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Sample records for broadcast spawning coral

  1. Fused embryos and pre-metamorphic conjoined larvae in a broadcast spawning reef coral.

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    Jiang, Lei; Lei, Xin-Ming; Liu, Sheng; Huang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Fusion of embryos or larvae prior to metamorphosis is rarely known to date in colonial marine organisms. Here, we document for the first time that the embryos of the broadcast spawning coral Platygyra daedalea could fuse during blastulation and further develop into conjoined larvae, and the settlement of conjoined larvae immediately resulted in inborn juvenile colonies. Fusion of embryos might be an adaptive strategy to form pre-metamorphic chimeric larvae and larger recruits, thereby promoting early survival. However, future studies are needed to explore whether and to what extent fusion of coral embryos occurs in the field, and fully evaluate its implications.

  2. Congruent patterns of connectivity can inform management for broadcast spawning corals on the Great Barrier Reef.

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    Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Riginos, Cynthia; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2016-07-01

    Connectivity underpins the persistence and recovery of marine ecosystems. The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is the world's largest coral reef ecosystem and managed by an extensive network of no-take zones; however, information about connectivity was not available to optimize the network's configuration. We use multivariate analyses, Bayesian clustering algorithms and assignment tests of the largest population genetic data set for any organism on the GBR to date (Acropora tenuis, >2500 colonies; >50 reefs, genotyped for ten microsatellite loci) to demonstrate highly congruent patterns of connectivity between this common broadcast spawning reef-building coral and its congener Acropora millepora (~950 colonies; 20 reefs, genotyped for 12 microsatellite loci). For both species, there is a genetic divide at around 19°S latitude, most probably reflecting allopatric differentiation during the Pleistocene. GBR reefs north of 19°S are essentially panmictic whereas southern reefs are genetically distinct with higher levels of genetic diversity and population structure, most notably genetic subdivision between inshore and offshore reefs south of 19°S. These broadly congruent patterns of higher genetic diversities found on southern GBR reefs most likely represent the accumulation of alleles via the southward flowing East Australia Current. In addition, signatures of genetic admixture between the Coral Sea and outer-shelf reefs in the northern, central and southern GBR provide evidence of recent gene flow. Our connectivity results are consistent with predictions from recently published larval dispersal models for broadcast spawning corals on the GBR, thereby providing robust connectivity information about the dominant reef-building genus Acropora for coral reef managers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Gene flow and genetic diversity of a broadcast-spawning coral in northern peripheral populations.

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    Yuichi Nakajima

    Full Text Available Recently, reef-building coral populations have been decreasing worldwide due to various disturbances. Population genetic studies are helpful for estimating the genetic connectivity among populations of marine sessile organisms with metapopulation structures such as corals. Moreover, the relationship between latitude and genetic diversity is informative when evaluating the fragility of populations. In this study, using highly variable markers, we examined the population genetics of the broadcast-spawning coral Acropora digitifera at 19 sites in seven regions along the 1,000 km long island chain of Nansei Islands, Japan. This area includes both subtropical and temperate habitats. Thus, the coral populations around the Nansei Islands in Japan are northern peripheral populations that would be subjected to environmental stresses different from those in tropical areas. The existence of high genetic connectivity across this large geographic area was suggested for all sites (F(ST < or = 0.033 although small but significant genetic differentiation was detected among populations in geographically close sites and regions. In addition, A. digitifera appears to be distributed throughout the Nansei Islands without losing genetic diversity. Therefore, A. digitifera populations in the Nansei Islands may be able to recover relatively rapidly even when high disturbances of coral communities occur locally if populations on other reefs are properly maintained.

  4. Heritability of the Symbiodinium community in vertically- and horizontally-transmitting broadcast spawning corals.

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    Quigley, Kate M; Willis, Bette L; Bay, Line K

    2017-08-15

    The dinoflagellate-coral partnership influences the coral holobiont's tolerance to thermal stress and bleaching. However, the comparative roles of host genetic versus environmental factors in determining the composition of this symbiosis are largely unknown. Here we quantify the heritability of the initial Symbiodinium communities for two broadcast-spawning corals with different symbiont transmission modes: Acropora tenuis has environmental acquisition, whereas Montipora digitata has maternal transmission. Using high throughput sequencing of the ITS-2 region to characterize communities in parents, juveniles and eggs, we describe previously undocumented Symbiodinium diversity and dynamics in both corals. After one month of uptake in the field, Symbiodinium communities associated with A. tenuis juveniles were dominated by A3, C1, D1, A-type CCMP828, and D1a in proportional abundances conserved between experiments in two years. M. digitata eggs were predominantly characterized by C15, D1, and A3. In contrast to current paradigms, host genetic influences accounted for a surprising 29% of phenotypic variation in Symbiodinium communities in the horizontally-transmitting A. tenuis, but only 62% in the vertically-transmitting M. digitata. Our results reveal hitherto unknown flexibility in the acquisition of Symbiodinium communities and substantial heritability in both species, providing material for selection to produce partnerships that are locally adapted to changing environmental conditions.

  5. Transcriptome dynamics over a lunar month in a broadcast spawning acroporid coral.

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    Oldach, Matthew J; Workentine, Matthew; Matz, Mikhail V; Fan, Tung-Yung; Vize, Peter D

    2017-05-01

    On one night per year, at a specific point in the lunar cycle, one of the most extraordinary reproductive events on the planet unfolds as hundreds of millions of broadcast spawning corals release their trillions of gametes into the waters of the tropical seas. Each species spawns on a specific night within the lunar cycle, typically from full moon to third quarter moon, and in a specific time window after sunset. This accuracy is essential to achieve efficient fertilization in the vastness of the oceans. In this report, we use transcriptome sequencing at noon and midnight across an entire lunar cycle to explore how acroporid corals interpret lunar signals. The data were interrogated by both time-of-day-dependent and time-of-day-independent methods to identify different types of lunar cycles. Time-of-day methods found that genes associated with biological clocks and circadian processes change their diurnal cycles over the course of a synodic lunar cycle. Some genes have large differences between day and night at some lunar phases, but little or no diurnal differences at other phases. Many clock genes display an oscillation pattern indicative of phase shifts linked to the lunar cycle. Time-independent methods found that signal transduction, protein secretion and modification, cell cycle and ion transport change over the lunar timescale and peak at various phases of the moon. Together these data provide unique insights into how the moon impinges on coral transcription cycles and how lunar light may regulate circalunar timing systems and coral biology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Broadcast Spawning Coral Mussismilia hispida Can Vertically Transfer its Associated Bacterial Core.

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    Leite, Deborah C A; Leão, Pedro; Garrido, Amana G; Lins, Ulysses; Santos, Henrique F; Pires, Débora O; Castro, Clovis B; van Elsas, Jan D; Zilberberg, Carla; Rosado, Alexandre S; Peixoto, Raquel S

    2017-01-01

    The hologenome theory of evolution (HTE), which is under fierce debate, presupposes that parts of the microbiome are transmitted from one generation to the next [vertical transmission (VT)], which may also influence the evolution of the holobiont. Even though bacteria have previously been described in early life stages of corals, these early life stages (larvae) could have been inoculated in the water and not inside the parental colony (through gametes) carrying the parental microbiome. How Symbiodinium is transmitted to offspring is also not clear, as only one study has described this mechanism in spawners. All other studies refer to incubators. To explore the VT hypothesis and the key components being transferred, colonies of the broadcast spawner species Mussismilia hispida were kept in nurseries until spawning. Gamete bundles, larvae and adult corals were analyzed to identify their associated microbiota with respect to composition and location. Symbiodinium and bacteria were detected by sequencing in gametes and coral planula larvae. However, no cells were detected using microscopy at the gamete stage, which could be related to the absence of those cells inside the oocytes/dispersed in the mucus or to a low resolution of our approach. A preliminary survey of Symbiodinium diversity indicated that parental colonies harbored Symbiodinium clades B, C and G, whereas only clade B was found in oocytes and planula larvae [5 days after fertilization (a.f.)]. The core bacterial populations found in the bundles, planula larvae and parental colonies were identified as members of the genera Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Ralstonia, Inquilinus and Bacillus, suggesting that these populations could be vertically transferred through the mucus. The collective data suggest that spawner corals, such as M. hispida, can transmit Symbiodinium cells and the bacterial core to their offspring by a coral gamete (and that this gamete, with its bacterial load, is released into

  7. Mechanisms of reproductive isolation among sympatric broadcast-spawning corals of the Montastraea annularis species complex.

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    Levitan, Don R; Fukami, Hironobu; Jara, Javier; Kline, David; McGovern, Tamara M; McGhee, Katie E; Swanson, Cheryl A; Knowlton, Nancy

    2004-02-01

    Many coral species spawn simultaneously and have compatible gametes, leading to controversy over the nature of species boundaries and the frequency with which hybridization occurs. Three western Atlantic corals, Montastraea annularis, M. faveolata, and M. franksi, typify this controversy; they all spawn sympatrically on the same evenings after the fall full moons. Here we show, in both Panama and the Bahamas for multiple years, how a variety of mechanisms may act in concert to reproductively isolate all three species. Field studies indicate that M. franksi spawns two hours earlier than the other two species, and the eggs released during this earlier period disperse an average of 500 m by the time the other species spawn. Field measures of fertilization indicate that peak fertilization occurs when spawning synchrony is high and that corals that spawn at the tails of the spawning distributions have greatly reduced fertilization success. Laboratory studies indicate that there is a gametic incompatibility between M. faveolata and the other two species. There are regional differences in the gametic compatibility of M. franksi and M. annularis. In Panama, the two species are completely compatible, whereas in the Bahamas, M. franksi sperm can fertilize M. annularis eggs but the reciprocal cross often fails. Gamete age influences patterns of fertilization, such that very young eggs seem resistant to fertilization and old sperm lose viability after two hours. In sum, the combination of temporal differences in spawning, sperm aging, gamete dispersal and dilution, and gametic incompatibility act in various combinations among the three species, making it unlikely that hybrid fertilization would occur.

  8. Chimerism in wild adult populations of the broadcast spawning coral Acropora millepora on the Great Barrier Reef.

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    Eneour Puill-Stephan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chimeras are organisms containing tissues or cells of two or more genetically distinct individuals, and are known to exist in at least nine phyla of protists, plants, and animals. Although widespread and common in marine invertebrates, the extent of chimerism in wild populations of reef corals is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The extent of chimerism was explored within two populations of a common coral, Acropora millepora, on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, by using up to 12 polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci. At least 2% and 5% of Magnetic Island and Pelorus Island populations of A. millepora, respectively, were found to be chimeras (3% overall, based on conservative estimates. A slightly less conservative estimate indicated that 5% of colonies in each population were chimeras. These values are likely to be vast underestimates of the true extent of chimerism, as our sampling protocol was restricted to a maximum of eight branches per colony, while most colonies consist of hundreds of branches. Genotypes within chimeric corals showed high relatedness, indicating that genetic similarity is a prerequisite for long-term acceptance of non-self genotypes within coral colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While some brooding corals have been shown to form genetic chimeras in their early life history stages under experimental conditions, this study provides the first genetic evidence of the occurrence of coral chimeras in the wild and of chimerism in a broadcast spawning species. We hypothesize that chimerism is more widespread in corals than previously thought, and suggest that this has important implications for their resilience, potentially enhancing their capacity to compete for space and respond to stressors such as pathogen infection.

  9. Broadcast spawning by Pocillopora species on the Great Barrier Reef.

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    Schmidt-Roach, Sebastian; Miller, Karen J; Woolsey, Erika; Gerlach, Gabriele; Baird, Andrew H

    2012-01-01

    The coral genus Pocillopora is one of the few to include some species that broadcast spawn gametes and some species that brood larvae, although reports of reproductive mode and timing vary within and among species across their range. Notably, the ubiquitous Pocillopora damicornis has been described as both a brooder and spawner, although evidence of broadcast spawning is rare. Here, we report observations of broadcast-spawning in four species of Pocillopora on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), including P. damicornis. All species spawned predictably during the early morning, two days following the full moon, and spawning was observed in multiple months over the summer period (November to February). Eggs and sperm were free-spawned concurrently. Eggs were negatively buoyant and contained Symbiodinium. This newfound knowledge on the mode, timing and regularity of broadcast spawning in Pocillopora spp. on the GBR brings us one step closer to elucidating the complex reproductive ecology of these species.

  10. Janzen-Connell effects in a broadcast-spawning Caribbean coral: Distance-dependent survival of larvae and settlers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhaver, K.L.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Rohwer, F.; Sandin, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Janzen-Connell hypothesis states that host-specific biotic enemies (pathogens and predators) promote the coexistence of tree species in tropical forests by causing distance- or density-dependent mortality of seeds and seedlings. Although coral reefs are the aquatic analogues of tropical forests,

  11. The Effect of Elevated CO2 and Increased Temperature on in Vitro Fertilization Success and Initial Embryonic Development of Single Male:Female Crosses of Broad-Cast Spawning Corals at Mid- and High-Latitude Locations

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    Miriam Schutter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global climate change on coral reefs is expected to be most profound at the sea surface, where fertilization and embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals takes place. We examined the effect of increased temperature and elevated CO2 levels on the in vitro fertilization success and initial embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals using a single male:female cross of three different species from mid- and high-latitude locations: Lyudao, Taiwan (22° N and Kochi, Japan (32° N. Eggs were fertilized under ambient conditions (27 °C and 500 μatm CO2 and under conditions predicted for 2100 (IPCC worst case scenario, 31 °C and 1000 μatm CO2. Fertilization success, abnormal development and early developmental success were determined for each sample. Increased temperature had a more profound influence than elevated CO2. In most cases, near-future warming caused a significant drop in early developmental success as a result of decreased fertilization success and/or increased abnormal development. The embryonic development of the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the high-latitude location was more sensitive to the increased temperature (+4 °C than the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the mid-latitude location. The response to the elevated CO2 level was small and highly variable, ranging from positive to negative responses. These results suggest that global warming is a more significant and universal stressor than ocean acidification on the early embryonic development of corals from mid- and high-latitude locations.

  12. Calm before the spawn: global coral spawning patterns are explained by regional wind fields.

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    van Woesik, R

    2010-03-07

    Most corals in tropical localities broadcast their gametes into the water column, yet we have a poor understanding of what forces reproductive schedules. Moreover, recent studies show considerable geographical variation in the duration of the coral spawning season. For example, on the Great Barrier Reef, corals display tight coupling, while corals in Kenya spawn over seven months. This study reconciles the regional variance by testing the hypothesis that regional wind fields are the corals' ultimate reproductive proxy. Regions with short calm periods should be more tightly coupled than regions with calm periods extending for several months. Regional wind fields were assessed at seven localities, between 1997 and 2006, using the 11 GHz channel radiometer tropical microwave imager (TMI) onboard the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM). There was a direct positive relationship between the duration of regional calm periods and the coupling of mass coral spawning. Ultimate long-term evolutionary advantages of releasing gametes during calm periods ensure fertilization and facilitate larval retention and local recruitment. Coupling mass spawning with seasonally calm periods agrees strongly with recent genetic evidence of local dispersal and high local retention.

  13. Mass spawning of corals on a high latitude coral reef

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    Babcock, R. C.; Wills, B. L.; Simpson, C. J.

    1994-07-01

    Evidence is presented that at least 60% of the 184 species of scleractinian corals found on reefs surrounding the Houtman Abrolhos Islands (Western Australia) participate in a late summer mass spawning. These populations are thus reproductively active, despite most species being at the extreme southern limit of their latitudinal range (28° 29°S). In the present study, coral mass spawning occurred in the same month on both temperate (Houtman-Abrolhos) and tropical (Ningaloo) reefs of Western Australia, despite more than two months difference in the timing of seasonal temperture minima between the two regions. This concurrence in the month of spawning suggests that temperature does not operate as a simple direct proximate cue for seasonal spawning synchrony in these populations. Seasonal variation in photoperiod may provide a similar and more reliable signal in the two regions, and thus might be more likely to synchronize the seasonal reproductive rhythms of these corals. Also there is overlap in the nights of mass spawning on the Houtman Abrolhos and tropical reefs of Western Australia, despite significant differences in tidal phase and amplitude between the two regions. This indicates that tidal cycle does not synchronize with the night(s) of spawning on these reefs. Spawning is more likely to be synchronised by lunar cycles. The co-occurrence of the mass spawning with spring tides in Houtman Abrolhos coral populations may be evidence of a genetic legacy inherited from northern, tropical ancestors. Micro-tidal regimes in the Houtman Abrolhos region may have exerted insufficient selective pressure to counteract this legacy.

  14. Coral spawning in the Gulf of Oman and relationship to latitudinal variation in spawning season in the northwest Indian Ocean.

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    Howells, E J; Abrego, D; Vaughan, G O; Burt, J A

    2014-12-15

    Despite a wealth of information on sexual reproduction in scleractinian corals, there are regional gaps in reproductive records. In the Gulf of the Oman in the Arabian Sea, reproductive timing was assessed in four common species of broadcast spawning corals using field surveys of gamete maturity and aquarium observations of spawning activity. The appearance of mature gametes within the same month for Acropora downingi, A. hemprichii, Cyphastrea microphthalma and Platygyra daedalea (≥ 75% of colonies, n = 848) indicated a synchronous and multi-specific spawning season. Based on gamete disappearance and direct observations, spawning predominantly occurred during April in 2013 (75-100% of colonies) and May in 2014 (77-94% of colonies). The difference in spawning months between survey years was most likely explained by sea temperature and the timing of lunar cycles during late-stage gametogenesis. These reproductive records are consistent with a latitudinal gradient in peak broadcast spawning activity at reefs in the northwestern Indian Ocean which occurs early in the year at low latitudes (January to March) and progressively later in the year at mid (March to May) and high (June to September) latitudes.

  15. Gamete plasticity in a broadcast spawning marine invertebrate.

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    Crean, Angela J; Marshall, Dustin J

    2008-09-09

    Sperm competition has classically been thought to maintain anisogamy (large eggs and smaller sperm) because males are thought to maximize their chance of winning fertilizations by trading sperm size for number. More recently it has been recognized that sperm quality (e.g., size, velocity) can also influence sperm competition, although studies have yielded conflicting results. Because sex evolved in the sea, debate has continued over the role of sperm competition and sperm environment in determining both sperm and egg size in externally fertilizing broadcast spawners. Remarkably, however, there have been no direct tests of whether broadcast spawners change the traits of their gametes depending on the likelihood of sperm competition. We manipulated the density (and thus, sperm environment) of a broadcast spawning ascidian (Styela plicata) in the field and then determined whether the phenotype of eggs and sperm changed. We found that sperm from adults kept at high density were larger and more motile than sperm from low-density adults. In vitro fertilizations revealed that sperm from high-density adults also lived longer and induced less polyspermy. Adult density also affected egg traits: eggs from high-density adults were smaller targets for sperm overall but produced larger ovicells than eggs from low-density adults. This suggests that broadcast spawning mothers balance (potentially conflicting) pre- and postzygotic selection pressures on egg size. Overall, our results suggest that sperm competition does not represent a strong force maintaining anisogamy in broadcast spawners. Instead, sperm limitation seems to select for large eggs and smaller, more numerous sperm.

  16. Spawning of coral reef invertebrates and a second spawning season for scleractinian corals in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Bouwmeester, Jessica

    2016-06-22

    Recent coral spawning observations in the central Red Sea show that most scleractinian species release their gametes in the spring, with a majority of species spawning in April. There is, however, a lack of reproductive data for several other coral species, as well as a general lack of data for other invertebrates. Here, we document the detailed timing of spawning for 13 scleractinian coral species, one sea anemone, and six echinoderms from an inshore reef off the coast of Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, in the spring between April and June 2014. Furthermore, inferred from the presence of mature gametes, we report the month of spawning for three additional coral species in the spring. Seven scleractinian coral species were inferred to release their gametes in a second reproductive season, in the autumn, between September and November. This is the first report of a second spawning season in the Arabian region. Biannual spawning has so far been reported on the Great Barrier Reef, in Western Australia, in Indonesia, in Malaysia, in Palau, in Thailand, in Taiwan, and in Western Samoa. © 2016, The American Microscopical Society, Inc.

  17. Biannual Spawning and Temporal Reproductive Isolation in Acropora Corals.

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    James P Gilmour

    Full Text Available Coral spawning on the oceanic reef systems of north-western Australia was recently discovered during autumn and spring, but the degree to which species and particularly colonies participated in one or both of these spawnings was unknown. At the largest of the oceanic reef systems, the participation by colonies in the two discrete spawning events was investigated over three years in 13 species of Acropora corals (n = 1,855 colonies. Seven species spawned during both seasons; five only in autumn and one only in spring. The majority of tagged colonies (n = 218 spawned once a year in the same season, but five colonies from three species spawned during spring and autumn during a single year. Reproductive seasonality was not influenced by spatial variation in habitat conditions, or by Symbiodinium partners in the biannual spawner Acropora tenuis. Colonies of A. tenuis spawning during different seasons separated into two distinct yet cryptic groups, in a bayesian clustering analysis based on multiple microsatellite markers. These groups were associated with a major genetic divergence (G"ST = 0.469, despite evidence of mixed ancestry in a small proportion of individuals. Our results confirm that temporal reproductive isolation is a common feature of Acropora populations at Scott Reef and indicate that spawning season is a genetically determined trait in at least A. tenuis. This reproductive isolation may be punctuated occasionally by interbreeding between genetic groups following favourable environmental conditions, when autumn spawners undergo a second annual gametogenic cycle and spawn during spring.

  18. Broadcast spawning patterns of Favia species on the inshore reefs of Thailand

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    Kongjandtre, N.; Ridgway, T.; Ward, S.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2010-03-01

    To obtain a global perspective of coral reproductive patterns, there is a clear need for more descriptive studies from under-represented regions (e.g., Thailand). As such, this study provides the first data on the timing of gamete maturation and spawning of seven species of Favia from Thailand. Corals in the inner and eastern Gulf of Thailand (GOT) spawned following the full moons of February/March, whereas spawning in the southwestern GOT and the Andaman Sea occurred 1 month later following the full moons of March/April. Aquarium observations of five Favia species confirmed spawning between five and six nights after the respective full moon, with the time of release of gametes overlapping among species. Further research on gametogenesis in additional coral species is required to document whether the spawning patterns exhibited by Favia are typical of all coral species in Thailand.

  19. Microphytoplankton variations during coral spawning at Los Roques, Southern Caribbean

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    Francoise Cavada-Blanco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton drives primary productivity in marine pelagic systems. This is also true for the oligotrophic waters in coral reefs, where natural and anthropogenic sources of nutrients can alter pelagic trophic webs. In this study, microphytoplankton assemblages were characterized for the first time in relation to expected coral spawning dates in the Caribbean. A hierarchical experimental design was used to examine these assemblages in Los Roques archipelago, Venezuela, at various temporal and spatial scales for spawning events in both 2007 and 2008. At four reefs, superficial water samples were taken daily for 9 days after the full moon of August, including days before, during and after the expected days of coral spawning. Microphytoplankton assemblages comprised 100 microalgae taxa at up to 50 cells per mL (mean ± 8 SD and showed temporal and spatial variations related to the coral spawning only in 2007. However, chlorophyll a concentrations increased during and after the spawning events in both years, and this was better matched with analyses of higher taxonomical groups (diatoms, cyanophytes and dinoflagellates, that also varied in relation to spawning times in 2007 and 2008, but asynchronously among reefs. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic dinoflagellates increased in abundance, correlating with a decrease of the diatom Cerataulina pelagica and an increase of the diatom Rhizosolenia imbricata. These variations occurred during and after the coral spawning event for some reefs in 2007. For the first time, a fresh-water cyanobacteria species of Anabaena was ephemerally found (only 3 days in the archipelago, at reefs closest to human settlements. Variability among reefs in relation to spawning times indicated that reef-specific processes such as water residence time, re-mineralization rates, and benthic-pelagic coupling can be relevant to the observed patterns. These results suggest an important role of microheterotrophic grazers in re

  20. The role of structured stirring and mixing on gamete dispersal and aggregation in broadcast spawning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crimaldi, John P

    2012-01-01

    Broadcast-spawning benthic invertebrates synchronously release sperm and eggs from separate locations into the surrounding flow, whereupon the process depends on structured stirring by the flow field (at large scales...

