersed in a primary/secondary rural school in Sola, on the remote island of Vanua Lava, located in the northern province of Vanuatu. Whilst international practicums are not new, what is unique within this endeavour was the nature of the partnership that included the Vanuatu Ministry of Education, the Australian Catholic University (ACU and Rotary Australia World Community Service (RAWCS. Each partner had a layer of active participants represented by Arep Secondary School, the School of Education (ACU, NSW, and the Rotary Club of Winston Hills.  The partnership was therefore able to provide both strategic and practical support to the ongoing project, creating layers of engagement and participation for the various groups.  This partnership was transformational as it was based upon genuine engagement with a focus on common goals and mutual benefits, built on relationships established over many years, which is different to other types of partnerships that often seek to obtain only individual organizational goals rather that mutual goals or shared purposes (Brown et al., 2006.

  4. Intrinsic homogeneous linewidth and broadening mechanisms of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Moody, Galan


    The band-edge optical response of transition metal dichalcogenides, an emerging class of atomically thin semiconductors, is dominated by tightly bound excitons localized at the corners of the Brillouin zone (valley excitons). A fundamental yet unknown property of valley excitons in these materials is the intrinsic homogeneous linewidth, which reflects irreversible quantum dissipation arising from system (exciton) and bath (vacuum and other quasiparticles) interactions and determines the timescale during which excitons can be coherently manipulated. Here we use optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy to measure the exciton homogeneous linewidth in monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2). The homogeneous linewidth is found to be nearly two orders of magnitude narrower than the inhomogeneous width at low temperatures. We evaluate quantitatively the role of exciton–exciton and exciton–phonon interactions and population relaxation as linewidth broadening mechanisms. The key insights reported here—strong many-body effects and intrinsically rapid radiative recombination—are expected to be ubiquitous in atomically thin semiconductors.

  5. Test of relativistic gravity using microlensing of relativistically broadened lines in gravitationally lensed quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Neronov, A


    We show that observation of the time-dependent effect of microlensing of relativistically broadened emission lines (such as e.g. the Fe Kalpha line in X-rays) in strongly lensed quasars could provide data on celestial mechanics of circular orbits in the direct vicinity of the horizon of supermassive black holes. This information can be extracted from the observation of evolution of red / blue edge of the magnified line just before and just after the period of crossing of the innermost stable circular orbit by the microlensing caustic. The functional form of this evolution is insensitive to numerous astrophysical parameters of the accreting black hole and of the microlensing caustics network system (as opposed to the evolution the full line spectrum). Measurement of the temporal evolution of the red / blue edge could provide a precision measurement of the radial dependence of the gravitational redshift and of velocity of the circular orbits, down to the innermost stable circular orbit. These measurements could...

  6. Dams and Displacement: Raising the Standards and Broadening the Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke McDonald-Wilmsen


    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams provided an analytical overview of the cumulative effects of years of dam development. A lack of commitment or capacity to cope with displacement or to consider the civil rights of, or risks to, displaced people led to the impoverishment and suffering of tens of millions and growing opposition to dams by affected communities worldwide. However, after the WCD, little has changed for the better in terms of resettlement policies. In fact, the standards of key agencies, like the Asian Development Bank, have been lowered and diluted compared to prior policies. Dam-induced development and displacement are stifled by a 'managerialist' approach to planning, in which solutions are sought internally and subordinated to the economics that underpins the existence of the project. The aim of successful resettlement is to prevent impoverishment and to enable displaced people to share in the project’s benefits. Within the field of dam-induced resettlement, this is a lofty goal rarely achieved. However, in other fields of resettlement, such as refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change, such a goal is regarded as a minimum standard. In this paper we seek to broaden the research agenda on dam-induced resettlement and to raise the standards of development projects that entail resettlement. We do this by importing some of the considerations and concerns from practice and research from the fields of refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change.

  7. Electron Stark Broadening Database for Atomic N, O, and C Lines (United States)

    Liu, Yen; Yao, Winifred M.; Wray, Alan A.; Carbon, Duane F.


    A database for efficiently computing the electron Stark broadening line widths for atomic N, O, and C lines is constructed. The line width is expressed in terms of the electron number density and electronatom scattering cross sections based on the Baranger impact theory. The state-to-state cross sections are computed using the semiclassical approximation, in which the atom is treated quantum mechanically whereas the motion of the free electron follows a classical trajectory. These state-to-state cross sections are calculated based on newly compiled line lists. Each atomic line list consists of a careful merger of NIST, Vanderbilt, and TOPbase line datasets from wavelength 50 nm to 50 micrometers covering the VUV to IR spectral regions. There are over 10,000 lines in each atomic line list. The widths for each line are computed at 13 electron temperatures between 1,000 K 50,000 K. A linear least squares method using a four-term fractional power series is then employed to obtain an analytical fit for each line-width variation as a function of the electron temperature. The maximum L2 error of the analytic fits for all lines in our line lists is about 5%.

  8. Null broadening adaptive beamforming based on covariance matrix reconstruction and similarity constraint (United States)

    Qian, Junhui; He, Zishu; Xie, Julan; Zhang, Yile


    In this paper, a procedure for the null broadening algorithm design with respect to the nonstationary interference is proposed. In contrast to previous works, we first impose nulls toward the regions of the nonstationary interference based on the reconstruction of the interference-plus-noise covariance matrix. Additionally, in order to provide a restriction on the shape of the beam pattern, a similarity constraint is enforced at the design stage. Then, the adaptive weight vector can be computed via maximizing a new signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) criterion subject to similarity constraint. Mathematically, the design original problem is expressed as a nonconvex fractional quadratically constrained quadratic programming (QCQP) problem with additional constraint, which can be converted into a convex optimisation problem by semidefinite programming (SDP) techniques. Finally, an optimal solution can be found by using the Charnes-Cooper transformation and the rank-one matrix decomposition theorem. Several numerical examples are performed to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  9. The HERMES recoil photon-detector and nuclear p{sub t}-Broadening at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarlem, Y. van


    The first part of this work consists of hardware research and development done in order to construct and test a photon-detector as one of the three detectors of the HERMES recoil detector. The HERMES recoil detector consists of a target cell, a silicon-detector, a scintillating fiber tracker, and a photon-detector. All are inside a super-conducting magnet. The silicon detector uses energy deposition to determine the momentum of the particle because in its energy range the energy deposition is an unambiguous function of the momentum of the particle. The scintillating fiber tracker is located outside the beam-vacuum and is surrounded by the photon-detector. It consists of two barrels with layers of scintillating fibers. It detects particles by converting their energy deposition into light. It measures two space points of a charged particle and from the bending of the assigned track (in the magnetic field provided by the super-conducting magnet) a momentum measurement can be derived. The photon-detector is located between the scintillating fiber tracker and the magnet. It consists (from the inside out) of three layers of tungsten showering material followed by scintillating strips. The second part of this work is an analysis performed concerning the transverse momentum broadening of hadrons produced in deep-inelastic scattering on a nuclear target compared to a D target. (orig.)

  10. Broadening Participation in the Life Sciences with Social–Psychological Interventions (United States)

    Tibbetts, Yoi; Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Priniski, Stacy J.; Canning, Elizabeth A.


    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have recently documented the positive effects of social–psychological interventions on the performance and retention of underrepresented students in the life sciences. We review two types of social–psychological interventions that address either students’ well-being in college science courses or students’ engagement in science content. Interventions that have proven effective in RCTs in science courses (namely, utility-value [UV] and values-affirmation [VA] interventions) emphasize different types of student values—students’ perceptions of the value of curricular content and students’ personal values that shape their educational experiences. Both types of value can be leveraged to promote positive academic outcomes for underrepresented students. For example, recent work shows that brief writing interventions embedded in the curriculum can increase students’ perceptions of UV (the perceived importance or usefulness of a task for future goals) and dramatically improve the performance of first-generation (FG) underrepresented minority students in college biology. Other work has emphasized students’ personal values in brief essays written early in the semester. This VA intervention has been shown to close achievement gaps for women in physics classes and for FG students in college biology. By reviewing recent research, considering which interventions are most effective for different groups, and examining the causal mechanisms driving these positive effects, we hope to inform life sciences educators about the potential of social–psychological interventions for broadening participation in the life sciences. PMID:27543632

  11. Using a Transdisciplinary Interpretive Lens to Broaden Reflections on Alleviating Poverty and Promoting Decent Work. (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Maree, Jacobus G


    This article aims to broaden current reflections on definitions of decent work and poverty using a transdisciplinary interpretive lens comprising philosophical, juridical, economic, sociological, and psychological understandings. We (the authors) undertook an adapted systematic qualitative review to gather data on different perspectives on decent work and poverty. The article summarizes and compares reflections on the two constructs and proposes an enhancement of the current definition of decent work. The aim is to facilitate the identification and development of new research and intervention projects that can be implemented to promote fair and sustainable economic development, the provision of decent work, and the reduction of poverty globally. We believe that challenges should be dealt with pro-actively rather than reactively and that intervening at the level of primary prevention should lie at the heart of any strategy to promote decent work and alleviate poverty. Radical intervention is needed to ensure that future generations not only survive but develop, grow, and express themselves meaningfully through decent work.

  12. Spectral-Kinetic Coupling and Effect of Microfield Rotation on Stark Broadening in Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Demura


    Full Text Available The study deals with two conceptual problems in the theory of Stark broadening by plasmas. One problem is the assumption of the density matrix diagonality in the calculation of spectral line profiles. This assumption is closely related to the definition of zero wave functions basis within which the density matrix is assumed to be diagonal, and obviously violated under the basis change. A consistent use of density matrix in the theoretical scheme inevitably leads to interdependence of atomic kinetics, describing the population of atomic states with the Stark profiles of spectral lines, i.e., to spectral-kinetic coupling. The other problem is connected with the study of the influence of microfield fluctuations on Stark profiles. Here the main results of the perturbative approach to ion dynamics, called the theory of thermal corrections (TTC, are presented, within which the main contribution to effects of ion dynamics is due to microfield fluctuations caused by rotations. In the present study the qualitative behavior of the Stark profiles in the line center within predictions of TTC is confirmed, using non-perturbative computer simulations.

  13. [Calculating the stark broadening of welding arc spectra by Fourier transform method]. (United States)

    Pan, Cheng-Gang; Hua, Xue-Ming; Zhang, Wang; Li, Fang; Xiao, Xiao


    It's the most effective and accurate method to calculate the electronic density of plasma by using the Stark width of the plasma spectrum. However, it's difficult to separate Stark width from the composite spectrum linear produced by several mechanisms. In the present paper, Fourier transform was used to separate the Lorentz linear from the spectrum observed, thus to get the accurate Stark width. And we calculated the distribution of the TIG welding arc plasma. This method does not need to measure arc temperature accurately, to measure the width of the plasma spectrum broadened by instrument, and has the function to reject the noise data. The results show that, on the axis, the electron density of TIG welding arc decreases with the distance from tungsten increasing, and changes from 1.21 X 10(17) cm(-3) to 1.58 x 10(17) cm(-3); in the radial, the electron density decreases with the distance from axis increasing, and near the tungsten zone the biggest electronic density is off axis.

  14. Broadening the trans-contextual model of motivation: A study with Spanish adolescents. (United States)

    González-Cutre, D; Sicilia, Á; Beas-Jiménez, M; Hagger, M S


    The original trans-contextual model of motivation proposed that autonomy support from teachers develops students' autonomous motivation in physical education (PE), and that autonomous motivation is transferred from PE contexts to physical activity leisure-time contexts, and predicts attitudes, perceived behavioral control and subjective norms, and forming intentions to participate in future physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to test an extended trans-contextual model of motivation including autonomy support from peers and parents and basic psychological needs in a Spanish sample. School students (n = 400) aged between 12 and 18 years completed measures of perceived autonomy support from three sources, autonomous motivation and constructs from the theory of planned behavior at three different points in time and in two contexts, PE and leisure-time. A path analysis controlling for past physical activity behavior supported the main postulates of the model. Autonomous motivation in a PE context predicted autonomous motivation in a leisure-time physical activity context, perceived autonomy support from teachers predicted satisfaction of basic psychological needs in PE, and perceived autonomy support from peers and parents predicted need satisfaction in leisure-time. This study provides a cross-cultural replication of the trans-contextual model of motivation and broadens it to encompass basic psychological needs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Geoscience Alliance--A National Network for Broadening Participation of Native Americans in the Geosciences (United States)

    Dalbotten, D. M.; Berthelote, A. R.


    The Geoscience Alliance is a national alliance of individuals committed to broadening participation of Native Americans in the geosciences. Native Americans in this case include American Indians, Alaska Natives and people of Native Hawai'ian ancestry. Although they make up a large percentage of the resource managers in the country, they are underrepresented in degrees in the geosciences. The Geoscience Alliance (GA) members are faculty and staff from tribal colleges, universities, and research centers; native elders and community members; industry, agency, and corporate representatives; students (K12, undergraduate, and graduate); formal and informal educators; and other interested individuals. The goals of the Geoscience Alliance are to 1) create new collaborations in support of geoscience education for Native American students, 2) establish a new research agenda aimed at closing gaps in our knowledge on barriers and best practices related to Native American participation in the geosciences, 3) increase participation by Native Americans in setting the national research agenda on issues in the geosciences, and particularly those that impact Native lands, 4) provide a forum to communicate educational opportunities for Native American students in the geosciences, and 5) to understand and respect indigenous traditional knowledge. In this presentation, we look at the disparity between numbers of Native Americans involved in careers related to the geosciences and those who are receiving bachelors or graduate degrees in the geosciences. We address barriers towards degree completion in the geosciences, and look at innovative programs that are addressing those barriers.

  16. More on the narrowing of impact broadened radio recombination lines at high principal quantum number (United States)

    Bell, M. B.


    Recently Alexander and Gulyaev have suggested that the apparent decrease in impact broadening of radio recombination lines seen at high principal quantum number n may be a product of the data reduction process, possibly resulting from the presence of noise on the telescope spectra that is not present on the calculated comparison spectra. This is an interesting proposal. However, there are serious problems with their analysis that need to be pointed out. Perhaps the most important of these is the fact that for principal quantum numbers below n=200, where the widths are not in question, their processed generated profile widths do not fit the widths of the processed lines obtained at the telescope. After processing, the halfwidths of the generated and telescope profiles must agree below n=200 if we are to believe that the processed generated linewidths above n=200 are meaningful. Theirs do not. Furthermore, we find that after applying the linewidth reduction factors found by Alexander and Gulyaev for their noise added profiles to our generated profiles to simulate their noise adding effect, the processed widths we obtain still do not come close to explaining the narrowing seen in the telescope lines for n values in the range 200technique instead of simply a further manipulation of the frequency-switched data.

  17. Broadening the reach of simplified limits on resonances at the LHC (United States)

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Ittisamai, Pawin; Mohan, Kirtimaan; Simmons, Elizabeth H.


    Recently, we introduced an approach for more easily interpreting searches for resonances at the LHC—and to aid in distinguishing between realistic and unrealistic alternatives for potential signals. This "simplified limits" approach was derived using the narrow width approximation (NWA)—and therefore was not obviously relevant in the case of wider resonances. Here, we broaden the scope of the analysis. First, we explicitly generalize the formalism to encompass resonances of finite width. We then examine how the width of the resonance modifies bounds on new resonances that are extracted from LHC searches. Second, we demonstrate, using a wide variety of cases, with different incoming partons, resonance properties, and decay signatures, that the limits derived in the NWA yield pertinant, and somewhat conservative (less stringent) bounds on the model parameters. We conclude that the original simplified limits approach is useful in the early stages of evaluating and interpreting new collider data and that the generalized approach is a valuable further aid when evidence points toward a broader resonance.

  18. Probing Homogeneous Line Broadening in CdSe Nanocrystals Using Multidimensional Electronic Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Gellen, Tobias A; Lem, Jet; Turner, Daniel B


    The finite spectral line width of an ensemble of CdSe nanocrystals arises from size and shape inhomogeneity and the single-nanocrystal spectrum itself. This line width directly limits the performance of nanocrystal-based devices, yet most optical measurements cannot resolve the underlying contributions. We use two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D ES) to measure the line width of the band-edge exciton of CdSe nanocrystals as a function of radii and surface chemistry. We find that the homogeneous width decreases for increasing nanocrystal radius and that surface chemistry plays a critical role in controlling this line width. To explore the hypothesis that unpassivated trap states serve to broaden the homogeneous line width and to explain its size-dependence, we use 3D ES to identify the spectral signatures of exciton-phonon coupling to optical and acoustic phonons. We find enhanced coupling to optical phonon modes for nanocrystals that lack electron-passivating ligands, suggesting that localized surface charges enhance exciton-phonon coupling via the Fröhlich interaction. Lastly, the data reveal that spectral diffusion contributes negligibly to the homogeneous line width on subnanosecond time scales.

  19. Propagation of Significant Figures. (United States)

    Schwartz, Lowell M.


    Shows that the rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results. Also describes two procedures for performing this propagation more reliably than the rules of thumb. However, both require considerably more calculational effort than do the rules. (JN)

  20. Statistical correlation of spectral broadening in VLF transmitter signal and low-frequency ionospheric turbulence from observation on DEMETER satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rozhnoi


    Full Text Available In our earlier papers we have found the effect of VLF transmitter signal depression over epicenters of the large earthquakes from observation on the French DEMETER satellite that can be considered as new method of global diagnostics of seismic influence on the ionosphere. At present paper we investigate a possibility VLF signal-ionospheric turbulence interaction using additional characteristic of VLF signal-spectrum broadening. This characteristic is important for estimation of the interaction type: linear or nonlinear scattering. Our main results are the following:
    – There are two zones of increased spectrum broadening, which are centered near magnetic latitudes Φ=±10° and Φ=±40°. Basing on the previous case study research and ground ionosonde registrations, probably it is evidence of nonlinear (active scattering of VLF signal on the ionospheric turbulence. However occurrence rate of spectrum broadening in the middle-latitude area is higher than in the near-equatorial zone (~15–20% in comparison with ~100% in former area that is probably coincides with the rate of ionospheric turbulence.
    – From two years statistics of observation in the selected 3 low-latitude regions and 1 middle-latitude region inside reception area of VLF signal from NWC transmitter we find a correlation of spectrum broadening neither with ion-cyclotron noise (f=150–500 Hz, which possibly means poor representation of the turbulence by the noise due to its mixture with natural ELF emission (which correlates with whistler, nor with magnetic storm activity.
    – We find rather evident correlation of ion-cyclotron frequency noise, VLF signal depression and weak correlation of spectrum broadening with seismicity in the middle-latitude region over Japan. But in the low-latitude regions we do not find such a correlation. Statistical decrease of VLF signal supports our previous case study results. However rather weak spectrum broadening

  1. Using refractive optics to broaden the focus of an X-ray mirror. (United States)

    Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal; Dhamgaye, Vishal


    X-ray mirrors are widely used at synchrotron radiation sources for focusing X-rays into focal spots of size less than 1 µm. The ability of the beamline optics to change the size of this spot over a range up to tens of micrometres can be an advantage for many experiments such as X-ray microprobe and X-ray diffraction from micrometre-scale crystals. It is a requirement that the beam size change should be reproducible and it is often essential that the change should be rapid, for example taking less than 1 s, in order to allow high data collection rates at modern X-ray sources. In order to provide a controlled broadening of the focused spot of an X-ray mirror, a series of refractive optical elements have been fabricated and installed immediately before the mirror. By translation, a new refractive element is moved into the X-ray beam allowing a variation in the size of the focal spot in the focusing direction. Measurements using a set of prefabricated refractive structures with a test mirror showed that the focused beam size could be varied from less than 1 µm to over 10 µm for X-rays in the energy range 10-20 keV. As the optics is in-line with the X-ray beam, there is no effect on the centroid position of the focus. Accurate positioning of the refractive optics ensures reproducibility in the focused beam profile and no additional re-alignment of the optics is required.

  2. Charge Carrier Hopping Dynamics in Homogeneously Broadened PbS Quantum Dot Solids. (United States)

    Gilmore, Rachel H; Lee, Elizabeth M Y; Weidman, Mark C; Willard, Adam P; Tisdale, William A


    Energetic disorder in quantum dot solids adversely impacts charge carrier transport in quantum dot solar cells and electronic devices. Here, we use ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to show that homogeneously broadened PbS quantum dot arrays (σhom(2):σinh(2) > 19:1, σinh/kBT quantum dot batches are sufficiently monodisperse (δ ≲ 3.3%). The homogeneous line width is found to be an inverse function of quantum dot size, monotonically increasing from ∼25 meV for the largest quantum dots (5.8 nm diameter/0.92 eV energy) to ∼55 meV for the smallest (4.1 nm/1.3 eV energy). Furthermore, we show that intrinsic charge carrier hopping rates are faster for smaller quantum dots. This finding is the opposite of the mobility trend commonly observed in device measurements but is consistent with theoretical predictions. Fitting our data to a kinetic Monte Carlo model, we extract charge carrier hopping times ranging from 80 ps for the smallest quantum dots to over 1 ns for the largest, with the same ethanethiol ligand treatment. Additionally, we make the surprising observation that, in slightly polydisperse (δ ≲ 4%) quantum dot solids, structural disorder has a greater impact than energetic disorder in inhibiting charge carrier transport. These findings emphasize how small improvements in batch size dispersity can have a dramatic impact on intrinsic charge carrier hopping behavior and will stimulate further improvements in quantum dot device performance.

