WorldWideScience

Sample records for broadcast-sown oilseed rape

  1. You reap what you sow - or do you? volunteers in organic row-sown and broadcast-sown oilseed rape fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Naja Steen; Rasmussen, Jesper; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    The frequency and origin of oilseed rape volunteers in organic row and broadcast-sown oilseed rape fields was evaluated using DNA markers (ISSR) for analysis of potential volunteers in nine organic oilseed rape fields with different history. Using the software AFLPOP, the potential volunteers wer...

  2. Oilseed rape and bronchial reactivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Soutar, A; Harker, C; Seaton, A.; Packe, G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate atopy and changes in symptoms, peak flow rate, and bronchial reactivity in people complaining of symptoms during the oilseed rape flowering season. METHODS--37 people who had given positive answers to questions about the presence of symptoms in relation to the flowering season of oilseed rape and 24 controls with no such symptoms were studied, although not all took part in all parts of the study. All had been previously identified in a cross sectional survey of a ra...

  3. Oilseed rape in energetic circle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usage of methyl-ester (biofuel) on the basis of oilseed rape in some countries of West Europe is investigated as energy source, and a few years ago was in experimental application. Oilseed rape is one of the major oilseed crops intended for the production of methyl-ester, especially for internal combustion engines. But, except for primary methyl-ester, secondary produces are: 1. Oil cakes or crushed oil seeds - usage value is enormous, especially if it is used as a feed for all livestock categories. 2. Oilseed rape hay -its use as a means of energy source is gaining in importance. 3. Remains of the plant are used for activating the soil fauna and improving the whole soil structure. New '00' cultivars have high - quality oil and improved meal quality; also, then have reduced amount of glucosinolates - below 5 mmol/g, and ERUCA acid, which enabled their use as feed in serve quantity. (author)

  4. Oilseed rape straw for cultivation of oyster mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamali Peyvast

    2008-01-01

    Oyster mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr.) Singer] was grown on five substrates: rice straw, rice straw + oilseed rape straw (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 dw/dw), and oilseed rape straw alone. Rice straw + oilseed rape straw (25:75) and oilseed rape straw were best for fruit body production of P. ostreatus. The time to fruiting for P. ostreatus was also shorter on oilseed rape straw. Protein content of the fruit bodies obtained with oilseed rape straw was highest among all substrat...

  5. Marker-assisted identification of oilseed rape volunteers in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields

    OpenAIRE

    Thöle, Heinrich; Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje

    2012-01-01

    Seed losses of oilseed rape (OSR) occur before and during harvest. Seeds can persist in soils for several years and often appear as volunteers in successive crops. Oilseed rape volunteers (OSRV) can harm the product quality if they emerge in subsequent OSR crops differing in fatty acid profile or other quality traits. Several factors can affect volunteer abundance. Important factors identified under controlled conditions are OSR post-harvest management (stubble tillage) and OSR variety select...

  6. Organic control of oilseed rape pests through natural pesticides and mixed cultivation with turnip rape

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, T.; Jansen, B.; Mayer, J.; Kühne, S.; Böhm, H; Rasmussen, Ilse A.; HERMANSEN John

    2011-01-01

    A mixed cropping system of rapeseed and 10% turnip rape as trap crop was compared with oilseed rape in pure stand to demonstrate the reduction of infestation by insect pests. Furthermore the application of bio-pesticides like pyrethrum/rape oil (Spruzit Neu), spinosad (SpinTor), diatomeen earth (SiO2) /sunflower-oil and rock powder/water was tased.

  7. Potential of oilseed rape for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the concept of using oilseed rape as a feedstock for biodiesel production in the southeastern US Average oil yields from test plots over eight southeastern locations in 1992 were 1,033 liters per hectare. Seed and oil yields of Humus, a cultivar developed specifically for biofuel use, were below average at all test locations. Progress in increasing yield and thereby reducing unit costs of seed production, has been significant during the last six years. The single most important factor influencing the economic viability of biodiesel is oil yield, a function of seed yield and oil content. Other important factors include co-product credits and federal farm program benefits. Farmland idled in the southeastern US including both 10-year CRP and annual farm program hectarage is about 2.4 million hectares for the 13 states. Using the average yield of 1,033 litters, approximately 2.4 billion liters of biodiesel could be produced by fully employing this land resource annually. These data assume the use of a locally well-adapted cultivar by an experienced producer

  8. Inheritance of Boron Efficiency in Oilseed Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Lei; WANG Yun-Hua; NIAN Fu-Zhao; LU Jian-Wei; MENG Jin-Ling; XU Fang-Sen

    2009-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the inheritance of boron efficiency in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) by evaluating the boron (B) efficiency coefficient (BEC,the ratio of the seed yield at below the critical boron level to that at the boron-sufficient level) with 657 F2:3 fines of a population derived from a cross between a B-efficient cultivar,Qingyou 10,and a B-inefficient cultivar,Bakow.Qingyou i0 had high BEC as well as high seed yield at low available soil B.On the contrary,Bakow produced low seed yield at low B status.Boron deficiency decreased the seed yield of the F2:3 lines to different extents and the distribution of BEC of the population showed a bimodal pattern.When the 657 F2:3 lines were grouped into B-efficient lines and B-inefficient lines according to their BEC,the ratio of B-efficient lines to B-inefficient lines fitted the expected ratio (3:1),indicating that one major gene controlled the B-efficiency trait.127 F2:3 lines selected from the population at random,with distribution of BEC similar to that of the overall population,were used to identify the target region for fine mapping of the boron efficiency gene.

  9. Efficacy of microbiological treatments and trap crop against pests of winter oilseed rape

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalska, Jolanta; Remlein-Starosta, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Winter oilseed rape was cultivated in monoculture or in combination with turnip rape as trap crop sown in trap strip. Preventative microbiological treatments for diseases control in winter oilseed rape were tested using Trichoderma asperellum and product based on effective microorganisms. Microorganisms were effective to protect of oilseed rape and allowed to obtain higher yield comparing to untreated plants. No effect of turnip rape as trap crop stripe on infestation by insect pest was obser...

  10. Direct nitrous oxide emissions from oilseed rape cropping - a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Katja; Don, Axel; Fuß, Roland; Kern, Jürgen; Drewer, Julia; Flessa, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Oilseed rape is one of the leading feedstocks for biofuel production in Europe. The climate change mitigation effect of rape methyl ester (RME) is particularly challenged by the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during crop production, mainly as nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils. Oilseed rape requires high nitrogen fertilization and crop residues are rich in nitrogen, both potentially causing enhanced N2O emissions. However, GHG emissions of oilseed rape production are often estimated using emissio...

  11. Oilseed rape genotypes response to boron toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of 16 oilseed rape genotypes to B (boron toxicity was analyzed by comparing the results of two experiments conducted in a glasshouse. In Experiment 1 plants were grown in standard nutrient solutions with 10 µMB (control and 1000 µM B. Relative root and shoot growth varied from 20-120% and 31-117%, respectively. Variation in B concentration in shoots was also wide (206.5-441.7 µg B g-1 DW as well as total B uptake by plant (62.3-281.2 µg B g1. Four selected genotypes were grown in Experiment 2 in pots filled with high B soil (8 kg ha-1 B; B8. Shoot growth was not affected by B8 treatment, while root and shoot B concentration was significantly increased compared to control. Genotypes Panther and Pronto which performed low relative root and shoot growth and high B accumulation in plants in Experiment 1, had good growth in B8 treatment. In Experiment 2 genotype NS-L-7 had significantly lower B concentration in shots under treatment B8, but also very high B accumulation in Experiment 1. In addition, cluster analyses classified genotypes in three groups according to traits contrasting in their significance for analyzing response to B toxicity. The first group included four varieties based on their shared characteristics that have small value for the relative growth of roots and shoots and large values of B concentration in shoot. In the second largest group were connected ten genotypes that are heterogeneous in traits and do not stand out on any characteristic. Genotypes NS-L-7 and Navajo were separated in the third group because they had big relative growth of root and shoot, but also a high concentration of B in the shoot, and high total B uptake. Results showed that none of tested genotypes could not be recommended for breeding process to tolerance for B toxicity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173028

  12. Radiation and nitrogen use in wheat and oilseed rape crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreccer, F.

    1999-12-08

    This thesis focuses on understanding the physiological bases of biomass production per unit intercepted irradiance (RUE) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), combining traditional experimentation with modelling. RUE has been indicated as a physiological attribute that limits yield potential in different crops (Chapter 2) and is affected by N availability. The response of wheat and oilseed rape to N availability was compared in terms of yield, intercepted radiation, RUE, photosynthesis and N use efficiency during the critical period for grain number definition and grain filling (Chapters 3 and 4). Oilseed rape had lower harvest index for biomass, and yield was more limited by the capacity for assimilate production than that of wheat (Chapter 3). During the critical period for grain number definition, RUE in oilseed rape reached a higher value than wheat at high N and was more sensitive to N availability (Chapter 3). The higher leaf photosynthesis per unit leaf N in oilseed rape than wheat and the fact that oilseed rape leaves were increasingly less-saturated by light due to the inflorescence growth (more at high N supply) contributed to explain this response (Chapter 4). The vertical pattern of leaf N distribution in a canopy determines canopy photosynthesis, and manipulating it has been suggested as a route to maximise RUE (Chapter 2). In wheat and oilseed rape, leaf N was partitioned in relation to the gradient of absorbed irradiance (Chapters 4,5,6). The light-associated leaf N distribution changed dynamically during crop growth and was regulated by N availability but not by atmospheric CO2 concentration (Chapter 4,5,6). The vertical leaf N distribution was such that kept the capacity for photosynthesis at high and low light in balance (Chapter 5), close to the theoretical optimum maximising canopy photosynthesis (Chapter 4 and 5) and did not differ remarkably between species (Chapter 4). Finally, the response of canopy

  13. The fast pyrolysis of oilseed rape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Dick, C.M.; Hague, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Rape meal, rape straw and rape seeds have all been successfully pyrolysed at temperatures ranging from 450{sup o}C to 525{sup o}C, in a fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor. An accumulation of char particles, retaining the shape of the original rape seed, caused some problems and these would have to be overcome in large scale continuous use of the process, possibly using higher fluidisation velocities. Rape straw did not cause such blockages, making it suitable as a fast pyrolysis feedstock. Rape meal caused considerable clogging requiring increased fluidising and feed gas flow rates. Odour problems were also worse. Strategies for whole crop pyrolysis are outlined along with necessary future research. (UK)

  14. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation, and...... 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...... rapeseed biodiesel plant of Europe to an oilseed rape whole-crop biorefinery by 2020 is envisioned and discussed. The description and discussion of this biorefinery is based partly on literature review, and partly on own experimental data, especially on pretreatment of rape straw, and production of...

  15. Development of a Precision Seed Drill for Oilseed Rape

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Ebrahim; GHASSEMZADEH, Hamid Reza; Mohammad MOGHADDAM; KIM, Kyeong Uk

    2008-01-01

    At the present time, the most widely used machine for seed and oilseed planting is a seed drill with a roller-type-metering device. Due to nonuniform spacing of seeds along the rows and lack of control on planting depth, this machine aggravates the growth related problems and degrades the quality of a sensitive crop such as oilseed rape. To solve the above-mentioned problems, an attempt was made to develop a precision seed drill with a roller-type-metering device and a depth control system. S...

  16. Assessing the drought risk of oilseed rape to target future improvements to root systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Linde

    2011-01-01

    The yield of UK’s commercial oilseed rape (Brassica napus) crops has not increased over the last three decades, while a significant increase in yield has been found in trials that test new varieties before they enter the market. It has been suggested that oilseed rape is susceptible to drought and that this may contribute to the poor yield of some commercial crops. A thorough literature review revealed that there is little information on the water relations of oilseed rape crop...

  17. Control of volunteer Clearfield® oilseed rape in sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Buhre, Cord; Bremer, Hagen; Ladewig, Erwin

    2012-01-01

    The Clearfield® production system for winter oilseed rape is now registered in France and a introduction for Germany is planned. In this production system, imidazolinone herbicides are used. These herbicides belong to the same mode of action (HRAC group B) as the active ingredient triflusulfuron-methyl in the herbicide Debut®. Therefore, a reduced efficacy of this active ingredient for the control of Clearfield® volunteer oilseed rape is expected. Today non-Clearfield® volunteer oilseed rape ...

  18. Availability of oilseed rape for biodiesel; Beschikbaarheid koolzaad voor biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, B.; Prins, H.; Van der Voort, M.; Meeusen, B.M. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, Wageningen (Netherlands); Smit, B.; Annevelink, B. [Agrotechnology en Food Innovations, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    This report provides an insight into the conditions under which the Dutch agricultural industry will cultivate oilseed rape for biodiesel. The Dutch agricultural entrepreneur occupies a central role in this. The possibilities relating to the cultivation of oilseed rape are assessed from the perspective of the Dutch farmer, within the framework of the EU directive regarding the substitution of 2% of transport fuels with bio transport fuels in the Netherlands. Along with bio-ethanol, biodiesel is an important bio transport fuel. One of the raw materials used in the production of biodiesel is (cultivated) oilseed rape. [Dutch] Dit rapport geeft inzicht in de voorwaarden waaronder het Nederlandse landbouwbedrijfsle-ven koolzaad zullen telen voor biodiesel. Daarbij staat de Nederlandse landbouwondernemer centraal. Vanuit het perspectief van de Nederlandse landbouwer worden de mogelijkheden voor koolzaadteelt beoordeeld. Dit in het kader van de EU-richtlijn om te komen tot een vervanging van 2% van de transportbrandstoffen door biotransportbrandstoffen in Nederland. Naast bio-ethanol is biodiesel daarin een belangrijke (bio)transportbrandstof. Een van de grondstoffen voor biodiesel is (geteelde) koolzaad.

  19. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth. PMID:26390095

  20. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies. PMID:26236848

  1. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of SHATTERPROOF gene in transgenic oilseed rape

    OpenAIRE

    Kord, Hadis; Shakib, Ali Mohammad; Daneshvar, Mohammad Hossein; Azadi, Pejman; Bayat, Vahid; Mashayekhi, Mohsen; Zarea, Mahboobeh; Seifi, Alireza; Ahmad-Raji, Mana

    2014-01-01

    Oilseed rape is one of the important oil plants. Pod shattering is one of the problems in oilseed rape production especially in regions with dry conditions. One of the important genes in Brassica pod opening is SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1). Down-regulation of BnSHP1 expression by RNAi can increase resistance to pod shattering. A 470 bp of the BnSHP1 cDNA sequence constructed in an RNAi-silencing vector was transferred to oilseed rape cv. SLM046. Molecular analysis of T2 transgenic plants by RT-PCR an...

  2. Mechanisms of Difference in Mn Efficiency Between Wheat and Oilseed Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By solution culture experiment, three wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) and two oilseed rape genotypes (Brassica napus L.) differing in Mn efficiency under Mn-deficient conditions were uaed to study mechanisms of the difference in Mn efficiency between wheat and oilseed rape. The results showed that there were significant differences in the abilities of MnIV reduction and acidification in root rhizosphere between the two species. Compared with wheat, oilseed rape had much higher reducing capacity and intensity of rhizosphere acidification under Mn-deficient conditions. Moreover, the higher ratio of functional leaves Mn/old leaves Mn in oilseed rape than in wheat was also an important factor for the different Mn efficiencies between the two species.

  3. Critical Range of Soil Boron for Prognosis of Boron Deficiency in Oilseed Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIYOUZHANG

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between seed yields of oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.) and extractable boron concen-trations in three soil layers(A,P and W) were investigated through ten experiments on three types of soils(Alluvic Entisols,Udic Ferrisols and Sagnic Anthrosols) in northern,Western and middle Zhejing Province.Among several mathematical models used to described the relationships,the polynomial equation,y=a+bx+cx2+dx3,where y is the yield of oilseed rape seed and x the extractable boron concentration in P layer of soil,was the best one.The critical range of the concentrations corresponding to 90% of the maximum oilseed rape yield was 0.40-0.52 mg kg-1,The extractable boron concentration of the P layers of the soils was the most stable,The critical range determined was verified through the production practices of oilseed rape in Zhejiang and Anhui provinces.

  4. Critical Range of Soil Boron for Prognosis of Boron Deficiency in Oilseed Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between seed yields of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and extractable boron concen- trations in three soil layers (A, P and W) were investigated through ten experiments on three types of soils (Alluvic Entisols, Udic Ferrisols and Stagnic Anthrosols) in northern, western and middle Zhejiang Province. Among several mathematical models used to described the relationships, the polynomial equation, y = a + bx + cx2 + dx3, where y is the yield of oilseed rape seed and x the extractable boron concentration in P layer of soil, was the best one. The critical range of the concentrations corresponding to 90% of the maximum oilseed rape yield was 0.40~0.52 mg kg-1. The extractable boron concentration of the P layers of the soils was the most stable. The critical range determined was verified through the production practices of oilseed rape in Zhejiang and Anhui provinces.

  5. Identification of environmentally stable QTL for resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in oilseed rape (Brassica napus)

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Y J; Jestin, C.; Welham, S. J.; King, G. J.; Manzanares-Dauleux, M. J.; Fitt, B. D. L.; Delourme, R

    2015-01-01

    Key message Six stable QTL for resistance against L. maculans (phoma stem canker) have been identified by QTL × environment interaction analysis using data from five winter oilseed rape field experiments. Abstract Phoma stem canker, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a disease of worldwide importance on oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Quantitative trait loci (QTL)-mediated resistance against L. maculans in B. napus is considered to be race non-specific and potentially durable. Identification...

  6. Remote Estimation of Vegetation Fraction and Flower Fraction in Oilseed Rape with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    OpenAIRE

    Shenghui Fang; Wenchao Tang; Yi Peng; Yan Gong; Can Dai; Ruhui Chai; Kan Liu

    2016-01-01

    This study developed an approach for remote estimation of Vegetation Fraction (VF) and Flower Fraction (FF) in oilseed rape, which is a crop species with conspicuous flowers during reproduction. Canopy reflectance in green, red, red edge and NIR bands was obtained by a camera system mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) when oilseed rape was in the vegetative growth and flowering stage. The relationship of several widely-used Vegetation Indices (VI) vs. VF was tested and found to be dif...

  7. Impacts of genotypic variations in sulfur distribution and branching characteristics on nitrogen efficiency of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an important agricultural crop that represents a major renewable resource for human food, animal feed and numerous non-food uses (e.g. bio-fuel, lubricants, high added-value products derived from green chemistry). Also cultivation of this crop is valuable for diversifying the cereal-dominated crop-rotations and for suppressing soil-borne pathogens. Therefore, many EU countries have a great interest in oilseed rape production. However, oilseed rape is cha...

  8. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  9. Against the current - Clearfield® oilseed rape in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laufer, Christine

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of imidazolinone-tolerant oilseed rape (Clearfield® system, CL; OSR meets with scepticism in Germany. Frequently mentioned as a major drawback for growing CL-OSR in Germany is the possible occurrence of herbicide resistant CL-volunteers which could run out of control. A monitoring was started by BASF in the seasons 2011/2012/2013 on farms in Germany prior to commercial launching of the Clearfield® system. Aim of this phase was, among others, to analyse the potential for occurrence and survival of volunteers, and to identify factors which promote or minimize volunteers. The University of Hohenheim monitored 41 farms in nearly all regions of Germany during spring 2013 in the crops following to CL-OSR (harvested in summer 2012, mostly winter wheat. Volunteer OSR was counted on the fields and molecularbiologically analysed, and the soil seed bank was investigated in 0 – 30 cm soil depth. Additionally, data about field history and cultivation were gathered. Several CL-varieties were tested at the same time in the laboratory for secondary dormancy. First results showed variation in dormancy from high (>90% to nearly no dormancy of the tested CL-varieties, similar to common varieties. The situation on farmers fields corresponded to dormancy values: 40 – 49% of all farms had no CL-soil seedbank or volunteers at all, and a maximum of 1000 CL seeds m-2 and two CL-volunteers m-2 were observed on the other farms. Conventional seed banks and volunteers additionally occurred on the majority of the farms. Overall, seed survival and volunteer emergence of CL-OSR can be assessed as medium-low compared to previous studies with conventional varieties. Volunteers observed after CL growing do not necessarily originate from this crop. The regression analysis showed no clear effects, probably because of the low number of sampling sites. This monitoring did not reveal specific disadvantages linked with CL-oilseed rape in terms of volunteers.

  10. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19% of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Canada. As over 90% of all oilseed rape grown in Canada is GM, we hypothesised that imports of Canadian wheat may contain low level impurities of GM oilseed rape. Therefore, waste fraction samples gathered during the mechanical cleaning of Canadian wheat from two Swiss grain mills were analysed by separating oilseed rape seeds from waste fraction samples and testing DNA of pooled seeds for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Furthermore, oilseed rape seeds from each grain mill were sown in a germination experiment, and seedling DNA was tested for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 oilseed rape was detected among seed samples and seedlings of both grain mills. Based on this data, we projected a mean proportion of 0.005% of oilseed rape in wheat imported from Canada. Besides Canadian wheat, the Rhine port of Basel does not import any other significant amounts of agricultural products from GM oilseed rape producing countries. We therefore conclude that Canadian wheat is the major source of unintended introduction of GM oilseed rape seeds into Switzerland. PMID:26109224

  11. Evaluation of the Minolta SPAD-502 meter for nitrogen management of oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe-yan; He, Yong; Huang, Min

    2006-09-01

    Nitrogen is important for oilseed rape production and even moderate deficiencies will substantially reduce yield and profit, but excessive N can pollute both surface and ground water. Thus, farmers are walking a thin line. In order to find the relationship between the SPAD value and the nitrogen content of oilseed rapes, a Minolta SPAD-502 Meter can be used for on-farm measurement of the N content, and then the Kjeldahl method has been used for measuring the nitrogen content of these oilseed rapes. Every leaf had 10 points SPAD value in average for measuring by SPAD, according to the area of the leaves, the points were increased or decreased. The Kjeldahl method has been used for organic nitrogen determination for over a century. Before using the Kjeldahl method to measuring the nitrogen content, all the leaves has been washed and dried. The results of these two methods has been fitted, as a result, the correlation coefficient is 0.863. Another sample was used to check if the result was perfect, the error of the forecasting value is about 7.4%. A new method for measuring the nitrogen content quickly of oilseed rapes has been found, the nitrogen content of the oilseed rape can be measured nondestructively and quickly.

  12. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Dechun; XING Jianping; JIAO Weiping; WONG Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions.The results showed that the maximal influx (Vmax) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties.The value of Vmax for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuangyou II-93.The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with Cd as CdSO4 for both the varieties.Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil.Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  13. BnSGS3 Has Differential Effects on the Accumulation of CMV, ORMV and TuMV in Oilseed Rape

    OpenAIRE

    Quan Chen; Jie Wang; Mingsheng Hou; Shengyi Liu; Junyan Huang; Li Cai

    2015-01-01

    Virus diseases greatly affect oilseed rape (Brassica napus) production. Investigating antiviral genes may lead to the development of disease-resistant varieties of oilseed rape. In this study, we examined the effects of the suppressor of gene silencing 3 in Brassica napus (BnSGS3, a putative antiviral gene) with different genus viruses by constructing BnSGS3-overexpressing (BnSGS3-Ov) and BnSGS3-silenced (BnSGS3-Si) oilseed rape (cv. Zhongshuang No. 6) plants. These three viruses are Oilseed ...

  14. “00” Oilseed Rape Cultivars in the Process of Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Kiš

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available To provide production of biodiesel fuel agriculture is required to grow “00” oilseed rape cultivars. In continuous process of the fuel production, grown oilseed rape seed should be regularly dried and properly stored. Drying rate and drying quality of the seed depends on physical conditions of the atmosphere when drying, physical and chemical properties of the material used, and the thickness of the layer through which water is diff used in the regime of drying. The study has been carried out on three “00” oilseed rape cultivars during three years period. Mathematical models of drying have been made to enable mutual comparison among the cultivars. Among the cultivars tested no significant differences were found regarding drying during one-year period. However, significant differences were found when comparison was made within the years of examination.

  15. Characteristics of Cd uptake and accumulation in two Cd accumulator oilseed rape species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RU Shu-hua; WANG Ji-qing; SU De-chun

    2004-01-01

    Two pot experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to investigate the characteristics of Cd uptake and accumulation by two Cd accumulator oilseed rape varieties and one Indian mustard grown on a loamy soil that had been artificially contaminated by different amounts of CdSO4 (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mg/kg soil). The relationship between shoot Cd uptake of the two oilseed rape cultivars and the soil Cd concentrations could be simulated via quadratic equations. The curve showed that maximum shoot Cd uptake of Indian mustard was 314.7μg/pot at soil Cd concentration of 87.8 mg/kg, while maximum uptake of the variety Xikou Huazi was 543.3μg/pot at soil Cd concentration of 69.1 mg/kg and that of the variety Zhongyou Za-1hao was 576.7μg/pot at soil Cd concentration of 84.0 mg/kg, suggesting that shoot Cd uptake ability of the two Cd accumulator oilseed rapes was significantly higher than that of the Indian mustard. Xikou Huazi had higher phytoremediation potential for Cd contaminated soil. Shoot Cd accumulation ability of the two Cd accumulator oilseed rapes was correspond and Cd was easier translocated to the shoot than hyperaccumulator Indian mustard as comparation plant. Shoot Cd distribution pattern showed consistent and significant reduction from older leaves to younger ones of two oilseed rapes and Indian mustard. Cd uptake by oilseed rapes in growth prophase was higher than that of growth anaphase.

  16. Remote Estimation of Vegetation Fraction and Flower Fraction in Oilseed Rape with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Fang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an approach for remote estimation of Vegetation Fraction (VF and Flower Fraction (FF in oilseed rape, which is a crop species with conspicuous flowers during reproduction. Canopy reflectance in green, red, red edge and NIR bands was obtained by a camera system mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV when oilseed rape was in the vegetative growth and flowering stage. The relationship of several widely-used Vegetation Indices (VI vs. VF was tested and found to be different in different phenology stages. At the same VF when oilseed rape was flowering, canopy reflectance increased in all bands, and the tested VI decreased. Therefore, two algorithms to estimate VF were calibrated respectively, one for samples during vegetative growth and the other for samples during flowering stage. The results showed that the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARIgreen worked most accurately for estimating VF in flower-free samples with an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of 3.56%, while the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2 was the best in flower-containing samples with an RMSE of 5.65%. Based on reflectance in green and NIR bands, a technique was developed to identify whether a sample contained flowers and then to choose automatically the appropriate algorithm for its VF estimation. During the flowering season, we also explored the potential of using canopy reflectance or VIs to estimate FF in oilseed rape. No significant correlation was observed between VI and FF when soil was visible in the sensor’s field of view. Reflectance at 550 nm worked well for FF estimation with coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.6. Our model was validated in oilseed rape planted under different nitrogen fertilization applications and in different phenology stages. The results showed that it was able to predict VF and FF accurately in oilseed rape with RMSE below 6%.

  17. Suitability of Soil and Climate for Oilseed Rape Production in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Pospišil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the suitability of soil and weather conditions for oilseed rape production in the agricultural region of the Pannonian Plain in the Republic of Croatia. Soil suitability was estimated on the basis of the existing soil properties. There are 1,169,626 ha of soils suitable for oilseed rape production in the Pannonian agricultural region of the Republic of Croatia, of which 229,839 ha are highly suitable soils (class S-1, 351,392 ha are moderately suitable soils (class S-2, and 588,395 ha are marginally suitable soils (class S-3. On marginally suitable soils oilseed rape should not be grown. To satisfy the planned raw oil requirements of the Republic of Croatia, 60,000- 70,000 ha should be allotted to oilseed rape production. Suitability of climate conditions for oilseed rape production was assessed on the basis of the analysis of weather conditions for seven locations in the Pannonian agricultural region over 30 years (1971-2000. Oilseed rape had almost optimal temperature conditions for good emergence and strong initial growth and autumn growth (mean monthly air temperature 15.4°C. In the winter period (November, December, January, February, mean monthly air temperature was 2°C, and mean minimum air temperature was -1.5°C. In the spring period, mean monthly air temperature was 8.4°C. In the last part of the growing period (May, June, mean monthly air temperature was 17.3°C. From 528 mm (Osijek to 718 mm (Sisak of precipitation was recorded over the growing period, which fully satisfies water requirements of oilseed rape. The analysis clearly shows that, under the agroecological conditions prevailing in the Republic of Croatia, there are no expressly critical parts of the growing period with regard to lack of precipitation. The most critical period is the sowing-emergence time, since very dry August and September, i.e. lack of moisture for satisfactory and uniform emergence of oilseed rape, were recorded in eastern Croatia

  18. Specifics of soil temperature under winter oilseed rape canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krčmářová, Jana; Středa, Tomáš; Pokorný, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter oilseed rape canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for pests and pathogens prediction, crop development, and yields models. The measurement of soil and near the ground air temperatures was performed at the experimental field Žabiče (South Moravia, the Czech Republic). The course of temperature was determined under or in the winter oilseed rape canopy during spring growth season in the course of four years (2010 - 2012 and 2014). In all years, the standard varieties (Petrol, Sherpa) were grown, in 2014 the semi-dwarf variety PX104 was added. Automatic soil sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) under soil surface, air temperature sensors in 0.05 m above soil surfaces. The course of soil temperature differs significantly between standard (Sherpa and Petrol) and semi-dwarf (PX104) varieties. Results of the cross correlation analysis showed, that the best interrelationships between air and soil temperature were achieved in 2 hours delay for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 4 hour delay for 0.10 m and 7 hour delay for 0.20 m for standard varieties. For semi-dwarf variety, this delay reached 6 hour for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 7 hour delay for 0.10 m and 11 hour for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient (R2) reached values from 0.67 to 0.95 for 0.05 m, 0.50 to 0.84 for 0.10 m in variety Sherpa during all experimental years. For variety PX104 this coefficient reached values from 0.51 to 0.72 in 0.05 m depth and from 0.39 to 0.67 in 0.10 m depth in the year 2014. The determination coefficient in the 0.20 m depth was lower for both varieties; its values were from 0.15 to 0.65 in variety Sherpa. In variety PX104 the values of R2 from 0.23 to 0.57 were determined. When using

  19. Molecular differentiation of commercial varieties and feral populations of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glössl Josef

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For assessing the risk of escape of transgenes from cultivation, the persistence of feral populations of crop plants is an important aspect. Feral populations of oilseed rape, Brassica napus, are well known, but only scarce information is available on their population dynamics, particularly in Central Europe. To investigate genetic diversity, origin and persistence of feral oilseed rape in Austria, we compared variation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in eight feral populations with 19 commercial varieties. Results Overall, commercial varieties and feral populations showed a similar pattern of genetic variation and a similar level of observed heterozygosity. The two groups, however, shared less than 50% of the alleles and no multilocus genotype. A significant among-group (commercial varieties versus feral populations component of genetic variation was observed (AMOVA: FCT = 0.132. Pairwise comparisons between varieties and feral populations showed moderate to very high genetic differentiation (FST = 0.209 - 0.900. The software STRUCTURE also demonstrated a clear separation between commercial varieties and feral samples: out of 17 identified genetic clusters, only one comprised plants from both a commercial variety and feral sites. Conclusions The results suggest that feral oilseed rape is able to maintain persistent populations. The feral populations may have derived from older cultivars that were not included in our analyses or perhaps have already hybridised with related crops or wild relatives. Feral populations therefore have to be considered in ecological risk assessment and future coexistence measures as a potential hybridisation partner of transgenic oilseed rape.

  20. Early osmotic adjustment responses in drought-resistant and drought-sensitive oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah Hatzig; L Irina Zaharia; Suzanne Abrams; Marie Hohmann; Laurie Legoahec; Alain Bouchereau; Nathalie Nesi; Rod J.Snowdon

    2014-01-01

    The impact of osmotic stress on growth, physiolo-gy, and metabolism of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated by detailed analysis of biomass traits, hormone metabolites and osmolytes in two genetical y unrelated drought-tolerant genotypes and two unrelated drought-sensitive genotypes. Seedlings were grown in vitro under control ed conditions and osmotic stress was simulated by applying a gradual treatment with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), fol owed by hypo-osmotic treatment of variants used for metabolite determination. The results provide a basis for the identification of reliable selection criteria for drought resistance in oilseed rape. The in vitro cultivation system established during this study enabled effective discrimination of early osmotic stress responses between drought-resistant and-susceptible oilseed rape genotypes that also show large differences in relative seed yield under drought conditions in the field. Clear physiological and metabolic differences were observed between the drought-resistant and drought-sensitive genotypes, suggesting that osmotic adjustment is a key component of drought response in oilseed rape. Unexpected-ly, however, the drought-resistant genotypes did not show typical hormonal adjustment and osmolyte accumulation, suggesting that they possess alternative physiological mech-anisms enabling avoidance of stress symptoms.

  1. Weevils of the genus Ceutorhynchus Germ associated with oilseed rape in northern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sivčev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research of the genus Ceutorhynchus associated with oilseed rape was conducted in northern parts of Serbia (Stari Žednik, Subotica. A specific assemblage of eight weevil species was found. The most numerous were stem weevils Ceutorhynchus napi with 81% of all trapped specimens, followed by C. pallidactylus with 18%. The remaining six weevil specimens were C. obstrictus, C.erysimi, C. minutus, C. picitarsis, C. sulcicollis and C. typhae, comprising 1% of all trapped insects. Stem weevils C. napi and C. pallidactylus began to immigrate into the oilseed rape fields in autumn, as early as November 10 (BBCH 17-18. The maximum flight was recorded at the beginning of oilseed rape stem elongation (BBCH 22-25 on March 23. A new generation of C. pallidactylus emerged from oilseed rape fields in June (BBCH 76-88, while individual specimens occurred during the autumn. The majority of C. napi emerged in March next year, sporadically until May 7. As a consequence of C. napi dominance insecticide treatment should be performed earlier than usual, i.e. when C. pallidactilus is the primary target.

  2. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape During In Vitro Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwender, Jorg [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hebbelmann, Inga [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Heinzel, Nicholas [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany); Hildebrandt, Tatjana [Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Rogers, Alistair [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Naik, Dhiraj [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Indian Inst. of Advanced Research Koba, Gujarat (India); Klapperstuck, Matthias [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Braun, Hans -Peter [Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Schreiber, Falk [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Melbourne (Australia); Denolf, Peter [Bayer CropScience (Belgium); Borisjuk, Ljudmilla [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany); Rolletschek, Hardy [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. We observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Also, quantitative data were used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3',5'-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism..

  3. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape during in Vitro Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Jörg; Hebbelmann, Inga; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Rogers, Alistair; Naik, Dhiraj; Klapperstück, Matthias; Braun, Hans-Peter; Schreiber, Falk; Denolf, Peter; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2015-07-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. Overall, we observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Quantitative data were also used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3',5'-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism. PMID:25944824

  4. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen,Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19 % of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Ca...

  5. The effect of oilseed rape occurrence on main prey abundance and breeding success of the Common Buzzard Buteo buteo

    OpenAIRE

    Panek, Marek; Husek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Capsule The occurrence of oilseed rape increased main prey abundance and breeding success of Common Buzzards. Aims We tested whether the occurrence of oilseed rape influences the abundance of Common Voles, i.e. the main prey of Common Buzzards and so also nesting activity and breeding success of Common Buzzards. Methods The study was carried out in 2005–2012 in a 38 km2 area in western Poland, where oilseed rape plantations (12–106 ha) covered 18% of the agricultural land. The number ...

  6. Multi range spectral feature fitting for hyperspectral imagery in extracting oilseed rape planting area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhuokun; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Fumin

    2013-12-01

    Spectral feature fitting (SFF) is a commonly used strategy for hyperspectral imagery analysis to discriminate ground targets. Compared to other image analysis techniques, SFF does not secure higher accuracy in extracting image information in all circumstances. Multi range spectral feature fitting (MRSFF) from ENVI software allows user to focus on those interesting spectral features to yield better performance. Thus spectral wavelength ranges and their corresponding weights must be determined. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the performance of MRSFF in oilseed rape planting area extraction. A practical method for defining the weighted values, the variance coefficient weight method, was proposed to set up criterion. Oilseed rape field canopy spectra from the whole growth stage were collected prior to investigating its phenological varieties; oilseed rape endmember spectra were extracted from the Hyperion image as identifying samples to be used in analyzing the oilseed rape field. Wavelength range divisions were determined by the difference between field-measured spectra and image spectra, and image spectral variance coefficient weights for each wavelength range were calculated corresponding to field-measured spectra from the closest date. By using MRSFF, wavelength ranges were classified to characterize the target's spectral features without compromising spectral profile's entirety. The analysis was substantially successful in extracting oilseed rape planting areas (RMSE ≤ 0.06), and the RMSE histogram indicated a superior result compared to a conventional SFF. Accuracy assessment was based on the mapping result compared with spectral angle mapping (SAM) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The MRSFF yielded a robust, convincible result and, therefore, may further the use of hyperspectral imagery in precision agriculture.

  7. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing

    2015-02-01

    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010-2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China. PMID:25644468

  8. Dispersal of solitary bees and bumblebees in a winter oilseed rape field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Dispersal distributions of solitary bees and bumblebees were studied in a winter oilseed rape field. Window-traps were placed in the rape field along a line transect perpendicular to the field edge. 19 species of solitary bees were recorded and all but four species are polylectic, including...... Brassicaceae as host-plant family. Through non-linear regression, the decline in solitary bee individuals versus distance from field edge significantly fitted a steep two-parameter exponential decay function. Activity of solitary bees was clearly highest within 30 metres from the field edge. Apparently......, solitary bees do not play any noteworthy role in the pollination of winter oilseed rape in Denmark. The traps yielded ten species of bumblebees, and a significant linear correlation was found between numbers of individuals and distance from the field edge. This result is attributed to bumblebee foraging...

  9. Formation of Nodular Structures and Nitrogen Fixation by Rhizobia on Oilseed Rape Roots Following Treatment with Pectionolytic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXIAOJIA; ZHANGXUEJIANG

    1996-01-01

    Nodular structures were formed by rhizobia on oilseed rape oilseed rape roots following treatment with pectinolytic bacteria.Nodules developed within 50 days.Photomicrograph of nodule cells showed that the capsulated bacteria were intracellular.Rhizobia resolated from the root nodules retained not only the ability of nodulation but also the characteristic of resistance to 100μg neomycin mL-1,A low nitrogenase activity of the nodules was determined by the method of acetylene reduction.

  10. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds. PMID:25464509

  11. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Schulze

    Full Text Available Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto. The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  12. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p rape. The reduction of oilseed rape yield showed the highest correlation with the ozone uptake during the vegetative growth stage: when only the first 47 days after emergence were used to calculate POD 6, R2 values increased up to 0.476 or even 0.545 when the first 23 days were excluded. The highest ozone treatments, corresponding to the future ambient level by 2100 (IPCC, Meehl et al., 2007), led to a reduction of approximately 30% in oilseed rape seed yield in comparison to the current ozone concentrations. Oil percentage was also significantly reduced in response to ozone ( p < 0.001). As a consequence oil yield was even more severely affected by elevated ozone exposure compared to seed yield: critical levels for oil yield dropped to 3.2 ppm h and 3.9 mmol m -2. For broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  13. Nondestructive determination of nutritional information in oilseed rape leaves using visible/near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Fei, [No Value; Nie PengCheng, [No Value; Huang Min, [No Value; Kong WenWen, [No Value; He Yong, [No Value

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content are the three most important nutritional parameters for growing oilseed rape. We investigated visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for the fast and nondestructive determination of nutritional information in oilseed rap

  14. Distribution, Transportation and Cytolocalization of Neodymium in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏幼璋

    2001-01-01

    Observation with the transmission electronic microscopy shows that Nd can not enter into the cytoplasm of oilseed rape (brassica napus L.) in solution culture. It combines with the cell wall or amasses in the intercellular space. Nd accumulates in root tip after it enters into the plants, while only a small amount of Nd is transferred to the stem and leaf via apoplasm, and the leaf contains the least of Nd. Such observations are consistent with the analytical results of Nd distribution in rape tissues in soil culture experiment. It suggests that the physiological effects of Nd in plants might mainly function on plasmalemma of root system.

  15. Potential bioetanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas. In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3......) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas production. The materials were pretreated by wet oxidation using parameters previously found to be...... optimal for pretreatment of corn stover (195 degrees C, 15 min, 2 g l(-1) Na2CO3 and 12 bar oxygen). It was shown that pretreatment was necessary for ethanol production from all raw materials and gave increased biogas yield from winter rye straw. Neither biogas productivity nor yield from oilseed rape...

  16. Detection of feral GT73 transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) along railway lines on entry routes to oilseed factories in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Hecht, Mirco; Oehen, Bernadette; Schulze, Jürg; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    To obtain a reference status prior to cultivation of genetically modified oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland, the occurrence of feral OSR was monitored along transportation routes and at processing sites. The focus was set on the detection of (transgenic) OSR along railway lines from the Swiss borders with Italy and France to the respective oilseed processing factories in Southern and Northern Switzerland (Ticino and region of Basel). A monitoring concept was developed to id...

  17. Large-scale pollination experiment demonstrates the importance of insect pollination in winter oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Sandra A M; Herbertsson, Lina; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Insect pollination, despite its potential to contribute substantially to crop production, is not an integrated part of agronomic planning. A major reason for this are knowledge gaps in the contribution of pollinators to yield, which partly result from difficulties in determining area-based estimates of yield effects from insect pollination under field conditions. We have experimentally manipulated honey bee Apis mellifera densities at 43 oilseed rape Brassica napus fields over 2 years in Scandinavia. Honey bee hives were placed in 22 fields; an additional 21 fields without large apiaries in the surrounding landscape were selected as controls. Depending on the pollination system in the parental generation, the B. napus cultivars in the crop fields are classified as either open-pollinated or first-generation hybrids, with both types being open-pollinated in the generation of plants cultivated in the fields. Three cultivars of each type were grown. We measured the activity of flower-visiting insects during flowering and estimated yields by harvesting with small combine harvesters. The addition of honey bee hives to the fields dramatically increased abundance of flower-visiting honey bees in those fields. Honey bees affected yield, but the effect depended on cultivar type (p = 0.04). Post-hoc analysis revealed that open-pollinated cultivars, but not hybrid cultivars, had 11% higher yields in fields with added honey bees than those grown in the control fields (p = 0.07). To our knowledge, this is the first whole-field study in replicated landscapes to assess the benefit of insect pollination in oilseed rape. Our results demonstrate that honey bees have the potential to increase oilseed rape yields, thereby emphasizing the importance of pollinator management for optimal cultivation of oilseed rape. PMID:26650584

  18. Effects of the endophyte Acremonium alternatum on oilseed rape (Brassica napus development and clubroot progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANN AUER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae infects economically important Brassica crops such as oilseed rape and vegetable brassicas. Clubroot results in abnormally growing roots and restricts the flow of water and nutrients to the upper plant parts, thereby inducing wilting. Yield loss affects about half the percentage of infected plants. Due to its complex and well-adapted life cycle the pathogen is difficult to control by chemical and cultural means and therefore continues to spread around the globe. Infested fields can no longer be used effectively for cultivation of crop plants for at least the next ten years. Despite costly breeding of resistant cultivars, recent research leans towards alternative, low-impact and environmentally friendly methods to control clubroot. To this end we have previously identified the endophyte Acremonium alternatum, a known biological control agent in several countries, to show promising antagonistic effects in clubroot-infected A. thaliana and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa. Here, we will describe its effect on the growth, development and clubroot control of oilseed rape (Brassica napus. While the clubroot symptoms were not clearly reduced after co-inoculation with A. alternatum and P. brassicae on oilseed rape roots, the aboveground plant parts were delayed in senescence and produced more seeds, which is indicative of an increase in yield after A. alternatum treatment. The long-term goal of this work is to contribute to a fundamental understanding of endophyte-plant interactions and an effective reduction of clubroot to be used in integrated pest management for oilseed rape and other cabbage varieties.

  19. Potential bioethanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2007-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas.In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas...

  20. Cold plasma treatment enhances oilseed rape seed germination under drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ling; Li Jiangang; Shen Minchong; Zhang Chunlei; Dong Yuanhua

    2015-01-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation levels and osmotic-adjustment products of oilseed rape under drought stress were investigated in a drought-sensitive (Zhongshuang 7) and drought-tolerant cultivar (Zhongshuang 11). Results showed that, under drought stress, cold plasma treatment significantly improved the germination rate by 6.25% in Zhongshuang 7, and 4.44% in Zhongshuang 11. Seedling growth characteristics, includi...

  1. Weevils of the genus Ceutorhynchus germ associated with oilseed rape in northern Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Sivčev; Lazar Sivčev; Snežana Pešić; Draga Graora; Vladimir Tomić; Boris Dudić

    2015-01-01

    Our research of the genus Ceutorhynchus associated with oilseed rape was conducted in northern parts of Serbia (Stari Žednik, Subotica). A specific assemblage of eight weevil species was found. The most numerous were stem weevils Ceutorhynchus napi with 81% of all trapped specimens, followed by C. pallidactylus with 18%. The remaining six weevil specimens were C. obstrictus, C.erysimi, C. minutus, C. picitarsis, C. sulcicollis and C. typhae, comprising 1% o...