  1. Variability of spawning time (lunar day) in Acropora versus merulinid corals: a 7-yr record of in situ coral spawning in Taiwan

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    Lin, Che-Hung; Nozawa, Yoko

    2017-12-01

    Despite the global accumulation of coral spawning records over the past three decades, information on inter-annual variation in spawning time is still insufficient, resulting in difficulty in predicting coral spawning time. Here, we present new information on in situ spawning times of scleractinian corals at Lyudao, Taiwan, covering their inter-annual variations over a 7-yr period (2010-2016). Spawning of 42 species from 16 genera in eight families was recorded. The majority were hermaphroditic spawners (38 of 42 species), and their spawning occurred 2-4 h after sunset on 1-11 d after the full moon (AFM), mostly in April and May. There were two distinct patterns in the two dominant taxa, the genus Acropora (14 species) and the family Merulinidae (18 species in eight genera). The annual spawning of Acropora corals mostly occurred on a single night in May with high inter-annual variation of spawning (lunar) days between 1 and 11 d AFM. In contrast, the annual spawning of merulinid corals commonly occurred over 2-3 consecutive nights in two consecutive months, April and May, with the specific range of spawning days around the last quarter moon (between 5 and 8 d AFM). The distinct spawning patterns of these taxa were also documented at Okinawa and Kochi, Japan, where similar long-term monitoring of in situ coral spawning has been conducted. This variability in spawning days implies different regulatory mechanisms of synchronous spawning where Acropora corals might be more sensitive to exogenous environmental factors (hourglass mechanism), compared to merulinid corals, which may rely more on endogenous biological rhythms (oscillator mechanism).

  2. Coral mass spawning predicted by rapid seasonal rise in ocean temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Keith, Sally A.

    2016-05-11

    Coral spawning times have been linked to multiple environmental factors; however, to what extent these factors act as generalized cues across multiple species and large spatial scales is unknown. We used a unique dataset of coral spawning from 34 reefs in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to test if month of spawning and peak spawning month in assemblages of Acropora spp. can be predicted by sea surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically available radiation, wind speed, current speed, rainfall or sunset time. Contrary to the classic view that high mean SST initiates coral spawning, we found rapid increases in SST to be the best predictor in both cases (month of spawning: R2 = 0.73, peak: R2 = 0.62). Our findings suggest that a rapid increase in SST provides the dominant proximate cue for coral mass spawning over large geographical scales. We hypothesize that coral spawning is ultimately timed to ensure optimal fertilization success.

  3. The physics of broadcast spawning in benthic invertebrates.

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    Crimaldi, John P; Zimmer, Richard K

    2014-01-01

    Most benthic invertebrates broadcast their gametes into the sea, whereupon successful fertilization relies on the complex interaction between the physics of the surrounding fluid flow and the biological properties and behavior of eggs and sperm. We present a holistic overview of the impact of instantaneous flow processes on fertilization across a range of scales. At large scales, transport and stirring by the flow control the distribution of gametes. Although mean dilution of gametes by turbulence is deleterious to fertilization, a variety of instantaneous flow phenomena can aggregate gametes before dilution occurs. We argue that these instantaneous flow processes are key to fertilization efficiency. At small scales, sperm motility and taxis enhance contact rates between sperm and chemoattractant-releasing eggs. We argue that sperm motility is a biological adaptation that replaces molecular diffusion in conventional mixing processes and enables gametes to bridge the gap that remains after aggregation by the flow.

  4. First record of multi-species synchronous coral spawning from Malaysia

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    Alvin Chelliah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the timing and synchrony of coral spawning has important implications for both the ecology and management of coral reef ecosystems. Data on the timing of spawning and extent of synchrony, however, are still lacking for many coral reefs, particularly from equatorial regions and from locations within the coral triangle. Here we present the first documentation of a multi-species coral spawning event from reefs around Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia, a popular diving and tourist destination located on the edge of the coral triangle. At least 8 coral species from 3 genera (Acropora, Montipora and Porites participated in multi-species spawning over five nights in April 2014, between two nights before and two nights after the full moon. In addition, two Acropora species were witnessed spawning one night prior to the full moon in October 2014. While two of the Acropora species that reproduced in April (A. millepora and A. nasuta exhibited highly synchronous spawning (100% of sampled colonies, two other common species (A. hyacinthus and A. digitifera did not contain visible eggs in the majority of colonies sampled (i.e., <15% of colonies in either April or October, suggesting that these species spawn at other times of the year. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed documented observation of multi-species coral spawning from reefs in Malaysia. These data provide further support for the contention that this phenomenon is a feature of all speciose coral assemblages, including equatorial reefs. More research is needed, however, to determine the seasonal cycles and extent of spawning synchrony on these reefs and elsewhere in Malaysia.

  5. The role of structured stirring and mixing on gamete dispersal and aggregation in broadcast spawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimaldi, John P

    2012-03-15

    Broadcast-spawning benthic invertebrates synchronously release sperm and eggs from separate locations into the surrounding flow, whereupon the process depends on structured stirring by the flow field (at large scales), and sperm motility and taxis (at small scales) to bring the gametes together. The details of the relevant physical and biological aspects of the problem that result in successful and efficient fertilization are not well understood. This review paper includes relevant work from both the physical and biological communities to synthesize a more complete understanding of the processes that govern fertilization success; the focus is on the role of structured stirring on the dispersal and aggregation of gametes. The review also includes a summary of current trends and approaches for numerical and experimental simulations of broadcast spawning.

  6. Behavioral Ecology of Coral Reef Fishes at Spawning Aggregation Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sancho, Gorka

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is an extensive investigation of the behavioral and ecological relationships between spawning reef fishes, their predators, and various environmental parameters at spawning aggregation sites...

  7. Marked changes in neuropeptide expression accompany broadcast spawnings in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York Patrick S

    2012-05-01

    contribute to the regulation of spawning. Dramatic increases and decreases in ganglionic neuropeptide expression levels from 36 h before to 24 h after the broadcast spawning event are consistent with these peptides having a regulatory role in translating environmental signals experienced by a population into a synchronous physiological output, in this case, the release of gametes.

  8. Toward responsible stock enhancement: broadcast spawning dynamics and adaptive genetic management in white seabass aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenthal, Kristen M; Drawbridge, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The evolutionary effects captive-bred individuals that can have on wild conspecifics are necessary considerations for stock enhancement programs, but breeding protocols are often developed without the knowledge of realized reproductive behavior. To help fill that gap, parentage was assigned to offspring produced by a freely mating group of 50 white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis), a representative broadcast spawning marine finfish cultured for conservation. Similar to the well-known and closely related red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), A. nobilis exhibited large variation in reproductive success. More males contributed and contributed more equally than females within and among spawns in a mating system best described as lottery polygyny. Two females produced 27% of the seasonal offspring pool and female breeding effective size averaged 1.85 per spawn and 12.38 seasonally, whereas male breeding effective size was higher (6.42 and 20.87, respectively), with every male contributing 1-7% of offspring. Further, females batch spawned every 1-5 weeks, while males displayed continuous reproductive readiness. Sex-specific mating strategies resulted in multiple successful mate pairings and a breeding effective to census size ratio of ≥0.62. Understanding a depleted species' mating system allowed management to more effectively utilize parental genetic variability for culture, but the fitness consequences of long-term stocking can be difficult to address.

  9. Multi-species spawning synchrony within scleractinian coral assemblages in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Bouwmeester, Jessica

    2014-09-21

    Early work on coral reproduction in the far northern Red Sea suggested that the spawning times of ecologically abundant species did not overlap, unlike on the Great Barrier Reef where many species spawn with high synchrony. In contrast, recent work in the northern and central Red Sea indicates a high degree of synchrony in the reproductive condition of Acropora species: over 90 % of species sampled in April/May contain mature gametes. However, it has yet to be determined when most Acropora release their gametes. In addition, there is a lack of data for other ecologically important scleractinian species such as merulinids and poritids. Here, we document the date and time of spawning for 51 species in the central Red Sea over three consecutive years, and the month of spawning for an additional 17 species inferred from the presence of mature gametes. Spawning occurs on nights around the full moon, the spawning season lasts at least 4 months from April until July, and observations are consistent with the few other records from the Red Sea. The number of Acropora species spawning was highest in April with 13 species spawning two nights before the full moon in 2011, 13 species spawning on the night of the full moon in 2012, and eight species spawning four nights after the full moon in 2013. The total number of species spawning was high in April, May, and June and involved 15–19 species per month in 2012. Only four species spawned in July 2012. Few regions worldwide have been similarly sampled and include the Philippines, Okinawa in Japan, and Palau, where spawning patterns are very similar to those in the central Red Sea and where corals spawn on nights around the full moon over a period of 3–4 months. In particular, in all four locations, Acropora are among the first species to spawn. Our results add to a growing body of evidence indicating that multi-species spawning synchrony is a feature of all speciose coral assemblages.

  10. Behavioral Ecology of Coral Reef Fishes at Spawning Aggregation Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sancho, Gorka

    1998-01-01

    .... Underwater observations of spawning activities by eleven reef fish species and the hunting behaviors of both piscivorous and planktivorous predators were made at Johnston Atoll (Central Pacific...

  11. Mass coral spawning: A natural large-scale nutrien t addition experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eyre, B.D.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Patten, N.

    2008-01-01

    A mass coral spawning event on the Heron Island reef flat in 2005 provided a unique opportunity to examine the response of a coral reef ecosystem to a large episodic nutrient addition. A post-major spawning phytoplankton bloom resulted in only a small drawdown of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP......), and dissolved organic phosphorus were used in the production of biomass, and mass balance calculations highlighted the importance of organic forms of N and P for benthic and pelagic production in tropical coral reef environments characterized by low inorganic N and P. The input of N and P via the deposition...... potential N limitation of benthic coral reef communities. For example, there was sufficient bioavailable P stored in the top 10 cm of the sediment column to sustain the prespawning rates of benthic production for over 200 d. Most of the change in benthic N cycling occurred via DON and N-2 pathways, driven...

  12. Spawning of the colonial coral Cladocora caespitosa (Anthozoa, Scleractinia) in the Southern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kružić, P.; Žuljević, A.; Nikolić, V.

    2008-06-01

    Data on sexual reproduction of scleractinian coral species living in temperate zones, particularly in the Mediterranean Sea, are quite scarce. This paper describes sexual reproduction of the colonial coral Cladocora caespitosa from Veliko jezero (Mljet Island) in the Adriatic Sea. Spawned orange eggs and white sperm bundles were observed on the coral bank of C. caespitosa two nights before the full moon (20 June 2005) coinciding with increasing water temperature and correlated with the lunar cycle. Spawning was observed during five nights, involving about 30% of the colonies from the coral bank. Different colonies on the bank released only one type of gamete during the reproductive period. The diameter of the sperm bundles ranged from 100 to 200 μm (average 163 μm; SD = 47.08), while the female gametes diameter ranged from 300 to 500 μm (average 416 μm; SD = 73.12).

  13. Sexual selection and the evolution of egg-sperm interactions in broadcast-spawning invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan P; Sherman, Craig D H

    2013-08-01

    Many marine invertebrate taxa are broadcast spawners, where multiple individuals release their gametes into the water for external fertilization, often in the presence of gametes from heterospecifics. Consequently, sperm encounter the considerable challenges of locating and fertilizing eggs from conspecific females. To overcome these challenges, many taxa exhibit species-specific attraction of sperm toward eggs through chemical signals released from eggs (sperm chemotaxis) and species-specific gamete recognition proteins (GRPs) that mediate compatibility of gametes at fertilization. In this prospective review, we highlight these selective forces, but also emphasize the role that sexual selection, manifested through sperm competition, cryptic female choice, and evolutionary conflicts of interest between the sexes (sexual conflict), can also play in mediating the action of egg chemoattractants and GRPs, and thus individual reproductive fitness. Furthermore, we explore patterns of selection at the level of gametes (sperm phenotype, gamete plasticity, and egg traits) to identify putative traits targeted by sexual selection in these species. We conclude by emphasizing the excellent, but relatively untapped, potential of broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates as model systems to illuminate several areas of research in post-mating sexual selection.

  14. Quantifying coastal connectivity of coral spawn and larvae around Ryukyu Islands in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, S.; Uchiyama, Y.; Kashima, M.; Kamidaira, Y.; Mitarai, S.

    2016-12-01

    Ryukyu Islands in the East China Sea are in a subtropical climate, hosting desirable environment for abundant coral ecosystem. Okinawa Main Island is the most densely populated island among them with tremendous tourist attractions including enchanting coral reefs and beaches. Kamidaira et al. (2016) suggested that the Kuroshio warm water maintains warmer water temperature favorable to corals around the island due mainly to intermittent eddy heat transport. It is presumed that the Kuroshio and associated eddy mixing also promote the transport and dispersal of coral spawn and larvae across the islands, whereas the area has suffered from coral breeching in the recent decades. Therefore, for optimal preservation and protection of the coral habitats around Ryukyu Island, we conduct a double nested high-resolution synoptic ocean modeling using ROMS with grid spacing down to 1 km coupled with an offline Lagrangian particle tracking model to investigate dispersal of coral spawn and larvae released from about 20 major islands and lagoons. Based on the model outcome, we quantify connectivity using Lagrangian probability density functions (PDFs) of the Lagrangian particles (e.g., Mitarai et al., 2009) among Ryukyu Islands. We then focus on the larval dispersal released from Sekisei Lagoon in Yaeyama Islands close to Taiwan, where we have carried out a series of in-situ surface drifter measurement. To compare the observation with the model, 160 source and sink patches with a diameter of 3 km are defined around Sekisei Lagoon and Okinawa Main Island for quantification of the detailed connectivity between them. The advection time is assumed for no more than 3 weeks to represent the lifespan of coral spawn and larvae. A PDF analysis suggests that the particles mostly remain near the released areas with predominant clockwise circulation around the lagoon, while approximately less than 5 % of particles are trapped and transported northeastward in long distance by the Kuroshio. The

  15. Genetic differentiation in relation to marine landscape in a broadcast-spawning bivalve mollusc (Placopecten magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenchington, E L; Patwary, M U; Zouros, E; Bird, C J

    2006-06-01

    Marine bivalves are sessile or sedentary as adults but have planktonic larvae which can potentially disperse over large distances. Consequently larval transport is expected to play a prominent role in facilitating gene flow and determining population structure. The sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) is a dioecious species with high fecundity, broadcast spawning and a c. 30-day planktonic larval stage, yet it forms discrete populations or 'beds' which have significantly different dynamics and characteristics. We analysed variation at six microsatellite loci in 12 locations throughout the geographic range of the species from Newfoundland, Canada, to New Jersey, USA. Significant differentiation was present and the maximum pairwise theta value, between one of the Newfoundland samples in the north and a sample from the southern portion of the range, was high at 0.061. Other proximate pairs of samples had no detectable genetic differentiation. Mantel tests indicated a significant isolation by distance, but only when one of the populations was excluded. A landscape genetic approach was used to detect areas of low gene flow using a joint analysis of spatial and genetic information. The two major putative barriers inferred by Monmonier's algorithm were then used to define regions for an analysis of molecular variance (amova). That analysis showed a significant but low percentage (1.2%) of the variation to be partitioned among regions, negligible variation among populations within regions, and the majority of the variance distributed between individuals within populations. Prominent currents were concordant with the demarcation of the regions, while a novel approach of using particle tracking software to mimic scallop larval dispersal was employed to interpret within-region genetic patterns.

  16. The evolution of gonad expenditure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) in male and female broadcast-spawning invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Geoff A; Ramm, Steven A; Lehtonen, Jussi; Henshaw, Jonathan M

    2017-09-18

    Sedentary broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates, which release both eggs and sperm into the water for fertilization, are of special interest for sexual selection studies. They provide unique insight into the early stages of the evolutionary succession leading to the often-intense operation of both pre- and post-mating sexual selection in mobile gonochorists. Since they are sessile or only weakly mobile, adults can interact only to a limited extent with other adults and with their own fertilized offspring. They are consequently subject mainly to selection on gamete production and gamete success, and so high gonad expenditure is expected in both sexes. We review literature on gonadosomatic index (GSI; the proportion of body tissue devoted to gamete production) of gonochoristic broadcast spawners, which we use as a proxy for gonad expenditure. We show that such taxa most often have a high GSI that is approximately equal in both sexes. When GSI is asymmetric, female GSI usually exceeds male GSI, at least in echinoderms (the majority of species recorded). Intriguingly, though, higher male GSI also occurs in some species and appears more common than female-biased GSI in certain orders of gastropod molluscs. Our limited data also suggest that higher male GSI may be the prevalent pattern in sperm casters (where only males release gametes). We explore how selection might have shaped these patterns using game theoretic models for gonad expenditure that consider possible trade-offs with (i) somatic maintenance or (ii) growth, while also considering sperm competition, sperm limitation, and polyspermy. Our models of the trade-off between somatic tissue (which increases survival) and gonad (which increases reproductive success) predict that GSI should be equal for the two sexes when sperm competition is intense, as is probably common in broadcast spawners due to synchronous spawning in aggregations. Higher female GSI occurs under low sperm competition. Sperm limitation appears

  17. The maintenance of sperm variability: context-dependent selection on sperm morphology in a broadcast spawning invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Darren W; Monro, Keyne; Marshall, Dustin J

    2013-05-01

    Why are sperm so variable despite having a singular, critical function and an intimate relationship with fitness? A key to understanding the evolution of sperm morphology is identifying which traits enable sperm to be successful fertilizers. Several sperm traits (e.g., tail length, overall size) are implicated in sperm performance, but the benefits of these traits are likely to be highly context dependent. Here, we examined phenotypic selection on sperm morphology of a broadcast spawning tube worm (Galeolaria gemineoa). We conducted laboratory experiments to measure the relationship between average sperm morphology and relative fertilization success across a range of sperm environments that were designed to approximate the range of sperm concentrations and ages encountered by eggs in nature. We found that the strength and form of multivariate selection varied substantially across our environmental gradients. Sperm with long tails and small heads were favored in high-concentration environments, whereas sperm with long heads were favored at low concentrations and old ages. We suggest variation in the local fertilization environment and resulting differences in selection can preserve variability in sperm morphology both within and among males. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution © 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Comparative Use of a Caribbean Mesophotic Coral Ecosystem and Association with Fish Spawning Aggregations by Three Species of Shark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria E Pickard

    Full Text Available Understanding of species interactions within mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; ~ 30-150 m lags well behind that for shallow coral reefs. MCEs are often sites of fish spawning aggregations (FSAs for a variety of species, including many groupers. Such reproductive fish aggregations represent temporal concentrations of potential prey that may be drivers of habitat use by predatory species, including sharks. We investigated movements of three species of sharks within a MCE and in relation to FSAs located on the shelf edge south of St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands. Movements of 17 tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, seven lemon (Negaprion brevirostris, and six Caribbean reef (Carcharhinus perezi sharks tagged with acoustic transmitters were monitored within the MCE using an array of acoustic receivers spanning an area of 1,060 km2 over a five year period. Receivers were concentrated around prominent grouper FSAs to monitor movements of sharks in relation to these temporally transient aggregations. Over 130,000 detections of telemetered sharks were recorded, with four sharks tracked in excess of 3 years. All three shark species were present within the MCE over long periods of time and detected frequently at FSAs, but patterns of MCE use and orientation towards FSAs varied both spatially and temporally among species. Lemon sharks moved over a large expanse of the MCE, but concentrated their activities around FSAs during grouper spawning and were present within the MCE significantly more during grouper spawning season. Caribbean reef sharks were present within a restricted portion of the MCE for prolonged periods of time, but were also absent for long periods. Tiger sharks were detected throughout the extent of the acoustic array, with the MCE representing only portion of their habitat use, although a high degree of individual variation was observed. Our findings indicate that although patterns of use varied, all three species of sharks repeatedly

  19. Comparative Use of a Caribbean Mesophotic Coral Ecosystem and Association with Fish Spawning Aggregations by Three Species of Shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Alexandria E; Vaudo, Jeremy J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Nemeth, Richard S; Blondeau, Jeremiah B; Kadison, Elizabeth A; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of species interactions within mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; ~ 30-150 m) lags well behind that for shallow coral reefs. MCEs are often sites of fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) for a variety of species, including many groupers. Such reproductive fish aggregations represent temporal concentrations of potential prey that may be drivers of habitat use by predatory species, including sharks. We investigated movements of three species of sharks within a MCE and in relation to FSAs located on the shelf edge south of St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands. Movements of 17 tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), seven lemon (Negaprion brevirostris), and six Caribbean reef (Carcharhinus perezi) sharks tagged with acoustic transmitters were monitored within the MCE using an array of acoustic receivers spanning an area of 1,060 km2 over a five year period. Receivers were concentrated around prominent grouper FSAs to monitor movements of sharks in relation to these temporally transient aggregations. Over 130,000 detections of telemetered sharks were recorded, with four sharks tracked in excess of 3 years. All three shark species were present within the MCE over long periods of time and detected frequently at FSAs, but patterns of MCE use and orientation towards FSAs varied both spatially and temporally among species. Lemon sharks moved over a large expanse of the MCE, but concentrated their activities around FSAs during grouper spawning and were present within the MCE significantly more during grouper spawning season. Caribbean reef sharks were present within a restricted portion of the MCE for prolonged periods of time, but were also absent for long periods. Tiger sharks were detected throughout the extent of the acoustic array, with the MCE representing only portion of their habitat use, although a high degree of individual variation was observed. Our findings indicate that although patterns of use varied, all three species of sharks repeatedly utilized the MCE and

  20. The reproductive season of scleractinian corals in Socotra, Yemen [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/36f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H. Baird

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining when corals reproduce has clear management and economic implications. Here we document the reproductive condition of corals in the genus Acropora on the island of Socotra in Yemen during February 2014. Twenty percent of colonies (n = 143 contained mature gametes and 28% had immature gametes indicating that spawning will occur in both February and March in 2014, confirming previous anecdotal reports of coral spawning at this time in Socotra. Acropora typically reproduce in synchrony with many other broadcast spawning scleractinian corals, and we therefore predict that many other species are reproductively active at this time of year.

  1. Ocean acidification hampers sperm-egg collisions, gamete fusion, and generation of Ca2+oscillations of a broadcast spawning bivalve, Tegillarca granosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Su, Wenhao; Wang, Yichen; Zha, Shanjie; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2017-09-01

    Although the effect of ocean acidification on fertilization success of marine organisms is increasingly well documented, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. The fertilization success of broadcast spawning invertebrates depends on successful sperm-egg collisions, gamete fusion, and standard generation of Ca 2+ oscillations. Therefore, the realistic effects of future ocean pCO 2 levels on these specific aspects of fertilization of Tegillarca granosa were investigated in the present study through sperm velocity trials, fertilization kinetics model analysis, and intracellular Ca 2+ assays, respectively. Results obtained indicated that ocean acidification significantly reduced the fertilization success of T. granosa, which could be accountable by (i) decreased sperm velocity hence reducing the probability for sperm-egg collisions; (ii) lowered probability of gamete fusion for each gamete collision event; and (iii) disrupted intracellular Ca 2+ oscillations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gametogenesis, spawning and fecundity of Platygyra daedalea (Scleractinia) on equatorial reefs in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangubhai, S.; Harrison, P. L.

    2008-03-01

    The reproductive ecology of the hermaphroditic broadcast spawning scleractinian reef coral Platygyra daedalea was studied on lagoonal reefs in Kenya. While single annual gametogenic cycles occurred in 84% of colonies, biannual gametogenic cycles were recorded in 16% of colonies and these patterns occurred in two morphotypes. In colonies with a single annual cycle, oogenesis occurred for 6 7 months from September to March and spermatogenesis for 5 months from November to March. In biannually spawning colonies, oogenic cycles overlapped for at least 2 months prior to gamete release. The major spawning period occurred in February and March, with minor spawning also occurring in August October in biannually spawning colonies. Reproductive effort was lower during the minor winter compared to the major summer spawning, with fewer colonies reproducing (12.5 19.2%), not all mesenteries producing oocytes (32.5%) and less than half of the mesenteries with mature oocytes had associated spermaries (48.1%).