  3. On the Stark broadening in the Au I and Au II spectra from a helium plasma (United States)

    Djeniže, S.


    The Stark FWHM (Full-Width at Half of the Maximal line intensity, W) of 5 neutral and 26 singly ionized gold (Au I and Au II, respectively) spectral lines have been measured in laboratory helium plasma at approximately 16,600 K electron temperature and 7.4 × 10 22 m - 3 electron density. Five Au I and ten Au II W values are reported for the first time. The Au II W values are compared with recent theoretical data, calculated based on a modified semi-empirical approach, and also with existing experimental W values. Our normalized Stark widths are six times higher than those measured in a laser-produced plasma. Possible explanation of this is recommended here. An agreement (within the accuracy of the experiment and uncertainties of the theoretical approach used) with the recently calculated W data was found in the 6p-7s Au II transition. The calculated hyperfine splitting for the five Au II lines in the 6s-6p transition is also presented. At the stated helium plasma conditions, Stark broadening has been found to be the dominant mechanism in the Au I and Au II line shape formation. A modified version of the linear low-pressure pulsed arc was used as a plasma source operated in helium, with gold atoms as impurities evaporated from the thin gold cylindrical plates located in the homogeneous part of the discharge, providing conditions free of self-absorption. This plasma source ensures good conditions for generation of excited gold ions due to Penning and charge exchange effects.

  4. Slimming down: Small rotary steerable systems broaden directional market. Are shallow gas wells next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.


    Drilling an offshore well in an environmentally sensitive area just off the southern coast of England is described. Instead of building an artificial island, BP decided to use a new technology and drill the well from shore. The technique is known as extended-reach drilling; one of the wells in the field had a measured total depth of 37,001 feet, more than eleven kilometres. The technology that made this well possible is known as rotary steerable drilling. The technology is expensive, but the field has an estimated 447 million barrels of recoverable oil, and very prolific individual wells, hence economically justifiable. The technology is most suited to expensive offshore wells, but developers of rotary steerable systems -- Schlumberger Oilfield Services and Precision Drilling Corporation -- believe that the slim-hole tools they are developing have broadened the market to include smaller operators drilling less-costly onshore wells. Experts predict that the system eventually could be economic even on shallow-gas wells in Western Canada. The two service companies have steerable systems that drill six-inch boreholes, and Schlumberger is currently working on a system to drill four and a half inch holes. The smaller diameter rotary steerable systems have a great future in draining smaller oil pools that would not be economical if pools had to linked with conventional eight and a half inch boreholes. The prime example is Shell Exploration and Production of Britain, a drilling contractor that has been successfully using slim-hole systems in its North Sea operations to drill wells that would not otherwise get drilled. Although the rotary steerable business currently is concentrated in southwestern England, slim-hole systems have also been used in other mature fields in the Gulf of Mexico, Norway and even the Middle East and the Far East.

  5. Stark broadening of several Bi IV spectral lines of astrophysical interest (United States)

    Colón, C.; Moreno-Díaz, C.; de Andrés-García, I.; Alonso-Medina, A.


    The presence of spectral lines of bismuth in stellar atmospheres has been reported in different stars. The anomalous values of the spectral intensities of Bi II and Bi iii, compared to the theoretical Local Termodinamic Equilibrium (LTE) standards of Bi i/Bi ii/Bi iii, have been reported in the spectra obtained with the High Resolution Spectrograph of the Hubble/Goddard Space Telescope in the chemically peculiar stars HgMn stars χ Lupi and HR 7775. Spectral lines of 1436.8, 1902.3, 2630.9 and 2936.7 Å of Bi II and 1423.4 Å of Bi III were reported and their relative intensities were measured in these studies Litzén & Wahlgren 2002. These lines are overlapped with spectral lines of 1437.65, 2630.1 and 2937.1 Å of Bi iv. A study of the Stark broadening parameters of Bi IV spectral lines can help to study these overlaps. In this paper, using the Griem semi-empirical approach, we report calculated values of the Stark parameters for 64 spectral lines of Bi iv. The matrix elements used in these calculations have been determined from 17 configurations of Bi iv. They were calculated using the cowan code including core polarization effects. Data are displayed for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 10 000-160 000 K. Also calculated radiative lifetimes for 12 levels with experimental lifetime are presented, in order to test the goodness of our calculations. Theoretical trends of the Stark width and shift parameters versus the temperature for spectral lines of astrophysical interest are displayed.

  6. Broadening participation in Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) programs: an evaluation of the team research model for undergraduate research experiences (United States)

    Berthelote, A. R.; Geraghty Ward, E. M.; Dalbotten, D. M.


    The REU site on sustainable land and water resources has a goal of broadening participation in the geosciences by underrepresented groups and particularly Native American students. We are evaluating modifications to the traditional REU model in order to better support these students. First, we review a team research model for REU students, where students are placed on teams and work together in peer groups supported by a team of mentors. Second, the REU takes place in locations that have high populations of Native American students to remove barriers to participation for non-traditional students. Finally, the teams do research on issues related to local concerns with cultural focus. Traditional REU models (1 faculty to 1 student/on campus) have been shown to be effective in supporting student movement into graduate programs but often fail to attract a diverse group of candidates. In addition, they rely for success on the relationship between faculty and student, which can often be undermined by unrealistic expectations on the part of the student about the mentor relationship, and can be exacerbated by cultural misunderstanding, conflicting discourse, or students' personal or family issues. At this REU site, peer mentorship and support plays a large role. Students work together to select their research question, follow the project to completion and present the results. Students from both native and non-native backgrounds learn about the culture of the partner reservations and work on a project that is of immediate local concern. The REU also teaches students protocols for working on Native American lands that support good relations between reservation and University. Analysis of participant data gathered from surveys and interview over the course of our 3-year program indicates that the team approach is successful. Students noted that collaborating with other teams was rewarding and mentors reported positively about their roles in providing guidance for the student

  7. Biological significance of selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerre, P.; Andreesen, J.R.


    Until a few years ago, selenium was exclusively thought of as a toxic substance which was applied mainly in the optical and electrical industries. By now, many biological reactions have been detected which cannot take place without the catalytic effect of selenium. The majority of these processes was found and clarified in microorganisms; however, the anticarcinogenic properties of this trace element may well have some significance for man in future.

  8. Introgressing subgenome components from Brassica rapa and B. carinata to B. juncea for broadening its genetic base and exploring intersubgenomic heterosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Wei


    Full Text Available Brassica juncea (AjAjBjBj, is an allotetraploid that arose from two diploid species, B. rapa (ArAr and B. nigra (BnBn. It is an old oilseed crop with unique favorable traits, but the genetic improvement on this species is limited. We developed an approach to broaden its genetic base within several generations by intensive selection. The Ar subgenome from the Asian oil crop B. rapa (ArAr and the Bc subgenome from the African oil crop B. carinata (BcBcCcCc were combined in a synthesized allohexaploid (ArArBcBcCcCc, which was crossed with traditional B. juncea to generate pentaploid F1 hybrids (ArAjBcBjCc, with subsequent self-pollination to obtain newly synthesized B. juncea (Ar/jAr/jBc/jBc/j. After intensive cytological screening and phenotypic selection of fertility and agronomic traits, a population of new-type B. juncea was obtained and was found to be genetically stable at the F6 generation. The new-type B. juncea possesses good fertility and rich genetic diversity and is distinctly divergent but not isolated from traditional B. juncea, as revealed by population genetic analysis with molecular markers. More than half of its genome was modified, showing exotic introgression and novel variation. In addition to the improvement in some traits of the new-type B. juncea lines, a considerable potential for heterosis was observed in inter-subgenomic hybrids between new-type B. juncea lines and traditional B. juncea accessions. The new-type B. juncea exhibited a stable chromosome number and a novel genome composition through multiple generations, providing insight into how to significantly broaden the genetic base of crops with subgenome introgression from their related species and the potential of exploring inter-subgenomic heterosis for hybrid breeding.

  9. Characterization of ion-irradiated ODS Fe–Cr alloys by doppler broadening spectroscopy using a positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, P.; Leguey, T. [Departamento de Física and IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Castro, V. de, E-mail: [Departamento de Física and IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Gigl, T.; Reiner, M.; Hugenschmidt, C. [FRM II and Physics Department, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching (Germany); Pareja, R. [Departamento de Física and IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain)


    The damage profile of oxide dispersion strengthened steels after single-, or simultaneous triple-ion irradiation at different conditions has been characterized using a low energy positron beam in order to provide information on microstructural changes induced by irradiation. Doppler broadening and coincident Doppler broadening measurements of the positron annihilation line have been performed on different Fe–Cr–(W,Ti) alloys reinforced with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, to identify the nature and stability of irradiation-induced open-volume defects and their possible association with the oxide nanoparticles. It was found that irradiation induced vacancy clusters are associated with Cr atoms. The results are of highest interest for modeling the damage induced by 14 MeV neutrons in reduced activation Fe–Cr alloys relevant for fusion devices.

  10. Determination of foreign broadening coefficients for Methane Lines Targeted by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) on the Mars Curiosity Rover (United States)

    Manne, Jagadeeshwari; Bui, Thinh Q.; Webster, Christopher R.


    Molecular line parameters of foreign- broadening by air, carbon dioxide, and helium gas have been experimentally determined for infrared ro-vibrational spectral lines of methane isotopologues (12CH4 and 13CH4) at 3057 cm-1 targeted by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover. From multi-spectrum analyses with the speed-dependent Voigt line profile with Rosenkrantz line-mixing, speed-dependence and line-mixing effects were quantified for methane spectra at total pressures up to 200 mbar. The fitted air-broadening coefficients deviated from 8-25% to those reported in the HITRAN-2012 database.

  11. Tunable diode laser measurements of air-broadened linewidths in the nu6 band of H2O2 (United States)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.; Fridovich, B.


    Air-broadened half-widths of 18 transitions in the nu6 band of H2O2 between 1252/cm and 1291/cm have been determined from spectra recorded at room temperature using a tunable diode laser spectrometer. The preparation of the H2O2 gas samples for the measurements is described, and the data analysis is discussed, including the derivation of Lorentz broadening coefficients and the contribution of molecular collisions to the measured Lorentz half-widths. For the 18 transitions, the half-widths varied from 0.0923/cm/atm to 0.1155/cm/atm at 296 K, with a mean value of 0.1020/cm/atm. An error of less than 10 percent is estimated for these results.

  12. Quantification of Doppler broadening in path length resolved diffusive light scattering using phase modulated low-coherence interferometry (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt


    We describe path length resolved Doppler measurements of the multiply scattered light in turbid media using phase modulated low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with separate fibers for illumination and detection. A Doppler broadened phase modulation interference peak observed at the modulation frequency shows an increase in the average Doppler shift with optical path length. The path length dependent Doppler broadening of scattered light due to the detection of multiple scattered light is measured from the Lorentzian linewidth and the results are compared with the predictions of Diffusive Wave Spectroscopy. For particles with small scattering anisotropy, the diffusion approximation shows good agreement with our experimental results. For anisotropic scatterers, the experimental results show deviations from the Diffusion theory. The optical path lengths are determined experimentally from the Zero order moment of the phase modulation peak around the modulation frequency and the results are validated with the Monte Carlo technique.

  13. Spectral Analysis of Quantum-Dash Lasers: Effect of Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Active-Gain Region

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa


    The effect of the active region inhomogeneity on the spectral characteristics of InAs/InP quantum-dash (Qdash) lasers is examined theoretically by solving the coupled set of carrier-photon rate equations. The inhomogeneity due to dash size or composition fluctuation is included in the model by considering dispersive energy states and characterized by a Gaussian envelope. In addition, the technique incorporates multilongitudinal photon modes and homogeneous broadening of the optical gain. The results predict a red shift in the central lasing wavelength of Qdash lasers on increasing the inhomogeneous broadening either explicitly or implicitly, which supports various experimental observations. The threshold current density and the lasing bandwidth are also found to increase. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. The broadening of He I lines including ion dynamic corrections, with application to 4471 A. [astronomical model applications (United States)

    Barnard, A. J.; Cooper, J.; Smith, E. W.


    A theory of the broadening of He I lines with forbidden components is developed. The theory takes into account the effects of dynamic ion broadening and is valid at low densities where the forbidden line is reasonably well isolated. Good agreement with experiment and with calculations by Lee (1972) was obtained when the theory was applied at a wavelength of 4471 A. Tables of these data are given and are extended into the line wings beyond the extent of previous tabulations. Reasons for agreement with Lee data are discussed in detail. The density level above which the static ion theory is adequate is defined. A simple numerical profile of allowed lines is also obtained, taking into account dynamic ion effects.

  15. Compton energy-absorption scattering cross-sections for H, C, N, O, P, Ca and assessment of doppler broadening

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, D V; Brunetti, A; Gigante, G E


    Total Compton, individual shell and Compton energy-absorption scattering cross-sections are evaluated in the energy region 0.005 to 10 MeV for H, C. N, O. P and Ca. Compton energy absorption cross-sections deviate numerically with available values. The cause of the numerical discrepancies are not fully understood but can be attributed to Doppler broadening of the Compton scattered photons through a given angle. (authors)

  16. Broadening of fast-beam spectral lines due to diffraction at the entrance slit of a spectrometer. (United States)

    Leavitt, J. A.; Stoner, J. O., Jr.


    Experimental and theoretical demonstration of the necessity to take into account the effects of diffraction at a spectrometer's entrance slit in adjusting the spectrometer for observation of fast-beam spectral lines under conditions of minimum linewidth. An approximate expression is obtained for the optimum entrance slit width to be used in order to avoid the pronounced broadening of the spectral lines that occurs for very narrow entrance slits.

  17. Influence of Electron-Acoustic-Phonon Scattering on Intensity Power Broadening in a Coherently Driven Quantum-Dot-Cavity System (United States)

    Roy, C.; Hughes, S.


    We present a quantum optics formalism to study the intensity power broadening of a semiconductor quantum dot interacting with an acoustic-phonon bath and a high-Q microcavity. Power broadening is investigated using a time-convolutionless master equation in the polaron frame, which allows for a nonperturbative treatment of the interaction of the quantum dot with the phonon reservoir. We calculate the full non-Lorentzian photoluminescence (PL) line shapes and numerically extract the intensity linewidths of the quantum-dot exciton and the cavity mode as a function of the pump rate and temperature. For increasing field strengths, multiphonon and multiphoton effects are found to be important, even for phonon-bath temperatures as low as 4 K. We show that the interaction of the quantum dot with the phonon reservoir introduces pronounced features in the power-broadened PL line shape, enabling one to observe clear signatures of electron-phonon scattering. The PL line shapes from cavity pumping and exciton pumping are found to be distinctly different, primarily since the latter is excited through the exciton-phonon reservoir. To help explain the underlying physics of phonon scattering on the power-broadened line shape, an effective phonon Lindblad master equation derived from the full time-convolutionless master equation is introduced; we identify and calculate distinct Lindblad scattering contributions from electron-phonon interactions, including effects such as excitation-induced dephasing, incoherent exciton excitation, and exciton-cavity feeding. Our effective phonon master equation is shown to reproduce the full PL intensity and the phonon-coupling effects very well, suggesting that its general Lindblad form may find widespread use in semiconductor cavity-QED.

  18. Influence of Electron–Acoustic-Phonon Scattering on Intensity Power Broadening in a Coherently Driven Quantum-Dot–Cavity System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Roy


    Full Text Available We present a quantum optics formalism to study the intensity power broadening of a semiconductor quantum dot interacting with an acoustic-phonon bath and a high-Q microcavity. Power broadening is investigated using a time-convolutionless master equation in the polaron frame, which allows for a nonperturbative treatment of the interaction of the quantum dot with the phonon reservoir. We calculate the full non-Lorentzian photoluminescence (PL line shapes and numerically extract the intensity linewidths of the quantum-dot exciton and the cavity mode as a function of the pump rate and temperature. For increasing field strengths, multiphonon and multiphoton effects are found to be important, even for phonon-bath temperatures as low as 4 K. We show that the interaction of the quantum dot with the phonon reservoir introduces pronounced features in the power-broadened PL line shape, enabling one to observe clear signatures of electron-phonon scattering. The PL line shapes from cavity pumping and exciton pumping are found to be distinctly different, primarily since the latter is excited through the exciton-phonon reservoir. To help explain the underlying physics of phonon scattering on the power-broadened line shape, an effective phonon Lindblad master equation derived from the full time-convolutionless master equation is introduced; we identify and calculate distinct Lindblad scattering contributions from electron-phonon interactions, including effects such as excitation-induced dephasing, incoherent exciton excitation, and exciton-cavity feeding. Our effective phonon master equation is shown to reproduce the full PL intensity and the phonon-coupling effects very well, suggesting that its general Lindblad form may find widespread use in semiconductor cavity-QED.

  19. Clinical Significance of Pyometra. (United States)

    Lui, Man-Wa; Cheung, Vincent Y T; Pun, Ting Chung


    To review the clinical profiles and management outcomes of patients with pyometra. A retrospective review of all women admitted with a confirmed diagnosis of pyometra over an 8-year period (January 2003 to December 2010). The medical records, including operation notes, histological and microbiological results, were reviewed. A total of 57 patients accounting for 76 admissions were identified. The mean patient age was 82.0 ± 11.3 years. The most common presenting symptom was postmenopausal bleeding (59.2%), followed by vaginal discharge (40.8%), fever (6.6%), and abdominal pain (5.3%). Drainage of pyometra was either by uterine Foley catheter insertion (48 patients [84.2%]) or repeated endometrial aspiration (2 patients [3.5%]). Antibiotics were prescribed to 49 patients (86.0%). Diagnostic hysteroscopy with mechanical cervical dilation was performed in 6 patients (10.5%). Gynecological malignancy was identified in only 1 patient, while colorectal cancer was identified in 2 patients. No patient had spontaneous uterine perforation or sepsis. Sixteen patients had recurrent pyometra within a mean follow-up period of 5.1 ± 5.8 months (range, 0.5-23 months). Pyometra usually presents with postmenopausal bleeding and can be treated with drainage and antibiotics treatment. In contrast to previous reports, our study indicates that spontaneous uterine perforation and gynecological malignancies are not commonly associated with pyometra.

  20. Pressure-induced shift and broadening of acetylene lines in the region 6580-6600 cm-1. (United States)

    Nadezhdinskii, A I; Ponurovskii, Ya Ya


    Highly accurate measurements of pressure shift and broadening parameters of acetylene absorption lines in the region 6580-6600 cm-1 have been performed by tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS). For these purposes the three channel spectrometer with distributed-feedback diode laser, operated at 1.53 microm was used. The laser is generating pulses of 4-10 ms duration at a repetition frequency of 40 Hz. A temperature-stabilization system, using a thermoelectric cooling unit affords a temperature stability of the order of 10(-4)K in the temperature range from -15 to +50 degrees C. A three channels acquisition system ensured simultaneous real time recording of the sample gas absorption spectrum and of two spectral calibration signals (Fabry-Perot fringes and low-pressure reference lines). We have measured the pressure-induced self-shift and broadening coefficients for six lines of the R-branch in the nu1+nu3 rotation-vibration band of acetylene 12C2H2. The self-shift coefficients have been determined for these lines in the wide pressure region. A non-linear behavior of the pressure dependence of the shift was observed. The temperature exponent n of pressure-induced broadening and shift are reported.

  1. Spectral broadening of 25 fs laser pulses via self-phase modulation in a neon filled hollow core fibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichert, Stefan


    The goal of this work was the realisation of a setup for spectral broadening and subsequent compression of 25 fs laser pulses provided by a commercial Ti:Sapphire based CPA laser system by means of the hollow core fibre chirped mirror compressor technique. For the spectral broadening a vessel containing the hollow waveguide filled with a noble gas serving as the nonlinear medium was set up and an alignment procedure was developed. Neon was chosen as the nonlinear medium for the self-phase modulation of the pulses. With this setup spectral broadening, sufficient for supporting sub 5 fs pulses, was observed. The spectra at different input energies and neon gas pressures were measured and the stability of these and their respective Fourier transform-limited pulses determined in order to find an operating point. For the compression of the self-phase modulated pulses a chirped mirror compressor was designed and set up, but not tested yet. The layout of a single-shot intensity autocorrelator capable of estimating the pulse duration of sub 10 fs pulses was given.