  2. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) in winter oilseed rape

    OpenAIRE

    Draga Graora; Ivan Sivčev; Lazar Sivčev; Wolfgang Büchs; Vladimir Tomić; Boris Dudić; Tanja Gotlin-Čuljak

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.). It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction....

  3. Potential bioethanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette H.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Anne-Belinda [Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas. In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas production. The materials were pretreated by wet oxidation using parameters previously found to be optimal for pretreatment of corn stover (195 C, 15 min, 2 g l{sup -1} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 12 bar oxygen). It was shown that pretreatment was necessary for ethanol production from all raw materials and gave increased biogas yield from winter rye straw. Neither biogas productivity nor yield from oilseed rape straw or faba bean straw was significantly affected by pretreatment. Ethanol was produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid material after wet oxidation with yields of 66%, 70% and 52% of theoretical for winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean straw, respectively. Methane was produced with yields of 0.36, 0.42 and 0.44 l g{sup -1} volatile solids for winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean straw, respectively, without pretreatment of the materials. However, biogas productivity was low and it took over 50 days to reach the final yield. It could be concluded that all three materials are possible raw materials for either biogas or ethanol production; however, improvement of biogas productivity or ethanol yield is necessary before an economical process can be achieved. (author)

  4. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar; Albin Gunnarson; Fredrik Hansson; Anders Jonsson

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to plantin...

  5. Calculating N fertilizer doses for oil-seed rape using plant and soil data

    OpenAIRE

    MAKOWSKI, DAVID; Maltas, Alexandra; Morison, Muriel; Reau, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    International audience We evaluated the economic and environmental interests of a balance-sheet method recently developed for calculating N fertilizer doses for oil-seed rape. The evaluation was performed using simple models of yield, grain oil content, and residual soil mineral nitrogen responses to applied N. The models were fitted to 53 fertilizer trials carried out in France between 1993 and 1999. The results show that the use of the balance-sheet method decreases the variability of fa...

  6. Distribution of natural enemies in herbivores of oilseed rape fields in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Halder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural enemies play an important role to control the pest population of a crop field by killing the pest directly or indirectly by parasitism. By knowing the dispersal ability of natural enemies could be effective biocontrol tool for controlling the harmful pest. Vegetated field margins have been suggested as a shelter of natural enemies. Natural enemies like ground beetle, rove beetle, parasitoid and spider dispersal ability from the field margin to inside the oilseed rape field was analyzed by doing this study. All insects were collected from the oilseed rape fields of Southern Sweden. This study showed that parasitoid abundance was higher near the field margin compare to the deep field. Distribution of ground beetle, rove beetle and spider was almost the same all over the field. Parasitoids could be effective to control the oilseed rape pest near the field margin as a biocontrol aspect whereas rove beetle, ground beetle and spider could be a used biocontrol tools for all over the field.

  7. Distribution of cadmium in oilseed rape and Indian mustard grown on cadmium contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-qing; SU De-chun

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal distribution in the specialized accumulating plants was important for phytoextraction technique. Hydroponic and pot experiment were conducted to investigated Cd phytoextraction ability and Cd distribution in the plant of oilseed rape species. The results showed that oilseed rape Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 was more effective in phytoexetraction Cd among 21 varieties of oilseed rape and indicator plant Indian mustard. Cd concentration in the shoot of Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 and Indian mustard gradually decreased with an increase in growth period, while the amount of Cd uptake increased with the increase of growth period. There was constantly decrease in Cd concentration from the base leaves to the top leaves of Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 and Indian mustard, the percentages of Cd uptake in older leaves were higher than those of younger leaves. Older leaves of Chuanyou Ⅱ -10 and Indian mustard extracted more Cd for the Cd contamination soil, leaves should as far as possible develop before they reached the soil and the older leaves were harvested in priority.

  8. The effect of phytohormones on the 133Cs and 88Sr accumulation in oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of uptake and distribution of 133Cs and 88Sr in the common plant-India mustard (Brassica napus L.) by exogenous phytohormones (Gibberelin-A3 GA3, Salicylates, SA, 3-indole acetic acid, IAA) treatments were studied by using hydroponic experiment. The results shown as follows: the biomass of above-ground and that of roots of oilseed rape were obviously higher than that of contrary (non-hormone), and the accumulation of 133Cs and 88Sr increased as well, under the three phytohormones treatments. The distribution sequence of 133Cs and 88Sr in oilseed rape was roots>above-grounds, and the contents was 133Cs>88Sr. The accumulation ability of phytohormones was GA>SA>IAA, the accumulation of 133Cs or 88Sr increased with the phytohormone concentration. The treatment of mid-level of Gibberelin-A3 (500 mg/L) and Salicylates acid (500 μmol/L) increased the biomass, enrichment and the translocation factors under the low concentration of 133Cs and 88Sr stress (1 mmol/L). Therefore, the phyto-extraction efficiency was enhanced in oilseed rape by using exogenous phytohormones. (authors)

  9. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  10. Effect of Neodymium on Physiological Activities in Oilseed Rape during Calcium Starvation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It was reported that rare earth elements promote plant growth and other physiological activities. Since the ion radius of Nd3+ is very close to that of Ca2+, the interaction between Nd and Ca might be one of the important mechanisms to be understand. Seedlings treated with 3 μmol.L-1 Nd(NO3)3 in Ca2+-deficient solution, and the effect of Nd on their membrane damage in oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.) was studied. It shows that the symptom of Ca-starvation is relieved and the peroxidation process in rape is inhibited. It indicates that adding Nd can lower relative permeability of the root and MDA content in leaves and increase CAT, POD, and SOD activities in rape. Likewise, the Nd addition to Hoagland solution shows similar result. The interpretation is that the effect is a consequence of substitution of Nd function for some Ca function through interacting with cellular membrane.

  11. Ozone effects on yield quality of spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeiren, Karine; De Bock, Maarten; Horemans, Nele; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2012-02-01

    The impact of elevated tropospheric ozone (O 3) on the quality of spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv Ability) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv Italic cv Monaco) was assessed during a three year Open - Top Chamber (OTC) experiment. Current ambient O 3 levels were compared to an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day over the entire growing season. The qualitative responses were expressed as a function of the accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic O 3 dose above a threshold of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area (POD 6). Our results provide clear evidence that O 3 has an influence on the qualitative attributes of the harvested products of these Brassica species. The responses were comparable whether they were expressed as a function of the accumulated O 3 concentrations or of the modelled O 3 uptake. The protein concentration of oilseed rape seeds and broccoli heads was significantly increased in response to O 3. There was also a shift in the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil derived from seeds of oilseed rape. Oleic acid (18:1) declined significantly ( p rape seeds. In broccoli an important shift occurred from indolic to aliphatic GSLs although the total GSL concentration was not changed. The increase in the aliphatic/indolic GSL ratio ( p < 0.001) may be important in relation to the anticarcinogenic properties of these vegetables. The vitamin C (ascorbate - ASC) and α-TOC concentrations of broccoli were not influenced by O 3; glutathione (GSH) was slightly increased in response to a higher O 3 uptake ( p < 0.05). The consequences of these changes with regard to food and feed quality and human health are discussed.

  12. In vivo measurements of changes in pH triggered by oxalic acid in leaf tissue of transgenic oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qiu-Ju; Liu, Sheng-Yi; Dong, Xu-Yan; Bi, Yan-Hua; Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Xu, Qiao; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Chen, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Oxalic acid (OA), a non-host-specific toxin secreted by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum during pathogenesis, has been demonstrated to be a major phytotoxic and pathogenic factor. Oxalate oxidase (OXO) is an enzyme associated with the detoxification of OA, and hence the introduction of an OXO gene into oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to break down OA may be an alternative way of increasing the resistance of the plant to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In order to investigate the activation of OXO in transgenic oilseed rape, a convenient and accessible method was used to monitor changes in pH in response to stress induced by OA. The pH sensor, a platinum microcylinder electrode modified using polyaniline film, exhibited a linear response within the pH range from 3 to 7, with a Nernst response slope of 70 mV/pH at room temperature. The linear correlation coefficient was 0.9979. Changes induced by OA in the pH values of leaf tissue of different oilseed rape species from Brassica napus L. were monitored in real time in vivo using this electrode. The results clearly showed that the transgenic oilseed rape was more resistant to OA than non-transgenic oilseed rape. PMID:17623369

  13. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the knowledge acquired in the last three years has provided significant information in reply to the points raised in its review dated 16 February 2001. The Commission has studied the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicidetolerantGMoilseed rape crops, making a distinction between direct and indirect impacts. Direct impacts stem from the intrinsic properties of herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops whereas indirect impacts result from practices associated with the farming of these crops. The Commission considers that, in the absence of the use of the herbicide in question in and outside of farmed land, there is no direct environmental risk (development of invasive crops per se associated with the presence of a herbicide-tolerance gene in oilseed rape (or related species. Nevertheless, since the interest of these tolerant crops lies in the use of the herbicide in question, indirect effects, to varying extents, have been identified and must be taken into account: the use of the herbicide in question, applied to agricultural fields containing the herbicide-tolerant crop could lead to an increase in oilseed rape volunteer populations in crop rotations; the selective pressure exerted by non-specific herbicides (to which the crops have been rendered tolerant may be very high in cases of continuous and uncontrolled use of these herbicides, and may result in the persistence of rare events such as the reproduction of fertile interspecies hybrids; the change to the range of herbicides used should be conveyed by more effective weed control and, like any change in farming practices, induce indirect effects on the agri-ecosystem, particularly in terms of changes to weeds and the associated animal life. Accordingly, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission recommends a global approach in terms of the large-scale farming of herbicide-tolerant crops that: accounts for the

  14. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Mária Angelovičová; Michal Angelovič; Zdenko Tkáč; Juraj Jablonický; Marek Angelovič

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g....

  15. Colonization of Streptomyces felleus YJ1 and Its Effects on Disease Resistant-Related Enzymes of Oilseed Rape

    OpenAIRE

    Guanglong Cheng; Fan Liu; Yun Huang; Hui Yang; Jia Yao; Huirong Shen; Jie Xu

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces felleus YJ1 has strong antagonism against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and it can be used for preventing this fungal disease in oilseed rape in the greenhouse. Under greenhouse conditions, we determined the colonization dynamic variation of YJ1 in soil and rape; and the changes of defensive enzymes of rape induced by YJ1 were measured. The results showed that, YJ1 could colonize chronically in soil; and it could also colonize in roots of rape and conduct to the stem and leaves, sugg...

  16. Effects of strontium stress on antioxidant characteristics of oilseed rape seedling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seedlings of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were treated with different concentration of Sr2+ (0, 10, 20, 40 mmol/L SrCl2) for 0, 7, 14, 21 days under quartz sand and Hoagland solution culture, and the antioxidant characteristics and Sr2+ accumulation of seedling were investigated. Rape seedlings showed high accumulation capacity for strontium, especial the leaves. But the accumulation capacity declined with the increasing of Sr2+ concentration. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the increasing of Sr2+ concentration and then declined with the extention of the stress time. The activity of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) declined with the increasing of the Sr2+ accumulation capacity. This study showed that oilseed rape had a very high strontium-tolerant and strontium-uptake capacity, and leaf was the organ that accumulates most of strontium. The accumulation capacity and activity of CAT, POD exhibited a significantly-negative correlation. (authors)

  17. Water, carbon and nitrogen cycling in a rendzina soil cropped with winter oilseed rape: the Châlons Oilseed Rape Database

    OpenAIRE

    Gosse, G.; Cellier, Pierre; Denoroy, P.; Gabrielle, B.; P. Laville; Leviel, B.; Justes, E; Nicolardot, B.; Mary, B.; Recous, S.; Germon, J. C.; Hénault, Catherine; Leech, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    La base de données CORD (Châlons Oilseed Rape Database) archive les résultats d’une expérience intensive conduite en région Champagne sur la dynamique des flux d’eau, de carbone et d’azote dans un système sol-plante, à l’échelle de la parcelle agricole. L’expérience a débuté au semis d’une culture de colza (Brassica napus L.) en septembre 1994, et a duré jusqu’à la récolte de celui-ci en juillet 1995. Trois traitements azotés, ainsi qu’un témoin en sol nu ont été suivis, et le sol était une r...

  18. Effects of Single and Multifactor Treatments with Elevated Temperature, CO2 and Ozone on Oilseed Rape and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth;

    2011-01-01

    yield and biomass. Seed number increased by about 47 % in barley and by 26 % in oilseed rape, but in oilseed rape, the TSW was significantly decreased, possibly because of shortening of the seed filling period. Higher temperatures decreased yield and biomass significantly in both species. A......We investigated the effect of elevated [CO2], [O3] and temperature on plant productivity and if these climate factors interacted with each other in multifactor treatments. The climate effects were studied in 14 different cultivars/lines of European spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Seven genotypes of each species were cultivated in six single- and multifactor treatments with ambient or elevated CO2 (385 ppm and 700 ppm), O3 (20 ppb and 60 ppb) and temperature (12/19 °C and 17/24 °C). Growth and production parameters were measured. Elevated CO2 increased...

  19. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, oilseed rape and dry peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), originate from soils at a global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes can reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emissions. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted over 4 consecutive years to compare the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly due to the site's soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after the pea crop. These results should be confirmed over a wider range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emissions linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease in N2O emissions by 20-25% through including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. On a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be added to the decrease due to the reduced production and transport of the N fertilizer not applied to the pea crop.

  20. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao; Ren; Hui; Li; Jianwei; Lu; Rongyan; Bu; Xiaokun; Li; Rihuan; Cong; Mingxing; Lu

    2015-01-01

    Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed(RR) and cotton–rapeseed(CR) rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization,seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen(N)fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg- 1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus(P) and potassium(K) fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha- 1was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate(EONFR). In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha- 1lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  1. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed (RR and cotton–rapeseed (CR rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization, seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen (N fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg− 1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus (P and potassium (K fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha− 1 was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate (EONFR. In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha− 1 lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  2. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ren; Hui Li; Jianwei Lu; Rongyan Bu; Xiaokun Li; Rihuan Cong; Mingxing Lu

    2015-01-01

    Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed (RR) and cotton–rapeseed (CR) rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization, seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen (N) fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg−1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha−1 was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate (EONFR). In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha−1 lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  3. Tanaris® – the new herbicide for weed control in pre and post emergence in oilseed rape

    OpenAIRE

    Bessai, Johannes; Bremer, Hagen; Schläfer, Sascha; Schjönhammer, Alfons; Vantieghem, Herve

    2016-01-01

    With the Product Tanaris® BASF introduces a broadly effective herbicide for weed control in winter oilseed rape. Tanaris® is used at a dose rate of 1.5 l/ha and contains the active substances Dimethenamid-P (333 g/l) and Quinmerac (167 g/l). With the combination of both actives, the product is delivering high activity on most oilseed rape key weeds such as mayweeds, deadnettles and speedwell. Especially the high effectivity on cleavers and cranesbill species needs to be emphasized. Further Ta...

  4. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... markers could be assigned to six linkage groups, most probably reflecting six B. napus C-chromosomes. The presence of backcross plants with recombinant genotypes suggests that complex genetic processes can take place during the interspecific hybridisation and backcrossing in these Brassica species. The...

  5. Plant regeneration from hypocotyl protoplasts of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław Orczyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from hypocotyls of six breeding lines and two cultivars of winter oilseed rape (B. napus L.. Under presented culture conditions almost all of the protoplasts regenerated cell walls. Division frequency depended on the genotype and was from 50% to 64%. Shoot regeneration (also depended on the genotype was induced with the frequency of 3.6% (for cv Bolko on the medium containing IAA (0.1 mg•dm-3, zeatin (0.5 mg•dm-3 and BAP (0.5 mg•dm-3 . All shoots were rooted on MS basal medium supplemented with sucrose 30 g•dm-3.

  6. Plant regeneration from hypocotyl protoplasts of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Wacław Orczyk; Anna Nadolska-Orczyk

    2014-01-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from hypocotyls of six breeding lines and two cultivars of winter oilseed rape (B. napus L.). Under presented culture conditions almost all of the protoplasts regenerated cell walls. Division frequency depended on the genotype and was from 50% to 64%. Shoot regeneration (also depended on the genotype) was induced with the frequency of 3.6% (for cv Bolko) on the medium containing IAA (0.1 mg•dm-3), zeatin (0.5 mg•dm-3) and BAP (0.5 mg•dm-3 ). All shoots were rooted on...

  7. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Shujie; Liao, Xing

    2013-04-01

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal improved oilseed rape seed yield (P rape meal without strain A6 in 1 of 2 experiments, suggesting a role for strain A6 in improving yield. Strain A6 was capable of solubilizing phosphorus from rock phosphate in liquid culture and produced enzymes capable of mineralizing organic phosphorus (acid phosphatase, phytase) in liquid culture and in the biological fertilizer. The biologically based fertilizer, containing strain A6, improved plant phosphorus nutrition in greenhouse pot experiments resulting in significantly greater available phosphorus in natural soil and in significantly greater plant phosphorus content relative to the nontreated control. Seed yield and available phosphorus in natural soil were significantly greater with a synthetic chemical fertilizer treatment, reduced in phosphorus content, than the biological fertilizer treatment, but a treatment containing the biological fertilizer combined with the synthetic fertilizer provided the significantly greatest seed yield, available phosphorus in natural soil, and plant phosphorus content. These results suggest that the biological fertilizer was capable of improving oilseed rape seed yield, at least in part, through the phosphorus-solubilizing activity of B. megaterium A6. PMID:23586746

  8. Partitioning genetic effects due to embryo, cytoplasm and maternal parent for oil content in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Guo Wu; Chun-Hai Shi; Hai-Zhen Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of genetic main effects and genotype x environment (GE) interaction effects on the oil content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was conducted by using a genetic model for the quantitative traits of seeds in diploid plants. The experiments were carried out over two years with 8 parents and a diallel mating design, which produced F1 and F2 generations. We found that the oil content of rape was simultaneously controlled by embryo genetic effect, cytoplasmic effects and maternal genet...

  9. Response of Nitrate Metabolism in Seedlings of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) to Low Oxygen Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chang-bing; XIE Yu-yun; HOU Jia-jia; FU You-qiang; SHEN Hong; LIAO Xing

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the response of nitrate metabolism in seedlings of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to low oxygen stress (LOS), two cultivars were studied at different light, LOS time and exogenous nitrate concentrations under hydroponic stress. Results show that N-uptake and dry matter of rape seedlings were decreased after LOS stress while nitrate accumulation (NA) under LOS was induced by darkness. Nitrate accumulation peaked at 3 d while root activity (RA, deifned as dehydrogenase activity) decreased with prolonged waterlogging exposure. Exogenous nitrate signiifcantly elevated NA and RA. Tungstate (TS) and LOS inhibited nitrate reductase (NR) activity while NR transcription and activity were enhanced by exogenous nitrate. Low oxygen stress stimulated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) slightly, but inhibited that of catalase (CAT). B. napus L. Zhongshuang 10 (ZS10), a LOS tolerant cultivar, displayed smaller decrease upon dry matter under LOS, higher NA in darkness and lower NA in light than B. napus L. Ganlan CC (GAC), a LOS sensitive variety. ZS10 had lower NA and higher RA after waterlogging and exogenous nitrate treatment, and higher NR activity under TS inhibition than GAC, but the activity of antioxidant enzymes did not change under LOS. The results indicate that nitrate metabolism involved tolerance of rape seedlings to LOS, with lower accumulation and higher reduction of nitrate being related to higher LOS tolerance of rape seedlings exposed to waterlogging.

  10. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Enolase from Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJing-Ya; ZUOKai-Jing; QINJie; TANGKe-Xuan

    2004-01-01

    An enolase-encoding cDNA clone in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was isolated. This gene (accession number: AY307449) had a total length of 1 624 bp with an open reading frame of 1 335 bp, and encoded a predicted polypeptide of 444 amino acids with a molecular weight of 47.38 kD. The deduced amino acid sequence shared identity with a number of enolases ranging from Bacillus subtilis to human beings and had much higher identity with other plant enolases than with enolases from Bacillus, yeast and human beings. Comparison of its primary structure with those of other enolases revealed the presence of an insertion of five amino acids in enolase of B. napus. Southern blotting analysis of genomic DNA indicated that enolase was likely to be a low-copy gene in the oilseed rape genome. Expression of the cloned enolase gene increased under salt stress, but decreased in response to low temperature. Our studies suggested that the cloned gene was a new member of plant enolase gene family, which contributed to the energy supply in stress-treated tissues.

  11. Cadmium stress alters the redox reaction and hormone balance in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Filardo, Fiona; Hu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Xiaomin; Fu, DongHui

    2016-02-01

    In order to understand the physiological response of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves to cadmium (Cd) stress and exploit the physiological mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance, macro-mineral and chlorophyll concentrations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, activities of enzymatic antioxidants, nonenzymatic compounds metabolism, endogenous hormonal changes, and balance in leaves of oilseed rape exposed to 0, 100, or 200 μM CdSO4 were investigated. The results showed that under Cd exposure, Cd concentrations in the leaves continually increased while macro-minerals and chlorophyll concentrations decreased significantly. Meanwhile, with increased Cd stress, superoxide anion (O2(• -)) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in the leaves increased significantly, which caused malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and oxidative stress. For scavenging excess accumulated ROS and alleviating oxidative injury in the leaves, the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), was increased significantly at certain stress levels. However, with increased Cd stress, the antioxidant enzyme activities all showed a trend towards reduction. The nonenzymatic antioxidative compounds, such as proline and total soluble sugars, accumulated continuously with increased Cd stress to play a long-term role in scavenging ROS. In addition, ABA levels also increased continuously with Cd stress while ZR decreased and the ABA/ZR ratio increased, which might also be providing a protective role against Cd toxicity. PMID:26498815

  12. Fixed-route monitoring and a comparative study of the occurrence of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) along a Japanese roadside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we conducted a roadside survey to reveal the occurrence of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape along a Japanese roadside (Route 51). In this study, we performed successive and thorough fixed-route monitoring in 5 sections along another road (Route 23). Oilseed rape plants were detected on both sides of the road in each section between autumn 2009 and winter 2013, which included 3 flowering seasons. In four sections, more plants were found on the side of the road leading from the Yokkaichi port than on the opposite side. In the fifth section, the presence of clogged drains on the roadside, where juvenile plants concentrated, caused the opposite distribution: oilseed rape predominantly occurred along the inbound lanes (leading to the Yokkaichi port) in 2010 and 2012. Unlike in our previous survey, glyphosate- or glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape plants were abundant (>75% of analyzed plants over 3 years). Moreover, a few individuals bearing both herbicide resistance traits were also detected in some sections. The spillage of imported seeds may explain the occurrence of oilseed rape on the roadside. The abundance of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape plants may reflect the extent of contamination with GM oilseed rape seed within imports. PMID:26838503

  13. Uptake, translocation, and distribution of root-applied [C ring-U-14C]-ZJ0273 in plants of oilseed rape and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZJ0273, propyl 4-(2-(4, 6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy) benzylamino) benzoate, is a novel ALS-inhibited herbicide development for pre-and post-emergence weed control in field of oilseed rape. The comparative uptake, translocation and distribution of root-applied [C ring-U-14C] ZJ0273 in the plants of susceptible rice and tolerant oilseed rape were investigated under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the uptake of [C ring-U-14C]-ZJ0273 in both rice (Oryza sativa L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) increased with time. Larger percentage of the applied ZJ0273 was uptaken by rice than oilseed rape at any sampling time. At 384 hours after treatment, the uptake of [C ring-U-14C]-ZJ0273 reached 24.1% of the applied amount in rice, while only 4.1% of the applied in oilseed rape. The majority of the absorbed ZJ0273 remained in the root of the tested plants, which indicated the weak mobility of ZJ0273 and/or its metabolites in both the plants of susceptible rice and tolerant oilseed rape. The radioactivity per unit of dry weight in the roots and leaves of rice was 9.470 Bq/mg and 0.910 Bq/mg, respectively, which was significantly higher than that in oilseed rape (3.870 Bq/mg and 0.390 Bq/mg). Therefore, the difference in the total uptake of ZJ0273 and the accumulation of ZJ0273 and/or its metabolites perunit of dry weight between rice and oilseed rape, which revealed in this study, might be one of the reasons for the different susceptibility of rice and oilseed rape on ZJ0273. (authors)

  14. Measurement of aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chu; Kong, Wenwen; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is used as both food and a renewable energy resource. Physiological parameters, such as the amino acid aspartic acid, can indicate the growth status of oilseed rape. Traditional detection methods are laborious, time consuming, costly, and not usable in the field. Here, we investigate near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a fast and non-destructive detection method of aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress. Different spectral pre-processing methods were compared for optimal prediction performance. The variable selection methods were applied for relevant variable selection, including successive projections algorithm (SPA), Monte Carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE) and random frog (RF). The selected effective wavelengths (EWs) were used as input by multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM). The best predictive performance was achieved by SPA-LS-SVM (Raw) model using 22 EWs, and the prediction results were Rp = 0.9962 and RMSEP = 0.0339 for the prediction set. The result indicated that NIR combined with LS-SVM is a powerful new method to detect aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress. PMID:27441244

  15. Intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape reduces weed competition, insect damage, and improves nitrogen use efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Cadoux Stéphane; Sauzet Gilles; Valantin-Morison Muriel; Pontet Célia; Champolivier Luc; Robert Céline; Lieven Jean; Flénet Francis; Mangenot Olivier; Fauvin Pascal; Landé Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Mixing plant species in agroecosystems is highlighted as an agroecological solution to reduce pesticides and fertilizers while maintaining profitability. In the French context, intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape is potentially interesting and began to be implemented by farmers. In this study we aimed at measuring the services and disservices of this intercrop with three different legume mixtures, in ...

  16. Regulation of erucic acid accumulation in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Effects of temperature and abscisic acid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmer, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Vegetable oils are an important commodity world-wide with an annual production of about 70 million tonnes. Oilseed rape is one of the four major crops, providing about 10% of the total production. Quality of vegetable oils is determined by the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols (TAG) tha

  17. FEASIBILITY OF HYGROMYCIN AS A SELECTION AGENT IN AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF OILSEED RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Kuťka Hlozáková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the feasibility of the antibiotic hygromycin as a selection agent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was evaluated. For this, two economically important commercial varieties Haydn and Hunter and tobacco as a model plant were subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The 5-6 days-old oilseed rape hypocotyls and 4-6 weeks-old tobacco leaf segments were transformed with the binary vector pCambia1304. The T-DNA contained the reporter gfp:gus and the selectable marker htp genes. Regeneration of transformed cells was conducted under selection of 10 mg.l-1 (oilseed rape and 30 mg.l-1 (tobacco hygromycin. Putative transgenic plantlets were analysed by the mean of the histochemical GUS and PCR analyses. Transformation efficiency ranged from 1.0% (cv. Haydn to 40.4% (tobacco. No transgenic shoots were detected for the cv. Hunter. It points out the oilseed rape cultivar specificity plays significant role in choice of suitable selection agent.

  18. Development of crop-specific transposable element (SINE) markers for studying gene flow from oilseed rape to wild radish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, J L; Pouilly, N; Jenczewski, E; Deragon, J M; Chèvre, A M

    2005-08-01

    The screening of wild populations for evidence of gene flow from a crop to a wild related species requires the unambiguous detection of crop genes within the genome of the wild species, taking into account the intraspecific variability of each species. If the crop and wild relatives share a common ancestor, as is the case for the Brassica crops and their wild relatives (subtribe Brassiceae), the species-specific markers needed to make this unambiguous detection are difficult to identify. In the model oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18) system, we utilized the presence or absence of a short-interspersed element (SINE) at a given locus to develop oilseed rape-specific markers, as SINE insertions are irreversible. By means of sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SINE-SSAP) reactions, we identified and cloned 67 bands specific to the oilseed rape genome and absent from that of wild radish. Forty-seven PCR-specific markers were developed from three combinations of primers anchored either in (1) the 5'- and 3'-genomic sequences flanking the SINE, (2) the 5'-flanking and SINE internal sequences or (3) the SINE internal and flanking 3'-sequences. Seventeen markers were monomorphic whatever the oilseed rape varieties tested, whereas 30 revealed polymorphism and behaved either as dominant (17) or co-dominant (13) markers. Polymorphic markers were mapped on 19 genomic regions assigned to ten linkage groups. The markers developed will be efficient tools to trace the occurrence and frequency of introgressions of oilseed rape genomic region within wild radish populations. PMID:15942756

  19. Rape Stem Weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. 1837 and Cabbage Stem Weevil (Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus Marsh. 1802 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae – Important Oilseed Rape Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Juran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem mining weevils, rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. 1837 and cabbage stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus Marsh. 1802 have become more important oliseed rape pests. Rape stem weevil is present in middle and west European countries and cabbage stem weevil is present in almost all European countries. The most important morphological difference between adults is colour of their legs. Biological and ecological characteristics of these two pests are similar, stem mining weevils are observed as pest complex. Differences in biology cause different approach in pest control.Both species have single generation annually. Larvae feed inside the petioles and stems of oilseed rape. Phyrethroids are used for adult control of stem mining weevils.

  20. Rape Stem Weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. 1837 and Cabbage Stem Weevil (Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus Marsh. 1802 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae – Important Oilseed Rape Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Juran

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stem mining weevils, rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. 1837 and cabbage stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus Marsh. 1802 have become more important oliseed rape pests. Rape stem weevil is present in middle and west European countries and cabbage stem weevil is present in almost all European countries. The most important morphological difference between adults is colour of their legs. Biological and ecological characteristics of these two pests are similar, stem mining weevils are observed as pest complex. Differences in biology cause different approach in pest control. Both species have single generation annually. Larvae feed inside the petioles and stems of oilseed rape. Phyrethroids are used for adult control of stem mining weevils.

  1. Growth and Yield Stimulation of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brasssica Napus L. by Mg-Titanit Fertiliser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67. The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b, where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.

  2. Microspore culture of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in conjunction with other in vitro technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microspore culture in conjunction with other technologies such as selection, mutagenesis and transformation has been used for the production of novel genotypes of Brassica napus L. for crop improvement. The example of in vitro selection of microspore - derived embryos includes: a) ploidy level, b) seed oil composition (for example: high level of erucic acid), c) genotypes with restorer gene for CMS-ogura system (by means of isozyme marker PGI-2 ), d) herbicide resistant forms. Efficiency of microspore mutagenesis has been tested by the treatment of freshly isolated microspores with UV and MNU. Direct delivery of foreign gene to the microspores (microprojectile bombardment) combined with the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to microspore derived embryos seems to be a promising way of oilseed rape transformation. (author)

  3. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure. PMID:26338267

  4. Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazim HUSSAIN; Hui LI; Yu-xiao JIANG; Zahra JABEEN; Imran Haider SHAMSI; Essa ALI; Li-xi JIANG

    2014-01-01

    本文题目:氮肥种类与施量对油菜种子生育酚的影响Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates研究目的:生育酚是菜籽重要的品质指标,氮肥是影响作物生物学与籽粒产量最常用的肥料。这项研究旨在搞清楚氮肥种类与施量对油菜种子生育酚含量与组分的确切影响,以及这种影响在基因型之间的差异。创新要点:这篇论文研究了不同的氮肥种类(硝态氮与铵态氮)与低、中、高施用量对种子生育酚总量与组分的影响,并分析了其中的原因,为通过合理的氮肥施用方案配置,以达到最理想的菜籽生育酚含量或组分提供依据。研究方法:采用盆钵实验控制氮肥施量与流失的精准方法,五种基因型、二种氮肥种类、三档施量水平,三重复控制误差;尝试用气相色谱法检测菜籽生育酚含量的新方法。重要结论:尿素比硝酸氨更有利于菜籽总生育酚、阿尔法生育酚及伽马生育酚的有效形成;提高氮肥施量对于菜籽形成高含量的总生育酚与伽马生育酚非常有效,但对提高菜籽阿尔法生育酚含量的效果却不太明显。%Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important see d oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increasedα-,γ-, and total

  5. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.. It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction. Pod damage amounted to 11.6%. The emergence of the second generation adults was detected at the end of May and in the first ten days of June. D. brassicae was found to lay eggs in healthy pods and no correlation was found with the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis Paykull.

  6. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg; Terkelsen, Thilde; Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013).

  7. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg;

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found si...... significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013)....

  8. Thiamethoxam: Assessing flight activity of honeybees foraging on treated oilseed rape using radio frequency identification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Helen; Coulson, Mike; Ruddle, Natalie; Wilkins, Selwyn; Harkin, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    The present study was designed to assess homing behavior of bees foraging on winter oilseed rape grown from seed treated with thiamethoxam (as Cruiser OSR), with 1 field drilled with thiamethoxam-treated seed and 2 control fields drilled with fungicide-only-treated seed. Twelve honeybee colonies were used per treatment group, 4 each located at the field edge (on-field site), at approximately 500 m and 1000 m from the field. A total of nearly 300 newly emerged bees per colony were fitted (tagged) with Mic3 radio frequency identification (RFID) transponders and introduced into each of the 36 study hives. The RFID readers fitted to the entrances of the test colonies were used to monitor the activity of the tagged bees for the duration of the 5-wk flowering period of the crop. These activity data were analyzed to assess any impact on flight activity of bees foraging on the treated compared with untreated crops. Honeybees were seen to be actively foraging within all 3 treatment groups during the exposure period. The data for the more than 3000 RFID-tagged bees and more than 90 000 foraging flights monitored throughout the exposure phase for the study follow the same trends across the treatment and controls and at each of the 3 apiary distances, indicating that there were no effects from foraging on the treated crop. Under the experimental conditions, there was no effect of foraging on thiamethoxam-treated oilseed rape on honeybee flight activity or on their ability to return to the hive. PMID:26222207

  9. Reaction of Oilseed Rape Cultivars to Sclerotinia Stem Rot in Field Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jun-ming; HAN Fen-xia; Malgorzata Jedryczka

    2005-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, as an ubiquitous phytopathogenic Ascomycete fungus capable of infecting a wide range of plants, has increased in importance for oilseed rape production worldwide in recent years. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of two measurements of disease rating in predicting the field reaction of cultivars to sclerotinia stem rot. One hundred and ten cultivars or lines of oilseed rape were repeatedly evaluated the disease severity index (DSI) and lesion length for their resistance to nine isolates of S. sclerotiorum in two field stations.There were greatly significant differences between two stations, among isolates, among population of cultivars for the disease severity index and lesion length, and also significant station×isolate interaction for lesion length and population×isolate interactions for DSI and lesion length, but interactions of station×isolate for DSI were not significant.Cultivars such as Pomorzanin and Lisek consistently had the lowest disease severity ratings in the field tests. However,most of cultivars were susceptible to sclerotinia stem rot in the field test. A positive correlation between the mean DSI and lesion length was found for both isolates (Sc23 and B1). The correlations ranged from 0.23 to 0.83 at various plots, with nine of the twelve correlations significant. The correlations for disease caused by different fungal isolates were statistically significant difference. These correlations ranged from -0.44 to 0.90, with nine of the thirty-two correlations significant. It indicated that resistance to some isolates was significantly correlated and selection of some varieties for resistance to one isolate appeared to improve resistance to other isolates.

  10. Effect of organic matter and liming on the reduction of cadmium uptake from soil by triticale and spring oilseed rape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciecko, Zdzislaw; Wyszkowski, Miroslaw; Krajewski, Wladyslaw; Zabielska, Jadwiga [Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Lodzki 4, 10-718 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2001-12-17

    The aim of the study conducted on triticale and spring oilseed rape was to determine the role of liming, brown coal and compost medium in reducing the effect of cadmium contamination (at the rates of 0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 mg Cd kg{sup -1} of soil) on yield and chemical composition of the crop. In the series of experiments without liming, a considerable decline in the yield of spring triticale grain, straw, root weight and green mass yield of rape was observed in response to the soil contamination with cadmium. Brown coal and especially compost medium added to soil neutralised the negative effect of cadmium on the grain yield and reduced a decrease in the yield of straw and roots of triticale. Soil liming proved to reduce the yield drop in oilseed rape caused by the contamination of soil with cadmium. The content of cadmium in roots and grain of spring triticale far exceeded that determined in triticale straw. The pollution of soil with cadmium caused a 26-fold increase in the content of this metal in grain, a 10-fold increase in roots of triticale and a twofold in oil-seed rape. Application of compost medium, brown coal and, to a smaller extent, liming reduced the level of cadmium in the parts of triticale brought to investigation. The soil contamination with cadmium caused certain modifications in the content of nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium in spring triticale and in the content of N-total, potassium and magnesium in spring oilseed rape.

  11. Progressive introgression between ¤Brassica napus¤ (oilseed rape) and ¤B-rapa¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Siegismund, H.R.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2003-01-01

    We have earlier shown extensive introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and B. rapa in a weedy population using AFLP markers specific for the nuclear genomes. In order to describe the progress of this introgression, we examined 117 offspring from 12 maternal plants from the introgressed...... maternal plants. It seemed that B. rapa most often functioned as the maternal plant in the introgression process and that the amount of oilseed rape DNA was highly diminished in the offspring compared to their introgressed maternal plants. However, our analysis of plants from the weedy population indicated...... that introgression can lead to both (1) exchange of chloroplast DNA between species producing B. rapa-like plants with B. napus chloroplasts and (2) incorporation of B. napus C-genome DNA into the B. rapa genome. Therefore, we question whether it can be regarded as containment to position transgenes in...

  12. Unexpected Diversity of Feral Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Despite a Cultivation and Import Ban in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of G...

  13. Regulation of erucic acid accumulation in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Effects of temperature and abscisic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmer, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Vegetable oils are an important commodity world-wide with an annual production of about 70 million tonnes. Oilseed rape is one of the four major crops, providing about 10% of the total production. Quality of vegetable oils is determined by the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols (TAG) that constitute such oils. These fatty acids comprise a range of chain lengths and desaturated and oxidised residues. A small group of fatty acids dominates the edible oils which are the predominant p...

  14. Evaluation of environmentally-friendly crop management systems based on very early sowing dates for winter oilseed rape in France

    OpenAIRE

    Dejoux, Jean-François; Meynard, Jean-Marc; Reau, Raymond; Roche, Romain; Saulas, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    International audience We assessed new crop management systems for winter oilseed rape based on very early sowing dates, with a view to improving environmental performance without decreasing economic benefits. In a network of 36 trials conducted over 3 years in France, the new systems turned out to be more effective than current systems in terms of environmental variables: absorption of almost all the mineral N present in the soil in autumn, even after organic manure spreading; nitrate con...

  15. Protocol: optimisation of a grafting protocol for oilseed rape (Brassica napus) for studying long-distance signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Ostendorp, Anna; Pahlow, Steffen; Deke, Jennifer; Thieß, Melanie; Kehr, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background Grafting is a well-established technique for studying long-distance transport and signalling processes in higher plants. While oilseed rape has been the subject of comprehensive analyses of xylem and phloem sap to identify macromolecules potentially involved in long-distance information transfer, there is currently no standardised grafting method for this species published. Results We developed a straightforward collar-free grafting protocol for Brassica napus plants with high repr...

  16. The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Flasiński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

  17. Nutrient deifciency limits population development, yield formation, and nutrient uptake of direct sown winter oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yin; LIU Tao; LI Xiao-kun; REN Tao; CONG Ri-huan; LU Jian-wei

    2015-01-01

    Direct-sowing establishment method has great signiifcance in improving winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) production and guaranteeing edible oil security in China. However, nutrient responses on direct sown winter oilseed rape (DOR) performance and population development dynamic are stil not wel understood. Therefore, ifve on-farm experiments were conducted in the reaches of the Yangtze River (RYR) to determine the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) deifciencies on population density, dry matter production, nutrient uptake, seed yield, and yield components of DOR plants. Four fertilization treatments included the balanced NPK application treatment (NPK, 180 kg N, 39.3 kg P, 100 kg K, and 1.8 kg borax ha–1) and three nutrient deifciency treatments based on the NPK treatment, i.e.,–N,–P, and–K. The results indicated that DOR population density declined gradual y throughout the growing season, especial y at over-wintering and pod-development stages. Nutrient deifciency decreased nutrient concentration in DOR plants, limited dry matter production and nutrient uptake, and thereby exacerbated density reduction during plants growth. The poor individual growth and reduced population density together decreased seed yield in the nutrient deifciency treatment. Averaged across al the experiments, seed yield reduced 61% by N deifciency, 38.3% by P deifciency, and 14.4% by K deifciency. The negative effects of nutrient deifciency on DOR performances fol owed the order of–N>–P>–K, and the effects were various among different nutrient deifciencies. Although N deifciency improved DOR emergence, but it seriously limited dry matter production and nutrient uptake, which in turn led to substantial plants death and therefore resulted in a very low harvested density. The P deifciency signiifcantly reduced initial density, limited plants growth, and exacerbated density reduction. The K deifciency mainly decreased individual growth and yield, but

  18. Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-BE-2011-101) for the placing on the market of herbicide-tolerant genetically modified oilseed rape MON 88302 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore, Arpaia; Andrew Nicholas Edmund, Birch; Andrew, Chesson; Patrick, du Jardin; Achim, Gathmann; Jürgen, Gropp; Lieve, Herman; Hilde-Gunn, Hoen-Sorteberg; Huw, Jones; József, Kiss; Gijs, Kleter; Martinus, Løvik; Antoine, Messéan; Hanspeter, Naegeli; Kaare Magne, Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    Oilseed rape MON 88302 was developed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to express the CP4 EPSPS protein, which confers tolerance to glyphosate. The molecular characterisation of oilseed rape MON 88302 did not raise safety issues. Agronomic and phenotypic characteristics of oilseed rape MON 88302 tested under field conditions revealed no biologically relevant differences between oilseed rape MON 88302 and its conventional counterpart, except for days-to-first flowering. No d...

  19. Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-BE-2011-101) for the placing on the market of herbicide-tolerant genetically modified oilseed rape MON 88302 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    2014-01-01

    Oilseed rape MON 88302 was developed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to express the CP4 EPSPS protein, which confers tolerance to glyphosate. The molecular characterisation of oilseed rape MON 88302 did not raise safety issues. Agronomic and phenotypic characteristics of oilseed rape MON 88302 tested under field conditions revealed no biologically relevant differences between oilseed rape MON 88302 and its conventional counterpart, except for days-to-first flowering. No d...

  20. Detection of feral GT73 transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) along railway lines on entry routes to oilseed factories in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Mirco; Oehen, Bernadette; Schulze, Jürg; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    To obtain a reference status prior to cultivation of genetically modified oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland, the occurrence of feral OSR was monitored along transportation routes and at processing sites. The focus was set on the detection of (transgenic) OSR along railway lines from the Swiss borders with Italy and France to the respective oilseed processing factories in Southern and Northern Switzerland (Ticino and region of Basel). A monitoring concept was developed to identify sites of largest risk of escape of genetically modified plants into the environment in Switzerland. Transport spillage of OSR seeds from railway goods cars particularly at risk hot spots such as switch yards and (un)loading points but also incidental and continuous spillage were considered. All OSR plants, including their hybridization partners which were collected at the respective monitoring sites were analyzed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. On sampling lengths each of 4.2 and 5.7 km, respectively, 461 and 1,574 plants were sampled in Ticino and the region of Basel. OSR plants were found most frequently along the routes to the oilseed facilities, and in larger amounts on risk hot spots compared to sites of random sampling. At three locations in both monitored regions, transgenic B. napus line GT73 carrying the glyphosate resistance transgenes gox and CP4 epsps were detected (Ticino, 22 plants; in the region of Basel, 159). PMID:23917737

  1. Radiation and nitrogen use at the leaf and canopy level by wheat and oilseed rape during the critical period for grain number definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the critical period for grain number definition, the amount of biomass produced per unit absorbed radiation is more sensitive to nitrogen (N) supply in oilseed rape than in wheat, and reaches a higher value at high N. This response was investigated by combining experimental and modelling work. Oilseed rape and wheat were grown at three levels of N supply, combined with two levels of plant density at high N supply. Canopy photosynthesis and daytime radiation use efficiency (RUEA) were calculated with a model based on observed N-dependent leaf photosynthesis and observed canopy vertical distribution of light and leaf N. In oilseed rape, RUEA was higher than in wheat and, in contrast to wheat, the sensitivity to canopy leaf N content increased from the start to the end of the critical period. These results were partly explained by the higher leaf photosynthesis in oilseed rape vs wheat. In addition, oilseed rape leaves were increasingly shaded by the inflorescence. Thus, RUEA increased because more leaves were operating at non-saturating light levels. In both species, the vertical distribution of leaf N was close to that optimising canopy photosynthesis. The results are discussed in relation to possibilities for improvement of N productivity in these crops. (author)

  2. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, G. E.; Garthwaite, D.; Crowe, A.; Boatman, N. D.; Delaplane, K. S.; Brown, M. A.; Thygesen, H. H.; Pietravalle, S.

    2015-08-01

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop.