  3. Environmental and biological cues for spawning in the crown-of-thorns starfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballes, Ciemon Frank; Pratchett, Morgan S

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish are likely to be due, at least in part, to spatial and temporal variation in reproductive and settlement success. For gonochoric and broadcast spawning species such as crown-of-thorns starfish, spawning synchrony is fundamental for achieving high rates of fertilization. Highly synchronized gamete release within and among distinct populations is typically the result of the entrainment of neurohormonal endogenous rhythms by cues from the environment. In this study, we conducted multiple spawning assays to test the effects of temperature change, reduced salinity and nutrient enrichment of seawater, phytoplankton, gametes (sperm and eggs), and the combined effect of sperm and phytoplankton on the likelihood of spawning in male and female crown-of-thorns starfish. We also investigated sex-specific responses to each of these potential spawning cues. We found that (1) abrupt temperature change (an increase of 4°C) induced spawning in males, but less so in females; (2) males often spawned in response to the presence of phytoplankton, but none of the females spawned in response to these cues; (3) the presence of sperm in the water column induced males and females to spawn, although additive and synergistic effects of sperm and phytoplankton were not significant; and (4) males are more sensitive to the spawning cues tested and most likely spawn prior to females. We propose that environmental cues act as spawning 'inducers' by causing the release of hormones (gonad stimulating substance) in sensitive males, while biological cues (pheromones) from released sperm, in turn, act as spawning 'synchronizers' by triggering a hormonal cascade resulting in gamete shedding by conspecifics. Given the immediate temporal linkage between the timing of spawning and fertilization events, variability in the extent and synchronicity of gamete release will significantly influence reproductive success and may account for

  4. Environmental and biological cues for spawning in the crown-of-thorns starfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciemon Frank Caballes

    Full Text Available Sporadic outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish are likely to be due, at least in part, to spatial and temporal variation in reproductive and settlement success. For gonochoric and broadcast spawning species such as crown-of-thorns starfish, spawning synchrony is fundamental for achieving high rates of fertilization. Highly synchronized gamete release within and among distinct populations is typically the result of the entrainment of neurohormonal endogenous rhythms by cues from the environment. In this study, we conducted multiple spawning assays to test the effects of temperature change, reduced salinity and nutrient enrichment of seawater, phytoplankton, gametes (sperm and eggs, and the combined effect of sperm and phytoplankton on the likelihood of spawning in male and female crown-of-thorns starfish. We also investigated sex-specific responses to each of these potential spawning cues. We found that (1 abrupt temperature change (an increase of 4°C induced spawning in males, but less so in females; (2 males often spawned in response to the presence of phytoplankton, but none of the females spawned in response to these cues; (3 the presence of sperm in the water column induced males and females to spawn, although additive and synergistic effects of sperm and phytoplankton were not significant; and (4 males are more sensitive to the spawning cues tested and most likely spawn prior to females. We propose that environmental cues act as spawning 'inducers' by causing the release of hormones (gonad stimulating substance in sensitive males, while biological cues (pheromones from released sperm, in turn, act as spawning 'synchronizers' by triggering a hormonal cascade resulting in gamete shedding by conspecifics. Given the immediate temporal linkage between the timing of spawning and fertilization events, variability in the extent and synchronicity of gamete release will significantly influence reproductive success and may account

  5. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gilmour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west. Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending

  6. Factors affecting the toxicity of trace metals to fertilization success in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspith, M; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda; Harrison, Peter L

    2017-03-01

    Significant amounts of trace metals have been released into both nearshore and deep sea environments in recent years, resulting in increased concentrations that can be toxic to marine organisms. Trace metals can negatively affect external fertilization processes in marine broadcast spawners and may cause a reduction in fertilization success at elevated concentrations. Due to its sensitivity and ecological importance, fertilization success has been widely used as a toxicity endpoint in ecotoxicological testing, which is an important method of evaluating the toxicity of contaminants for management planning. Ecotoxicological data regarding fertilization success are available across the major marine phyla, but there remain uncertainties that impair our ability to confidently interpret and analyse these data. At present, the cellular and biochemical events underlying trace metal toxicity in external fertilization are not known. Metal behavior and speciation play an important role in bioavailability and toxicity but are often overlooked, and disparities in experimental designs between studies limit the degree to which results can be synthesised and compared to those of other relevant species. We reviewed all available literature covering cellular toxicity mechanisms, metal toxicities and speciation, and differences in methodologies between studies. We conclude that the concept of metal toxicity should be approached in a more holistic manner that involves elucidating toxicity mechanisms, improving the understanding of metal behavior and speciation on bioavailability and toxicity, and standardizing the fertilization assay methods among different groups of organisms. We identify opportunities to improve the fertilization assay that will allow robust critical and comparative analysis between species and their sensitivities to trace metals during external fertilization, and enable data to be more readily extrapolated to field conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  7. Photoreception and signal transduction in corals: proteomic and behavioral evidence for cytoplasmic calcium as a mediator of light responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, J Daniel; Brady, Aisling K; Spaho, Skender A; Vize, Peter D

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about how corals sense and respond to light. In this report the proteome of coral is explored using 2D protein electrophoresis in two species, Montastraea cavernosa and Acropora millepora. Multiple protein species have major shifts in abundance in both species when sampled in daylight compared to corals sampled late in the night. These changes were observed both in larvae lacking zooxanthellae and in adult tissue containing zooxanthellae, including both Pacific and Caribbean corals. When larvae kept in the dark were treated with either thapsigargin or ionomycin, compounds that raise the level of cytoplasmic calcium, the night pattern of proteins shifted to the day pattern. This implies that photoreceptors responding to light elevate calcium levels and that calcium acts as the second messenger relaying light responses in corals. Corals spawn at night, and spawning can be delayed by exposure to light or pushed forward by early artificial sunsets. In a series of behavioral experiments, treatment of corals with ionomycin or thapsigargin was found to delay broadcast spawning in M. franksi, demonstrating that pharmacologically altering cytoplasmic calcium levels generates the same response as light exposure. Together these results show that the photo-responsive cells of corals detect and respond to light by altering cytoplasmic calcium levels, similarly to the transduction pathways in complex invertebrate eyes. The primacy of cytoplasmic calcium levels in light responsivity has broad implications for coral reproduction, including predicting how different species spawn at different times after sunset and how reproductive isolation is achieved during coral speciation.

  8. Asymmetric conspecific sperm precedence in relation to spawning times in the Montastraea annularis species complex (Cnidaria: Scleractinia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, N D; Lowenberg, M; Ojima, M N; Knowlton, N; Levitan, D R

    2012-12-01

    In broadcast spawners, prezygotic reproductive isolation depends on differences in the spatial and temporal patterns of gamete release and gametic incompatibility. Typically, gametic incompatibility is measured in no-choice crosses, but conspecific sperm precedence (CSP) can prevent hybridization in gametes that are compatible in the absence of sperm competition. Broadcast spawning corals in the Montastraea annularis species complex spawn annually on the same few evenings. Montastraea franksi spawns an average of 110 min before M. annularis, with a minimum gap of approximately 40 min. Gametes are compatible in no-choice heterospecific assays, but it is unknown whether eggs exhibit choice when in competition. Hybridization depends on either M. franksi eggs remaining unfertilized and in proximity to M. annularis when the latter species spawns or M. franksi sperm remaining in sufficient viable concentrations when M. annularis spawns. We found that the eggs of the early spawning M. franksi demonstrate strong CSP, whereas CSP appears to be lacking for M. annularis eggs. This study provides evidence of diverging gamete affinities between these recently separated species and suggests for the first time that selection may favour CSP in earlier spawning species when conspecific sperm is diluted and aged and is otherwise at a numeric and viability disadvantage with heterospecific sperm. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Ecological complexity of coral recruitment processes: effects of invertebrate herbivores on coral recruitment and growth depends upon substratum properties and coral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah W; Matz, Mikhail V; Vize, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    The transition from planktonic planula to sessile adult corals occurs at low frequencies and post settlement mortality is extremely high. Herbivores promote settlement by reducing algal competition. This study investigates whether invertebrate herbivory might be modulated by other ecological factors such as substrata variations and coral species identity. The experiment was conducted at the Flower Garden Banks, one of the few Atlantic reefs not experiencing considerable degradation. Tiles of differing texture and orientation were kept in bins surrounded by reef (24 m). Controls contained no herbivores while treatment bins contained urchins (Diadema antillarum) or herbivorous gastropods (Cerithium litteratum). Juvenile corals settling naturally were monitored by photography for 14 months to evaluate the effects of invertebrate herbivory and substratum properties. Herbivory reduced algae cover in urchin treatments. Two genera of brooding coral juveniles were observed, Agaricia and Porites, both of which are common but not dominant on adjacent reef. No broadcast spawning corals were observed on tiles. Overall, juveniles were more abundant in urchin treatments and on vertical, rough textured surfaces. Although more abundant, Agaricia juveniles were smaller in urchin treatments, presumably due to destructive overgrazing. Still, Agaricia growth increased with herbivory and substrata texture-orientation interactions were observed with reduced growth on rough tiles in control treatments and increased growth on vertical tiles in herbivore treatments. In contrast to Agaricia, Porites juveniles were larger on horizontal tiles, irrespective of herbivore treatment. Mortality was affected by substrata orientation with vertical surfaces increasing coral survival. We further substantiate that invertebrate herbivores play major roles in early settlement processes of corals and highlight the need for deeper understanding of ecological interactions modulating these effects. The

  10. Ecological complexity of coral recruitment processes: effects of invertebrate herbivores on coral recruitment and growth depends upon substratum properties and coral species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah W Davies

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transition from planktonic planula to sessile adult corals occurs at low frequencies and post settlement mortality is extremely high. Herbivores promote settlement by reducing algal competition. This study investigates whether invertebrate herbivory might be modulated by other ecological factors such as substrata variations and coral species identity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experiment was conducted at the Flower Garden Banks, one of the few Atlantic reefs not experiencing considerable degradation. Tiles of differing texture and orientation were kept in bins surrounded by reef (24 m. Controls contained no herbivores while treatment bins contained urchins (Diadema antillarum or herbivorous gastropods (Cerithium litteratum. Juvenile corals settling naturally were monitored by photography for 14 months to evaluate the effects of invertebrate herbivory and substratum properties. Herbivory reduced algae cover in urchin treatments. Two genera of brooding coral juveniles were observed, Agaricia and Porites, both of which are common but not dominant on adjacent reef. No broadcast spawning corals were observed on tiles. Overall, juveniles were more abundant in urchin treatments and on vertical, rough textured surfaces. Although more abundant, Agaricia juveniles were smaller in urchin treatments, presumably due to destructive overgrazing. Still, Agaricia growth increased with herbivory and substrata texture-orientation interactions were observed with reduced growth on rough tiles in control treatments and increased growth on vertical tiles in herbivore treatments. In contrast to Agaricia, Porites juveniles were larger on horizontal tiles, irrespective of herbivore treatment. Mortality was affected by substrata orientation with vertical surfaces increasing coral survival. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We further substantiate that invertebrate herbivores play major roles in early settlement processes of corals and highlight the need

  11. Observations of Acropora spawning in the Mozambique Channel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is little published information about the reproductive biology of corals in the western Indian Ocean region. In particular, information about coral spawning patterns is largely absent from scientific literature. We document scleractinian coral spawning events - 8 species of Acropora - from the Mozambique Channel, ...

  12. Corals like it waxed: paraffin-based antifouling technology enhances coral spat survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tebben

    Full Text Available The early post-settlement stage is the most sensitive during the life history of reef building corals. However, few studies have examined the factors that influence coral mortality during this period. Here, the impact of fouling on the survival of newly settled coral spat of Acropora millepora was investigated by manipulating the extent of fouling cover on settlement tiles using non-toxic, wax antifouling coatings. Survival of spat on coated tiles was double that on control tiles. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between percentage cover of fouling and spat survival across all tiles types, suggesting that fouling in direct proximity to settled corals has detrimental effects on early post-settlement survival. While previous studies have shown that increased fouling negatively affects coral larval settlement and health of juvenile and adult corals, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a direct relationship between fouling and early post-settlement survival for a broadcast spawning scleractinian coral. The negative effects of fouling on this sensitive life history stage may become more pronounced in the future as coastal eutrophication increases. Our results further suggest that targeted seeding of coral spat on artificial surfaces in combination with fouling control could prove useful to improve the efficiency of sexual reproduction-based coral propagation for reef rehabilitation.

  13. Low sediment loads affect survival of coral recruits: the first weeks are crucial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Mareen; Nietzer, Samuel; Schils, Tom; Schupp, Peter J.

    2017-03-01

    Increased sedimentation due to anthropogenic activities is a threat to many nearshore coral reefs. The effects on adult corals have been studied extensively and are well known. Studies about the impact of sedimentation on the early life stages of scleractinian corals, however, are rare although recruitment is essential for conserving and restoring coral reefs. Laboratory and in situ experiments with recruits of different age classes focused on the broadcast-spawning species Acropora hyacinthus and the brooding coral Leptastrea purpurea. Recruits were exposed to different sediment loads over three to five weeks. Applied sediment loads were more than one order of magnitude lower than those known to affect survival of adult coral colonies. Growth and survival of newly settled recruits were negatively affected by sediment loads that had no effect on the growth and survival of one-month-old recruits. All experiments indicated that newly settled coral recruits are most sensitive to sedimentation within the first two to four weeks post settlement. The co-occurrence of moderate sedimentation events during and immediately after periods of coral spawning can therefore reduce recruitment success substantially. These findings provide new information to develop comprehensive sediment management plans for the conservation and recovery of coral reefs affected by chronic or acute sedimentation events.

  14. Linking demographic processes of juvenile corals to benthic recovery trajectories in two common reef habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doropoulos, Christopher; Ward, Selina; Roff, George; González-Rivero, Manuel; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Tropical reefs are dynamic ecosystems that host diverse coral assemblages with different life-history strategies. Here, we quantified how juvenile (coral demographics influenced benthic coral structure in reef flat and reef slope habitats on the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Permanent plots and settlement tiles were monitored every six months for three years in each habitat. These environments exhibited profound differences: the reef slope was characterised by 95% less macroalgal cover, and twice the amount of available settlement substrata and rates of coral settlement than the reef flat. Consequently, post-settlement coral survival in the reef slope was substantially higher than that of the reef flat, and resulted in a rapid increase in coral cover from 7 to 31% in 2.5 years. In contrast, coral cover on the reef flat remained low (~10%), whereas macroalgal cover increased from 23 to 45%. A positive stock-recruitment relationship was found in brooding corals in both habitats; however, brooding corals were not directly responsible for the observed changes in coral cover. Rather, the rapid increase on the reef slope resulted from high abundances of broadcast spawning Acropora recruits. Incorporating our results into transition matrix models demonstrated that most corals escape mortality once they exceed 50 mm, but for smaller corals mortality in brooders was double those of spawners (i.e. acroporids and massive corals). For corals on the reef flat, sensitivity analysis demonstrated that growth and mortality of larger juveniles (21-50 mm) highly influenced population dynamics; whereas the recruitment, growth and mortality of smaller corals (coral cover following large-scale perturbation in reef slope environments.

  15. Fertilization compatibility of spawning corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes experimental results of fertilization assays to characterize genetic compatibility between individual parental genotypes. Targeted species...

  16. Physics-based numerical circulation model outputs of ocean surface circulation during the 2010-2013 summer coral-spawning seasons in Maui Nui, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Ocean surface current results from a physics-based, 3-dimensional coupled ocean-atmosphere numerical model were generated to understand coral larval dispersal...

  17. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Reef Fish Spawning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many coral reef fish species aggregate at specific times and locations for the purpose of spawning. This study examined the spatial and temporal distribution of spawning aggregations in the Seychelles. An interview-based survey of the principal stakeholders, mainly artisanal fishers, yielded 89 reports of aggregation fishing ...

  18. Distance decay among coral assemblages during a cycle of disturbance and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Terence; Gilmour, James; Fisher, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    The characterization of distance decay in similarity among plant or animal communities both extends ecosystem description and provides insights into formative ecological events and processes. Here, we examine distance decay among coral communities in a common habitat on northwestern Australian reefs, seeking to better understand the roles of disturbance and coral life history strategies in the changing reefscape. In established communities in 1997, when coral cover and generic richness were uniformly high, there was high similarity (~81 %) and negligible distance decay, both within sets of 15 contiguous 50-m transects and among 250-m sites separated by 500 km. Following a 75 % reduction in coral cover and a comparable loss of generic richness to mass bleaching in 1998, similarity declined to ~67 % and there was strong distance decay at regenerating corals had largely reverted to their pre-disturbance state of high mean similarity and weak distance decay by 2010. These differences among life history groups reflect the greater vagility of the broadcast spawning corals, the resistance of the regenerator assemblages to the disturbance and their recovery from uniformly distributed remnants, and the susceptibility of the brooding species combined with their limited capacity to disperse beyond the local site. Beyond a spatial extent of 25 km, distance decay was absent in all years and for all coral groups, indicating the qualitatively different source-sink dynamics when reefs are separated by 10s of km of open ocean.

  19. Tradeoffs to Thermal Acclimation: Energetics and Reproduction of a Reef Coral with Heat Tolerant Symbiodinium Type-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photo-physiological characteristics of thermo-tolerant Symbiodinium types have been postulated to have negative effects on the energetics of the reef corals by reducing fitness. To investigate this, two key and inextricably coupled indicators of fitness, lipids and reproduction, were monitored in colonies of the broadcast-spawning coral Acropora millepora over a two-year period that included a natural bleaching event. In the absence of bleaching ITS1-type clade D predominant colonies had 26% lower stored lipids compared to C2 colonies. At spawning time, this correlated with 28% smaller eggs in type-D colonies. This energetic disparity is expected to have reduced larval duration and settlement-competency periods in type-D compared to type-C2 colonies. More importantly, irrespective of the effect of genotype, the fitness of all corals was adversely affected by the stress of the bleaching event which reduced prespawning lipids by 60% and halved the number of eggs compared to the previous year. Our results extend work that has shown that direct temperature stress and symbiont change are likely to work in concert on corals by demonstrating that the lipids and reproduction of the reef building corals on tropical reefs are likely to be impaired by these processes as our climate warms.

  20. Broadcasting house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattrup, Peter Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Regarding the transformation of the Danish Broadcasting Hq. (1934-1945) in Frederiksberg by Vilhelm Lauritzen into the Royal Danish Academy of Music. Analysis, principles, flexibility and change.......Regarding the transformation of the Danish Broadcasting Hq. (1934-1945) in Frederiksberg by Vilhelm Lauritzen into the Royal Danish Academy of Music. Analysis, principles, flexibility and change....

  1. The reproductive biology and early life ecology of a common Caribbean brain coral, Diploria labyrinthiformis (Scleractinia: Faviinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Valérie F.; Snowden, Skylar; Marhaver, Kristen L.; Petersen, Dirk; Vermeij, Mark J. A.

    2017-03-01

    Despite the fact that most of the severe demographic bottlenecks in coral populations occur during their earliest life stages, information on the reproductive biology and early life history traits of many coral species is limited and often inferred from adult traits only. This study reports on several atypical aspects of the reproductive biology and early life ecology of the grooved brain coral, Diploria labyrinthiformis (Linnaeus, 1758), a conspicuous reef-building species on Caribbean reefs. The timing of gamete release of D. labyrinthiformis was monitored in Curaçao over eight consecutive months, and embryogenesis, planulae behavior, and settlement rates were observed and quantified. We further studied growth and symbiont acquisition in juvenile D. labyrinthiformis for 3.5 yr and compared settler survival under ambient and nutrient-enriched conditions in situ. Notably, D. labyrinthiformis reproduced during daylight hours in six consecutive monthly spawning events between May and September 2013, with a peak in June. This is the largest number of reproductive events per year ever observed in a broadcast-spawning Caribbean coral species. In settlement experiments, D. labyrinthiformis planulae swam to the bottom of culture containers 13 h after spawning and rapidly settled when provided with settlement cues (42% within 14 h). After 5 months, the survival and growth rates of settled juveniles were 3.7 and 1.9 times higher, respectively, for settlers that acquired zooxanthellae within 1 month after settlement, compared to those that acquired symbionts later on. Nutrient enrichment increased settler survival fourfold, but only for settlers that had acquired symbionts within 1 month after settlement. With at least six reproductive events per year, a short planktonic larval phase, high settlement rates, and a positive response to nutrient enrichment, the broadcast-spawning species D. labyrinthiformis displays a range of reproductive and early life-history traits that

  2. Variability in reef connectivity in the Coral Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. M.; Kleypas, J. A.; Castruccio, F. S.; Watson, J. R.; Curchitser, E. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Coral Triangle (CT) is not only the global center of marine biodiversity, it also supports the livelihoods of millions of people. Unfortunately, it is also considered the most threatened of all reef regions, with rising temperature and coral bleaching already taking a toll. Reproductive connectivity between reefs plays a critical role in the reef's capacity to recover after such disturbances. Thus, oceanographic modeling efforts to understand patterns of reef connectivity are essential to the effective design of a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to conserve marine ecosystems in the Coral Triangle. Here, we combine a Regional Ocean Modeling System developed for the Coral Triangle (CT-ROMS) with a Lagrangian particle tracking tool (TRACMASS) to investigate the probability of coral larval transport between reefs. A 47-year hindcast simulation (1960-2006) was used to investigate the variability in larval transport of a broadcasting coral following mass spawning events in April and September. Potential connectivity between reefs was highly variable and stochastic from year to year, emphasizing the importance of decadal or longer simulations in identifying connectivity patterns, key source and sink regions, and thus marine management targets for MPAs. The influence of temperature on realized connectivity (future work) may add further uncertainty to year-to-year patterns of connectivity between reefs. Nonetheless, the potential connectivity results we present here suggest that although reefs in this region are primarily self-seeded, rare long-distance dispersal may promote recovery and genetic exchange between reefs in the region. The spatial pattern of "subpopulations" based solely on the physical drivers of connectivity between reefs closely match regional patterns of biodiversity, suggesting that physical barriers to larval dispersal may be a key driver of reef biodiversity. Finally, 21st Century simulations driven by the Community Earth System Model (CESM

  3. Satellite broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D.; Rainger, P.; Harvey, R. V.; Jennings, A.

    Questions related to direct broadcasting satellites are addressed with attention given to celestial mechanics, synchronous orbits, propagation, international plans, domestic installation, related laws and system costs. The role of the World Administrative Planning Conference (WARC) organization is discussed and contrasted with that of the regional administrative radio conference. Topics related to the field of law include coverage and overspill, regulation and control, copyrights and international organizations. Alternative ways of estimating direct broadcasting system costs are presented with consideration given to satellite costs as a function of mass, launch costs and system costs as a function of power.

  4. Broadcast Stylebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Press International, New York, NY.

    This booklet deals with the unique problem of writing and preparing news for the electronic media where it will be presented orally. The contents of this monograph include "The United Press International Broadcast Newswire,""The United Press International Audio Network,""Broadcast…

  5. Next generation mobile broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Barquero, David

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Mobile Broadcasting provides an overview of the past, present, and future of mobile multimedia broadcasting. The first part of the book-Mobile Broadcasting Worldwide-summarizes next-generation mobile broadcasting technologies currently available. This part covers the evolutions of the Japanese mobile broadcasting standard ISDB-T One-Seg, ISDB-Tmm and ISDB-TSB; the evolution of the South Korean T-DMB mobile broadcasting technology AT-DMB; the American mobile broadcasting standard ATSC-M/H; the Chinese broadcasting technologies DTMB and CMMB; second-generation digital terrestrial

  6. Reproduction Patterns of Scleractinian Corals in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Bouwmeester, Jessica

    2013-12-01

    Early work on the reproductive seasonality of corals in the Red Sea suggested that corals exhibit temporal reproductive isolation, unlike on the Great Barrier Reef where many species spawn in synchrony. More recent work has however shown high synchrony in the maturity of gametes in Acropora species, suggesting multi-specific spawning is likely to occur in the Red Sea. In this thesis I investigate the patterns of coral reproduction in the central Red Sea. The spawning season in the central Red Sea lasts four months, from April to July and spawning occurs on nights around the full moon. During this period Acropora species show a peak of spawning in April, with some species spawning again in May. The level of synchrony, quantified with a spawning synchrony index, is comparable to other locations where multi-specific spawning has been reported. Observations over two consecutive years show that the synchrony of spawning was lower in spring 2012 than in spring 2011, and thus that spawning patterns are variable from one year to the other. Coral settlement patterns on artificial substrata confirmed a main spawning season in the spring but also supported reproductive data suggesting that some Porites spawn in October-November. Settlement was studied over 2.5 years on a reef, which had suffered recently from high mortality after a local bleaching event. Settlement appeared low but post-bleaching studies from other locations indicated similar abundances and showed that recruits generally did not increase until 5 years after the bleaching event. Abundance of juvenile corals however started to increase significantly three years after the bleaching. Successful recruitment, although low suggests that the coral assemblage on the affected reef will most likely recover as long as it is not affected by another disturbance.

  7. Circadian cycles of gene expression in the coral, Acropora millepora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling K Brady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms regulate many physiological, behavioral and reproductive processes. These rhythms are often controlled by light, and daily cycles of solar illumination entrain many clock regulated processes. In scleractinian corals a number of different processes and behaviors are associated with specific periods of solar illumination or non-illumination--for example, skeletal deposition, feeding and both brooding and broadcast spawning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have undertaken an analysis of diurnal expression of the whole transcriptome and more focused studies on a number of candidate circadian genes in the coral Acropora millepora using deep RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR. Many examples of diurnal cycles of RNA abundance were identified, some of which are light responsive and damped quickly under constant darkness, for example, cryptochrome 1 and timeless, but others that continue to cycle in a robust manner when kept in constant darkness, for example, clock, cryptochrome 2, cycle and eyes absent, indicating that their transcription is regulated by an endogenous clock entrained to the light-dark cycle. Many other biological processes that varied between day and night were also identified by a clustering analysis of gene ontology annotations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Corals exhibit diurnal patterns of gene expression that may participate in the regulation of circadian biological processes. Rhythmic cycles of gene expression occur under constant darkness in both populations of coral larvae that lack zooxanthellae and in individual adult tissue containing zooxanthellae, indicating that transcription is under the control of a biological clock. In addition to genes potentially involved in regulating circadian processes, many other pathways were found to display diel cycles of transcription.