  2. Normative significance of transnationalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune


    The paper concerns the specific transnational aspects of the ‘cartoons controversy' over the publication of 12 drawings of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. Transnationalism denotes the relationships that are not international (between states) or domestic (between states...... and citizens, or between groups or individuals within a state). The paper considers whether the specifically transnational aspects of the controversy are normatively significant, that is, whether transnationalism makes a difference for the applicability or strength of normative considerations concerning...... publications such as the Danish cartoons. It is argued that, although some of the usual arguments about free speech only or mainly apply domestically, many also apply transnationally; that standard arguments for multicultural recognition are difficult to apply transnationally; and that requirements of respect...

  3. Capitalizing on Education and Outreach (E/O) Expertise to Broaden Impacts (Invited) (United States)

    Girguis, P. R.; Herren, C.; Decharon, A.


    Academic scientists have a number of avenues through which they can participate in education and outreach (E/O) programs to address the mandate for broader impacts. As a principal investigator (PI) at an R1 institution, I (Girguis) have both developed and participated in a variety of E/O programs that span the spectrum from ad hoc groups (e.g. informal high school internships in my laboratory) to regional efforts (e.g. Harvard’s Microbial Science Initiative) and national organizations (e.g. RIDGE 2000; Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence, COSEE). Each of these E/O efforts required varying degrees of preparation and participation by my laboratory members (e.g. graduate students and postdoctoral researchers) and I, and yielded different outcomes and products. Ad hoc programs typically require a higher degree of effort on the part of the PI and have a high, though local, impact on the audience. These programs can be personally rewarding for the PI, who likely has played a major role in developing the program. In contrast, working with regional and national groups requires PIs to understand the nature of each program to successfully integrate within the existing structure. The net time and effort invested by scientists in larger-scale E/O efforts may be equal to that of ad hoc programs. However, interaction with high-quality program facilitators ensures that the outcomes are grounded in best educational practices and that outputs are educator-vetted, well maintained (online or through publications), and broadly disseminated. In addition, program facilitators also collect and analyze evaluation data to provide constructive feedback to PIs, enabling the latter to refine their presentation styles and content levels to improve future E/O efforts. Thus involvement with larger programs can effectively broaden one’s impact. During this presentation, we will present one scientist’s perspective on the advantages and limitations of these different modes of E

  4. IBP's Four-Prong Approach for Broadening Participation in the STEM Community (United States)

    Ricciardi, L.; Fauver, A.; Johnson, A.; Detrick, L.; Siegfried, D.; Thomas, S.; Valaitis, S.


    The goal of the Institute for Broadening Participation (IBP) is to increase diversity in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) workforce. As a freestanding non-profit dedicated to this work IBP is uniquely positioned to provide resources to faculty and students that individual institutions and disciplinary based programs cannot. Through its initial work with the NSF Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT), Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), and Alliance for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (AGEP) programs, IBP developed a four-pronged approach open to all members of the STEM community nationally for addressing the problem of underrepresentation: Synthesizing information - compiling and translating best practices into materials and resources accessible and useful to a broad national audience; Creating and maintaining strategic web resources - making information on programs, best practices, and references easily available to a wide audience including students, faculty, and administrators; Extensive face-to-face and virtual outreach - drawing constituents to the resources available via IBP that support students and faculty through the entire STEM pathway; and Catalyzing partnerships - cultivating a community of practice and culture of diversity, to reduce isolation among diversity practitioners, and to increase information sharing. IBP is also home to several successful initiatives that use both virtual and face-to-face components to bring together underrepresented students with established underrepresented and other scientists in academia, government and industry. These connections provide underrepresented students with supportive mentoring, networking opportunities, and professional skill development contributing to an overall improved retention rate of underrepresented students majoring in STEM degrees. IBP's initiatives include the NASA One Stop Shopping Initiative (NASA OSSI), Pathways to Ocean

  5. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation. (United States)

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe


    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of Economic Indicators in the Context of Corporate Sustainability Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Pavláková Dočekalová


    Full Text Available This article is focused on determination of the most significant economic indicators influencing corporate sustainability performance. Corporate sustainability performance is a multidimensional concept based on the original idea of sustainable development, replacing the traditional understanding of corporate performance only as capital appreciation for owners (shareholders. Compared to the original concept of sustainable development which consists of environmental, social and economic performance, the so-called triple-bottom-line, it is broaden to the responsibilities and the impact of Corporate Governance on the corporate performance. The basic set of economic indicators has been constructed from a synthesis of resources developed by international organizations (Global Reporting Initiative, International Federation of Accountants and research among manufacturing companies in the Czech Republic. The basic set of twenty-five key indicators is divided into seven groups: Costs, Investments, Economic Results, Asset & financial resources utilization, Suppliers reliability, Penalties and R&D expenses. Basic set of indicators was presented to 23 top-managers who quantified the potential effect of each indicator to the success and sustainability of their companies. Through the methods of descriptive statistics knowledge of the particularities of each indicator was obtained. Correlation analysis and factor analysis were applied in order to eliminate information duplicity and dimensionality reduction. The result is a reduction in the number of economic indicators, so that the loss of information on the influence of the original indicators on the corporate sustainability is minimized. Corporate sustainability indicators are a tool for measuring and managing progress towards sustainability goals and environmental, social and economic impacts.

  7. Fostering Actions of Competence Broadening Higher Order Thinking Skills as a Basis for Standardized Test-Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Martínez Rojas


    Full Text Available This article reports on a research project that aimed at selecting actions of competence and how these can be fostered to broaden higher order thinking skills as a basis to achieve a high performance in standardized test taking by the senior students of a private high school in Bogotá. The research was done under action research following the model of Cohen & Manion (1980, in which a sequence of steps was carried out to identify the problem at hand that concerns the pedagogical labor of arriving at conclusions that lead into pedagogical implications and thoughts on future continuation with the topic.

  8. Frail or hale: Skeletal frailty indices in Medieval London skeletons (United States)

    Crews, Douglas E.


    To broaden bioarchaeological applicability of skeletal frailty indices (SFIs) and increase sample size, we propose indices with fewer biomarkers (2–11 non-metric biomarkers) and compare these reduced biomarker SFIs to the original metric/non-metric 13-biomarker SFI. From the 2-11-biomarker SFIs, we choose the index with the fewest biomarkers (6-biomarker SFI), which still maintains the statistical robusticity of a 13-biomarker SFI, and apply this index to the same Medieval monastic and nonmonastic populations, albeit with an increased sample size. For this increased monastic and nonmonastic sample, we also propose and implement a 4-biomarker SFI, comprised of biomarkers from each of four stressor categories, and compare these SFI distributions with those of the non-metric biomarker SFIs. From the Museum of London WORD database, we tabulate multiple SFIs (2- to 13-biomarkers) for Medieval monastic and nonmonastic samples (N = 134). We evaluate associations between these ten non-metric SFIs and the 13-biomarker SFI using Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Subsequently, we test non-metric 6-biomarker and 4-biomarker SFI distributions for associations with cemetery, age, and sex using Analysis of Variance/Covariance (ANOVA/ANCOVA) on larger samples from the monastic and nonmonastic cemeteries (N = 517). For Medieval samples, Spearman’s correlation coefficients show a significant association between the 13-biomarker SFI and all non-metric SFIs. Utilizing a 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFI, we increase the nonmonastic and monastic samples and demonstrate significant lifestyle and sex differences in frailty that were not observed in the original, smaller sample. Results from the 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFIs generally indicate similarities in means, explained variation (R2), and associated P-values (ANOVA/ANCOVA) within and between nonmonastic and monastic samples. We show that non-metric reduced biomarker SFIs provide alternative

  9. Early Miocene andesite conglomerates in the Sierra de Famatina, broken foreland region of western Argentina, and documentation of magmatic broadening in the south Central Andes (United States)

    Dávila, Federico M.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Jordan, Teresa E.; Kay, Suzanne M.


    A thick synorogenic megasequence, known as the Del Crestón Formation, crops out in the Famatina belt in western Argentina. Its coarsening upward arrangement, rotational syntectonic unconformities, and provenance analysis allowed considering this unit as an this unit was an Andean-related foreland succession, although its age and geological meaning have been largely controversial. It unconformably overlies Late Paleozoic (Paganzo Group) red beds and is covered by the Middle-Late Miocene Angulos Group in a faulted contact. No previous geochronologic data constrain this important synorogenic cycle bracketed between the Triassic and the late Neogene. This work provides a set of new ages for andesite boulders recorded in the lowermost volcanogenic conglomerate of the Del Crestón Formation. The andesite boulders provide evidence of backarc volcanism in the external foreland during the Early Miocene (ca. 17 Ma). This volcanic pulse, together with other evidence for Early Miocene volcanism in the Argentine Precordillera, support a previously unrecognized stage of magmatic broadening in the south Central Andes associated with the initiation of shallow subduction and changes in the plate convergence pattern at about 18 Ma. Major progressive unconformities and unroofing history from conglomerates indicate deformation at a proximal foreland depozone and basement involvement (broken foreland stage). This deformation could have occurred coevally with the deposition of distal facies in the Bermejo basin system to the south, suggesting markedly nonuniform Andean foreland development.

  10. Indicators+: a proposal for everyday peace indicators. (United States)

    Mac Ginty, Roger


    Many of the approaches to measuring peace favoured by international organisations, INGOs and donor governments are deficient. Their level of analysis is often too broad or too narrow, and their aggregated statistical format often means that they represent the conflict-affected area in ways that are meaningless to local communities. This article takes the form of a proposal for a new generation of locally organised indicators that are based in everyday life. These indicators are inspired by practice from sustainable development in which indicators are crowd sourced. There is the potential for these to become 'indicators+' or part of a conflict transformation exercise as communities think about what peace might look like and how it could be realised. The article advocates a form of participatory action research that would be able to pick up the textured 'hidden transcript' found in many deeply divided societies and could allow for better targeted peacebuilding and development assistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A working hypothesis for broadening framework types of zeolites in seed-assisted synthesis without organic structure-directing agent. (United States)

    Itabashi, Keiji; Kamimura, Yoshihiro; Iyoki, Kenta; Shimojima, Atsushi; Okubo, Tatsuya


    Recent research has demonstrated a new synthesis route to useful zeolites such as beta, RUB-13, and ZSM-12 via seed-assisted, organic structure-directing agent (OSDA)-free synthesis, although it had been believed that these zeolites could be essentially synthesized with OSDAs. These zeolites are obtained by adding seeds to the gels that otherwise yield other zeolites; however, the underlying crystallization mechanism has not been fully understood yet. Without any strategy, it is unavoidable to employ a trial-and-error procedure for broadening zeolite types by using this synthesis method. In this study, the effect of zeolite seeds with different framework structures is investigated to understand the crystallization mechanism of zeolites obtained by the seed-assisted, OSDA-free synthesis method. It has been found that the key factor in the successful synthesis of zeolites in the absence of OSDA is the common composite building unit contained both in the seeds and in the zeolite obtained from the gel after heating without seeds. A new working hypothesis for broadening zeolite types by the seed-assisted synthesis without OSDA is proposed on the basis of the findings of the common composite building units in zeolites. This hypothesis enables us to design the synthesis condition of target zeolites. The validity of the hypothesis is experimentally tested and verified by synthesizing several zeolites including ECR-18 in K-aluminosilicate system.

  12. Analytic 1D Approximation of the Divertor Broadening S in the Divertor Region for Conductive Heat Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Nille, Dirk; Eich, Thomas


    Topic is the divertor broadening $S$, being a result of perpendicular transport in the scrape-off layer and resulting in a better distribution of the power load onto the divertor target. Recent studies show a scaling of the divertor broadening with an inverse power law to the target temperature $T_t$, promising its reduction to be a way of distributing the power entering the divertor volume onto a large surface area. It is shown that for pure conductive transport in the divertor region the suggested inverse power law scaling to $T_t$ is only valid for high target electron temperatures. For decreasing target temperatures ($T_t < 20\\,$eV) the increase of $S$ stagnates and the conductive model results in a finite value of $S$ even for zero target temperature. It is concluded that the target temperature is no valid parameter for a power law scaling, as it is not representative for the entire divertor volume. This is shown in simulations solving the 2D heat diffusion equation, which is used as reference for an ...

  13. Some Notes on Neutron Up-Scattering and the Doppler-Broadening of High-Z Scattering Resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Donald Kent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    When neutrons are scattered by target nuclei at elevated temperatures, it is entirely possible that the neutron will actually gain energy (i.e., up-scatter) from the interaction. This phenomenon is in addition to the more usual case of the neutron losing energy (i.e., down-scatter). Furthermore, the motion of the target nuclei can also cause extended neutron down-scattering, i.e., the neutrons can and do scatter to energies lower than predicted by the simple asymptotic models. In recent years, more attention has been given to temperature-dependent scattering cross sections for materials in neutron multiplying systems. This has led to the inclusion of neutron up-scatter in deterministic codes like Partisn and to free gas scattering models for material temperature effects in Monte Carlo codes like MCNP and cross section processing codes like NJOY. The free gas scattering models have the effect of Doppler Broadening the scattering cross section output spectra in energy and angle. The current state of Doppler-Broadening numerical techniques used at Los Alamos for scattering resonances will be reviewed, and suggestions will be made for further developments. The focus will be on the free gas scattering models currently in use and the development of new models to include high-Z resonance scattering effects. These models change the neutron up-scattering behavior.

  14. Use of thermocouples and argon line broadening for gas temperature measurement in a radio frequency atmospheric microplasma jet (United States)

    Doyle, S. J.; Xu, K. G.


    This paper presents the use of thermocouples and line broadening of argon 2p-1s emission lines for the measurement of gas temperature of an atmospheric argon microplasma jet. The measured temperatures are compared with rotational spectra fitting of OH (A-X) and N2 (C-B) emission. An rf microplasma jet with two electrical configurations and different temperature ranges was used. The calculated gas temperatures with thermocouples, argon lines, and OH ranged from 290 to 423 K and 393-510 K for the two configurations, depending on the rf power. The temperature from fitting the N2 spectra overestimated the gas temperatures in both configurations (593-680 and 664-853 K). The non-nitrogen temperature measurements agree well with each other within the measurement uncertainty. The results show that not all optical emission temperature methods are appropriate and the accuracy of argon line broadening is dependent on the device configuration. The results also show that conventional thermocouples are surprisingly accurate and viable for these plasmas.

  15. Interventional Audiology: Broadening the Scope of Practice to Meet the Changing Demands of the New Consumer. (United States)

    Taylor, Brian


    Given the growth in the aging population, low hearing uptake rates and the emerging science indicating that age-related hearing loss has long term consequences to health and wellness, an interventional audiology strategy is needed. This paper will define interventional audiology and offer guidance on bringing an interventional audiology to life in clinical practice.

  16. Significances of Multimedia Technologies Training (United States)

    Zhang, Fulei

    The use of multimedia technologies in education has enabled teachers to simulate final outcomes and assist s-tudents in applying knowledge learned from textbooks, thereby compensating for the deficiency of traditional teach- ing methods. It is important to examine how effective these technologies are in practical use. This study developed online learning-teaching resource platforms using Flash multimedia, providing interactive and integrated features in an easy-to-use user interface, in order to discuss Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD). The study utilized a teaching experiment with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design to test and discuss students' professional cognition, operating skill cognition, and level of learning satisfaction during the learning process. No significant differences emerged between the groups in regards to professional cognition or operation skills cognition. However, a significant difference in learning satisfaction was noted, indicating that the coursework with multimedia Flash produced greater satisfaction than with traditional learning methods. Results are explained in detail and recommendations for further research provided.

  17. Monoclonal gammopathies of renal significance. (United States)

    Caravaca-Fontán, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Delgado Lillo, Ramón; Praga, Manuel

    The term monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) comprises a group of diseases pathogenetically characterised by proliferation of a B-cell or plasma cell clone that synthesises and secretes a monoclonal immunoglobulin or its components (light and/or heavy chains), that may deposit and cause glomerular, tubular, interstitial and/or vascular damage. The importance of differentiating the term MGRS from other monoclonal gammopathies lies in the fact that diagnostic and therapeutic procedures aimed at controlling monoclonal protein synthesis and secretion can be indicated, irrespective of the classic criteria based on malignant tumour expansion. Renal pathology associated with MGRS is highly heterogeneous, and therefore renal biopsy should be considered a key diagnostic tool. A precise diagnostic approach, however, must also identify the monoclonal protein in plasma and/or in urine, together with a complete haematological study in order to determine the nature and extension of cell clones. Recent advances in the understanding of these entities have resulted in significant improvements in clinical course and survival in several forms of MGRS, although more studies and clinical experience are needed in order to delineate more effective therapeutic strategies. In this review, we summarise the main clinical and pathological features of MGRS, highlighting the most appropriate diagnostic approach and current therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Implementation of On-the-Fly Doppler Broadening in MCNP5 for Multiphysics Simulation of Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Martin


    A new method to obtain Doppler broadened cross sections has been implemented into MCNP, removing the need to generate cross sections for isotopes at problem temperatures. Previous work had established the scientific feasibility of obtaining Doppler-broadened cross sections "on-the-fly" (OTF) during the random walk of the neutron. Thus, when a neutron of energy E enters a material region that is at some temperature T, the cross sections for that material at the exact temperature T are immediately obtained by interpolation using a high order functional expansion for the temperature dependence of the Doppler-broadened cross section for that isotope at the neutron energy E. A standalone Fortran code has been developed that generates the OTF library for any isotope that can be processed by NJOY. The OTF cross sections agree with the NJOY-based cross sections for all neutron energies and all temperatures in the range specified by the user, e.g., 250K - 3200K. The OTF methodology has been successfully implemented into the MCNP Monte Carlo code and has been tested on several test problems by comparing MCNP with conventional ACE cross sections versus MCNP with OTF cross sections. The test problems include the Doppler defect reactivity benchmark suite and two full-core VHTR configurations, including one with multiphysics coupling using RELAP5-3D/ATHENA for the thermal-hydraulic analysis. The comparison has been excellent, verifying that the OTF libraries can be used in place of the conventional ACE libraries generated at problem temperatures. In addition, it has been found that using OTF cross sections greatly reduces the complexity of the input for MCNP, especially for full-core temperature feedback calculations with many temperature regions. This results in an order of magnitude decrease in the number of input lines for full-core configurations, thus simplifying input preparation and reducing the potential for input errors. Finally, for full-core problems with multiphysics

  19. Broadening of neutralization activity to directly block a dominant antibody-driven SARS-coronavirus evolution pathway. (United States)

    Sui, Jianhua; Aird, Daniel R; Tamin, Azaibi; Murakami, Akikazu; Yan, Meiying; Yammanuru, Anuradha; Jing, Huaiqi; Kan, Biao; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Quan; Yuan, Qing-An; Adams, Gregory P; Bellini, William J; Xu, Jianguo; Anderson, Larry J; Marasco, Wayne A


    Phylogenetic analyses have provided strong evidence that amino acid changes in spike (S) protein of animal and human SARS coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs) during and between two zoonotic transfers (2002/03 and 2003/04) are the result of positive selection. While several studies support that some amino acid changes between animal and human viruses are the result of inter-species adaptation, the role of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in driving SARS-CoV evolution, particularly during intra-species transmission, is unknown. A detailed examination of SARS-CoV infected animal and human convalescent sera could provide evidence of nAb pressure which, if found, may lead to strategies to effectively block virus evolution pathways by broadening the activity of nAbs. Here we show, by focusing on a dominant neutralization epitope, that contemporaneous- and cross-strain nAb responses against SARS-CoV spike protein exist during natural infection. In vitro immune pressure on this epitope using 2002/03 strain-specific nAb 80R recapitulated a dominant escape mutation that was present in all 2003/04 animal and human viruses. Strategies to block this nAb escape/naturally occurring evolution pathway by generating broad nAbs (BnAbs) with activity against 80R escape mutants and both 2002/03 and 2003/04 strains were explored. Structure-based amino acid changes in an activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) "hot spot" in a light chain CDR (complementarity determining region) alone, introduced through shuffling of naturally occurring non-immune human VL chain repertoire or by targeted mutagenesis, were successful in generating these BnAbs. These results demonstrate that nAb-mediated immune pressure is likely a driving force for positive selection during intra-species transmission of SARS-CoV. Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of a single VL CDR can markedly broaden the activity of a strain-specific nAb. The strategies investigated in this study, in particular the use of structural information in

  20. Statistical significance of quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazza Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCR has the potential to detect and precisely quantify specific DNA sequences, but it is not yet often used as a fully quantitative method. A number of data collection and processing strategies have been described for the implementation of quantitative PCR. However, they can be experimentally cumbersome, their relative performances have not been evaluated systematically, and they often remain poorly validated statistically and/or experimentally. In this study, we evaluated the performance of known methods, and compared them with newly developed data processing strategies in terms of resolution, precision and robustness. Results Our results indicate that simple methods that do not rely on the estimation of the efficiency of the PCR amplification may provide reproducible and sensitive data, but that they do not quantify DNA with precision. Other evaluated methods based on sigmoidal or exponential curve fitting were generally of both poor resolution and precision. A statistical analysis of the parameters that influence efficiency indicated that it depends mostly on the selected amplicon and to a lesser extent on the particular biological sample analyzed. Thus, we devised various strategies based on individual or averaged efficiency values, which were used to assess the regulated expression of several genes in response to a growth factor. Conclusion Overall, qPCR data analysis methods differ significantly in their performance, and this analysis identifies methods that provide DNA quantification estimates of high precision, robustness and reliability. These methods allow reliable estimations of relative expression ratio of two-fold or higher, and our analysis provides an estimation of the number of biological samples that have to be analyzed to achieve a given precision.