  3. Sources of uncertainty in the quantification of genetically modified oilseed rape contamination in seed lots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Graham S; Cullen, Danny W; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Squire, Geoff R

    2007-02-01

    Testing of seed and grain lots is essential in the enforcement of GM labelling legislation and needs reliable procedures for which associated errors have been identified and minimised. In this paper we consider the testing of oilseed rape seed lots obtained from the harvest of a non-GM crop known to be contaminated by volunteer plants from a GM herbicide tolerant variety. The objective was to identify and quantify the error associated with the testing of these lots from the initial sampling to completion of the real-time PCR assay with which the level of GM contamination was quantified. The results showed that, under the controlled conditions of a single laboratory, the error associated with the real-time PCR assay to be negligible in comparison with sampling error, which was exacerbated by heterogeneity in the distribution of GM seeds, most notably at a small scale, i.e. 25 cm3. Sampling error was reduced by one to two thirds on the application of appropriate homogenisation procedures. PMID:17106767

  4. Seed Architecture Shapes Embryo Metabolism in Oilseed Rape[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Neuberger, Thomas; Schwender, Jörg; Heinzel, Nicolas; Sunderhaus, Stephanie; Fuchs, Johannes; Hay, Jordan O.; Tschiersch, Henning; Braun, Hans-Peter; Denolf, Peter; Lambert, Bart; Jakob, Peter M.; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2013-01-01

    Constrained to develop within the seed, the plant embryo must adapt its shape and size to fit the space available. Here, we demonstrate how this adjustment shapes metabolism of photosynthetic embryo. Noninvasive NMR-based imaging of the developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seed illustrates that, following embryo bending, gradients in lipid concentration became established. These were correlated with the local photosynthetic electron transport rate and the accumulation of storage products. Experimentally induced changes in embryo morphology and/or light supply altered these gradients and were accompanied by alterations in both proteome and metabolome. Tissue-specific metabolic models predicted that the outer cotyledon and hypocotyl/radicle generate the bulk of plastidic reductant/ATP via photosynthesis, while the inner cotyledon, being enclosed by the outer cotyledon, is forced to grow essentially heterotrophically. Under field-relevant high-light conditions, major contribution of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase–bypass to seed storage metabolism is predicted for the outer cotyledon and the hypocotyl/radicle only. Differences between in vitro– versus in planta–grown embryos suggest that metabolic heterogeneity of embryo is not observable by in vitro approaches. We conclude that in vivo metabolic fluxes are locally regulated and connected to seed architecture, driving the embryo toward an efficient use of available light and space. PMID:23709628

  5. Application of glutathione to roots selectively inhibits cadmium transport from roots to shoots in oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione is a tripeptide involved in various aspects of plant metabolism. This study investigated the effects of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) applied to specific organs (source leaves, sink leaves, and roots) on cadmium (Cd) distribution and behaviour in the roots of oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) cultured hydroponically. The translocation ratio of Cd from roots to shoots was significantly lower in plants that had root treatment of GSH than in control plants. GSH applied to roots reduced the Cd concentration in the symplast sap of root cells and inhibited root-to-shoot Cd translocation via xylem vessels significantly. GSH applied to roots also activated Cd efflux from root cells to the hydroponic solution. Inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was visualized, and the activation of Cd efflux from root cells was also shown by using a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). This study investigated a similar inhibitory effect on root-to-shoot translocation of Cd by the oxidized form of glutathione, GSSG. Inhibition of Cd accumulation by GSH was abolished by a low-temperature treatment. Root cells of plants exposed to GSH in the root zone had less Cd available for xylem loading by actively excluding Cd from the roots. Consequently, root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was suppressed and Cd accumulation in the shoot decreased. PMID:23364937

  6. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B

    2016-01-01

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species. PMID:27527233

  7. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Sekulic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM. The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI seed treatment (NNI ST use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.. Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species.

  8. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhammar, Ann-Charlotte; Gunnarson, Albin; Hansson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil(-1)) in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g(-1) soil) in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20%) showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g(-1) soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g(-1) soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of prevention of

  9. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil−1 in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g−1 soil in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20% showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g−1 soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g−1 soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of

  10. Adventitious presence of other varieties in oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤) from seed banks and certified seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    the soil seed-bank. This information was acquired through DNA analysis of volunteers collected in the field and seedlings derived from the soil seed-bank. DNA profiles of the volunteers and seedlings were obtained using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers, and the profiles were compared with...... ISSR profiles from an assortment of 14 of the most commonly cultivated oilseed rape varieties from 1985 to 2004. This comparison was performed using the assignment program, AFLPOP. The age of the seed bank germinating to become volunteers was assumed from information on previously cultivated oilseed...... fields analysed and, from soil cores, their soil seed-bank was estimated to be 50-100 seeds m(-2). The ISSR analysis of the 14 reference varieties showed that three of the certified seed lots contained other varieties above the allowed threshold. Our findings are discussed in the context of the...

  11. Rapeseed species and environmental concerns related to loss of seeds of genetically modified oilseed rape in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Toru; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Feral rapeseed in Japan consists of Brassica rapa, B. juncea and B. napus, mostly produced by escape from crops. Brassica rapa and B. juncea were introduced from abroad long ago as leaf and root vegetables and as an oil crop and breeders have developed various cultivars. Brassica napus was introduced in the late 1800s, mainly as an oil crop. Rapeseed production in Japan is low, and most demand is met by imports from Canada (94.4% of the 2009 trade volume). Recently, spontaneous B. napus, including genetically modified (GM) herbicide-resistant individuals, has been detected along Japanese roads, probably originating from seeds lost during transportation of imports. As GM oilseed production increases abroad, the probability of escape of GM oilseed rape in Japan will increase, raising environmental biosafety concerns related to the impact of feral rapeseed on heirloom brassicaceous crops. In this paper, we review the history of rapeseed introduction in Japan and future concerns. PMID:21844669

  12. Milestone – a selective herbicide for the control of important grasses and broadleaved weeds in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotz, Agnes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MilestoneTM herbicide contains the active substance propyzamide (500 g/L and aminopyralid (5.3 g a.e./L and is formulated as a suspension concentrate (SC. Registration for Milestone for the use in winter oilseed rape was granted in Germany in July 2014. The active substance propyzamide is well known from the product KerbTM FLO (containing 500 g/L propyzamide, suspension concentrate, SC which is widely used in winter oilseed rape (WITTROCK et al., 2008. Aminopyralid is formulated in the commercial product Runway (clopyralid + picloram + aminopyralid. Milestone is applied with a use rate of 1.5 L/ha as a post-emergence herbicide from growth stage BBCH 14 of the crop at the beginning of November until February. Kerb FLO is applied with a use rate of 1.875 L/ha at the same timing. The efficacy of Milestone and Kerb FLO was tested in randomised and replicated plot trials in Germany, France and the United Kingdom. Milestone and Kerb FLO showed comparable and very high control levels against monocotyledonous species such as Alopecurus myosuroides, Apera spica-venti, Bromus species and volunteer cereals. Milestone shows a broader spectrum of activity vs. Kerb FLO against dicotyledonous weeds such as Matricaria chamomilla, Papaver rhoeas and Centaurea cyanus. The use of Milestone in dense crops (as the situation was in autumn 2014 for many areas in Germany shows very high efficacy levels as well. The comparison of various application timings between end of October until beginning of December confirms the application date early November for best results. Milestone controls herbicide-resistant weed populations and can be considered an important part of a resistance management program not only in winter oilseed rape but as a component of an integrated weed management strategy in cropping systems.

  13. Introduction of beet cyst nematode resistance from Sinapsis alba L. and Raphanus sativus L. into Brassica napus L. (oil-seed rape) through sexual and somatic hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Lelivelt, C.L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were performed to select for beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm., abbrev. BCN) resistant genotypes of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape), and to introduce BCN-resistance from the related species Raphanus sativus L. (oil-radish) and Sinapis alba L. (white mustard) into oil-seed rape.Sexual hybridization between B.napus and R. sativus did not result in hybrid plants, whereas from about 800 crosses between B.napus and the amphidiploid xBrassicoraphanus Sageret 284 F 1 hybrid...

  14. Impact of Shortened Crop Rotation of Oilseed Rape on Soil and Rhizosphere Microbial Diversity in Relation to Yield Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, Sally; Bennett, Amanda J; Keane, Gary; Bending, Gary D; Chandler, David; Stobart, Ron; Mills, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR) grown in monoculture shows a decline in yield relative to virgin OSR of up to 25%, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. A long term field experiment of OSR grown in a range of rotations with wheat was used to determine whether shifts in fungal and bacterial populations of the rhizosphere and bulk soil were associated with the development of OSR yield decline. The communities of fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soil from the field experiment were profile...

  15. Application of Visible and Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging to Determine Soluble Protein Content in Oilseed Rape Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Chu Zhang; Fei Liu; Wenwen Kong; Yong He

    2015-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging covering spectral range of 380–1030 nm as a rapid and non-destructive method was applied to estimate the soluble protein content of oilseed rape leaves. Average spectrum (500–900 nm) of the region of interest (ROI) of each sample was extracted, and four samples out of 128 samples were defined as outliers by Monte Carlo-partial least squares (MCPLS). Partial least squares (PLS) model using full spectra obtained dependable performance with the co...

  16. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services. PMID:24634722

  17. Seed spillage from grain trailers on road verges during oilseed rape harvest: an experimental survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bailleul

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Anthropogenic vectors enhance the natural dispersal capacity of plant seeds significantly in terms of quantity and distance. Human-mediated seed dispersal (i.e. anthropochory greatly increases the dispersal of crop species across agroecosystems. In the case of oilseed rape (OSR, spillage of seeds from grain trailers during harvest has never been quantified. METHODS: Our experimental approach involved establishing 85 seed trap-sites on the road verges of an agricultural area around the grain silo of Selommes (Loir-et-Cher, France. We recorded OSR spillage during harvest and applied a linear model to the data. RESULTS: The amount of seed spilled was related positively to the area of the OSR fields served by the road, whereas the amount of seed spilled decreased with other variables, such as distance from the trap-site to the verge of the road and to the nearest field. The distance to the grain silo, through local and regional effects, affected seed loss. Local effects from fields adjacent to the road resulted in a cumulative spillage on one-lane roads. On two-lane roads, spillage was nearly constant whatever the distance to the silo due to a mixture of these local effects and of grain trailers that joined the road from more distant fields. From the data, we predicted the number of seeds lost from grain trailers on one road verge in the study area. We predicted a total spillage of 2.05 × 10(6 seeds (± 4.76 × 10(5 along the road length, which represented a mean of 404 ± 94 seeds per m(2. CONCLUSION: Containment of OSR seeds will always be challenging. However, seed spillage could be reduced if grain trailers were covered and filled with less seed. Reducing distances travelled between fields and silos could also limit seed loss.

  18. Temporal Polarimetric Behavior of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. at C-Band for Early Season Sowing Date Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial monitoring of the sowing date plays an important role in crop yield estimation at the regional scale. The feasibility of using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR data for early season monitoring of the sowing dates of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. fields is explored in this paper. Polarimetric SAR responses of six parameters, relying on polarization decomposition methods, were investigated as a function of days after sowing (DAS during the entire growing season, by means of five consecutive Radarsat-2 images. A near-continuous temporal evolution of these parameters was observed, based on 88 oilseed rape fields. It provided a solid basis for determining the suitable temporal window and the best polarimetric parameters for sowing date monitoring. A high sensitivity of all polarimetric parameters to the DAS at different growing stages was shown. Simple linear models could be calibrated to estimate sowing dates at early growth stages and were validated on an independent data set. Although Volume and Span parameters provided the highest sowing date estimation accuracy at the earlier growth stages, the other four parameters (Volume/Total, Odd/Total, Entropy and Alpha were more accurate for a wider temporal window. These results demonstrate the capability and high potential of polarimetric SAR data for monitoring the sowing date of crops in the early season.

  19. Characterization of senescence-associated protease activities involved in the efficient protein remobilization during leaf senescence of winter oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poret, Marine; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is a crop plant characterized by a poor nitrogen (N) use efficiency that is mainly due to low N remobilization efficiency during the sequential leaf senescence of the vegetative stage. As a high leaf N remobilization efficiency was strongly linked to a high remobilization of proteins during leaf senescence of rapeseed, our objective was to identify senescence-associated protease activities implicated in the protein degradation. To reach this goal, leaf senescence processes and protease activities were investigated in a mature leaf becoming senescent in plants subjected to ample or low nitrate supply. The characterization of protease activities was performed by using in vitro analysis of RuBisCO degradation with or without inhibitors of specific protease classes followed by a protease activity profiling using activity-dependent probes. As expected, the mature leaf became senescent regardless of the nitrate treatment, and nitrate limitation enhanced the senescence processes associated with an enhanced degradation of soluble proteins. The characterization of protease activities revealed that: (i) aspartic proteases and the proteasome were active during senescence regardless of nitrate supply, and (ii) the activities of serine proteases and particularly cysteine proteases (Papain-like Cys proteases and vacuolar processing enzymes) increased when protein remobilization associated with senescence was accelerated by nitrate limitation. Short statement: Serine and particularly cysteine proteases (both PLCPs and VPEs) seem to play a crucial role in the efficient protein remobilization when leaf senescence of oilseed rape was accelerated by nitrate limitation. PMID:26993244

  20. Xylem transport and gene expression play decisive roles in cadmium accumulation in shoots of two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Sun, Xuecheng; Tan, Qiling; Tang, Yafang; Nie, Zhaojun; Hu, Chengxiao

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal which harms human health through food chains. The mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation in oilseed rape are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the physiological and genetic processes involved in Cd uptake and transport of two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus). L351 accumulates more Cd in shoots but less in roots than L338. A scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) and uptake kinetics of Cd showed that roots were not responsible for the different Cd accumulation in shoots since L351 showed a lower Cd uptake ability. However, concentration-dependent and time-dependent dynamics of Cd transport by xylem showed L351 exhibited a superordinate capacity of Cd translocation to shoots. Additionally, the Cd concentrations of shoots and xylem sap showed a great correlation in both cultivars. Furthermore, gene expression levels related to Cd uptake by roots (IRT1) and Cd transport by xylem (HMA2 and HMA4) were consistent with the tendencies of Cd absorption and transport at the physiological level respectively. In other words, L351 had stronger gene expression for Cd transport but lower for Cd uptake. Overall, results revealed that the process of Cd translocation to shoots is a determinative factor for Cd accumulation in shoots, both at physiological and genetic levels. PMID:25460764

  1. Effects of added Cd on Cd uptake by oilseed rape and pai-tsai co-cropping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study whether the decrease of Cd in the rhizosphere of Zhongyouza I, one breed of oilseed rapes (Brassica junica) that can hyperaccumulate cadmium from the soil, can improve the living condition of less Cd-tolerant plant pai-tsai (Brassia chinensis) with their roots permitted to intermingle and develop coincident rhizosphere. The extent of rhizosphere interactions between Zhongyouza Ⅰ and pai-tsai was controlled by different root barriers, or without barrier. The results show that in the 10 and 20 mg/kg Cd treated soils, pai-tsai gets higher shoot mass and less Cd accumulation in its shoot than in the barrier treatments or in the mono cultures, when its roots are permitted to intermingle with those of Zhongyouza Ⅰ. Meanwhile, soil decontamination rates of Zhongyouza Ⅰ are not affected much by co-cropping with pai-tsai, they are 80.0% and 91.8% of that in the mono cultures of Zhongyouza Ⅰ, respectively. However, the co-cropping method in meliorating the living condition ofpai-tsai is not obvious when Cd concentration in soil reaches 40 mg/kg, and soil decontamination rate decreases to 0.14, which is 58.3% of that in the mono culture. These results indicate that the oilseed rape Zhongyouza Ⅰ may alleviate Cd toxicity of surrounding less-tolerant species, and its ability of phytoremediation is not affected much at the same time, especially in the middle polluted soil.

  2. Integrated control of annual weeds by inter-row hoeing and intra-row herbicide treatment in spring oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to develop an integrated weed control strategy against annual weeds in spring oilseed rape by means of a combined mechanical and chemical weed control which will be performed concurrently and separately. The project encompasses field experiments in which different combinations of inter-row hoeing and intra-row herbicide treatments will be evaluated and compared to conventional weed control treatments with broadcast spraying of herbicides, and experiments in which an implement for concurrent inter-row hoeing and intra-row herbicide treatment will be refined and evaluated. In 2012, an implement for intra-row spraying combined with row hoeing was developed and evaluated in two field experiments in spring oilseed rape in the southern part of Sweden. The effects of inter-row hoeing, intra row spraying, and combination of the two methods were compared with conventional broadcast spraying. Preliminary results showed that the best weed control effects were obtained with the combination of inter-row hoeing and intra-row spraying in both experiments. Regarding crop yield, the yield was significantly higher in the combined treatment in one of the experiments while no effects on the yields were obtained in the other experiment. We envisage that the inter-row hoeing and intra-row herbicide treatment will diminish the overall use of herbicides to less than one third in comparison with the more conventional chemical weed control methods, while having the same weed control effect.

  3. Development and application of SINE multilocus and quantitative genetic markers to study oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allnutt, T R; Roper, K; Henry, C

    2008-01-23

    A genetic marker system based on the S1 Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) in the important commercial crop, oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) has been developed. SINEs provided a successful multilocus, dominant marker system that was capable of clearly delineating winter- and spring-type crop varieties. Sixteen of 20 varieties tested showed unique profiles from the 17 polymorphic SINE markers generated. The 3' or 5' flank region of nine SINE markers were cloned, and DNA was sequenced. In addition, one putative pre-transposition SINE allele was cloned and sequenced. Two SINE flanking sequences were used to design real-time PCR assays. These quantitative SINE assays were applied to study the genetic structure of eight fields of oilseed rape crops. Studied fields were more genetically diverse than expected for the chosen loci (mean H T = 0.23). The spatial distribution of SINE marker frequencies was highly structured in some fields, suggesting locations of volunteer impurities within the crop. In one case, the assay identified a mislabeling of the crop variety. SINE markers were a useful tool for crop genetics, phylogenetics, variety identification, and purity analysis. The use and further application of quantitative, real-time PCR markers are discussed. PMID:18092752

  4. Studies on Edible Fungi Cultivation Based on Oilseed Rape Straw%油菜秸秆栽培食用菌研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海燕; 胡殿明

    2015-01-01

    Edible fungi cultivation is a sufficient way to reuse the massive oilseed rape straw without any environment pollution. In this paper, the literatures reported on edible fungi cultivation using the substrate of oilseed rape straw in China were briefly reviewed mainly on the aspects of medium formulations and fungal species. According to our statistic, the literatures that reported on edible fungi cultivation using oilseed rape straw reported in China were manly focused on the cultivation of Pleurotus spp. and Flammulina velutipes, while only a few literatures reported on the cultivation of Hypsizygus marmoreus, Volvariella volvacea and Lentinus edodes. Most reports just briefly reported the medium formulations for edible fungi cultivation, without other details such as pretreatment of raw materials, records of hyphae growth, temperature, humidity, light, the concentration of CO2, etc. In this paper, the medium formulations using oilseed rape straw reported by literatures were all listed in 3 tables, they included 29 formulations for the cultivation of Pleurotus spp., 13 formulations for the cultivation of Flammulina velutipes and 6 formulations for the cultivation of other edible fungi. The biological transformation efficiency of each formulation using oilseed rape straw was discussed. The biological transformation efficiency of most formulations mainly composed by oilseed rape straw was commonly lower than the biological transformation efficiency of traditional formulations, however, most of the former formulations presented higher economic input­output ratio than the latter, as oilseed rape straw was normally cheaper than the traditional substrates such as cotton seed hulls, sawdust etc. Furthermore, mushroom hyphae normally grew faster on oilseed rape straw substrates than traditional substrates, which could significantly shorten the cultivation period of edible fungi and subsequently reduce the cost of the cultivation of edible fungi. Therefore, oilseed rape

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Beneficial Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 8569, a Natural Isolate of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)

    OpenAIRE

    Nesemann, Kai; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Thuermer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf; Gerhard H Braus

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 8569 represents a natural isolate of the rhizosphere of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Germany and possesses antagonistic potential toward the fungal pathogen Verticillium. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain DSM 8569, which comprises 5,914 protein-coding sequences.

  6. Status of feral oilseed rape in Europe: its minor role as a GM impurity and its potential as a reservoir of transgene persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squire, Geoffrey R.; Breckling, Broder; Dietz Pfeilstetter, Antje;

    2011-01-01

    oilseed rape to impurities in harvested crops was estimated by combining data on feral abundance and crop yield from five established, demographic studies in agricultural habitats in Denmark, Germany (2), France and the UK, constituting over 1,500 ha of land and 16 site-years of observations. Persistence...

  7. Performance of oilseed rape in the Clearfield®-system in different cropping intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwabe, Sebastian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A two-factorial field experiment should reveal the performance of Clearfield® oilseed rape under different cropping intensities. The experiment was conducted at the experimental station Ihinger Hof in 2014, with cropping intensity as factor 1 and herbicide strategy as factor 2, all treatments sown with variety PT228CL. Treatments of cropping intensities were “normal sowing” (NS; soil inversion tillage tillage, 50 seeds m-2, 12 cm row spacing, “reduced sowing density” (DS; soil inversion tillage, 25 seeds m-2, 25 cm row spacing and striptill (ST; 25 seeds m-2, 25 cm row spacing. The two herbicide strategies were pre-emergence strategy (VAS; application of Colzor® Trio (30 g L-1 Clomazone, 187.5 g L-1 Dimethachlor, 187.5 g L-1 Napropamide one day after sowing and of Agil® S (100 g/L Propaquizafop 3.5 weeks after sowing and Clearfield® strategy (CLS; application of Clearfield®-Vantiga® (375 g L-1 Metazachlor, 125 g L-1 Quinmerac, 6.25 g L-1 Imazamox and Dash® E.C. (345 g L-1 fatty acid methyl ester, 205 g L-1 fatty alcohol alkoxylates, 46 g L-1 oleic acid at the same day as Agil® S. NS resulted in the highest yield (3.9 t ha-1 which was significantly more than obtained by ST (3.6 t ha-1, the least-yielding intensity. There were no significant interactions of the effects. Weed density was highest in DS/CLS and ST/CLS with 12.8 and 13.9 plants m-2, respectively, and thus the two to threefold of the other treatments. The results indicate a lack of efficacy of Clearfield®-Vantiga® under the presumably higher weed pressure in DS and ST, specifically in controlling the weeds Stellaria media and volunteer cereals (in this case: Hordeum vulgare. An economic evaluation will follow.

  8. Hazardous doses of the herbicide imazamox in wild plant species and oilseed rape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franzaring, Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Imidazolinones and crops resistant to these herbicides have successfully been introduced recently in some European countries. Imazamox has a high efficacy, moderate persistence and ecotoxicity, but data on hazardous doses (HD in non-target plants and species sensitivity distributions (SSDs are still scarce. To screen a larger variety of plant taxa in standardized vegetative vigor tests, 22 wild plant species and 14 oilseed rape (OSR cultivars were sown into trays filled with a standard soil. When seedlings had reached the three-to-four leaf stage, plants were exposed to a single application of the herbicide Bolero® using a commercial pump sprayer. The five treatments corresponded to rates of 0 (control, 0.4, 4, 20 and 40 g/ha of imazamox with latter representing the recommended dose in Switzerland. Two weeks after the application, five plants per treatment were sub-sampled at random and visible injuries and fresh weights were recorded as endpoints for herbicidal effects. Dose-response curves and effective doses (EDs were fitted using the drc package of the statistical software R and SSDs were obtained using ETX2.0. ED50 varied between 0.006 and 37 g/ha of the active ingredient in Nigella arvensis and Brassica rapa. Several dose-response curves indicated hormetic effects at a hundredth of the recommended field dose. In OSR, exposure to the field rate (40 g/ha resulted in growth reductions between 28 and 97 % in the non imazamox-tolerant cultivars and in growth stimulations of up to 20 % in imazamox-tolerant cultivars. Responses were unrelated to leaf thickness, growth rates and the taxonomy of the tested species. Hazardous doses were 0.32 g/ha for HD5 and 3.9 g/ha for HD50 indicating that 50 % of the non-target plants would be affected at a tenth of the recommended dose. Based on general herbicide drift values the results suggest that potentially adverse effects may be expected up to a distance of 4 m offsite.

  9. Ecological Variation in Response to Mass-Flowering Oilseed Rape and Surrounding Landscape Composition by Members of a Cryptic Bumblebee Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara A Stanley

    Full Text Available The Bombus sensu stricto species complex is a widespread group of cryptic bumblebee species which are important pollinators of many crops and wild plants. These cryptic species have, until now, largely been grouped together in ecological studies, and so little is known about their individual colony densities, foraging ranges or habitat requirements, which can be influenced by land use at a landscape scale. We used mass-flowering oilseed rape fields as locations to sample bees of this complex, as well as the second most common visitor to oilseed rape B. lapidarius, and molecular RFLP methods to distinguish between the cryptic species. We then used microsatellite genotyping to identify sisters and estimate colony densities, and related both proportions of cryptic species and their colony densities to the composition of the landscape surrounding the fields. We found B. lucorum was the most common member of the complex present in oilseed rape followed by B. terrestris. B. cryptarum was also present in all but one site, with higher proportions found in the east of the study area. High numbers of bumblebee colonies were estimated to be using oilseed rape fields as a forage resource, with B. terrestris colony numbers higher than previous estimates from non-mass-flowering fields. We also found that the cryptic species responded differently to surrounding landscape composition: both relative proportions of B. cryptarum in samples and colony densities of B. lucorum were negatively associated with the amount of arable land in the landscape, while proportions and colony densities of other species did not respond to landscape variables at the scale measured. This suggests that the cryptic species have different ecological requirements (which may be scale-dependent and that oilseed rape can be an important forage resource for many colonies of bumblebees. Given this, we recommend sustainable management of this crop to benefit bumblebees.

  10. Impact of imazamox containing herbicides on the development of resistance in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. within an oilseed rape / wheat crop rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenhauer, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of imazamox as an herbicide in oilseed-rape got possible due to the introduction of Clearfield oilseed-rape varieties which are tolerant to ALS inhibitors. The question of this investigation was, if the broader use of ALS-inhibitors increases the selection pressure on herbicide resistant weeds and increases their occurrence in the crop rotation. An outdoor container trial with 30 containers (350 l, 0,7 m² was performed, starting in autumn 2011. A winter wheat – oilseed-rape rotation was simulated for four years. Three different black-grass biotypes with different resistance pattern and 5 different herbicide programmes were analysed in this study in order to investigate the population dynamics of target-site resistance (TSR and the development of metabolic resistance. The trials showed interactions between the black-grass biotype and the herbicide strategy on the increase of the black-grass density. There was no interaction due to the use of propyzamide. The frequency of target-site resistance to ACCase inhibitors increased for the corresponding biotypes independently of the herbicide strategy during the trial period. The low frequency of ALS-TSR at trial start did not change during the trial period, independently of the use of imazamox in the oil-seed rape cultivation. The comparison of the resistance factors between the original biotypes and the seeds harvested after the four year container trial showed increasing resistances against pinoxaden for all biotypes. Within the different black-grass biotypes there was a slightly decrease as well as an increase in imazamox efficacy observed. There was no significant increase of meso- + iodosulfuron resistance compared to the original biotypes from 2011 caused by different herbicide treatments. The results indicated that the integration of imazamox tolerant oilseed rape in winter wheat crop rotations did not necessarily increase the development of herbicide resistant black-grass.

  11. Application of Visible and Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging to Determine Soluble Protein Content in Oilseed Rape Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging covering spectral range of 380–1030 nm as a rapid and non-destructive method was applied to estimate the soluble protein content of oilseed rape leaves. Average spectrum (500–900 nm of the region of interest (ROI of each sample was extracted, and four samples out of 128 samples were defined as outliers by Monte Carlo-partial least squares (MCPLS. Partial least squares (PLS model using full spectra obtained dependable performance with the correlation coefficient (rp of 0.9441, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of 0.1658 mg/g and residual prediction deviation (RPD of 2.98. The weighted regression coefficient (Bw, successive projections algorithm (SPA and genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GAPLS selected 18, 15, and 16 sensitive wavelengths, respectively. SPA-PLS model obtained the best performance with rp of 0.9554, RMSEP of 0.1538 mg/g and RPD of 3.25. Distribution of protein content within the rape leaves were visualized and mapped on the basis of the SPA-PLS model. The overall results indicated that hyperspectral imaging could be used to determine and visualize the soluble protein content of rape leaves.

  12. The biological effects of gamma irradiation on secondary embryoids of Brassica napus ssp. oleifera (Metzg.) Sinsk., winter oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation on secondary embryoids of Brassica napus ssp. oleifera (Metzg.) Sinsk., winter oilseed rape, are reported. A kill curve was established, and the secondary embryoids were found to be more tolerant of high doses of irradiation than tissues of many other plant species. Secondary embryoids which had received less than 320 Gy retained their secondary embryogenic potential at subsequent subcultures, although their potential to develop into plantlets was greatly reduced. A haploid line from the cultivar Rapora was found to be more sensitive to gamma irradiation than a diploid line from the cultivar Primor. A number of regenerant plants have been established from irradiated embryoids and grown on to flowering. (author)

  13. Complex Formation of Myrosinase Isoenzymes in Oilseed Rape Seeds Are Dependent on the Presence of Myrosinase-Binding Proteins1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Susanna; Andréasson, Erik; Ekbom, Barbara; Granér, Georg; Pontoppidan, Bo; Taipalensuu, Jan; Zhang, Jiaming; Rask, Lars; Meijer, Johan

    2002-01-01

    The enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.3.1) degrades the secondary compounds glucosinolates upon wounding and serves as a defense to generalist pests in Capparales. Certain myrosinases are present in complexes together with other proteins such as myrosinase-binding proteins (MBP) in extracts of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seeds. Immunhistochemical analysis of wild-type seeds showed that MBPs were present in most cells but not in the myrosin cells, indicating that the complex formation observed in extracts is initiated upon tissue disruption. To study the role of MBP in complex formation and defense, oilseed rape antisense plants lacking the seed MBPs were produced. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining confirmed depletion of MBP in the transgenic seeds. The exclusive expression of myrosinase in idioblasts (myrosin cells) of the seed was not affected by the down-regulation of MBP. Using size-exclusion chromatography, we have shown that myrosinases with subunit molecular masses of 62 to 70 kD were present as free dimers from the antisense seed extract, whereas in the wild type, they formed complexes. In accordance with this, MBPs are necessary for myrosinase complex formation of the 62- to 70-kD myrosinases. The product formed from sinalbin hydrolysis by myrosinase was the same whether MBP was present or not. The performance of a common beetle generalist (Tenebrio molitor) fed with seeds, herbivory by flea beetles (Phyllotreta undulata) on cotyledons, or growth rate of the Brassica fungal pathogens Alternaria brassicae or Lepthosphaeria maculans in the presence of seed extracts were not affected by the down-regulation of MBP, leaving the physiological function of this protein family open. PMID:12177471

  14. Complex formation of myrosinase isoenzymes in oilseed rape seeds are dependent on the presence of myrosinase-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Susanna; Andréasson, Erik; Ekbom, Barbara; Granér, Georg; Pontoppidan, Bo; Taipalensuu, Jan; Zhang, Jiaming; Rask, Lars; Meijer, Johan

    2002-08-01

    The enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.3.1) degrades the secondary compounds glucosinolates upon wounding and serves as a defense to generalist pests in Capparales. Certain myrosinases are present in complexes together with other proteins such as myrosinase-binding proteins (MBP) in extracts of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seeds. Immunhistochemical analysis of wild-type seeds showed that MBPs were present in most cells but not in the myrosin cells, indicating that the complex formation observed in extracts is initiated upon tissue disruption. To study the role of MBP in complex formation and defense, oilseed rape antisense plants lacking the seed MBPs were produced. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining confirmed depletion of MBP in the transgenic seeds. The exclusive expression of myrosinase in idioblasts (myrosin cells) of the seed was not affected by the down-regulation of MBP. Using size-exclusion chromatography, we have shown that myrosinases with subunit molecular masses of 62 to 70 kD were present as free dimers from the antisense seed extract, whereas in the wild type, they formed complexes. In accordance with this, MBPs are necessary for myrosinase complex formation of the 62- to 70-kD myrosinases. The product formed from sinalbin hydrolysis by myrosinase was the same whether MBP was present or not. The performance of a common beetle generalist (Tenebrio molitor) fed with seeds, herbivory by flea beetles (Phyllotreta undulata) on cotyledons, or growth rate of the Brassica fungal pathogens Alternaria brassicae or Lepthosphaeria maculans in the presence of seed extracts were not affected by the down-regulation of MBP, leaving the physiological function of this protein family open. PMID:12177471

  15. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bixafen in oilseed rape, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer CropScience Limited to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance bixafen in oilseed rape, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bixafen in France, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRL for these crops from the value of 0.015 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the available residues trials data are insufficient to propose MRLs for the proposed use in France on these oilseed crops. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of bixafen in plant matrices under consideration at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. EFSA concludes that the data available are insufficient to make a proposal to change any MRL.

  16. 'Abasin-95', a new oilseed rape cultivar developed through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassica oilseeds are the second most important source of vegetable oil in Pakistan. Due to the low priority attached to these to these crops in the past, no systematic breeding work was undertaken to develop improved varieties of rapeseed/mustard, resulting in a narrow genetic base of these crops. At the Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), gamma radiation was used to induce genetic variability in traits of economic importance thus diversifying the genetic base of indigenous/exotic cultivars of Brassica oilseeds

  17. Partitioning genetic effects due to embryo, cytoplasm and maternal parent for oil content in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Guo Wu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of genetic main effects and genotype x environment (GE interaction effects on the oil content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was conducted by using a genetic model for the quantitative traits of seeds in diploid plants. The experiments were carried out over two years with 8 parents and a diallel mating design, which produced F1 and F2 generations. We found that the oil content of rape was simultaneously controlled by embryo genetic effect, cytoplasmic effects and maternal genetic effect as well as GE interaction effects, with the cytoplasmic and maternal effects playing the main role. The results indicate that selection of maternal plants for high oil content would be more efficient than selection based on single seeds. Since the GE interaction effects accounted for 73.69% of the total genetic effects and were more important than the genetic main effects it seems that selection might be influenced by environmental conditions. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability for oil content was 73.52% with the interaction heritability being larger than the general heritability, indicating that the early generations can be used for selection for high oil content. The prediction of genetic effects suggested that the parent cultivars Youcai 601 and Gaoyou 605 were better than the other cultivars for increasing oil content during the breeding of B. napus. The implications for the quantitative trait loci mapping of seed traits interfered by these three genetic systems is also discussed.

  18. Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-BE-2011-101 for the placing on the market of herbicide-tolerant genetically modified oilseed rape MON 88302 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape MON 88302 was developed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to express the CP4 EPSPS protein, which confers tolerance to glyphosate. The molecular characterisation of oilseed rape MON 88302 did not raise safety issues. Agronomic and phenotypic characteristics of oilseed rape MON 88302 tested under field conditions revealed no biologically relevant differences between oilseed rape MON 88302 and its conventional counterpart, except for days-to-first flowering. No differences in the compositional data requiring further safety assessment were identified. There were no concerns regarding the potential toxicity and allergenicity of the newly expressed CP4 EPSPS protein, and no evidence that the genetic modification might significantly change the overall allergenicity of oilseed rape MON 88302. The nutritional value of oilseed rape MON 88302 is not expected to differ from that of non-GM oilseed rape varieties. There are no indications of an increased likelihood of spread and establishment of feral oilseed rape MON 88302 plants or hybridising wild relatives, unless these plants are exposed to glyphosate. It is unlikely that the observed difference in days-to-first flowering would lead to any relevant increase in persistence or invasiveness. Risks associated with an unlikely, but theoretically possible, horizontal transfer of recombinant genes from oilseed rape MON 88302 to bacteria were not identified. The post-market environmental monitoring plan is in line with the intended uses of oilseed rape MON 88302. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that the information available addresses the scientific requirements of the EFSA GMO Panel and the scientific comments raised by the Member States, and that oilseed rape MON 88302, as described in this application, is as safe as its conventional counterpart and non-GM commercial oilseed rape varieties with respect to potential effects on human and animal health and

  19. Influence of development stage of spring oilseed rape and spring wheat on interception of wet-deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, S. B.; Eriksson, J.; Gärdenäs, A. I.; Rosén, K.

    2012-12-01

    The dry and wet deposition of radionuclides released into the atmosphere can be intercepted by vegetation in terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to quantify the interception of wet deposited 134Cs and 85Sr by spring oilseed rape (Brassíca napus L.) and spring wheat (Tríticum aestívum L.). The dependency of the intercepted fraction (f) on total above ground plant biomass, growing stage and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) was quantified. A trial was established in Uppsala (east central Sweden), with land management in accordance to common agricultural practices. The field trial was a randomised block design of 1 × 1 m2 parcels with three replicates. During the growing season of 2010, a rainfall simulator deposited 134Cs and 85Sr during six different growth stages. Two to 3 h after deposition, the biomass of the centre 25 × 25 cm2 area of each parcel was sampled and above ground biomass and LAI were measured. The radioactivity concentration and radioactivity of samples were measured by High Purity Germanium (HPGe)-detectors. For 134Cs, there was a correlation between f and LAI (r2 = 0.55, p rape (r2 = 0.28, p > 0.05). For 85Sr, there was a correlation between f and LAI for both crops (r2 = 0.41, p rape and r2 = 0.48 p, rape for either 134Cs (r2 = 0.01, p > 0.05) or for 85Sr (r2 = 0.11, p > 0.05). For spring wheat, there was a correlation for both 134Cs (r2 = 0.36, p rape, f was highest at growth stage 'stem elongation' for 134Cs (0.32 ± 0.22) and 85Sr (0.41 ± 0.29). For spring wheat, f was highest at growth stage 'ripening' for both radionuclides (134Cs was 0.36 ± 0.14 and 85Sr was 0.48 ± 0.18). Thus, LAI can be used to quantify interception of both radionuclides for both crops, whereas, above ground plant biomass is a weak measure of interception of wet deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium.

  20. Identification of phytoplasma infecting winter oilseed rape in Czech Republic and its comparison with Italian phytoplasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránová, Jana; Voráčková, Zdenka; Vibio, M.; Bertaccini, A.; Navrátil, M.; Špak, Josef; Nebesářová, Jana

    České Budějovice: ÚMBR AV ČR, 1997. s. 126. [Recent advances in plant biotechnology: Molecular biology for agriculture /2./. 25.08.1997-29.08.1997, České Budějovice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 251 Keywords : winter oilseed * plant pathology

  1. Potential Effects of Oilseed Rape Expressing Oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) and of Purified Insecticidal Proteins on Larvae of the Solitary Bee Osmia bicornis

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Konrad; Natalie Ferry; Angharad M. R. Gatehouse; Dirk Babendreier

    2008-01-01

    Despite their importance as pollinators in crops and wild plants, solitary bees have not previously been included in non-target testing of insect-resistant transgenic crop plants. Larvae of many solitary bees feed almost exclusively on pollen and thus could be highly exposed to transgene products expressed in the pollen. The potential effects of pollen from oilseed rape expressing the cysteine protease inhibitor oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) were investigated on larvae of the solitary bee Osmia bico...

  2. Senescence-specific Alteration of Hydrogen Peroxide Levels in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oilseed Rape Spring Variety Brassica napus L.cv.Mozart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefan Bieker; Lena Riester; Mark Stahl; Jürgen Franzaring; Ulrike Zentgraf

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the signaling function of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in senescence in more detail,we manipulated intracellular H2O2 levels in Arabidopsis thaliala (L.) Heynh by using the hydrogenperoxide-sensitive part of the Escherichia coli transcription regulator OxyR,which was directed to the cytoplasm as well as into the peroxisomes.H2O2 levels were lowered and senescence was delayed in both transgenic lines,but OxyR was found to be more effective in the cytoplasm.To transfer this knowledge to crop plants,we analyzed oilseed rape plants Brassica napus L.cv.Mozart for H2O2 and its scavenging enzymes catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) during leaf and plant development.H2O2 levels were found to increase during bolting and flowering time,but no increase could be observed in the very late stages of senescence.With increasing H2O2 levels,CAT and APX activities declined,so it is likely that similar mechanisms are used in oilseed rape and Arabidopsis to control H2O2 levels.Under elevated CO2 conditions,oilseed rape senescence was accelerated and coincided with an earlier increase in H2O2 levels,indicating that H2O2 may be one of the signals to inducing senescence in a broader range of Brassicaceae.

  3. Functional characterization of NAC55 transcription factor from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) as a novel transcriptional activator modulating reactive oxygen species accumulation and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Fangfang; Wang, Chen; Yan, Jingli; Guo, Xiaohua; Wu, Feifei; Yang, Bo; Deyholos, Michael K; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2016-09-01

    NAC transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific and play important roles in development, responses to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signaling. So far, only a few NAC genes have been reported to regulate cell death. In this study, we identified and characterized a NAC55 gene isolated from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). BnaNAC55 responds to multiple stresses, including cold, heat, abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. BnaNAC55 has transactivation activity and is located in the nucleus. BnaNAC55 is able to form homodimers in planta. Unlike ANAC055, full-length BnaNAC55, but not either the N-terminal NAC domain or C-terminal regulatory domain, induces ROS accumulation and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death when expressed both in oilseed rape protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, BnaNAC55 expression causes obvious nuclear DNA fragmentation. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis identified that the expression levels of multiple genes regulating ROS production and scavenging, defense response as well as senescence are significantly induced. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay, we further confirm that BnaNAC55 could activate the expression of a few ROS and defense-related gene expression. Taken together, our work has identified a novel NAC TF from oilseed rape that modulates ROS accumulation and cell death. PMID:27312204

  4. Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Rape KidsHealth > For Teens > Rape Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Happens During the Medical Exam? Dealing With Feelings Rape, sometimes also called sexual assault, can happen to ...

  5. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of complex seed and root traits in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, Aysha

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oilseed crop. Its oil is used for human consumption, as green fuel (biodiesel), and in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. The cake and meal, residues of oil pressing and extraction, are used as valuable components for feeding animals. Seed metabolism and root traits are two important components of seed quality and yield, respectively, in B. napus. Both are controlled by complex genetic mechanisms. The aim of this study was to develop and us...

  6. The Occurence of Lower Sensitivity Pollen Beetle (Meligethes spp. Populations to Chlorpyriphos in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Gotlin Čuljak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen beetle (Meligethes spp. is the most important oilseed rape pest. If no control measures are conducted, this pest could cause even more than 50% reduction of the yield which is the reason of high insecticides input every year. Due to frequent use of insecticides for its control in the last decade, the resistance of pollen beetle to pyrethroids was confirmed. In order to test sensitivity of adult forms to chlorpyriphos, 52 populations were collected from different oilseed rape fields in 2013 and 2014. For each sample were determined coordinates using GPS (Global positioning system. Based on the collected data the database in GIS (Geographic information system was created. In a laboratory experiment they were tested according to IRAC Susceptibility Test Method No: 025. Results show lower chlorpyriphos efficiency, with potential to be tolerant, on eight pollen beetle populations located in three eastern counties where the highest amount of arable crops is located. This is the first record of low sensitivity pollen beetles to chlorpyriphos in Europe. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Obična tablica"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  7. Uptake of Neonicotinoid Insecticides by Water-Foraging Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Through Guttation Fluid of Winter Oilseed Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetz, J E; Schulz, W; Seitz, W; Spiteller, M; Zühlke, S; Armbruster, W; Wallner, K

    2016-02-01

    The water-foraging activity of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) on guttation fluid of seed-coated crops, such as winter oilseed rape (WOR; Brassica napus L.), has not yet been evaluated. We analyzed the uptake of active substances (a.s.) in guttation fluid by evaluating residues of honey-sac contents. In autumn, insecticide residues of up to 130 µg a.s. per liter were released in WOR guttation fluid; this concentration is noticeably lower than levels reported in guttation fluid of seed-coated maize. Until winter dormancy, the concentrations declined to bees was provided by measuring residues in individual honey-sac contents. In total, 38 out of 204 samples (19%) showed residues of thiamethoxam at concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 0.95 µg per liter while the corresponding concentrations in guttation fluid of WOR varied between 3.6 to 12.9 µg thiamethoxam per liter. The amounts of thiamethoxam we found in the honey sacs of water-foraging honey bees were therefore below the thresholds in nectar and pollen that are considered to have negative effects on honey bees after chronic exposure. PMID:26516090

  8. Influence of uranium speciation on its accumulation and translocation in three plant species: Oilseed rape, sunflower and wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical speciation greatly influences the accumulation and distribution of metallic pollutants in plants. This study aimed at evaluating plant differential responses to various speciations of a same element. Uranium (U) was chosen as a model, to which wheat, oilseed rape and sunflower were exposed. Using ICP-MS elemental analysis, together with a panel of imaging techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE), we show that plant behavior in response to U follows three schemes. When exposed to UO22+ free ion, root adsorption and/or accumulation is high, but U transfer to the shoots is limited by precipitation on cell walls. Complexation with carbonate or citrate reduces U content in roots but drastically increases translocation to the shoots, concentrating U in leaves. Inversely, complexation with phosphate considerably reduces U accumulation in all plant tissues, by precipitation and adsorption of U-rich clusters on root epidermal cells. Finally, our results of U chemical extraction from plant tissues suggest the existence of U-binding proteins. Taken together, these data highlight the role of uranium speciation in the transfer of this metallic pollutant into plants and lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms governing its mobilization, accumulation and distribution in plants. These results will be helpful to improve phyto remediation technology of contaminated soils. (authors)

  9. Effects of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam as seed treatments on the early seedling characteristics and aphid-resistance of oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Liang; ZHAO Chun-lin; HUANG Fang; BAI Run-e; L Yao-bin; YAN Feng-ming; HAO Zhong-ping

    2015-01-01

    Seed treatments with the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were evaluated to determine whether the chemicals at effective concentrations for aphid control would inlfuence the germination and early growth of oilseed rape,Brassica napus. Treatment with imidacloprid or thiamethoxam did not affect the cumulative germination rate, but signiifcantly inhibited establishment potential by suppressing root system development in the cotyledon stage. However, these alterations in seedling development in the thiamethoxam-treated seeds appeared not to be detrimental as leaves developed; in contrast, for the seedlings with imidacloprid as seed treatment agent, a signiifcantly decreased shoot/root ratio was stil evident at the late two-leaf stage. After two leaves developed, chlorophyl content per leaf in the thiamethoxam treatment was signiifcantly higher than that of the control, while chlorophyl content per leaf in the imidacloprid treatment remained close to that in the control. Most other parameters, i.e., height, leaf area, weight of stem, leaf or root, and other growth indexes, between the treatments and the control showed no signiifcant difference. Additionaly, it was found that storage time of the treated seeds had a signiifcant effect on cumulative germination rate. Treatment 30 d before planting signiifcantly reduced germination relative to that of the control. Al of the plants treated with neonicotinoids were shown to have signiifcant anti-aphid characteristics that persisted until the end of the trial.