  8. Coral larvae for restoration and research: a large-scale method for rearing Acropora millepora larvae, inducing settlement, and establishing symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Joseph Pollock

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe an efficient and effective technique for rearing sexually-derived coral propagules from spawning through larval settlement and symbiont uptake with minimal impact on natural coral populations. We sought to maximize larval survival while minimizing expense and daily husbandry maintenance by experimentally determining optimized conditions and protocols for gamete fertilization, larval cultivation, induction of larval settlement by crustose coralline algae, and inoculation of newly settled juveniles with their dinoflagellate symbiont Symbiodinium. Larval rearing densities at or below 0.2 larvae mL−1 were found to maximize larval survival and settlement success in culture tanks while minimizing maintenance effort. Induction of larval settlement via the addition of a ground mixture of diverse crustose coralline algae (CCA is recommended, given the challenging nature of in situ CCA identification and our finding that non settlement-inducing CCA assemblages do not inhibit larval settlement if suitable assemblages are present. Although order of magnitude differences in infectivity were found between common Great Barrier Reef Symbiodinium clades C and D, no significant differences in Symbiodinium uptake were observed between laboratory-cultured and wild-harvested symbionts in each case. The technique presented here for Acropora millepora can be adapted for research and restoration efforts in a wide range of broadcast spawning coral species.

  9. Reproduction of the cold-water coral Primnoella chilensis (Philippi, 1894)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Ashley M.; Waller, Rhian G.; Försterra, Gunter

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the reproduction of a cold-water coral, Primnoella chilensis (Philippi, 1894) from the Comau and Reñihué fjords in Chilean Patagonia. Samples were collected in September and November of 2012 and April, June, and September of 2013 from three sites within the two fjords. The sexuality, reproductive mode, spermatocyst stage, oocyte size, and fecundity were determined using histological techniques. This species is gonochoristic with one aberrant hermaphrodite identified in this study. Reproduction was found to be seasonal, with the initiation of oogenesis in September and suggested a broadcast spawning event between June and September. The maximum oocyte size was 752.96 μm, suggesting a lecithotrophic larvae. The maximum fecundity was 36 oocytes per polyp. Male individuals were only found in April and June. In June, all four spermatocyst stages were present. This suggests that spermatogenesis requires less time than oogenesis in P. chilensis.

  10. Reproduction of deep-sea reef-building corals from the southwestern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, D. O.; Silva, J. C.; Bastos, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    The logistics of research on deep-sea organisms imposes restrictions on studies that require repetitive long-term collections. Studies on the reproduction of deep-water corals have commonly been made without appropriate temporal series. This study included Madrepora oculata, Solenosmilia variabilis, Lophelia pertusa, and Enallopsammia rostrata, which are among the primary deep-sea reef building corals off Brazil. Samples were collected during 13 consecutive months by the Campos Basin Deep-Sea Corals Assessment Project (R&D Center of the Brazilian Energy Company, Petrobras) in Campos Basin (CB) off Rio de Janeiro State through a remotely-operated-vehicle at approximately 600 m depth. Of every monthly sampling campaign, an average of four to five colonies of all four species were investigated histologically. Colonies of both sexes were observed, indicating that all four species are gonochoric. For now, this appears to be the predominant reproductive pattern observed in corals in the area, as well as in deep-sea corals in general, where 80% of coral species are gonochoric. Although considered functionally gonochoric, M. oculata and L. pertusa presented a few colonies with different hermaphroditism patterns. E. rostrata and M. oculata presented continuous reproduction. Although fertile year-round, S. variabilis presents a reproductive peak between April and September (Autumn-Spring) in contrast with the seasonal reproduction recorded in the southwestern Pacific. L. pertusa had a seasonal reproductive peak, confirming previous observations of periodic reproduction in this species in the northeastern Atlantic. The possible spawning season of L. pertusa from CB concentrates between May and July (high frequency of mature gametes), while spawning occurs between January and March in the North Atlantic and between September and November in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results suggest that the studied species are broadcast spawners because no embryos or larvae were observed in any

  11. Climate change and coral reef bleaching: An ecological assessment of long-term impacts, recovery trends and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andrew C.; Glynn, Peter W.; Riegl, Bernhard

    2008-12-01

    regenerating and recovering coral reefs have originated from broadcast spawning taxa with a potential for asexual growth, relatively long distance dispersal, successful settlement, rapid growth and a capacity for framework construction. Whether or not affected reefs can continue to function as before will depend on: (1) how much coral cover is lost, and which species are locally extirpated; (2) the ability of remnant and recovering coral communities to adapt or acclimatize to higher temperatures and other climatic factors such as reductions in aragonite saturation state; (3) the changing balance between reef accumulation and bioerosion; and (4) our ability to maintain ecosystem resilience by restoring healthy levels of herbivory, macroalgal cover, and coral recruitment. Bleaching disturbances are likely to become a chronic stress in many reef areas in the coming decades, and coral communities, if they cannot recover quickly enough, are likely to be reduced to their most hardy or adaptable constituents. Some degraded reefs may already be approaching this ecological asymptote, although to date there have not been any global extinctions of individual coral species as a result of bleaching events. Since human populations inhabiting tropical coastal areas derive great value from coral reefs, the degradation of these ecosystems as a result of coral bleaching and its associated impacts is of considerable societal, as well as biological concern. Coral reef conservation strategies now recognize climate change as a principal threat, and are engaged in efforts to allocate conservation activity according to geographic-, taxonomic-, and habitat-specific priorities to maximize coral reef survival. Efforts to forecast and monitor bleaching, involving both remote sensed observations and coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models, are also underway. In addition to these efforts, attempts to minimize and mitigate bleaching impacts on reefs are immediately required. If significant reductions in

  12. Toxicity of Deepwater Horizon source oil and the chemical dispersant, Corexit® 9500, to coral larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Goodbody-Gringley

    Full Text Available Acute catastrophic events can cause significant damage to marine environments in a short time period and may have devastating long-term impacts. In April 2010 the BP-operated Deepwater Horizon (DWH offshore oil rig exploded, releasing an estimated 760 million liters of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This study examines the potential effects of oil spill exposure on coral larvae of the Florida Keys. Larvae of the brooding coral, Porites astreoides, and the broadcast spawning coral, Montastraea faveolata, were exposed to multiple concentrations of BP Horizon source oil (crude, weathered and WAF, oil in combination with the dispersant Corexit® 9500 (CEWAF, and dispersant alone, and analyzed for behavior, settlement, and survival. Settlement and survival of P. astreoides and M. faveolata larvae decreased with increasing concentrations of WAF, CEWAF and Corexit® 9500, however the degree of the response varied by species and solution. P. astreoides larvae experienced decreased settlement and survival following exposure to 0.62 ppm source oil, while M. faveolata larvae were negatively impacted by 0.65, 1.34 and 1.5 ppm, suggesting that P. astreoides larvae may be more tolerant to WAF exposure than M. faveolata larvae. Exposure to medium and high concentrations of CEWAF (4.28/18.56 and 30.99/35.76 ppm and dispersant Corexit® 9500 (50 and 100 ppm, significantly decreased larval settlement and survival for both species. Furthermore, exposure to Corexit® 9500 resulted in settlement failure and complete larval mortality after exposure to 50 and 100 ppm for M. faveolata and 100 ppm for P. astreoides. These results indicate that exposure of coral larvae to oil spill related contaminants, particularly the dispersant Corexit® 9500, has the potential to negatively impact coral settlement and survival, thereby affecting the resilience and recovery of coral reefs following exposure to oil and dispersants.

  13. Toxicity of Deepwater Horizon Source Oil and the Chemical Dispersant, Corexit® 9500, to Coral Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbody-Gringley, Gretchen; Wetzel, Dana L.; Gillon, Daniel; Pulster, Erin; Miller, Allison; Ritchie, Kim B.

    2013-01-01

    Acute catastrophic events can cause significant damage to marine environments in a short time period and may have devastating long-term impacts. In April 2010 the BP-operated Deepwater Horizon (DWH) offshore oil rig exploded, releasing an estimated 760 million liters of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This study examines the potential effects of oil spill exposure on coral larvae of the Florida Keys. Larvae of the brooding coral, Porites astreoides, and the broadcast spawning coral, Montastraea faveolata, were exposed to multiple concentrations of BP Horizon source oil (crude, weathered and WAF), oil in combination with the dispersant Corexit® 9500 (CEWAF), and dispersant alone, and analyzed for behavior, settlement, and survival. Settlement and survival of P. astreoides and M. faveolata larvae decreased with increasing concentrations of WAF, CEWAF and Corexit® 9500, however the degree of the response varied by species and solution. P. astreoides larvae experienced decreased settlement and survival following exposure to 0.62 ppm source oil, while M. faveolata larvae were negatively impacted by 0.65, 1.34 and 1.5 ppm, suggesting that P. astreoides larvae may be more tolerant to WAF exposure than M. faveolata larvae. Exposure to medium and high concentrations of CEWAF (4.28/18.56 and 30.99/35.76 ppm) and dispersant Corexit® 9500 (50 and 100 ppm), significantly decreased larval settlement and survival for both species. Furthermore, exposure to Corexit® 9500 resulted in settlement failure and complete larval mortality after exposure to 50 and 100 ppm for M. faveolata and 100 ppm for P. astreoides. These results indicate that exposure of coral larvae to oil spill related contaminants, particularly the dispersant Corexit® 9500, has the potential to negatively impact coral settlement and survival, thereby affecting the resilience and recovery of coral reefs following exposure to oil and dispersants. PMID:23326298

  14. Broadcasting in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noriega, Luis Antonio; Leach, Frances

    This monograph traces the growth of Mexico's broadcasting services against the background of that country's geographical, cultural, demographic, economic, and political structures. Specific areas dealt with within the six chapters of the monograph are: (1) the national environment for broadcasting; (2) the advent and development of broadcasting in…

  15. Applied Anthropology in Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselein, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Three different applied media anthropology projects are described. These projects stem from the broadcasters' legal need to know about the community (community ascertainment), the broadcasters' need to know about the station audience (audience profile), and the broadcasters' desire to change a community (action projects). (Author)

  16. Spawning aggregation of white-streaked grouper Epinephelus ongus: spatial distribution and annual variation in the fish density within a spawning ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Nanami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available White-streaked grouper (Epinephelus ongus is an important fisheries target and forms spawning aggregations at particular spawning grounds. The aims of the present study were to investigate the ecological characteristics of annual spawning aggregations such as (1 spatial variations in the density of E. ongus at the spawning ground, (2 the relationship between fish density and environmental variables, (3 inter-annual variations in the spawning aggregation, (4 the proportion of males to females at the spawning ground for several days pre—and post-spawning and (5 the relationship between male density and female density at the protected spawning ground, based on observations over five years at an Okinawan coral reef. Although the protected spawning ground area was large (ca. 2,500 m × 700 m, high density of E. ongus (over 25 individuals per 100 m2 was found in a limited area (within c.a. 750 m × 50 m. Current velocity and coverage of rocks had significant positive effects on the spatial distribution of E. ongus at the spawning ground. Inter-annual variation in the degree of aggregation was found and this variation was explained by the annual variation of mean seawater temperature during 40 days before the spawning day. The male–female ratio (male:female at the spawning ground was ca. 3:1 for three years (May 2012, May 2014 and May 2015 whereas >13:1 for one year (May 2013. Significant positive relationships between male density and female density were found at the aggregation sites. It is suggested that E. ongus use aggregation sites with greater current velocity to reduce the risk of egg predation and seawater temperature is one of the main factors that is responsible for determining the degree of aggregation. It is also suggested that females possibly select sites with a greater density of males and this selection behavior might be the reason why females arrived at the spawning ground after the arrival of the males. For effective

  17. Coral settlement on a highly disturbed equatorial reef system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Bauman

    Full Text Available Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world's most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m(-2 yr(-1 relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March-May and September-November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March-April and October, while the lowest settlement occurred from December-February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12, possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%, while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae <1%. Other, unidentifiable families represented 10% of the coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure ('others'; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity

  18. Radio broadcasting via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Neil R.; Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    1990-10-01

    Market areas offering potential for future narrowband broadcast satellites are examined, including international public diplomacy, government- and advertising-supported, and business-application usages. Technical issues such as frequency allocation, spacecraft types, transmission parameters, and radio receiver characteristics are outlined. Service and system requirements, advertising revenue, and business communications services are among the economic issues discussed. The institutional framework required to provide an operational radio broadcast service is studied, and new initiatives in direct broadcast audio radio systems, encompassing studies, tests, in-orbit demonstrations of, and proposals for national and international commercial broadcast services are considered.

  19. Evaluation of Stony Coral Indicators for Coral Reef ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonies of reef-building stony corals at 57 stations around St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands were characterized by species, size and percentage of living tissue. Taxonomic, biological and physical indicators of coral condition were derived from these measurements and assessed for their response to gradients of human disturbance. The purpose of the study was to identify indicators that could be used for regulatory assessments under authority of the Clean Water Act--this requires that indicators distinguish anthropogenic disturbances from natural variation. Stony coral indicators were tested for correlation with human disturbance across gradients located on three different sides of the island. At the most intensely disturbed location, five of eight primary indicators were highly correlated with distance from the source of disturbance: Coral taxa richness, average colony size, the coefficient of variation of colony size (an indicator of colony size heterogeneity), total topographic coral surface area, and live coral surface area. An additional set of exploratory indicators related to rarity, reproductive and spawning mode, and taxonomic identity were also screened for association with disturbance at the same location. For the other two locations, there were no significant changes in indicator values and therefore no discernible effects of human activity. Coral indicators demonstrated sufficient precision to detect levels of change that would be applicable in a regio

  20. Educational Broadcasting--Radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Uvais; Grimmett, George

    This manual is intended for those who must conduct educational radio broadcasting training courses in Asia-Pacific countries without the resources of experienced personnel, as well as for individuals to use in self-learning situations. The selection of material has been influenced by the need to use broadcasting resources effectively in programs…

  1. Broadcast Coded Slotted ALOHA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Brännström, Frederik; Graell i Amat, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose an uncoordinated medium access control (MAC) protocol, called all-to-all broadcast coded slotted ALOHA (B-CSA) for reliable all-to-all broadcast with strict latency constraints. In B-CSA, each user acts as both transmitter and receiver in a half-duplex mode. The half-duplex mode gives...

  2. 1972 Broadcasting Yearbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadcasting Publications, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The 1972 broadcasting yearbook provides complete information about the broadcast industry. An opening section offers a television (TV) directory, various TV statistics, such as demographics, distributions, sales, and rankings, which can be used for market strategies, and other useful information for those involved in communications. A section on…

  3. Chemicals released by male sea cucumber mediate aggregation and spawning behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Nathalie; Hubbard, Peter C; da Silva, José P; Afonso, João; Canário, Adelino V M

    2018-01-10

    The importance of chemical communication in reproduction has been demonstrated in many marine broadcast spawners. However, little is known about the use of chemical communication by echinoderms, the nature of the compounds involved and their mechanism(s) of action. Here, the hypothesis that the sea cucumber Holothuria arguinensis uses chemical communication for aggregation and spawning was tested. Water conditioned by males, but not females, attracted both males and females; gonad homogenates and coelomic fluid had no effect on attraction. Male spawning water, but not female spawning water, stimulated males and females to release their gametes; the spermatozoa alone did not induce spawning. H. arguinensis male spawning water also induced spawning in the phylogenetically related H. mammata. This indicates that males release pheromones together with their gametes that induce spawning in conspecifics and possibly sympatric species. Finally, the male pheromone seems to be a mixture with at least one labile compound (biological activity is lost after four hours at ambient temperature) possibly including phosphatidylcholines. The identification of pheromones in sea cucumbers offers a new ecological perspective and may have practical applications for their aquaculture.

  4. Circadian clocks in symbiotic corals: the duet between Symbiodinium algae and their coral host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek, Michal; Díaz-Almeyda, Erika M; Medina, Mónica; Levy, Oren

    2014-04-01

    To date, the association and synchronization between two organismal circadian clocks ticking in parallel as part of a meta-organism (termed a symbiotic association), have rarely been investigated. Reef-building corals exhibit complex rhythmic responses to diurnal, lunar, and annual changes. Understanding circadian, circatidal, and annual regulation in reef-building corals is complicated by the presence of photosynthetic endosymbionts, which have a profound physiochemical influence on the intracellular environment. How corals tune their animal-based clock machinery to respond to external cues while simultaneously responding to internal physiological changes imposed by the symbiont, is not clear. There is insufficient molecular or physiological evidence of the existence of a circadian pacemaker that controls the metabolism, photosynthesis, synchronized mass spawning, and calcification processes in symbiotic corals. In this review, we present current knowledge regarding the animal pacemaker and the symbiotic-algal pacemaker. We examine the evidence from behavioral, physiological, molecular, and evolutionary perspectives. We explain why symbiotic corals are an interesting model with which to study the complexities and evolution of the metazoan circadian clock. We also provide evidence of why the chronobiology of corals is fundamental and extremely important for explaining the biology, physiology, and metabolism of coral reefs. A deeper understanding of these complex issues can help explain coral mass spawning, one of the earth's greatest and most mysterious behavioral phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spawning aggregations of three protogynous groupers in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuz-Sulub, A; Brulé, T

    2015-01-01

    Spawning aggregations of red hind Epinephelus guttatus, tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were identified at two coral-reef systems: Arrecife Alacranes (emergent bank reef) and Bajos del Norte (submerged bank reef) on the continental shelf of the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche Bank), Mexico. At both reefs, E. guttatus forms large spawning aggregations between February and March. At Bajos del Norte, M. tigris reproduces in a small, low-density aggregation in May, while M. venenosa aggregates at high densities for spawning between March and May. Multi-species use of an aggregation site by E. guttatus and M. venenosa was observed at Bajos del Norte. The identified spawning aggregations are apparently stable in location over time, and all three species were commonly observed to spawn within 1 week following the full moon. Development and survival of the larvae spawned in these aggregations are probably aided by a seasonal (spring-summer) upwelling in the north-east Campeche Bank. A permanent area closure at Bajos del Norte, currently outside any specific fisheries management area or regulations, would provide protection needed for the spawning aggregations of these three species. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Implications of Internet on Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    One of the main challenges within broadcasting research in the recent years has been to understand the evolution from traditional broadcasting to digital broadcasting. The aim of this paper is to step further and give an analysis of Internet’s influence on traditional broadcasting services...

  7. Hadamard quantum broadcast channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingle; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-10-01

    We consider three different communication tasks for quantum broadcast channels, and we determine the capacity region of a Hadamard broadcast channel for these various tasks. We define a Hadamard broadcast channel to be such that the channel from the sender to one of the receivers is entanglement-breaking and the channel from the sender to the other receiver is complementary to this one. As such, this channel is a quantum generalization of a degraded broadcast channel, which is well known in classical information theory. The first communication task we consider is classical communication to both receivers, the second is quantum communication to the stronger receiver and classical communication to other, and the third is entanglement-assisted classical communication to the stronger receiver and unassisted classical communication to the other. The structure of a Hadamard broadcast channel plays a critical role in our analysis: The channel to the weaker receiver can be simulated by performing a measurement channel on the stronger receiver's system, followed by a preparation channel. As such, we can incorporate the classical output of the measurement channel as an auxiliary variable and solve all three of the above capacities for Hadamard broadcast channels, in this way avoiding known difficulties associated with quantum auxiliary variables.

  8. Projecting the Effects of 21st Century Climate Change on the Distribution and Phenology of Reef Fish Spawning Aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, R. G.; Erisman, B.

    2016-02-01

    Spawning fishes often have a narrower window of thermal tolerance than other life history stages. As a result, spawning has been hypothesized to constrain how species will respond to climate change. We assess this hypothesis by combining a global database of fish spawning aggregations with earth system and ecological niche models to project shifts in the spawning distribution and phenology of reef fishes under the RCP 8.5 climate change scenario. Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) was selected as the species for a proof-of-concept analysis since it is a top predator on Caribbean coral reefs and is listed by IUCN as endangered due to overfishing at its spawning grounds. The highest probability of encountering E. striatus aggregations occurred at sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of 24.5-26.5° C and seasonal SST gradients of 0 to -1° C. Based on a 1981-2000 climatology, our model projected that the highest probability of spawning would occur around Cuba, the Mesoamerican barrier reef, the Bahamas, and other areas of the Caribbean. This coincides with the observed distribution of E. striatus aggregations. By 2081-2100, a 50% decline is projected in the number of months and locations with adequate conditions for E. striatus spawning. Potential spawning habitat for E. striatus shifts northward and eastward, with slight increases in the probability of spawning around Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire. At spawning sites, primary production is projected to increase by a mean of 14%. Higher planktonic production could benefit larval fish growth and survival by providing a greater availability of prey. The E. striatus spawning season is projected to contract and occur later in the year. Two-month delays in phenology are projected at 78% of the sites where E. striatus populations are managed through spawning season sales bans and time/area fishing closures. This implies that adaptive management in response to climate change will be needed for these measures to remain effective.

  9. Variation in the Mating Systems of Wrasses (Labridae at a Spawning Aggregation Site on Guam, Mariana Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Donaldson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The wrasses (family Labridae exhibit a diverse number of mating strategies and behaviors. This diversity is expressed not only interspecifically but also intraspecifically. At Guam, Mariana Islands, over twenty species of wrasses spawn on a small, shallow coral reef known as Finger Reef that projects outward from the main reef into Apra Harbor. Preliminary observations indicated that the mating system utilized by some wrasses varied within species. To examine why this occurs, I utilized direct visual observations supplemented by underwater video and photography. I recorded the identity of the species courting, the number of individuals participating, the distribution of male mating territories, courtship and spawning behaviors, and courtship success. Field work utilized snorkeling for several hours a day variously within the lunar month during 2013-2015. I found that courtship and spawning occurs either in temporary resident spawning aggregations or within a protogynous haremic mating system. Within spawning aggregations, mating systems include a lek-like system with paired spawning, and group or promiscuous spawning. Haremic species followed the traditional single male-multiple female model. Both group-spawning and haremic species, however, also spawned in simple male-female pairs. Sneaking or streaking behavior during pelagic spawning events were observed in all mating systems. The results of these observations found that lek-like behavior and group spawning were dependent upon higher densities of males and females at the site. At lower densities, however, some species reverted to simple paired spawning while others used a haremic system rather than a lek-like system. This suggests that some species of wrasses practice a mixed strategy that is dependent upon fish density during the courtship period.

  10. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Grabowski

    Full Text Available The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15-16 April 2009. We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON, as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV. A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1-5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20-0.25 m s(-1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0-1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  11. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Timothy B; Boswell, Kevin M; McAdam, Bruce J; Wells, R J David; Marteinsdóttir, Guđrún

    2012-01-01

    The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15-16 April 2009). We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON), as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1-5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20-0.25 m s(-1) and maintained an average spacing of 1.0-1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  12. Radio Broadcast Technology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Radio Broadcast Technology. Harsh Vardhan. General Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 53-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/01/0053-0063. Keywords. Hertzian ...

  13. Virtue Broadcasting - directorate change

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Board of Virtue Broadcasting Plc ("Virtue") have announced the appointment of Mr. Klaus Ackerstaff as the CEO of the main Board. He began his professional career at CERN, where he was responsible for the IT infrastructure of the OPAL (particle physics) project (1/2 page).

  14. 47 CFR 73.1700 - Broadcast day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast day. 73.1700 Section 73.1700 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1700 Broadcast day. The term broadcast day means that...

  15. Dispersal of adult black marlin (Istiompax indica) from a Great Barrier Reef spawning aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeier, Michael L; Speare, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The black marlin (Istiompax indica) is one of the largest bony fishes in the world with females capable of reaching a mass of over 700 kg. This highly migratory predator occurs in the tropical regions of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and is the target of regional recreational and commercial fisheries. Through the sampling of ichthyoplankton and ovaries we provide evidence that the relatively high seasonal abundance of black marlin off the Great Barrier Reef is, in fact, a spawning aggregation. Furthermore, through the tracking of individual black marlin via satellite popup tags, we document the dispersal of adult black marlin away from the spawning aggregation, thereby identifying the catchment area for this spawning stock. Although tag shedding is an issue when studying billfish, we tentatively identify the catchment area for this stock of black marlin to extend throughout the Coral Sea, including the waters of Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Micronesia, New Caledonia, Kiribati, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tuvalu and Nauru.

  16. Coral Reefs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riegl, Bernhard; Bruckner, Andy; Coles, Steve L; Renaud, Philip; Dodge, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    .... Anthropogenic modification of chemical and physical atmospheric dynamics that cause coral death by bleaching and newly emergent diseases due to increased heat and irradiation, as well as decline...