  1. Minimization of geometric-beam broadening in a grating-based time-domain delay line for optical coherence tomography application. (United States)

    Jiang, Zhen; Zhu, Quing; Piao, Daqing


    This paper discusses a dispersion effect in a grating-based time-domain delay line that is different from the second- or higher-order dispersion in a grating-based Fourier-domain delay line. When the lateral broadening of the beam profile after grating dispersion exceeds the collection aperture of the reference fiber, the peripheral spectrum is decoupled by the fiber. The loss of reference spectral bandwidth by this geometric-beam broadening thus degrades the axial resolution. The polarizing-beam reflector used in the Fourier-domain delay line for suppression of lateral beam walk-off is implemented in this grating-based time-domain delay line to minimize geometric-beam broadening. Theoretical analysis and experiments are given to validate the axial resolution improvement after geometric-beam broadening is minimized. In vitro and in vivo imaging results are presented to demonstrate the improvement. It is also shown that geometric-beam broadening may exist in other optical coherence tomography reference arm configurations.

  2. Matrix-M (TM) adjuvation broadens protection induced by seasonal trivalent virosomal influenza vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, Freek; Saeland, Eirikur; Baart, Matthijs; Koldijk, Martin; Tolboom, Jeroen; Dekking, Liesbeth; Koudstaal, Wouter; Lövgren Bengtsson, Karin; Goudsmit, Jaap; Radošević, Katarina


    Background: Influenza virus infections are responsible for significant morbidity worldwide and therefore it remains a high priority to develop more broadly protective vaccines. Adjuvation of current seasonal influenza vaccines has the potential to achieve this goal. Methods: To assess the immune

  3. Broadening the Meaning of Citizenship Education: Native Americans and Tribal Nationhood (United States)

    Haynes Writer, Jeanette


    The reality of tribal nationhood and the dual citizenship that Native Americans carry in their tribal nations and the United States significantly expands the definition and parameters of citizen education. Citizenship education means including and understanding the historical and political contexts of all U.S. citizens--especially, those…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ayadi


    Full Text Available The simplest model of the laser is that of a single mode system homogenously broadened. The dynamical behavior of this laser is described by three differential equations, called Haken-Lorenz equations[1],  similar to the Lorenz model [1] already known to predict deterministic chaos. In previous recent work [5-7] we have proposed a simple harmonic expansion method to obtain a series of harmonics terms that yield analytical solutions to the laser equations. ¶This method allows us to derive an analytical expression of the laser field amplitude  when this last  undergoes a  periodic oscillations around zero mean value. We also obtain an analytical expression of the pulsing frequency.

  5. The influence of radiation and light on Ps formation in PMMA and PE studied by coincidence Doppler-broadening spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, T; Shantarovich, V; Kondo, K; Hamada, E; Matso, M; Ma Li; Ito, Y


    Using two Ge detectors, the high-resolution Doppler-broadening energy spectra of positron annihilation gamma rays has been obtained by measuring the coincidences of the two photons. Light bleaching and oxygen effects on positron annihilation were investigated in this way. A large enhancement of the high-momentum part of the coincidence Doppler spectra was observed in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), which contains oxygen atoms in the polymer structure. Bleaching experiments in PMMA and in copolymer ethylene-methylmethacrylate EMMA (LDPE+MMA 3 mol%) have demonstrated that the enhancement effect may be due to the trapping of positrons by the polar -C sup + 6-O sup - groups, followed by positron annihilation with the electrons belonging to oxygen.

  6. Mechanism of electrically induced photonic band gap broadening in polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals with negative dielectric anisotropies. (United States)

    Nemati, Hossein; Liu, Shiyi; Zola, Rafael S; Tondiglia, Vincent P; Lee, Kyung Min; White, Timothy; Bunning, Timothy; Yang, Deng-Ke


    We experimentally observed that the photonic band gap (reflection band) of polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals with negative dielectric anisotropies can be greatly broadened under DC electric fields. We explored the underlying mechanism. We found that the dispersed polymer network moved when DC voltages were applied across the liquid crystal cell. The motion of the polymer network stretched the helical pitch of the liquid crystal on one side of the cell and compressed the helical pitch on the other side of the cell. We proposed a phenomenological theory to explain the motion of the polymer network and the effect of the polymer network on the helical pitch, and this theoretical prediction agreed well with the experimental results.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar


    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is

  8. Broadening the repertoire of melanoma-associated T-cell epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Lyngaa, Rikke Birgitte; Met, Özcan


    Immune therapy has provided a significant breakthrough in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Despite the remarkable clinical efficacy and established involvement of effector CD8 T cells, the knowledge of the exact peptide-MHC complexes recognized by T cells on the tumor cell surface is limited...... the appropriate antigen and HLA molecule. We further found T-cell reactivity against two of the identified sequences among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from melanoma patients, suggesting a potential clinical relevance of these sequences....

  9. Geomagnetic aa Indices (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  10. Measurements of linestrengths, N2-, Ar-, He- and self-broadening coefficients of acetylene in the ν4+ν5 combination band using a cw quantum cascade laser

    KAUST Repository

    Sajid, Muhammad Bilal


    Linestrengths, N2-, Ar-, He- and self-broadening coefficients of acetylene have been measured at 296K in the P branch of the ν4+ν5 combination band for 25 rotational transitions. The effect of gas temperature is studied over 296-683K for five transitions to allow the determination of the temperature dependent exponent n for N2- and Ar-broadening coefficients. These measurements were performed using a continuous-wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) operating over 1253-1310cm-1. Spectroscopic parameters were obtained by fitting absorption spectra using Voigt, Galatry and Rautian profiles. Linestrength and broadening results are compared with previous studies available in literature for the ν4+ν5 combination band and other vibrational bands of acetylene. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Measurements of linestrengths, N2-, Ar-, He- and self-broadening coefficients of acetylene in the ν4+ν5 combination band using a cw quantum cascade laser (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Bilal; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Farooq, Aamir


    Linestrengths, N2-, Ar-, He- and self-broadening coefficients of acetylene have been measured at 296 K in the P branch of the ν4+ν5 combination band for 25 rotational transitions. The effect of gas temperature is studied over 296-683 K for five transitions to allow the determination of the temperature dependent exponent n for N2- and Ar-broadening coefficients. These measurements were performed using a continuous-wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) operating over 1253-1310 cm-1. Spectroscopic parameters were obtained by fitting absorption spectra using Voigt, Galatry and Rautian profiles. Linestrength and broadening results are compared with previous studies available in literature for the ν4+ν5 combination band and other vibrational bands of acetylene.

  12. 10 GHz frequency comb spectral broadening in AlGaAs-on-Insulator nano-waveguide with ultra-low pump power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Pu, Minhao; Yvind, Kresten


    We experimentally demonstrated 10 GHz frequency comb spectral broadening with a 30-dB bandwidth of 238 nm in an 11-mm long AlGaAsOI nano-waveguide. The 10-GHz 230-fs pump pulse has an average power of only 12 mW.......We experimentally demonstrated 10 GHz frequency comb spectral broadening with a 30-dB bandwidth of 238 nm in an 11-mm long AlGaAsOI nano-waveguide. The 10-GHz 230-fs pump pulse has an average power of only 12 mW....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Arshinov


    Full Text Available The technique of simultaneous determination of the spontaneous emission probabilities Аmn and the collision self-broadening coefficients γmn of the СО2 spectral lines is presented. The dependence of the absorption coefficient on the gas pressure, obtained for the СО210R22 line at temperature 300 K was measured. Using the data, the spontaneous emission probability Аmn and the collision self-broadening coefficient γmn were calculated.

  14. Broadened population-level frequency tuning in the auditory cortex of tinnitus patients. (United States)

    Sekiya, Kenichi; Takahashi, Mariko; Murakami, Shingo; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Okamoto, Hidehiko


    Tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception without an external sound source and is one of the most common public health concerns that impair the quality of life of many individuals. However, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. We herein examined population-level frequency tuning in the auditory cortex of unilateral tinnitus patients with similar hearing levels in both ears using magnetoencephalography. We compared auditory-evoked neural activities elicited by a stimulation to the tinnitus and nontinnitus ears. Objective magnetoencephalographic data suggested that population-level frequency tuning corresponding to the tinnitus ear was significantly broader than that corresponding to the nontinnitus ear in the human auditory cortex. The results obtained support the hypothesis that pathological alterations in inhibitory neural networks play an important role in the perception of subjective tinnitus.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although subjective tinnitus is one of the most common public health concerns that impair the quality of life of many individuals, no standard treatment or objective diagnostic method currently exists. We herein revealed that population-level frequency tuning was significantly broader in the tinnitus ear than in the nontinnitus ear. The results of the present study provide an insight into the development of an objective diagnostic method for subjective tinnitus. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. An inquiry into the use of stories about scientists from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds in broadening grade one students' images of science and scientists (United States)

    Sharkawy, Azza

    Students' "images of science" (Driver, Leach, Millar & Scott, 1996) and their images of scientists are widely accepted as important aspects of their scientific literacy (National Research Council, 1996) and have important implications for how they learn and engage with science in a classroom context (Hofer, 2001). While numerous studies have documented primary (grades 1 to 3) students' stereotypic images of scientists as sexist, racist, asocial, few have examined instructional strategies effective in broadening these views. Studies (Solomon, Duveen & Scott, 1994; Tao, 2003) involving intermediate and senior students have suggested that science stories can help students develop more authentic views of the nature of science. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how stories about scientists from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds (i.e., physical ability, gender, ethnicity), presented over a 15-week period, influence grade one students' images of science and scientists. Data sources included: pre and post audiotaped interviews, draw-a-scientist-test (Chambers, 1983), participant observation and student work. Results indicated that while students' stereotypic images of scientists were not eliminated, students acquired additional images more inclusive of less dominant socio-cultural backgrounds. Gains were noted in students' images of the purpose of science, the nature of scientific work and the social nature of scientific work. Less positive results involving student resistance to non-stereotypic images of scientists and a loss of interest in becoming a scientist highlight the complexity of using stories about scientists with primary students. The implications of these findings for research and classroom practice are discussed.

  16. Geoscience Alliance--A National Alliance for Broadening Participation of Native Americans in the Geosciences (United States)

    Dalbotten, D. M.; Pellerin, H.; Greensky, L.; Burger, A.


    The continuing underrepresentation of Native Americans in the geosciences can only mean that native voices go unheard in setting research agendas and priorities. This is particularly significant where issues such as global climate change impact the land and livelihood of Native American communities. This talk will outline progress towards a Geoscience Alliance, with participation by faculty from tribal colleges, universities, and research centers; native elders and community members; students (K12, undergraduate, and graduate); formal and informal educators; and other interested individuals. Our focus will be on defining goals for this alliance, i.e., new research in Geoscience education, defining best practices, inclusion of Native voices in Geoscience research, the potential for new collaborations, and promotion of opportunities for Native students and communities.

  17. Population genetics of a trochid gastropod broadens picture of Caribbean Sea connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Díaz-Ferguson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regional genetic connectivity models are critical for successful conservation and management of marine species. Even though rocky shore invertebrates have been used as model systems to understand genetic structure in some marine environments, our understanding of connectivity in Caribbean communities is based overwhelmingly on studies of tropical fishes and corals. In this study, we investigate population connectivity and diversity of Cittarium pica, an abundant rocky shore trochid gastropod that is commercially harvested across its natural range, from the Bahamas to Venezuela. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested for genetic structure using DNA sequence variation at the mitochondrial COI and 16S loci, AMOVA and distance-based methods. We found substantial differentiation among Caribbean sites. Yet, genetic differentiation was associated only with larger geographic scales within the Caribbean, and the pattern of differentiation only partially matched previous assessments of Caribbean connectivity, including those based on larval dispersal from hydrodynamic models. For instance, the Bahamas, considered an independent region by previous hydrodynamic studies, showed strong association with Eastern Caribbean sites in our study. Further, Bonaire (located in the east and close to the meridional division of the Caribbean basin seems to be isolated from other Eastern sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The significant genetic structure and observed in C. pica has some commonalities in pattern with more commonly sampled taxa, but presents features, such as the differentiation of Bonaire, that appear unique. Further, the level of differentiation, together with regional patterns of diversity, has important implications for the application of conservation and management strategies in this commercially harvested species.

  18. HIV-1 superinfection in women broadens and strengthens the neutralizing antibody response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cortez

    Full Text Available Identifying naturally-occurring neutralizing antibodies (NAb that are cross-reactive against all global subtypes of HIV-1 is an important step toward the development of a vaccine. Establishing the host and viral determinants for eliciting such broadly NAbs is also critical for immunogen design. NAb breadth has previously been shown to be positively associated with viral diversity. Therefore, we hypothesized that superinfected individuals develop a broad NAb response as a result of increased antigenic stimulation by two distinct viruses. To test this hypothesis, plasma samples from 12 superinfected women each assigned to three singly infected women were tested against a panel of eight viruses representing four different HIV-1 subtypes at matched time points post-superinfection (~5 years post-initial infection. Here we show superinfected individuals develop significantly broader NAb responses post-superinfection when compared to singly infected individuals (RR = 1.68, CI: 1.23-2.30, p = 0.001. This was true even after controlling for NAb breadth developed prior to superinfection, contemporaneous CD4+ T cell count and viral load. Similarly, both unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed significantly greater potency in superinfected cases compared to controls. Notably, two superinfected individuals were able to neutralize variants from four different subtypes at plasma dilutions >1∶300, suggesting that their NAbs exhibit elite activity. Cross-subtype breadth was detected within a year of superinfection in both of these individuals, which was within 1.5 years of their initial infection. These data suggest that sequential infections lead to augmentation of the NAb response, a process that may provide insight into potential mechanisms that contribute to the development of antibody breadth. Therefore, a successful vaccination strategy that mimics superinfection may lead to the development of broad NAbs in immunized individuals.

  19. Dissipation peak as an indicator of sample inhomogeneity in solid $^4$He oscillator experiments


    Huse, David A.; Khandker, Zuhair U.


    A simple phenomenological model is developed for the recent torsional oscillator experiments on solid $^4$He. Within this model, for a homogeneous sample there is a specific quantitative relation between the change in the oscillator's frequency and its maximum damping at the apparent supersolid transition. Much of the published data do not satisfy this relation, indicating that the dissipation peaks in those samples are strongly inhomogeneously broadened.

  20. The Arabidopsis thaliana TCP transcription factors: A broadening horizon beyond development. (United States)

    Li, Shutian


    The TCP family of transcription factors is named after the first 4 characterized members, namely TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1) from maize (Zea mays), CYCLOIDEA (CYC) from snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), as well as PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN FACTOR1 (PCF1) and PCF2 from rice (Oryza sativa). Phylogenic analysis of this plant-specific protein family unveils a conserved bHLH-containing DNA-binding motif known as the TCP domain. In accordance with the structure of this shared domain, TCP proteins are grouped into class I (TCP-P) and class II (TCP-C), which are suggested to antagonistically modulate plant growth and development via competitively binding similar cis-regulatory modules called site II elements. Over the last decades, TCPs across the plant kingdom have been demonstrated to control a plethora of plant processes. Notably, TCPs also regulate plant development and defense responses via stimulating the biosynthetic pathways of bioactive metabolites, such as brassinosteroid (BR), jasmonic acid (JA) and flavonoids. Besides, mutagenesis analysis coupled with biochemical experiments identifies several crucial amino acids located within the TCP domain, which confer the redox sensitivity of class I TCPs and determine the distinct DNA-binding properties of TCPs. In this review, developmental functions of TCPs in various biological pathways are briefly described with an emphasis on their involvement in the synthesis of bioactive substances. Furthermore, novel biochemical aspects of TCPs with respect to redox regulation and DNA-binding preferences are elaborated. In addition, the unexpected participation of TCPs in effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and defense against insects indicates that the widely recognized developmental regulators are capable of fine-tuning defense signaling and thereby enable plants to evade deleterious developmental phenotypes. Altogether, these recent impressive breakthroughs remarkably advance our understanding as to how TCPs integrate

  1. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky


    . In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them......Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed...

  2. Faulty cardiac repolarization reserve in alternating hemiplegia of childhood broadens the phenotype. (United States)

    Jaffer, Fatima; Avbersek, Andreja; Vavassori, Rosaria; Fons, Carmen; Campistol, Jaume; Stagnaro, Michela; De Grandis, Elisa; Veneselli, Edvige; Rosewich, Hendrik; Gianotta, Melania; Zucca, Claudio; Ragona, Francesca; Granata, Tiziana; Nardocci, Nardo; Mikati, Mohamed; Helseth, Ashley R; Boelman, Cyrus; Minassian, Berge A; Johns, Sophia; Garry, Sarah I; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Carrilho, Ines; Aylett, Sarah E; Parton, Matthew; Hanna, Michael G; Houlden, Henry; Neville, Brian; Kurian, Manju A; Novy, Jan; Sander, Josemir W; Lambiase, Pier D; Behr, Elijah R; Schyns, Tsveta; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Cross, J Helen; Kaski, Juan P; Sisodiya, Sanjay M


    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a rare disorder caused by de novo mutations in the ATP1A3 gene, expressed in neurons and cardiomyocytes. As affected individuals may survive into adulthood, we use the term 'alternating hemiplegia'. The disorder is characterized by early-onset, recurrent, often alternating, hemiplegic episodes; seizures and non-paroxysmal neurological features also occur. Dysautonomia may occur during hemiplegia or in isolation. Premature mortality can occur in this patient group and is not fully explained. Preventable cardiorespiratory arrest from underlying cardiac dysrhythmia may be a cause. We analysed ECG recordings of 52 patients with alternating hemiplegia from nine countries: all had whole-exome, whole-genome, or direct Sanger sequencing of ATP1A3. Data on autonomic dysfunction, cardiac symptoms, medication, and family history of cardiac disease or sudden death were collected. All had 12-lead electrocardiogram recordings available for cardiac axis, cardiac interval, repolarization pattern, and J-point analysis. Where available, historical and prolonged single-lead electrocardiogram recordings during electrocardiogram-videotelemetry were analysed. Half the cohort (26/52) had resting 12-lead electrocardiogram abnormalities: 25/26 had repolarization (T wave) abnormalities. These abnormalities were significantly more common in people with alternating hemiplegia than in an age-matched disease control group of 52 people with epilepsy. The average corrected QT interval was significantly shorter in people with alternating hemiplegia than in the disease control group. J wave or J-point changes were seen in six people with alternating hemiplegia. Over half the affected cohort (28/52) had intraventricular conduction delay, or incomplete right bundle branch block, a much higher proportion than in the normal population or disease control cohort (P = 0.0164). Abnormalities in alternating hemiplegia were more common in those ≥16 years old, compared

  3. Broadening cultural sensitivity at the end of life: an interprofessional education program incorporating critical reflection. (United States)

    Halm, Margo A; Evans, Rhonda; Wittenberg, Amie; Wilgus, Edward


    BACKGROUND/PROBLEM: End-of-life beliefs and practices are as varied as one's culture. Little is known about what interventions are effective in developing clinician's skills to deliver culturally sensitive end-of-life care. Using a pre-post design, this pilot study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 2-stage educational program on enhancing clinician's knowledge and comfort in addressing and honoring diverse end-of-life care beliefs, as well as developing higher levels of cultural competence. Twenty-four interprofessional team members practicing on a combined medical-surgical oncology unit attended an in-service session on the end-of-life care beliefs, practices, and preferences of the Latino, Russian, and Micronesian cultures and then participated in critical reflection sessions where culturally specific end-of-life care cases were discussed using a structured dialogue guide. Outcomes measured were cultural competence using the Intercultural Development Inventory, Frommelt Attitudes Toward Caring of the Dying, knowledge of cultural beliefs/traditions, and self-perceived comfort in providing culturally sensitive end-of-life care. Collectively, the Intercultural Development Inventory showed that the team's perceived cultural competence was at the level of "acceptance" whereas team's developmental orientation was "minimization," meaning that the team overestimated its cultural competence. The t tests showed no significant differences between pre-post attitude and knowledge scores (P > .05). Despite these findings, staffs' perceived level of understanding of end-of-life care beliefs, preferences, and practices of the Latino, Russian, and Micronesian cultures, as well as comfort and effectiveness in providing culturally sensitive end-of-life care, were higher after the in-service and critical reflection sessions (P intercultural development continuum, nor did it significantly change knowledge and attitudes, likely due to the small sample and that maturity in cultural

  4. VP Ellipsis without Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel; Asher, Nicholas; Hunter, Julie


    This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations....... On the process view, an index is not a syntactic object at all, but rather, an indication of the output of a resolution process.In this paper we argue that a recent body of data provides a clear empirical basis for distinguishing between these two views of indices. We argue that cases of sloppy VP ellipsis pose...