  10. Influence of Some Herbicides on the Growth and Development of Winter Oilseed Rape

    OpenAIRE

    DIMITROVA, Maya; DIMOVA, Dochka; ZHALNOV, Ivan; STOYCHEV, Dimitar; ZOROVSKI, Plamen; Georgieva, Tonya

    2014-01-01

    Within the period 2011-2014 in the experimental field of the Agricultural University, Plovdiv, were conducted field experiments using the herbicides Teridox (500 g/1 dimetochor), Butizan S (500 g/1 metazachlor), which were applied to the soil after planting the crops and before their germination, and also Modaon 4F (48 g/1 bifenox) and Butizan S, which was applied to the leaves during the vegetation period of the rape. The experiments were made using the block method over an area of 25 m2 in ...

  11. Mature green waste compost enhances growth and nitrogen uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) through the action of water-extractable factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, A A; McCallum, K R; Beckwith, C P

    2003-11-01

    A series of field and pot trials were carried out to determine the effects of growing wheat and oilseed rape in soils supplemented with green waste composts and provided with additional fertilisers. It was shown consistently that the response of wheat and rape to compost and fertiliser applied together was greater than the responses to the individual additives, but only when very stable compost was used (>10 months processing). Experiments with 15N-labelled fertiliser showed that wheat was able to utilise the applied N more efficiently when cultivated in the stable compost. The enhanced growth was also demonstrated in hydroponic culture of oilseed rape with water extracts of green waste compost in the presence of compound fertiliser. However the effect was rapidly lost at higher dilutions of compost extract (>3). It was concluded that water-extractable growth promoters are present in stable green waste compost, but these only have measurable activity at high concentrations. The identity of the growth promoting factors remains to be found, but the literature suggests that water-extractable humic substances or cytokinins may be involved. PMID:12895554

  12. Effect of nitrification inhibitor DMPP on nitrogen leaching, nitrifying organisms, and enzyme activities in a rice-oilseed rape cropping system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    DMPP (3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate) has been used to reduce nitrogen (N) loss from leaching or denitrification and to improve N supply in agricultural land. However, its impact on soil nitrifying organisms and enzyme activities involved in N cycling is largely unknown. Therefore, an on-farm experiment, for two years, has been conducted, to elucidate the effects of DMPP on mineral N (NH4+-N and NO3--N) leaching, nitrifying organisms, and denitrifying enzymes in a rice-oilseed rape cropping system. Three treatments including urea alone (UA), urea + 1% DMPP (DP), and no fertilizer (CK), have been carried out. The results showed that DP enhanced the mean NH4+-N concentrations by 19.1%-24.3%, but reduced the mean NO3--N concentrations by 44.9%-56.6% in the leachate,under a two-year rice-rape rotation, compared to the UA treatment. The population of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, the activity of nitrate reductase, and nitrite reductase in the DP treatment decreased about 24.5%-30.9%, 14.9%-43.5%, and 14.7%-31.6%, respectively, as compared to the UA treatment. However, nitrite oxidizing bacteria and hydroxylamine reductase remained almost unaffected by DMPP.It is proposed that DMPP has the potential to either reduce NO3--N leaching by inhibiting ammonia oxidization or N losses from denitrification, which is in favor of the N conversations in the rice-oilseed rape cropping system.

  13. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape-cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996-is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period. PMID:26784233

  14. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Anke Belter

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape—cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996—is a...

  15. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scientific information that would change or invalidate the conclusions of its previous risk assessments on oilseed rape GT73. The EFSA GMO Panel also considered the relevance of the concerns raised by Austria in the light of the most recent data published in the scientific literature. The authorised uses of oilseed rape GT73 exclude cultivation, but data on gene flow, persistence and invasiveness derived from cultivation were considered as a worst case, representing conditions where exposure and potential impact are expected to be the highest, to assess possible environmental impacts resulting from seed import spills. In the documentation provided by Austria and in the scientific literature, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify new scientific evidence that indicates that the import, processing and feed uses of oilseed rape GT73 in the EU pose a significant and imminent risk to the environment. The EFSA GMO Panel does not consider the occurrence of occasional feral oilseed rape GT73 plants, pollen dispersal and consequent cross-pollination as environmental harm in itself. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation supplied by Austria and a review of recent scientific literature, there is no specific scientific evidence in terms of risk to the environment that would support the notification of a safeguard clause measure under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC nor its prolongation, and that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of oilseed

  16. Factors affecting morphogenetic potential in oilseed rape roots of the Skrzeszowicki and Start cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Rogozińska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the origin of root segments, seedling age, growth substances and gelled or liquid media were tested in respect to the morphogenetic potential of rape root segments of Skrzeszowicki (high glucosinolate content and Start (low glucosinolate content cultivars. Callus and roots were formed on all root segments after an approximately 2 week growth period; buds were formed after ca. 4 weeks only on segments adjacent to the hypocotyl. Higher concentrations of auxin and cytokinins were required for bud induction. Cultivar differences in the morphogenetic responses of the root segments were found. They were manifested by the more abundant callus formation (BAP+NAA and more numerous lateral roots and buds (KIN+IBA on segments from the Skrzeszowicki cultivar than from the Start cultivar.

  17. The impact of sulfate restriction on seed yield and quality of winter oilseed rape depends on the ability to remobilize sulfate from vegetative tissues to reproductive organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eGirondé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our current knowledge about sulfur (S management by winter oilseed rape to satisfy the S demand of developing seeds is still scarce, particularly in relation to S restriction. Our goals were to determine the physiological processes related to S use efficiency that led to maintain the seed yield and quality when S limitation occurred at the bolting or early flowering stages. To address these questions, a pulse-chase 34SO42- labelling method was carried out in order to study the S fluxes from uptake and remobilization at the whole plant level. In response of S limitation at the bolting or early flowering stages, the leaves are the most important source organ for S remobilization during reproductive stages. By combining 34S-tracer with biochemical fractionation in order to separate sulfate from other S-compounds, it appeared that sulfate was the main form of S remobilized in leaves at reproductive stages and that tonoplastic SULTR4-type transporters were specifically involved in the sulfate remobilisation in case of low S availability. In response to S limitation at the bolting stage, the seed yield and quality were dramatically reduced compared to control plants. These data suggest that the increase of both S remobilization from source leaves and the root proliferation in order to maximize sulfate uptake capacities, were not sufficient to maintain the seed yield and quality. When S limitation occurred at the early flowering stage, oilseed rape can optimize the mobilization of sulfate reserves from vegetative organs (leaves and stem to satisfy the demand of seeds and maintain the seed yield and quality. Our study also revealed that the stem may act as a transient storage organ for remobilized S coming from source leaves before its utilization by seeds. The physiological traits (S remobilization, root proliferation, transient S storage in stem observed under S limitation could be used in breeding programs to select oilseed rape genotypes with high S

  18. Event-specific Method for the Quantification of Oilseed Rape MON88302 by Real-time PCR: Validation Report and Validated Method

    OpenAIRE

    Savini, Cristian; Bogni, Alessia; PETRILLO MAURO; Mazzara, Marco; KREYSA JOACHIM

    2013-01-01

    In line with its mandate the European Union Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF), in collaboration with the European Network of GMO Laboratories (ENGL), has validated an event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detecting and quantifying oilseed rape event MON88302 (unique identifier MON-883Ø2-9). The validation study was conducted according to the EU-RL GMFF validation procedure [http://gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/guidancedocs.htm] and the internationally acce...

  19. Oilseed rape seeds with ablated defence cells of the glucosinolate–myrosinase system. Production and characteristics of double haploid MINELESS plants of Brassica napus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Ishita; Borgen, Birgit Hafeld; Hansen, Magnor; Honne, Bjørn Ivar; Müller, Caroline; Rohloff, Jens; Rossiter, John Trevor; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2011-01-01

    Oilseed rape and other crop plants of the family Brassicaceae contain a unique defence system known as the glucosinolate–myrosinase system or the ‘mustard oil bomb’. The ‘mustard oil bomb’ which includes myrosinase and glucosinolates is triggered by abiotic and biotic stress, resulting in the formation of toxic products such as nitriles and isothiocyanates. Myrosinase is present in specialist cells known as ‘myrosin cells’ and can also be known as toxic mines. The myrosin cell idioblasts of B...

  20. Remobilization of leaf S compounds and senescence in response to restricted sulphate supply during the vegetative stage of oilseed rape are affected by mineral N availability

    OpenAIRE

    Dubousset, L.; Abdallah, M.; Desfeux, A. S.; Etienne, P.; MEURIOT, F.; Hawkesford, M. J.; Gombert, J.; Ségura, R.; Bataillé, M-P.; Rezé, S.; Bonnefoy, J.; Ameline, A. F.; OURRY, A.; Dily, F. Le; Avice, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of sulphur limitation on the remobilization of endogenous S compounds during the rosette stage of oilseed rape, and the interactions with N availability on these processes, were examined using a long-term 34SO4 2− labelling method combined with a study of leaf senescence progression (using SAG12/Cab as a molecular indicator) and gene expression of the transporters, BnSultr4;1 and BnSultr4;2, involved in vacuolar sulphate efflux. After 51 d on hydroponic culture at 0.3 mM 34SO4 2− (...

  1. Impact of shortened crop rotation of oilseed rape on soil and rhizosphere microbial diversity in relation to yield decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Sally; Bennett, Amanda J; Keane, Gary; Bending, Gary D; Chandler, David; Stobart, Ron; Mills, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR) grown in monoculture shows a decline in yield relative to virgin OSR of up to 25%, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. A long term field experiment of OSR grown in a range of rotations with wheat was used to determine whether shifts in fungal and bacterial populations of the rhizosphere and bulk soil were associated with the development of OSR yield decline. The communities of fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soil from the field experiment were profiled using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and sequencing of cloned internal transcribed spacer regions and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. OSR cropping frequency had no effect on rhizosphere bacterial communities. However, the rhizosphere fungal communities from continuously grown OSR were significantly different to those from other rotations. This was due primarily to an increase in abundance of two fungi which showed 100% and 95% DNA identity to the plant pathogens Olpidium brassicae and Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, respectively. Real-time PCR confirmed that there was significantly more of these fungi in the continuously grown OSR than the other rotations. These two fungi were isolated from the field and used to inoculate OSR and Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse to determine their effect on yield. At high doses, Olpidium brassicae reduced top growth and root biomass in seedlings and reduced branching and subsequent pod and seed production. Pyrenochaeta sp. formed lesions on the roots of seedlings, and at high doses delayed flowering and had a negative impact on seed quantity and quality. PMID:23573215

  2. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Lecomte, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops. PMID:27359342

  3. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Lecomte, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops. PMID:27359342

  4. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bailleul

    Full Text Available Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field. Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops.

  5. Detection of Tocopherol in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Using Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazim Hussain; Zahra Jabeen; LI Yuan-long; CHEN Ming-xun; LI Zhi-lan; GUO Wan-li; Imran Haider Shamsi; CHEN Xiao-yang; JIANG Li-xi

    2013-01-01

    The variation among Chinese genotypes of Brassica napus L. for seed tocopherols content and their analysis using gas chromatography has not been comprehensively reported till to date. In the present study, the tocopherol contents of four Chinese genotypes of Brassica napus L., namely, Gaoyou 605, Zhejiang 619, Zheshuang 758, and Zheshuang 72, were evaluated using three modified sample preparation protocols (P1, P2, and P3) for tocopherol extraction. These methods were distinguished as follows. Protocol one (P1) included the evaporation of solvent after extraction without silylation. Protocol two (P2) followed the direct supernatant collection after overnight extraction without drying and silylation. Protocol three (P3) included trimethylsilylation with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. Genotypic comparison of tocopherol and its isoforms revealed that Gaoyou 605 was dominant over the other genotypes with (140.5±10.5), (316.2± 9.2), and (559.1± 24.3)μg g-1 of seed mealα-,γ-, and total (T-) tocopherol, respectively, and a 0.44±0.04α-toγ-tocopherol ratio. The comparison of the sample preparation protocols, on the other hand, suggests that P3 is the most suitable method for the tocopherol extraction from Brassica oilseeds and for the analysis of tocopherols using gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Trimethylsilylation is the key step differentiating P3 from P1 and P2. Variations detected in tocopherol contents among the Chinese rapeseed (B. napus) genotypes signify the need to quantify a wide range of rapeseed germplasm for seed tocopherol dynamics in short and crop improvement in long.

  6. An endophytic bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Sasm3-enhanced phytoremediation of nitrate-cadmium compound polluted soil by intercropping Sedum alfredii with oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Guiqing; Xu, Xiaomeng; Pan, Fengshan; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Shengke; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe

    2015-11-01

    Intensive agricultural system with high input of fertilizer results in high agricultural output. However, excessive fertilization in intensive agricultural system has great potential to cause nitrate and heavy metal accumulation in soil, which is adverse to human health. The main objective of the present study was to observe the effects of intercropping and inoculation of endophytic bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Sasm3 on phytoremediation of combined contaminated soil in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). The results showed that with Sasm3 inoculation, the biomass of rape was increased by 10-20% for shoot, 64% for root, and 23-29% for seeds while the nitrate accumulation in rape was decreased by 14% in root and by 12% in shoot. The cadmium concentration in rape increased significantly with mono-inoculating treatment, whereas it decreased significantly after intercropping treatment. By denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR analysis, the diversity of bacterial community and the number of nirS and nirK gene copies increased significantly with inoculation or/and intercropping treatment. In conclusion, the endophytic bacterium Sasm3-inoculated intercropping system not only improved the efficiency of clearing cadmium from soil without obstructing crop production, but also improved the quality of crop. PMID:26146371

  7. Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Maul, Jude E; Emche, Sarah E; Liao, Xing; Guo, Xuelan; Liu, Yeying; McKenna, Laurie F; Buyer, Jeffrey S; Liu, Shengyi

    2011-07-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in the People's Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations. The pellet formulation significantly reduced disease (incidence and disease index) and increased plant dry mass, while the wrap formulation significantly reduced disease incidence and significantly increased plant dry mass at both field locations. Mean seed yield per 120 plants with both formulations of isolate Tu-100 was significantly greater than the appropriate controls, but at only one of the locations. Both formulations provided stable B. subtilis Tu-100 biomass (≥10(5) CFU·g(-1)) and seed germination (≥85%) over a 6 month period at room temperature. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analysis identified ituC and ituD, and bacAB and bacD in the genome of isolate Tu-100. These genes are involved in the biosynthesis of iturin and bacilysin. Iturin was detected in culture filtrates from isolate Tu-100, with thin layer chromatography. Detection of bacilysin was not attempted. Experiments reported here indicate the commercial viability of B. subtilis Tu-100 for suppression of S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape. PMID:21767217

  8. Nano-TiO2 Is Not Phytotoxic As Revealed by the Oilseed Rape Growth and Photosynthetic Apparatus Ultra-Structural Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available Recently nano-materials are widely used but they have shown contrasting effects on human and plant life. Keeping in view the contrasting results, the present study has evaluated plant growth response, antioxidant system activity and photosynthetic apparatus physiological and ultrastructural changes in Brassica napus L. plants grown under a wide range (0, 500, 2500, 4000 mg/l of nano-TiO2 in a pot experiment. Nano-TiO2 has significantly improved the morphological and physiological indices of oilseed rape plants under our experimental conditions. All the parameters i-e morphological (root length, plant height, fresh biomass, physiological (photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase activity and antioxidant system (Superoxide dismutase, SOD; Guaiacol peroxidase, POD; Catalase, CAT recorded have shown improvement in their performance by following nano-TiO2 dose-dependent manner. No significant chloroplast ultra-structural changes were observed. Transmission electron microscopic images have shown that intact & typical grana and stroma thylakoid membranes were in the chloroplast, which suggest that nano-TiO2 has not induced the stressful environment within chloroplast. Finally, it is suggested that, nano-TiO2 have growth promoting effect on oilseed rape plants.

  9. Detection of self-incompatible oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus L. based on molecular markers for identification of the class I S haplotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Havlícková

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The selection of desirable genotypes with recessive characteristics, such as self-incompatible plants, is often difficult or even impossible and represents a crucial barrier in accelerating the breeding process. Molecular approaches and selection based on molecular markers can allow breeders to overcome this limitation. The use of self-incompatibility is an alternative in hybrid breeding of oilseed rape. Unfortunately, stable self-incompatibility is recessive and phenotype-based selection is very difficult and time-consuming. The development of reliable molecular markers for detecting desirable plants with functional self-incompatible genes is of great importance for breeders and allows selection at early stages of plant growth. Because most of these reliable molecular markers are based on discrimination of class I S-locus genes that are present in self-compatible plants, there is a need to use an internal control in order to detect possible PCR inhibition that gives false results during genotyping. In this study, 269 double haploid F2 oilseed rape plants obtained by microspore embryogenesis were used to verify the applicability of an improved PCR assay based on the detection of the class I SLG gene along with an internal control. Comparative analysis of the PCR genotyping results vs. S phenotype analysis confirmed the applicability of this molecular approach in hybrid breeding programs. This approach allows accurate detection of self-incompatible plants via a different amplification profile.

  10. Antioxidant enzyme systems and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as contributing factors to cadmium accumulation and tolerance in two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus L.) under moderate cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Sun, Xuecheng; Tan, Qiling; Tang, Yafang; Nie, Zhaojun; Qu, Chanjuan; Chen, Zuoxin; Hu, Chengxiao

    2015-11-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with high tolerance to cadmium (Cd) may be used in the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated fields. However, the mechanisms responsible for Cd accumulation and tolerance in oilseed rape are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the physiological and molecular processes involved in Cd tolerance of two oilseed rape cultivars with different Cd accumulation abilities. The total Cd accumulation in cultivar L351 was higher than cultivar L338, particularly with increasing concentrations of Cd exposure. L338 was a more pronounced Cd-sensitive cultivar than L351, while higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX, GR, DHAR) as well as higher contents of GSH and AsA were all observed in L351 under Cd treatments, especially at high levels. No differences were found in SOD activities between the two cultivars under the same Cd treatments, suggesting that SOD was not the key factor in relation to the differences of Cd tolerance and accumulation between them. Gene expression levels of BnFe-SOD, BnCAT, BnAPX, BcGR and BoDHAR in roots of L351 were relatively higher than that in L338 under Cd exposure as well as BnCAT and BcGR in leaves. It is concluded that antioxidant enzymes and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle play important roles in oilseed rape Cd accumulation and tolerance. PMID:26207887

  11. Accumulation of wet-deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium by spring oilseed rape (Brássica napus L.) and spring wheat (Tríticum aestívum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of 134Cs and 85Sr within different parts of spring oilseed rape and spring wheat plants was investigated, with a particular focus on transfer to seeds after artificial wet deposition at different growth stages during a two-year field trial. In general, the accumulation of radionuclides in plant parts increased when deposition was closer to harvest. The seed of spring oilseed rape had lower concentrations of 85Sr than spring wheat grain. The plants accumulated more 134Cs than 85Sr. We conclude that radionuclides can be transferred into human food chain at all growing stages, especially at the later stages. The variation in transfer factors during the investigation, and in comparison to previous results, implies the estimation of the risk for possible transfer of radionuclides to seeds in the event of future fallout during a growing season is still subject to considerable uncertainty. -- Highlights: •Accumulation of 134Cs and 85Sr in plants increased the closer to harvest the nuclides were deposited. •134Cs and 85Sr concentrations in seeds were highest when deposited after flowering. •Activity concentrations of 134Cs in spring oilseed rape were higher than the activity concentrations of 85Sr. •Oilseed rape redistributes 134Cs and 85Sr to seed at a lower rate than wheat redistributes 134Cs and 85Sr to grain. -- Intercepted radionuclides can be transferred into the food chain for humans

  12. Ideotype population exploration: growth, photosynthesis, and yield components at different planting densities in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×10(4), 37.5×10(4), 48.0×10(4), 58.5×10(4), 69.0×10(4) plants ha(-1)) during 2010-2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011-2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×10(4) plants ha(-1) in ZS11 and 48.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼0.9×10(4) (n m(-2)) and ∼1×10(4) (n m(-2)), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼250 (n m(-2)) and ∼300 (n m(-2)), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ∼5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

  13. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification as a good tool to study changing Leptosphaeria populations in oilseed rape plants and air samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jędryczka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LAMP is an innovative, simple, rapid, specific and cost-effective nucleic acid amplification method. Due to the use of a special enzyme – GspSSD polymerase, the reaction takes a short time and can be performed at isothermal conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of LAMP technique is significantly higher, than standard PCR techniques, as two or three specific primer pairs are used. The technique is regarded as a useful tool for the detection and identification of plant pathogens. In this work, LAMP was used to study the composition of the population of fungi of the genus Leptosphaeria, causing a damaging disease of oilseed rape, called blackleg or stem canker. The detection concerned DNA present in fungal spores contained in air samples obtained using Hirst-type volumetric trap, in Pomerania (north Poland in 2010. The results achieved using the LAMP technique were similar to these obtained with previously used, highly specific method of Real-time PCR. Conducting LAMP reaction was much easier and less time-and cost-consuming, due to a simplified method of DNA isolation of pathogens from plant tissues. Then, the LAMP technique was used to assess the composition of the population of Leptosphaeria spp. in plants of oil- seed rape collected from the field in the Opole region (south-we- stern part of Poland in 2013. In contrast to studies conducted in 2002–2003, the analysis of leaf symptoms showed a higher pro- portion of L. maculans compared to L. biglobosa, what reflects changes in the composition of pathogen population of fungi causing blackleg on oilseed rape in this part of Poland.

  14. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scientific information that would change or invalidate the conclusions of its previous risk assessments on oilseed rape GT73. The EFSA GMO Panel also considered the relevance of the concerns raised by Austria in the light of the most recent data published in the scientific literature. The authorised uses of oilseed rape GT73 exclude cultivation, but data on gene flow, persistence and invasiveness derived from cultivation were considered as a worst case, representing conditions where exposure and potential impact are expected to be the highest, to assess possible environmental impacts resulting from seed import spills. In the documentation provided by Austria and in the scientific literature, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify new scientific evidence that indicates that the import and processing of oilseed rape GT73 for feed uses in the EU pose a significant and imminent risk to the environment. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation supplied by Austria and a review of recent scientific literature, there is no specific scientific evidence in terms of risk to the environment that would support the notification of a safeguard clause measure under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC nor its prolongation, and that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of oilseed rape GT73.

  15. ALA Altered ABA Content of Winter Oilseed Rape( Brassica napus L. )Seedling%ALA改变了油菜幼苗体内ABA的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树杰; 李玲; 张春雷; 李光明

    2011-01-01

    [目的]本文的目的是为了揭示ALA处理对冬油菜(Brassica napus L.)幼苗生长的影响及作用机理.[方法]采用营养液培养的方法研究ALA溶液浸种对中双9号油菜幼苗生长及体内ABA含量的影响.实验设置4个处理,分别用0、25、50和75mg/L ALA(CK、A1、A2和A3)溶液浸种6h.[结果]除了A3处理使油菜幼苗于重轻微降低之外,ALA浸种使油菜幼苗(根系和地上部)干重、净光合速率、燕腾速率和气孔导度较对照显著增加.与对照相比,ALA浸种使油菜幼苗体内和木质部伤流液中ABA含量出现不同程度的增加.[结论]提高体内ABA含量可能是ALA浸种处理促进冬油菜幼苗在冬前低温阶段生长的主要原因.%[ Objective ] The paper was to explore the impact of 5-aminolevunic acid (ALA) treatment on growth of winter oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L. ) seedlings and its mechanism. [ Method ] The effects of ALA on abscisic acid (ABA) contents in plant organs and xylem saps were investigated through hydroponic experiment. Four treatments including seed soaking with 0, 25, 50 and 75 mg/L ALA solutions ( CK, A1, A2 and A3) for 6 h were set in the test. [ Result] In addition to A3 treatment which made the dry weights of oilseed rape seedlings slightly decrease, after seed soaking with ALA, dry weights, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of plants significantly increased compared with control. ABA concentrations in plant shoots and xylem saps increased in different levels after seed soaking with ALA. [ Conclusion] The increasing endogenous ABA contents might be an explanation for promotion effect of ALA application on the growth of winter oilseed rape seedling.

  16. Genotype analysis and studies of pyrethroid resistance of the oilseed rape (Brassica napus) insect pest - pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus)

    OpenAIRE

    Kazachkova, Nadiya

    2007-01-01

    Oilseed Brassicas are vulnerable to attack from many insects and pathogens, calling for an extensive use of pesticides to secure crop yields; this can cause increased resistance in pests. During recent years, one of the main oilseed insect pests—the pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus), resistant to pyrethroid insecticides—has emerged in southern Sweden. This, because of its frequency and geographic range, provides an excellent source of material for analysis of genetic variation among pollen be...

  17. Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-NL-2010-87) for the placing on the market of genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape GT73 for food containing or consisting of, and food produced from or containing ingredients produced from, oilseed rape GT73 (with the exception of refined oil and food additives) under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Andrew N E; Chesson, Andrew; du Jardin, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Herman, Lieve; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Jones, Huw; Kiss, Jozsef; Kleter, Gijs; Lovik, Martinus; Messéan, Antoine; Naegeli, H; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion is a risk assessment for the placing on the market of the genetically modified (GM) herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape (OSR) GT73 for food containing or consisting of, and food produced from or containing ingredients produced from, OSR-GT73. OSR-GT73 contains a single insert consisting of the goxv247 and CP4 epsps expression cassettes. Both proteins confer tolerance against glyphosate-based-herbicides. Bioinformatic analyses of inserted DNA and flanking regions did not ra...

  18. Functional Analysis of COI1 Genes in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)%甘蓝型油菜COI1的调控功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文静; 张洪博; 杨小川; 丁永强; 尹国英; 马浩然; 张洁; 石小于; 张鼎宇; 李加纳

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) is a critical component of jasmonate (JA) receptor complex. The objective of this study is to investigate the spatial expression pattern and regulatory roles of COI1 gene in oilseed rape (Brassica napus), a staple oil crop in the world. [Method] The COI1 genes in oilseed rape (B. napus) and its parental species B. rapa and B. oleracea were analyzed based on the genomic data. The spatial transcription pattern of COI1 in oilseed rape was analyzed by RT-PCR with specific primers according to the conserved region of COI1 gene homologs. Then, a cDNA fragment of the conserved region was cloned into vector pTRV2 of the tobacco rattle virus-based VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) system. And, VIGS techniques were applied to silence COI1 genes in oilseed rape. The rape plants shown to have COI1 genes silenced were used to investigate male fertility and aphid resistance.[Result]Analysis of the genomic data of B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus revealed that the genomes of B. rapa and B. oleracea contained 7 highly homologous COI1 genes, which could be classified into 4 subgroups, i.e., COI1a, COI1b.1, COI1b.2, and COI1c, while 8 COI1 genes were presented in the genome of B. napus. Transcriptional assay revealed that the expression of COI1 in oilseed rape is tissue specific. A 505bp fragment of the conserved region of COI1 was introduced into the VIGS vector pTRV2 to develop COI1-silenced plants via VIGS techniques. Twenty-five plants with the transcripts of COI1 down-regulated by over 70% were identified by transcriptional analyses, from which the ten plants with the lowest expression level of COI1 were selected to investigate male fertility and aphid resistance. The results showed that the fertility of COI1-silenced plants was extremely impaired, with no seeds in their siliques. Furthermore, the filaments of COI1-silenced plants were shorter than those of control plants, and over 80%pollens of the COI1-silenced plants were

  19. Frequency-dependent fitness of hybrids between oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤) and weedy ¤B. rapa¤ (Brassicaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, T.P.; Damgaard, C.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2003-01-01

    Fitness of interspecific hybrids is sometimes high relative to their parents, despite the conventional belief that they are mostly unfit. F-1 hybrids between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. rapa can be significantly more fit than their weedy parents under some conditions; however, under...... other conditions they are less fit. To understand the reasons, we measured the seed production of B. napus, B. rapa, and different generations of hybrid plants at three different densities and in mixtures of different frequencies (including pure stands). Brassica napus, B. rapa, and backcross plants (F......-1 female x B. rapa) produced many more seeds per plant in pure plots than in mixtures and more seeds in plots when each was present at high frequency. The opposite was true for F-1 plants that produced many more seeds than B. rapa in mixtures, but fewer in pure stands. Both vegetative and...

  20. Potential effects of oilseed rape expressing oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1 and of purified insecticidal proteins on larvae of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Konrad

    Full Text Available Despite their importance as pollinators in crops and wild plants, solitary bees have not previously been included in non-target testing of insect-resistant transgenic crop plants. Larvae of many solitary bees feed almost exclusively on pollen and thus could be highly exposed to transgene products expressed in the pollen. The potential effects of pollen from oilseed rape expressing the cysteine protease inhibitor oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1 were investigated on larvae of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis (= O. rufa. Furthermore, recombinant OC-1 (rOC-1, the Bt toxin Cry1Ab and the snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA were evaluated for effects on the life history parameters of this important pollinator. Pollen provisions from transgenic OC-1 oilseed rape did not affect overall development. Similarly, high doses of rOC-1 and Cry1Ab as well as a low dose of GNA failed to cause any significant effects. However, a high dose of GNA (0.1% in the larval diet resulted in significantly increased development time and reduced efficiency in conversion of pollen food into larval body weight. Our results suggest that OC-1 and Cry1Ab expressing transgenic crops would pose a negligible risk for O. bicornis larvae, whereas GNA expressing plants could cause detrimental effects, but only if bees were exposed to high levels of the protein. The described bioassay with bee brood is not only suitable for early tier non-target tests of transgenic plants, but also has broader applicability to other crop protection products.

  1. Potential effects of oilseed rape expressing oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) and of purified insecticidal proteins on larvae of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Roger; Ferry, Natalie; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Babendreier, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Despite their importance as pollinators in crops and wild plants, solitary bees have not previously been included in non-target testing of insect-resistant transgenic crop plants. Larvae of many solitary bees feed almost exclusively on pollen and thus could be highly exposed to transgene products expressed in the pollen. The potential effects of pollen from oilseed rape expressing the cysteine protease inhibitor oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) were investigated on larvae of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis (= O. rufa). Furthermore, recombinant OC-1 (rOC-1), the Bt toxin Cry1Ab and the snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) were evaluated for effects on the life history parameters of this important pollinator. Pollen provisions from transgenic OC-1 oilseed rape did not affect overall development. Similarly, high doses of rOC-1 and Cry1Ab as well as a low dose of GNA failed to cause any significant effects. However, a high dose of GNA (0.1%) in the larval diet resulted in significantly increased development time and reduced efficiency in conversion of pollen food into larval body weight. Our results suggest that OC-1 and Cry1Ab expressing transgenic crops would pose a negligible risk for O. bicornis larvae, whereas GNA expressing plants could cause detrimental effects, but only if bees were exposed to high levels of the protein. The described bioassay with bee brood is not only suitable for early tier non-target tests of transgenic plants, but also has broader applicability to other crop protection products. PMID:18628826

  2. Impact of transgenic oilseed rape expressing oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) and of insecticidal proteins on longevity and digestive enzymes of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Roger; Connor, Melanie; Ferry, Natalie; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Babendreier, Dirk

    2009-04-01

    The risk that insect-resistant transgenic plants may pose for solitary bees was assessed by determining longevity of adult Osmia bicornis (O. rufa) chronically exposed to transgenic oilseed rape expressing oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) or to the purified insecticidal proteins recombinant rOC-1, Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), or Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ab dissolved in sugar solution (at 0.01 and 0.1%, w:v, Cry1Ab only at 0.01%). Compared to control bees, longevity was significantly reduced by SBTI and GNA at both concentrations and by rOC-1 at 0.1%, but not by Cry1Ab or rOC-1 at 0.01%. Longevity on the OC-1 oilseed rape was not significantly different from the control plants. The effects of SBTI and rOC-1 on longevity were investigated through characterization of the digestive proteinases of O. bicornis and analysis of the response in proteinase profiles to ingestion of these proteinase inhibitors. A relatively complex profile of at least four types of soluble proteolytic enzymes was identified. Serine proteinases were found to be predominant, with metallo and especially cysteine proteinases making a smaller albeit significant contribution. The compensatory response to in vivo enzyme inhibition was similar for SBTI and rOC-1 although less pronounced for rOC-1. It consisted of a non-specific overproduction of native proteinases, both sensitive and insensitive, and the induction of a novel aspartic proteinase. PMID:19135058

  3. Transforming petals into sepaloid organs in Arabidopsis and oilseed rape: implementation of the hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing technology in an organ-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byzova, Marina; Verduyn, Christoph; De Brouwer, Dirk; De Block, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) genotypes with no or small petals are thought to have advantages in photosynthetic activity. The flowers of field-grown oilseed rape form a bright-yellow canopy that reflects and absorbs nearly 60% of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), causing a severe yield penalty. Reducing the size of the petals and/or removing the reflecting colour will improve the transmission of PAR to the leaves and is expected to increase the crop productivity. In this study the 'hairpin' RNA-mediated (hpRNA) gene silencing technology was implemented in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and B. napus to silence B-type MADS-box floral organ identity genes in a second-whorl-specific manner. In Arabidopsis, silencing of B-type MADS-box genes was obtained by expressing B. napus APETALA3( BAP3) or PISTILLATA ( BPI) homologous self-complementary hpRNA constructs under control of the Arabidopsis A-type MADS-box gene APETALA1 ( AP1) promoter. In B. napus, silencing of the BPI gene family was achieved by expressing a similar hpRNA construct as used in Arabidopsis under the control of a chimeric promoter consisting of a modified petal-specific Arabidopsis AP3 promoter fragment fused to the AP1 promoter. In this way, transgenic plants were generated producing male fertile flowers in which the petals were converted into sepals ( Arabidopsis) or into sepaloid petals ( B. napus). These novel flower phenotypes were stable and heritable in both species. PMID:14534787

  4. Contribution of Nitrogen Uptake and Retranslocation during Reproductive Growth to the Nitrogen Efficiency of Winter Oilseed-Rape Cultivars (Brassica napus L. Differing in Leaf Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Koeslin-Findeklee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotypic variation in N efficiency defined as high grain yield under limited nitrogen (N supply of winter oilseed-rape line-cultivars has been predominantly attributed to N uptake efficiency (NUPT through maintained N uptake during reproductive growth related to functional stay-green. For investigating the role of stay-green, N retranslocation and N uptake during the reproductive phase for grain yield formation, two line cultivars differing in N starvation-induced leaf senescence were grown in a field experiment without mineral N (N0 and with 160 kg N·ha−1 (N160. Through frequent harvests from full flowering until maturity N uptake, N utilization and apparent N remobilization from vegetative plant parts to the pods could be calculated. NUPT proved being more important than N utilization efficiency (NUE for grain yield formation under N-limiting (N0 conditions. For cultivar differences in N efficiency, particularly N uptake during flowering (NUPT and biomass allocation efficiency (HI to the grains, were decisive. Both crop traits were related to delayed senescence of the older leaves. Remobilization of N particularly from stems and leaves was more important for pod N accumulation than N uptake after full flowering. Pod walls (high N concentrations and stems (high biomass mainly contributed to the crop-residue N at maturity. Decreasing the crop-inherent high N budget surplus of winter oilseed-rape requires increasing the low N remobilization efficiency particularly of pod-wall N to the grains. Addressing this conclusion, multi-year and -location field experiments with an extended range of cultivars including hybrids are desirable.

  5. An Individual-Based Model of the Evolution of Pesticide Resistance in Heterogeneous Environments: Control of Meligethes aeneus Population in Oilseed Rape Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratonovitch, Pierre; Elias, Jan; Denholm, Ian; Slater, Russell; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    Preventing a pest population from damaging an agricultural crop and, at the same time, preventing the development of pesticide resistance is a major challenge in crop protection. Understanding how farming practices and environmental factors interact with pest characteristics to influence the spread of resistance is a difficult and complex task. It is extremely challenging to investigate such interactions experimentally at realistic spatial and temporal scales. Mathematical modelling and computer simulation have, therefore, been used to analyse resistance evolution and to evaluate potential resistance management tactics. Of the many modelling approaches available, individual-based modelling of a pest population offers most flexibility to include and analyse numerous factors and their interactions. Here, a pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) population was modelled as an aggregate of individual insects inhabiting a spatially heterogeneous landscape. The development of the pest and host crop (oilseed rape) was driven by climatic variables. The agricultural land of the landscape was managed by farmers applying a specific rotation and crop protection strategy. The evolution of a single resistance allele to the pyrethroid lambda cyhalothrin was analysed for different combinations of crop management practices and for a recessive, intermediate and dominant resistance allele. While the spread of a recessive resistance allele was severely constrained, intermediate or dominant resistance alleles showed a similar response to the management regime imposed. Calendar treatments applied irrespective of pest density accelerated the development of resistance compared to ones applied in response to prescribed pest density thresholds. A greater proportion of spring-sown oilseed rape was also found to increase the speed of resistance as it increased the period of insecticide exposure. Our study demonstrates the flexibility and power of an individual-based model to simulate how farming

  6. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    2013-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scientific information ...

  7. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scientific inf...

  8. The effect of phosphours and water deficit on phosphatase activity and proline accumulation in seedling cotyledons and roots of oilseed rape as compared to that of excised cotyledons and roots

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Flasiński; Janina Rogozińska; Lucyna Drozdowska

    2014-01-01

    Oilseed rape seedlings and excised cotyledons and roots were exposed to phosphorus and osmotic stress (-1 MPa: NaCl or PEG). The stress factors limited the growth of the seedlings and inhibited the growth of the excised roots and cotyledons. The phosphorus content in the cotyledons and roots depended on its level in the media and on the stress factors used. Phosphorus deficiency differentiated total phosphatase activity in seedling cotyledons and increased the activity in the excised cotyledo...

  9. 菜油两用型油菜09-M005高效生产应用及产品质量分析%High efficient production application and quality analysis of oilseed-vegetable-dual-purpose rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩峰; 何三鹏; 李珍珍

    2015-01-01

    Comparison test between oilseed-vegetable-dual-purpose rape(abbr.OVDP rape)and convention-al rape found that the OVDP rape was fit for human consumption because it had thicker stem diameter,shorter in-ternode and leaf stems and dark green leaves.Moreover,the soluble sugar of OVDP rape was 26.2% higher than conventional rape,while the cellulose and nitrate levels were reduced by 34.7%,15.5%.Compared with the conventional oilseed rape,the glucosinolates and erucic acid content in OVDP rapeseed were 16.4% and 31%lower respectively.%通过菜油两用型油菜09-M005与常规油菜‘上油一号’的比较试验发现,菜油两用型油菜09-M005茎粗、节间短、叶片深绿、叶梗短、嫩茎叶多,适宜食用;菜油两用型油菜09-M005菜薹可溶性糖含量比常规油菜‘上油一号’高26.2%,纤维素和硝酸盐含量分别比常规油菜‘上油一号’低34.6%和15.5%;菜油两用型油菜09-M005种子的硫代葡萄糖苷及芥酸含量分别较常规油菜‘上油一号’低65.5%、15.5%。

  10. Processing-bioprocessing of oilseed rape in bioenergy production and value added utilization of remaining seed components

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger, Christian; Bellostas, Natalia; Jensen, Søren K; Sørensen, Jens C.; Sørensen, Hilmer; Sørensen, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Cruciferous oilseed crops accumulate relatively high concentrations of oil, proteins and dietary fibres (DF) in their seeds, in addition to bioactive components as glucosinolates and myrosinase isoenzymes (thioglucohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.147). When mixed in the presence of moisture, myrosinase isoenzymes and associated components transform glucosinolates into various types of products, which reduces the value of the extracted oil and the remaining seed components, as well as producing unwanted e...

  11. 酸化土壤调理剂在油菜上的应用效果%Application effects of acid soil conditioner on winter oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚涛; 鲁剑巍; 任涛; 李小坤; 丛日环

    2014-01-01

    采用土壤盆栽试验,研究酸化土壤施用调理剂对油菜生长发育、产量构成及土壤 pH 值的影响。结果表明,施用调理剂能明显改善油菜生长发育,增加油菜单株角果数、成角率和每角粒数,进而提高油菜籽粒产量。与对照相比,施用调理剂后油菜苗期、蕾薹期、初花期、角果期株高与叶片 SPAD 值分别增加19.6%、12.5%、12.2%、11.6%和0.5%、6.3%、9.3%、10.2%;油菜一级分枝数、单株角果数、成角率、每角粒数和籽粒产量分别提高41.7%、42.7%、10.5%、20.9%和25.4%。酸性土壤施用调理剂能明显提高土壤 pH 值,与对照相比,苗期、花期、角果期和成熟期土壤 pH 值分别提高了0.13、0.03、0.11和0.38。酸化土壤施用调理剂能明显促进油菜生长发育,提高籽粒产量和土壤 pH 值。%A pot experiment was conducted to study the application effects of acid soil conditioner on the growth,seed yield of winter oilseed rape and soil pH.The results showed that acid soil condi-tioner could enhance the growth and improve seed yield of winter oilseed rape by increasing pod numbers per plant,ratio of effective seed setting and seed numbers per pod.Compared with the control,the av-erage height of plant treated with acid soil conditioner at seedling stage,stem-elongation stage,early-flowering stage and pod stage increased 1 9.6%,12.5%,12.2% and 1 1.6%,respectively.The SPAD values of leaf were increased with the average of 0.5%,6.3%,9.3% and 10.2% at those four stages. At mature stage,the primary branches numbers,pod number per plant,ratio of effective seed setting, seed number per pod were increased with the average of 41.7%,42.7%,10.5% and 20.9%,respec-tively.The average increase rate of yield was 25.4%.The soil conditioner could enhance soil pH.Com-pared with the control,the soil pH values were increased on average with 0.13,0.03,0.1 1 and 0.38 u-nit at seedling stage,stem-elongation stage

  12. 酸化土壤调理剂在油菜上的应用效果%Application effects of acid soil conditioner on winter oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚涛; 鲁剑巍; 任涛; 李小坤; 丛日环

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the application effects of acid soil conditioner on the growth,seed yield of winter oilseed rape and soil pH.The results showed that acid soil condi-tioner could enhance the growth and improve seed yield of winter oilseed rape by increasing pod numbers per plant,ratio of effective seed setting and seed numbers per pod.Compared with the control,the av-erage height of plant treated with acid soil conditioner at seedling stage,stem-elongation stage,early-flowering stage and pod stage increased 1 9.6%,12.5%,12.2% and 1 1.6%,respectively.The SPAD values of leaf were increased with the average of 0.5%,6.3%,9.3% and 10.2% at those four stages. At mature stage,the primary branches numbers,pod number per plant,ratio of effective seed setting, seed number per pod were increased with the average of 41.7%,42.7%,10.5% and 20.9%,respec-tively.The average increase rate of yield was 25.4%.The soil conditioner could enhance soil pH.Com-pared with the control,the soil pH values were increased on average with 0.13,0.03,0.1 1 and 0.38 u-nit at seedling stage,stem-elongation stage,early-flowering stage and pod stage,respectively.It is indi-cated that the acid soil conditioner can be applied to improve the growth of oilseed rape and soil pH un-der acid soils.%采用土壤盆栽试验,研究酸化土壤施用调理剂对油菜生长发育、产量构成及土壤 pH 值的影响。结果表明,施用调理剂能明显改善油菜生长发育,增加油菜单株角果数、成角率和每角粒数,进而提高油菜籽粒产量。与对照相比,施用调理剂后油菜苗期、蕾薹期、初花期、角果期株高与叶片 SPAD 值分别增加19.6%、12.5%、12.2%、11.6%和0.5%、6.3%、9.3%、10.2%;油菜一级分枝数、单株角果数、成角率、每角粒数和籽粒产量分别提高41.7%、42.7%、10.5%、20.9%和25.4%。酸性土壤施用调理剂能明显提高土壤 pH 值,与对照相比,苗期、花期

  13. The effects of the presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations on the rhizosphere nematode and microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Li, Junsheng; Stewart, C Neal; Luo, Zunlan; Xiao, Nengwen

    2015-10-15

    The adventitious presence of transgenic crops in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern. In this context, their effects on non-target, below-ground organisms are not well understood. Here, we introduced, at various frequencies, Bt-transgenic oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus) into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations in the presence and absence of the target herbivore (Plutella xylostella). The impacts on soil nematode and microbial communities were assessed in this system. There were no significant changes on the number of nematode genera and abundance in proportions of OSR with mustard. Nonetheless, the Shannon-Wiener and Pielou evenness index was lowest in plant stands containing 50% of Bt-transgenic OSR. Among treatments, there was no significant variation for culturable soil microbes. There was a positive association between foliar herbivory and the abundance of plant parasitic (PP) and cp-3 nematodes, whereas there was no association between herbivory and soil microbial populations. There was no direct effects of the presence of Bt-transgenic OSR in wild mustard populations on the rhizosphere nematode and microbial communities, whereas its indirect effects via aboveground herbivory might be important to consider for biosafety assessments. PMID:26047860

  14. Comparative field evaluation of some newer versus conventional insecticides for the control of aphids (homoptera: aphididae) on oilseed rape (brassica napus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of new insecticides like, Imidacloprid (Confidor 200 EC), Thiomethoxam (Actara 25 WG) and Acetamiprid (Megamos 20 SL) belonging to Nitroguanidine group along with conventional insecticides such as, Chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 40 EC) and Dimethoate (Systoate 40 EC) belonging to Organophosphate group against aphids' population on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). A perusal of data, based on the overall performance of the test compounds, reflected that newer insecticides were superior in reducing the population of aphids and yield enhancement as compared to conventional insecticides. The best results were achieved with the application of Imidacloprid by recording the lowest number of aphids (2.2 per plant) than obtained with Thiomethoxam and Acetamiprid (3.22 and 4.66, respectively). Other insecticides, viz., Chlorpyrifos and Dimethoate were also found to be effective in maintaining the aphids' population at lower levels per plant (16.2 and 17.5, respectively) over untreated control (227.7). Imidacloprid was responsible for increasing the grain yield to 3722.85 Kg per Hectare, approached by Thiomethoxam, Acetamiprid, Chlorpyrifos and Dimethoate as against unsprayed control (2980.0, 2542.85, 1542.85, 540.0 and 604.85 Kg per Hectare, respectively). Study indicated that selective use of newer insecticides would seem a reasonable strategy in aphids controlling and integration of such chemicals in insects' management package could help to reduce pest densities. (author)

  15. Changes in tocopherol and plastochromanol-8 contents in seeds and oil of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) during storage as influenced by temperature and air oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, F D; Möllers, C

    2000-05-01

    The changes in tocopherol and plastochromanol-8 contents in seeds and oil of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were studied during a storage period of 24 weeks at different incubation temperatures and exposure to air oxygen (open and closed flasks). In the extracted oil, total tocopherol content remained unaltered at 5 and 20 degrees C throughout the 24 weeks of storage. At 40 degrees C, a beginning degradation was observed already after 4 weeks in both open and closed flasks; the alpha-tocopherol content was affected most, followed by gamma-tocopherol and plastochromanol-8. After 16 weeks at 40 degrees C, the total tocopherol content in the oil was reduced by more than 90%. In intact seeds, no tocopherol degradation was observed; only the seeds incubated at 40 degrees C and in open flasks showed slightly lower tocopherol contents. However, the analysis of the tocopherol composition in the stored seeds showed a decrease in the alpha-tocopherol content and an increase in the gamma-tocopherol content, which resulted in a decreasing alpha-/gamma-tocopherol ratio. This trend was most apparent at 40 degrees C and after 24 weeks of storage. A reduction of plastochromanol-8 occurred only at 40 degrees C and was more pronounced in open flasks. At 40 degrees C and in closed flasks a gradual increase in the content of alpha-tocotrienol was observed, a compound normally not accumulated in rapeseed. PMID:10820066

  16. Alleviation of Lead Toxicity by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Is Related to Elevated Growth, Photosynthesis, and Suppressed Ultrastructural Damages in Oilseed Rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L−1 in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM. Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants.