  17. Current pattern and coral larval dispersion in a tropical coral reef system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Gomez, Isabel Cristina; Salas-Monreal, David; Riveron-Enzastiga, Mayra Lorena

    2013-10-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler data from a towing ADCP were obtained from a tropical coral reef system during a diurnal tidal cycle. Nine transect repetitions were performed during the coral spawning period of August 2008 to elucidate the possible larvae trajectories within the study area. The principal current velocity component was parallel to the coast (northward direction). The currents were mainly induced by surface friction (winds) and advection. A divergent area was observed near the northern coral reef area, which decreased the probabilities for coral larvae fixation. However, the divergence was only observed during the flood period. During the ebb tide period, the sea level decreased and constrained the denser sea water to a depth of approximately 5 m from the bottom; as a result, the coral larvae had a greater probability of fixating to the hard sea floor. The coral larvae trajectories were determined from the vertical water velocity, which was calculated using the continuity equation, the surface temperature, and the biovolumes of zooplankton, which were calculated from the backscatter intensity of the ADCP. In addition, the residence time of the system (2.41 days) suggests that some of the larvae likely fixate in less than 3 days, although other larvae may be able to drift off the area for up to 40 days. Three coral reefs were identified as the providers of coral larvae within the northern Veracruz Reef System. The dominant northward current velocity was always less than 30 cm s-1.

  18. Gossip-Based Broadcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, João; Pereira, José; Rodrigues, Luís

    Gossip, or epidemic, protocols have emerged as a powerful strategy to implement highly scalable and resilient reliable broadcast primitives on large scale peer-to-peer networks. Epidemic protocols are scalable because they distribute the load among all nodes in the system and resilient because they have an intrinsic level of redundancy that masks node and network failures. This chapter provides an introduction to gossip-based broadcast on large-scale unstructured peer-to-peer overlay networks: it surveys the main results in the field, discusses techniques to build and maintain the overlays that support efficient dissemination strategies, and provides an in-depth discussion and experimental evaluation of two concrete protocols, named HyParView and Plumtree.

  19. From Broadcast to Podcast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fibiger, Bo

    2007-01-01

    This paper will present the development from broadcasted educational television up to the actual use of streaming video and mobile units in eLearning. The paper will discuss the following topics: what can we learn from history? – and what are the new challenges and possibilities in mobile...... technologies? What we can learn from history is that new technologies provide new didactic possibilities. On the other hand, most of the uses are based on remediation of former formats. Despite the possibilities for interaction and integration, most video in the screen are formatted as traditional broadcasted...... television. Today the new video technologies can be labelled the three P’s: production, portability, and panorama/3D. The challenge is how to develop new formats and new didactics for the integration of the new technology in learning environments....

  20. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  1. Financing Public Service Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian Edelvold; Lund, Anker Brink

    2012-01-01

    Recently several European countries have abolished the traditional public service licence fee system, replacing it with direct public funding. But except for Iceland, the Nordic countries have not followed suit. The article discusses this development within a comparative framework of Public Service...... Broadcasting (PSB) financing regimes in Europe, concluding that Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden may still be considered conventional, licence fee PSB countries, but with some interesting differences in relation to competitive and market oriented alternatives of resource provision...

  2. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J A Vermeij

    Full Text Available Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency.

  3. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)]. E-mail: a.negri@aims.gov.au; Vollhardt, Claudia [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Humphrey, Craig [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Heyward, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Jones, Ross [Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Queensland Health Scientific Services, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains 4108 (Australia); Eaglesham, Geoff [Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Inc, Ferry Reach, St George' s GE 01 (Bermuda); Fabricius, Katharina [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of broadcast spawning and brooding corals were examined in laboratory experiments. Fertilisation of Acropora millepora and Montipora aequituberculata oocytes were not inhibited at diuron concentrations of up to 1000{mu}gl{sup -1}. Metamorphosis of symbiont-free A. millepora larvae was only significantly inhibited at 300{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron. Pocillopora damicornis larvae, which contain symbiotic dinoflagellates, were able to undergo metamorphosis after 24h exposure to diuron at 1000{mu}gl{sup -1}. Two-week old P. damicornis recruits on the other hand were as susceptible to diuron as adult colonies, with expulsion of symbiotic dinoflagellates (bleaching) evident at 10{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron after 96h exposure. Reversible metamorphosis was observed at high diuron concentrations, with fully bleached polyps escaping from their skeletons. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence techniques demonstrated a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency ({delta}F/F{sub m}{sup '}) in illuminated P. damicornis recruits after a 2h exposure to 1{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron. The dark-adapted quantum yields (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) also declined, indicating chronic photoinhibition and damage to photosystem II.

  4. Identification of a female spawn-associated Kazal-type inhibitor from the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianfang; Nuurai, Parinyaporn; McDougall, Carmel; York, Patrick S; Bose, Utpal; Degnan, Bernard M; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-07-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) undergoes a period of reproductive maturation, followed by the synchronous release of gametes, called broadcast spawning. Field and laboratory studies have shown that the tropical species Haliotis asinina undergoes a two-week spawning cycle, thus providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of endogenous spawning-associated peptides. In female H. asinina, we have isolated a peptide (5145 Da) whose relative abundance in hemolymph increases substantially just prior to spawning and is still detected using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms up to 1-day post-spawn. We have isolated this peptide from female hemolymph as well as samples prepared from the gravid female gonad, and demonstrated through comparative sequence analysis that it contains features characteristic of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). Has-KPI is expressed specifically within the gonad of adult females. A recombinant Has-KPI was generated using a yeast expression system. The recombinant Has-KPI does not induce premature spawning of female H. asinina when administered intramuscularly. However it displays homomeric aggregations and interaction with at least one mollusc-type neuropeptide (LRDFVamide), suggesting a role for it in regulating neuropeptide endocrine communication. This research provides new understanding of a peptide that can regulate reproductive processes in female abalone, which has the potential to lead to the development of greater control over abalone spawning. The findings also highlight the need to further explore abalone reproduction to clearly define a role for novel spawning-associated peptide in sexual maturation and spawning. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 47 CFR 73.1217 - Broadcast hoaxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast hoaxes. 73.1217 Section 73.1217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1217 Broadcast hoaxes. No licensee or permittee of any...

  6. Broadcasting children's music

    OpenAIRE

    Bignell, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Broadcasting children’s music on television and radio is motivated by, and aims to serve, adults’ perceptions of children’s wants and needs. Children’s music in general is shaped by the understanding of what ‘childhood’ means and, in turn, supports adults’ assumptions about childhood. This article develops these ideas in an analysis of examples from the history of British radio and television, beginning in the 1920s and continuing until the growing penetration of online interactive media chal...

  7. Data broadcasting: merging digital broadcasting with the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    This fully revised and updated edition of Data Broadcasting presents an exhaustive overview of the specific data broadcasting and bordering technologies concerned. Answering a wealth of questions, it describes this new technology in detail, examining how it differs from established technologies, ...

  8. Crowning corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    and the atolls. Reefs all over the world are dwindling fast. The major agents of destruction of coral reefs are abiotic and biotic factors such as hurricanes, bioerosion, sedimentation, eutrophication, pollution, predation and diseases. Pollution by oil spill...

  9. Evolution of broadcast content distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses opportunities for broadcasters that arise with the advent of broadband networks, both fixed and mobile. It discusses how the traditional way of distributing audio-visual content over broadcasting networks has been complemented by the usage of broadband networks. The author shows how this also gives the possibility to offer new types of interactive or so-called nonlinear services. The book illustrates how change in distribution technology is accelerating the need for broadcasters around the world to adapt their content distribution strategy and how it will impact the portfolios of content they offer. Outlines the shift in broadcast content distribution paradigms and related strategic issues Provides an overview of the new broadcasting ecosystem encompassing new types of content, user habits, expectations, and devices Discusses complementary usage of different distribution technologies and platforms.

  10. The Evolution of Reproductive Phenology in Broadcast Spawners and the Maintenance of Sexually Antagonistic Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olito, Colin; Marshall, Dustin J; Connallon, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Reproductive phenology is a crucial life-history trait that evolves in response to external environmental conditions and frequency- and density-dependent interactions within species. Broadcast spawners-which represent a large fraction of aquatic biodiversity-evolve phenologies that balance strong density-dependent fertilization success against abiotic environmental conditions that are required for successful reproduction. The overall balance between these processes may be particularly complex in dioecious species, where selection on reproductive timing potentially differs between the sexes. Here, we develop a population genetic model of reproductive phenology in a dioecious broadcast spawning species and show that environmental variability and density-dependent fertilization dynamics naturally give rise to profound sex differences in selection on gamete release strategies. The frequency-dependent nature of sperm competition generates sexually antagonistic selection on reproductive timing and facilitates the maintenance of genetic variation in phenological traits. Selection in females favors monomorphic spawning phenologies that maximize net fertilization success and offspring survival across environmental conditions, whereas selection in males often favors polymorphic phenologies that are primarily shaped by sperm competition. Our model helps explain several well-documented empirical observations in aquatic species, including high intraspecific variance of reproductive phenologies, sex-specific spawning phenologies, and spawning during environmentally suboptimal times.

  11. Broadcasting, Reacting, Engaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Symmetric communication and relationship building are core principles of public relations, which have been highlighted for CSR communication. In this paper three different communication strategies for CSR communication in Twitter are developed, of which each contributes differently...... to the ideals of symmetric communication and relationship building. The framework is then applied to analyze how companies use the micro-blogging service Twitter for CSR communication. Design/methodology/approach - Social network analysis is used to identify the 30 most central corporate accounts in a CSR...... Twitter-Network. From these accounts over 40´000 tweets are extracted and manually coded. Anova is applied to investigate differences in the weighting of CSR topics between the different strategies. Findings - The analysis reveals that corporations adhere to a broadcasting strategy or a reactive strategy...

  12. Gametogenesis and fecundity of Acropora tenella (Brook 1892) in a mesophotic coral ecosystem in Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetia, Rian; Sinniger, Frederic; Harii, Saki

    2016-03-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (below 30-40 m depth) host a large diversity of zooxanthellate coral communities and may play an important role in the ecology and conservation of coral reefs. Investigating the reproductive biology of mesophotic corals is important to understand their life history traits. Despite an increase in research on mesophotic corals in the last decade, their reproductive biology is still poorly understood. Here, gametogenesis and fecundity of the Indo-Pacific mesophotic coral , Acropora tenella, were examined in an upper mesophotic reef (40 m depth) in Okinawa, Japan for the first time. Acropora tenella is a hermaphrodite with a single annual gametogenic cycle, and both oogenesis and spermatogenesis occurring for 11-12 and 5-6 months, respectively. Timing of spawning of this species was similar to other shallow Acropora spp. in the region. However, colonies had longer gametogenic cycles and less synchronous gamete maturation compared to shallow acroporids with spawning extended over consecutive months. Both the polyp fecundity (number of eggs per polyp) and gonad index (defined as the number of eggs per square centimeter) of A. tenella were lower than most acroporids. Our findings contribute to understanding of the life history of corals on mesophotic reefs and suggest that the reproductive biology of upper mesophotic corals is similar to that of shallow-water corals.

  13. Spawning aggregation behavior and reproductive ecology of the giant bumphead parrotfish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a remote marine reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roldan C. Muñoz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum has experienced precipitous population declines throughout its range due to its importance as a highly-prized fishery target and cultural resource. Because of its diet, Bolbometopon may serve as a keystone species on Indo-Pacific coral reefs, yet comprehensive descriptions of its reproductive ecology do not exist. We used a variety of underwater visual census (UVC methods to study an intact population of Bolbometopon at Wake Atoll, a remote and protected coral atoll in the west Pacific. Key observations include spawning activities in the morning around the full and last quarter moon, with possible spawning extending to the new moon. We observed peaks in aggregation size just prior to and following the full and last quarter moon, respectively, and observed a distinct break in spawning at the site that persisted for four days; individuals returned to the aggregation site one day prior to the last quarter moon and resumed spawning the following day. The mating system was lek-based, characterized by early male arrival at the spawning site followed by vigorous defense (including head-butting between large males of small territories. These territories were apparently used to attract females that arrived later in large schools, causing substantial changes in the sex ratio on the aggregation site at any given time during the morning spawning period. Aggression between males and courtship of females led to pair spawning within the upper water column. Mating interference was not witnessed but we noted instances suggesting that sperm competition might occur. Densities of Bolbometopon on the aggregation site averaged 10.07(±3.24 SE fish per hectare (ha with maximum densities of 51.5 fish per ha. By comparing our observations to the results of biennial surveys conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED, we confirmed spatial consistency of

  14. Spawning aggregation behavior and reproductive ecology of the giant bumphead parrotfish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a remote marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Roldan C; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Teer, Bradford Z; Laughlin, Joseph L

    2014-01-01

    The giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) has experienced precipitous population declines throughout its range due to its importance as a highly-prized fishery target and cultural resource. Because of its diet, Bolbometopon may serve as a keystone species on Indo-Pacific coral reefs, yet comprehensive descriptions of its reproductive ecology do not exist. We used a variety of underwater visual census (UVC) methods to study an intact population of Bolbometopon at Wake Atoll, a remote and protected coral atoll in the west Pacific. Key observations include spawning activities in the morning around the full and last quarter moon, with possible spawning extending to the new moon. We observed peaks in aggregation size just prior to and following the full and last quarter moon, respectively, and observed a distinct break in spawning at the site that persisted for four days; individuals returned to the aggregation site one day prior to the last quarter moon and resumed spawning the following day. The mating system was lek-based, characterized by early male arrival at the spawning site followed by vigorous defense (including head-butting between large males) of small territories. These territories were apparently used to attract females that arrived later in large schools, causing substantial changes in the sex ratio on the aggregation site at any given time during the morning spawning period. Aggression between males and courtship of females led to pair spawning within the upper water column. Mating interference was not witnessed but we noted instances suggesting that sperm competition might occur. Densities of Bolbometopon on the aggregation site averaged 10.07(±3.24 SE) fish per hectare (ha) with maximum densities of 51.5 fish per ha. By comparing our observations to the results of biennial surveys conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), we confirmed spatial consistency of the aggregation

  15. 47 CFR 73.1692 - Broadcast station construction near or installation on an AM broadcast tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast station construction near or installation on an AM broadcast tower. 73.1692 Section 73.1692 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast...

  16. Unified broadcast in sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg; Jurdak, Raja; Kusy, Branislav

    2011-01-01

    Complex sensor network applications include multiple services such as collection, dissemination, time synchronization, and failure detection protocols. Many of these protocols require local state maintenance through periodic broadcasts which leads to high control overhead. Recent attempts...

  17. Absence of genetic differentiation in the coral Pocillopora verrucosa along environmental gradients of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Robitzch, Vanessa S.N.

    2015-02-11

    The Red Sea is the world\\'s northernmost tropical sea. The 2000 km long, but narrow basin creates distinct environmental conditions along its latitudinal spread. The Red Sea displays a pronounced salinity gradient from 41 to 37 PSU (north to south) with an opposing temperature gradient from 21 to 27°C in the north to 27–33.8°C in the south. The Red Sea further displays a decreasing nutrient gradient from south to north that can also influence underwater light fields due to higher phytoplankton content and turbidity. Despite this strong variation in temperature, salinity, nutrients, and light conditions, the Red Sea supports large and diverse coral reef ecosystems along its nearly entire coastline. Only few studies have targeted whether these prevailing gradients affect genetic connectivity of reef organisms in the Red Sea. In this study, we sampled the abundant reef-building coral Pocillopora verrucosa from 10 reefs along a latitudinal gradient in the Red Sea covering an area of more than 850 km. We used nine Pocillopora microsatellite markers to assess the underlying population genetic structure and effective population size. To assure the exclusion of cryptic species, all analyzed specimens were chosen from a single mitochondrial lineage. Despite large distances between sampled regions covering pronounced, but smooth temperature and salinity gradients, no significant genetic population structure was found. Rather, our data indicate panmixia and considerable gene flow among regions. The absence of population subdivision driven by environmental factors and over large geographic distances suggests efficient larval dispersal and successful settlement of recruits from a wide range of reef sites. It also advocates, broadcast spawning as the main reproductive strategy of Pocillopora verrucosa in the Red Sea as reflected by the absence of clones in sampled colonies. These factors might explain the success of Pocillopora species throughout the Indo-Pacific and

  18. Absence of genetic differentiation in the coral Pocillopora verrucosa along environmental gradients of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eRobitzch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Red Sea is the world’s northernmost tropical sea. The 2,000 km long, but narrow basin creates distinct environmental conditions along its latitudinal spread. The Red Sea displays a pronounced salinity gradient from 41 to 37 PSU (north to south with an opposing temperature gradient from 21-27°C in the north to 27-33.8°C in the south. The Red Sea further displays a decreasing nutrient gradient from south to north that can also influence underwater light fields due to higher phytoplankton content and turbidity. Despite this strong variation in temperature, salinity, nutrients, and light conditions, the Red Sea supports large and diverse coral reef ecosystems along its nearly entire coastline. Only few studies have targeted whether these prevailing gradients affect genetic connectivity of reef organisms in the Red Sea. In this study, we sampled the abundant reef-building coral Pocillopora verrucosa from ten reefs along a latitudinal gradient in the Red Sea covering an area of more than 850 km. We used nine Pocillopora microsatellite markers to assess the underlying population genetic structure and effective population size. To assure the exclusion of cryptic species, all analyzed specimens were chosen from a single mitochondrial lineage. Despite large distances between sampled regions covering pronounced, but smooth temperature and salinity gradients, no significant genetic population structure was found. Rather, our data indicate panmixia and considerable gene flow among regions. The absence of population subdivision driven by environmental factors and over large geographic distances suggests efficient larval dispersal and successful settlement of recruits from a wide range of reef sites. It also advocates, broadcast spawning as the main reproductive strategy of Pocillopora verrucosa in the Red Sea as reflected by the absence of clones in sampled colonies. These factors might explain the success of Pocillopora species throughout the Indo

  19. Fecundity, atresia, and spawning strategies of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Kjesdu, O.S.

    2009-01-01

    Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) have contrasting spawning strategies, with apparently genetically similar fish “choosing” different spawning seasons, different egg sizes, and different spawning areas. In the North Sea, both autumn- and winter-spawning herring share the same summer feeding area

  20. Reef scent: How brooded coral larvae from a tough coral smell their way to a new home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, N.; Richmond, R. H.; Seneca, F.; Murphy, J.; Martinez, J.; Lyman, A.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs are highly diverse marine ecosystems of ecological, economic, and cultural value. With the expected negative effects on reefs from global climate change including rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification, the identification of resilient coral species has become increasingly important. Leptastrea purpurea is an encrusting coral that is found throughout the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. While most corals are broadcast spawners, releasing sperm and eggs to be fertilized in the water column, some corals brood embryos within their tissues after internal fertilization. L. purpurea appears to release planula larvae on a continuous basis from the parent colony as observed during two years of monitoring. The planula larvae show remarkable resilience under a wide range of stressful conditions including temperature, sediment, and chemical stressors, as well as the ability to successfully settle and metamorphose after 180 days in controlled laboratory conditions. Various smells were tested to identify a settlement cue for L. purpurea larvae, and our results suggest that the smell associated with other coral colonies induce larval settlement and metamorphosis. Knowledge of the settlement cues and reproductive biology of this coral is important to our understanding of coral resilience in the face of anthropogenic perturbation.

  1. Modeling vertical coral connectivity and mesophotic refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Daniel M.; Paris, Claire B.; Vaz, Ana C.; Smith, Tyler B.

    2016-03-01

    Whether mesophotic reefs will behave as refugia for corals threatened by global climate change and coastal development depends on vertical exchange of larvae between diverse habitats. Here we use a biophysical model of larval dispersal to estimate vertical connectivity of a broadcasting ( Orbicella faveolata) and a brooding ( Porites astreoides) species of coral in the US Virgin Islands. Modeling predicts subsidy to shallow areas by mesophotic larvae of both species based on local hydrology, adult reproductive characteristics, larval traits, and a wide range of scenarios developed to test depth-sensitive factors, such as fertilization rates and post-settlement survivorship. In extreme model scenarios of reduced fertilization and post-settlement survivorship of mesophotic larvae, 1-10 % local mesophotic subsidy to shallow recruitment is predicted for both species, which are demographically significant. Although direct vertical connectivity is higher for the broadcaster, the brooder demonstrates higher local multigenerational vertical connectivity, which suggests that local P. astreoides populations are more resilient than those of O. faveolata, and corroborates field studies. As shallow habitat degrades, mesophotic-shallow subsidy is predicted to increase for both species. This study is the first of its kind to simulate larval dispersal and settlement between habitats of different depths, and these findings have local, regional, and global implications for predicting and managing coral reef persistence in a changing climate.

  2. The Mystery of Microsetella – Combination of egg- and broadcast spawning in an Arctic fjord?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Different life-history stages of the pelagic harpacticoid Microsetella norvegica were sampled in a Greenland fjord, to investigate how this slowly growing species can achieve high abundances at low temperatures. We expected low but continuous reproduction coupled with a low mortality, but observed...... the opposite: a short reproductive period with high estimated weight-specific egg production and egg mortality, and indication of a life-history strategy combining the advantages of egg carrying with egg production rates independent of temperature...

  3. Spatially structured genetic variation in a broadcast spawning bivalve : quantitative vs. molecular traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, PC; Drent, J; van Delden, W; Piersma, T

    Understanding the origin, maintenance and significance of phenotypic variation is one of the central issues in evolutionary biology. An ongoing discussion focuses on the relative roles of isolation and selection as being at the heart of genetically based spatial variation. We address this issue in a

  4. Reproductive strategy, spawning induction, spawning temperatures and early life history of captive sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Janice; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    Macrhybopsis reproduction and propagule traits were studied in the laboratory using two temperature regimes and three hormone treatments to determine which methods produced the most spawns. Only sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki spawned successfully although sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida released unfertilized eggs. All temperature and hormone treatments produced M. meeki spawns, but two treatments had similar success rates at 44 and 43%, consisting of a constant daily temperature with no hormone added, or daily temperature fluctuations with hormone added to the water. Spawns consisted of multiple successful demersal circular swimming spawning embraces interspersed with circular swims without embraces. The most spawns observed for one female was four and on average, 327 eggs were collected after each spawn. The water-hardened eggs were semi-buoyant and non-adhesive, the first confirmation of this type of reproductive guild in the Missouri River Macrhybopsis sp. From spawn, larvae swam vertically until 123 accumulated degree days (° D) and 167° D for consumption of first food. Using average water speed and laboratory development time, the predicted drift distance for eggs and larvae could be 468–592 km in the lower Missouri River. Results from this study determined the reproductive biology and early life history of Macrhybopsis spp. and provided insight into their population dynamics in the Missouri River.

  5. Biology of corals and coral reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajkumar, R.; Parulekar, A.H.

    on the systematic position is presented. The general structure is depicted with illustrations. Physiology part is updated to current knowledge on reproduction, nutrition and excretion of corals. The coral reefs section begins with status of world reefs...

  6. Broadcasting Children’s Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Bignell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting children’s music on television and radio is motivated by, and aims to serve, adults’ perceptions of children’s wants and needs. Children’s music in general is shaped by the understanding of what ‘childhood’ means and, in turn, supports adults’ assumptions about childhood. This article develops these ideas in an analysis of examples from the history of British radio and television, beginning in the 1920s and continuing until the growing penetration of online interactive media challenged the status of broadcasting in the early 21st century. The article discusses examples of different kinds of children’s music in a broadcast context, including the broadcast of commercial recordings of music for children, such as versions of traditional songs and nursery rhymes as well as pop music aimed at children. It also considers the significance of signature tunes and repeated musical sequences from long-lived and well-loved children’s programmes, because they play key roles in differentiating children’s programmes from each other and distinguishing children’s music from music aimed at adults. Broadcast programmes frequently include music that does not play a central role, when it is used as an accompaniment to drama, entertainment performance or animation. But such music contributes to programmes’ tone and shapes their mode of address to an imagined child audience. Entertainment shows or magazine programmes include music performances alongside non-musical sequences and can use music to, for example, mark an occasion for sing-along activities or accompany games. The social function of broadcasting for children watching or listening at home or at school, usually with an adult or other children, is constituted in part by these varied forms of children’s music. These forms of music shape conceptions of childhood through particular kinds of listening practices and ways of belonging to an audience.

  7. Broadcast and Aggregation in BBC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a process calculus BBC that has both forms of communication. For both many-to-one and one-to-many communication, it is often a natural assumption that communication is bounded; this reflects two distinct aspects of the limitations of a medium. In the case of broadcast......, the bound limits the number of possible recipients of a message. In the case of collection, the bound limits the number of messages that can be received. For this reason, BBC uses a notion of bounded broadcast and collection. Moreover, the syntax of the calculus introduces an explicit notion of connectivity...

  8. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-02-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8 years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery.