  5. Climate Change Indicators (United States)

    Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.

  6. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim


    During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project was a fr......During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... regulations in the countries participating in CREDIT. The Performance Indicator Framework encompassed 187 indicators grouped in 7 main groups of indicators and 42 sub-groups. Based on the CREDIT case studies it was concluded that there neither is link between certain indicators and specific building types...

  7. eHealth indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HYPPÖNEN, Hannele; AMMENWERTH, Elske; Nøhr, Christian


    eHealth indicators are needed to measure defined aspects of national eHealth implementations. However, until now, eHealth indicators are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore, an expert workshop "Towards an International Minimum Dataset for Monitoring National Health Information System Implementations......" was organized. The objective was to develop ideas for a minimum eHealth indicator set. The proposed ideas for indicators were classified based on EUnetHTA and De-Lone & McClean, and classification was compared with health IT evaluation criteria classification by Ammenwerth & Keizer. Analysis of the workshop...... in management of eHealth systems....

  8. Addressing Issues of Broadening Participation Highlighted in the Report on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Iverson, E. A. R.


    The final report for the Summit on the Future of Geoscience Education lays out a consensus on issues that must be tackled by the geoscience community collectively if there are to be enough qualified people to fill the large number of expected geoscience job vacancies over the coming decade. Focus areas cited in the report include: Strengthening the connections between two-year colleges and four-year institutions Sharing and making use of successful recruitment and retention practices for students from underrepresented groups Making students aware of high-quality job prospects in the geosciences as well as its societal relevance The InTeGrate STEP Center for the Geosciences, the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) program, and the Building Strong Geoscience Departments (BSGD) project together have developed a suite of web resources to help faculty and program leaders begin to address these and other issues. These resources address practices that support the whole student, both in the classroom and as a part of the co-curriculum as well as information on geoscience careers, guidance for developing coherent degree programs, practical advice for mentoring and advising, and many others. In addition to developing web resources, InTeGrate has also undertaken an effort to profile successful program practices at a variety of institutions. An analysis of these data shows several common themes (e.g. proactive marketing, community building, research experiences) that align well with the existing literature on what works to support student success. But there are also indications of different approaches and emphases between Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) and Primarily White Institutions (PWIs) as well as between different kinds of MSIs. Highlighting the different strategies in use can point both MSIs and PWIs to possible alternate solutions to the challenges their students face. InTeGrate - http

  9. A QTL that enhances and broadens Bt insect resistance in soybean. (United States)

    Walker, David R; Narvel, James M; Boerma, H Roger; All, John N; Parrott, Wayne A


    Effective strategies are needed to manage insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins expressed in transgenic crops. To evaluate a multiple resistance gene pyramiding strategy, eight soybean (Glycine max) lines possessing factorial combinations of two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from plant introduction (PI) 229358 and a synthetic Bt cry1Ac gene were developed using marker-assisted selection with simple sequence repeat markers. Field studies were conducted in 2000 and 2001 to evaluate resistance to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea) and soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens), and detached leaf bioassays were used to test antibiosis resistance to Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible strains of tobacco budworm (TBW; Heliothis virescens). Based on defoliation in the field and larval weight gain on detached leaves, lines carrying a combination of cry1Ac and the PI 229358 allele at a QTL on linkage group M were significantly more resistant to the lepidopteran pests, including the Bt-resistant TBW strain, than were the other lines. This is the first report of a complementary additive effect between a Bt transgene and a plant insect resistance QTL with an uncharacterized mode of action that was introgressed using marker-assisted selection.

  10. Broadening the absorption bandwidth of metamaterial absorbers by transverse magnetic harmonics of 210 mode (United States)

    Long, Chang; Yin, Sheng; Wang, Wei; Li, Wei; Zhu, Jianfei; Guan, Jianguo


    By investigating a square-shaped metamaterial structure we discover that wave diffraction at diagonal corners of such a structure excites transverse magnetic harmonics of 210 mode (TM210 harmonics). Multi-layer overlapping and deliberately regulating period length between adjacent unit cells can significantly enhance TM210 harmonics, leading to a strong absorption waveband. On such a basis, a design strategy is proposed to achieve broadband, thin-thickness multi-layered metamaterial absorbers (MMAs). In this strategy big pyramidal arrays placed in the “white blanks” of a chessboard exhibit two isolated absorption bands due to their fundamental and TM210 harmonics, which are further connected by another absorption band from small pyramidal arrays in the “black blanks” of the chessboard. The as-designed MMA at a total thickness (h) of 4.36 mm shows an absorption of above 0.9 in the whole frequency range of 7–18 GHz, which is 38% broader with respect to previous design methods at the same h. This strategy provides an effective route to extend the absorption bandwidth of MMAs without increasing h. PMID:26888365

  11. Characterization of temporal pulse broadening for horizontal propagation in strong anisotropic atmospheric turbulence. (United States)

    Chen, Chunyi; Yang, Huamin; Tong, Shoufeng; Ren, Bin; Li, Yanfang


    The on-axis two-frequency mutual coherence function (MCF) for beam waves propagating along a horizontal path in strong anisotropic atmospheric turbulence is theoretically formulated by making use of the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. Based on this formulation, a new closed-form expression for the mean square temporal width of Gaussian-beam-wave pulses passing horizontally through strong anisotropic atmospheric turbulence is developed. With the help of this expression, the increments of mean square temporal pulse width due to strong anisotropic atmospheric turbulence under various conditions are further calculated. Results show that the increment of mean square temporal pulse width due to strong anisotropic atmospheric turbulence is basically proportional to the effective anisotropic factor in most situations of interest, with the possible exception of cases in which both the Fresnel ratio and spectral index become relatively small; increasing the effective anisotropic factor can reduce the number of the said exceptions; the turbulence-induced increment of mean square temporal pulse width enlarges as the spectral index increases with a fixed value of the nondimensional turbulence-strength parameter. It is also illustrated that a significant enlargement in the turbulence-induced increment of mean square temporal pulse width occurs by changing the Fresnel ratio from a large to a tiny value if both the effective anisotropic factor and spectral index are relatively small.

  12. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.


    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  13. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Construction Of Technology theory as a frame for the studies. It is concluded that it is not possible to develop a common set of indicators that all the central actors in the building sector find acceptable - at least not in a near future. Different sets of solutions are, however, outlined in the thesis......, creating an essential basis for future indicator development....

  14. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven


    Construction Of Technology theory as a frame for the studies. It is concluded that it is not possible to develop a common set of indicators that all the central actors in the building sector find acceptable - at least not in a near future. Different sets of solutions are, however, outlined in the thesis......, creating an essential basis for future indicator development....

  15. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  16. Influence of Doppler broadening and spontaneously generated coherence on propagation effect in a quasi lambda-type four-level system (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Bo; Liang, Ying; Jia, Ke-Ning; Fan, Xi-Jun


    In this paper we study influences of Doppler broadening, spontaneously generated coherence, and other system parameters on propagation effect in a quasi lambda-type four-level atomic system. It is shown that when the Doppler broadening is present, generally speaking, the values of gain and intensity of lasing without inversion (i.e. the probe field) in the co-propagating probe and driving fields case are much larger than those in the counter-propagating case; considerably larger gain and intensity of lasing without inversion than those without the Doppler broadening can be obtained by choosing appropriate values of the Doppler broadening width and spontaneously generated coherence strength. The gain and intensity of lasing without inversion increase with the increase of spontaneously generated coherence strength; when spontaneously generated coherence is present, much larger gain and intensity of lasing without inversion than those in the case without spontaneously generated coherence can be obtained. Choosing suitable values of the probe detuning, Rabi frequencies of the driving and pump fields at the entrance of the medium also can remarkably enhance the gain and intensity of lasing without inversion.

  17. Temperature dependences of self- and N2-broadened line-shape parameters in the ν3 and ν5 bands of 12CH3D: Measurements and calculations (United States)

    Predoi-Cross, A.; Malathy Devi, V.; Sutradhar, P.; Sinyakova, T.; Buldyreva, J.; Sung, K.; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.


    This paper presents the results of a spectroscopic line shape study of self- and nitrogen-broadened 12CH3D transitions in the ν3 and ν5 bands in the Triad region. We combined five pure gas spectra with eighteen spectra of lean mixtures of 12CH3D and nitrogen, all recorded with a Bruker IFS-125 HR Fourier transform spectrometer. The spectra have been analyzed simultaneously using a multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique. N2-broadened line parameters for 184 transitions in the ν3 band and 205 transitions in the ν5 band were measured. In addition, line positions and line intensities were measured for 168 transitions in the ν3 band and 214 transitions in the ν5 band. We have observed 10 instances of weak line mixing corresponding to K″=3 A1 or A2 transitions. Comparisons were made for the N2-broadening coefficients and associated temperature exponents with corresponding values calculated using a semi-classical Robert Bonamy type formalism that involved an inter-molecular potential with terms corresponding to short- and long-range interactions, and exact classical molecular trajectories. The theoretical N2-broadened coefficients are overestimated for high J values, but are in good agreement with the experimental values for small and middle range J values.

  18. From the NSF: The National Science Foundation's Investments in Broadening Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education through Research and Capacity Building (United States)

    James, Sylvia M.; Singer, Susan R.


    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has a long history of investment in broadening participation (BP) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. A review of past NSF BP efforts provides insights into how the portfolio of programs and activities has evolved and the broad array of innovative strategies that has been…

  19. Collision induced broadening of ν1 band and ground state spectral lines of sulfur dioxide perturbed by N2 and O2 (United States)

    Ceselin, Giorgia; Tasinato, Nicola; Puzzarini, Cristina; Charmet, Andrea Pietropolli; Stoppa, Paolo; Giorgianni, Santi


    To monitor the constituents and trace pollutants of Earth atmosphere and understand its evolution, accurate spectroscopic parameters are fundamental information. SO2 is produced by both natural and anthropogenic sources and it is one of the principal causes of acid rains as well as an important component of fine aerosol particles, once oxidized to sulfate. The present work aims at determining SO2 broadening parameters using N2 and O2 as atmospherically relevant damping gases. Measurements are carried out in the infrared (IR) and mm-/sub-mm wave regions, around 8.8 μm and in the 104 GHz-1.1 THz interval, respectively. IR ro-vibrational transitions are recorded by using a tunable diode laser spectrometer, whereas the microwave spectra are recorded by using a frequency-modulated millimeter-/submillimeter-wave spectrometer. SO2-N2 and SO2-O2 collisional cross sections are retrieved for several ν1 band ro-vibrational transitions of 32S16O2, for some transitions belonging to either ν1 + ν2 - ν2 of 32S16O2 or ν1 of 34S16O2 as well as for about 20 pure rotational transitions in the vibrational ground state of the main isotopic species. From N2- and O2- broadening coefficients the broadening parameters of SO2 in air are derived. The work is completed with the study of the dependence of foreign broadening coefficients on the rotational quantum numbers.

  20. [Current indications for surgical treatment of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism]. (United States)

    Luisetto, G; Camozzi, V


    The clinical picture of hyperparathyroidism has gone toward deep modifications in the last few decades, and currently this disease is more frequently asymptomatic. So, the question is raising concerning which patients have to be operated, due to the substantial benignity of the disease and the lack of well defined symptoms. Classical indications for surgery have been formulated more than a decade ago and are as follows: calcemia higher than 3 mmol/L, previous episode of life threatening hypercalcaemia, reduced creatinine clearance, nephrolithiasis, hypercalciuria, osteoporosis. In the last years other indications have been added, on the basis of clinical and epidemiological studies that have contributed to broaden our knowledgement on the evolution and compliances of the disease. Among these, the following data have to been kept in mind: history of previous atraumatic fractures, vertebral osteopenia (Z-score < -2), vitamin D deficiency, perimenopausal status, neuromuscular or psychical disturbances.

  1. Arctic Indicators of Change (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Druckenmiller, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Gerst, M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kenney, M. A.; Meier, W.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J. C.; Trainor, S.


    The Arctic is undergoing unprecedented change. Indicators of change enable better decision-making at the community to policy levels. The results presented here focus on a subset of physical, biological, societal, and economic indicators of Arctic change recommended in one of a group of papers emanating from the earlier National Climate Indicators System (NCIS) work led by Kenney et al. (2016). The intent of the NCIS was to establish a "system of physical, natural, and societal indicators that communicate and inform decisions about key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness" in support of the sustained U.S. National Climate Assessment. Our analysis, guided by a tailored selection and recommendation criteria, resulted in a list of "existing" indicators, as well as those "in development", "recommended", and "aspirational". A goal of this effort is to identify a set of both lagging and leading indicators that is based on reliable and sustained data sources with known user communities. We intend for these indicators to guide decision-makers in their responses to climate change, and ideally help inform decisions of groups like the Arctic Council and U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) as they develop plans and priorities.

  2. Atherogenic index of plasma: a significant indicator for the onset of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In our environment, diverse dietary, socioeconomic, and geographical variables might alter the expected pattern of deraignment. Aims and Objectives: This study aims to compare the total lipid profile and its subfractions in hypertensive premenopausal and hypertensive postmenopausal subjects. Materials and Methods: ...

  3. Emerging contaminants of public health significance as water quality indicator compounds in the urban water cycle. (United States)

    Pal, Amrita; He, Yiliang; Jekel, Martin; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong


    The contamination of the urban water cycle (UWC) with a wide array of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) increases with urbanization and population density. To produce drinking water from the UWC requires close examination of their sources, occurrence, pathways, and health effects and the efficacy of wastewater treatment and natural attenuation processes that may occur in surface water bodies and groundwater. This paper researches in details the structure of the UWC and investigates the routes by which the water cycle is increasingly contaminated with compounds generated from various anthropogenic activities. Along with a thorough survey of chemicals representing compound classes such as hormones, antibiotics, surfactants, endocrine disruptors, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, pesticides and metabolites, disinfection-by-products, algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds, this paper provides a comprehensive and holistic review of the occurrence, fate, transport and potential health impact of the emerging organic contaminants of the UWC. This study also illustrates the widespread distribution of the emerging organic contaminants in the different aortas of the ecosystem and focuses on future research needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fishery Performance Indicators (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Performance indicators for landings, effort, revenue and distribution of revenue are collected for various fisheries nation-wide. The fisheries include catch and...

  5. NOHSS Adult Indicators (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2012-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for even years from 2012 through 2014. National estimates are represented by the median...

  6. The logarithmic hypervolume indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Tobias; Bringmann, Karl; Voß, Thomas


    It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio. This is exp......It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio....... This is experimentally verified on several benchmark functions by comparing the approximation quality of the multi-objective covariance matrix evolution strategy (MO-CMA-ES) with the classic hypervolume indicator and the MO-CMA-ES with the logarithmic hypervolume indicator....

  7. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  8. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  9. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Solar Indices - Plage Regions (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  11. Solar Indices Bulletin (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solar Indices Bulletin is a prompt monthly information product that is distributed within two weeks after the observation month closes. For the month just ended,...

  12. Solar Indices - Solar Flares (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  13. Solar Indices - Solar Corona (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  14. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  15. NOHSS Child Indicators (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2017. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  16. NOHSS Child Indicators (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2016. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  17. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  18. Positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening study in 50 MeV Li{sup 3+} ion irradiated polystyrene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asad Ali, S., E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Kumar, Rajesh [Department of Physics, University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, G.G.S.I.P University, New Delhi 110403 (India); Nambissan, P.M.G. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Singh, F. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Prasad, Rajendra [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Vivekananda College of Technology and Management, Aligarh 202002 (India)


    Swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of polymeric materials results in the change of their free volume properties which have strong correlation with their macroscopic properties. The modification depends on the polymer and ion beam parameters, namely ion energy, fluence and ion species. Polystyrene films were irradiated with Li{sup 3+} ions of energy 50 MeV from 15 UD Pelletron accelerators at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India to the fluences of 10{sup 11}, 10{sup 12} and 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. Nanosized free volume parameters in the polymer have been studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS). From o-Ps lifetime {tau}{sub 3,} free volume hole radius, mean free volume of microvoids and fractional free volume are computed and modification in free volume with the fluence is studied. Free volume parameters change slowly with ion fluence with a decrease at the highest fluence of 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The decrease in {tau}{sub 3} and I{sub 3} (reflecting the number of free volume holes) may be interpreted on the process of cross-linking. S parameter obtained from DBS measurements showed a minor decrease with increasing fluence.

  19. The importance of signals in the Doppler broadening range for middle-atmospheric microwave wind and ozone radiometry (United States)

    Rüfenacht, Rolf; Kämpfer, Niklaus


    Doppler microwave radiometry is a novel technique for the measurement of horizontal wind profiles at altitudes between 10 and 0.03 hPa, where there is a substantial lack of observations. All wind radiometers currently in use rely on ground-based observations of microwave radiation emitted by atmospheric ozone. Besides the well-known primary ozone layer in the stratosphere a secondary ozone layer forms near 10-3 hPa during nighttime. We show that the emission signal of this secondary ozone layer cannot be neglected for the retrieval of mesospheric winds and that it can even alter nighttime ozone retrievals. However, the present study also demonstrates that with a reasonably adequate representation of the atmospheric reality in the mesopause region bias-free wind retrievals throughout the entire sensitive altitude range of the instruments can be achieved during day and nighttime. By applying the improved ozone a priori setup to real observation data the average zonal wind difference to models was substantially reduced and a realistic diurnal cycle was reproduced. Moreover the presence of the high nighttime mesopause ozone signal could enable future retrievals of mean winds beyond the altitude range dominated by pressure broadening.

  20. Excited atoms in cavities of liquid He I: long-range interatomic repulsion and broadening of atomic lines (United States)

    Atrazhev, Vladimir M.; Eloranta, Jussi; Bonifaci, Nelly; van Nguyen, Hai; Aitken, Frederic; von Haeften, Klaus; Vermeulen, G.


    A theoretical analysis of the line broadening of localized atomic transitions in liquid helium is presented. It is shown that accurate information can be derived on the long-range part of the He*-He interaction as well as on the local structure near the He* emitters. The analysis confirms that in corona discharges in liquid helium the emitting He* atoms reside in cavities and that for known He*-He interaction the size of the cavities can be deduced from the line profile. The He*-He interaction was calculated using the full configuration interaction (CI) method as implemented in the Molpro package. The widths of atomic lines due to fluorescent transitions between different excited states of helium atoms were calculated as a function of external pressure in the range from 0.1 and 3.5 MPa using the static approximation method, and the input from the results of the CI calculation and cavity diameters calculated using the bubble model. The calculated widths showed excellent agreement with experimental data of liquid helium excited by corona discharges. A second, analytical analysis using a power function to represent the He*-He interaction showed qualitative agreement with the experimental data. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  1. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators


    Birčiaková Naďa; Stávková Jana; Antošová Veronika


    This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determin...

  2. Summarizing multiple deprivation indicators


    Cappellari, Lorenzo; Jenkins, Stephen P.


    Deprivation scales derived from multiple, typically dichotomous, indicators, are widely used to monitor households’ standards of living, and to complement measures of living standards based on income. We use an item response modelling (IRM) framework to address several issues concerning the derivation of deprivation scales in general and the use of sum-score deprivation indices in particular. Although we favour the IRM approach over the sum-score one in principle, we find in an illustrative...

  3. Effect of method and parameters of spectral analysis on selected indices of simulated Doppler spectra. (United States)

    Kaluzynski, K; Palko, T


    The sensitivity of Doppler spectral indices (mean frequency, maximum frequency, spectral broadening index and turbulence intensity) to the conditions of spectral analysis (estimation method, data window, smoothing window or model order) increases with decreasing signal bandwidth and growing index complexity. The bias of spectral estimate has a more important effect on these indices than its variance. A too low order, in the case of autoregressive modeling and minimum variance methods, and excessive smoothing, in the case of the FFT method, result in increased errors of Doppler spectral indices. There is a trade-off between the errors resulting from a short data window and those due to insufficient temporal resolution.