  17. Alleviation of Lead Toxicity by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Is Related to Elevated Growth, Photosynthesis, and Suppressed Ultrastructural Damages in Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Qin, Yebo; Gill, Rafaqat A.; Ali, Shafaqat

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L−1) in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM). Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants. PMID:24683549

  18. A Comparative Study of Proteolytic Mechanisms during Leaf Senescence of Four Genotypes of Winter Oilseed Rape Highlighted Relevant Physiological and Molecular Traits for NRE Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Girondé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter oilseed rape is characterized by a low N use efficiency related to a weak leaf N remobilization efficiency (NRE at vegetative stages. By investigating the natural genotypic variability of leaf NRE, our goal was to characterize the relevant physiological traits and the main protease classes associated with an efficient proteolysis and high leaf NRE in response to ample or restricted nitrate supply. The degradation rate of soluble proteins and D1 protein (a thylakoid-bound protein were correlated to N remobilization, except for the genotype Samouraï which showed a low NRE despite high levels of proteolysis. Under restricted nitrate conditions, high levels of soluble protein degradation were associated with serine, cysteine and aspartic proteases at acidic pH. Low leaf NRE was related to a weak proteolysis of both soluble and thylakoid-bound proteins. The results obtained on the genotype Samouraï suggest that the timing between the onset of proteolysis and abscission could be a determinant. The specific involvement of acidic proteases suggests that autophagy and/or senescence-associated vacuoles are implicated in N remobilization under low N conditions. The data revealed that the rate of D1 degradation could be a relevant indicator of leaf NRE and might be used as a tool for plant breeding.

  19. The Relationship of Color Formation with Related Enzymes and Protein Contents in the Seedcoat of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ying; LI Jia-na

    2004-01-01

    Three pairs of near-isogenic lines with different genetic backgrounds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape (Brassica napus L.) were used as experiment materials to study the relationship of color formation in the seedcoat with enzyme activity and protein content in it. The results showed that with similar genetic backgrounds, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase(PPO) activities in the black-seeded lines were much higher than in their yellow-seeded counterparts and maximum PAL activity in the seedcoat occurred comparatively late while no significant difference was present in glutamine synthetase (GS) between the two types of rape. The plants were treated with red light,blue light, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (a PAL inhibitor), polyvinylpyridoxal (a PPO inhibitor),urea (a protein synthesis promoter) or chloramphenicol (CM, a plastid protein synthesis inhibitor) during seed development. It is speculated that PAL may be primarily responsible for coloration in the yellow seed; PPO may be the main factor contributing to the darkness of the testa of the black genotypes; and nitrogen assimilation is, probably, not directly related to the difference in protein content observed between yellow- and black-seeded genotypes, which may be induced mainly by PAL.

  20. Metabolic network reconstruction and flux variability analysis of storage synthesis in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, J.; Schwender, J.

    2011-08-01

    Computational simulation of large-scale biochemical networks can be used to analyze and predict the metabolic behavior of an organism, such as a developing seed. Based on the biochemical literature, pathways databases and decision rules defining reaction directionality we reconstructed bna572, a stoichiometric metabolic network model representing Brassica napus seed storage metabolism. In the highly compartmentalized network about 25% of the 572 reactions are transport reactions interconnecting nine subcellular compartments and the environment. According to known physiological capabilities of developing B. napus embryos, four nutritional conditions were defined to simulate heterotrophy or photoheterotrophy, each in combination with the availability of inorganic nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate) or amino acids as nitrogen sources. Based on mathematical linear optimization the optimal solution space was comprehensively explored by flux variability analysis, thereby identifying for each reaction the range of flux values allowable under optimality. The range and variability of flux values was then categorized into flux variability types. Across the four nutritional conditions, approximately 13% of the reactions have variable flux values and 10-11% are substitutable (can be inactive), both indicating metabolic redundancy given, for example, by isoenzymes, subcellular compartmentalization or the presence of alternative pathways. About one-third of the reactions are never used and are associated with pathways that are suboptimal for storage synthesis. Fifty-seven reactions change flux variability type among the different nutritional conditions, indicating their function in metabolic adjustments. This predictive modeling framework allows analysis and quantitative exploration of storage metabolism of a developing B. napus oilseed.

  1. Possible impact of the Renewable Energy Directive on N fertilization intensity and yield of winter oilseed rape in different cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (RED), established sustainability criteria for biofuels including legal thresholds for specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, expressed as g CO2eq per MJ of biofuel. Because biofuels are a major market for winter oilseed rape (WOSR), investigating the possible impact of the RED on WOSR cropping practices is prudent. This study analyses GHG emissions for WOSR cropping practices (namely N fertilization intensity, tillage method and crop rotation) basing on a 6-year field trial in a high yielding area of northern Germany. Using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology the field emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) are calculated from the nitrogen (N) inputs to the cropping system. Results showed that the predominant source of GHG emissions is the N related emissions from production of fertilizer and N2O field emissions. Specific GHG emissions are lowest without N fertilizer but rise continuously with increasing N rates. Yield per ha also responded to N fertilization resulting in lowered acreage productivity when reducing GHG emissions by reducing N fertilization level. Most calculated scenarios and cropping systems result in a drastic decrease of N fertilization to achieve thresholds, causing substantial yield losses. To a certain extent, the required drastic reduction of N fertilization in some scenarios is driven by using the IPCC methodology for calculating N2O emissions. Therefore characteristics of this methodology are also discussed within this study. To mitigate the impact of the RED on WOSR, peas (legumes) may be a possible preceding crop to WOSR. -- Highlights: •Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) were calculated for varying cropping systems. •Specific GHG emissions rise continuously with increasing N fertilization. •The impact of the Renewable Energy Directive was evaluated in a scenario analysis. •Most calculation scenarios require a substantial reduction of N fertilization. •Low N fertilization

  2. Oilseed rape grain yield productivity increases with hybrid varietal types: a first balance sheet with post registration tests in France and in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinochet Xavier

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1994 several oilseed rape hybrid types were proposed to farmers. Following registration experiments, Cetiom and different equivalent institutions in European Union have tested them in different post registration national networks. Grain yield productivity increases were demonstrated and a first synthesis could be done to check avantages and difficulties which had occurred. For winter types, Hybrid Composits were widely used, mainly in France and in the United Kingdom. Grain yield increases were important in the South and West part of France where their market shares increased up to 50-80%. Nevertheless, many fecondation problems occurred in several places all over Europe. Reasons of such problems were difficult to identify. Several factors, as cold temperatures, nutritionnal competitions, pollen avaibility may be involved to explain low seed sets. Restored Hybrids made with the NPZ hybridation system were successfully tested widely, and has reached significative market shares during 1999-2000 season. Less experiments were carried out with others hybrid types (Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids, Mixed Hybrids. Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids reached the highest grain yield levels but users are waiting for lower glucosinolates seed content hybrids which would come in the next future. Performances comparisons among countries have to be done carefully. Productivity increases with hybrid types could have been over estimated depending of pollinic environments or plot size and possible neighbouring effects. For France, results from field trials networks are coherent with results coming from postal surveys. For spring varieties, Polima restored hybrids and varietal associations have demonstrated a significative advantage compared to classical lines.

  3. Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-BE-2010-81) for the placing on the market of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for food containing or consisting of, and food produced from or containing ingredients produced from, oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 (with the exception of processed oil) under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Bayer

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    2012-01-01

    This scientific opinion is a risk assessment for the placing on the market of the genetically modified (GM) herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape (OSR) Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3 for food containing or consisting of, and food produced from or containing ingredients produced from, these GM plants. OSR Ms8 (male sterile) and Rf3 (fertility restorer) are the parents of OSR Ms8xRf3, which is fertile, contains the bar, barstar and barnase...

  4. Reduction of selection pressure of herbicides - options and limits for blackgrass management by using clethodim in oilseed rape in the presence of the Leu1781 haplotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner, Jean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In field experiments the control of blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, Huds. in oilseed rape using clethodim (Select EC 240 and cycloxydim (Focus Ultra with and without subsequent treatments with propyzamide (Kerb FLO was tested at 6 locations in North and South Germany with assumed resistance problems. The field experiments were accompanied using molecular analysis leaf samples from the plots to seize the occurrence of black-grass with the Leu 1781 haplotype and to determine the frequency of the genotypes. The goal of the trials was to correlate the successes of blackgrass control with the occurrence of hetero- and homozygous resistant genotypes. It was shown in greenhouse trials that clethodim selects the haplotype Leu1781 more weakly (and it shows a higher partial efficacy than cycloxydim and that heterozygous plants have a lower resistance factor than homozygous plants. The question raised whether the frequency of heterozygous plants has influence on increased efficacy of clethodim under field conditions. At 5 sites target-site resistance was detected. At one location the high proportion of heterozygous plants correlated positive with relative higher control using Select EC 240 (80% compared to Focus Ultra (0%. At two locations with high proportion of homozygous resistant plants Select EC 240 and Focus Ultra treatments without subsequent treatments with Kerb FLO were not sufficient in solo variants. The subsequent treatments with Kerb FLO provided partly, but not sufficient control of black-grass. At one location no resistance was identified. The effect of Select EC 240 and Focus Ultra to control black-grass were comparable high in all variants with and without subsequent treatments of Kerb FLO. The investigations showed clearly a higher degree of control by plants with the haplotype Leu1781 by the active substance clethodim and pointed out the fact that the frequency of resistant genotypes (homo vs. heterozygous resistant plants has a

  5. Heat stress during seed filling interferes with sulfur restriction on grain composition and seed germination in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eBrunel-Muguet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In coming decades, increasing temperatures are expected to impact crop yield and seed quality. To develop low input systems, the effects of temperature and sulfur (S nutrition in oilseed rape, a high S demanding crop, need to be jointly considered. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperatures (High Temperature (HT, 33 °C/day, 19 °C/night vs. Control Temperature (Ctrl T, 20°C/day, 15°C/day and S supply (High S (HS, 500 µm SO42- vs. Low S (LS, 8.7 µM SO42- during seed filling on (i yield components (seed number, seed dry weight (SDW and seed yield, (ii grain composition (nitrogen (N and S contents and quality (fatty acid (FA composition and seed storage protein (SSP accumulation and (iii germination characteristics (pre-harvest sprouting, germination rates and abnormal seedlings. Abscisic acid (ABA, soluble sugar contents and seed conductivity were also measured. HT and LS decreased the number of seeds per plant. SDW was less affected due to compensatory effects since the number of seeds decreased under stress conditions. While LS had negative effects on seed composition by reducing the FA contents and increasing the ratio S-poor SSPs (12S globulins/S-rich SSPs (2S albumins ratio, HT had positive effects by increasing S and FA contents and decreasing the C18:2/C18:3 ratio and the 12S/2S protein ratio. Seeds produced under HT showed high pre-harvest sprouting rates along with decreased ABA contents and high rates of abnormal seedlings. HT and LS restriction significantly accelerated germination times. High conductivity, which indicates poor seed storage capacity, was higher in HT seeds. Consistently, the lower ratio of (raffinose +stachyose/sucrose in HT seeds indicated low seed storage capacity. We demonstrated the effects of HT and LS on grain and on germination characteristics. These results suggest that hormonal changes might control several seed characteristics simultaneously.

  6. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scientific information that would change or invalidate the conclusions of its previous risk assessments on oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3. The EFSA GMO Panel also considered the relevance of the concerns raised by Austria in the light of the most recent data published in the scientific literature. The authorised uses of oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 exclude cultivation, but data on gene flow, persistence and invasiveness derived from cultivation were considered as a worst case, representing conditions where exposure and potential impact are expected to be the highest, to assess possible environmental impacts resulting from seed import spills. In the documentation provided by Austria and in the scientific literature, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify new scientific evidence that indicates that the import and processing of oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for feed uses in the EU pose a significant and imminent risk to the environment. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation supplied by Austria and a review of recent scientific literature, there is no specific scientific evidence in terms of risk to the environment that would support the notification of a safeguard clause measure under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC nor its prolongation, and that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3.

  7. Male fitness of oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤), weedy ¤B-rapa¤ and their F1 hybrids when pollinating ¤B-rapa¤ seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, M.; Hauser, T.P.; Damgaard, C.;

    2002-01-01

    The likelihood that two species hybridise and backcross may depend strongly on environmental conditions, and possibly on competitive interactions between parents and hybrids. We studied the paternity of seeds produced by weedy Brassica rapa growing in mixtures with oilseed rape (B. napus) and their...... to estimate an expected paternity. The frequency and density of B. napus, B. rapa, and F(1) plants had a strong influence on flower, pollen, and seed production, and on the paternity of B. rapa seeds. Hybridisation and backcrossing mostly occurred at low densities and at high frequencies of B. napus...... and F(1), respectively. F(1) and backcross offspring were produced mainly by a few B. rapa mother plants. The observed hybridisation and backcrossing frequencies were much lower than expected from our compilation of fitness components. Our results show that the male fitness of B. rapa, B. napus, and F...

  8. The effect of phosphours and water deficit on phosphatase activity and proline accumulation in seedling cotyledons and roots of oilseed rape as compared to that of excised cotyledons and roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Flasiński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape seedlings and excised cotyledons and roots were exposed to phosphorus and osmotic stress (-1 MPa: NaCl or PEG. The stress factors limited the growth of the seedlings and inhibited the growth of the excised roots and cotyledons. The phosphorus content in the cotyledons and roots depended on its level in the media and on the stress factors used. Phosphorus deficiency differentiated total phosphatase activity in seedling cotyledons and increased the activity in the excised cotyledons. In the excised and seedling roots, the lack of phosphorus, its deficiency and stress imposed by the addition of NaCl, caused an increase in total and specific phosphatase activity. Osmotic stress caused proline accumulation in both the seedling and excised cotyledons, but the effect of phosphorus stress was much smaller. Proline increase in seedling roots followed only after the osmotic stress caused by NaCl. The proline content in the excised roots was low. Stress factors lowered the protein content in the seedling and excised cotyledons. In both seedling and excised roots, the lowering of the protein content occurred mainly in response to osmotic stress. Kinetin modified metabolic responses in seedling cotyledons and roots. The use of in vitro culture allowed the elucidation of the tested responses. In excised cotyledons grown under stress conditions, kinetin increased the phosphorus and protein contents and lowered proline accumulation, suggesting that kinetin had the ability to overcome phosphorus and osmotic stress. The excised oilseed rape roots responded only slightly to kinetin (Drozdowska and Rogozińska 1984 and its effect was much smaller.

  9. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scientific information that would change or invalidate the conclusions of its previous risk assessments on oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3. The EFSA GMO Panel also considered the relevance of the concerns raised by Austria in the light of the most recent data published in the scientific literature. The authorised uses of oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 exclude cultivation, but data on gene flow, persistence and invasiveness derived from cultivation were considered as a worst case, representing conditions where exposure and potential impact are expected to be the highest, to assess possible environmental impacts resulting from seed import spills. In the documentation provided by Austria and in the scientific literature, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify new scientific evidence that indicates that the import, processing and feed uses of oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 in the EU pose a significant and imminent risk to the environment. The EFSA GMO Panel does not consider the occurrence of occasional feral oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3plants, pollen dispersal and consequent cross-pollination as environmental harm in itself. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation supplied by Austria and a review of recent scientific literature, there is no specific scientific evidence in terms of risk to the environment that would support the notification of a safeguard clause measure under Article 23 of Directive 2001

  10. Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-NL-2010-87 for the placing on the market of genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape GT73 for food containing or consisting of, and food produced from or containing ingredients produced from, oilseed rape GT73 (with the exception of refined oil and food additives under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion is a risk assessment for the placing on the market of the genetically modified (GM herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape (OSR GT73 for food containing or consisting of, and food produced from or containing ingredients produced from, OSR-GT73. OSR-GT73 contains a single insert consisting of the goxv247 and CP4 epsps expression cassettes. Both proteins confer tolerance against glyphosate-based-herbicides. Bioinformatic analyses of inserted DNA and flanking regions did not raise safety concerns. Levels of CP4 EPSPS and GOXv247 proteins in OSR-GT73 were analysed and the stability of the genetic modification was demonstrated. No biologically relevant differences were identified in the compositional/agronomic/phenotypic characteristics of OSR-GT73 compared with its conventional counterpart, except for the newly expressed proteins. No indication of potential concerns over the safety of the newly expressed CP4-EPSPS and GOXv247 proteins or the occurrence of unintended effects were identified in either OSR-GT73 pollen/pollen-containing dietary supplements or the adventitious presence of trace levels of seeds in human foods. An equivalent assessment with isolated seed protein could not be made because of the lack of availability of relevant consumption and safety data. There are no indications of increased establishment and spread of feral OSR-GT73 plants, or of hybridising wild relatives, unless exposed to glyphosate-based-herbicides. Potential interactions of feral plants with the biotic/abiotic environment do not raise concerns. Environmental risks of horizontal gene transfer into bacteria were not identified. The monitoring plan and reporting intervals are in line with the intended uses. The environmental risk assessment of OSR-GT73 did not identify any safety concerns, in the context of its intended uses. While the Panel is not in a position to conclude on the safety of OSR pollen as such, it concludes that the genetic modification

  11. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    2013-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scie...

  12. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised...

  13. 硝酸还原酶抑制剂钨酸钠对油菜硝态氮积累的影响%Effects of Nitrate Reductase Inhibitor Na2WO4 on Nitrate Accumulation in Oilseed Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣; 邱炜红; 王朝辉; 王小英

    2012-01-01

    采用溶液培养方法,选取硝酸盐积累差异明显的两个油菜品种(低硝态氮积累品种‘红油3号’和高硝态氮积累品种‘中双6号’,研究苗期根系硝酸还原酶(NR)活性被抑制以后两个油菜品种叶片、叶柄和根系中NR活性和硝态氮含量的变化.结果表明:1.0 mmol·L-1的NR活性抑制剂Na2WO4对两个油菜品种的根系NR活性抑制效果最佳;根系NR活性被抑制以后,两个油菜品种的根系NR活性、硝态氮吸收速率均显著下降,而硝态氮含量却显著上升;且Na2WO4对‘中双6号’硝态氮吸收的抑制程度强于其对‘红油3号’的抑制.叶片和叶柄的NR活性变化不显著,但叶柄硝态氮含量显著下降,叶片硝态氮含量稳定,且这一趋势在低积累品种‘红油3号’中表现得更为明显.%A soilless culture (nutrient solution) experiment was conducted to study the effects of nitrate re-ductase inhibitor Na2WO4 on nitrate reductase (NR) activity and NO3"-N content in some organs (including root, leaf, petiole) of two different cultivars (high nitrate-N accumulation type 'Zhongshuang 6' and low nitrate-N accumulation type 'Hongyou 3') oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) at seedling stage. Results showed that the most appropriate concentration of Na2WO4 was 1.0 mmol-L-1 Na2WO4 significantly decreased NR activity and NO3-N absorption rate in the root of oilseed rape comparing with the control (CK), however, significantly increasing in NO3-N content. High nitrate accumulation type 'Zhongshuang 6' had higher inhibiter efficiency comparing with low nitrate accumulation type 'Hongyou 3'. There were no significant difference on NR activity in leaf and petiole with or without Na2WO4, in contrast, Na2WO4 significantly decreased NO3 -N content in the petiole of oilseed rape, and NO3 -N content in the leaf was almost stable under it treatment, especially in 'Hongyou 3'.

  14. 喷施KCI对油菜光合产物及籽粒产量和品质影响研究%Effects of Spraying KCI Solution on Photosynthate and Grain Yield and Quality of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董春华; 文石林; 荣湘民; 刘强; 宋海星; 张玉平; 高菊生

    2010-01-01

    [目的]探求油菜优质高产栽培途径.[方法]采用士培试验,在油菜盛花期对其茎叶喷施质量分数为1.00%的KCl溶液和质量分数为1.17%的K2SO4溶液和清水,于角果初期和收获期采样,测定油菜光和产物、可溶性糖和游离氡基酸含量.[结果]与对照相比,喷施1.00%KCl溶液能提高了角果初期功能叶叶绿索a含量和叶、茎及花果可溶性糖和游离氨基酸含量,并降低了收获期叶茎可溶性糖、游离氨基酸含量,使籽粒产量平均增重10.20%,籽粒油分、油酸和亚油酸含量分别平均提高了4.40%、10.60%、11.40%,蛋白质、芥酸和硫甙含量分别半均降低了 5.10%、9.70%、3.70%.喷施K2SO4与对照间差异不显著,与喷施KCI间差异显著.[结论]该试验结果为提高油菜产量及品质研究提供了理论依据.%[Objective]In order to seek the way of high quality and high yield of oilseed rape.[Method]Soil culture experiment was used in this research.1%(mass fraction)KCI solution was sprayed to the stems and leaves of oilseed rape in full blooming stage while 1.17%(mass fraction)K2SO4 solution and clear water were used for comparison,sampling in initial silique stage and harvest stage were conducted to detect photosynthata,soluble sugar and free amino acids content.[Result]The results showed that compared with spraying clear water,spraying KCI solution increased the contents of chlorophyll a in functional leaves,the contents of free amino acids and soluble sugar in leaves,stems and silique,and the total amounts of them all in initial silique stage but decreased the contents of free amino acids and soluble sugar in leaves and stems,and the total amounts of them all in harvesting stage,increased the average grain yield 10.20%,increased the average contents of oil,oleinic acid and linoleic acid in rapeseed 4.40%,10.60% and 11.40% respectively,decreased the content of protein,erucic acid and glucosinolate in rapeseed 5.10%,9.70% and 3

  15. Effects of Combined Treatment of Ca2+ and Sr2+ on Antioxidant Enzymes Activities of Oilseed Rape Seedlings%Ca2+和Sr2+联合处理对油菜抗氧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 敖嘉; 唐运来

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to investigate the effects of combined treatment of Sr2+ and Ca2+ on antioxidant enzymes activities of oilseed rape seedlings.[Method]Three-leaf stage oilseed rape seedlings ( Brassica napus L. cv. Mianyou No. 15) were raised in quartz-hy-droponic culture system, and a solution containing 0, 10, 20 or 40 mmol/L SrCl2, and 0, 5 or 10 mmol/L Ca ( NO,) 2 was applied. Three antioxidant enzymes (POD, CAT and SOD) activities were determined after 0, 7, 14 and 21 d of the combined treatment of Sr2* and Ca2*.[Result]POD, CAT and SOD activities were increased gradually with the increase of Ca2* concentration. Ca2* could alleviate the deleterious effect induced by Sr2* in oilseed rape seedlings.[Conclusion]The strontium accumulation capability of oilseed rape was explained from the perspective of antioxidant rapeseed, providing a theoretical basis for the use of oilseed rape phytoremediation of strontium to cleanup the polluted environments.%[目的]为了了解环境介质中同时存在Ca2+和Sr2+2种离子时油菜幼苗的抗氧化酶活性的变化.[方法]在石英砂和Hoagland营养液培养体系中,用浓度为0、10、20和40 mmol/L SrCl2及浓度为0、5和10 mmol/L Ca(NO3)2处理3叶龄油菜幼苗.在处理0、7、14和21 d后,分别取样测定POD、CAT和SOD的活性.[结果]在相同的Sr2+浓度下,随着Ca2+浓度的增加,POD活性增加,Ca2+明显缓解Sr2+对油菜幼苗的毒害作用.[结论]该研究从抗氧化角度初步阐明油菜具有较高富集Sr2+能力的机理,为利用油菜对锶污染环境进行植物修复提供理论依据.

  16. Molecular screening for avirulence alleles AvrLm1 and AvrLm6 in airborne inoculum of Leptosphaeria maculans and winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants from Poland and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Joanna; Latunde-Dada, Akinwunmi O; Irzykowski, Witold; Cools, Hans J; Stonard, Jenna F; Brachaczek, Andrzej; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2014-11-01

    A combination of staining, light microscopy and SYBR green- and dual-labelled fluorescent probe-based qPCR chemistries with species- and gene-specific primers was employed to evaluate fluctuations in the aerial biomass of Leptosphaeria maculans spores captured by volumetric spore trappings in Poznan, Poland (2006, 2008) and Harpenden, UK (2002, 2006). Arising from these surveys, DNA samples extracted from Burkard spore-trap tapes were screened for fluctuation patterns in the frequencies of AvrLm1 and AvrLm6, the most prominent of the 15 genes that code for avirulence effectors in this Dothideomycete cause of the destructive phoma stem canker disease of oilseed rape worldwide. In Poznan, very low frequencies of AvrLm1 allele were found in the autumn of both 2006 and 2008, reflecting significantly increased cultivation of rape seed with Rlm1-based resistance. In contrast, at least six folds-higher frequencies of AvrLm6, which were also confirmed by end-point PCR bioassays on phoma-infected leaves from the same region of Poland, were obtained during both years. In the UK, however, relatively higher AvrLm1 allele titres were found in L. maculans spores captured in air samples from the autumn of 2002 on the experimental fields of Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, that were historically sown to genetically heterogeneous B. napus cultivars. In the 2006 screen these levels had plummeted, to a 1:4 ratio, in favour of frequencies of the AvrLm6 allele. Patterns of fluctuations in erg11 (CYP51) fragments coding for sterol 14α-demethylase suggest October as the month with the most viable wind-dispersed L. maculans propagules of each season of the screens. PMID:25081837

  17. Winter turnip rape in mixed cropping: advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    Tuulos, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Winter turnip rape is a biennial crucifer oilseed. A problem associated with winter turnip rape is early sowing time in July, when farms are short of available land. The aim of this study was to determine if winter turnip rape can be established by undersowing with spring cereals without decreasing cereal and winter turnip rape yields. It was also studied, if cutting the vegetative leaves of winter turnip rape in autumn could be performed without affecting the yield and whether the compo...

  18. A systemic increase in the recombination frequency upon local infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with oilseed rape mosaic virus depends on plant age, the initial inoculum concentration and the time for virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youli eYao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past, we showed that local infection of tobacco leaves with either Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV or Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV resulted in a systemic increase in the homologous recombination frequency (HRF. Later on, we showed that a similar phenomenon occurs in Arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with ORMV. Here, we tested whether the time of removing the infected leaves as well as viral titer have any effect on the degree of changes in HRF in systemic tissues. An increase in HRF in systemic non-infected tissues was more pronounced when the infected leaves were detached from the infected plants at 60-96 hours post infection, rather than at earlier time. Next, we found that exposure to higher concentrations of inoculum was much more efficient in triggering an increase in HRF than exposure to lower concentrations. Finally, we showed that older plants exhibited a higher increase in HRF than younger plants. We found that an increase in genome instability in systemic tissues of locally infected plants depends on plant age, the concentration of initial inoculums and the time of viral replication.

  19. Stability of transgene integration and expression in subsequent generations of doubled haploid oilseed rape transformed with chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase genes in a double-gene construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melander, Margareta; Kamnert, Iréne; Happstadius, Ingrid; Liljeroth, Erland; Bryngelsson, Tomas

    2006-09-01

    A double-gene construct with one chitinase and one beta-1,3-glucanase gene from barley, both driven by enhanced 35S promoters, was transformed into oilseed rape. From six primary transformants expressing both transgenes 10 doubled haploid lines were produced and studied for five generations. The number of inserted copies for both the genes was determined by Southern blotting and real-time PCR with full agreement between the two methods. When copy numbers were analysed in different generations, discrepancies were found, indicating that at least part of the inserted sequences were lost in one of the alleles of some doubled haploids. Chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase expression was analysed by Western blotting in all five doubled haploid generations. Despite that both the genes were present on the same T-DNA and directed by the same promoter their expression pattern between generations was different. The beta-1,3-glucanase was expressed at high and stable levels in all generations, while the chitinase displayed lower expression that varied between generations. The transgenic plants did not show any major impact on fungal resistance when assayed in greenhouse, although purified beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase caused retardment of fungal growth in vitro. PMID:16565860

  20. Comparison of a diurnal vs steady-state ozone exposure profile on growth and yield of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in open-top chambers in the Yangtze Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most available exposure-response relationships for assessing crop loss due to elevated ozone (O3) have been established using data from chamber and open-top chamber experiments, using a simulated constant O3 concentration exposure (square wave), which is not consistent with the diurnal variation of O3 concentration that occurs in nature. We investigated the response of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to O3 as affected by two exposure regimes: one with a diurnal variation (CF100D) and another with a constant concentration (CF100). Although the two exposure regimes have the same mean O3 concentration and accumulated O3 concentration above 40 ppb (AOT40), our results show that O3 at CF100D reduced biomass and number of pods/plant more than O3 at CF100. Both O3 exposures resulted in larger seed weights/100 pods compared to CF. Numbers of seeds/100 pods were reduced by CF100, while numbers of seeds/100 pods in the CF100D chambers were comparable to those in CF. Our results suggest that chamber experiments that use a constant O3 exposure may underestimate O3 effects on biomass and yields. - Diurnal variation of O3 concentration should be considered when designing O3 exposure experiment

  1. Comparison of a diurnal vs steady-state ozone exposure profile on growth and yield of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in open-top chambers in the Yangtze Delta, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaoke [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqinglu 18, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: wangxk@rcees.ac.cn; Zheng Qiwei; Feng Zhaozhong [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqinglu 18, Beijing 100085 (China); Xie Juqing [Northwestern Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Feng Zongwei; Ouyang Zhiyun [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqinglu 18, Beijing 100085 (China); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9320 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Most available exposure-response relationships for assessing crop loss due to elevated ozone (O{sub 3}) have been established using data from chamber and open-top chamber experiments, using a simulated constant O{sub 3} concentration exposure (square wave), which is not consistent with the diurnal variation of O{sub 3} concentration that occurs in nature. We investigated the response of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to O{sub 3} as affected by two exposure regimes: one with a diurnal variation (CF100D) and another with a constant concentration (CF100). Although the two exposure regimes have the same mean O{sub 3} concentration and accumulated O{sub 3} concentration above 40 ppb (AOT40), our results show that O{sub 3} at CF100D reduced biomass and number of pods/plant more than O{sub 3} at CF100. Both O{sub 3} exposures resulted in larger seed weights/100 pods compared to CF. Numbers of seeds/100 pods were reduced by CF100, while numbers of seeds/100 pods in the CF100D chambers were comparable to those in CF. Our results suggest that chamber experiments that use a constant O{sub 3} exposure may underestimate O{sub 3} effects on biomass and yields. - Diurnal variation of O{sub 3} concentration should be considered when designing O{sub 3} exposure experiment.

  2. Climate change and genetically modified insecticidal plants. Plant-herbivore interactions and secondary chemistry of Bt Cry1Ac-toxin producing oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under elevated CO{sub 2} or O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, S.

    2008-07-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant plants producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline endotoxins are the first commercial applications of genetically modified crops and their use has steadily expanded over the last ten years. Together with the expanding agricultural use of transgenic crops, climate change is predicted to be among the major factors affecting agriculture in the coming years. Plants, herbivores and insects of higher trophic levels are all predicted to be affected by the current atmospheric climate change. However, only very few studies to date have addressed the sustained use and herbivore interactions of Bt-producing plants under the influence of these abiotic factors. The main objective of this study was to comparatively assess the performance of a Bt Cry1Ac toxin-producing oilseed rape line and its non-transgenic parent line in terms of vegetative growth and allocation to secondary defence compounds (glucosinolates and volatile terpenoids), and the performance of Bt-target and nontarget insect herbivores as well as tritrophic interaction functioning on these lines. For this, several growth chamber experiments with vegetative stage non-Bt and Bt plants facing exposures to doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2} level alone or together with increased temperature and different regimes of elevated O{sub 3} were conducted. The main hypothesis of this work was that Bt-transgenic plants have reduced performance or allocation to secondary compounds due to the cost of producing Bt toxin under changed abiotic environments. The Bt-transgenic oilseed rape line exhibited slightly delayed vegetative growth and had increased nitrogen and reduced carbon content compared to the non-transgenic parent line, but the physiological responses (i.e. biomass gain and photosynthesis) of the plant lines to CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} enhancements were equal. Two aphid species, non-susceptible to Bt Cry1Ac, showed equal performance and reproduction on both plant lines under elevated CO{sub 2

  3. Introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and its weedy relative B. rapa L. in a natural population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Jørgensen, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated introgression in a mixed weedy population ofoilseed rape (Brassica napus) and itsrelative B. rapa usingspecies-specific AFLP-markers. The population wassituated in a field relayed from conventional to organic cultivation11 years ago. One-hundred-and-twoB. napus orB. rapa......-like plantswere collected in a 3 m2 plot. Of these, onewas a first generation hybrid (F1) and nearlyhalf (44 plants) were introgressed, having bothB. napus andB. rapa specific markers.The remaining plants apparently corresponded to pure species, with 50having only B. rapa-and seven having only B...... history of the field, thissuggests that the introgression process in the weedy mixed populationhas been in progress for some time. This study is the first to showintrogression between B.napus and B.rapa under natural conditions....

  4. Distribución de nitrógeno, fósforo y azufre en un cultivo de colza: efectos sobre el ciclado de nutrientes Distribution of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in oilseed rape: effects on nutrient cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rubio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparado con otros cultivos, la colza tiene una alta demanda de azufre (S por lo que sería esperable que la inclusión de este cultivo en la rotación agrícola acelere el agotamiento de este nutriente en los suelos de las áreas cultivadas. En este trabajo, se comparan los patrones de partición de biomasa, S, nitrógeno (N y fósforo (P en plantas maduras de colza. La información a obtener es relevante desde el punto de vista del ciclado de nutrientes. Para ello se realizó un experimento de campo que se ajustó a un arreglo factorial con dos factores (N y S. En el momento de la cosecha, se midió la acumulación de biomasa, N, P y S en tres compartimientos: granos, rastrojo (resto de parte aérea y raíces. Aunque el rendimiento fue afectado levemente por la adición individual de N o S, la simultánea adición de ambos nutrientes provocó un incremento del 56%. El N y el P presentaron una distribución semejante entre los órganos de la planta estudiados, sin embargo, el S difirió marcadamente de ambos. Su partición al órgano que se exporta (granos fue de menor magnitud que la observada para N y P. En cambio, su partición al rastrojo en pie fue mayor. Esta característica atenuaría los efectos de la alta demanda de S sobre la exportación del cultivo y permitiría una reutilización del fertilizante agregado por el cultivo siguiente.Oilseed rape poses a higher sulfur (S demand, compared to other crops. This may indicate that the inclusion of this crop in the crop rotation could accelerate soil S depletion. In this work, we compared the allocation of biomass, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and S in oilseed rape mature plants. Two factors were analyzed in a field experiment: nitrogen and sulphur (two levels for each factor. At harvest, we measured the accumulation of biomass, N, P and S in three compartments: roots, straw and grains. Yield was little affected by the addition of single nutrients but the simultaneous addition of N and S

  5. Effect of different boron fertilizers on seed yield and seed quality of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and their residual effectiveness for rotated rice%不同硼肥对油菜产量和品质的影响及其在油稻轮作中的后效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣; 石桃雄; 武际; 鲁剑巍; 石磊; 徐芳森

    2011-01-01

    通过盆栽土培和田间试验,研究两种具有缓释特性的硼肥Etibor-48(Na2B4O7·5H2O,EB)和Colemanite (Ca2B6O11·5H2O,CB)对油菜产量和品质的影响及其在油稻轮作中的后效.盆栽试验结果表明,EB和CB各处理第一季油菜产量显著高于不施硼处理(-B),与硼砂处理(B)比较也有较大提高;安徽广德田间试验结果与盆栽试验结果一致.第二季水稻,盆栽试验各施硼处理产量均有不同程度的增加,但田间试验点,安徽广德和湖北荆州各施硼处理水稻产量与不施硼处理没有显著差异.盆栽试验第三季油菜各处理产量较第一季显著降低;各施硼处理产量无显著差异,但均显著高于不施硼处理.安徽田间试验EB和CB处理第三季油菜子产量仍显著高于不施硼处理,其中CB处理产量最高;而裂区试验,第三季各施硼处理产量没有显著差异,较相对应的不施硼处理油菜子产量均有增加.湖北和安徽田间试验结果并不完全一致,与湖北荆州试验点土壤有效硼含量较高有关.缺硼土壤施硼能够提高油菜产量并改善油菜品质,但对水稻品质影响不大.研究结果能够为长江中下游地区油稻轮作系统中不同硼肥的合理高效施用提供依据.%The effects of two kinds of boron (B) slow-release fertilizers, Etibor-48 (EB; Na2B4O7 · 5H2O) and Colemanite (CB; Ca2B6O11 · 5H2O), on seed yield and seed quality of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and their residual effectiveness for rotated rice were investigated in pot culture experiments and field trials, respectively.Seed yield of oilseed rape in the EB and CB treatments was significantly higher than that in the absence of boron (-B), and higher than that of borax treatment (B) for the first crop. Field trial results of the first crop ( oilseed rape) in Anhui province, China, were consistent with those of the pot culture experiments. Grain yield of the second crop (rice) in all B fertilizer treatments was

  6. Date Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Date Rape KidsHealth > For Teens > Date Rape Print A A ... en español Violaciones durante citas What Is Date Rape? When people think of rape , they might picture ...

  7. Experimental Study of Reciprocating Friction between Rape Stalk and Bionic Nonsmooth Surface Units

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Ma; Yaoming Li; Lizhang Xu

    2015-01-01

    Background. China is the largest producer of rape oilseed in the world; however, the mechanization level of rape harvest is relatively low, because rape materials easily adhere to the cleaning screens of combine harvesters, resulting in significant cleaning losses. Previous studies have shown that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens restrain the adhesion of rape materials, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objective. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and bionic n...

  8. Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-BE-2010-81 for the placing on the market of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for food containing or consisting of, and food produced from or containing ingredients produced from, oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 (with the exception of processed oil under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 from Bayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion is a risk assessment for the placing on the market of the genetically modified (GM herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape (OSR Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3 for food containing or consisting of, and food produced from or containing ingredients produced from, these GM plants. OSR Ms8 (male sterile and Rf3 (fertility restorer are the parents of OSR Ms8xRf3, which is fertile, contains the bar, barstar and barnase genes, and is tolerant to glufosinate-ammonium-containing herbicides. Integrity of the inserts present in the single events was demonstrated in the stack. Molecular characterisation did not reveal any safety issues. No biologically relevant differences were identified in the composition or agronomic and phenotypic characteristics of OSR Ms8xRf3, as compared with its non-GM comparator, except for the newly expressed proteins. The safety assessment identified no concerns regarding the potential toxicity and allergenicity of OSR Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3. A broiler study confirmed that OSR Ms8xRf3 is as nutritious as its non-GM comparator. There are no indications of an increased likelihood of establishment and spread of feral OSR Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3 plants, or of hybridising wild relatives, unless exposed to glufosinate-ammonium-containing herbicides. Considering the intended uses, potential interactions of feral OSR Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3 plants with the biotic and abiotic environment are not considered an issue. Environmental risks associated with a possible horizontal transfer into bacteria have not been identified. The monitoring plan and reporting intervals are in line with the intended uses. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that the information available for OSR Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3 addresses the scientific comments raised by Member States and that OSR Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3 are unlikely to have an adverse effect on human and animal health or on the environment, in the context of their intended

  9. A Study of Relationship Between Field Occurrence and Meterological Factors of Sclerotinia Stem Rot in Oilseed Rape and Its Prediction Model%油菜菌核病发生流行与气象因素关系及预测模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱金良; 陈跃; 钟雪明; 王华弟

    2012-01-01

    油菜菌核病是中国油菜上的主要病害之一.为了明确气象因素与发病间的关系,提高预测能力,利用嘉兴市1980-2010年的气象因子与油菜菌核病田间实际发生数据进行相关性分析.结果表明:3月下旬—4月上旬降雨量、4月上旬的雨日数与病害呈极显著正相关,4月中旬日照时数呈显著负相关,气温对油菜菌核病影响较小.在相关性分析的基础上,采用逐步回归分析法,利用降雨量、雨日、日照、气温等气象因子组建了6个病害预测模型,历史回测检验结果:模型5和模型6发病程度(级)拟合程度高,预测能力强,适宜于嘉兴本地乃至浙北地区.%Sclerotinia stem rot is a major disease in oilseed rape.In order to improve the ability of predicting the occurrence trends of the Sclerotinia disease in oilseed rape, the relationship of occurrence and meterological factors of this disease was analyzed.Based on the correlation analysis between the meterological data and the occurrence data of Sclerotinia stem rot in the field oilseed rape in Jiaxing from 1980 to 2010, it was showed that amount of rainfall from the last ten days in March to the first 10 days in April and the rainy days in the first 10 days in April were significantly positive correlated with the disease incidence, while the sunning days in the second 10 days in April was significantly negative correlated with the incidence, and the mean temperature had a minor effect on the disease.Then using the stepwise regression analysis method, six prediction models were established based on meterological factors, such as rainfall, amounts of rainy days and sunning days, temperature.After the validation with historical data, the 5th and 6th models were showed higher goodness of fit, which could be further used for predicting the disease occurrence in Jiaxing and the northern Zhejiang Province.

  10. Optimisation of trierucin content in oilseed rape

    OpenAIRE

    Batra, Neelu

    2005-01-01

    High erucic acid rapeseed (HEAR) cultivars have regained interest for industrial purposes because erucic acid (22:1) is a valuable feedstock with a wide range of applications especially if it is available in sufficient quantities and in sufficiently pure form. In HEAR oil, however, the 22:1 content is limited to 67% because 22:1 is excluded from the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. To overcome this theoretical limit in HEAR oil and, thus, to improve its oleochemical properties combined...