  9. Spawning characteristics of Clupea pallasii in the coastal waters off Gyeongnam, Korea, during spawning season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Deuk; Choi, Jung Hwa; Moon, Seong Yong; Lee, Sun Kil; Gwak, Woo-Seok

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to research the characteristics of spawning grounds of Clupea pallasii found at 1 spawning ground located in the coast of Yeongun-ri, Tongyeong, Gyeongnam, and 3 stations in Jinhae Bay. Diving observation was performed from January to June, 2014 at the coast of Yeongun-ri, and from February to June, 2016 at Jinhae Bay after total 4 stations (A: Gusan-myeon, B: Haengamdong, C: Hacheong-myeon, D: Jam-do) were constituted. During observation period, 1 spawning ground was found in Tongyeong area in January. In Jinhae Bay spawning grounds were found at 3 stations (A, B, D) out of 4 stations in February. Regarding the surrounding environment of spawning ground found at Yeongunri, Tongyeong, various kinds of seaweeds were distributed up to 1-5 m depth, and many branch type red algae were distributed. In case of Jinhae Bay, seaweeds were widely distributed from shallow water to 5 m depth. In addition, the scope that eggs were attached was considerably wide compared to Tongyeong area, and they were found at all the 3 spots, so C. pallasii is thought to use Jinhae Bay for its spawning ground widely. Eggs were attached from the surface to 3-4 m, and like Tongyeong area, eggs were attached to mostly branch type of red algae. The results of this study suggest that the spawning season of the C. pallasii in coast waters off Gyeongnam is until mid-February.

  10. Spawning characteristics of Clupea pallasii in the coastal waters off Gyeongnam, Korea, during spawning season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Deuk; Choi, Jung Hwa; Moon, Seong Yong; Lee, Sun Kil; Gwak, Woo-Seok

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to research the characteristics of spawning grounds of Clupea pallasii found at 1 spawning ground located in the coast of Yeongun-ri, Tongyeong, Gyeongnam, and 3 stations in Jinhae Bay. Diving observation was performed from January to June, 2014 at the coast of Yeongun-ri, and from February to June, 2016 at Jinhae Bay after total 4 stations (A: Gusan-myeon, B: Haengamdong, C: Hacheong-myeon, D: Jam-do) were constituted. During observation period, 1 spawning ground was found in Tongyeong area in January. In Jinhae Bay spawning grounds were found at 3 stations (A, B, D) out of 4 stations in February. Regarding the surrounding environment of spawning ground found at Yeongunri, Tongyeong, various kinds of seaweeds were distributed up to 1-5 m depth, and many branch type red algae were distributed. In case of Jinhae Bay, seaweeds were widely distributed from shallow water to 5 m depth. In addition, the scope that eggs were attached was considerably wide compared to Tongyeong area, and they were found at all the 3 spots, so C. pallasii is thought to use Jinhae Bay for its spawning ground widely. Eggs were attached from the surface to 3-4 m, and like Tongyeong area, eggs were attached to mostly branch type of red algae. The results of this study suggest that the spawning season of the C. pallasii in coast waters off Gyeongnam is until mid-February.

  11. Patterns of color phase indicate spawn timing at a Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus spawning aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K ARCHER, Scott A HEPPELL, Brice X SEMMENS,Christy V PATTENGILL-SEMMENS, Phillippe G BUSH, Croy M MCCOY,Bradley C JOHNSON

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus are a large bodied, top level predator that is ecologically important throughout the Caribbean. Although typically solitary, Nassau grouper form large annual spawning aggregations at predictable times in specific locations. In 2003, The Cayman Islands Marine Conservation Board established protection for a newly rediscovered Nassau grouper spawning aggregation on Little Cayman, British West Indies. The large size of this aggregation provides a unique opportunity to study the behavior of Nassau grouper on a relatively intact spawning aggregation. During non-spawning periods Nassau grouper display a reddish-brown-and-white barred coloration. However, while aggregating they exhibit three additional color phases: “bicolor”, “dark”, and “white belly”. We video sampled the population on multiple days leading up to spawning across five spawning years. Divers focused a laser caliper equipped video camera on individual fish at the aggregation. We later analyzed the video to determine the length of the fish and record the color phase. Our observations show that the relative proportion of fish in the bicolor color phase increases significantly on the day leading up to the primary night of spawning. The increase in the proportion of the bicolor color phase from 0.05 early in the aggregation to 0.40 on the day of spawning suggests that this color phase conveys that a fish is behaviorally and physiologically prepared to spawn. Additionally, 82.7% of fish exhibiting dark or white belly coloration early in the aggregation period suggests that these color phases are not only shown by female fish as was previously posited [Current Zoology 58 (1: 73–83, 2012].

  12. Reproductive biology and spatiotemporal patterns of spawning in striped marlin Kajikia audax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, R K; Davie, P S; Bromhead, D B; Young, J W

    2012-11-01

    This study presents the first histology-based assessment of the reproductive dynamics of south-west Pacific striped marlin Kajikia audax. Maturity and reproductive status were assessed from histological sections of ovaries (n = 234) and testes (n = 243) of fish caught in commercial longline and recreational fisheries between 2006 and 2009. Spawning peaked in the Coral Sea during November and December at sea surface temperatures between 24.8 and 28.3° C. Lower jaw fork length (L(LJF)) at 50% maturity (L(LJF50)), a key variable for stock assessment, was estimated to be 2100 ± 102 mm (mean + s.e.) for females and 1668 ± 18 mm for males. Unlike large pelagic tunas Thunnus spp., the proportion of females increased with length and spawning fish formed multiple large-scale aggregations within a broad latitudinal band. This study provides a starting point for biological parameters needed for stock assessment and conservation of K. audax and introduces the multiple aggregation spawning concept as a reproductive mechanism to explain genetic heterogeneity observed in some highly migratory species. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Dispersal of adult black marlin (Istiompax indica from a Great Barrier Reef spawning aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Domeier

    Full Text Available The black marlin (Istiompax indica is one of the largest bony fishes in the world with females capable of reaching a mass of over 700 kg. This highly migratory predator occurs in the tropical regions of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and is the target of regional recreational and commercial fisheries. Through the sampling of ichthyoplankton and ovaries we provide evidence that the relatively high seasonal abundance of black marlin off the Great Barrier Reef is, in fact, a spawning aggregation. Furthermore, through the tracking of individual black marlin via satellite popup tags, we document the dispersal of adult black marlin away from the spawning aggregation, thereby identifying the catchment area for this spawning stock. Although tag shedding is an issue when studying billfish, we tentatively identify the catchment area for this stock of black marlin to extend throughout the Coral Sea, including the waters of Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Micronesia, New Caledonia, Kiribati, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tuvalu and Nauru.

  14. Cable Television and Satellite Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-31

    homes by the end teevision per week. However, accorigtthIne op that de a ay anthr 4 million hoesby - tohoe pendent Broadcast Authority’s (IBA...France to create a leisure desire to buy cable TV. park and a production studio for cartoons. 8 The Role of Public Service Providers In the Next Decade

  15. Hybridisation of Slovene public broadcasting

    OpenAIRE

    Volčič, Zala; Zajc, Melita

    2015-01-01

    Public broadcasting institutions have existed as central and publicly funded national institutions, providing services in the public interest. The coincidence of technological, political and economic circumstances in the last 20 years or so, however, has challenged their monopoly position. Technological developments - specifically digitalisation - have expanded spectrum availability. In some cases, public television has been commercialised, privatised or marginalised by the introduction of co...

  16. Symbiosis increases coral tolerance to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, S.; Irie, T.; Inoue, M.; Shinmen, K.; Kawahata, H.; Nakamura, T.; Kato, A.; Nojiri, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Sakai, K.; van Woesik, R.

    2013-04-01

    Increasing the acidity of ocean waters will directly threaten calcifying marine organisms such as reef-building scleractinian corals, and the myriad of species that rely on corals for protection and sustenance. Ocean pH has already decreased by around 0.1 pH units since the beginning of the industrial revolution, and is expected to decrease by another 0.2-0.4 pH units by 2100. This study mimicked the pre-industrial, present, and near-future levels of pCO2 using a precise control system (±5% pCO2), to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the calcification of recently-settled primary polyps of Acropora digitifera, both with and without symbionts, and adult fragments with symbionts. The increase in pCO2 of 100 μatm between the pre-industrial period and the present had more effect on the calcification rate of adult A. digitifera than the anticipated future increases of several hundreds of micro-atmospheres of pCO2. The primary polyps with symbionts showed higher calcification rates than primary polyps without symbionts, suggesting that (i) primary polyps housing symbionts are more tolerant to near-future ocean acidification than organisms without symbionts, and (ii) corals acquiring symbionts from the environment (i.e. broadcasting species) will be more vulnerable to ocean acidification than corals that maternally acquire symbionts.

  17. Evidence of segregated spawning in a single marine fish stock: Sympatric divergence of ecotypes in icelandic cod?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, T.B.; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjalmur; McAdam, B.J.; Marteinsdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of intraspecific diversity and population structure within marine fish species, yet there is little direct evidence of the isolating mechanisms that maintain it or documentation of its ecological extent. We analyzed depth and temperature histories collected by electronic data storage tags retrieved from 104 Atlantic cod at liberty ???1 year to evaluate a possible isolating mechanisms maintaining population structure within the Icelandic cod stock. This stock consists of two distinct behavioral types, resident coastal cod and migratory frontal cod, each occurring within two geographically distinct populations. Despite being captured together on the same spawning grounds, we show the behavioral types seem reproductively isolated by fine-scale differences in spawning habitat selection, primarily depth. Additionally, the different groups occupied distinct seasonal thermal and bathymetric niches that generally demonstrated low levels of overlap throughout the year. Our results indicate that isolating mechanisms, such as differential habitat selection during spawning, might contribute to maintaining diversity and fine-scale population structure in broadcast-spawning marine fishes.

  18. Evidence of segregated spawning in a single marine fish stock: sympatric divergence of ecotypes in Icelandic cod?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Grabowski

    Full Text Available There is increasing recognition of intraspecific diversity and population structure within marine fish species, yet there is little direct evidence of the isolating mechanisms that maintain it or documentation of its ecological extent. We analyzed depth and temperature histories collected by electronic data storage tags retrieved from 104 Atlantic cod at liberty ≥1 year to evaluate a possible isolating mechanisms maintaining population structure within the Icelandic cod stock. This stock consists of two distinct behavioral types, resident coastal cod and migratory frontal cod, each occurring within two geographically distinct populations. Despite being captured together on the same spawning grounds, we show the behavioral types seem reproductively isolated by fine-scale differences in spawning habitat selection, primarily depth. Additionally, the different groups occupied distinct seasonal thermal and bathymetric niches that generally demonstrated low levels of overlap throughout the year. Our results indicate that isolating mechanisms, such as differential habitat selection during spawning, might contribute to maintaining diversity and fine-scale population structure in broadcast-spawning marine fishes.

  19. Evidence from data storage tags for the presence of lunar and semilunar behavioral cycles in spawning Atlantic cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Timothy B.; McAdam, Bruce J.; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjalmur; Marteinsdóttir, Gudrún

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental processes determining the timing and success of reproduction is of critical importance to developing effective management strategies of marine fishes. Unfortunately it has proven difficult to comprehensively study the reproductive behavior of broadcast-spawning fishes. The use of electronic data storage tags (DSTs) has the potential to provide insights into the behavior of fishes. These tags allow for data collection over relatively large spatial and temporal scales that can be correlated to predicted environmental conditions and ultimately be used to refine predictions of year class strength. In this paper we present data retrieved from DSTs demonstrating that events putatively identified as Atlantic cod spawning behavior is tied to a lunar cycle with a pronounced semi-lunar cycle within it. Peak activity occurs around the full and new moon with no evidence of relationship with day/night cycles.

  20. Early development of artificially spawned southern mullet,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-08-02

    Aug 2, 1988 ... The embryonic development of artificially spawned southern mullet, Liza richardsonii, eggs and the development of the larvae to 46 days are described and illustrated using drawings and photographs. The floating eggs hatched in sea water at 18-24°C after 46-60 h. Newly stripped eggs usually had more ...

  1. Modeling Fine-Scale Coral Larval Dispersal and Interisland Connectivity to Help Designate Mutually-Supporting Coral Reef Marine Protected Areas: Insights from Maui Nui, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt D. Storlazzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Connectivity among individual marine protected areas (MPAs is one of the most important considerations in the design of integrated MPA networks. To provide such information for managers in Hawaii, USA, a numerical circulation model was developed to determine the role of ocean currents in transporting coral larvae from natal reefs throughout the high volcanic islands of the Maui Nui island complex in the southeastern Hawaiian Archipelago. Spatially- and temporally-varying wind, wave, and circulation model outputs were used to drive a km-scale, 3-dimensional, physics-based circulation model for Maui Nui. The model was calibrated and validated using satellite-tracked ocean surface current drifters deployed during coral-spawning conditions, then used to simulate the movement of the larvae of the dominant reef-building coral, Porites compressa, from 17 reefs during eight spawning events in 2010–2013. These simulations make it possible to investigate not only the general dispersal patterns from individual coral reefs, but also how anomalous conditions during individual spawning events can result in large deviations from those general patterns. These data also help identify those reefs that are dominated by self-seeding and those where self-seeding is limited to determine their relative susceptibility to stressors and potential roadblocks to recovery. Overall, the numerical model results indicate that many of the coral reefs in Maui Nui seed reefs on adjacent islands, demonstrating the interconnected nature of the coral reefs in Maui Nui and providing a key component of the scientific underpinning essential for the design of a mutually supportive network of MPAs to enhance conservation of coral reefs.

  2. Modeling fine-scale coral larval dispersal and interisland connectivity to help designate mutually-supporting coral reef marine protected areas: Insights from Maui Nui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chen, Yi-Leng; Elias, Edwin P. L.

    2017-01-01

    Connectivity among individual marine protected areas (MPAs) is one of the most important considerations in the design of integrated MPA networks. To provide such information for managers in Hawaii, USA, a numerical circulation model was developed to determine the role of ocean currents in transporting coral larvae from natal reefs throughout the high volcanic islands of the Maui Nui island complex in the southeastern Hawaiian Archipelago. Spatially- and temporally-varying wind, wave, and circulation model outputs were used to drive a km-scale, 3-dimensional, physics-based circulation model for Maui Nui. The model was calibrated and validated using satellite-tracked ocean surface current drifters deployed during coral-spawning conditions, then used to simulate the movement of the larvae of the dominant reef-building coral, Porites compressa, from 17 reefs during eight spawning events in 2010–2013. These simulations make it possible to investigate not only the general dispersal patterns from individual coral reefs, but also how anomalous conditions during individual spawning events can result in large deviations from those general patterns. These data also help identify those reefs that are dominated by self-seeding and those where self-seeding is limited to determine their relative susceptibility to stressors and potential roadblocks to recovery. Overall, the numerical model results indicate that many of the coral reefs in Maui Nui seed reefs on adjacent islands, demonstrating the interconnected nature of the coral reefs in Maui Nui and providing a key component of the scientific underpinning essential for the design of a mutually supportive network of MPAs to enhance conservation of coral reefs.

  3. Confirmed Sighting of a Spawning Aggregation of the Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (2007) found that E. fuscoguttatus spawns for three months. (November-January) on the Great Barrier. Reef, while Hamilton et al. (2012) reported that it spawned over 4-5 months (between. December and March) in the Solomon Islands. The winter density at the Diani spawning site was relatively high in July, suggesting that.

  4. Influence of inoculation method and spawn level on biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This findings implied that when sufficient amount of spawn is added to a fruiting substrate and applied bi-directionally, the mycelium grows faster and has more energy available for fruiting body formation, hence the increased yield and better biological efficiency. Keywords: Spawning method, spawn level, Pleurotus ...

  5. Influence of Inoculation Method and Spawn Level on Biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Pleurotus ostreatus, an edible mushroom cultivated worldwide and appreciated due to its exotic taste and nutritional value. Spawning rate and method of spawn application are crucial factors influencing mushroom growth and yield. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of spawn quantity and ...

  6. Direct Broadcast Satellite: Radio Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollansworth, James E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA is committed to providing technology development that leads to the introduction of new commercial applications for communications satellites. The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Program is a joint effort between The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and The United States Information Agency/Voice of America (USIA/VOA) directed at this objective. The purpose of this program is to define the service and develop the technology for a direct-to-listener satellite sound broadcasting system. The DBS-R Program, as structured by NASA and VOA, is now a three-phase program designed to help the U.S. commercial communications satellite and receiver industry bring about this new communications service. Major efforts are being directed towards frequency planning hardware and service development, service demonstration, and experimentation with new satellite and receiver technology.

  7. Coral reefs - Specialized ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    This paper discusses briefly some aspects that characterize and differentiate coral reef ecosystems from other tropical marine ecosystems. A brief account on the resources that are extractable from coral reefs, their susceptibility to natural...

  8. Collective behaviour of herring during spawning

    OpenAIRE

    Skaret, Georg

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the collective behaviour of Norwegian spring spawning herring (NSS-herring; Clupea harengus L.) in the specific ecological context of reproduction. The major part of the work is based on field research using quantitative echo sounders and sonar in combination with biological sampling. In addition, an individual based schooling model is applied to investigate underlying mechanisms of the collective formations and dynamics. All studies are founded in a cl...

  9. Lessons from a Spawning Gravel Rehabilitation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Wheaton, J. M.; Merz, J.

    2002-12-01

    Altered sediment and flow regimes in dammed and regulated rivers limit available spawning habitat to salmonids. River managers have attempted rehabilitation of spawning habitat with gravel augmentation and riffle construction projects, but often neglect well-established conceptual models of geomorphic and ecologic processes, let alone apply them in a predictive manner. Application of such models could not only improve rehabilitation projects, but also serve to further test and evaluate the underlying scientific theories against the rigors of real-world uncertainties. For the past two years a new science-based approach to rehabilitate spawning gravels for salmonids has been under development and testing to overcome these deficiencies. The approach includes a balance of science-based quantitative tools from multiple disciplines and qualitative local knowledge relevant to the region in which it has been applied. In 2001 and 2002 it was used to design and implement the placement of 907 and 2787 metric tons of gravel, respectively, on separate reaches of the lower Mokelumne River in Central California. A long-term monitoring program to quantify outcomes and assess sustainability is on-going. Lessons from these efforts are providing for adaptive management and will be presented.

  10. Suspended sediments limit coral sperm availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Gerard F.; Jones, Ross J.; Clode, Peta L.; Humanes, Adriana; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Suspended sediment from dredging activities and natural resuspension events represent a risk to the reproductive processes of coral, and therefore the ongoing maintenance of reefal populations. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that could reduce the fertilisation success in turbid water, we conducted several experiments exposing gametes of the corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora to two sediment types. Sperm limitation was identified in the presence of siliciclastic sediment (230 and ~700 mg L−1), with 2–37 fold more sperm required to achieve maximum fertilisation rates, when compared with sediment-free treatments. This effect was more pronounced at sub-optimum sperm concentrations. Considerable (>45%) decreases in sperm concentration at the water’s surface was recorded in the presence of siliciclastic sediment and a >20% decrease for carbonate sediment. Electron microscopy then confirmed sediment entangled sperm and we propose entrapment and sinking is the primary mechanism reducing sperm available to the egg. Longer exposure to suspended sediments and gamete aging further decreased fertilisation success when compared with a shorter exposure. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that high concentrations of suspended sediments effectively remove sperm from the water’s surface during coral spawning events, reducing the window for fertilisation with potential subsequent flow-on effects for recruitment. PMID:26659008

  11. Trehalose is a chemical attractant in the establishment of coral symbiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hagedorn

    Full Text Available Coral reefs have evolved with a crucial symbiosis between photosynthetic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium and their cnidarian hosts (Scleractinians. Most coral larvae take up Symbiodinium from their environment; however, the earliest steps in this process have been elusive. Here we demonstrate that the disaccharide trehalose may be an important signal from the symbiont to potential larval hosts. Symbiodinium freshly isolated from Fungia scutaria corals constantly released trehalose (but not sucrose, maltose or glucose into seawater, and released glycerol only in the presence of coral tissue. Spawning Fungia adults increased symbiont number in their immediate area by excreting pellets of Symbiodinium, and when these naturally discharged Symbiodinium were cultured, they also released trehalose. In Y-maze experiments, coral larvae demonstrated chemoattractant and feeding behaviors only towards a chamber with trehalose or glycerol. Concomitantly, coral larvae and adult tissue, but not symbionts, had significant trehalase enzymatic activities, suggesting the capacity to utilize trehalose. Trehalase activity was developmentally regulated in F. scutaria larvae, rising as the time for symbiont uptake occurs. Consistent with the enzymatic assays, gene finding demonstrated the presence of a trehalase enzyme in the genome of a related coral, Acropora digitifera, and a likely trehalase in the transcriptome of F. scutaria. Taken together, these data suggest that adult F. scutaria seed the reef with Symbiodinium during spawning and the exuded Symbiodinium release trehalose into the environment, which acts as a chemoattractant for F. scutaria larvae and as an initiator of feeding behavior- the first stages toward establishing the coral-Symbiodinium relationship. Because trehalose is a fixed carbon compound, this cue would accurately demonstrate to the cnidarian larvae the photosynthetic ability of the potential symbiont in the ambient environment. To our

  12. Radio broadcasting: an attractive way of broadcasting astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoia, C.

    2008-06-01

    Astronomy is full of beautiful skyscapes, shining stars and huge planets. The vast majority of them can be transformed into tactile images and complemented by audio descriptions. These translations of visual information into raised lines, shapes and textures can be felt with the fingertips instead of viewed with the eyes. In this way, the beauties of the Universe enter the universe of blind and visually impaired people. Happily, we all have radio broadcasting as an important source of information and entertainment. Science radio programmes can bring the real music of the spheres (as Pythagoras once suggested) to the audience.

  13. 47 CFR 73.1206 - Broadcast of telephone conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast of telephone conversations. 73.1206 Section 73.1206 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1206 Broadcast of telephone...

  14. 47 CFR 73.24 - Broadcast facilities; showing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast facilities; showing required. 73.24 Section 73.24 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.24 Broadcast facilities; showing required. An...

  15. 47 CFR 73.4091 - Direct broadcast satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Direct broadcast satellites. 73.4091 Section 73.4091 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4091 Direct broadcast satellites. (a) See...

  16. 47 CFR 73.6011 - Protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of TV broadcast stations. 73.6011 Section 73.6011 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6011 Protection of TV broadcast...

  17. 47 CFR 73.624 - Digital television broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital television broadcast stations. 73.624... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.624 Digital television broadcast stations. (a) Digital television (“DTV”) broadcast stations are assigned channels 6 MHz wide. Initial...

  18. 47 CFR 73.1211 - Broadcast of lottery information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast of lottery information. 73.1211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1211 Broadcast of lottery... paragraph (c) of this section, shall broadcast any advertisement of or information concerning any lottery...

  19. Broadcast copies reveal the quantumness of correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piani, M; Christandl, M; Mora, C E; Horodecki, P

    2009-06-26

    We study the quantumness of bipartite correlations by proposing a quantity that combines a measure of total correlations-mutual information-with the notion of broadcast copies-i.e., generally nonfactorized copies-of bipartite states. By analyzing how our quantity increases with the number of broadcast copies, we are able to classify classical, separable, and entangled states. This motivates the definition of the broadcast regularization of mutual information, the asymptotic minimal mutual information per broadcast copy, which we show to have many properties of an entanglement measure.

  20. Sperm release strategies in marine broadcast spawners: the costs of releasing sperm quickly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Bolton, Toby F

    2007-11-01

    When under competition for fertilisations, males are thought to increase their reproductive success by releasing as many sperm as possible into the reproductive arena and in many species, this prediction holds. For marine invertebrates, which utilise the ancestral strategy of broadcast spawning eggs and sperm, however, it appears that males tend to release their sperm more slowly than females release their eggs. Marine invertebrate eggs typically have a relatively slow permanent block to polyspermy (whereby eggs become impermeable to further sperm attachment), and for several minutes after fertilisation, sperm can continue to attach to a fertilised egg. We hypothesised that releasing sperm slowly minimises the 'wastage' of sperm on already fertilised eggs. We simulated different sperm release rates in a flume using the broadcast spawning polychaete, Galeolaria caespitosa. Sperm release rates strongly affected overall fertilisation success: higher release rates resulted in lower fertilisation rates. Laboratory studies confirmed that the 'permanent' block to polyspermy in G. caespitosa took less than a minute to form but this lag was sufficient to result in some sperm wastage. Thus upstream, fertilised eggs that have not formed a permanent block to polyspermy can remove sperm from the pool that would otherwise fertilise downstream sibling eggs. We suggest that while electrical blocks to polyspermy evolved in response to excess sperm, permanent blocks to polyspermy could have evolved in response to sperm limitation (insufficient sperm).

  1. 76 FR 55817 - Broadcast Applications and Proceedings; Fairness Doctrine and Digital Broadcast Television...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 73 and 76 Broadcast Applications and Proceedings; Fairness Doctrine and Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control; Fairness Doctrine, Personal Attacks, Political Editorials and... legal effect and are obsolete. The deleted rules include ] the fairness doctrine, broadcast flag rules...

  2. 47 CFR 1.4000 - Restrictions impairing reception of television broadcast signals, direct broadcast satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... any commercial non-broadcast communications signals transmitted via wireless technology to and/or from... Transmit Fixed Wireless Communications Signals § 1.4000 Restrictions impairing reception of television... broadcast signals, direct broadcast satellite services or multichannel multipoint distribution services. 1...