  4. Broadening insect gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Münke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul


    In recent years there has been a trend among chefs to diversify their ingredients and techniques, drawing inspiration from other cultures and creating new foods by blending this knowledge with the flavours of their local region. Edible insects, with their plethora of taste, aromatic, textural...... and visual characteristics, is an example of an area of nature that requires further gastronomic exploration. Many parts of the world consume insects, neither as a novelty nor as a fall-­back famine food (FAO, 2013). Insect-­consuming populations often eat them as a delicacy, seeing each insect...... as an ingredient in its own right – not collectively as ‘insects’, as it is easy for many uninitiated to do. Many of these insects frequently fetch higher prices than other meat sources in the market, and it is this approach of investigating insects as a delicious gastronomic product that interests us. Indeed...

  5. Broadening our horizons

    CERN Multimedia


    There’s more to CERN than the LHC, and there’s more to particle physics than CERN. This has always been true, but with the LHC on the verge of collecting its first data, now is the right time to consider carefully what that means for us. In a couple of weeks’ time, we’ll be hosting a workshop to identify new opportunities in the physics landscape at CERN. As well as embarking upon the LHC research programme, we’re also building up new infrastructure for the future. This has already begun with the civil engineering for Linac 4, and will hopefully continue with a new superconducting proton linac, SPL, and proton synchrotron, PS2, to replace the existing Booster and PS. Will such machines simply serve as an injector for the LHC, or could they support their own research programmes? I don’t know the answer yet, but if there’s valuable research to be done with the SPL and PS2, it would be better to know before we start build...

  6. Significant scales in community structure. (United States)

    Traag, V A; Krings, G; Van Dooren, P


    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of "significance" of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine "good" resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role.

  7. Preventive Indicators for Creating Brownfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Burinskienė


    Full Text Available Although the problem of brownfields in urban territories is successfully limited, it is a negative phenomenon of a sustainable city. Moreover, the number of recently created brownfield territories has become higher than that of the regenerated ones. Such territories reduce the quality of the social and economic setting of a city as well as visually and physically affect the life quality of city residents. Unfortunately, methods for the revitalization of brownfield land have been applied to deal with the consequences of the problem rather than to limit the problem itself. The authors of the article have investigated the aspects to be avoided to not create brownfields. The indicators that enable predicting the probability of a territory becoming a brownfield have been analyzed in this paper. Countries develop and exist under different social and economic conditions. Therefore, there is no uniform and universally accepted system of indicators for brownfield prevention that can be applied in any country or city. The authors have attempted to implement a recently developed idea of indicators for prevention under Lithuanian conditions and have selected those facilitating the identification of brownfields with an aim of identifying the most significant ones warning about the potential harm from the creation of brownfields in Lithuania. The selected indicators have been grouped, taking into account social, economic, natural, building and infrastructure settings of the city and ranked by a group of experts in urban planning. The established hierarchy of indicators in the groups of urban setting has allowed the authors to select the most significant preventive indicators for brownfields. The created system of indicators could be applied in practice as a basis for monitoring pertinent data and tracking their change.

  8. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter


    The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS......, journal articles, book chapters/conference papers and monographs. Journal Crown Indicator (JCI) calculations was based on WoS. Three PPIs are proposed: thePublication Point Ratio (PPR), which measures the sum of obtained publiacation points over the sum of the ideal pointws for the same set of documents...

  9. Grassroots indicators for desertification

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Naomi Kipuri. 110. The Use of Trees, Birds and Animal Behavior as Measures of Environmental Change by the Shona People of Zimbabwe ... In 1994–95, an opportunity arose to bring the topic of grassroots indicators into the specific context of natural resource management in Eastern and Southern Africa. The focus of this ...

  10. Indicators: Dissolved Oxygen (United States)

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen that is present in water. It is an important measure of water quality as it indicates a water body's ability to support aquatic life. Water bodies receive oxygen from the atmosphere and from aquatic plants.

  11. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter


    with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  12. Science & Engineering Indicators--1989. (United States)

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. National Science Board.

    This volume is the ninth in the biennial "Science Indicators" series initiated by the National Science Board. The series provides a broad base of quantitative information about the structure and function of United States science and technology and comparisons with other advanced industrial countries. An overview of science and technology…

  13. "Healthy" Human Development Indices (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari


    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  14. SD indicators for education


    Sustainable Development Commission


    The Sustainable Development Commission made the following proposal to the Department for Education and Skills and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs concerning the indicator of education for sustainable development announced in the UK Government strategy 'Securing the Future'. Publisher PDF

  15. [Indications for retrosternal esophagocoloplasty]. (United States)

    Králík, J; Tomsů, M; Král, V


    The authors define, based on experience with 55 retrosternal oesophagocoloplasties, the indications for this operation. They divide the indications into three groups and describe them as 1. the most suitable operation, 2. as the only possible replacement of the oesophagus, 3. as a palliative operation in an otherwise insolvable disphagia due to an inoperable tumour. They emphasize the wide range of indications for the operation which can be implemented without influencing the basic disease of the oesophagus and which makes it possible to apply combined treatment. The operation, though pretentious and time consuming, has the advantage of an extrathoracic approach. As to technical aspects, the authors emphasize the importance to select a portion of the gut with an adequate blood supply. This demand is usually met by the transverse colon on a vascular pedicle of the vasa colica sin.; they also mention the conditions of safe deposition of the gut in the retrosternal tunnel. The paper is supplemented by several case-histories of particularly interesting and difficult situations. If the indication range of the operation and its technical principles are respected and the surgeon is experienced, the failures of the operation are proportional to the severity of the basic disease.

  16. Indications for colonoscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The indication, 'other', produced a combined yield of 66,7%; the majority of patients in this group were known to have colitis. On the basis of these findings we propose that where facilities and expertise do not allow for routine colonoscopy, some fonn ofpatient selection should be employed and we believe this selection ...

  17. Lichen indicator [Section 4 (United States)

    Paul L. Patterson; Susan Will-Wolf; Marie T. Trest


    Lichens are very responsive to environmental stressors in forests, including changes in forest structure, air quality, and climate. Each lichen species on a plot is an indicator of how lichen communities respond to ecological conditions. Individual lichen species occur erratically and even common species are often absent from plots with suitable habitat. The combined...

  18. ZERO-TIME INDICATOR (United States)

    Sander, H.H.


    The travel time of a nuclear shock wave from its point of origin to a location can be determined accurately by an apparatus for noting and comparably recording both zerotime, as indicated by the electromagnetic transient associated with the nuclear detonation, and shock wave arrival time.

  19. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period (United States)

    Harney, John O.


    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple…

  20. Structural significance of mechanical damage. (United States)


    The letter transmits the Final Report for work completed under US DOT PHMSA Other Transaction Agreement (OTA) DTPH56-08-T-000011, Structural Significance of Mechanical Damage. The project was implemented to develop a detailed experimental database on...

  1. Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) (United States)

    These webpages provide information on EPA’s Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program which evaluates substitutes for ozone-depleting substances in major industrial use sectors. The SNAP program promotes a smooth transition to safer alternatives.

  2. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  3. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments (United States)

    Simonia, I.


    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  4. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.


    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  5. Some indicators of (unsuccessful reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Jasmina


    Full Text Available In the paper we set the aim to determine whether phonological awareness and short-term verbal memory are indicators of a subsequent reading acquisition. The sample consisted of 194 first graders from two primary schools in Belgrade. The results of our research showed that the most significant indicator of the subsequent (unsuccessful reading was phonological awareness. The short-term verbal memory is, to a lesser extent, an indicator of the subsequent reading acquisition defined by the time needed for reading the text and by the text comprehension. Our findings offer basis for proposing that the phonological awareness assessment should be implemented into the regular procedure of assessing child's readiness for school. In this way children in need for preventive stimulation within the inclusive programme in primary schools could be identified.

  6. FOXP2 variants in 14 individuals with developmental speech and language disorders broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum. (United States)

    Reuter, Miriam S; Riess, Angelika; Moog, Ute; Briggs, Tracy A; Chandler, Kate E; Rauch, Anita; Stampfer, Miriam; Steindl, Katharina; Gläser, Dieter; Joset, Pascal; Krumbiegel, Mandy; Rabe, Harald; Schulte-Mattler, Uta; Bauer, Peter; Beck-Wödl, Stefanie; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Reis, André; Zweier, Christiane


    Disruptions of the FOXP2 gene, encoding a forkhead transcription factor, are the first known monogenic cause of a speech and language disorder. So far, mainly chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations or larger deletions affecting FOXP2 have been reported. Intragenic deletions or convincingly pathogenic point mutations in FOXP2 have up to date only been reported in three families. We thus aimed at a further characterisation of the mutational and clinical spectrum. Chromosomal microarray testing, trio exome sequencing, multigene panel sequencing and targeted sequencing of FOXP2 were performed in individuals with variable developmental disorders, and speech and language deficits. We identified four different truncating mutations, two novel missense mutations within the forkhead domain and an intragenic deletion in FOXP2 in 14 individuals from eight unrelated families. Mutations occurred de novo in four families and were inherited from an affected parent in the other four. All index patients presented with various manifestations of language and speech impairment. Apart from two individuals with normal onset of speech, age of first words was between 4 and 7 years. Articulation difficulties such as slurred speech, dyspraxia, stuttering and poor pronunciation were frequently noted. Motor development was normal or only mildly delayed. Mild cognitive impairment was reported for most individuals. By identifying intragenic deletions or mutations in 14 individuals from eight unrelated families with variable developmental delay/cognitive impairment and speech and language deficits, we considerably broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum associated with aberrations in FOXP2. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  7. Hormones and Antibiotics in Nature: A Laboratory Module Designed to Broaden Undergraduate Perspectives on Typically Human-Centered Topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn F. Weber


    Full Text Available Bringing discovery-based research into undergraduate laboratory courses increases student motivation and learning gains over traditional exercises that merely teach technique or demonstrate well-documented phenomena. Laboratory experiences are further enhanced when they are designed to challenge student perspectives on topics relevant to their lives. To this end, a laboratory module on antibiotics and hormones, which are generally discussed in the context of human health, was developed for students to explore the multifaceted roles of antibiotics and hormones in nature (e.g. interspecies communication via reading primary scientific literature and performing discovery-based experiments. The main objective of this module was to increase the general biological literacy of students as determined by their ability to connect the Five Core Concepts of Biological Literacy (American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vision and Change in Undergraduate Education: A Call to Action, 2011 to the topics “hormones” and “antibiotics” in pre- and postmodule surveys. After discussing unpublished research findings, cell biology students performed experiments demonstrating that: 1 fungi may promote fern growth via hormone production, 2 novel bacterial isolates in the genus Streptomyces produce antifungal compounds, and 3 subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations may enhance soil bacterial growth. The third finding provided evidence supporting a hypothesis framed in a scientific article that students read and discussed. Student perspectives on premodule surveys focused on roles of hormones and antibiotics in the human body (e.g. development, fighting infection, but their broadened postmodule perspectives encompassed the roles of these molecules in organismal communication and possibly the evolution of multicellularity.

  8. Significance analysis of prognostic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    Full Text Available A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that "random" gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically

  9. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, S.

    Whenever we shop, the products we consider buying are labelled with the economical price we have to pay if we want to purchase them - an important parameter in our decisions as purchasers. The increrasing awareness for environmental limits and backlashes of human activities also in the building...... sector have fostered the wish to define 'the ecological price' of a building as a help for environmental conscious decision-making. In a social constructivist approach this Ph.D. thesis looks across and beyond the manifold existing approaches for environmental indicators for buildings. It acknowledges...... in the Netherlands. It identifies lines of conflict and areas of consent betweeen the relevant actors and elaborates scenarios for a possible closure of ongoing debate about environmental indicators for buildings....

  10. Indices of thyroid epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra


    Full Text Available This brief communication proposes various indices of epidemicity and endemicity which may be used to predict the future prevalence of hypothyroidism. Taking advantage of knowledge related to the natural progression of autoimmune thyroid disease, it uses data from two recent Indian epidemiological studies to assess the epidemicity or endemicity of thyroid disease in the country. The hypothesis generated in this communication will be of help to clinicians as well as policy makers.

  11. indicators and trends


    Mir, Jan


    Introduction: The present work had the objective to show the development of indicators of institutionalization of mentally ill in historic time series. Further aim of the work was to determine the prevalence rates of substance use disorders and comorbid mental disorders in newly admitted women in the prison system. Treatment histories in psychiatry of prison inmates should yield further information on the interdependence of the psychiatric treatment system and penal justice system. Method...

  12. Green Economy Indicators


    Ryszawska, Bożena


    The chapter is an attempt to answer the question: how is the actual green economy implementation process underway to be measured? The answers were given firstly by the international organizations OECD, UNEP, Word Bank, Global Green Growth Institute, as well as the consulting company Dual Citizen. Also the author of this chapter proposed the Green Economy Index. There is a growing awareness concerning the need for international unification of the indicators used to measure a green economy. Exi...

  13. Indicators for Knowledge Economy


    Lorena BATAGAN


    The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy

  14. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet


    Background Factor graphs provide a flexible and general framework for specifying probability distributions. They can capture a range of popular and recent models for analysis of both genomics data as well as data from other scientific fields. Owing to the ever larger data sets encountered...... in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from...

  15. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum


    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  16. The historical significance of oak (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood


    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  17. Broadening of Distribution of Trap States in PbS Quantum Dot Field-Effect Transistors with High-k Dielectrics. (United States)

    Nugraha, Mohamad I; Häusermann, Roger; Watanabe, Shun; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Sytnyk, Mykhailo; Heiss, Wolfgang; Takeya, Jun; Loi, Maria A


    We perform a quantitative analysis of the trap density of states (trap DOS) in PbS quantum dot field-effect transistors (QD-FETs), which utilize several polymer gate insulators with a wide range of dielectric constants. With increasing gate dielectric constant, we observe increasing trap DOS close to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the QDs. In addition, this increase is also consistently followed by broadening of the trap DOS. We rationalize that the increase and broadening of the spectral trap distribution originate from dipolar disorder as well as polaronic interactions, which are appearing at strong dielectric polarization. Interestingly, the increased polaron-induced traps do not show any negative effect on the charge carrier mobility in our QD devices at the highest applied gate voltage, giving the possibility to fabricate efficient low-voltage QD devices without suppressing carrier transport.

  18. Comment on "Dynamics of slow light and light storage in a Doppler-broadened electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium: A numerical approach" (United States)

    Chough, Young-Tak


    In studying the dynamics of slow light and light storage in a Doppler-broadened electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium, Su et al. [Phys. Rev. A 83, 013827 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.013827] simply included the damping rate of the system into the Schrödinger equation without considering the accompanying quantum jump processes, whose results therefore are prone to be incorrect.

  19. Phase Memory Control in an Inhomogeneously Broadened Ensemble of Three-Level Systems and Stimulated Photon Echo Formationparagraph>Please check captured article title, if appropriate.paragraph>--> (United States)

    Nefediev, L. A.; Garnaeva, G. I.; Nizamova, E. I.


    Phase memory in a three-level system that is associated with the correspondence of isochromates of inhomogeneously broadened lines excited by lasers at various resonant frequencies with a common energy level in different time intervals is studied. It is shown that external spatially inhomogeneous electric fields can control such phase memory and could be used to determine the optimum conditions for forming a stimulated photon echo in a threelevel system.

  20. Influence of peak-broadening and interdetector volume error on size-exclusive chromatographic analysis with dual viscometric-concentration detection using the universal calibration method. (United States)

    Netopilík, M


    The effect of peak-broadening and error in interdetector volume on the local calibration curve and experimental molecular-mass averages obtained by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with dual concentration/viscosity detection, and determination of molecular mass using the universal calibration (UC) method, is theoretically examined using a polymer sample with a molecular-mass distribution (MMD) approximated by the log-normal function. Although peak-broadening is often neglected, its effect on the slope of the local calibration curve and, consequently, on the experimentally obtained values of the weight-to-number average ratio is large. To obtain the right values of these parameters, a numerical correction is usually recommended. While using the UC method, the relationships between the extent of peak broadening, calibration slopes and interdetector volume are complex and can contribute to the occurrence of undiscovered errors. For this reason, an understanding of this problem, using a model, is necessary. The results of the UC method are compared with those obtained using dual-detection with known Mark-Houwink-Kuhn-Sakurada parameters (MHKS method), light-scattering (LS)/concentration detection as well as with the results obtained using conventional calibration. Due to peak-broadening, the slope of a local calibration curve and the weight-to-number average ratio, (Mw/Mn)", obtained using the UC method, increase compared to the theoretical values, whereas they decrease using the MHKS or LS methods. The increase when using the UC method is even larger compared to evaluation using conventional calibration. The effect of the error in interdetector volume on the slopes of local calibrations and the weight-to-number average ratios is opposite in the UC method to that found using the MHKS and LS methods.

  1. Additional band broadening of peptides in the first size-exclusion chromatographic dimension of an automated stop-flow two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Xu, Jucai; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Baoguo; Lin, Lianzhu; Su, Guowan


    The need to improve the peak capacity of liquid chromatography motivates the development of two-dimensional analysis systems. This paper presented a fully automated stop-flow two-dimensional liquid chromatography system with size exclusion chromatography followed by reversed phase liquid chromatography (SEC×RPLC) to efficiently separate peptides. The effects of different stop-flow operational parameters (stop-flow time, peak parking position, number of stop-flow periods and column temperature) on band broadening in the first dimension (1 st D) SEC column were quantitatively evaluated by using commercial small proteins and peptides. Results showed that the effects of peak parking position and the number of stop-flow periods on band broadening were relatively small. Unlike stop-flow analysis of large molecules with a long running time, additional band broadening was evidently observed for small molecule analytes due to the relatively high effective diffusion coefficient (D eff ). Therefore, shorter analysis time and lower 1 st D column temperature were suggested for analyzing small molecules. The stop-flow two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) system was further tested on peanut peptides and an evidently improved resolution was observed for both stop-flow heart-cutting and comprehensive 2D-LC analysis (in spite of additional band broadening in SEC). The stop-flow SEC×RPLC, especially heart-cutting analysis with shorter analysis time and higher 1 st D resolution for selected fractions, offers a promising approach for efficient analysis of complex samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet


    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical......Background Factor graphs provide a flexible and general framework for specifying probability distributions. They can capture a range of popular and recent models for analysis of both genomics data as well as data from other scientific fields. Owing to the ever larger data sets encountered...... a theoretical viewpoint and with simulations. A guideline for choosing between the normal approximation, saddle-point approximation and importance sampling is also provided. Finally, the applicability of the methods is demonstrated with examples from cancer genomics, motif-analysis and phylogenetics...

  3. Observation of Ortho-Para Dependence of Pressure Broadening Coefficient in Acetylene νb{1}+νb{3} Vibration Band Using Dual-Comb Spectroscopy (United States)

    Iwakuni, Kana; Okubo, Sho; Inaba, Hajime; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei; Sasada, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Koichi MT


    We observe that the pressure-broadening coefficients depend on the ortho-para levels. The spectrum is taken with a dual-comb spectrometer which has the resolution of 48 MHz and the frequency accuracy of 8 digit when the signal-to-noise ratio is more than 20. In this study, about 4.4-Tz wide spectra of the P(31) to R(31) transitions in the νb{1}+νb{3} vibration band of 12C_2H_2 are observed at the pressure of 25, 60, 396, 1047, 1962 and 2654 Pa. Each rotation-vibration absorption line is fitted to Voight function and we determined pressure-broadening coefficients for each rotation-vibration transition. The Figure shows pressure broadening coefficient as a function of m. Here m is J"+1 for R and -J" for P-branch. The graph shows obvious dependence on ortho and para. We fit it to Pade function considering the population ratio of three-to-one for the ortho and para levels. This would lead to detailed understanding of the pressure boarding mechanism. S. Okubo et al., Applied Physics Express 8, 082402 (2015)

  4. Significance evaluation in factor graphs. (United States)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Pedersen, Jakob Skou


    Factor graphs provide a flexible and general framework for specifying probability distributions. They can capture a range of popular and recent models for analysis of both genomics data as well as data from other scientific fields. Owing to the ever larger data sets encountered in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from a theoretical viewpoint and with simulations. A guideline for choosing between the normal approximation, saddle-point approximation and importance sampling is also provided. Finally, the applicability of the methods is demonstrated with examples from cancer genomics, motif-analysis and phylogenetics. The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets in the general factor graph framework.

  5. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, S.

    Whenever we shop, the products we consider buying are labelled with the economical price we have to pay if we want to purchase them - an important parameter in our decisions as purchasers. The increrasing awareness for environmental limits and backlashes of human activities also in the building s...... in the Netherlands. It identifies lines of conflict and areas of consent betweeen the relevant actors and elaborates scenarios for a possible closure of ongoing debate about environmental indicators for buildings.......Whenever we shop, the products we consider buying are labelled with the economical price we have to pay if we want to purchase them - an important parameter in our decisions as purchasers. The increrasing awareness for environmental limits and backlashes of human activities also in the building...... sector have fostered the wish to define 'the ecological price' of a building as a help for environmental conscious decision-making. In a social constructivist approach this Ph.D. thesis looks across and beyond the manifold existing approaches for environmental indicators for buildings. It acknowledges...