  11. Genoplante: The “winter oilseed rape” program

    OpenAIRE

    Vincourt Patrick; Renard Michel

    2003-01-01

    The French plant genome initiative GENOPLANTE, associating public research and private companies involved in research for agriculture breeding or agrochemicals , supported several projects in oilseed rape genomics. Some of them intensively used Arabidopsis resources. Beside applied projects including gene cloning or QTL identification, GENOPLANTE succeeded in establishing a set of biological and bioinformatics resources available for the genetic improvement of this crop.

  12. 直播和移栽冬油菜生长和产量形成对氮磷钾肥的响应差异%Response differences in growth and yield formation of direct-sown and transplanted winter oilseed rape to N, P and K fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寅; 汪洋; 鲁剑巍; 李小坤; 任涛; 丛日环

    2016-01-01

    [Objectives] Direct-sowing (DOR) and transplanting (TOR) are the two dominated planting methods of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. ) in the Yangtze River Basin, China. The establishment processes and planting density are contrasting between the two types of oilseed rape, which might lead to their differences in the individual morphology, growth process, and yield formation, as well as the fertilization responses. In this study, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of fertilizers’ application and establishment methods on growth and yield formation of winter oilseed rape, and to compare characters and differences of the establishment methods.[Methods] The field experiment included four treatments: balanced NPK fertilizers (NPK), no N (-N), no P (-P) and no K (-K). The plant height, rootstock diameter and leaf number of oilseed rapes at different growth stages were investigated. When low temperature and drought occurred at the over-wintering stage, physiological and biochemical properties were measured by sampling the top four leaves, including the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), and the concentrations of soluble protein, soluble sugar, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA). The incidences of sclerotinia were investigated at the pod-development stage. The seed yield was weighed at maturity and the yield components were investigated. [ Results] Compared with tran splanting, the individual plant height of direct-sowing oilseed rape is higher at the early stages and obviously decreased after the bolting stage, and the rootstock diameter and leaf number are significantly lower throughout the growing seasons. The physiological and biochemical index levels of DOR are lower than that of TOR, while the MDA concentration is significantly higher. At the pod-development stage, the incidence of sclerotinia is 21. 8% for DOR, which is significantly higher than that of TOR (8. 5% ). The yield components of DOR and TOR

  13. RESPONSE OF SIX OILSEED RAPE GENOTYPES TO WATER STRESS AND HYDROGEL APPLICATION RESPOSTA DE SEIS GENÓTIPOS DE CANOLA A ESTRESSE HÍDRICO E APLICAÇÃO DE HIDROGEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mashhadi-Akbar-Boojar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The hydrogel amendments may improve seedling growth and establishment by increasing water retention capacity of soils and regulation of plants available water supplies, especially under arid environments. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of super absorbent polymer use in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. genotypes, under drought stress, evaluating some agronomic (total biomass, seed yield, yield components and harvest index and physiological characters (chlorophyll content. The experiment was carried out in the research farm of the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, in 2007-2008, in Karaj, Iran (35°59´N, 50°75E, 151 m altitude, as a randomized complete block design, with factorial split-plot arrangement, with three replications. The irrigation strategy had two levels (irrigation after 80% of water evaporation, from class A Pan as control, and drought stress, starting from the flowering stage to physiological maturity and the application of super absorbent also occurred at two levels (absence of super absorbent as control, and application of super absorbent at 7% concentration, as main plots. Genotypes Rgs003 (V1, Sarigol (V2, Option500 (V3, Hyola401 (V4, Hyola330 (V5, and Hyola420 (V6 were allotted to subplots. Results showed a significant difference between irrigation treatments, presence of super absorbent, and genotypes on agronomic and physiological characters. Water stress decreased total biomass, seed yield components, harvest index, and chlorophyll content. On the other hand, under field conditions, the use of 7% of super absorbent increased agronomic and

  14. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium (134Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with 134Cs. With the information of activity concentration of 134Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of 134Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited 134Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of 134Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity in Barcelona. We acknowledge the

  15. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  16. What Is Rape and Date Rape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is rape and date rape? What is rape and date rape? Get help National Sexual Assault Hotline 800-656- ... drinking, it is NOT your fault. What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any kind of ...

  17. Investigation of the impact of stress factors on structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus of rape (/Brassica napus /L.

    OpenAIRE

    RÁKOSNÍKOVÁ, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The thesis deals with the influence of cold plasma,as a stress factor, on content and fluorescence of chlorrophylls of oilseed rape. Theoretical part deals with characteristic oilseeds rape, fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and the effects of cold plasma on on physiology of plants. The theoretical part continues in experimental mesurement. The eperiment was done in laboratory conditions. The own of eperiment was to discover the influence of cold plasma on the amount of chlorophylls and f...

  18. Rape sentencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    This handbook conducts an analysis of the sentences imposed for rape by Irish courts. Part I examines The People (DPP) v. WD [2007] IEHC 310 by outlining the salient points of the decision, in particular the separation of rape sentences into categories of punishments. The mitigating and aggravating...... factors are also laid out. Part II analyses recent sentences for rape since 2007. All reported Court of Criminal Appeal (CCA) cases post The People (DPP) v. WD are included as well as a survey of two years of Irish Times reports (covering the period November 2010 to November 2012)....

  19. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexual assault and STDs. In: Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep . 2010;17(59)(RR-12):90- ...

  20. 铝胁迫下外源有机酸对油菜根系形态及叶绿素荧光特性的影响%Effects of exogenous organic acids on root morphology and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of oilseed rape under aluminum stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志颖; 刘鹏; 李锦山; 吴惠芳; 刘莹; 芦伯鑫

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum toxicity in acidic soil has become a major limiting factor in China' s rapeseed oil production. To investigate the effects of exogenous organic acids (citric acid or malic acid) on root morphology and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of different Al-tolerant varieties of oilseed rape (Huayou 2790 and Zhongshuang No. 7) , relative root length and total root length as well as chlorophyll fluorescence parameters [ the chlorophyll content, Fm(maximal fluorescence) , Fv/Fo(PS II potential activity) ,φPS II (photochemical quantum yield) ] of oilseed rape with interactive treatments of aluminum (0μmol/L, 50μmol/L,100μmol/L,200μmol/L) and two organic acids (citric acid or malic acid, 20μmol/L) were determined under hydroponics condition. Results showed that, in single aluminum treatment, ail the parameters mentioned above reduced as the Al concentration increased, the sensitive cultivar Huayou 2790 dropping morethan tolerant cultivar Zhongshuang No. 7. After adding exogenous organic acids, the above parameters were unproved. In 200μmol/L Al and organic acid interactive treatment, the relative root length was increased by 14. 9% for Al-tolerant cultivar compared with the same concentration of single Al. The increment of chlorophyllfluorescence parameters in Al-tolerant cultivar were larger than those in Al-sensitive one, and the alleviating effects of citric acid was slightly better than malic acid. It indicated that aluminum stress could inhibit the root growth and photosynthesis of oilseed rape, and adding exogenous organic acids could alleviate the toxicity of aluminum to a certain extent.%为探明铝胁迫下外源有机酸(柠檬酸和苹果酸)对不同耐性油菜品种(华油2790和中双7号)根系形态和叶绿素荧光特性的影响,该研究采用水培法,用分光光度计、根系扫描仪等测定0 μmol/L、50 μmol/L、100μmol/L、200 μmol/L铝和20 μmol/L柠檬酸或苹果酸瓦作处理下油菜根系的形态指标及叶

  1. Research fields, challenges and opportunities in European oilseed crops breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincourt Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the geographical specialization in oilseed world production, Europe has a major role to play in winter oilseed rape and sunflower breeding. Mainly based on the most recen t results, this review aims to identify the main research and breeding targets for these two crops, as seen through publications, with an attempt to suggest what are opportunities and challenges in these research fields. Growing a healthy and yielding crop remains the key driver for agronomic production. However sustainability and environmental profiles of the cultivar are now entering the field of play: The sustainability concern invested the field of resistance to diseases. Nitrogen use efficiency became an important target for Brassica napus, and crop resilience toward drought stresses is the way chosen in Helianthus annuus breeding for yield improvement. Significant advances are underway for quality traits, but the uncertainty on nutritional and industrial demand may explain why the product diversification remains low.

  2. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Most estimates say that 80 - 90% of rapes are not reported to police. Current trends project that 1 in 3 American women will be sexually assaulted at some point during their ...

  3. Post-harvest N2O emissions were not affected by various types of oilseed straw incorporated into soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbke, Sarah; Senbayram, Mehmet; Hegewald, Hannes; Christen, Olaf; Dittert, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Oilseed rape post-harvest N2O emissions are seen highly critical as so far they are considered as one of the most crucial drawbacks in climate-saving bioenergy production systems. N2O emissions may substantially counterbalance the intended savings in CO2 emissions. Carbon-rich crop residues in conjunction with residual soil nitrate are seen as a key driver since they may serve as energy source for denitrification and, they may alter soil-borne N2O emissions. As oilseed rape straw is known to have high N/C ratio compared to other crop residues, its soil incorporation may specifically trigger post-harvest N2O emissions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine post-harvest N2O emissions in soils amended with various types of oilseed rape straw (with different N/C ratio) and barley straw in field and incubation experiments. In the incubation experiment, oilseed rape or 15N labelled barley straw were mixed with soil at a rate of 1.3 t DM ha-1 and studied for 43 days. Treatments consisted of non-treated control soil (CK), 15N labelled barley straw (BST), oilseed rape straw (RST), 15N labelled barley straw + N (BST+N), or oilseed rape straw + N (RST+N). N fertilizer was applied to the soil surface as ammonium-nitrate at a rate of 100 kg N ha-1 and soil moisture was adjusted to 80% water-holding capacity. In the field experiment, during the vegetation period 15N labelled fertilizer (15NH415NO3) was used to generate 15N labelled oilseed rape straw (up to 5 at%). Here, the three fertilizer treatments consisted of 5 kg N ha-1 (RST-5), 150 kg N ha-1 (RST-150) and 180 kg N ha-1 (RST-180). Post-harvest N2O emissions were determined during the period of August 2013 to February 2014 by using static flux chambers. In the incubation trial, cumulative N2O emissions were 5, 29, 40 g N2O-N ha-1 148 days-1 in non-fertilized control, BST and RST treatments, respectively. Here, emissions were slightly higher in RST than BST (p

  4. An evidence-based review on the likely economic and environmental impact of genetically modified cereals and oilseeds for UK agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Areal, Francisco; Dunwell, Jim; Jones, Philip; Park, Julian; McFarlane, Ian; Srinivasan, Chittur; Tranter, Richard

    2015-01-01

    An evidence-based review of the potential impact that the introduction of genetically-modified (GM) cereal and oilseed crops could have for the UK was carried out. The inter-disciplinary research project addressed the key research questions using scenarios for the uptake, or not, of GM technologies. This was followed by an extensive literature review, stakeholder consultation and financial modelling. The world area of canola, oilseed rape (OSR) low in both erucic acid in the oil and glucosino...

  5. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, J.A. (Economic Botany Lab., Beltsville, MD); Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

  6. Rape Myths, Rape Scripts, and Common Rape Experiences of College Women: Differences in Perceptions of Women Who Have Been Raped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Badke, Caitlyn

    2016-03-01

    Rape is prevalent at colleges. Although research suggests commonalities across many college women's rape experiences (e.g., perpetrators using multiple coercive strategies), vignettes used to assess rape perceptions often reflect false beliefs. Two studies varying a perpetrator's coercive tactics examine rape perceptions using vignettes reflecting rape myths, rape scripts, or many college women's common rape experiences. Participants perceive a woman who was raped more positively in vignettes reflecting common rape experiences versus those reflecting rape myths or scripts. Theoretical, educational, and research implications are discussed. PMID:26276120

  7. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nowsher Ali; Sanjida Akhter; Nur Hossain; Nashid Tabassum Khan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape) represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crim...

  8. Types of rape victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković Milan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Behavior of rape victims is an enigma associated with the following phenomena: poverty, transition, legal weaknesses, and unintegrated mental health network. The aim of the study was to investigate rape victimization in relation to anomie, stress and postwar transition-related weaknesses in B&H in the period 1996-2005; and perform a personal analysis of rape victims. Material and methods: The experimental group consisted of rape victims receiving psychiatric treatment: non-v...

  9. Forensic implications of rape

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković Milan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Rape is a sexual act of violence in which physical strength is used. Criminal law imposes strict punishments for such crimes as rape. Psycho-pathologically, rape is among the gravest of crimes, often associated with extremely deviated behavior. This article deals with the forensic aspects of sexual violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2000-2004. We report about sexual assaults, personality of delinquents, motives and consequences of rape. Material and Methods. T...

  10. Attitudes toward Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Knud S.; Long, Ed

    While the perception of rape has been studied intensely in recent years, most scales focus on rape myths as the content domain. The need exists for a more general instrument which would include items from a variety of sources, e.g., attitudes toward rape awareness, sexual history, age, virginity, community support, etc., in addition to the myth of…

  11. Adolescent Attitudes about Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    A very significant problem in society is adolescent rape victimization and the growing number of adolescent perpetrators. This paper examines adolescent attitudes about rape in order to develop curricular materials. It is found that adolescents exhibit conservative attitudes about gender roles, general rape myths, and victim issues. (Author)

  12. Victims of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner William; And Others

    A scientific, multidisciplinary examination of the social and psychological effects of rape upon female victims is presented, which is then correlated with: (1) the circumstances that surrounded the rape; (2) the victim's personality and social adaptation before she was raped; and (3) the support available from organizations and people who were…

  13. 不同氮水平下冬油菜光合氮利用效率与光合器官氮分配的关系%Relationship between photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen allocation in photosynthetic apparatus of winter oilseed rape under different nitrogen levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 鲁剑巍; 任涛; 李小坤; 丛日环

    2016-01-01

    组分氮的分配比例与PNUE均呈显著正相关关系,而与非光合组分氮分配比例呈显著负相关关系。【结论】随施氮量的升高,油菜苗期光合氮利用效率呈下降趋势。氮素在光合器官(羧化系统、生物力能学组分和捕光系统)分配的差异是影响冬油菜苗期叶片光合氮利用效率的重要原因。在保证苗期适宜氮素供应的情况下,通过协调氮素在光合器官的分配对进一步提高作物光合氮素利用效率具有重要意义。%[Objectives]Nitrogen is one of the most important factors limiting crop photosynthesis.Besides nitrogen ( N) concentration, nitrogen allocation in the photosynthetic apparatus is also an important factor influencing crop photosynthesis.The aim of this study was to explore effects of nitrogen allocation on photosynthetic apparatus at the seedling stage of winter oilseed rape under different N levels, to analyze relationship with photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, and to reveal mechanism of photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency affected by nitrogen.[Methods]An on-farm experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of different N levels ( 0 , 180 and 360 kg/hm2;marked as N0, N180 and N360, respectively).Some physiological and photosynthetic parameters ( e.g., net photosynthetic rate(Pn), nitrogen content, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency(PNUE), the maximum rate of carboxylation( Vc max ) and the maximum rate of electron transport ( Jmax ) ) of the first fully expanded leaf were measured to calculate nitrogen allocation in the photosynthetic apparatus ( carboxylation, bioenergetics and light-harvesting components ) .[Results]The results show that the N fertilization could significantly enhance crop growth.The leaf number, leaf area and dry matter of N treatment are significantly higher than those of the N0 treatment.Under different N levels, the leaf nitrogen contents and net photosynthetic rates of the N180 and N360 treatments

  14. RESEARCHES ON OILSEEDS MARKET IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Soare, Elena; Livia DAVID; Aurelia-Vasilica BĂLAN

    2014-01-01

    This scientific paper presents the evolution of oilseeds market in Romania, during the period 2008-2013. In order to show as concise as possible the reality of the oilseeds sector, the research pictures, on the one hand, an evolution of oilseeds specific indicators and on the other hand, an evolution of external trade. Romania disposes of tradition and favourable pedo-climatic conditions for cultivating the oilseeds plants. This is demonstrated by the favourable results obtained in the last y...

  15. The Effects of Rape Residue Mulching on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from No-Tillage Paddy Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Sheng Zhang; Cou-Gui Cao; Li-Jin Guo; Cheng-Fang Li

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha−1) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0–20 cm soil layer at harv...

  16. The Realities of Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  17. Forensic implications of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rape is a sexual act of violence in which physical strength is used. Criminal law imposes strict punishments for such crimes as rape. Psycho-pathologically, rape is among the gravest of crimes, often associated with extremely deviated behavior. This article deals with the forensic aspects of sexual violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2000-2004. We report about sexual assaults, personality of delinquents, motives and consequences of rape. Material and Methods. Two groups of violent offenders were compared in the study: perpetrators of rape (N=90, and perpetrators of other criminal offences (N=90-recidivists. The control group included young males (N=90. Results. The results of the study show a high level of violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The rape rate equals the level of homicide in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Rape offenders are mostly people with personal disorders (70%, but they also present with other illnesses and behavior disorders. Conclusion. The significance of rape as a violent crime has not been sufficiently studied. High incidence of violence and rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina is extremely disturbing. The most disturbing aspect is the increase of violence and failure to take certain measures. The role of psychiatry is to provide penal education, treatment and programs for elimination of consequences of rape. .

  18. Planting depth for oilseed calendula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) is not only a popular ornamental plant in temperate climates, but also a potential oilseed crop. Its seed oil has high levels of calendic acid, which makes it a highly valued drying oil with important industrial applications. Much basic agronomic information on c...

  19. Secondary Victims of Rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels of...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  20. Under the Rape Shield

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the Rape Shield Laws and their evolution in the United States, one of the pioneers in this field. The article also discusses constitutional and feminist critiques of present Rape Shield Laws, and ends with a comparative perspective throughout the Anglo-American legal space today. Finally, although the Rape Shield Laws can be approached from a variety of discourses, this article engages specifically with a discourse that intersects legal and feminist analyses.

  1. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  2. Relation between Neodymium and Calcium in Rape under Ca-Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪天华; 魏幼璋; 刁维萍

    2004-01-01

    The function of Nd3+ with different concentrations in oilseed rape under Ca-deficiency was studied.The results indicate that the root surface-area of rape which treated with 3 μmol*L-1 Nd(NO3)3 is enlarged,and the taproot length,root dry weight and root CEC all increase as well as roots oxidizing capacity.Nd3+ can replace Ca2+ partially,and the replacement action is embodied likely through plasmolemma Ca2+-ATPase with signal transduction pathway.Nd3+ shows mainly its toxic action under high concentration(60 μmol·L-1).

  3. Plant genetics. Early allopolyploid evolution in the post-Neolithic Brassica napus oilseed genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub, Boulos; Denoeud, France; Liu, Shengyi; Parkin, Isobel A P; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Xiyin; Chiquet, Julien; Belcram, Harry; Tong, Chaobo; Samans, Birgit; Corréa, Margot; Da Silva, Corinne; Just, Jérémy; Falentin, Cyril; Koh, Chu Shin; Le Clainche, Isabelle; Bernard, Maria; Bento, Pascal; Noel, Benjamin; Labadie, Karine; Alberti, Adriana; Charles, Mathieu; Arnaud, Dominique; Guo, Hui; Daviaud, Christian; Alamery, Salman; Jabbari, Kamel; Zhao, Meixia; Edger, Patrick P; Chelaifa, Houda; Tack, David; Lassalle, Gilles; Mestiri, Imen; Schnel, Nicolas; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Fan, Guangyi; Renault, Victor; Bayer, Philippe E; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Manoli, Sahana; Lee, Tae-Ho; Thi, Vinh Ha Dinh; Chalabi, Smahane; Hu, Qiong; Fan, Chuchuan; Tollenaere, Reece; Lu, Yunhai; Battail, Christophe; Shen, Jinxiong; Sidebottom, Christine H D; Wang, Xinfa; Canaguier, Aurélie; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bérard, Aurélie; Deniot, Gwenaëlle; Guan, Mei; Liu, Zhongsong; Sun, Fengming; Lim, Yong Pyo; Lyons, Eric; Town, Christopher D; Bancroft, Ian; Wang, Xiaowu; Meng, Jinling; Ma, Jianxin; Pires, J Chris; King, Graham J; Brunel, Dominique; Delourme, Régine; Renard, Michel; Aury, Jean-Marc; Adams, Keith L; Batley, Jacqueline; Snowdon, Rod J; Tost, Jorg; Edwards, David; Zhou, Yongming; Hua, Wei; Sharpe, Andrew G; Paterson, Andrew H; Guan, Chunyun; Wincker, Patrick

    2014-08-22

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement. PMID:25146293

  4. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil, L.; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P. K.; Gopala Krishna, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with disti...

  5. Diagnostic methods of pollen beetle and other winter rape pests resistance to insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The literature review summarizes informations about pests of winter oilseed rape, problem of pest resistance to insecticides, mechanisms of resistance of insects to insecticides and methods, how to evaluate the resistance, and the emergence and development of resistance of pollen beetle to pyrethroids in Europe and in the Czech Republic. In the experimental part of the master‘s thesis, resistance of pollen beetle from 5 locations in the Czech Republic to the three selected pyrethroids (deltam...

  6. Rape Proclivity among Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamuth, Neil M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes and integrates data concerning the hypothesis that many "normal" men possess the proclivity to rape. Identifies responses that distinguish convicted rapists from the general population; analyzes the relationships between reported likelihood of raping and responses found to characterize rapists; and examines the relationship between…

  7. Naming the Rape Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Nolan

    Since state laws prohibiting identification of rape victims were struck down in a 1975 United States Supreme Court ruling, the media have been reconsidering their traditional policy of preserving victims' anonymity. Explaining their decision to begin naming victims in rape trials, several newspapers cite the press's responsibility to provide the…

  8. The health condition of spring oilseed crops in relation to the fungi colonising their seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Majchrzak; Tomasz P. Kurowski; Zofia Karpińska

    2013-01-01

    The research was conduced in the years 1999-2000. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of the following spring oilseed crops: crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst.) cv. B o r o w s k i, false flax (Camelina sativa L.) cv. B o r o w s k a, spring rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L.) cv. M a r g o and oleiferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L.) cv. P e g l e t t a. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on th...

  9. Experimental Study of Reciprocating Friction between Rape Stalk and Bionic Nonsmooth Surface Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. China is the largest producer of rape oilseed in the world; however, the mechanization level of rape harvest is relatively low, because rape materials easily adhere to the cleaning screens of combine harvesters, resulting in significant cleaning losses. Previous studies have shown that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens restrain the adhesion of rape materials, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objective. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and bionic nonsmooth metal surface was examined. Methods. The short-time Fourier transform method was used to discriminate the stable phase of friction signals and the stick-lag distance was defined to analyze the stable reciprocating friction in a phase diagram. Results. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and metal surface is a typical stick-slip friction, and the bionic nonsmooth metal surfaces with concave or convex units reduced friction force with increasing reciprocating frequency. The results also showed that the stick-lag distance of convex surface increased with reciprocating frequency, which indicated that convex surface reduces friction force more efficiently. Conclusions. We suggest that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens, especially with convex units, restrain the adhesion of rape materials more efficiently compared to the smooth surface cleaning screens.

  10. Is the Rape Rate Increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Paul; And Others

    While it has been asserted that rape has increased in frequency over the past generation, part of this increase may be due to a greater willingness to report rape to the authorities. A study was conducted to examine the frequency of rape and to describe the characteristics of rape victims. A random questionnaire survey of 4,340 adults in five…

  11. The health condition of spring oilseed crops in relation to the fungi colonising their seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conduced in the years 1999-2000. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of the following spring oilseed crops: crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst. cv. B o r o w s k i, false flax (Camelina sativa L. cv. B o r o w s k a, spring rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L. cv. M a r g o and oleiferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L. cv. P e g l e t t a. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves and siliques of spring rape and oleiferous radish and on the leaves and stems of crambe. False flax proved to be weakly infected by pathogens. On its leaves gray mould (Botrytis cinerea was found in all the years of the research. The disease was found on the siliques only in 1999. In 2000 powdery mildew was found on spring rape and false flax (respectively, Erysiphe crucifearum and E.cichoracearum. The weather conditions affected the intensity of the diseases on the studied spring oilseed crops. Alernaria genus, especially A.alternata was most commonly isolated from the seeds of examined plants. It constituted from 37% (in crambe to 63,3% (in spring rape of all the isolates. Of the remaining pathogenic species, numerous fungi of the Fusarium genus (F.avenaceum, F.culmorum, F.equiseti and F.oxysporum were isolated. They constituted from 1,0% (false flax to 17,3% (crambe of the isolates.

  12. Gas assisted mechanical expression of oilseeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Paul

    2007-01-01

    It is the objective of this thesis to show the general applicability of the Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) process for recovery of oil from oilseeds with high yields. In this process, the oilseeds are saturated with supercritical CO2 before mechanical pressing. The CO2 displaces part of t

  13. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Confusion Crying or feeling numb Fear Loss of emotional control Nervousness or inappropriate laughter Not eating or sleeping ... provided in a safe and supportive environment. Ongoing emotional ... RESOURCES: Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network -- www.rainn.org

  14. THE SUBJECTS OF RAPE

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana-Narcisa Radu

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the criminal codes of other states as well as the issues raised by the doctrine and jurisprudence, the new Criminal Code brings significant changes to the offense of rape, changes aimed at, among others, aspects regarding its subjects. In this paper are analyzed: the possibility for a legal person to have the quality of active subject of rape, issues concerning the quality of passive subject, the regulation of aggravated forms and its implications, etc.

  15. Types of rape victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavior of rape victims is an enigma associated with the following phenomena: poverty, transition, legal weaknesses, and unintegrated mental health network. The aim of the study was to investigate rape victimization in relation to anomie, stress and postwar transition-related weaknesses in B&H in the period 1996-2005; and perform a personal analysis of rape victims. Material and methods: The experimental group consisted of rape victims receiving psychiatric treatment: non-violent victimization (n=125. It included random female victims with mental diseases: victimization by abuse of power and unclear victimization. The control group consisted of violent victimization victims (n=125, females. This was a multicentric, longitudinal, prospective study. Intercorrelation, univariate and canonical discrimination analyses were performed. Results Rape offenders were of male gender (c2 = 29.970 statistical significance p<0.001, from broken families was (c2 = 0.830, migration (c2 = 0.064, and heredity (c2 = 0.406. Victimization was classified as non-violent, social, unclear and violent. Non-violent victimization occurred in 19.03% (2001 to 24.46% (2004. Abuse of mental patients was recorded in 16.08% (2002 and 22.61% (2000, and abuse of power in 2.12% (2000 and 3.55% (2000, whereas unclear rape occurred in 0.88% (2004 and 1.74% (2002. We have found that patients from the primary group are significantly more anxious and depressed in total score and in individual items. Conclusion: Non-violent victimization was committed by persons with impaired intelligence, acute psychotic crisis, and substance abuse. Social victimization and criminally unclear rapes were of transitional character. Victimization was caused by (postwar anomy, poverty, stress and violence. It is given insufficient significance because of high prevalence and "dark number" of victims. The study emphasizes the role of psychiatry as well as weakness of the system in the

  16. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  17. If Your Child is Raped

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All About Food Allergies If Your Child Is Raped KidsHealth > For Parents > If Your Child Is Raped Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Si su hijo es víctima de una violación Rape — forced, unwanted sexual intercourse — can happen to males ...

  18. Perennial Grain and Oilseed Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Michael B; Tyl, Catrin E; Dorn, Kevin M; Zhang, Xiaofei; Jungers, Jacob M; Kaser, Joe M; Schendel, Rachel R; Eckberg, James O; Runck, Bryan C; Bunzel, Mirko; Jordan, Nick R; Stupar, Robert M; Marks, M David; Anderson, James A; Johnson, Gregg A; Sheaffer, Craig C; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Ismail, Baraem; Heimpel, George E; Wyse, Donald L

    2016-04-29

    Historically, agroecosystems have been designed to produce food. Modern societies now demand more from food systems-not only food, fuel, and fiber, but also a variety of ecosystem services. And although today's farming practices are producing unprecedented yields, they are also contributing to ecosystem problems such as soil erosion, greenhouse gas emissions, and water pollution. This review highlights the potential benefits of perennial grains and oilseeds and discusses recent progress in their development. Because of perennials' extended growing season and deep root systems, they may require less fertilizer, help prevent runoff, and be more drought tolerant than annuals. Their production is expected to reduce tillage, which could positively affect biodiversity. End-use possibilities involve food, feed, fuel, and nonfood bioproducts. Fostering multidisciplinary collaborations will be essential for the successful integration of perennials into commercial cropping and food-processing systems. PMID:26789233

  19. [Bacterial diseases of rape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Dankevych, L A; Patyka, V P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial destruction of the culture was described and its agents identified in the spring and winter rape crops. Typical symptoms are the following: browning of stem tissue and its mucilagization, chlorosis of leaves, yellowing and beginning of soft rot in the place of leaf stalks affixion to stems, loss of pigmentation (violet). Pathogenic properties of the collection strains and morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the agents of rape's bacterial diseases isolated by the authors have been investigated. It was found that all the isolates selected by the authors are highly or moderately aggressive towards different varieties of rape. According to the complex of phenotypic properties 44% of the total number of isolates selected by the authors are related to representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, 37% - to Xanthomonas and 19% - to Pectobacterium. PMID:23293826

  20. Effect of Different Straw Covering Farming Patterns on Soil Physicochemical Properties under Rice-oilseed Rape Cropping System%不同秸秆覆盖耕作方式对稻—油轮作土壤理化性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹继华; 刘樱; 赵小蓉; 赵燮京

    2011-01-01

    通过成都平原定位试验,进行了稻—油轮作条件下2种不同秸秆覆盖耕作方式对土壤理化性状影响的研究.结果表明:秸秆覆盖耕作对土壤全量养分、速效养分以及有机质含量均有明显的提高作用,而且均以秸秆覆盖免耕效果最好;秸秆覆盖翻耕对土壤容重与土壤孔隙度的改善作用最为明显,而秸秆覆盖免耕效果较差.作物产量分析表明,稻—油轮作条件下覆盖处理对油菜的增产效果显著,尤以免耕覆盖处理产量最高;翻耕覆盖处理对水稻上却表现为的产量最高,而免耕覆盖处理的产量最低.研究表明,在稻—油轮作条件下,如何合理地采用秸秆覆盖翻耕或秸秆覆盖免耕,是今后值得继续研究的问题.%Hie location experiment in plain area of Chengdu was conducted to study the effect of two different straw covering farming patternson soil physicochemical properties. The results showed that straw covering could obviously improve the congtent of the total nutrient, availablenutrient and organic content .and straw covering with non-tillage had the best effects. Straw covering with tillage had obviously improvingeffects on soil bulk density and soil porosity,but straw covering with non-tillage had no. Under rice-rape rotation,straw covering had obviouseffects on the yield of rape, especially in straw covering with non-tillage. Straw covering with tillage could significantly increase the riceyield.

  1. An Acquaintance Rape Prevention Program: Effects on Attitudes Toward Women, Rape-Related Attitudes, and Perceptions of Rape Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzone-Glover, Holly A.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Jacobs, Cecilia Dine

    1998-01-01

    Studied the effects of an acquaintance-rape prevention program on college students' attitudes (n=152) toward rape and attitudes toward women, perceptions of acquaintance rape scenarios, and rape empathy. Positive attitude change was stronger among men, who became more certain of rape definitions. Contains 53 references. (SLD)

  2. Social Perception of Rape: How Rape Myth Acceptance Modulates the Influence of Situational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Bettina; Moya, Miguel; Megias, Jesus

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the role of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and situational factors in the perception of three different rape scenarios (date rape, marital rape, and stranger rape). One hundred and eighty-two psychology undergraduates were asked to emit four judgements about each rape situation: victim responsibility, perpetrator responsibility,…

  3. Coping with rape : a social psychological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Krahé, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Content Social stereotypes and responsibility attributions to victims of rape Atributing responsibillty to rape victims: a German study Rape myth acceptance and responsibility judgments: a British study Police officers' definitions of rape A study on cognitive prototypes of rape Conclusion References

  4. Counseling Rape Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Deborah L.

    The psychological treatment of rape victims is complicated due to the nature of the crime; the trauma which may occur in four main areas of the victim's life (social, emotional, physical and sexual); community agency involvement and treatment, if any; and the societal attitude that places the blame on the victim. Therapists, in treating rape…

  5. RESEARCHES ON OILSEEDS MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the evolution of oilseeds market in Romania, during the period 2008-2013. In order to show as concise as possible the reality of the oilseeds sector, the research pictures, on the one hand, an evolution of oilseeds specific indicators and on the other hand, an evolution of external trade. Romania disposes of tradition and favourable pedo-climatic conditions for cultivating the oilseeds plants. This is demonstrated by the favourable results obtained in the last years, especially concerning the sunflower crop. In 2013, Romania registered a record for sunflower, occupying the first position in the European Union for cultivated area and production. A negative aspect is represented by the fact that our country has the best conditions in Europe for soybean crop, but it is still dependent on import. Romania imports a huge quantity of soybean oilcakes for animal feeding. Nowadays, Romania is an important actor in the sunflower world market, covering almost 19% of the global demand. In perspective, one could expect significant oilseeds productions with a positive influence on the agro-food trade balance in our country.

  6. Oilseed brassica improvement through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement in processing and refining technologies of oil seed brassica have now made possible the use of rape seed mustard oil as cooking medium shortening, salad ingredients and in margarine in many countries. Different promising rape seed mutants were tested for yield and other agronomic traits in eight preliminary yields trails and results of these trails are presented in this report. Three varieties of rape seeds were subjected to 80, 100, 120 krads and two varieties of mustard were treated 60, 80, 100 krads dose of gamma rays. (A.B.)

  7. Debating rape myths

    OpenAIRE

    Reece, Helen

    2014-01-01

    In a recent article, I argued that the regressiveness of current public attitudes towards rape has been overstated, suggesting that, to a troubling extent, we are in the process of creating myths about myths. The article itself and the arguments contained within it have provoked various responses from feminists. While these responses proceed at times on the basis of misunderstandings or misinterpretations of my argument, they are helpful both in clarifying areas of disagreement and in undersc...

  8. Rape and Its Representation : "Male Myths of Rape" and English Literature, Part One

    OpenAIRE

    坂田, 薫子

    2007-01-01

    "Rape and Its Representation: 'Male Myths of Rape' and English Literature" will explore how English literature has contributed to the formation and development of what Susan Brownmiller calls "male myths of rape". This essay, "Rape and Its Representation: 'Male Myths of Rape' and English Literature, Part One", will mainly examine The Rape of Lucrece (1594) and Clarissa (1747-48). When the rape of Lucretia, which was recorded in The History of Rome as a symbol of power struggle, was rewritten ...

  9. The costs of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilloux, Carin; Duntley, Joshua D; Buss, David M

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined costs experienced by victims of completed rape (n=49) and attempted sexual assault (n=91) using quantitative analyses of 13 domains: health, self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, self-perceived mate value, family relationships,work life, social life, social reputation, sexual reputation, desire to have sex, frequency of sex, enjoyment of sex, and long-term, committed relationships. Women also provided descriptive accounts of their experiences, and we used these to illustrate the costs in the victims' own words.Compared to victims of an attempted sexual assault, victims of a completed rape reported significantly more negative outcomes in 11 of the 13 domains. The most negatively affected domains were self-esteem, sexual reputation, frequency of sex, desire to have sex, and self-perceived mate value. Although victims of rape experienced more negative effects than victims of attempted sexual assault,both groups of victims reported negative effects in every domain.Discussion focuses on the implications of the differing degrees and patterns of the costs of attempted and completed sexual victimization. PMID:21975924

  10. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. PMID:26446194

  11. Rape Myth Acceptance and Rape Proclivity: Expected Dominance Versus Expected Arousal as Mediators in Acquaintance-Rape Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiroro, Patrick; Bohner, Gerd; Viki, G. Tendayi; Jarvis, Christopher I.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals who are high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) have been found to report a high proclivity to rape. In a series of three studies, the authors examined whether the relationship between RMA and self-reported rape proclivity was mediated by anticipated sexual arousal or anticipated enjoyment of sexually dominating the rape victim. Results of…

  12. Oilseed Productivity Under Varying Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseeds for biofuel production may serve as one of the alternative energy strategies that the United States will employ in the future. Biodiesel can be produced from oil extracted from canola, mustard, camelina, sunflower, safflower, and soybean. This paper compares soil water extraction and water ...

  13. Acquaintance Rape: Effective Avoidance Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-MacCombie, Joyce; Koss, Mary P.

    1986-01-01

    Determined that acknowledged and unacknowledged acquaintance rape victims and rape avoiders could be discriminated by situational variables and response strategies. Avoiders were less likely to have experienced passive or internalizing emotions at the time of the assault, perceived the assault as less violent, and were more likely to have utilized…

  14. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  15. Date and Acquaintance Rape: The Legal Point of View. Part 1. The Traditional Law of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Frank H.

    1993-01-01

    First article in two-part series on date and acquaintance rape explains unique circumstances of rape trials and looks at development of traditional rape law. Examines judicial history of rape, and reviews elements of rape (penetration, intent, force, and consent). (Author/NB)

  16. Gender Differences in Rape Supportive Attitudes before and after a Date Rape Education Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenihan, Genie O.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assessed university students' attitudes toward rape and rape mythology and measured impact on these attitudes following exposure to acquaintance rape education program. Findings from 821 students revealed that women readily changed rape supportive attitudes, whereas men were resistant to date rape education program. Findings suggest need for new…

  17. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for chlorantraniliprole in several root and tuber vegetables and oilseeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from DuPont (UK Ltd to modify the existing MRLs in several root and tuber vegetables and to set import tolerances in several oilseeds for the active substance chlorantraniliprole. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of chlorantraniliprole, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRLs in carrots, beetroot, celeriac, horseradish, Jerusalem artichokes, parsnips, parsley root, salsify, swedes, turnips and other root and tuber vegetables, except sugar beet and radish, from the values of 0.02 mg/kg or 0.04 mg/kg (depending on the crop to 0.06 mg/kg and in oilseeds, except peanuts, soya bean and cotton seed, from the limit of quantification of 0.01 mg/kg to 2 mg/kg. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.06 mg/kg for the intended use on carrots, beetroot, celeriac, horseradish, Jerusalem artichokes, parsnips, parsley root, salsify, swedes, turnips, other root and tuber vegetables. For the import tolerance on rape seed, sunflower seed and the minor oilseeds a MRL of 2 mg/kg is derived. The MRLs proposed for rape seed and sunflower seed are tentative, because the submitted dataset was incomplete (six instead of the eight residue trials. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of chlorantraniliprole in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed uses of chlorantraniliprole on the crops under consideration will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore are unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  18. Reactions to Stranger and Acquaintance Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Patricia A.; Barnett, Mark A.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated reactions to a woman who presumably had been raped by a stranger or an acquaintance. Undergraduates read one of two rape descriptions prior to watching a videotape of the woman who (they were led to believe) had been the victim of the rape. Females and males showed markedly different reactions to stranger and acquaintance rape and…

  19. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  20. Transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants, rape blossoms and rape honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the test of atomic weapons and the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, the vegetation in Germany has been exposed to cesium contamination in the soil. It was to be expected that activity would migrate from soil to plants and to food products. In this work, the transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants (Brassica napus var. oleifera), rape blossoms and further to rape honey was investigated. By measuring the gamma activity of cesium using germanium detectors with measuring capacity up to 30 h per sample (limit of detection about 0.14 Bq/kg to 0.19 Bq/kg), we determined a mean transfer factor fcs = 0,116 ± 0,080 for the system soil-rape plant, fcs = 0.065 + 0.075 for the system soil-rape blossom and F!S = 0.098 + 0.044 for the system soil-rape honey (plants and honey wet mass, soil dry mass) (Table IV). Additionally, for the transfer of cesium from rape plants to rape honey, a factor of fcs = 2.04 ± 7.23 (both wet mass) was determined. Due to some environmental circumstances, which can hardly ever be taken into account, the results obtained sometimes differ considerably. Nevertheless, the mean transfer factors are within the range of values found in literature (Table V)

  1. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiloha, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ‘rape laws’ began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ‘rape and inclusion of ‘marital rape’ in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed. PMID:24082245

  2. When is it rape? The role of rape and seduction scripts

    OpenAIRE

    Littleton, Heather Leigh

    2001-01-01

    Accompanying the high prevalence of rape among college women is a high prevalence of unacknowledged rape, or women who have been raped who do not label it as such. The current studies explore one theory which may help account for unacknowledged rape, script theory. Specifically, it may be that individuals have scripts for rape and seduction which overlap on a number dimensions, which may lead certain incidents of rape to be labeled seduction. Three studies were conducted to test the possibl...

  3. Rape and Its Representation : "Male Myths of Rape" and English Literature, Part Two

    OpenAIRE

    坂田, 薫子

    2007-01-01

    "Rape and Its Representation: 'Male Myths of Rape' and English Literature" will explore how English literature has contributed to the formation and development of what Susan Brownmiller calls "male myths of rape". This essay, "Rape and Its Representation: 'Male Myths of Rape' and English Literature, Part Two", will mainly examine Tess of the d'Urbervilles (1891) and "The Company of Wolves" in The Bloody Chamber (1979). When Thomas Hardy represented rape as relations between the sexes wherein ...

  4. Mushroom and Rape Heart Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    100 grams mushrooms12 rape hearts5 grams salt2 grams MSG20 grams (2 tbsp) cooking oilWash mushrooms and slice. Clean the rape hearts, and cross-cut stem ends.Heat oil in a wok, and stir-fry the rape hearts for the short time it takes till their color changes. Add 750 grams (1 1/2 cups) of water. When boiling, add salt, MSG, and mushroom slices. Bring to the boil once more. Serve.Features: clear and refreshing.Effect: Nourishes the heart and stomach.

  5. Predicting Rape Victim Empathy Based on Rape Victimization and Acknowledgment Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Suzanne L

    2016-06-01

    Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. PMID:26490506

  6. Precursors to rape: pressuring behaviors and rape proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Megan L; Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    We developed measures assessing personal and normative attitudes toward two types of behaviors that are symptomatic of rape culture. We conceptualize sexual violence as existing on a continuum and argue that two types of behaviors may be potential antecedents to (and consequences of) sexual violence: attempts to pressure, which mimic the power dynamics of rape in a less aggressive fashion, and benevolent dating behaviors, which are accepted dating scripts in which men initiate action. We examined individuals' acceptance of these behaviors in relation to their attitudes toward rape victims and among men to rape proclivity. This initial work suggests that these constructs and measures may be useful to investigate in future research. PMID:25929145

  7. Response of oilseed Brassica cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucl, P.; Beversdorf, W.D

    1993-10-01

    Research was conducted to determine the sensitivity of four Brassica oilseed crops to ozone under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivars of four Brassica oilseed species were exposed to acute levels of ozone (0.31 or 0.47 [mu]l/l) at the seedling stage. Brassica hirta BHL-926 was the most sensitive to ozone, followed by B. juncea (Newton) and B. rapa (Torch). Injury symptoms ranged from a slight stippling in insensitive species to large bifacial necrotic patches in the most sensitive species. Brassica napus (canola) seedlings exhibited very little foliar injury (0-4% after 24 h exposure to 0.31 [mu]l/l ozone). In Ontario, where a vast majority of canola acreage is seeded to B. napus cultivars, it is unlikely that canola yields are being affected by exposure to ozone. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  8. WOMEN ANTI-RAPE BELT

    OpenAIRE

    Sainath B Gadhe; Ganesh Chinchansure; Amar Kumar; Mritunjay Ojha

    2015-01-01

    Rape is fourth most common and frequently happening crime against women in India. Among metro cities, has more number of rape cases and compare to developed countries like Latin America developing countries like India has less number of such incidences, where very good security facilities are provided by government and ratio of education is higher. So it proves that illiteracy or security is not major reason behind such assaults but the unawareness about self-protection and inefficient self-p...

  9. A Study of Women Who Both Were Raped and Avoided Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Pauline B.

    1981-01-01

    This article, based on interviews with women who had both been raped and avoided being raped when attacked, examines the situational circumstances under which women were more likely to be raped, and those under which they were more likely to avoid being raped. (Author/MJL)

  10. Characterization of Rape Field Microwave Emission and Implications to Surface Soil Moisture Retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Loew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission calibration and validation activities, a ground based L-band radiometer ELBARA II was situated at the test site Puch in Southern Germany in the Upper Danube Catchment. The experiment is described and the different data sets acquired are presented. The L-band microwave emission of the biosphere (L-MEB model that is also used in the SMOS L2 soil moisture algorithm is used to simulate the microwave emission of a winter oilseed rape field in Puch that was also observed by the radiometer. As there is a lack of a rape parameterization for L-MEB the SMOS default parameters for crops are used in a first step which does not lead to satisfying modeling results. Therefore, a new parameterization for L-MEB is developed that allows us to model the microwave emission of a winter oilseed rape field at the test site with better results. The soil moisture retrieval performance of the new parameterization is assessed in different retrieval configurations and the results are discussed. To allow satisfying results, the periods before and after winter have to be modeled with different parameter sets as the vegetation behavior is very different during these two development stages. With the new parameterization it is possible to retrieve soil moisture from multiangular brightness temperature data with a root mean squared error around 0.045–0.051 m³/m³ in a two parameter retrieval with soil moisture and roughness parameter Hr as free parameters.