  3. Lossless Compression of Broadcast Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Eriksen, N.; Faber, E.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate several techniques for lossless and near-lossless compression of broadcast video.The emphasis is placed on the emerging international standard for compression of continous-tone still images, JPEG-LS, due to its excellent compression performance and moderatecomplexity. Except for one...... artificial sequence containing uncompressible data all the 4:2:2, 8-bit test video material easily compresses losslessly to a rate below 125 Mbit/s. At this rate, video plus overhead can be contained in a single telecom 4th order PDH channel or a single STM-1 channel. Difficult 4:2:2, 10-bit test material...

  4. Differential specificity between closely related corals and abundant Endozoicomonas endosymbionts across global scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Matthew J; Rachmawati, Rita; Xun, Liping; Michell, Craig T; Bourne, David G; Apprill, Amy; Voolstra, Christian R

    2017-01-01

    Reef-building corals are well regarded not only for their obligate association with endosymbiotic algae, but also with prokaryotic symbionts, the specificity of which remains elusive. To identify the central microbial symbionts of corals, their specificity across species and conservation over geographic regions, we sequenced partial SSU ribosomal RNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea from the common corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa across 28 reefs within seven major geographical regions. We demonstrate that both corals harbor Endozoicomonas bacteria as their prevalent symbiont. Importantly, catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) with Endozoicomonas-specific probes confirmed their residence as large aggregations deep within coral tissues. Using fine-scale genotyping techniques and single-cell genomics, we demonstrate that P. verrucosa harbors the same Endozoicomonas, whereas S. pistillata associates with geographically distinct genotypes. This specificity may be shaped by the different reproductive strategies of the hosts, potentially uncovering a pattern of symbiont selection that is linked to life history. Spawning corals such as P. verrucosa acquire prokaryotes from the environment. In contrast, brooding corals such as S. pistillata release symbiont-packed planula larvae, which may explain a strong regional signature in their microbiome. Our work contributes to the factors underlying microbiome specificity and adds detail to coral holobiont functioning.

  5. Differential specificity between closely related corals and abundant Endozoicomonas endosymbionts across global scales

    KAUST Repository

    Neave, Matthew J.

    2016-07-08

    Reef-building corals are well regarded not only for their obligate association with endosymbiotic algae, but also with prokaryotic symbionts, the specificity of which remains elusive. To identify the central microbial symbionts of corals, their specificity across species and conservation over geographic regions, we sequenced partial SSU ribosomal RNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea from the common corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa across 28 reefs within seven major geographical regions. We demonstrate that both corals harbor Endozoicomonas bacteria as their prevalent symbiont. Importantly, catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD–FISH) with Endozoicomonas-specific probes confirmed their residence as large aggregations deep within coral tissues. Using fine-scale genotyping techniques and single-cell genomics, we demonstrate that P. verrucosa harbors the same Endozoicomonas, whereas S. pistillata associates with geographically distinct genotypes. This specificity may be shaped by the different reproductive strategies of the hosts, potentially uncovering a pattern of symbiont selection that is linked to life history. Spawning corals such as P. verrucosa acquire prokaryotes from the environment. In contrast, brooding corals such as S. pistillata release symbiont-packed planula larvae, which may explain a strong regional signature in their microbiome. Our work contributes to the factors underlying microbiome specificity and adds detail to coral holobiont functioning.

  6. History of Satellite TV Broadcasting and Satellite Broadcasting Market in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalis KUYUCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyses the satellite broadcasting that is the first important development that emerged as a result of digitalization in communication technologies and its reflections in Turkey. As the first milestone in the globalization of television broadcasting, satellite broadcasting provided substantial contribution towards the development of the media. Satellite bro adcasting both increased the broadcasting quality and geographical coverage of the television media. A conceptual study was carried out in the first part of the study in connection with the history of satellite broadcasting in Turkey and across the world. In the research part of the study, an analysis was performed on 160 television channels that broadcast in Turkey via Turksat Satellite. Economic structure of the television channels broadcasting in Turkey via satellite was studied and an analysis was perfo rmed on the operational structure of the channels. As a result of the study, it was emphasized that the television channels broadcasting via satellite platform also use other platforms for the purpose of spreading their broadcasts and television channel ow ners make investments in different branches of the media, too. Capital owners invest in different business areas other than the media although television channels broadcasting via Turksat mostly focus on thematic broadcasting and make effort to generate ec onomic income from advertisements. Delays are encountered in the course of the convergence between the new media and television channels that broadcast only from the satellite platform and such television channels experience more economic problems than the other channels. New media and many TV broadcasting platforms emerged as a result of the developments in the communication technologies. In television broadcasting, satellite platform is not an effective platform on its own. Channels make effort to reach t o more people by using other platforms in addition to

  7. Identifying sturgeon spawning locations through back-calculations of drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliner, Edward A.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; George, Amy E.; Delonay, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Unfavorable spawning habitat conditions have been identified as a potential limiting factor for recovery of the endangered pallid sturgeon on the Missouri River and its tributaries. After successful spawning, incubation, and hatching, sturgeon free embryos passively drift downstream and are sometimes captured by sampling crews. While spawning habitat has been identified at time of spawning through field investigations, captured pallid and shovelnose (used as a surrogate species) sturgeon free embryos in the Missouri River often do not come from genetically-known telemetered fish and may be useful to identify additional areas of spawning habitat. We developed a routing model to identify potential spawning locations for captured free embryos of known age based on channel velocity estimates. To estimate velocity we compared use of at-a-station hydraulic geometry relations to empirical estimates of velocity form a 15-year archive of hydroacoustic measurements on the Missouri River.

  8. Equilibria in a Random Viewer Model of Television Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olai Hansen, Bodil; Keiding, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The authors considered a model of commercial television market with advertising with probabilistic viewer choice of channel, where private broadcasters may coexist with a public television broadcaster. The broadcasters influence the probability of getting viewer attention through the amount...

  9. Corals diseases are a major cause of coral death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corals, like humans, are susceptible to diseases. Some coral diseases are associated with pathogenic bacteria; however, the causes of most remain unknown. Some diseases trigger rapid and extensive mortality, while others slowly cause localized color changes or injure coral tiss...

  10. Live broadcast from the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    La tête au carréTuesday, 17 June 2008 between 2.00 and 3.00 p.m.“La tête au carré”, a France Inter radio programme devoted to science, will set up its sound booth at CERN for a special broadcast on the LHC.The journalist Mathieu Vidard will interview the following guests: - Pierre Van Hove, an experimental physicist working on CMS. He is a CNRS research scientist from the Institut Hubert Curien in Strasbourg, France.- Abdelhak Djouadi is a theoretical physicist. He is a research director at the CNRS’s Laboratoire de physique théorique at Orsay, France and holder of the CNRS silver medal.- Magali Gruwe, one of the engineers in charge of LHC operations at CERN.» To take part in this live broadcast, which is open to the public, come to the Globe at 1:30 p.m. The number of places is limited.» No specialist knowledge required.» See the programme's homepage

  11. Language Choice in Transnational Radio Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the comparative strength of language use as measured by languages used in transnational radio broadcasting. Findings indicate that politics and Christian evangelism are the two major concerns dominating broadcasting and that language selection policy influences political, social, and cultural change. (JMF)

  12. Attitude of Programme Presenters towards Broadcasting of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the attitude of programme presenters towards broadcasting of agricultural programme on electronic media in Kwara state. A two-stage sampling technique was used in selecting a total of 120 respondents from the broadcasting stations in Kwara state. Frequency counts, percentages, means, standard ...

  13. Method of providing data broadcast/multicast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Galonska, Johann; Mullender, Sape J.

    2006-01-01

    In one embodiment, a dedicated channel (e.g., is a coded composite transport channel) is configured for each user equipment in a broadcast group based on a first spreading code and a second spreading code. A same first spreading code is assigned to each user equipment in the broadcast group, and the

  14. Broadcast Media in Breton: Dawn at Last?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moal, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses to what extent the broadcast media in the Breton language has acted as a vital link to language maintenance in Brittany. Highlights the background context of the Breton language, reasons for its decline, and what the broadcast media can do to help reverse language shift. (Author/VWL)

  15. Consecutive spawnings of Chinese amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri, in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Li

    Full Text Available Cephalochordate amphioxus is a promising model animal for studying the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of vertebrates because its unique phylogenetic position, simple body plan and sequenced genome. However, one major drawback for using amphioxus as a model organism is the restricted supply of living embryos since they are available only during spawning season that varies from a couple of days to several months according to species. Therefore we are aiming to develop methods for obtaining viable amphioxus embryos in non-spawning season. In the current study, we found that Branchiostoma belcheri could develop their gonads and spawn consecutively in the laboratory when cultured in a low density at a high temperature (25-28 °C supplied with sufficient food and proper cleanness. Among the approximate 150 observed animals, which spawned spontaneously between November and December 2011, 10% have spawned twice, 10% three times, and 80% four times, through April 2012. The quality and quantity of the gametes reproduced in the consecutive spawning have no obvious difference with those spawned once naturally. Spawning intervals varied dramatically both among different animals (from 1 to 5 months and between intervals of a single individual (from 27 to 74 days for one animal. In summary, we developed a method with which, for the first time, consecutive spawnings of amphioxus in captivity can be achieved. This has practical implications for the cultivation of other amphioxus species, and eventually will greatly promote the utilization of amphioxus as a model system.

  16. Consecutive spawnings of Chinese amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri, in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Yang, Xi; Shu, Zonghuang; Chen, Xiaoying; Wang, Yiquan

    2012-01-01

    Cephalochordate amphioxus is a promising model animal for studying the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of vertebrates because its unique phylogenetic position, simple body plan and sequenced genome. However, one major drawback for using amphioxus as a model organism is the restricted supply of living embryos since they are available only during spawning season that varies from a couple of days to several months according to species. Therefore we are aiming to develop methods for obtaining viable amphioxus embryos in non-spawning season. In the current study, we found that Branchiostoma belcheri could develop their gonads and spawn consecutively in the laboratory when cultured in a low density at a high temperature (25-28 °C) supplied with sufficient food and proper cleanness. Among the approximate 150 observed animals, which spawned spontaneously between November and December 2011, 10% have spawned twice, 10% three times, and 80% four times, through April 2012. The quality and quantity of the gametes reproduced in the consecutive spawning have no obvious difference with those spawned once naturally. Spawning intervals varied dramatically both among different animals (from 1 to 5 months) and between intervals of a single individual (from 27 to 74 days for one animal). In summary, we developed a method with which, for the first time, consecutive spawnings of amphioxus in captivity can be achieved. This has practical implications for the cultivation of other amphioxus species, and eventually will greatly promote the utilization of amphioxus as a model system.

  17. Consecutive Spawnings of Chinese Amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri, in Captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Yang, Xi; Shu, ZongHuang; Chen, XiaoYing; Wang, YiQuan

    2012-01-01

    Cephalochordate amphioxus is a promising model animal for studying the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of vertebrates because its unique phylogenetic position, simple body plan and sequenced genome. However, one major drawback for using amphioxus as a model organism is the restricted supply of living embryos since they are available only during spawning season that varies from a couple of days to several months according to species. Therefore we are aiming to develop methods for obtaining viable amphioxus embryos in non-spawning season. In the current study, we found that Branchiostoma belcheri could develop their gonads and spawn consecutively in the laboratory when cultured in a low density at a high temperature (25–28°C) supplied with sufficient food and proper cleanness. Among the approximate 150 observed animals, which spawned spontaneously between November and December 2011, 10% have spawned twice, 10% three times, and 80% four times, through April 2012. The quality and quantity of the gametes reproduced in the consecutive spawning have no obvious difference with those spawned once naturally. Spawning intervals varied dramatically both among different animals (from 1 to 5 months) and between intervals of a single individual (from 27 to 74 days for one animal). In summary, we developed a method with which, for the first time, consecutive spawnings of amphioxus in captivity can be achieved. This has practical implications for the cultivation of other amphioxus species, and eventually will greatly promote the utilization of amphioxus as a model system. PMID:23251392

  18. Broadcast Network Coverage with Multicell Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicell cooperation has been identified as one of the underlying principles for future wireless communication systems. This paper studies the benefits of multicell cooperation in broadcast TV network from an information theoretical perspective. We define outage capacity as the figure of merit and derive the broadcast coverage area to evaluate such system. Specifically, we calculate the broadcast coverage area with given common information rate and outage probabilities when multiple base stations collaboratively transmit the broadcast signals. For the general MIMO case where receivers have multiple antennas, we provide simulation results to illustrate the expanded coverage area. In all cases, our results show that the coverage of a TV broadcast network can be significantly improved by multicell cooperation.

  19. Independence between Korean Government and Broadcasting Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chih Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of Hallyu (Korean Wave first driven by the spread of TV dramas received academic attention for its effective national policies. However, little is known about how national policy is implemented and local industry capacity is maintained even after market opening. Therefore, the aim of this paper attempts to explore how and why state governs broadcasting industry effectively. Historical institutionalism has been used to explain the way that Korean governments had taken to collaborate with the broadcasting industry. The relation between governments and broadcasting industry, the changes of broadcasting policies and authorities responsible for regulating TV industry are involved. Results of this study showed that strong state intervention in Korea did lead to oligopoly, and the governments dominated the industry by designing the market structure. To conclude, this study may be of importance in explaining the governed independence between Korean governments and broadcasting industry, as well as how it contributed to the stable productivity and export competitiveness.

  20. Safety message broadcast in vehicular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Yuanguo; Zhuang, Weihua; Zhao, Hai

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the current research on safety message dissemination in vehicular networks, covering medium access control and relay selection for multi-hop safety message broadcast. Along with an overall overview of the architecture, characteristics, and applications of vehicular networks, the authors discuss the challenging issues in the research on performance improvement for safety applications, and provide a comprehensive review of the research literature. A cross layer broadcast protocol is included to support efficient safety message broadcast by jointly considering geographical location, physical-layer channel condition, and moving velocity of vehicles in the highway scenario. To further support multi-hop safety message broadcast in a complex road layout, the authors propose an urban multi-hop broadcast protocol that utilizes a novel forwarding node selection scheme. Additionally, a busy tone based medium access control scheme is designed to provide strict priority to safety applications in vehicle...

  1. Random broadcast on random geometric graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elsasser, Robert [UNIV OF PADERBORN; Friedrich, Tobias [ICSI/BERKELEY; Sauerwald, Tomas [ICSI/BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.

  2. Spatial variability of Chinook salmon spawning distribution and habitat preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Jeremy M.; Torgersen, Christian; Klett, Ryan S.; Pess, George R.; May, Darran; Pearsons, Todd N.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated physical habitat conditions associated with the spawning sites of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and the interannual consistency of spawning distribution across multiple spatial scales using a combination of spatially continuous and discrete sampling methods. We conducted a census of aquatic habitat in 76 km of the upper main-stem Yakima River in Washington and evaluated spawning site distribution using redd survey data from 2004 to 2008. Interannual reoccupation of spawning areas was high, ranging from an average Pearson’s correlation of 0.62 to 0.98 in channel subunits and 10-km reaches, respectively. Annual variance in the interannual correlation of spawning distribution was highest in channel units and subunits, but it was low at reach scales. In 13 of 15 models developed for individual years (2004–2008) and reach lengths (800 m, 3 km, 6 km), stream power and depth were the primary predictors of redd abundance. Multiple channels and overhead cover were patchy but were important secondary and tertiary predictors of reach-scale spawning site selection. Within channel units and subunits, pool tails and thermal variability, which may be associated with hyporheic exchange, were important predictors of spawning. We identified spawning habitat preferences within reaches and channel units that are relevant for salmonid habitat restoration planning. We also identified a threshold (i.e., 2-km reaches) beyond which interannual spawning distribution was markedly consistent, which may be informative for prioritizing habitat restoration or conservation. Management actions may be improved through enhanced understanding of spawning habitat preferences and the consistency with which Chinook Salmon reoccupy spawning areas at different spatial scales.

  3. Now Broadcasting in Planck Definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Craig [Fermilab

    2013-07-08

    If reality has finite information content, space has finite fidelity. The quantum wave function that encodes spatial relationships may be limited to information that can be transmitted in a "Planck broadcast", with a bandwidth given by the inverse of the Planck time, about $2\\times 10^{43}$ bits per second. Such a quantum system can resemble classical space-time on large scales, but locality emerges only gradually and imperfectly. Massive bodies are never perfectly at rest, but very slightly and slowly fluctuate in transverse position, with a spectrum of variation given by the Planck time. This distinctive new kind of noise associated with quantum geometry would not have been noticed up to now, but may be detectable in a new kind of experiment.

  4. Corals as climate recorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Jennifer A.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coral Reef Ecosystem Studies (CREST) Project is analyzing corals from various sites in the Caribbean region, Dry Tortugas National Park, Biscayne National Park, other areas of the Florida Keys, and the Virgin Islands. The objective of this project is to develop records of past environmental change to better our understanding of climate variability. The records are being used to document changes over the last few centuries and to determine how corals and coral reefs have responded to any changes.

  5. 29 CFR 780.113 - Seeds, spawn, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seeds, spawn, etc. 780.113 Section 780.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... of Agriculture Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.113 Seeds, spawn, etc. Seeds and...

  6. Skipped spawning in fishes: More common than you might think

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rideout, Rick M.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2011-01-01

    research on skipped spawning, covering a broad range of fishes with diverse life history strategies. Evidence for skipped spawning has been collected by use of traditional histological techniques as well as modern technological advances, such as satellite tags and the ability to track fish movements based...

  7. Factors influencing the spawning migration of female anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Koed, Anders; Aarestrup, Kim

    2004-01-01

    Radio telemetry was employed to study movements of adult female anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta (sea trout) during upstream spawning migration and following spawning in a stream with tributaries. Sea trout were monitored by manual tracking and by automatic listening stations. The latter sugge...

  8. Deschutes River Spawning Gravel Study, Volume I, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Charles W.

    1985-09-01

    Spawning habitat in the Deschutes River was inventoried, gravel permeability and composition were sampled at selected gravel bars, historical flow records for the Deschutes were analyzed, salmon and trout utilization of spawning habitat was examined, and potential methods of enhancing spawning habitat in the river were explored. Some changes in river conditions since the mid-1960's were identified, including a reduction in spawning habitat immediately downstream from the hydroelectric complex. The 1964 flood was identified as a factor which profoundly affected spawning habitat in the river, and which greatly complicated efforts to identify recent changes which could be attributed to the hydrocomplex. A baseline on present gravel quality at both chinook and steelhead spawning areas in the river was established using a freeze-core methodology. Recommendations are made for enhancing spawning habitat in the Deschutes River, if it is independently determined that spawning habitat is presently limiting populations of summer steelhead or fall chinook in the river. 53 refs., 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. Interaction between Cape hake spawning and the circulation in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape hake in Namibian waters are demersal and mesopelagic spawners, spawning peaking offshore between 100 and 400 m deep, depending on local environmental conditions. The cross-shelf circulation, low-oxygen layers and mesoscale gyres are three important environmental factors influencing hake spawning ...

  10. Modeling the relations between flow regime components, species traits, and spawning success of fishes in warmwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Scott W; Peterson, James T; Freeman, Mary C; Kwak, Thomas J; Irwin, Elise

    2010-08-01

    Modifications to stream hydrologic regimes can have a profound influence on the dynamics of their fish populations. Using hierarchical linear models, we examined the relations between flow regime and young-of-year fish density using fish sampling and discharge data from three different warmwater streams in Illinois, Alabama, and Georgia. We used an information theoretic approach to evaluate the relative support for models describing hypothesized influences of five flow regime components representing: short-term high and low flows; short-term flow stability; and long-term mean flows and flow stability on fish reproductive success during fish spawning and rearing periods. We also evaluated the influence of ten fish species traits on fish reproductive success. Species traits included spawning duration, reproductive strategy, egg incubation rate, swimming locomotion morphology, general habitat preference, and food habits. Model selection results indicated that young-of-year fish density was positively related to short-term high flows during the spawning period and negatively related to flow variability during the rearing period. However, the effect of the flow regime components varied substantially among species, but was related to species traits. The effect of short-term high flows on the reproductive success was lower for species that broadcast their eggs during spawning. Species with cruiser swimming locomotion morphologies (e.g., Micropterus) also were more vulnerable to variable flows during the rearing period. Our models provide insight into the conditions and timing of flows that influence the reproductive success of warmwater stream fishes and may guide decisions related to stream regulation and management.

  11. Emergency Broadcast System Based On GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng, Kang; Baoyu, Wang; Xueying, Jiang; Xiaosheng, Liu

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, disaster occurs more and more frequently, which brings huge losses to the society. Presented a GIS based emergency broadcast system (GIS-EBS), to provide rapid, accurate information to the public, can reduce the people’s losses maximum. Different from the traditional radio data system (RDS), by adding broadcasting terminal control instruction on the FM signal, GIS-EBS extended the RDS protocol, which can control each radio terminal’s state. And through the extended RDS protocol, GIS-EBS can broadcast and release the emergency information to the right place and the people most in need in the shortest time.

  12. Effects of fishing during the spawning period: implications for sustainable management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overzee, van H.M.J.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    While fishery closures during the spawning season are commonplace, direct evidence for their benefit is mainly restricted to species forming large spawning aggregations. This paper analyses the conditions under which spawning closures could contribute to sustainable fisheries management by reviewing

  13. Assessing Coral Community Recovery from Coral Bleaching by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing Coral Community Recovery from Coral Bleaching by Recruitment in Two Reserves in Kenya. Visram S., Mwaura J. and Obura D.O.. CORDIO East Africa (Coastal Oceans, Research and Development in the Indian Ocean), P.O. Box 10135. Mombasa 80101 Kenya. Keywords: Coral Bleaching, Coral Recruitment, ...

  14. 47 CFR 74.705 - TV broadcast analog station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV broadcast analog station protection. 74.705... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.705 TV broadcast analog station protection. (a) The TV broadcast...

  15. 47 CFR 73.4280 - Character evaluation of broadcast applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Character evaluation of broadcast applicants. 73.4280 Section 73.4280 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4280 Character...

  16. 47 CFR 73.4102 - FAA communications, broadcast of.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FAA communications, broadcast of. 73.4102 Section 73.4102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4102 FAA communications...

  17. 47 CFR 73.1660 - Acceptability of broadcast transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptability of broadcast transmitters. 73.1660 Section 73.1660 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1660 Acceptability of...

  18. 47 CFR 15.117 - TV broadcast receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... portion of a TV broadcast receiver, tuning aids of the same type and comparable capability and quality... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV broadcast receivers. 15.117 Section 15.117... TV broadcast receivers. (a) All TV broadcast receivers shipped in interstate commerce or imported...

  19. Spring-spawning herring ( Clupea harengus L.) in the southwestern Baltic Sea: do they form genetically distinct spawning waves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.B.H.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2005-01-01

    Temporal sampling within the spring-spawning season has revealed differentiation in length-at-age in herring at Rugen and differentiation in, e.g., Anisakis infestation rate, otolith microstructure, and gillraker counts in Gdansk Bay, leading to the expectation that spawning waves consist...

  20. Steroidogenesis in the testes and seminal vesicles of spawning and non-spawning African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Granneman, J.C.M.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro biosynthesis of steroids was studied in testes as well as seminal vesicles of non-spawning pond and spawning feral African catfish, collected during the breeding season. In testes of non-spawners the conversion of [3H]-pregnenolone was directed towards 11-oxygenated androgens and

  1. Biology of the subtropical sac-spawning euphausiid Nyctiphanes simplex in the northwestern seas of Mexico: Interbrood period, gonad development, and lipid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Rodríguez-Jaramillo, Carmen; Del Ángel-Rodríguez, Jorge; Robinson, Carlos J.; Zavala-Hernández, Christian; Martínez-Gómez, Samuel; Tremblay, Nelly

    2010-04-01

    Interbrood period, gonad development, and total lipid content throughout the oogenesis and spermatogenesis processes of the subtropical euphausiid Nyctiphanes simplex were studied. Specimens were collected during six oceanographic cruises in Bahía Magdalena (March, July, and December 2004) and in the Gulf of California (November 2005 and January and July 2007). Females attained first spawning when ˜7.5 mm total length (>52 days old). Histological evidence indicates that N. simplex females have group-synchronous ovaries, able to produce four broods per gonadic cycle, since ovigerous females develop simultaneously in three and four distinct substages (Oc1, Oc2, Oc3, and Oc4) in their gonads. Once females mature, as shown by pale pink gonads, they may reabsorb their gonads in 10 days. Embryonic development in the ovigerous sac last <3 days (16 °C), hatching always as nauplius (usually 100% hatching success); the metanauplii are released from the ovigerous sac in a median of 5 days after spawning. Although sac-spawning euphausiid species may have comparatively lower total fecundity than broadcast-spawning species, they seem to have relatively similar reproductive effort and higher hatching success that increases larval recruitment rates, compared to similar size temperate broadcast-spawners. This partially explains why sac-spawners of the genera Nyctiphanes, Nematoscelis, and Pseudeuphausia are numerically dominant euphausiids in several highly eutrophic temperate, subtropical, and tropical ecosystems. N. simplex males have a continuous spermatogenesis after they attain size at first maturity; continuously allocating ˜5.4% of weight-specific carbon to reproduction, results that are significantly different than previous assumptions that euphausiid male spermatogenesis is energetically insignificant.