  6. How do we make sense of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone


    ' sense-making, including important differences in the way individuals screen and scope. These patterns concern what we notice, how fast we frame the choice, and when we are critical about the provided information. The indications provide a basis for reflections on practice and on how to organise EA......Determination of significance is widely recognised as an important step in environmental assessment (EA) processes. The prescriptive literature and guidance on significance determination is comprehensive within the field of EA, whereas descriptive and explorative studies of how we go about making...

  7. Website quality indicators for consumers. (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen


    The rating tool DISCERN was designed for use by consumers without content expertise to evaluate the quality of health information. There is some evidence that DISCERN may be a valid indicator of evidence-based website quality when applied by health professionals. However, it is not known if the tool is a valid measure of evidence-based quality when used by consumers. Since it is a lengthy instrument requiring training in its use, DISCERN may prove impractical for use by the typical consumer. It is therefore important to explore the validity of other simpler potential indicators of site quality such as Google PageRank. This study aimed to determine (1) whether the instrument DISCERN is a valid indicator of evidence-based Web content quality for consumers without specific mental health training, and (2) whether Google PageRank is an indicator of website content quality as measured by an evidence-based gold standard. This was a cross-sectional survey of depression websites using consumer and health professional raters. The main outcome measures were (1) site characteristics, (2) evidence-based quality of content as measured by evidence-based depression guidelines, (3) DISCERN scores, (4) Google PageRank, and (5) user satisfaction. There was a significant association between evidence-based quality ratings and average DISCERN ratings both for consumers (r = 0.62, P = .001) and health professionals (r = 0.80, P PageRank (r = 0.59, P = .002). However, the correlation between DISCERN scores and user satisfaction was higher than the correlation between Google PageRank and user satisfaction. DISCERN has potential as an indicator of content quality when used either by experts or by consumers. Google PageRank shows some promise as an automatic indicator of quality.

  8. Teriparatide - Indications beyond osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Lee Cheng


    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a condition of impaired bone strength that results in an increased risk of fracture. The current and most popular pharmacological options for the treatment of osteoporosis include antiresorptive therapy, in particular, oral bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate. Anabolic agents like teriparatide have widened our therapeutic options. They act by directly stimulating bone formation and improving bone mass quantity and quality. Two forms of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH are available : full-length PTH (PTH 1-84; approved in the EU only and the 1-34 N-terminal active fragment of PTH (teriparatide, US FDA approved. This review aims to discuss the benefits of teriparatide beyond the currently licensed indications like fracture healing, dental stability, osteonecrosis of jaw, hypoparathyroidism, and hypocalcemia.

  9. Gasgeochemical indicators seismic activity (United States)

    Obzhirov, Anatoly


    Laboratory of Gasgeochemistry of POI FEB RAS is studying gas distribution in lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere from 1977 years. Method consist is sampling from its in expedition, take gas from samples of sediment, water and atmosphere to use method degassing and analysis gas in chromatograph, to measure CH4, C2-C4, O2, N2, H2, He and some time Rn. Gas is using like indicators to search oil-gas deposits, gas hydrate, mapping zones faults, to determine seismic activity, to calculate green house gas (CH4, CO2). The next geological, geophysics and hydro-acoustics characteristics assist which help to explain to form methane bubbles fluxes and gas hydrate in the Okhotsk Sea. The methane fluxes are mostly located in the zones faults and it increase in period seismic activity.

  10. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness. (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian


    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  11. Clinical significance of precipitous labor. (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji


    Precipitous labor is defined as expulsion of the fetus within less than 3 hours of commencement of regular contractions. We retrospectively examined our cases of precipitous labor to identify the clinical significance and perinatal outcomes following precipitous labor in singleton vertex deliveries. A retrospective population-based study was conducted comparing women with singleton precipitous labor and those with labor of normal duration. We examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes by comparing patients with precipitous labor and those with labor of normal duration in 0 and two-parous singleton pregnant women. Using a multivariate analysis, precipitous labor in nulliparous women was independently associated with teenagers (adjusted OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 0.99 - 2.95, P = 0.049), preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.16 - 2.70, P precipitous labor was associated with hypertensive disorders in singleton vertex deliveries, it was not associated with maternal or neonatal outcomes.

  12. The significance of small streams (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen


    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  13. The significance of constitutional values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HN Nisihara


    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of the meaning and legal significance of constitutional values in contemporary times. The article attends also to related questions namely, what constitute “constitutional values” and what are the limitations of the meaning afforded to this notion. Attention is paid in the particular, to freedom, equality and democracy as value-neutral criteria of fairness and government neutrality with reference to the South African and German contexts as well as to value-neutrality as a culturally conditioned value. The author concludes with a cosmopolitan view of freedom and the right to peace with reference to the constitutional texts of Japan and the United States.

  14. The energetic significance of cooking. (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W


    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  15. New power quality indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonowicz, Z. [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    The proliferation of nonlinear loads connected to power systems has led to growing concerns about power quality. This study used a high-resolution spectrum estimation method to measure the spectral parameters of distorted waveforms encountered in power systems. Power quality indices were developed using the method, and the frequency and amplitude estimation errors were compared with errors obtained using Fourier-based techniques. The root multiple signal classification (MUSIC) method used an estimated covariance matrix to compute the signal zeros from the power system. The MUSIC method was compared with the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT), which used the naturally existing shift invariance between discrete time series that resulted in rotational invariance between corresponding signal subspaces. The study demonstrated that the main sources of errors using ESPRIT occurred in estimates of the matrix. Matrix errors cause errors in eigenvalue estimations, which can in turn be regarded as a performance index of ESPRIT. The mean square error method was computed. The study showed that the ESPRIT method was faster during shorter data runs, but became slower than the MUSIC method as data lengths increased. The study also demonstrated that higher values obtained using Fourier-based techniques were caused by spectral leakage. It was concluded that parametric spectral estimation methods can be used to accurately analyze waveforms in power systems. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Ergodicity of financial indices (United States)

    Kolesnikov, A. V.; Rühl, T.


    We introduce the concept of the ensemble averaging for financial markets. We address the question of equality of ensemble and time averaging in their sequence and investigate if these averagings are equivalent for large amount of equity indices and branches. We start with the model of Gaussian-distributed returns, equal-weighted stocks in each index and absence of correlations within a single day and show that even this oversimplified model captures already the run of the corresponding index reasonably well due to its self-averaging properties. We introduce the concept of the instant cross-sectional volatility and discuss its relation to the ordinary time-resolved counterpart. The role of the cross-sectional volatility for the description of the corresponding index as well as the role of correlations between the single stocks and the role of non-Gaussianity of stock distributions is briefly discussed. Our model reveals quickly and efficiently some anomalies or bubbles in a particular financial market and gives an estimate of how large these effects can be and how quickly they disappear.

  17. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.


    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  18. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes. (United States)

    Taha, Kamal


    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  19. Significant improvements in children's health. (United States)

    Tam, L


    The field report from PLAN field offices in Sucre and Altiplano in Bolivia, Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic, and Amatitlan in Guatemala provides a summary of survey results pertaining to diarrheal disease control, immunizations, and nutrition. The PLAN sites are rural with the exception of the periurban slum surrounding Santo Domingo, which has better access to health services. Interviews were conducted among mothers with children aged 0-23 months in project areas, with the exception of Altiplano and Santo Domingo which included nonproject areas for comparative purposes. The results for diarrhea disease control are that an estimated 90% of episodes can be successfully treated at home. Evaluation is made of the timeliness and coverage of immunizations, the degree of management of diarrhea at home and at the health facility, and the extent of exclusive breast feeding in the first 4 months, and total breast feeding with food supplementation in the first year of life. The conclusion is that the four field offices make a significant and positive impact on children aged 0-23 months.

  20. Statistical significance for hierarchical clustering. (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K; Liu, Yufeng; Neil Hayes, David; Marron, James Stephen


    Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high-dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this article, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  1. Solar Indices Forecasting Tool (United States)

    Henney, Carl John; Shurkin, Kathleen; Arge, Charles; Hill, Frank


    Progress to forecast key space weather parameters using SIFT (Solar Indices Forecasting Tool) with the ADAPT (Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport) model is highlighted in this presentation. Using a magnetic flux transport model, ADAPT, we estimate the solar near-side field distribution that is used as input into empirical models for predicting F10.7(solar 10.7 cm, 2.8 GHz, radio flux), the Mg II core-to-wing ratio, and selected bands of solar far ultraviolet (FUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance. Input to the ADAPT model includes the inferred photospheric magnetic field from the NISP ground-based instruments, GONG & VSM. Besides a status update regarding ADAPT and SIFT models, we will summarize the findings that: 1) the sum of the absolute value of strong magnetic fields, associated with sunspots, is shown to correlate well with the observed daily F10.7 variability (Henney et al. 2012); and 2) the sum of the absolute value of weak magnetic fields, associated with plage regions, is shown to correlate well with EUV and FUV irradiance variability (Henney et al. 2015). This work utilizes data produced collaboratively between Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Solar Observatory (NSO). The ADAPT model development is supported by AFRL. The input data utilized by ADAPT is obtained by NISP (NSO Integrated Synoptic Program). NSO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The 10.7 cm solar radio flux data service, utilized by the ADAPT/SIFT F10.7 forecasting model, is operated by the National Research Council of Canada and National Resources Canada, with the support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  2. Precipitation Indices Low Countries (United States)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.


    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  3. The effects of Doppler broadening and detector resolution on the performance of three-stage Compton cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackin, Dennis; Polf, Jerimy; Peterson, Steve; Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Physics, 145 Physical Sciences II, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)


    Purpose: The authors investigated how the characteristics of the detectors used in a three-stage Compton camera (CC) affect the CC's ability to accurately measure the emission distribution and energy spectrum of prompt gammas (PG) emitted by nuclear de-excitations during proton therapy. The detector characteristics they studied included the material (high-purity germanium [HPGe] and cadmium zinc telluride [CZT]), Doppler broadening (DB), and resolution (lateral, depth, and energy). Methods: The authors simulated three-stage HPGe and CZT CCs of various configurations, detecting gammas from point sources with energies ranging from 0.511 to 7.12 MeV. They also simulated a proton pencil beam irradiating a tissue target to study how the detector characteristics affect the PG data measured by CCs in a clinical proton therapy setting. They used three figures of merit: the distance of closest approach (DCA) and the point of closest approach (PCA) between the measured and actual position of the PG emission origin, and the calculated energy resolution. Results: For CCs with HPGe detectors, DB caused the DCA to be greater than 3 mm for 14% of the 6.13 MeV gammas and 20% of the 0.511 MeV gammas. For CCs with CZT detectors, DB caused the DCA to be greater than 3 mm for 18% of the 6.13 MeV gammas and 25% of the 0.511 MeV gammas. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the PCA in the z-caret direction for HPGe and CZT detectors ranged from 1.3 to 0.4 mm for gammas with incident energy ranging from 0.511 to 7.12 MeV. For CCs composed of HPGe detectors, the resolution of incident gamma energy calculated by the CC ranged from 6% to 1% for gammas with true incident energies from 0.511 to 7.12 MeV. For CCs composed of CZT detectors, the resolution of gamma energy calculated by the CC ranged from 10% to 1% for gammas with true incident energies from 0.511 to 7.12 MeV. For HPGe and CZT CCs in which all detector effect were included, the DCA was less than 3 mm for 75% and 68% of

  4. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayduk Leslie A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators.

  5. Measurements of NH3 linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients in N2, O2, CO2, and H2O near 1103.46cm-1

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle


    Laser-based ammonia gas sensors have useful applications in many fields including combustion, atmospheric monitoring, and medical diagnostics. Calibration-free trace gas sensors require the spectroscopic parameters including linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients to be known. Ammonia\\'s strong ν2 vibrational band between 9 - 12 μm has the high absorption strength needed for sensing small concentrations. Within this band, the 1103.46cm-1 feature is one of the strongest and has minimal interference from CO2 and H2O. However, the six rotational transitions that make up this feature have not been studied previously with absorption spectroscopy due to their small line spacing ranging from 0.004 to 0.029cm-1. A tunable quantum cascade laser was used to accurately study these six transitions. A retrieval program was used to determine the linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients based on Voigt and Galatry profiles. The experiments were performed with ammonia mixtures in nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide at room temperature in an optical cell. These data are going to aid in the development of quantitative ammonia sensors utilizing this strong absorption feature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Multispectrum Analysis of 12CH4 in the v4 Band: I. Air-Broadened Half Widths, Pressure-Induced Shifts, Temperature Dependences and Line Mixing (United States)

    Smith, MaryAnn H.; Benner, D. Chris; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi


    Lorentz air-broadened half widths, pressure-induced shifts and their temperature dependences have been measured for over 430 transitions (allowed and forbidden) in the v4 band of (CH4)-12 over the temperature range 210 to 314 K. A multispectrum non linear least squares fitting technique was used to simultaneously fit a large number of high-resolution (0.006 to 0.01/cm) absorption spectra of pure methane and mixtures of methane diluted with dry air. Line mixing was detected for pairs of A-, E-, and F-species transitions in the P- and R-branch manifolds and quantified using the off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements formalism. The measured parameters are compared to air- and N2-broadened values reported in the literature for the v4 and other bands. The dependence of the various spectral line parameters upon the tetrahedral symmetry species and rotational quantum numbers of the transitions is discussed. All data used in the present work were recorded using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak.

  7. Communication: energy-dependent resonance broadening in symmetric and asymmetric molecular junctions from an ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function approach. (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Fei; Neaton, Jeffrey B


    The electronic structure of organic-inorganic interfaces often features resonances originating from discrete molecular orbitals coupled to continuum lead states. An example is molecular junction, individual molecules bridging electrodes, where the shape and peak energy of such resonances dictate junction conductance, thermopower, I-V characteristics, and related transport properties. In molecular junctions where off-resonance coherent tunneling dominates transport, resonance peaks in the transmission function are often assumed to be Lorentzian functions with an energy-independent broadening parameter Γ. Here we define a new energy-dependent resonance broadening function, Γ(E), based on diagonalization of non-Hermitian matrices, which can describe resonances of a more complex, non-Lorentzian nature and can be decomposed into components associated with the left and right leads, respectively. We compute this quantity via an ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach based on density functional theory (DFT) for both symmetric and asymmetric molecular junctions, and show that our definition of Γ(E), when combined with Breit-Wigner formula, reproduces the transmission calculated from DFT-NEGF. Through a series of examples, we illustrate how this approach can shed new light on experiments and understanding of junction transport properties in terms of molecular orbitals.

  8. Breakdown of linear response theory under low-power excitation in NMR. I. The case of long-lived signals in inhomogeneously broadened spin systems. (United States)

    Gong, Zhaoyuan; Walls, Jamie D


    In this work, we examine the application of linear response theory to the problem of low-power excitation in inhomogeneously broadened spin systems when the strength of the radiofrequency (RF) pulse, νRF, is smaller than the inhomogeneous linewidth. Even for small overall excitations [Θ = 2πνRFTp ≪ 1 where Tp is the RF pulse length], linear response theory is shown to break down for spins with resonance frequencies that are on the order of νRF, which is due to the fact that the RF interaction cannot be treated as a small perturbation in this case. This breakdown in linear response theory can be partially corrected for by enforcing unitarity in the linear response. Furthermore, the nature of the spin echo generated by a πX-pulse applied immediately after a low-power pulse is investigated. Numerical calculations and experiments performed in an inhomogeneously broadened H2O/D2O solution confirm the theoretical predictions presented in this work.

  9. Pressure broadening and shift coefficients for the nu_ {2} and 3nu_ {2} bands of CH3D : rotational and temperature dependences (United States)

    Boussin, C.; Regalia, L.; Plateaux, J. J.; Hamdouni, A.; Lutz, B. L.; de Bergh, C.; Barbe, A.


    We have measured broadening and shift coefficients for ro-vibrational lines of the nu_ {2} and 3nu_ {2} bands of CH3D, with the most abundant gases in planetary atmospheres (i.e. H2 and He for the giant planets and in the case of Titan, N2) as the foreign buffer gases, using a multispectral fitting technique developed by the Reims group. The spectra of the nu_ {2} band, near 5 microns, were recorded under high resolution and two temperatures (295 and 197K) using a FTS at the G.S.M.A. Reims laboratory. Those of the 3nu_ {2} band, near 1.6 microns, were recorded also under high resolution but only at room temperature with the FTS at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Broadening and shift coefficients were determined for lines of nu_ {2} up to J=20 in the P-branch and up to J=19 in the R-branch. For 3nu_ {2}, measurements were made up to J=14 in the P-branch and up to J=12 in the R-branch. In addition, for nu_ {2}, the temperature dependences of many of these coefficients were derived. Comparisons of the room temperature coefficients for the two bands show strong similarities in both their magnitudes and dependences with J and K. These similarities suggest that the temperature dependence determined for nu_ {2} can be used for 3nu_ {2}.

  10. Values of Kp Indices, Ap Indices, Cp Indices, C9 Indices, Sunspot Number, and 10.7 cm Flux (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data file consists of Kp indices, Ap indices, Cp indices, C9 indices, sunspot number, and 10.7 cm flux. The most often requested parameter of this file are the...

  11. Bibliometric indicators of young authors in astrophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havemann, Frank; Larsen, Birger


    their first landmark paper with the distributions of these indicators over a random control group of young authors in astronomy and astrophysics. We find that field and citation-window normalisation substantially improves the predicting power of citation indicators. The sum of citation numbers normalised...... with expected citation numbers is the only indicator which shows differences between later stars and random authors significant on a 1 % level. Indicators of paper output are not very useful to predict later stars. The famous h-index makes no difference at all between later stars and the random control group....

  12. Indicators for Monitoring Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bispo, A.; Cluzeau, D.; Creamer, R.


    is made for a set of suitable indicators for monitoring the decline in soil biodiversity (Bispo et al. 2007). These indicators were selected both from a literature review and an inventory of national monitoring programmes. Decline in soil biodiversity was defined as the reduction of forms of life living...... indicators are actually measured.   For monitoring application it was considered in ENVASSO that only three key indicators per soil stress were practical. For indicating biodiversity decline it was difficult to arrive at a small set of indicators due to the complexity of soil biota and functions. Therefore...

  13. Using place-based concepts, multicultural lenses, and hands-on experience to broaden participation in the sciences for native youth (United States)

    Flick, K. C.; Keepseagle, L.


    Broadening the participation of Native Americans in the geosciences is an important yet challenging goal. The perspectives of native and typically underserved populations can contribute to pushing the geosciences to address emerging scientific, social, and cultural issues that are relevant for questions geoscience fields ask, as well as their future applications. We will discuss the multicultural learning processes implemented in a sustainability and bioenergy education project which is centered in science and culture and characterized by cross-institutional partnerships. The Place-Based Opportunities for Sustainable Outcomes and High Hopes (POSOH) project seeks to develop strategies for preparing all learners--including typically underserved youth from non-mainstream cultures--to pursue bioenergy- and sustainability-related studies and careers, while exploring the contributions of traditional and scientific ways of knowing to our understanding of ecosystems and sustainability. The project serves the Northeastern WI bioregion, which includes three nearby Menominee, Oneida, and Stockbridge-Munsee reservations; the College of Menominee Nation, an accredited tribally controlled community college; and the surrounding community. It also encompasses cross-institutional partnerships spanning several large education and research institutions across Northeastern United States. We will provide an overview of the project and detail more specifically our experiences with the high school Sustainability Leadership Cohort model to discuss our learning process and the successes and gaps we have discovered along the way. The learning framework includes (a) collaborative curriculum design and development, (b) high school sustainability engagement activities, and (c) undergraduate internship opportunities. The High School Sustainability Leadership Cohort (SLC) is led by the College of Menominee Nation's Sustainable Development Institute in collaboration with its POSOH partners

  14. NEFSC Survey Indices of Abundance (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Fisheries Survey Bottom trawl survey indices of abundance such as stratified mean number per tow or mean weight per tow by species stock. Includes indices...

  15. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël B van Schalkwijk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to investigate whether lipoprotein metabolism indicators can improve cardiovascular risk prediction and therapy management. METHODS AND RESULTS: We calculated lipoprotein metabolism indicators for 1981 subjects (145 cases, 1836 controls from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort in which NMR lipoprotein profiles were measured. We applied a statistical learning algorithm using a support vector machine to select conventional risk factors and lipoprotein metabolism indicators that contributed to predicting risk for general cardiovascular disease. Risk prediction was quantified by the change in the Area-Under-the-ROC-Curve (ΔAUC and by risk reclassification (Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI. Two VLDL lipoprotein metabolism indicators (VLDLE and VLDLH improved cardiovascular risk prediction. We added these indicators to a multivariate model with the best performing conventional risk markers. Our method significantly improved both CVD prediction and risk reclassification. CONCLUSIONS: Two calculated VLDL metabolism indicators significantly improved cardiovascular risk prediction. These indicators may help to reduce prescription of unnecessary cholesterol-lowering medication, reducing costs and possible side-effects. For clinical application, further validation is required.