  11. Genetic Divergence in Advanced Lines of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus ssp oleifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandker Shazia Afrin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} A field experiment was conducted with 22 Brassica napus L. advanced lines at the experimental farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka from November 2008 to March 2009 to asses genetic diversity among advanced lines of Brassica napus L. Different multivariate analysis techniques were used to classify 22 Brassica napus genotypes. The genotypes were grouped into four clusters. The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between clusters II and IV whereas the maximum intra-cluster distance was found in cluster II. Therefore, the genotypes belonging to cluster I and cluster II, cluster II and cluster III and cluster III and cluster IV have been selected for future hybridization program. The role of number of secondary branches per plant and number of siliqua per plant in both vectors were important components for genetic divergence in these materials. Considering group distance and other agronomic performance the inter-genotypic crosses between G1 and G2, G2 and G6; G6 and G7; G6 and G8 and G7 and G8 might be suggested for future hybridization program.

  12. Gene flow from transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to cruciferous weeds under mentor pollen inducement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The alien gene flow between genetically modified glyphosate-resistant rapeseed variety Q3 ( Brassica napus L. ) and four cruciferous weeds was studied under mentor pollen inducement. The results showed that when Thlaspi arvense L., Capsella bursapastoris (L.) Medic, Cardamine hirsuta L. and Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser were pollinated with mentor pollen, the mixed Q3 and the weed, pollen grains aggregated largely and germinated quickly, and the numbers of pollen tubes penetrating into the style and the ovary were greatly increased as compared with corresponding self-pollination groups. Twenty four to forty eight hours after pollination, several pollen tubes were observed to penetrate into the ovule via micropyle in each mentor combination. However, when the mentor progenies were analyzed by PCR, all of them showed negative for the Q3 herbicide-resistant gene. Collectively, these results indicated that crossing between T. arvense, C. bursa-pastoris, C. hirsuta, R. palustris (as female) and Q3 (as male) was highly incompatible and the herbicide-resistant gene could not flow from Q3 to these four weeds.

  13. Diagnosis of limiting factors of organic oilseed rape yield. A survey of farmers' fields

    OpenAIRE

    Morison, Muriel; Meynard, Jean Marc

    2008-01-01

    The use of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars resistant to diseases may make it possible to reduce yield losses without the need to use fungicides, which are expensive and may damage the environment. The cultivar resistances favored depend on the region considered and the nature of the most widespread diseases in that region. We have constructed a statistical linear model for the estimation of relative yield loss due to diseases, making it possible to assess the effects of winter w...

  14. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape

    OpenAIRE

    Budge, G.E.; D. Garthwaite; Crowe, A.; Boatman, N. D.; Delaplane, K. S.; Brown, M A; Thygesen, H H; S. Pietravalle

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the suppos...

  15. Sequencing-based variant detection in the polyploid crop oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The detection and exploitation of genetic variation underpins crop improvement. However, the polyploid nature of the genomes of many of our most important crops represents a barrier, particularly for the analysis of variation within genes. To overcome this, we aimed to develop methodologies based on amplicon sequencing that involve the incorporation of barcoded amplification tags (BATs) into PCR products. Results A protocol was developed to tag PCR products with 5’ 6-base oligonucleotide barcode extensions before pooling for sequencing library production using standard Illumina adapters. A computational method was developed for the de-convolution of products and the robust detection and scoring of sequence variants. Using this methodology, amplicons targeted to gene sequences were screened across a B. napus mapping population and the resulting allele scoring strings for 24 markers linkage mapped to the expected regions of the genome. Furthermore, using one-dimensional 8-fold pooling, 4608 lines of a B. napus mutation population were screened for induced mutations in a locus-specific amplicon (an orthologue of GL2.b) and mixed product of three co-amplified loci (orthologues of FAD2), identifying 10 and 41 mutants respectively. Conclusions The utilisation of barcode tags to de-convolute pooled PCR products in multiplexed, variation screening via Illumina sequencing provides a cost effective method for SNP genotyping and mutation detection and, potentially, markers for causative changes, even in polyploid species. Combining this approach with existing Illumina multiplexing workflows allows the analysis of thousands of lines cheaply and efficiently in a single sequencing run with minimal library production costs. PMID:23915099

  16. Heterosis of Double Low Self-incompatibility in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jin-xiong; FU Ting-dong; YANG Guang-sheng

    2002-01-01

    66 F1 hybrids, produced by 3 double low self-incompatible lines and 22 varieties with a North Carolina Ⅱ (NCⅡ) crossing design, were tested for their heterosis in Wuhan, China during two growing seasons from 1999- 2001. The results showed that significant differences were found between F1s and their parents for yield per plant and seed oil content. Mid-parent heterosis of these two characters ranged from 5.50%-64.11% and from 1.55% -7.44% respectively. Heterosis for seed yield per plant was greater than that of seed oil content. For yield components, heterosis of total number of siliques per plant was the highest, followed by seed number per silique and 1 000 seeds weight. Significant genotype-by-year interaction was found for seed yield per plant. Results from correlation and combining ability analysis indicated that parental effects on its F1 hybrid depended on characters, seed yield per plant was affected by both additive and non-additive effects, and seed oil content was affected mainly by additive effect. When designing hybrid programme, parents might be selected by GCAs and variances of SCAs of parents for the characters affected by both additive and non-additive effects, and by the sum of GCAs of female and male parents for the characters mainly affected by additive effects.

  17. Genetic variability components of some quantitative traits of winter oilseed rape - Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Radovan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of genetic variance components for number of leaves and branches per plant and stem diameter was done according to the method of HAYMAN (1954. Heritability in narrow (h2a and broad (h2b sense was determined for the same traits, using the method of Mather and Jinks (1971. Non-additive component of genetic variance was greater than additive component in all three studied traits. Dominant and recessive genes were not equally distributed in parent genotypes, with dominant genes prevailing. Ratio (H1/D1/2 was higher than 1 in all three tested traits. Calculated values for heritability in narrow sense showed that stem diameter and number of branches per plant are traits with low heritability, and number of leaves per plant a trait with the high heritability. Heritability in a broad sense Was high for all three tested traits.

  18. Oilseed Rape Planting Area Extraction by Support Vector Machine Using Landsat TM Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Wang, Fumin; Liu, Zhanyu; Xu, Junfeng

    One parametric classify (Maximum likelihood classify, MLC for short) and two non-parametric classifiers (Adaptive resonance theory mappings and Support vector machines, ARTMAP and SVM for short) were presented in this study. Base on the confusion matrix and the pixels fuzzy analysis, the nonparametric classifier may be a more preferable approach than the parametric classifier for some remote sensing applications and deserves further investigation. The ARTMAP classify represent much best than the rest of classify, especially for the grade of pure pixel (90-100% pureness), Kappa coefficients and overall accuracy were nearly 100%. The higher pureness the pixels were, the better classification accuracy was got.

  19. Long-term persistence of GM oilseed rape in the seedbank

    OpenAIRE

    D'Hertefeldt, Tina; Jørgensen, Rikke B.; Pettersson, Lars B.

    2008-01-01

    Coexistence between genetically modified (GM) and non-GM plants is a field of rapid development and considerable controversy. In crops, it is increasingly important to understand and predict the GM volunteer emergence in subsequent non-GM crops. Theoretical models suggest recruitment from the seedbank over extended periods, but empirical evidence matching these predictions has been scarce. Here, we provide evidence of long-term GM seed persistence in conventional agriculture. Ten years after ...

  20. Oppression through acceptance?: predicting rape myth acceptance and attitudes toward rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Hoffman, Bethany H; Smith, Sara J; Craig, Adam W

    2009-08-01

    Feminist theories of rape motivation are based on research suggesting a relationship between dominance and sexual aggression. However, the relationship between dominance and rape myth acceptance (RMA), a predictor of rape proclivity and sexual aggression and a key component in feminist theory, is understudied. The current study tests the hypotheses that individuals' scores on sex-based oppression and intergroup dominance measures will improve the predictive models for RMA and attitudes toward rape and rape victims. The hypotheses are supported. Individuals' general intergroup dominance and sex-based oppression attitudes provide significant unique prediction beyond previously studied predictors of attitudes about rape and rape victims. PMID:19506093

  1. Adolescent attitudes toward victim precipitation of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, L M

    1998-01-01

    Adolescents have high rates of rape victimization and offending compared to other age groups, yet few studies have examined predictors of rape-supportive attitudes among adolescents. Drawing from Burt's (1980) study of rape myth acceptance among adults, this study tests a path analytic model of adolescent attitudes about victim precipitation of rape, using a sample of 1393 cases from the National Youth Survey (NYS) (Elliott, Ageton, Huizinga, Knowles, & Cantor, 1983). LISREL (Jöreskeg & Sörbom, 1988) estimation procedures are applied. Results show direct effects of sociocultural influences on an individual's level of rape myth acceptance, but demonstrate some interesting gender differences. Findings also reveal indirect effects of age, race, and socioeconomic status on attitudes toward rape, which operate through traditional gender role stereo-typing. Educating young adolescents about the nature of rape and the rights and roles of women are logical points of intervention to decrease acceptance of rape myths that target the victim. PMID:9836415

  2. Cultural and legal accounts of rape

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Villanueva, Concepción; Koulianou-Manolopoulou, Panagiota

    2008-01-01

    The present paper attempts to show how rape is represented in a variety of historical and contemporary discourses. Examples of rapes in Greek mythology, in the Bible, in medieval iconography, in literature, and in scientific theories, are compared and contrasted. Analysis suggests that such discourses tend to make sexual aggression (and specifically the rape of women) legitimate, be it by minimizing the harm done; by normalizing and naturalizing sexual violence; or by aesthetisizing rape as a...

  3. Schematic effects of rape myth acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Süssenbach, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    In a set of studies, the present work investigates the type of influence exerted by rape myth acceptance (RMA). Rape myths may be defined as "beliefs about rape (i.e., about its causes, context, consequences, perpetrators, victims, and their interaction) that serve to deny, downplay or justify male sexual aggression against women" (Gerger, Kley, Bohner, & Siebler, 2007, p. 423). In this work the hypothesis is made and tested that the acceptance of rape myths influences the processing of relev...

  4. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, L; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with distilled water and cooked in such a way to separate the cooked solid residue and liquid extract followed by freeze drying to get two products from each. The raw, cooked dried residue and extract were analyzed for various parameters such as moisture (0.9-27.4 %), fat (2.1-16.1 %), ash (3.3-9.0 %), minerals (2.6-633.2 mg/100 g), total dietary fiber (23.2-58.2 %), crude fiber (2.7-10.5 %), protein (3.2-34.0 %), and the fat further analyzed for fatty acid composition, oryzanol (138-258 mg/100 g) and lignan (99-113 mg/100 g) contents and also evaluated sensory evaluation. Nutritional composition of products as affected by cooking was studied. The cooked products (residue and extract) showed changes in nutrients content and composition from that of the starting cakes and raw materials, but retained more nutrients in cooked residue than in the extract. The sensory evaluation of cooked residue and extract showed overall higher acceptability by the panelists than the starting cakes and raw materials. On the basis of these findings it can be concluded that these cooked residue and extract products are highly valuable for food supplementation than the raw ones. PMID:25892801

  5. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  6. Rape Prevention: Experiential Training for Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lucienne A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an experiential program in which men are educated about rape and are helped to increase their empathic understanding of victims of rape. Discusses the two-hour educational workshop which focuses on rape myths and facts, guided fantasy, and experiential empathy. (Author/NB)

  7. Reliability Reporting Practices in Rape Myth Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhi, Eric R.

    2005-01-01

    A number of school-based programs address sexual violence by focusing on adolescents' attitudes about rape or acceptance of rape myths. However, really problems exist in the literature regarding measurement of rape myth acceptance, including issues of reliability and validity. This paper addresses measurement reliability issues and reviews…

  8. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer CropSciences AG to modify the existing MRL for the active substance bixafen in rape seed. The submitted residue data support the intended use of bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed in France as well. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bixafen, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRL from 0.015 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.07 mg/kg for the proposed use on rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed. An adequate analytical enforcement method is available to control the residues of bixafen in oilseeds. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of bixafen on rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk. This risk assessment has to be regarded as provisional since the residue definition for enforcement and risk assessment in oilseeds are provisional and pending the need for MRLs in rotational crops and the definitive MRLs in animal origin commodities.

  9. Rape as a fuel crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Community has decided to limit the production of excess amounts of corn so that 15% of an agricultural area should lie fallow. Rape can be cultivated on setaside areas and converted to the biofuel rape seed oil methyl ester (ROME). The aim was to discover whether ROME as a fuel pollutes less than diesel oil. The combustion of ROME and light diesel was investigated and compared and the economics of there respective life cycles were considered with emphasis on their pollutive properties. It was concluded that in urban areas the use of ROME produces emissions that are more dangerous to health than those emitted by diesel oil. In addition the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides which are necessary for the cultivation of rape constitute a further load on the environmental pollutive load. (AHJ) (44 refs.)

  10. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiloha, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ‘rape laws’ began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ‘rape and inclusion of ‘marital rape’ in the ambit of rape. Law Commis...

  11. Cultural and legal accounts of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Villanueva, Concepción

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to show how rape is represented in a variety of historical and contemporary discourses. Examples of rapes in Greek mythology, in the Bible, in medieval iconography, in literature, and in scientific theories, are compared and contrasted. Analysis suggests that such discourses tend to make sexual aggression (and specifically the rape of women legitimate, be it by minimizing the harm done; by normalizing and naturalizing sexual violence; or by aesthetisizing rape as art. Finally, the paper argues that putting modern legal accounts of rape into their historical perspective brings into sharper focus the persistence of ancient myths and discourses

  12. Radio-sensitivity analysis and selection of useful mutants of rape (Brassica napus L.) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rape (Brassica napus L.) plants are one of the major oilseed crops. The main components of rapeseed are oil (35 to 47%) and protein (15 to 32%). For the biodiesel production, the development of a new variety of rape plant with high biomass and/or oleic acid contents is required. In order to determine the optimum dose of gamma-ray irradiation, the rape seeds of cvs. Hanra (Hr), Youngsan (Ys), Tammi (Tm), and Tamra (Tr) were irradiated with a 100 ∼ 4,000 Gy dose range of gamma-rays. Considering the growth factors, the optimum doses were determined to be within the range of 600 ∼ 1,000 Gy for the selection of useful mutant lines. Six-hundred and eighty eight (688) M2 mutant lines were obtained from 600 ∼ 1,000 Gy gamma-ray-irradiated M1 plants through selfing. The growth characteristics, leaf shape, early flowering, and flower color were all investigated. The selected mutant numbers of early flowering, leaf shape, and flower color were 34, 52, and 3 from the four cultivars, respectively. These mutant lines will be used for the development of a new variety of rape plant with high biomass and oleic acid contents

  13. Radio-sensitivity analysis and selection of useful mutants of rape (Brassica napus L.) by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Eun Jeong; Kim, Wook Jin; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Rape (Brassica napus L.) plants are one of the major oilseed crops. The main components of rapeseed are oil (35 to 47%) and protein (15 to 32%). For the biodiesel production, the development of a new variety of rape plant with high biomass and/or oleic acid contents is required. In order to determine the optimum dose of gamma-ray irradiation, the rape seeds of cvs. Hanra (Hr), Youngsan (Ys), Tammi (Tm), and Tamra (Tr) were irradiated with a 100 {approx} 4,000 Gy dose range of gamma-rays. Considering the growth factors, the optimum doses were determined to be within the range of 600 {approx} 1,000 Gy for the selection of useful mutant lines. Six-hundred and eighty eight (688) M{sub 2} mutant lines were obtained from 600 {approx} 1,000 Gy gamma-ray-irradiated M{sub 1} plants through selfing. The growth characteristics, leaf shape, early flowering, and flower color were all investigated. The selected mutant numbers of early flowering, leaf shape, and flower color were 34, 52, and 3 from the four cultivars, respectively. These mutant lines will be used for the development of a new variety of rape plant with high biomass and oleic acid contents.

  14. Counseling Date Rape Survivors: Implications for College Student Personnel Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Sherry K.

    A general legal definition of rape is sexual intercourse forced on an individual by another against his/her will and overcoming his/her resistance. Although the female is usually referred to as the survivor and the male as the perpetrator, there are cases of male rape. Rape may be divided into stranger rape and acquaintance rape. Types of…

  15. Guidelines For The Rape Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Rebecca A.; Schaefer, Joanne; Goldstein, Frank

    1980-01-01

    The rape victim presents with legal and psychological problems as well as medical ones. In order to respond to all her needs, the physician must be aware of the legal questions to be answered in the record, the patient's psychological needs in this high stress situation, and the medical problems likely to be encountered.

  16. WOMEN ANTI-RAPE BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainath B Gadhe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rape is fourth most common and frequently happening crime against women in India. Among metro cities, has more number of rape cases and compare to developed countries like Latin America developing countries like India has less number of such incidences, where very good security facilities are provided by government and ratio of education is higher. So it proves that illiteracy or security is not major reason behind such assaults but the unawareness about self-protection and inefficient self-protection weapons currently available like Ninja key chain , pepper spray, handgun etc. It is also revealed that in 98% rape cases, culprit is someone close to victim like neighbour or relative, where bureaucrats can’t do much to control as it is not possible to keep watch on each house every time. This paper summarizes current safety weapons available for women self-protection in situations like rape, assaults and adds new perspective of using GPS system and android smartphones for women safety. By implementing and using our proposed system, not only safety of women but also of valuable things will be just a click away at very cheap price and that don't need to be carried separately.

  17. Preferences for Rape Reduction Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulewitz, Judith E.; Kahn, Arnold S.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 53 female and 36 male college students to examine attitudes on the perceived effectiveness of four rape reduction strategies. Generally aggressive strategies and those placing the locus of responsibility for change upon women were considered most effective. Sex role attitudes were more predictive than subject sex differences. (JAC)

  18. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that

  19. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  20. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for tetraconazole in rape seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Italy received an application from Isagro SpA to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance tetraconazole in several commodities of plant and animal origin. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of tetraconazole, Italy proposed to raise the existing MRL in rape seeds from the limit of quantification (0.02 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg and to lower or maintain unchanged the existing MRLs on certain commodities of plant and animal origin. Italy drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.15 mg/kg for the intended use on rape seeds. EFSA is of the opinion that the lowering of the MRLs should be assessed within the framework of Article 12 of Regulation (EC 396/2005. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control tetraconazole residues in rape seeds at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. EFSA concludes that the proposed use on oilseed rape will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk based on the risk assessment performed for the parent compound tetraconazole. EFSA emphasizes that the above assessment does not take into consideration the triazole derivative metabolites (TDMs. Since these metabolites may be generated by several pesticides belonging to the group of triazole fungicides, EFSA recommends that a separate risk assessment should be performed for the relevant TDMs as soon as the confirmatory data requested for triazole compounds in the framework of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 have been evaluated and a general methodology on the risk assessment of triazole compounds and their triazole derivative metabolites is available.

  1. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values. PMID:12158004

  2. Instability, Supply Response and Insurance in Oilseeds Production in India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, L.M.; Kumar, Sant; Mruthyunjaya

    2005-01-01

    Yield and price instability and covariate risks have been examined for major oilseeds, viz. groundnut, rapeseed/mustard, sunflower and soybean, in selected states of India using time series data. Risk behaviour and effects of price and price risk on production have been analyzed in a rational expectations framework. The study has also estimated social gains from yield and revenue insurance in oilseeds. While instabilities in yield, prices and gross return have shown mixed responses, covariate...

  3. The globalization of international oilseeds trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittaine Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised world, the trade of goods and services constitute the heart of the economic system. But the trade patterns may show extreme diversity depending upon the nature of the concerned products. The technical and functional constraints do impose their laws, particularly when they relate to biological products/commodities. The term globalization is generally used to describe a complex process of international integration. When referring to oilseeds, the term must also relate to agriculture and human nutritional requirements for a rising human population spread all over the world, particularly in large urban environment. With an annual harvest of about 450 Mn T, oilseeds are naturally “globalized” in their production patterns. The complexity of their production schemes associated with the diversity of their usage on widespread geographical regions gives this group of commodities a unique role on the world markets. This process of opened trade channels has enabled the sector to meet the supply requirements of a quickly rising demand coming from both the population and all the industrial usages including alternative “green” energy. However, for the time being, demand growth has not been fully counter-balanced by production growth. As a consequence, unless some strict reallocation of acreage is effectively organized or new high yielding technologies are developed, it is a fact that vegetable oil will keep a strong demand base for a long time, compounded by the mechanical demand from economic growth in highly populated emerging economies. The balancing of supply and demand is expected to remain a tight exercise every year. At the end of the day, the future of the entire industry largely lies in technology because the final stake is to ensure the proper feeding of a 9 billion people population in a not too far future.

  4. Cultural myths and supports for rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, M R

    1980-02-01

    This article describes the "rape myth" and tests hypotheses derived from social psychological and feminist theory that acceptance of rape myths can be predicted from attitudes such as sex role stereotyping, adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual conservatism, and acceptance of interpersonal violence. Personality characteristics, background characteristics, and personal exposure to rape, rape victims, and rapists are other factors used in predictions. Results from regression analysis of interview data indicate that the higher the sex role stereotyping, adversarial sexual beliefs, and acceptance of interpersonal violence, the greater a respondent's acceptance of rape myths. In addition, younger and better educated people reveal less stereotypic, adversarial, and proviolence attitudes and less rape myth acceptance. Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for understanding and changing this cultural orientation toward sexual assault. PMID:7373511

  5. Exploitation of Physical Mapping Technologies for Breeding of Canola Mutants in Oilseed Brassicas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutant population of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and mustard (Brassica juncea) consisting of 25,748 M2 mutants developed and screened through non-destructive quality analysis using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for modified fatty acid profile. The genetic stability of mutant lines with desirable fatty acid profile ascertained in the M2:4 population. The DNA molecular polymorphism survey was conducted using DNA extracted from stable mutant lines. A total of 80% of the SSR primers screened yielded amplification products in all the selected lines. The polymorphism for the mutated genetic makeup of selected mutant plants of brassica with respective initial parents were studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize the distribution of rDNA probes. With modified fatty acid composition 14 brassica mutant lines of the M2:5 generation were tested for yield performance under replicated yield trials for two consecutive years at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA). The yield and quality performance of these 14 mutant lines were also evaluated under diversified agro-climatic conditions across the country. All the brassica mutant lines confirmed the genetic stability in modified fatty acid composition and yield potential. (author)

  6. Belief in Rape Myths: The Role of Gender, Attitudes Toward Women and Knowledge of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, R. Michael

    Degree of belief in rape myths as determined by participant gender, attitudes about the role of women in contemporary society, and factual knowledge of rape was investigated in a sample of 118 male and 126 female college students. The results support the general assumption that a rape ideology exists which involves components of belief in rape…

  7. College Women's Fears and Precautionary Behaviors Relating to Acquaintance Rape and Stranger Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Susan E.; Muehlenhard, Charlene L.

    1997-01-01

    Studied the fears, beliefs, and behaviors of 139 college women about acquaintance and stranger rape. Women were more afraid of stranger rape and took more precautions against it but paradoxically believed that acquaintance rape was more common. Precautionary behaviors were best predicted by level of fear. Theoretical and educational implications…

  8. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for isopyrazam in pome fruits, various stone fruits and oilseeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Syngenta Crop Protection UK Ltd to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance isopyrazam in pome fruits, stone fruits and oilseeds. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of isopyrazam, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg to 0.7 mg/kg in pome fruits, 1.5 mg/kg in apricots and peaches, including nectarines and 0.4 mg/kg in linseed, poppy seed, mustard seed and rape seed. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.7 mg/kg for the intended use on pome fruits, 1.5 mg/kg for the intended use on peaches and 0.4 mg/kg for the intended use on rape seed, linseed, mustard seed and poppy seed. The intended use on apricots is not adequately supported by residue data and no MRL proposal can be therefore derived. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of isopyrazam in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of isopyrazam on pome fruits, peaches, rape seed, linseed, mustard seed and poppy seed will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  9. Psychobiological correlates of rape in female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bicanic, I.A.E.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor functioning. These results are comparable to results from previous research in chronic sexual abuse victims, suggesting that problems related to single rape are serious and should receive sufficie...

  10. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Glanville; Yolanda Dreyer

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social) impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be awar...

  11. THE EMOTIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RAPE

    OpenAIRE

    Smrithi; Devdas; Kevin Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Rape and sexual violence are sad facts of life across cultures with an incidence of 0.1 to 4.9 per 100,000 couples internationally, the rates in India being even higher. According to the National Crime Records Bureau more than 24, 000 cases of rape were registered in India in 2011 with latest estimates reporting a new case of rape every 22 minutes. Sexual violation is traumatizing physically, emotionally and morally. It therefore demands greater attention because the most ...

  12. Ethical challenges when reading aesthetic rape scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman, Emy

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBoth the issue of the ethics of representation and the issue of the ethics of reading are particularly important when it comes to representations of suffering and violence. This chapter addresses the ethics of representing and the ethics of reading rape, with a focus on the latter. Depictions of rape are interesting study objects because the extreme situation of rape simultaneously evokes cultural scripts of sexual fantasies and lies in the domain of taboos and crime. Through thos...

  13. Rape law: a feminist legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, M

    1989-01-01

    Rape law is analyzed from the feminist perspective. Feminism can be credited with making the first serious efforts to empower women in all aspects of life, including the right to be free from sexual assault. Part 1 describes feminist theory concerning rape, Part 2 discusses some of the misogynistic images that have influenced rape law while Part 3 surveys some of the changes that have occurred in the United States, England and Israel concerning rape law. Part 4 analyzes the effects of these changes. PMID:2516214

  14. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth. PMID:21941691

  15. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    as a matter of fact such rules are accepted and followed by far the most. Yet, the approach taken by Danish Criminal Law to rape does not pay heed to these rules, but is rather based on a most narrow conception of male responsibility and obligation that stands in clear opposition with practice and...... amounts to reasonable beliefs in the situation concerning her wants. In principle this opens for the possibility, when intercourse has been proven to be forced, of defending ones innocence by claiming that one believed that the act was consensual, no matter how unreasonable this belief is. In judicial...... practice such defences are often acknowledged if the belief is reasonable by some general standard, even when this standard does not pertain to the rules currently governing the practice of intercourse in Denmark. As a result it has often been argued that the notion of negligent rape should be introduced...

  16. A Plea for Rape Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Mountifield, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A woman was seen in the office several days after emergency department treatment for sexual assault. A cervical swab taken in the office grew Chlamydia trachomatis. No cultures for this organism had been taken in the emergency department, and the patient had not been given prophylactic antibiotics against Chlamydia. Physicians dealing with rape victims should culture for and cover with appropriate antibiotics for Chlamydia trachomatis, which is capable of causing pelvic inflammatory disease a...

  17. Ecological audit of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel (ecological audit rape seed oil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to answer the following central question: Is the environmental pollution burden resulting from the cultivation of rape and the use of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester to be rated less severe than that of the manufacture and use of diesel fuel, and should, therefore, farmland be used in Germany to grow rape for rape seed oil or rape methyl ester production as a substitute for diesel fuel? Firstly, the extent is investigated to which rape seed oil or rape methyl ester can contribute to cuts in emissions of climate-relevant trace gases as compared to diesel fuel from crude oil. Secondly, the environmental impact and hazards associated with the cultivation, transport and manufacture of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester (again as compared to diesel fuel) are investigated. The data analysed relate to the entire life cycle. (orig./UWA)

  18. In-house validation of an Event-specific Method for the Quantification of Oliseed Rape RF1 using Real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzara, Marco; SAVINI Cristian; LUQUE PEREZ Encarnacion; GRAZIOLI Emanuele; Van den Eede, Guy

    2011-01-01

    The European Union Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF), established by Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003, has carried out an in-house validation study to assess the performance of a quantitative event-specific method on the oilseed rape event RF1 (unique identifier ACS-BN001-4). In accordance to Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 of 22 September 2003 on genetically modified food and feed and to Regulation (EC) No 641/2004 of 6 April 2004 on detailed rules for the implementation of Re...

  19. In-house validation of an Event-specific Method for the Quantification of Oliseed Rape RF2 using Real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzara, Marco; LUQUE PEREZ Encarnacion; PINSKI Gregor; Van den Eede, Guy

    2011-01-01

    The European Union Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF), established by Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003, has carried out an in-house validation study to assess the performance of a quantitative event-specific method on the oilseed rape event RF2 (unique identifier ACS-BN002-5). In accordance to Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 of 22 September 2003 on genetically modified food and feed and to Regulation (EC) No 641/2004 of 6 April 2004 on detailed rules for the implementation of Re...

  20. In-house validation of an Event-specific Method for the Quantification of Oliseed Rape MS1 using Real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    SAVINI Cristian; Mazzara, Marco; Bevilacqua, A; Van den Eede, Guy

    2011-01-01

    The European Union Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF), established by Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003, has carried out an in-house validation study to assess the performance of a quantitative event-specific method on the oilseed rape event MS1 (unique identifier ACS-BN004-7). In accordance to Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 of 22 September 2003 on genetically modified food and feed and to Regulation (EC) No 641/2004 of 6 April 2004 on detailed rules for the implementation of Re...

  1. In-house validation of an Event-specific Method for the Quantification of Oliseed Rape Topas 19/2 using Real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzara, Marco; LUQUE PEREZ Encarnacion; Bevilacqua, A; Van den Eede, Guy

    2011-01-01

    The European Union Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF), established by Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003, has carried out an in-house validation study to assess the performance of a quantitative event-specific method on the oilseed rape event Topas 19/2 (unique identifier ACS-BN007-1). In accordance to Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 of 22 September 2003 on genetically modified food and feed and to Regulation (EC) No 641/2004 of 6 April 2004 on detailed rules for the implementatio...

  2. The Geography of Rape: Rape Victims in Urban and Rural Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    Little is known from research about barriers to seeking and receiving help following domestic violence, rape, attempted rape, and sexual assault in Denmark. This study examined possible regional differences in reporting rape and sexual assault in urban and rural communities in a large region...... in Denmark. It was hypothesized that there would be a lower representation of rape victims, measured by the number of calls, to a regional rape crisis center in the rural communities further away from the regional rape crisis center of Aarhus compared to the urban communities closer to the rape crisis center...... were requested by the victims to examine if there were any differences in types of requested help between rural and urban victims. Implications for victims in rural communities, as well as, prevention are discussed....

  3. 7 CFR 1412.32 - Direct payment yield for designated oilseed and pulse crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct payment yield for designated oilseed and pulse... oilseed and pulse crops. (a) The direct payment yield for designated oilseeds for which a yield was not established by September 30, 2007, and pulse crops for the farm will be determined by multiplying the...

  4. The Psychological Impact of Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This review article examines rape victims' experiences seeking postassault assistance from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and how those interactions impact their psychological well-being. This literature suggests that although some rape victims have positive, helpful experiences with social system personnel, for many victims,…

  5. Psychobiological correlates of rape in female adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, I.A.E.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor

  6. Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret

    This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…

  7. Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape and Risk Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Doris J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines how men and women judge the presence of risk factors in a scripted acquaintance rape scenario and if alcohol was a significant factor in assessing risk. Significant differences were found in African American and Caucasian participants' attitudes toward rape and risk appraisal. There was a negative correlation between risk appraisal and…

  8. Campus Acquaintance Rape: An Ethical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, William K.

    1992-01-01

    Introduces idea of including ethics in acquaintance rape prevention programming. Applies education model for ethical analysis of sexual behavior to problem of acquaintance rape among college and university students to provide practitioners with new insights which will motivate inclusion of moral and ethical objectives in future prevention…

  9. Beliefs About Rape and Women's Social Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Frank; And Others

    The hypothesis that views of rape which place women at a disadvantage are positively related to beliefs which restrict the rights and roles of women in our society is tested. Two scales, the R scale and the W scale, based on a survey of beliefs about rape (Hubert Feild) and the attitudes toward women's scale (Janet Spence and Robert Helmreich),…

  10. THE EMOTIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smrithi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rape and sexual violence are sad facts of life across cultures with an incidence of 0.1 to 4.9 per 100,000 couples internationally, the rates in India being even higher. According to the National Crime Records Bureau more than 24, 000 cases of rape were registered in India in 2011 with latest estimates reporting a new case of rape every 22 minutes. Sexual violation is traumatizing physically, emotionally and morally. It therefore demands greater attention because the most common and lasting effects of rape involve mental health concerns. Not only is it important to know the impact rape has on its victim, but equally and perhaps more important is to understand the psychology of the offender which may help prevent such crimes against the female gender.

  11. Male Rape Myths: The Role of Gender, Violence, and Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleau, Kristine M.; Oswald, Debra L.; Russell, Brenda L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the structure of Struckman-Johnson and Struckman-Johnson's Male Rape Myth Scale, examines gender differences in rape myth acceptance, and explores the underlying ideologies that facilitate male rape myth acceptance. A three-factor model, with rape myths regarding Trauma, Blame, and Denial as separate subscales, is the best…

  12. Blacks' and Whites' Perceptions of Interracial and Intraracial Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelas, Nicole; Foley, Linda A.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes influence of rape myths on victims' decisions to report rapes. Examines respondents' perceptions of responsibility and evaluation of incidents. Explains respondents with strong beliefs in rape myths contribute to a tolerance of the rapist while blaming the victim. Implies attitudes reinforce unreported rapes and a lack of fair trials.…

  13. Social Context Variables in the Social Perception of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Arnie; And Others

    The physical and interpersonal contexts within which rapes occur were investigated. The physical context, defined in terms of observers' perceptions of the likelihood of rapes occurring in a particular setting, produce variations in the degree of responsibility assigned to the victim. Women raped in high probability of rape settings were held as…

  14. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  15. Present and future instances of virtual rape in light of three categories of legal philosophical theories on rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the question of whether or not virtual rape should be considered a crime under current law. A virtual rape is the rape of an avatar (a person’s virtual representation) in a virtual world. In the future, possibilities for virtual rape of a person him- or herself will arise in virt

  16. Police officers' definitions of rape : a prototype study

    OpenAIRE

    Krahé, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates police officers' definitions of different rape situations. On the basis of the concept of 'cognitive prototypes' a methodology is developed which elicits consensual feature lists describing six rape situations: the typical, i.e. most common rape, the credible, dubious, and false rape complaints as weil as the rape experiences that are particularly hard vs. relatively easy for the victim to cope with. Qualitative analysis of the data allows the identification of the char...

  17. Hostile sexism, type of rape, and self-reported rape proclivity within a sample of Zimbabwean males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viki, G Tendayi; Chiroro, Patrick; Abrams, Dominic

    2006-08-01

    The role of hostile sexism in accounting for rape proclivity among men was investigated using a sample of Zimbabwean students. Participants were presented with either an acquaintance rape or a stranger rape scenario and asked to respond to five questions about the scenario designed to assess rape proclivity. As expected, a significant relationship between hostile sexism and rape proclivity was obtained in the acquaintance rape but not the stranger rape condition. These results replicate previous research and suggest that hostile sexists are more likely to express their hostility toward women in situations where such behavior might be perceived as acceptable. PMID:16861333

  18. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  19. Institutional Perpetuation of Rape Culture: A Case Study of the University of Colorado Football Rape and Recruiting Scandal

    OpenAIRE

    Folchert, Kristi Engle

    2008-01-01

    Heterosexual rape among university students is neither new nor uncommon. Research in rape prevention is largely limited to two areas: (1) what women can do to protect themselves from rape, which continues to place the burden of prevention on women; and (2) understanding why men rape. The studies in these fields have added to the body of knowledge surrounding rape on university campuses. The current study takes this information into consideration while using a different lens to examine the...

  20. Healing Rituals for Survivors of Rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Galambos

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic rituals focus on clinical healing within different contexts and client populations. This article explores the use of therapeutic ritual at individual and collective levels to help survivors of rape to heal. This technique is applied to both levels through a discussion of two rituals developed for rape survivors. Results of a study that examined participant comments about a collective ritual for healing are discussed. Findings indicate that participants attend the ritual to be supportive of others and to be supported themselves. Family members attend to obtain information about rape. This article explores practice implications from a service planning and implementation perspective.

  1. The Treatment of Rape in Theology

    OpenAIRE

    Logue, Sr. Pauline

    2015-01-01

    When I first began to research the treatment of rape in theology some five years ago I was frequently asked what rape had to do with theology. That is not a question I hear today. Largely due to scandals in both church and state a theological response has been demanded to the serious question of sexual abuse. That response is underway. This article presents a brief summary of central theological issues that arise from an analysis of the experience of rape victims.1 It presents an overview of ...

  2. Concepts, experience and recommendations for the production and use of rape oil methyl ester (RME) as well as natural vegetable oil; Konzepte, Erfahrungen und Empfehlungen bei der Herstellung und Nutzung von RME sowie naturbelassenem Pflanzenoel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, T.; Vetter, A. [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Jena (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Rape oil methyl ester and natural rape oil gained from decentral plants for oilseeds processing have been used successfully as alternative motor fuel for approximately 8 years in environmentally sensitive areas of Thuringia. The target is the set-up and operation of an almost closed system for the cultivation, processing and utilisation of oilseeds, mainly winter rape on non-cultivated fields. Processing is supposed to occur in cold-press and esterification plants, which are jointly operated by the farmers. The conversion of the vehicles of each farmer to vehicles that can be operated with RME should be carried out without any exception. This solution only will lead to the necessary flexibility to use the most cost-effective type of motor fuel. (orig.) [German] Seit ca. 8 Jahren wird Rapsoelmethylester und naturbelassenes Rapsoel aus dezentralen Anlagen der Oelsaatenverarbeitung als alternativer Kraftstoff besonders in umweltsensiblen Bereichen in Thueringen erfolgreich eingesetzt. Ziel ist der Aufbau und Betrieb eines weitgehend geschlossenen System zum Anbau, zur Aufarbeitung und Verwertung von Oelsaaten, vornehmlich Winterraps von Stillegungsflaechen. Die Verarbeitung soll vorrangig in gemeinsamen, von der Landwirtschaft betriebenen Kaltpress- und Veresterungsanlagen erfolgen. Die Umstellung der einzelbetrieblichen Fuhrparks auf RME-taugliche Fahrzeuge sollte konsequent Anwendung finden. Nur so kann die noetige Flexibilitaet erreicht werden, die jeweils preisguenstigste Kraftstoffart zu nutzen. (orig.)

  3. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-03-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualize a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents' gender; (3) to examine the 'cultural lag' theory of male rape, where it was hypothesized that if the public perception of male rape lags behind female rape, then a typical male rape will be conceptualized as the classic stranger rape stereotype. Findings showed that contrary to predictions, a typical female rape was conceptualized according to the stranger rape stereotype. It was also found that instead of lagging behind female rape along the stranger-acquaintance rape dimension, male rape was viewed predominantly in terms of 'other' factors (factors not found on the stranger-acquaintance dimension, e.g. victim/rapist sexual orientation, rapist calls victim names), which were erroneous, sexualizing and homophobic. PMID:17355727

  4. The Effects of Rape Residue Mulching on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from No-Tillage Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha−1) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0–20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha−1 season−1 to 1654 kg C ha−1 season−1 than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9–30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33–71% and GHGI by 35–72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China. PMID:25140329

  5. Statistics on Oilseeds and Related Data, 1965-82

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1983-01-01

    This statistical bulletin reports oilseed production, consumption, acreage, price, export, import, loan rate, and marketing data. Sou~ces include the Statistical Reporting Service, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, Agricultural Marketing Service, Foreign Agricultural Service, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of the Census, and the private sector.

  6. Present and potential future oilseed production systems for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. agriculture is now depended on to produce renewable energy in addition to food, feed, and fuel, which if not properly managed could threaten long-term sustainability of our agricultural lands. Biofuels produced from oilseed crops, primarily biodiesel, will be an important addition to the renewa...

  7. The Edible Oil and Oilseeds Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Mandefro (Fenta); S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: Coordination Group, or CG) for stakeholders of the oilseeds and edible oil value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to imp

  8. The global market for oilseeds: prospects and challenges for Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselet Nathalie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The global market for oilseeds, grains, vegetable oil and oilseed meal is a complex market which is growing at a very fast pace, and which is characterized by the large volume of production which is traded between countries. Offer is geographically constrained in this market: there are few exporting countries and these are mainly situated on the American continent. Demand on the other hand is more widespread, although highest in Asiatic countries, China in particular. As a result, small importing countries, like Morocco, are in a vulnerable position, and take the full brunt of price volatility. In the 90s, Moroccan oilseed production was relatively high, unfortunately production dropped over the years, and Morocco must now buy vegetable oil and proteins on the global market. Reviving oilseed production in Morocco would considerably help the country and provide numerous benefits, such as food security, improving the country’s trade balance, and enhancing the agronomic management of land thanks to the introduction of break crops. Finally, it would also boost the entire agricultural sector and help increase the income of farmers.

  9. Acquaintance Rape on Campus: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Dennis; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines issues related to acquaintance rape: cultural context, legal issues, adolescent attitudes and development, alcohol and sexual assault, the assailants, the victims, and the institutional response, and makes recommendations for a system that all colleges should have in place. (SM)

  10. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Following Rape

    OpenAIRE

    Ananda B. Amstadter; Resnick, Heidi S.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Minhinnett, Robin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Although prior research has identified increases in cigarette smoking following trauma exposure, no studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of smoking following rape. The present investigation identifies and characterizes longitudinal ( 6 months post-assault) trajectories of smoking (N = 152) following a rape in a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in a forensic medical exam. Further, we examine acute predictors of subsequent smoking trajec...

  11. Feminism, rape and the search for justice.

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.

    2011-01-01

    Justice for rape victims has become synonymous with punitive state punishment. Taking rape seriously is equated with increasing convictions and prison sentences and consequently most feminist activism has been focused on reforming the conventional criminal justice system to secure these aims. While important reforms have been made, justice continues to elude many victims. Many feel re-victimized by a system which marginalizes their interests and denies them a voice. Restorative justice offers...

  12. Healing Rituals for Survivors of Rape

    OpenAIRE

    Colleen Galambos

    2001-01-01

    Therapeutic rituals focus on clinical healing within different contexts and client populations. This article explores the use of therapeutic ritual at individual and collective levels to help survivors of rape to heal. This technique is applied to both levels through a discussion of two rituals developed for rape survivors. Results of a study that examined participant comments about a collective ritual for healing are discussed. Findings indicate that participants attend the ritual to be supp...

  13. Rape

    OpenAIRE

    Alieva, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Pēdējo gadu laikā Krimināllikuma 159. pantā tika veikti nozīmīgi grozījumi, kas mainīja izpratni par nozieguma subjektu un papildināja objektīvās puses pazīmes. Lai saprastu kā radās šie grozījumi un kāda ir to būtība, darbā tiek analizēta izvarošanas vēsturiskā attīstība Latvijā, tiek pētīts nozieguma sastāva interpretējums Latvijas un ārvalstu literatūrā, kā arī aplūkota tiesu prakse. Īpaša uzmanība tiek veltīta nozieguma subjektam un kā tas ietekmē izpratni par dalību un līdzdalību izvaro...

  14. Under the Rape Shield: Constitutional and Feminist Critiques of Rape Shield Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses constitutional and feminist critiques of present rape shield laws in the United States, and ends with a comparative perspective throughout the Anglo-American legal space today. Finally, although the rape shield laws can be approached from a variety of discourses, this article engages specifically with a discourse that intersects legal and feminist analyses

  15. College Students' Attitudes toward Date Rape and Date Rape Backlash: Implications for Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Susan; Bower, Douglas J.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed college students regarding their acceptance of rape-myth beliefs expounded by the date rape backlash movement. Results indicated that gender, adversarial attitudes toward sexual relationships, political and sex role views, perception of false accusation vulnerability, academic honorary membership, Greek affiliation, and knowledge of a…

  16. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios. PMID:23637315

  17. Prevention of post-rape psychopathology: preliminary findings of a controlled acute rape treatment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, H; Acierno, R; Holmes, M; Kilpatrick, D G; Jager, N

    1999-01-01

    Violent sexual assault such as rape typically results in extremely high levels of acute distress. The intensity of these acute psychological reactions may play a role in later recovery, with higher levels of immediate distress associated with poorer outcome. Unfortunately, post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may serve to increase, rather than reduce initial distress, potentially exacerbating future psychopathology. To address these concerns, an acute time-frame hospital-based video intervention was developed to: (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape exams, and (b) prevent post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic, and anxiety. Preliminary data indicated that (1) psychological distress at the time of the exam was strongly related to PTSD symptomatology 6 weeks post-rape, and (2) the video intervention successfully reduced distress during forensic exams. PMID:10504107

  18. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Palma, S M; Meale, S J; Pereira, L G R; Machado, F S; Carneiro, H; Lopes, F C F; Maurício, R M; Chaves, A V

    2013-08-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (pMoringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (pmoringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability. PMID:25049890

  19. Risk in Output Growth of Oilseeds in the Rajasthan State: A Policy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Praveen Kumar; Singh, I. P.; Kumar, Anil

    2005-01-01

    Today, India is one of the largest producers of oilseeds in the world and this sector occupies an important position in the agricultural economy. Rajasthan state occupies a prominent place in the oilseeds production of India. The important oilseed crops of the Rajasthan state are groundnut, soyabean, rapeseed & mustard, sesamum and taramira. The growth pattern of these crops in the state has been prone to risk over time and across the agro-climatic regions because of the rainfall behaviour, p...