  16. p{sub Up-Tack }-Broadening and production processes versus dipole/quadrupole amplitudes at next-to-leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York (United States); Munier, S., E-mail: [Centre de physique theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)


    Through the systematic inspection of graphs in the framework of lightcone perturbation theory, we demonstrate that an identity between the evolution of p{sub Up-Tack }-broadening amplitudes with the energy and the evolution of forward scattering amplitudes of color dipoles off nuclei holds at next-to-leading order accuracy. In the general case, the relation is not a graph-by-graph correspondence, neither does it hold strictly speaking for definite values of the momenta: Instead, it relates classes of graphs of similar topologies, and in some cases, the matching requires an analytical continuation in the appropriate longitudinal momentum variable. We check that the same kind of relation is also true at next-to-leading order between amplitudes for the production of dijets and quadrupole forward amplitudes.

  17. Further Democratizing Latin America: Broadening Access to Higher Education and Promoting Science Policies Focused on the Advanced Training of Human Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Heitor


    Full Text Available We focus this paper on the conditions to build reliable science, technology and higher education systems in Latin America, based on international comparative studies, fieldwork and interviews conducted over the last three years. The analysis shows that science can have a major role in furthering the democratization of society through public policies that foster opportunities to access knowledge and the advanced training of human resources. Broadening the social basis for higher education promotes the qualification of the labour force and contributes to social and economic development. The need to guarantee higher education diversity, strengthening scientific institutions and investing in a strong science base, is deemed as critical, but goes far beyond policies centred on innovation and industry-science relationships. It requires adequate training and attraction of skilled people, as well as the social promotion of a scientific and technological culture.

  18. The California State University Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (CSU-LSAMP): A Collaborative, Comprehensive Approach to Broadening Participation in STEM. (United States)

    Hammersley, L. C.


    The National Science Foundation's Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (LSAMP) program supports alliances of institutions in their efforts to broaden participation in STEM and diversify the STEM workforce. There are currently 42 LSAMP alliances across the nation. Formed in 1993, the California State University LSAMP program (CSU-LSAMP) is an alliance of all 23 campuses of the CSU system and serves over 3,000 students per year. The primary goals of CSU-LSAMP are to increase persistence and graduation rates for URM participants, increase the number of STEM degrees awarded by the CSU to URM students, and increase the number of CSU-LSAMP students who advance to STEM graduate study. CSU-LSAMP activities are focused on four objectives - academic support (e.g. supplemental instruction & peer mentoring), support at transition points (e.g. first time freshmen & transfer students), research experiences (including international research experiences), and professional development (e.g. conference presentations & graduate school preparation activities). Financial support is offered in the form of textbook assistance, research stipends, and travel awards. We maintain a structure that allows campuses to tailor their programs to meet the needs of their own student populations but that also ties the Alliance together with a set of common activities, goals and policies. External evaluation of the program shows that our approach has been highly successful and can provide useful lessons for other programs focused on broadening participation. Since 1994, the number of URM students enrolled in STEM disciplines at CSU campuses has more than doubled and the number of STEM degrees to URM students has almost tripled. Persistence and graduation rates for URM students who participate in CSU-LSAMP are almost twice those of URM non-participants and equal to those of non-URM students. Of the students who participated in the past 15 years, 42 percent either earned a post

  19. Evaluation of scatter-to-primary ratio, grid performance and normalized average glandular dose in mammography by Monte Carlo simulation including interference and energy broadening effects (United States)

    Cunha, D. M.; Tomal, A.; Poletti, M. E.


    In this work, a computational code for the study of imaging systems and dosimetry in conventional and digital mammography through Monte Carlo simulations is described. The developed code includes interference and Doppler energy broadening for simulation of elastic and inelastic photon scattering, respectively. The code estimates the contribution of scattered radiation to image quality through the spatial distribution of the scatter-to-primary ratio (S/P). It allows the inclusion of different designs of anti-scatter grids (linear or cellular), for evaluation of contrast improvement factor (CIF), Bucky factor (BF) and signal difference-to-noise ratio improvement factor (SIF). It also allows the computation of the normalized average glandular dose, \\bar{D}_{g,N} . These quantities were studied for different breast thicknesses and compositions, anode/filter combinations and tube potentials. Results showed that the S/P increases linearly with breast thickness, varying slightly with breast composition or the spectrum used. Evaluation of grid performance showed that the cellular grid provides the highest CIF with smaller BF. The SIF was also greater for the cellular grid, although both grids showed SIF breasts. Results for \\bar{D}_{g,N} showed that it increases with the half-value layer (HVL) of the spectrum, decreases considerably with breast thickness and has a small dependence on the anode/filter combination. Inclusion of interference effects of breast tissues affected the values of S/P obtained with the grid up to 25%, while the energy broadening effect produced smaller variations on the evaluated quantities.

  20. The SJR indicator: A new indicator of journals' scientific prestige


    Gonzalez-Pereira, Borja; Guerrero-Bote, Vicente; Moya-Anegon, Felix


    This paper proposes an indicator of journals' scientific prestige, the SJR indicator, for ranking scholarly journals based on citation weighting schemes and eigenvector centrality to be used in complex and heterogeneous citation networks such Scopus. Its computation methodology is described and the results after implementing the indicator over Scopus 2007 dataset are compared to an ad-hoc Journal Impact Factor both generally and inside specific scientific areas. The results showed that SJR...

  1. Cancer rehabilitation indicators for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baili, Paolo; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Van Hoof, Elke


    Little is known of cancer rehabilitation needs in Europe. EUROCHIP-3 organised a group of experts to propose a list of population-based indicators used for describing cancer rehabilitation across Europe. The aim of this study is to present and discuss these indicators. A EUROCHIP-3 expert panel...... reached agreement on two types of indicators. (a) Cancer prevalence indicators. These were proposed as a means of characterising the burden of cancer rehabilitation needs by time from diagnosis and patient health status. These indicators can be estimated from cancer registry data or by collecting data...... on follow-up and treatments for samples of cases archived in cancer registries. (b) Indicators of rehabilitation success. These include: return to work, quality of life, and satisfaction of specific rehabilitation needs. Studies can be performed to estimate these indicators in individual countries...

  2. Line broadening of confined CO gas: From molecule-wall to molecule-molecule collisions with pressure (United States)

    Hartmann, J.-M.; Boulet, C.; Vander Auwera, J.; El Hamzaoui, H.; Capoen, B.; Bouazaoui, M.


    The infrared absorption in the fundamental band of CO gas confined in porous silica xerogel has been recorded at room temperature for pressures between about 5 and 920 hPa using a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. The widths of individual lines are determined from fits of measured spectra and compared with ab initio predictions obtained from requantized classical molecular dynamics simulations. Good agreement is obtained from the low pressure regime where the line shapes are governed by molecule-wall collisions to high pressures where the influence of molecule-molecule interactions dominates. These results, together with those obtained with a simple analytical model, indicate that both mechanisms contribute in a practically additive way to the observed linewidths. They also confirm that a single collision of a molecule with a wall changes its rotational state. These results are of interest for the determination of some characteristics of the opened porosity of porous materials through optical soundings.

  3. Significance of terrestrial inflows to carbon and nitrogen distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significance of terrestrial inflows to carbon and nitrogen distribution in the Lake Victoria surface water. ... Samples away from the river mouth provided C:N ratios within the Redfield ratio range (C:N:P; 106:16:1) indicating materials of phytoplanktonic origin. The POM isotopes composition indicated a maximum ä13C value of ...

  4. A Review on the research and practice of city sustainable development indicators and indices (United States)

    Xiang, Ning


    City sustainable development indicators and indices have become a hot issue in academic research and practical application, alongside the high-speed worldwide urbanization and driven by the actual managing demand. This article is aimed at a clear understanding of the progress in relevant research and practice. This is done by collecting common indicators and indices for city sustainable development and making comparison of the assessment process and contents, so as to find out main obstacles for the development of this research field and explore the direction for efforts to be made next step. The article divides these indicators and indices into two categories: ① indicators serving as single index which can provide an explicit description on the relationship between economic activities and environmental carrying capacity, but have a narrow scope of assessment and use complicated methods to collect and calculate data; ② indices based on indicator systems which can represent multiple processes, could reflect the view of strong sustainability and are easy to use, but can hardly depict the responding relationship between social, environmental and economic changes for city sustainable development or assure the scientific rigor of weight setting. Practices on indicators and indices for city sustainable development was summarized, and its problems were reviewed with China being representative of transitioning countries. According to the review, great progress has been achieved in the research and practice of indicators and indices for city sustainable development, but consistency of theories, rationality of indicators and scientific rigor of methodology are to be improved significantly.

  5. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses. (United States)

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha


    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  6. [Microbial indicators and fresh water quality assessment]. (United States)

    Briancesco, Rossella


    Traditionally, the microbiological quality of waters has been measured by the analysis of indicator microorganisms. The article reviews the sanitary significance of traditional indicators of faecal contamination (total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) and points out their limits. For some characteristics Escherichia coli may be considered a more useful indicator then faecal coliforms and recently it has been included in all recent laws regarding fresh, marine and drinking water. A clearer taxonomic definition of faecal streptococci evidenced the difficulty into defining a specific standard methodology of enumeration and suggested the more suitable role of enterococci as indicator microorganisms. Several current laws require the detection of enterococci. The resistance of Clostridium perfringens spores may mean that they would serve as a useful indicator of the sanitary quality of sea sediments.

  7. Applicability of early indicators of iron toxicity. (United States)

    Knasel, A L; Collins-Barrow, M D


    Leukocytosis, blood glucose, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal radiograph have been reported as early indicators of toxic serum iron levels. To test the applicability of this battery of five variables, the charts of 64 patients admitted for toxic iron ingestion were reviewed. When these variables were subjected to tests of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive negative and positive values in 42 patients meeting study criteria, they failed to reach statistical significance. Only vomiting was found to approach statistical significance and, therefore, may serve as an early indicator of toxicity. In addition, several epidemiological issues relevant to the study population are discussed.

  8. Rumble over jailhouse healthcare. As states broaden outsourcing to private vendors, critics question quality of care and cost savings. (United States)

    Kutscher, Beth; Meyer, Harris


    The trend for states to outsource prison healthcare has met opposition from inmate advocates and legal aid groups. They fear quality of care will suffer, while others debate whether outsourcing care saves any money. Corizon, the largest U.S. private prison healthcare provider, says it definitely delivers savings. "We are the model because we've been doing capitated rates since we've been in business. Our cost per individual is significantly less than in the 'free world,' "says Corizon CEO Rich Hallworth.

  9. Correlation of sole prenatal indication to fetal chromosomal karyotype abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying XU


    Full Text Available Objective  To analysis the clinical high risk factors for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Methods  Amniocentesis, chromosomal karyotype analysis and other related methods were performed on 4829 pregnant women, who presented sole indication of prenatal diagnosis such as advanced age, high risk factors and fetal ultrasound abnormalities, for analyzing the correlations of those women to the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Results  The detection rates of abnormal karyotype were 5.0% (57/1143, 1.7% (40/2367 and 4.3% (57/1319 in the older women group (age>35, abnormal maternal serological screening group and abnormal fetal ultrasound finding group, respectively. The detection rats of karyotype abnormality were 6.9% (23/333 in women with fetal congenital heart diseases, 8.5% (20/234 in those with abnormal amniotic fluid, 1.1% (1/89 in those with fetal ventriculomegaly, 1.1% (10/898 in those with fetal intracardiac hyperechogenicity, 5.9% (2/34 in those with fetal choroid cyst and 5.6% (1/18 in those with fetal renal pelvis broadening. Conclusion  The pregnant women with age>35, fetal sonographic structural anomalies or two or more soft marker abnormalities should be prenatally diagnosed and doing the genetic counseling combined with the family history. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.02.14

  10. Significance of surgical management for cystic prolactinoma. (United States)

    Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Nagm, Alhusain; Goto, Tetsuya; Hongo, Kazuhiro


    It is generally accepted that dopamine agonists (DA) represent the first-line treatment for most patients with prolactinoma, and patients become candidates for surgical intervention when DA is contraindicated. Surgical indication for cystic prolactinoma remains controversial. This study was performed to investigate the significance of surgery for cystic prolactinoma. A total of 28 patients that underwent transsphenoidal resection of prolactinoma between February 2004 and May 2016 were reviewed. Five consecutive patients with cystic prolactinoma were included in this study. Our surgical strategy for cystic prolactinoma was categorized as follows: first, when the purpose of surgical resection was normalization of the prolactin level, aggressive resection was performed; second, when volume reduction was essential to relieve the visual symptoms and headache, internal decompression was performed followed by DA therapy. The clinical outcomes were analyzed accordingly. All cystic prolactinoma were resected via the transsphenoidal approach without any complications, and all symptoms including visual impairment and hypogonadal activity were finally relieved combined with medication. Surgery for cystic prolactinoma could be a better option. Transsphenoidal surgery is relatively safe to remove the cystic prolactinoma, additionally it can normalize the prolactine level and achieve adequate and rapid decompression of optic chiasm. The risk of transsphenoidal surgery is highly dependent on the skill of the surgeon and treatment decision for cystic prolactinoma needs to be individualized for each patient.

  11. Pediatric tracheotomy wound complications: incidence and significance. (United States)

    Jaryszak, Eric M; Shah, Rahul K; Amling, June; Peña, Maria T


    To determine the incidence and to describe wound complications and associated risk factors of pediatric tracheotomy. Retrospective case series. Freestanding tertiary care academic pediatric hospital. Sixty-five consecutive children undergoing tracheotomy over 15 months. Postoperative wound complications objectively and independently documented by an advanced practice nurse specializing in tracheotomy care. Secondary outcome measures included comorbidities, mortality rates, and wound status after subsequent examinations and management. The mean (SEM) patient age at tracheotomy was 45 (8.7) months (median age, 9.1 months). The most common indication for tracheotomy was pulmonary disease (36.9%), followed by neurologic impairment and laryngeal abnormalities. There were 19 patients (29%) with and 46 patients (71%) without wound complications. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in age (P = .68) or weight (P = .55); however, infants younger than 12 months had an increased complication rate (39% vs. 17%, P = .04). The type of tracheotomy tube was predictive of postoperative wound complications (P = .02). All patients with wounds received aggressive local wound care. Five of 13 patients had complete resolution of stomal wounds, whereas 8 patients had persistent wound issues. There were 5 non-wound-related mortalities. With attempts to classify tracheotomy wound breakdowns as reportable events, including never events, increasing emphasis is being placed on posttracheotomy care. This study demonstrates that wound breakdown in pediatric tracheotomy patients is common. These complications can be mitigated, although not prevented completely, with aggressive wound surveillance and specialized wound care.

  12. A study on the microstructural parameters of Zn {sub (1-x)}La{sub x}Zr{sub x}O nanopowders by X-ray line broadening analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenari, Hossein Mahmoudi; Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Rezaee, Omid, E-mail:, E-mail: [Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In the present study, the pure and La-Zr co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel technique using zinc acetate dehydrate (Zn(Ac){sub 2} ·{sub 2}H{sub 2} O), lanthanum nitrate hexahydrate (La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} ·6H{sub 2}O) and zirconium chloride (ZrCl{sub 4} ) as precursor. The structure and morphology of the prepared nanoparticle samples were studied using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements. X-ray diffraction results indicated that all the samples have crystalline wurtzite phase. TEM showed that powder was polycrystalline in nature with random distribution of the pure and La-Zr doped ZnO nanoparticles. We demonstrate strain-size evaluations for pure and doped ZnO nanoparticles from the x-ray line profile analysis. The microstructural effects of crystalline materials in terms of crystallite sizes and lattice strain on the peak broadening were investigated using Williamson-Hall (W-H) analysis and size- strain plot (SSP) method. The average crystallite size of Zn {sub (1-x)}La{sub x} Zr{sub x} O nanoparticles estimated from the W-H analysis and SSP method varied as the doping concentration increased. The incorporation of Zr{sup 4+} ion in the place of Zn{sup {sub 2}{sub +}} caused an increase in the size of nanocrystals as compared to undoped ZnO. The average particle sizes of co-doped ZnO nanoparticles estimated from the USDM model is in good agreement with the TEM results. (author)

  13. Congenital muscular dystrophy with fatty liver and infantile-onset cataract caused by TRAPPC11 mutations: broadening of the phenotype. (United States)

    Liang, Wen-Chen; Zhu, Wenhua; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Noguchi, Satoru; Sacher, Michael; Ogawa, Megumu; Shih, Hsiang-Hung; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Nishino, Ichizo


    Transport protein particle (TRAPP) is a multiprotein complex involved in endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi trafficking. Zebrafish with a mutation in the TRAPPC11 orthologue showed hepatomegaly with steatosis and defects in visual system development. In humans, TRAPPC11 mutations have been reported in only three families showing limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) or myopathy with movement disorders and intellectual disability. We screened muscular dystrophy genes using next-generation sequencing and performed associated molecular and biochemical analyses in a patient with fatty liver and cataract in addition to infantile-onset muscle weakness. We identified the first Asian patient with TRAPPC11 mutations. Muscle pathology demonstrated typical dystrophic changes and liver biopsy revealed steatosis. The patient carried compound heterozygous mutations of a previously reported missense and a novel splice-site mutation. The splice-site change produced two aberrantly-spliced transcripts that were both predicted to result in translational frameshift and truncated proteins. Full-length TRAPPC11 protein was undetectable on immunoblotting. This report widens the phenotype of TRAPPC11-opathy as the patient showed the following: (1) congenital muscular dystrophy phenotype rather than LGMD; (2) steatosis and infantile-onset cataract, both not observed in previously reported patients; but (3) no ataxia or abnormal movement, clearly indicating that TRAPPC11 plays a physiological role in multiple tissues in human.

  14. Effectiveness of Geosciences Exploration Summer Program (GeoX) for increasing awareness and Broadening Participation in the Geosciences (United States)

    Garcia, S. J.; Houser, C.


    Summer research experiences are an increasingly popular means to increase awareness of and develop interest in the Geosciences and other STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) programs. Here we describe and report the preliminary results of a new one-week program at Texas A&M University to introduce first generation, women, and underrepresented high school students to opportunities and careers in the Geosciences. Short-term indicators in the form of pre- and post-program surveys of participants and their parents suggest that there is an increase in participant understanding of geosciences and interest in pursuing a degree in the geosciences. At the start of the program, the participants and their parents had relatively limited knowledge of the geosciences and very few had a friend or acquaintance employed in the geosciences. Post-survey results suggest that the students had an improved and nuanced understanding of the geosciences and the career opportunities within the field. A survey of the parents several months after the program had ended suggests that the participants had effectively communicated their newfound understanding and that the parents now recognized the geosciences as a potentially rewarding career. With the support of their parents 42% of the participants are planning to pursue an undergraduate degree in the geosciences compared to 62% of participants who were planning to pursue a geosciences degree before the program. It is concluded that future offerings of this and similar programs should also engage the parents to ensure that the geosciences are recognized as a potential academic and career path.

  15. Trade Effects of Geographical Indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.


    This contribution addresses the effects of geographical indications on intra-EU and international trade. Trade is hampered by the exclusiveness of indications like “Protected Designations of Origin or Protected Geographical Indications”, which at the same time is necessary to protect their value. As

  16. The politics of SEA indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per


    The use of indicators is not only technical and science-led, but also a value-laden social process, and thus concerns public participation, political judgment and decision-making. This article approaches the Chinese SEA indicator system from a science-policy interface and aims at: 1) contributing...

  17. Geomagnetic Kn, Ks, Km Indices (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A full description of the indices Kn, Ks, Km is given in a monography,"Indices Kn, Ks et Km, 1964-1967", edited in 1968 by the Centre National de la Recherche...

  18. Cancer rehabilitation indicators for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baili, Paolo; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Van Hoof, Elke; Bartsch, Hans Helge; Travado, Luzia; Garami, Miklos; Di Salvo, Francesca; Micheli, Andrea; Veerus, Piret

    Little is known of cancer rehabilitation needs in Europe. EUROCHIP-3 organised a group of experts to propose a list of population-based indicators used for describing cancer rehabilitation across Europe. The aim of this study is to present and discuss these indicators. A EUROCHIP-3 expert panel

  19. Noncontacting valve-position indicator (United States)

    Crovella, E. A.; Cummins, R. D.; Wada, J. M.


    Position of sealed valve or other movable part is indicated without penetrating housing. Flux from magnets connected to stem of hydraulic valve penetrates pressure wall and is sensed by Hall-effect transducer outside wall. When valve closes, moving stem and magnets, voltage from transducer decreases; thus, stem position is indicated without physical contact.

  20. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric


    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted caref...