  20. Effect of oilseed cakes on alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305.

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, T.; Chandra, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of oilseed cakes on extracellular thermostable alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305 was investigated. Each oilseed cake was made of groundnut, mustard, sesame, linseed, coconut copra, madhuca, or cotton. alpha-Amylase production was considerably improved in all instances and varied with the oilseed cake concentration in basal medium containing peptone and beef extract. Maximum increases were effected by a low concentration (0.5 to 1.0%) of groundnut or coconu...

  1. Do competitive conditions affect introgression of transgenes from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to weedy Brassica rapa? AS case study with special reference to transplastomic oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Marina

    act as the maternal parent when hybridisation and backcrossing takes place. Chloroplast DNA inheritance between F1-hybrids (B. napus (?) x B. rapa) and B. rapa; the second step in the introgression process oftransgenes from transplastomic B. napus to B. rapa was investigated. It was maternal in all...... 122 examined cases. Field trials with B. napus and B. rapa coexisting in different proportions and densities elucidated how these factors affect the F1-hybridproduction on B. napus. Higher plant density reduced the fitness of mother plants and the abundance of F1-hybrids (at the 1:1 proportion......) significantly. As to the proportion between the species, B. rapa was a stronger competitor than B. napus. Theproportion seemed to be a more powerful factor than the density. In conclusion, hybridisation on B. napus seems to be most likely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant...

  2. Applications of Enzymes in Oil and Oilseed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    Enzymes, through the last 20-30 years research and development, have been widely explored for the uses in oil and oilseed processing. Following the conventional processing technology from oilseeds, the oil can be produced through pressing or solvent extraction. The crude oil is then refined to meet...... edible requirements. The oil can be also modified to meet functional or even nutritional needs. In each of those steps, enzymes have been used in industry successfully. For the oil processing stage, enzymes have been used to destroy the cell structure so that makes the oil release easier, where...... conventionally high temperature conditioning or cooking is necessary. The good story in industry is the fish oil and olive oil processing. Good quality and higher oil yield have been achieved through the use of enzymes in the processing stages. For the refining stage, the use of enzymes for degumming has...

  3. The Effects of Statutory Rape Laws on Nonmarital Teenage Childbearing

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, Christopher; Lisa K. Jepsen

    2006-01-01

    Many policy makers view the enforcement of statutory rape laws as a way to reduce teenage childbirths. This article considers whether unmarried teenage girls covered by a state statutory rape law are less likely to give birth than girls who are not covered by a statutory rape law. The presence of statutory rape laws is negatively correlated with nonmarital birthrates for white females but is not a significant predictor for black or Hispanic females. In contrast, the enforcement of statutory r...

  4. Effect of Lanthanum on Disease Resistance Related Enzymes of Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾青; 朱建国; 谢祖彬; 褚海燕; 张雅莉

    2003-01-01

    The effects of lanthanum on the protective enzymes of rape (Brassica juncea) were studied in hydroponics experiment. Results show that when treated with 0.3 mg*kg-1 La, the content of chlorophyll and the activities of peroxidase(POD), catalase(CAT), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and polyphenoloxidase(PPO) in rape increase, but the content of malondialdehyde(MDA) in rape decreases. However, the treatments do not change the content of soluble protein in rape significantly.

  5. Insecticide residues cross-contamination of oilseeds during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauguet Sylvie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues are found in oilseeds and crude oils: they are mainly organophosphate insecticides (pirimiphos-methyl, dichlorvos, malathion used in empty storage facilities and for application to stored cereal grains. Even if pests are found in stored oilseeds, French regulation does not permit use of these insecticides on stored oilseeds, as they have affinity for these lipophilic subtances. These residues arise from cross-contamination during mechanical contact with storage bins and grain handling equipment, and not from illegal use. This uptake of insecticide residues from their storage environment by oilseeds can lead to levels that exceed regulatory limits. An investigation of 11 grain storage companies allowed us to follow the course of 27 sunflower seeds batches, from reception at the storage facilities to outloading. Samples from each of these batches, made at outloading, were analysed content for insecticide residues. Traceability of sunflower seeds established by storers allowed us to identify the origine of observed cross-contamination cases. Substances discovered were dichlorvos, pirimiphos-methyl and malathion (and chlorpyriphos-methyl in a single case. Pirimiphos-methyl was most commonly detected, but most cases of non-accordance with regulatory levels were observed with dichlorvos and malathion. Main cross-contamination hazard resulted from treatment of cereals at outloading, just before sunflower seeds were outloaded, especially when these cereals treatments were frequent on that elevator. Other situations led to cross-contaminations, but generally of lower levels: outloading of sunflower seeds after outloading of cereal that was treated at the reception, several weeks or months before; sunflower seeds stored in bin that contained previously treated cereal; empty bins and handling equipment treated before receipt of sunflower seeds.

  6. Factors Defining Field Germination of Oilseed Radish Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Dorofeev; E.V. Bojarkin; A.A. Peshkova

    2013-01-01

    Influence of temperature, depth of crops and granulometric of soil structure on germination speed, laboratory and field germination of oilseed radish seeds were studied. It was established that the period of seed-germination is defined both by temperature and granulometric structure of soil. The highest field germination was marked on sandy loam at depth of crops' seeds at 3 cm and 20°С.

  7. Antioxidant Activities and Oxidative Stabilities of Some Unconventional Oilseeds

    OpenAIRE

    Uluata, Sibel; Özdemir, Nurhayat

    2011-01-01

    The oils of some unconventional oilseeds (hemp, radish, terebinth, stinging nettle, laurel) were obtained by a cold-press method in which the total oil content, fatty acids, tocopherol isomers, some metal contents (Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu), antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were determined. The total oil content was determined ranging between 30.68 and 43.12%, and the oil samples had large amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, with oleic acid and linoleic acid. Of all the oils, terebinth seed...

  8. Solvent Extraction of Oil from Soursop Oilseeds & its Quality Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    T. F. Adepoju; Olawale, O; Ojediran, O. J; Olatunji, E. M

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on optimization of oil extraction from Soursop oilseeds using Box-Behnken design an allied of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), it also examine the physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile of the oil. Based on the design, 17 experimental runs were conducted to investigate the effects of variables and their reciprocal interactions on the oil yield. A quadratic polynomial and the ANOVA test showed the model to be remarkably significant (p

  9. Social norms and the likelihood of raping: Perceived rape myth acceptance of others affects men's rape proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Gerd; Siebler, Frank; Schmelcher, Jürgen

    2006-03-01

    Research showing that rape myth acceptance (RMA) causally affects rape proclivity (RP) was extended by examining the impact of RMA-related norms on RP. Male students (total N = 264) received feedback about the alleged responses of other students to RMA items either before (Experiment 1) or after (Experiment 2) they reported their own RMA, and then their RP was assessed using acquaintance-rape scenarios. The level of RMA feedback was varied. Results showed that higher norms led to higher RP. In Experiment 1, this effect was mediated via self-reported RMA. Experiment 2 yielded main effects of both RMA feedback and self-reported RMA and an interaction effect showing that RMA feedback was particularly influential at higher levels of own RMA. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:16455857

  10. Study of Pea Accessions for Development of an Oilseed Pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khodapanahi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global interest in stable energy resources coupled with growing demand for bio-oils in various conventional and arising industries has renewed the importance of vegetable oil production. To address this global interest, oilseed production has been increased in recent decades by different approaches, such as extending the cultivation area of oil crops, or breeding and growing genetically modified plants. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L. accessions were screened for lipid content using a rapid extraction method. This method quantifies lipid concentration in pea seeds and was developed by assessing and comparing the results of existing extraction methods used for canola and soybean, the top two Canadian oilseeds. Seeds of 151 field pea accessions were grown to maturity in 2009 and 2010 at McGill University (Quebec, Canada. Overall, lipid concentration in pea seeds ranged from 0.9 to 5.0%. Among several seed characteristics, only seed shape (wrinkled verses round had a significant effect on the total lipid production in the seeds. Peas are a valuable source of protein and starch, but the lipid concentration in their seeds has been undervalued. This research supports the idea of developing a novel dual-purpose oilseed pea that emulates the protein and oil production in soybean seeds while being conveniently adapted to a colder climate.

  11. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  12. Reporting Rape in a National Sample of College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies indicate that a small percentage of rapes are reported to law enforcement officials. Research also suggests that rapes perpetrated by a stranger are more likely to be reported and that rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol are less likely to be reported. College women represent a unique and understudied population with regard to…

  13. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rape and incest. 50.306 Section 50.306 Public... § 50.306 Rape and incest. Federal financial participation is available in expenditures for medical procedures performed upon a victim of rape or incest if the program or project has received...

  14. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  15. An Updated Measure for Assessing Subtle Rape Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Farmer, G. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Social workers responsible for developing rape prevention programs on college campuses must have valid evaluation instruments. This article presents the challenges encountered by the authors when they attempted to keep rape myth measures relevant to student populations by updating the language to reflect the subtleties involved with rape myths.…

  16. Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Julie M.; And Others

    This publication is a collection of 20 supporting documents for a conference program, "Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture." Contents include: (1) "Presenter Contact Information"; (2) "Characteristics of Rape-Prone versus Rape-Free Cultures"; (3) "Dater's Bill of Rights"; (4) "Quotes for Discussion"; (5) "University of…

  17. High School and College Students' Attitudes toward Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Michelle L.; Lester, David

    1991-01-01

    Explored myths about rape and tendency to blame victim in high school (n=54) and college (n=46) students. High school males believed more strongly than did high school females and college males in rape myths and assigned greater blame to victims. For high school students, belief in myths about rape was associated with assigning more victim blame.…

  18. Sex Differences in University Students' Attitudes toward Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nona J.; Feild, Hubert S.

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of sex differences among university students' attitudes toward rape. Results showed males were quite different from females in their attitudes and tended to support many myths regarding rape. Implications of the results concerning the nature and prevention of rape on college campuses are discussed. (Author)

  19. A Men's Support Group for Significant Others of Rape Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, Lawrence I.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the trauma experienced by women rape victims and focuses on a men's support group for male-significant-others of women who have been raped. Describes the developmental phases through which the male significant others of rape victims achieve resolution and the impact of the male's response upon the relationship. (Author)

  20. Clinical Treatment of Nonrecent Rape: How Much Do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P.; And Others

    Although studies indicate that as many as 22 percent of women have been raped, few of these women seek help immediately after the rape. Most rape victims experience a postrape distress response which may not be resolved for some victims. Long-term symptom patterns include fear/avoidance responses, affective constriction, disturbances of…

  1. Acquaintance Rape: What Is the Law? Teaching Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Pat; Ryan, Roxann

    1995-01-01

    Discusses rape issues and contends that education about it should be provided at all grade levels. Presents a lesson in which students distinguish between facts and myths of rape and identify situations in which the legal definition of rape is met. (CFR)

  2. "Friends" Raping Friends. Could It Happen to You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jean O'Gorman; Sandler, Bernice R.

    This publication concerning rape committed by acquaintances and "friends" is designed to provide information and support for college students. The early warning signs and how to react to potential "acquaintance" or "date" rape are addressed. Consideration is given to why this type of rape occurs and information is provided on how to avoid date…

  3. Preventing Acquaintance Rape through Education. What Do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsway, Kimberly A.

    1996-01-01

    Critically reviews current rape prevention education programs, focusing on common techniques and the assumption that change in rape-supportive ideologies will decrease the actual incidence of sexual aggression. Identifies many issues that must be addressed through rigorous experimentation so that the promise of rape prevention can be realized…

  4. Date and Acquaintance Rape among a Sample of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Crystal S.; Granoff, Barbara J.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted date and acquaintance rape needs-assessment survey on 106 male and 113 female college students. Thirty-two women acknowledged that they were victims of rape or attempted rape, and majority reported multiple victimizations. Eighteen men admitted to committing acts that met legal definition of sexual assault in Hawaii. (Author/NB)

  5. Acquaintance Rape on Campus: A Model for Institutional Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burling, Philip

    This booklet explains the actions that college or university administrators should take to prevent or respond to incidents of acquaintance rape ("date rape") on campus. It outlines specific preventive measures, risk management procedures, and internal disciplinary procedures for acquaintance rape cases. Institutions should define acquaintance rape…

  6. Long-Term Effects of Labeling a Rape Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Darcy; White, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that approximately half of women who report an experience that meets the legal definition of rape do not label it rape. It has been assumed that labeling the experience as rape is necessary and beneficial for recovery; however, conflicting findings have been reported. In the present study, a longitudinal design was utilized to…

  7. Race and Rape: The Black Woman as Legitimate Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    Scientific investigations of the relationship between race and rape have been flawed by the acceptance of official statistics and have been influenced by prevailing myths about rape and race. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding rape and race. The thesis is presented that only the black victim of sexual assault is viewed…

  8. Freeing Our Lives: A Feminist Analysis of Rape Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Sunny; And Others

    The factors which contribute to women's vulnerability to rape are a lack of information about and understanding of rape; women's subordinate relationship to men; socially reinforced physical weakness and passivity; isolation from other women; isolation in the community. Prevention means more than just reducing the incidence of rape or providing…

  9. Comparative analysis of FLC homologues in Brassicaceae provides insight into their role in the evolution of oilseed rape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Zou

    Full Text Available We identified nine FLOWERING LOCUS C homologues (BnFLC in Brassica napus and found that the coding sequences of all BnFLCs were relatively conserved but the intronic and promoter regions were more divergent. The BnFLC homologues were mapped to six of 19 chromosomes. All of the BnFLC homologues were located in the collinear region of FLC in the Arabidopsis genome except BnFLC.A3b and BnFLC.C3b, which were mapped to noncollinear regions of chromosome A3 and C3, respectively. Four of the homologues were associated significantly with quantitative trait loci for flowering time in two mapping populations. The BnFLC homologues showed distinct expression patterns in vegetative and reproductive organs, and at different developmental stages. BnFLC.A3b was differentially expressed between the winter-type and semi-winter-type cultivars. Microsynteny analysis indicated that BnFLC.A3b might have been translocated to the present segment in a cluster with other flowering-time regulators, such as a homologue of FRIGIDA in Arabidopsis. This cluster of flowering-time genes might have conferred a selective advantage to Brassica species in terms of increased adaptability to diverse environments during their evolution and domestication process.

  10. Changes of Photosystem Ⅱ Electron Transport in the Chlorophyll-deficient Oilseed Rape Mutant Studied by Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Thermoluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Wei Guo; Jin-Kui Guo; Yun Zhao; Lin-Fang Du

    2007-01-01

    The photosystem Ⅱ (PSII) complex of photosynthetic membranes comprises a number of chlorophyll-binding proteins that are important to the electron flow. Here we report that the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant has de creased the amount of light-harvesting complexes with an increased amount of some core polypeptides of PSII,including CP43 and CP47. By means of chlorophyll fluorescence and thermoluminescence, we found that the ratio of Fv/Fm, qP and electron transport rate in the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant was higher compared to the wild type.In the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant, the decay of the primary electron acceptor quinones (QA-) reoxidation was decreased, measured by the fluorescence. Furthermore, the thermolumlnescence studies in the chlorophyll b deficient mutant showed that the B band (S2/S3QB-) decreased slightly and shifted up towards higher temperatures.In the presence of dichlorophenyl-dimethylurea, which is inhibited in the electron flow to the second electron acceptor quinines (QB) at the PSII acceptor side, the maximum of the Q band (S2QA-) was decreased slightly and shifted down to lower temperatures, compared to the wild type. Thus, the electron flow within PSll of the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant was down-regulated and characterized by faster oxidation of the primary electron acceptor quinine QA- via forward electron flow and slower reduction of the oxidation S states.

  11. Chitosan oligosaccharides-triggered innate immunity contributes to oilseed rape resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Heng; Yan, Li; HongYan, Zhang;

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharides (collectively, oligochitosan, or COS) are considered to be potent plant immunity elicitors. In this article, the induction of resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Brassica napus L. var. Huyou 15 by COS is studied. Even though COS (50 mg mL1) did not affect radial...

  12. Genetic load and transgenic mitigating genes in transgenic Brassica rapa (field mustard × Brassica napus (oilseed rape hybrid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Suzanne I

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One theoretical explanation for the relatively poor performance of Brassica rapa (weed × Brassica napus (crop transgenic hybrids suggests that hybridization imparts a negative genetic load. Consequently, in hybrids genetic load could overshadow any benefits of fitness enhancing transgenes and become the limiting factor in transgenic hybrid persistence. Two types of genetic load were analyzed in this study: random/linkage-derived genetic load, and directly incorporated genetic load using a transgenic mitigation (TM strategy. In order to measure the effects of random genetic load, hybrid productivity (seed yield and biomass was correlated with crop- and weed-specific AFLP genomic markers. This portion of the study was designed to answer whether or not weed × transgenic crop hybrids possessing more crop genes were less competitive than hybrids containing fewer crop genes. The effects of directly incorporated genetic load (TM were analyzed through transgene persistence data. TM strategies are proposed to decrease transgene persistence if gene flow and subsequent transgene introgression to a wild host were to occur. Results In the absence of interspecific competition, transgenic weed × crop hybrids benefited from having more crop-specific alleles. There was a positive correlation between performance and number of B. napus crop-specific AFLP markers [seed yield vs. marker number (r = 0.54, P = 0.0003 and vegetative dry biomass vs. marker number (r = 0.44, P = 0.005]. However under interspecific competition with wheat or more weed-like conditions (i.e. representing a situation where hybrid plants emerge as volunteer weeds in subsequent cropping systems, there was a positive correlation between the number of B. rapa weed-specific AFLP markers and seed yield (r = 0.70, P = 0.0001, although no such correlation was detected for vegetative biomass. When genetic load was directly incorporated into the hybrid genome, by inserting a fitness-mitigating dwarfing gene that that is beneficial for crops but deleterious for weeds (a transgene mitigation measure, there was a dramatic decrease in the number of transgenic hybrid progeny persisting in the population. Conclusion The effects of genetic load of crop and in some situations, weed alleles might be beneficial under certain environmental conditions. However, when genetic load was directly incorporated into transgenic events, e.g., using a TM construct, the number of transgenic hybrids and persistence in weedy genomic backgrounds was significantly decreased.

  13. Assessing quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker in Brassica napus (oilseed rape in young plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ju Huang

    Full Text Available Quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus is difficult to assess in young plants due to the long period of symptomless growth of the pathogen from the appearance of leaf lesions to the appearance of canker symptoms on the stem. By using doubled haploid (DH lines A30 (susceptible and C119 (with quantitative resistance, quantitative resistance against L. maculans was assessed in young plants in controlled environments at two stages: stage 1, growth of the pathogen along leaf veins/petioles towards the stem by leaf lamina inoculation; stage 2, growth in stem tissues to produce stem canker symptoms by leaf petiole inoculation. Two types of inoculum (ascospores; conidia and three assessment methods (extent of visible necrosis; symptomless pathogen growth visualised using the GFP reporter gene; amount of pathogen DNA quantified by PCR were used. In stage 1 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in area of leaf lesions, distance grown along veins/petioles assessed by visible necrosis or by viewing GFP and amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. In stage 2 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. GFP-labelled L. maculans spread more quickly from the stem cortex to the stem pith in A30 than in C119. Stem canker symptoms were produced more rapidly by using ascospore inoculum than by using conidial inoculum. These results suggest that quantitative resistance against L. maculans in B. napus can be assessed in young plants in controlled conditions. Development of methods to phenotype quantitative resistance against plant pathogens in young plants in controlled environments will help identification of stable quantitative resistance for control of crop diseases.

  14. A method for assessing intercepted radiation by a crop with a low leaf area: an application to oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation of photosynthetically active radiation interception by a crop with a low leaf area index, particularly when the canopy is not closed, needs a more detailed approach than a simple Beer's law with constant light extinction coefficient (k). This paper introduces a simple procedure for the calculation of intercepted radiation, taking into account the ground cover ratio, and using a small set of parameters. The k coefficient is deduced from this calculation and we show that k depends on the leaf area index, the location and the season. The significance of introducing ground cover ratio in the calculation of intercepted radiation is estimated, and sensitivity of the method to various parameters is assessed

  15. The transfer of 'Polima' cytoplasmic male sterility from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to broccoli (B. oleracea) by protoplast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, S A; Burnett, L A; Wildeman, R P; Kemble, R J

    1990-08-01

    Protoplast fusion was utilised to transfer Polima type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) from Brassica napus, canola cv. Polima Karat (Pol-Karat) to B. oleracea, broccoli, var. "Green Comet". Southern and RFLP analysis confirmed that four cybrids possessed nuclear genomes of broccoli with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts. A fifth cybrid was a nuclear hybrid between broccoli and Pol-Karat, with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts of broccoli. The broccoli type cybrids were morphologically similar to "Green Comet", while the hybrid type was an intermediate of the two fusion parents. Flowers on the cybrids were distinctive in that although they possessed a morphology typical of Polima, they had very reduced petals. The broccoli type cybrids exhibited some female fertility, albeit low, establishing potential for F1 hybrid production. PMID:24226699

  16. Adventitious presence of other varieties in oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤) from seed banks and certified seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    fields analysed and, from soil cores, their soil seed-bank was estimated to be 50-100 seeds m(-2). The ISSR analysis of the 14 reference varieties showed that three of the certified seed lots contained other varieties above the allowed threshold. Our findings are discussed in the context of the...... the soil seed-bank. This information was acquired through DNA analysis of volunteers collected in the field and seedlings derived from the soil seed-bank. DNA profiles of the volunteers and seedlings were obtained using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers, and the profiles were compared with...

  17. Comparative Analysis of FLC Homologues in Brassicaceae Provides Insight into Their Role in the Evolution of Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoxiao; Suppanz, Ida; Raman, Harsh; Hou, Jinna; Wang, Jing; Long, Yan; Jung, Christian; Meng, Jinling

    2012-01-01

    We identified nine FLOWERING LOCUS C homologues (BnFLC) in Brassica napus and found that the coding sequences of all BnFLCs were relatively conserved but the intronic and promoter regions were more divergent. The BnFLC homologues were mapped to six of 19 chromosomes. All of the BnFLC homologues were located in the collinear region of FLC in the Arabidopsis genome except BnFLC.A3b and BnFLC.C3b, which were mapped to noncollinear regions of chromosome A3 and C3, respectively. Four of the homologues were associated significantly with quantitative trait loci for flowering time in two mapping populations. The BnFLC homologues showed distinct expression patterns in vegetative and reproductive organs, and at different developmental stages. BnFLC.A3b was differentially expressed between the winter-type and semi-winter-type cultivars. Microsynteny analysis indicated that BnFLC.A3b might have been translocated to the present segment in a cluster with other flowering-time regulators, such as a homologue of FRIGIDA in Arabidopsis. This cluster of flowering-time genes might have conferred a selective advantage to Brassica species in terms of increased adaptability to diverse environments during their evolution and domestication process. PMID:23029223

  18. Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Extracted from Intergeneric Allopolyploid and Additions with Orychophragmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Mayank; Dang, Yanwei; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2016-01-01

    Allopolyploidization with the merger of the genomes from different species has been shown to be associated with genetic and epigenetic changes. But the maintenance of such alterations related to one parental species after the genome is extracted from the allopolyploid remains to be detected. In this study, the genome of Brassica napus L. (2n = 38, genomes AACC) was extracted from its intergeneric allohexaploid (2n = 62, genomes AACCOO) with another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24, genome OO), by backcrossing and development of alien addition lines. B. napus-type plants identified in the self-pollinated progenies of nine monosomic additions were analyzed by the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-specific amplified polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism. They showed modifications to certain extents in genomic components (loss and gain of DNA segments and transposons, introgression of alien DNA segments) and DNA methylation, compared with B. napus donor. The significant differences in the changes between the B. napus types extracted from these additions likely resulted from the different effects of individual alien chromosomes. Particularly, the additions which harbored the O. violaceus chromosome carrying dominant rRNA genes over those of B. napus tended to result in the development of plants which showed fewer changes, suggesting a role of the expression levels of alien rRNA genes in genomic stability. These results provided new cues for the genetic alterations in one parental genome that are maintained even after the genome becomes independent. PMID:27148282

  19. Is safe HT oilseed rape cultivation feasible? - Experience of the field trials monitoring in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakouský, S.; Hraška, M.; Čurn, V.; Bříza, Jindřich; Hrubý, J.; Psota, B.

    Wellington: Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, 2008. s. 144. [Biosafety Research of GMOS : Past Achievements and Future Challenges. 10th Int. Symp. Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms. 16.11.2008-21.11.2008, Wellington] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : GMOS * biosafety Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. To be or not to be biosafe. An evaluation of transgenic phosphinothricin-tolerant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, P.J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic modification is an additional tool for conventional plant breeding to improve the application and quality of crop plants. No longer hampered by natural crossing barriers, application of genetic modification results in a nearly infinite pool from which genes, after isolation, can be introduce

  1. Genetic and epigenetic changes in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. extracted from intergeneric allopolyploid and additions with Orychophragmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank eGautam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Allopolyploidization with the merger of the genomes from different species has been shown to be associated with genetic and epigenetic changes. But the maintenance of such alterations related to one parental species after the genome is extracted from the allopolyploid remains to be detected. In this study, the genome of Brassica napus L. (2n=38, genomes AACC was extracted from its intergeneric allohexaploid (2n=62, genomes AACCOO with another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus (2n=24, genome OO, by backcrossing and development of alien addition lines. B. napus-type plants identified in the self-pollinated progenies of nine monosomic additions were analyzed by the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP. They showed modifications to certain extents in genomic components (loss and gain of DNA segments and transposons, introgression of alien DNA segments and DNA methylation, compared with B. napus donor. The significant differences in the changes between the B. napus types extracted from these additions likely resulted from the different effects of individual alien chromosomes. Particularly, the additions which harbored the O. violaceus chromosome carrying dominant rRNA genes over those of B. napus tended to result in the development of plants which showed fewer changes, suggesting a role of the expression levels of alien rRNA genes in genomic stability. These results provided new cues for the genetic alterations in one parental genome that are maintained even after the genome becomes independent.

  2. To be or not to be biosafe. An evaluation of transgenic phosphinothricin-tolerant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Metz, P.J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic modification is an additional tool for conventional plant breeding to improve the application and quality of crop plants. No longer hampered by natural crossing barriers, application of genetic modification results in a nearly infinite pool from which genes, after isolation, can be introduced in crop plants. At this moment more and more genetically modified crops are coming on the market and these crops will probably significantly contribute to near-future agriculture. However, since ...

  3. Identification of phytoplasma infecting winter oilseed rape in the Czech Republic and its comparison withItalian Brassica phytoplasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránová, Jana; Voráčková, Zdenka; Vibio, M.; Bertaccini, A.; Navrátil, M.; Špak, Josef; Nebesářová, Jana

    Torino: Ist. di Fitovir applicata, 1998. s. 67. [Conference of the I.S.H.S. Vegetable virus working group: Recent advances in vegetable virus research /9./. 22.08.1998-27.08.1998, Torino] Keywords : vegetable * virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  4. Role of hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant enzymes in the interaction between a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans, and oilseed rape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Barbora; Fodor, J.; Šindelářová, Milada; Burketová, Lenka; Valentová, O.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 2 (2011), s. 149-156. ISSN 0098-8472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/08/1581; GA MŠk MEB040923 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : hydrogen peroxide * antioxidant enzymes * hemibiotrophic pathogen Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 2.985, year: 2011

  5. Long-term monitoring of GM winter oilseed rape volunteers and its implications for co-existence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakouský, S.; Hraška, M.; Bříza, Jindřich; Psota, B.

    Montpellier: Agropolis Productions, 2005 - (Messéan, A.), s. 89-91 [Int. Conf. on Co-existence Between GM and Non-GM Based Agricultural Supply Chains /2./. Montpellier (FR), 14.11.2005-15.11.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : GMO Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  6. Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Extracted from Intergeneric Allopolyploid and Additions with Orychophragmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Mayank; Dang, Yanwei; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2016-01-01

    Allopolyploidization with the merger of the genomes from different species has been shown to be associated with genetic and epigenetic changes. But the maintenance of such alterations related to one parental species after the genome is extracted from the allopolyploid remains to be detected. In this study, the genome of Brassica napus L. (2n = 38, genomes AACC) was extracted from its intergeneric allohexaploid (2n = 62, genomes AACCOO) with another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24, genome OO), by backcrossing and development of alien addition lines. B. napus-type plants identified in the self-pollinated progenies of nine monosomic additions were analyzed by the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-specific amplified polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism. They showed modifications to certain extents in genomic components (loss and gain of DNA segments and transposons, introgression of alien DNA segments) and DNA methylation, compared with B. napus donor. The significant differences in the changes between the B. napus types extracted from these additions likely resulted from the different effects of individual alien chromosomes. Particularly, the additions which harbored the O. violaceus chromosome carrying dominant rRNA genes over those of B. napus tended to result in the development of plants which showed fewer changes, suggesting a role of the expression levels of alien rRNA genes in genomic stability. These results provided new cues for the genetic alterations in one parental genome that are maintained even after the genome becomes independent. PMID:27148282

  7. Rape, War, and the Socialization of Masculinity: Why Our Refusal to Give up War Ensures that Rape Cannot Be Eradicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is endemic during war, suggesting that there may be important conceptual links between the two. A theoretical model is presented positing that rape and war are correlated because traditional (hegemonic) masculinity underlies, and is a cause of, both. An analysis of the literatures on masculinity, rape perpetration, and military socialization…

  8. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  9. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this…

  10. "Nobody Told Me It Was Rape": A Parent's Guide for Talking with Teenagers about Acquaintance Rape and Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Caren; Fay, Jennifer

    This book was written to help parents talk to their adolescent children about acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation. It may also be useful to family life educators presenting units on rape and sexual exploitation. Acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation are explained in the first section. The second section discusses talking with teenagers…

  11. Date and Acquaintance Rape: The Legal Point of View. Part 2. Reform of Rape Laws and Alternatives to Criminal Prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Frank H.

    1993-01-01

    Second article in two-part series on date and acquaintance rape examines modern reforms in rape laws and alternatives to criminal prosecution. Explains the Rape Shield Law, designed to prevent victim's sexual history from being used against her to prove promiscuity, tendency to lie, or low moral character. Other common statutory revisions are…

  12. Rape stereotypes and labeling: awareness of victimization and trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Ilaria

    2011-02-01

    For years, studies in the U.S. college population have described the phenomena of date and acquaintance rape. These phenomena have perpetuated myths regarding rape leading to the faulty labeling of the experience by the survivors themselves. Compared with the U.S., in Europe there are very few studies concerning this issue. This preliminary study in Italy comprised surveys of 210 participants who were asked to express their opinions on 2 scenarios of sexual assault (a forced rape and an acquaintance rape). Only 48% of the participants thought that acquaintance rape should be tried in a criminal court. PMID:21526600

  13. Effect of methanol on winter rape seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Kaczmarczy; Robert M. Devlin; Irena I. Zbieć

    2013-01-01

    Oil seed rape seedlings which had been treated with 10-30% methanol grew faster, their yield of fresh matter exceeded that of untreated control plants by 102%, of dry matter by 80%. Although methanol did not affect the content of chlorophyll or carotene in the leaves, the overall pigment yield grew with the dry matter of one seedling. The biomass of rape leaves which had been sprayed with 10 or 20% methanol solutions was by 50-90% higher as compared to untreated plants. The activity of some ...

  14. Rape in war: the humanitarian response

    OpenAIRE

    Shanks, Leslie; Schull, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care...

  15. Marital Rape in Shashi Deshpande's fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Kavya.B

    2012-01-01

    The present paper titled Marital Rape in Shashi Deshpande’s fiction tries to explore the issues like rape in marriage in the novels of Shashi Deshpande. Shashi Deshpande's fiction explores the search of the woman to fulfil herself basically as a human being, independent of her various traditional roles as daughter, wife, mother and so on. Shashi Deshpande strongly agrees with Simone de Beavouir's that “that fact that we are human is much more important than our being and women”. I think that'...

  16. Rape: Past and present legal regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Đapović Lasta S.

    2002-01-01

    Rape was identified as a criminal act in the earliest known legal writings, Hamurabi's legal code (cir. 2000 BC). In the Balkans, in the Middle Ages, rape was always punished in one way or another, in the statutes of the Adriatic maritime towns, which were under the rule of the Nemanjić state or the West. All categories of women, even prostitutes and slaves, were protected by law from sexual violence in many statutes. Also in Dušan's legal code the regulation is found, severely punishing rapi...

  17. A normalized difference yellowness index for modeling yield of Brassica oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conspicuous yellow flowers that are present in a Brassica oilseed crop such as canola require careful consideration when selecting a spectral index for yield estimation. This study evaluated spectral indices for multispectral sensors that correlate with the seed yield of Brassica oilseed crops. A ...

  18. 7 CFR 93.15 - Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... office as listed in 7 CFR 93.14(a). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds. 93.15 Section....15 Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds. The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for...

  19. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower me

  20. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M.

    2010-01-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths--false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims--are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited…

  1. Stranger and Acquaintance Rape: Are There Differences in the Victim's Experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined rape by strangers and by acquaintances, including nonromantic acquaintances, casual dates, steady dates, and family members in 489 rape victims. Acquaintance rape typically involved single offender and multiple episodes, was less often perceived as rape or revealed to anyone, and, except for rapes by family members, was rated less…

  2. Suggested Acquaintance/Date Rape Education & Prevention Strategies for School Health Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Robert M.; Walls, Nicole A.

    Data suggest that acquaintance and date rape may account for 50-70 percent of all reported rapes in the United States. Recent findings also indicate that one in four college women have been raped or a victim of attempted rape. As most rape victims are between 15 and 24 years of age, high school-based education programs must be provided if society…

  3. Ethical challenges when reading aesthetic rape scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBoth the issue of the ethics of representation and the issue of the ethics of reading are particularly important when it comes to representations of suffering and violence. This chapter addresses the ethics of representing and the ethics of reading rape, with a focus on the latter. Depic

  4. Numbing after rape, and depth of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barglow, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The author considers the reactions of four women who had been sexually assaulted, with a focus on the rape trauma of two women with the diagnosis of "Complex-PTSD." Both patients also had prolonged episodes of illegal drug dependence. The article investigates a variety of therapeutic responses to ameliorate disabling post-rape psychological symptoms, especially an intense feeling of numbing. Psychodynamic treatment was chosen for investigation rather than Prolonged Exposure (PET), or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Choice of these two treatments is supported by substantial statistical evidence. But many therapists continue to use psychoanalytic based approaches to treat rape victims. Schottenbauer et al, (2008) concluded that PET and CBT approaches had high non-response and dropout rates. Also psychodynamic comprehension may be particularly suitable for "complex PTSD" as defined below in this article. Two vignettes contrast the treatment processes and outcomes of these two women to two other patients who had been sexually assaulted, but whose psychopathology was less severe. The author proposes that full comprehension of severe numbing is essential in the selection of the best intervention strategy because this symptom (or affect) may determine the prognosis of raped patients. PMID:24818460

  5. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting rap

  6. Acquaintance Rape on College and University Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Felicia F.

    2004-01-01

    While a university experience offers young women many rewards, unfortunately, there are also significant dangers, and one of these dangers is men who are sexual predators. Acquaintance rape is a sexual assault perpetrated by someone who is known to the victim. It is a violent and serious crime that is far too common an occurrence at our…

  7. Risk Appraisal in Scripted Acquaintance Rape Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Doris J.

    Cognitive appraisals are believed to influence how women judge or appraise risk in acquaintance interactions which lead to sexual assault. Ways in which men and women judge the presence of risk factors in scripted acquaintance rape scenarios, and whether alcohol was a significant factor in assessing risk, are examined in this paper. Participants…

  8. Acquaintance Rape: A Case Study Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Rosalie D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a case study approach to acquaintance rape used in a Personal Health and Lifestyles course at the University of Nevada in Reno that allows students to discuss the characters in a scenario, an instructional process seen as less threatening than describing personal experiences. (MDM)

  9. Forcible Rape: An Analysis of Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    Traditionally, rape has been defined as "carnal knowledge of a woman by force and against her will." The test of force has been crucial, and consent deduced. Victims were assumed to be consenting parties unless criminal circumstances could be proved. Victims were oftened questioned about past sexual behavior. Current reform efforts have attempted…

  10. Date-rape drugs scene in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Kała, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginnings of twenty-first century in Poland increasing number of reports about the drug-facilitated sexual assaults have been observed. Many drugs have been identified as so-called "date-rape drugs", because of their pharmacological properties, especially inducing amnesia. These drugs are used for the purpose of "drugging" unsuspected victims and than raping them. In a typical scenario, the perpetrator surreptitiously adds "date-rape drug" to the alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage of an unsuspecting person, who is subsequently sexually assaulted while under the influence of this substance. Many victims do not report the incident until several days after the event or even do not report it at all. They report the incident so late after the events because they often have problems with remember the course of incident. It causes that victim is not reliable witness for justice. Detection of "date-rape drugs" in biological fluids is unequivocal evidence of perpetration. Analysis of biological fluids collected from victims of rapes for presence of drugs was rare in Poland up to now. The aim of this study is to show the use of "date-rape drugs" in Poland. Materials for this study were from the routine casework elaborated at the Institute of Forensic Research in Kraków. APCI-LC-MS methods were applied for screening of biological fluids (blood and/or urine) for amphetamine and its 6 analogues, for 12 substances from benzodiazepine group and for quantification of the detected drugs. HPLC-DAD was used as a screening method for wide range of medicinal drugs, and NCI-GC-MS methods for determination of ketamine and tetrahydrocannabinols (delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 9THC) and its metabolite (11-nor-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THCCOOH). In 2000-2004, the biological fluids taken from 33 persons, both sexually assaulted or perpetrators were analysed. In 2000 and 2002 not any case of this type was registered, in 2001 only two cases were recorded. After 2003

  11. IFCN Cash Crop: Benchmarking Farms Globally Oilseed Production Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Plessmann, Frank; Ebmeyer, Christian; Goerg, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable oil production has become one of the fastest expanding cash crop sectors in the last 50 years and it is still increasing rapidly. However the regions of expansion, the sources of plant oil and their importance vary over time. To shed light on this development it is necessary to look at the farm level production systems and their production costs for a variety of countries and oilseeds. In this paper we present the first results of the IFCN Cash Crop Network covering the internationa...

  12. Effects of oilseed supplements on milk production and quality in dairy cows fed a hay-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kasal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of rapeseed (Brassica napus L. and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. on feed consumption, milk yield, composition and fatty acid (FA profile was investigated in lactating dairy cows. According to a Latin square design, twelve cows were assigned to three experimental settings which received a haybased diet supplemented with one of the following mixtures: cracked barley (1.0 kg and cracked maize (0.5 kg as Control diet (C-diet; full fat ground rapeseed (1.0 kg, cracked barley (1.0 kg and cracked maize (0.5 kg as Rapeseed diet (R-diet and extruded linseed (1.2 kg, cracked barley (1.0 kg and cracked maize (0.5 kg as Linseed diet (L-diet. Diet supplemented with rape- and linseed did not affect dry matter intake. As result of the high amount of dietary ether extract R- and L-diet showed higher crude fat intake as compared to the control. Despite the higher intake of crude fat and, in particular, of the polyunsaturated fraction, milk yield and composition resulted similar among treatments. Compared to C-diet, R-diet resulted in milk containing significantly lower amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA (60.9 vs 66.9% of total detected SFA as well as higher amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA (30.6 vs 24.2%. However, R-diet had no effect on polyunsaturated fatty acid content (PUFA. With respect to C-diet, L-diet also significantly reduced the content of SFA (59.8 vs 66.9% and increased both MUFA (29.1 vs 24.2% and PUFA (4.7 vs 4.1% contents. Feeding about 1 kg of whole oilseeds per head per day had no clear effects on milk vaccenic acid and conjugated linoleic acid contents. The inclusion of rapeseed in the diet significantly reduced the content of n-6 FA in the milk, whereas the linseed-supplemented diet significantly increased the content of n-3 FA. In comparison to C-diet, n-6/n-3 ratio was lower in L-diet milk and intermediate in R-diet milk. Feeding lactating dairy cows with oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA did not

  13. Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Unacknowledged Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E

    2016-04-01

    Many sexual violence survivors do not label their experiences as rape but instead use more benign labels, such as "bad sex" or "miscommunication." A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the mean prevalence of unacknowledged rape and to inform our understanding of methodological factors that influence the detection of this phenomenon. Studies were identified using PsycINFO, PubMED, and PILOTS and were required to report the percentage of unacknowledged rape that had occurred since the age of 14 among female survivors. Moderator variables included mean participant age, recruitment source, rape definition, and unacknowledged rape definition. Twenty-eight studies (30 independent samples) containing 5,917 female rape survivors met the inclusion criteria. Based on a random effects model, the overall weighted mean percentage of unacknowledged rape was 60.4% (95% confidence interval [55.0%, 65.6%]). There was a large amount of heterogeneity, Q(29) = 445.11, p < .001, and inconsistency (I(2) = 93.5%) among included studies. The prevalence was significantly higher among college student participants compared to noncollege participants. The findings supported that over half of all female rape survivors do not acknowledge that they have been raped. The results suggest that screening tools should use behaviorally descriptive items about sexual contact, rather than using terms such as "rape." PMID:25784571

  14. Investigation the Substitution Capability of Oilseeds in Cropping Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud D. Kakhki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Farm activity is a risky activity special in less developed countries, so all decisions and activities are affected by this phenomenon. Consideration of risk either helps to elimination of deviations in result of model or preparing tools for evolution of some policies that the aim of them is reducing the risk for farmers. Oil seed are the second resource of food store in the world. Also, Iran is depending on oil import and going out of much exchange to provide oil and scum of that annually. Because of this matter, agriculture sector need plants that are adjust to climate of Iran and have a lot of oil, that canola is the best one. Approach: In this study, capability of substitution oilseeds in cropping pattern was considered; optimum cultivated pattern of important crops that have most cultivated area of canola in Khorasan Province is considered. Linear programming and risk-programming models such as MOTAD and quadratic programming were compared. Results: Models suggest increasing the cultivated area of oilseeds crop. Conclusion: Increasing the cultivated area of canola cause to the pattern cultivating of farmers improve and inputs will used in better way, too. Increasing the cultivated area, it is a movement toward self sufficient in oil seed production that will accompany with noticeable thrift in foreign exchange.

  15. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  16. Is Reporting of Rape on the Rise? A Comparison of Women with Reported versus Unreported Rape Experiences in the National Women's Study-Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Rape affects one in seven women nationwide. Historically, most rape victims do not report rape to law enforcement. Research is needed to identify barriers to reporting and correlates of reporting to guide policy recommendations that address such barriers. We investigated the prevalence of reporting rape among a national sample of women (N = 3,001)…

  17. Effects of Two Versions of an Empathy-Based Rape Prevention Program on Fraternity Men's Survivor Empathy, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intent to Commit Rape or Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, John D.; Newberry, Johnathan T.

    2006-01-01

    Fraternity men (N = 261) at a small to midsized public university saw one of two versions of a rape prevention program or were in a control group. Program participants reported significant increases in empathy toward rape survivors and significant declines in rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and likelihood of committing sexual assault.…

  18. Repeat rape and multiple offending among undetected rapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisak, David; Miller, Paul M

    2002-02-01

    Pooling data from four samples in which 1,882 men were assessed for acts of interpersonal violence, we report on 120 men whose self-reported acts met legal definitions of rape or attempted rape, but who were never prosecuted by criminal justice authorities. A majority of these undetected rapists were repeat rapists, and a majority also committed other acts of interpersonal violence. The repeat rapists averaged 5.8 rapes each. The 120 rapists were responsible for 1,225 separate acts of interpersonal violence, including rape, battery, and child physical and sexual abuse. These findings mirror those from studies of incarcerated sex offenders (Abel, Becker, Mittelman, Cunningham-Rathner, Rouleau, & Murphy, 1987; Weinrott and Saylor, 1991), indicating high rates of both repeat rape and multiple types of offending. Implications for the investigation and prosecution of this so-called "hidden" rape are discussed. PMID:11991158

  19. The incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, J M

    1997-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated the incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women. Sixty women in a residential treatment facility were interviewed about sexual trauma they had experienced in their lives. In this sample 73% had been raped, and 45% had been raped more than once. The stories of rape were classified in five categories: rape while in the context of using, when too high to resist, while prostituting, by a significant other, and by a family member. Some 35% of the rapist described were friends of the women with whom they were using drugs. Only 20% of the rapes were reported to the police. Clinical implications for treatment of addicted women who are also survivors of violence is discussed. PMID:9460026

  20. Deceiving others/deceiving oneself: four cases of factitious rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M D; Ford, C V; Stone, T

    1994-07-01

    Although patients with factitious disorders typically seek the "patient" role through illness portrayals, some instead portray themselves falsely as "victims." We discuss the cases of four women who claimed to have been victims of rape; the allegations ultimately were disproved. Factitious rape may be prompted by a search for nurturance; by dissociation, leading individuals to believe that trauma earlier in life is ongoing; by a need to be rescued from real, current abuse; and by projection of anger onto specific male targets. Although dramatic, factitious rape is rare, we advocate thorough investigation of rape claims even when patients have known histories of deceptive behavior. PMID:8023207