  2. Adaptive Data Broadcast in Hybrid Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stathatos, Konstantinos; Roussopoulos, Nick; Baras, John S

    1997-01-01

    .... The goal is to build highly scalable systems with small response time. In this paper, we describe a technique that continuously adapts the broadcast content to match the hot-spot of the workload...

  3. The Digital Dividend of Terrestrial Broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The “digital revolution” of the last two decades has pervaded innumerable aspects of our daily lives and changed our planet irreversibly. The shift from analog to digital broadcasting has facilitated a seemingly infinite variety of new applications—audience interactivity being but one example. The greater efficiency and compression of digital media have endowed broadcasters with a “digital dividend” of spare transmission capacity over and above the requirements of terrestrial broadcasting. The question is, who will use it, and how? Comparing the European experience with that of broadcasters elsewhere in the world, the author sketches the current status of international frequency management, quantifies the value of the “dividend” itself, analyzes the details of the analog-to-digital switchovers already completed, and posits what the future holds for the sector. As we grapple with new devices, inconceivable a mere generation ago, that allow us to access digital media instantly, anywhere and at any...

  4. Injection molded optical backplane for broadcast architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Paul; Mathai, Sagi; Sorin, Wayne V.; McLaren, Moray; Straznicky, Joseph; Panotopoulos, Georgios; Warren, David; Morris, Terry; Tan, Michael R. T.

    2012-01-01

    A low cost, blind mate, injection molded optical backplane is presented. The optical backplane is comprised of 12 channel optical broadcast buses, operating at 10Gbps/channel with six blindmate optical output ports spaced 1U apart.

  5. The CORALS Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankis, Brian; Klein, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    The Ocean, Reefs, Aquariums, Literacy, and Stewardship (CORALS) research program helps students connect global environmental issues to local concerns and personal choices. During the 18-week program, students strengthen their understanding of coral reef decline through a classroom aquarium activity, communicate with science experts, and create…

  6. 8 CFR 204.13 - How can the International Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... description of the job to be performed; and (ii) The broadcasting expertise held by the alien, including how... the BBG, may petition for an alien (and the alien's accompanying spouse and children) to work as a... broadcasts; hosts for news broadcasts, news analysis, editorial and other broadcast features; or a news...

  7. Farm broadcasters call for regional network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) laid the groundwork for a 5 day symposium on farm broadcasting in Bangkok in November 1988. ESCAP Executive Secretary S.A.M.S. Kibria discussed in his statement the idea of a regional rural broadcasting network for Asia and the Pacific. Several other pertinent points stated the following: Government funding was needed to support rural broadcasting; special funding and attention needs to be devoted to disadvantaged groups and marginal farmers; broadcasting should play a more significant role in South Pacific islands where it would not educate but also bring the people together. It was suggested that a proposed training manual for basic radio operation be printed in the local languages. Since 1980, there have 14 seminar-training programs held throughout Asia and the Pacific. Workshops open dialogue on ways to coordinate government support and rural interests in radio programming. As well, rural broadcasters learn how to sharpen their skills and keep audiences interested. Correctly implemented and adequately funded, agricultural broadcast programs could improve the lives of millions in the Pacific and Asia.

  8. Three-dimensional television: a broadcaster's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, S. J. E.; Armstrong, M.; Salmon, R. A.

    2009-02-01

    The recent resurgence of interest in the stereoscopic cinema and the increasing availability to the consumer of stereoscopic televisions and computer displays are leading broadcasters to consider, once again, the feasibility of stereoscopic broadcasting. High Definition Television is now widely deployed, and the R&D departments of broadcasters and consumer electronics manufacturers are starting to plan future enhancements to the experience of television. Improving the perception of depth via stereoscopy is a strong candidate technology. In this paper we will consider the challenges associated with the production, transmission and display of different forms of "three-dimensional" television. We will explore options available to a broadcaster wishing to start a 3D service using the technologies available at the present time, and consider how they could be improved to enable many more television programmes to be recorded and transmitted in a 3D-compatible form, paying particular attention to scenarios such as live broadcasting, where the workflows developed for the stereoscopic cinema are inapplicable. We will also consider the opportunities available for broadcasters to reach audiences with "three-dimensional" content via other media in the near future: for example, distributing content via the existing stereoscopic cinema network, or over the Internet to owners of stereoscopic computer displays.

  9. Implications of coral harvest and transplantation on reefs in northwestern Dominica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Bruckner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In June, 2002, the government of Dominica requested assistance in evaluating the coral culture and transplantation activities being undertaken by Oceanographic Institute of Dominica (OID, a coral farm culturing both western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific corals for restoration and commercial sales. We assessed the culture facilities of OID, the condition of reefs, potential impacts of coral collection and benefits of coral transplantation. Coral reefs (9 reefs, 3-20m depth were characterized by 35 species of scleractinian corals and a live coral cover of 8-35%. Early colonizing, brooders such as Porites astreoides (14.8% of all corals, P. porites (14.8%, Meandrina meandrites (14.7% and Agaricia agaricites (9.1% were the most abundant corals, but colonies were mostly small (mean=25cm diameter. Montastraea annularis (complex was the other dominant taxa (20.8% of all corals and colonies were larger (mean=70cm. Corals (pooled species were missing an average of 20% of their tissue, with a mean of 1.4% recent mortality. Coral diseases affected 6.4% of all colonies, with the highest prevalence at Cabrits West (11.0%, Douglas Bay (12.2% and Coconut Outer reef (20.7%. White plague and yellow band disease were causing the greatest loss of tissue, especially among M. annularis (complex, with localized impacts from corallivores, overgrowth by macroalgae, storm damage and sedimentation. While the reefs appeared to be undergoing substantial decline, restoration efforts by OID were unlikely to promote recovery. No Pacific species were identified at OID restoration sites, yet species chosen for transplantation with highest survival included short-lived brooders (Agaricia and Porites that were abundant in restoration sites, as well as non-reef builders (Palythoa and Erythropodium that monopolize substrates and overgrow corals. The species of highest value for restoration (massive broadcast spawners showed low survivorship and unrestored populations of these species

  10. Spawning Cisco investigations in Canada waters of Lake Superior during 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cholwek, Gary A.; Addison, Peter A.; Cullis, Ken I.

    2008-01-01

    Cisco Coregonus artedi form pre-spawning aggregations in Lake Superior during November with the bulk of spawning occurring during late November through early December (Dryer and Beil 1964). Eggs are broadcast into open water (Smith 1956) with fertilized eggs settling to the lakebed (Dryer and Beil 1964). Peak hatching occurs the following May (United States Geological Survey – Great Lakes Science Center, GLSC, unpublished data). Interannual variability in year class strength is high, but tends to be synchronous across different regions of Lake Superior (Bronte et al. 2003). November 2005 sampling of Thunder Bay showed 14 year-classes were present with the oldest fish being from the 1984 year-class (Yule et al. 2008). The ciscoes sampled were predominantly from five year classes that hatched during 1988, 1989, 1990, 1998, and 2003. These same strong year-classes were found in the western arm of Lake Superior during November 2006 (GLSC, unpublished data). Growth is rapid in the first few years of life with minimal growth after age-8 (Yule et al. 2008). Ciscoes exceeding 250 mm total length (TL) are typically sexually mature (Yule et al. 2006b, 2008). Thunder Bay ciscoes have high annual survival with rates for females and males averaging 0.80 and 0.75, respectively; females have higher rates of fishing-induced mortality compared to males but lower rates of natural mortality (Yule et al. 2008). Some Lake Superior stocks are currently commercially fished with the bulk of harvest occurring during November when fishers target females for their roe. The bulk of fish are harvested from Thunder Bay using suspended gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 79-89 mm stretch measure. Ciscoes younger then age-5 make up a very small proportion (<0.1%) of the harvest (Yule, et al. 2008).

  11. Can broadcasting make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozare, B V

    1989-01-01

    Communication has untapped potential as a catalyst for community power in developing countries. Greater clarity is needed, however, on the channels of communication that will best integrate the contributions of diverse private and public agencies to meeting development needs. Also needed is a greater emphasis on strategic rather than technical aspects of communication. Most studies of communication have focused on the individual radio listener or television viewer, thereby ignoring the influence of broader forces. A concern for psychological determinants of decision making has led to a neglect of systemic factors. Another major error has been the failure to design longitudinal studies, or at least to collect information at 2 points in time. All of these observations point to a need to study power (economic, political, and social) as a crucial variable in understanding development. Moreover, there is a need for more attention to the role and impact of broadcasting on conflict management--an approach that requires abandoning traditional consensus models of communication. Yet another problem has been blind acceptance of the assumption that development communication and development support communication are unitary concepts that are universally applicable in all countries, all social and cultural contexts, and all development conditions. This unitary approach leads to the false conclusion that there is a grand model of development, and all communication personnel have to do is to see how radio and television fit into this conceptual framework. Finally, there has been a failure to appreciate fully the magnitude of poverty. If true development (defined as the capability of a people to go from where they are to where they want to be) is to occur, these strategic issues must be given serious attention.

  12. Weak prezygotic isolating mechanisms in threatened Caribbean Acropora corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole D Fogarty

    Full Text Available The Caribbean corals, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis, recently have undergone drastic declines primarily as a result of disease. Previous molecular studies have demonstrated that these species form a hybrid (A. prolifera that varies in abundance throughout the range of the parental distribution. There is variable unidirectional introgression across loci and sites of A. palmata genes flowing into A. cervicornis. Here we examine the efficacy of prezygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms within these corals including spawning times and choice and no-choice fertilization crosses. We show that these species have subtly different mean but overlapping spawning times, suggesting that temporal isolation is likely not an effective barrier to hybridization. We found species-specific differences in gametic incompatibilities. Acropora palmata eggs were relatively resistant to hybridization, especially when conspecific sperm are available to outcompete heterospecific sperm. Acropora cervicornis eggs demonstrated no evidence for gametic incompatibility and no evidence of reduced viability after aging four hours. This asymmetry in compatibility matches previous genetic data on unidirectional introgression.

  13. Weak prezygotic isolating mechanisms in threatened Caribbean Acropora corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Nicole D; Vollmer, Steven V; Levitan, Don R

    2012-01-01

    The Caribbean corals, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis, recently have undergone drastic declines primarily as a result of disease. Previous molecular studies have demonstrated that these species form a hybrid (A. prolifera) that varies in abundance throughout the range of the parental distribution. There is variable unidirectional introgression across loci and sites of A. palmata genes flowing into A. cervicornis. Here we examine the efficacy of prezygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms within these corals including spawning times and choice and no-choice fertilization crosses. We show that these species have subtly different mean but overlapping spawning times, suggesting that temporal isolation is likely not an effective barrier to hybridization. We found species-specific differences in gametic incompatibilities. Acropora palmata eggs were relatively resistant to hybridization, especially when conspecific sperm are available to outcompete heterospecific sperm. Acropora cervicornis eggs demonstrated no evidence for gametic incompatibility and no evidence of reduced viability after aging four hours. This asymmetry in compatibility matches previous genetic data on unidirectional introgression.

  14. Coral Reefs: Damage Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Saffache

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCovering approximately 1.2 million km2 or 0.25% of the world maritime domain, coral reefs represent the greatest structures formed on the earth’s surface by living creatures.  Although coral has existed for the past billion years, those which cover the seabed in the present day appeared in the Jurassic period (secondary era and develop in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans (SCORE, 1998. Coral reefs support a broad range of marine biodiversity (one quarter of all fish caught...

  15. Patterns of biophonic periodicity on coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Jamie N; McCauley, Robert D; Erbe, Christine; Parsons, Miles J G

    2017-12-12

    The coral reefs surrounding Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef have a diverse soundscape that contains an array of bioacoustic phenomena, notably choruses produced by fishes. Six fish choruses identified around Lizard Island exhibited distinctive spatial and temporal patterns from 2014 to 2016. Several choruses displayed site fidelity, indicating that particular sites may represent important habitat for fish species, such as fish spawning aggregations sites. The choruses displayed a broad range of periodicities, from diel to annual, which provides new insights into the ecology of vocalising reef fish species and the surrounding ecosystem. All choruses were affected by one or more environmental variables including temperature and moonlight, the latter of which had a significant influence on the timing and received sound levels. These findings highlight the utility of passive acoustic tools for long-term monitoring and management of coral reefs, which is highly relevant in light of recent global disturbance events, particularly coral bleaching.

  16. Adaptive Security of Broadcast Encryption, Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a strong security notion for broadcast encryption, called adaptive security in the multichallenge setting (MA-security, where the adversary can adaptively have access to the key generation oracle and the encryption oracle many times (multichallenge. The adversary specially can query for the challenge ciphertexts on different target user sets adaptively, which generalizes the attacks against broadcast encryptions in the real world setting. Our general result shows that the reduction of the adaptive secure broadcast encryption will lose a factor of q in the MA setting, where q is the maximum number of encryption queries. In order to construct tighter MA-secure broadcast encryptions, we investigate Gentry and Water’s transformation and show that their transformation can preserve MA-security at the price of reduction loss on the advantage of the underlying symmetric key encryption. Furthermore, we remove the q-type assumption in Gentry and Water’s semistatically secure broadcast encryption by using Hofheinz-Koch-Striecks techniques. The resulting scheme instantiated in a composite order group is MA-secure with constant-size ciphertext header.

  17. Broadcast design in cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief investigates the special challenges of broadcast design in cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc networks. It introduces two broadcast protocols in CR ad hoc networks: a quality-of-service based broadcast protocol under blind information and a fully-distributed broadcast protocol with collision avoidance. A novel unified analytical model is also presented to analyze the performance of the broadcast protocols. This is the first book dedicated to the unique broadcast design challenges in CR ad hoc networks. The authors also discuss the recent research on the performance analysis of broa

  18. Direct/community broadcast projects using space satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutkin, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented of direct/community broadcast projects which are currently in preparation in India, Canada, and Japan. It is shown that the satellite broadcast experiments involved are conducted for practical domestic reasons. The broadcast activities in all three projects will not reach other countries' TV receivers unless those countries take deliberate steps to enable themselves to receive such broadcasts. It is pointed out that for technological reasons problems of intrusion and interference connected with the use of satellites in broadcast operations may be much easier to handle than similar problems related to conventional radio broadcasting.

  19. Coral Reef Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance prepared by EPA and Army Corps of Engineers concerning coral reef protection under the Clean Water Act, Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, Rivers and Harbors Act, and Federal Project Authorities.

  20. All Framing Corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data represent predicted habitat suitability for several taxa of deep-sea corals. Predictions were modeled using a statistical machine-learning algorithm called...

  1. Corals and Sclerosponges

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and ocean environment derived from stable isotope, trace metal, and other measurements made on corals and sclerosponges. Parameter keywords...

  2. Raiding the Coral Nurseries?

    OpenAIRE

    Alison M. Jones

    2011-01-01

    A recent shift in the pattern of commercial harvest in the Keppel Island region of the southern inshore Great Barrier Reef raises concern about the depletion of a number of relatively rare restricted range taxa. The shift appears to be driven by demand from the United States (US) for corals for domestic aquaria. Data from the annual status reports from the Queensland Coral Fishery were compared with export trade data to the US from the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (...

  3. Intraspecific divergence in sperm morphology of the green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis: implications for selection in broadcast spawners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Mollie K; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2008-10-13

    Sperm morphology can be highly variable among species, but less is known about patterns of population differentiation within species. Most studies of sperm morphometric variation are done in species with internal fertilization, where sexual selection can be mediated by complex mating behavior and the environment of the female reproductive tract. Far less is known about patterns of sperm evolution in broadcast spawners, where reproductive dynamics are largely carried out at the gametic level. We investigated variation in sperm morphology of a broadcast spawner, the green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis), within and among spawnings of an individual, among individuals within a population, and among populations. We also examined population-level variation between two reproductive seasons for one population. We then compared among-population quantitative genetic divergence (QST) for sperm characters to divergence at neutral microsatellite markers (FST). All sperm traits except total length showed strong patterns of high diversity among populations, as did overall sperm morphology quantified using multivariate analysis. We also found significant differences in almost all traits among individuals in all populations. Head length, axoneme length, and total length had high within-male repeatability across multiple spawnings. Only sperm head width had significant within-population variation across two reproductive seasons. We found signatures of directional selection on head length and head width, with strong selection possibly acting on head length between the Pacific and West Atlantic populations. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the QST-FST comparison. Sperm morphology in S. droebachiensis is highly variable, both among populations and among individuals within populations, and has low variation within an individual across multiple spawnings. Selective pressures acting among populations may differ from those acting within, with directional

  4. Intraspecific divergence in sperm morphology of the green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis: implications for selection in broadcast spawners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manier Mollie K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm morphology can be highly variable among species, but less is known about patterns of population differentiation within species. Most studies of sperm morphometric variation are done in species with internal fertilization, where sexual selection can be mediated by complex mating behavior and the environment of the female reproductive tract. Far less is known about patterns of sperm evolution in broadcast spawners, where reproductive dynamics are largely carried out at the gametic level. We investigated variation in sperm morphology of a broadcast spawner, the green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, within and among spawnings of an individual, among individuals within a population, and among populations. We also examined population-level variation between two reproductive seasons for one population. We then compared among-population quantitative genetic divergence (QST for sperm characters to divergence at neutral microsatellite markers (FST. Results All sperm traits except total length showed strong patterns of high diversity among populations, as did overall sperm morphology quantified using multivariate analysis. We also found significant differences in almost all traits among individuals in all populations. Head length, axoneme length, and total length had high within-male repeatability across multiple spawnings. Only sperm head width had significant within-population variation across two reproductive seasons. We found signatures of directional selection on head length and head width, with strong selection possibly acting on head length between the Pacific and West Atlantic populations. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the QST-FST comparison. Conclusion Sperm morphology in S. droebachiensis is highly variable, both among populations and among individuals within populations, and has low variation within an individual across multiple spawnings. Selective pressures acting among populations

  5. Genetic differentiation of spring-spawning and fall-spawning male Atlantic sturgeon in the James River, Virginia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Balazik

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae populations are currently at severely depleted levels due to historic overfishing, habitat loss, and pollution. The importance of biologically correct stock structure for effective conservation and management efforts is well known. Recent improvements in our understanding of Atlantic sturgeon migrations, movement, and the occurrence of putative dual spawning groups leads to questions regarding the true stock structure of this endangered species. In the James River, VA specifically, captures of spawning Atlantic sturgeon and accompanying telemetry data suggest there are two discrete spawning groups of Atlantic sturgeon. The two putative spawning groups were genetically evaluated using a powerful microsatellite marker suite to determine if they are genetically distinct. Specifically, this study evaluates the genetic structure, characterizes the genetic diversity, estimates effective population size, and measures inbreeding of Atlantic sturgeon in the James River. The results indicate that fall and spring spawning James River Atlantic sturgeon groups are genetically distinct (overall FST = 0.048, F'ST = 0.181 with little admixture between the groups. The observed levels of genetic diversity and effective population sizes along with the lack of detected inbreeding all indicated that the James River has two genetically healthy populations of Atlantic sturgeon. The study also demonstrates that samples from adult Atlantic sturgeon, with proper sample selection criteria, can be informative when creating reference population databases. The presence of two genetically-distinct spawning groups of Atlantic sturgeon within the James River raises concerns about the current genetic assignment used by managers. Other nearby rivers may also have dual spawning groups that either are not accounted for or are pooled in reference databases. Our results represent the second documentation of genetically

  6. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jeremy E [Rochester, MN; Faraj, Ahmad A [Rochester, MN

    2011-08-02

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes connected together using a data communications network. The data communications network optimized for point to point data communications and is characterized by at least two dimensions. The compute nodes are organized into at least one operational group of compute nodes for collective parallel operations of the parallel computer. One compute node of the operational group assigned to be a logical root. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer includes: establishing a Hamiltonian path along all of the compute nodes in at least one plane of the data communications network and in the operational group; and broadcasting, by the logical root to the remaining compute nodes, the logical root's message along the established Hamiltonian path.

  7. Transmission Quality Measurements in DAB+ Broadcast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilski Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital media, delivering broadcast content to customers at an acceptable level of quality is one of the most challenging tasks. The most important factor is the efficient use of available resources, including bandwidth. An appropriate way of managing the digital multiplex is essential for both the economic and technical issues. In this paper we describe transmission quality measurements in the DAB+ broadcast system. We provide a methodology for analysing parameters and factors related with the efficiency and reliability of a digital radio link. We describe a laboratory stand that can be used for transmission quality assessment on a regional and national level.

  8. The Use of Television Format Adaptation in Denmark: Public Service Broadcasters Compared to Commercial Broadcasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    , a quantitative analysis of PSB and commercial schedules in Denmark is presented to establish the extent to which PSBs have employed formats between 2000 and 2012, and how this compares with commercial broadcasters. Secondly, a qualitative analysis looks into genre and the nature of the individual formats...... employed to assess any important differences between the formats in the two sectors. Most formats fall within entertainment and is well suited to providing the consumption friendly environment that commercial broadcasters seek to offer their advertising clients (Brennan 2012). Broadcasters also favour...

  9. 76 FR 42573 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma and Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications... Review filed by Rawhide Radio, LLC, Capstar TX Limited Partnership, Clear Channel Broadcasting Licenses...

  10. 76 FR 67375 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations AGENCY: Federal Communications..., Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio Division... the new application procedures for radio stations to change their communities of license. However...

  11. 76 FR 71430 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) AGENCY: Department of.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Doug Arbuckle, Chief Scientist, Surveillance & Broadcast Services Pgm...

  12. 76 FR 3875 - Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  13. 76 FR 5290 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  14. 76 FR 5120 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  15. 75 FR 67077 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  16. 76 FR 13966 - Television Broadcasting Services; Topeka, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Topeka, KS AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  17. 76 FR 54188 - Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  18. 75 FR 3695 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... Alabama Educational Television Commission (``AETC''), the licensee of noncommercial educational station... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  19. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  20. Multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jared R; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Woessner, William W.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt-dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Within our study reaches, bull trout tended to spawn in the finest available gravel substrates. Analysis of the mobility of these substrates, based on one-dimensional hydraulic modeling and calculation of dimensionless shear stresses, indicated that bed materials in spawning reaches would be mobilized at moderate (i.e., 2-year recurrence interval) high-flow conditions, although the asynchronous timing of the fall–winter egg incubation period and typical late spring – early summer snowmelt high flows in our study area may limit susceptibility to redd scour under current hydrologic regimes. Redd occurrence also tended to be associated with concave-up bedforms (pool tailouts) with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm, averaging 6.1–8.1 °C in different study reaches during the spawning period. Ground water provided thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Bull trout redds were more frequent in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (8.5 versus 5.0 redds·km−1 in confined valley reaches), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater – stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches, however, emphasizing the influence of local physical conditions in supporting bull trout spawning habitat. Moreover, narrowing or “bounding” of these alluvial valley segments did not appear to be important. Our results suggest that geomorphic, thermal, and hydrological factors influence bull trout spawning occurrence at multiple spatial scales.

  1. A coral-eating barnacle, revisited (Cirripedia, Pyrgomatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, Arnold; Newman, William A.

    1995-01-01

    The coral-eating barnacle Hoekia monticulariae (Gray, 1831), the only internal parasite among the Thoracica described to this day, is characterized by an irregularly-shaped shell nestled cryptically between the polyps of the hermatypic coral Hydnophora Fischer, 1807, which occurs throughout most of

  2. The potential for self-seeding by the coral Pocillopora spp. in Moorea, French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Tsounis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs in Moorea, French Polynesia, suffered catastrophic coral mortality through predation by Acanthaster planci from 2006 to 2010, and Cyclone Oli in 2010, yet by 2015 some coral populations were approaching pre-disturbance sizes. Using long-term study plots, we quantified population dynamics of spawning Pocillopora spp. along the north shore of Moorea between 2010 and 2014, and considered evidence that population recovery could be supported by self-seeding. Results scaled up from study plots and settlement tiles suggest that the number of Pocillopora spp. colonies on the outer reef increased 1,890-fold between 2010 and 2014/2015, and in the back reef, 8-fold between 2010 and 2014/2015. Assuming that spawning Pocillopora spp. in Moorea release similar numbers of eggs as con-generics in Hawaii, and fertilization success is similar to other spawning corals, the capacity of Pocillopora spp. to produce larvae was estimated. These estimates suggest that Pocillopora spp. in Moorea produced a large excess of larvae in 2010 and 2014 relative to the number required to produce the recruits found in the back reef and outer reef in 2010 and 2014, even assuming that ∼99.9% of the larvae do not recruit in Moorea. Less than a third of the recruits in one year would have to survive to produce the juvenile Pocillopora spp. found in the back and outer reefs in 2010 and 2014/2015. Our first order approximations reveal the potential for Pocillopora spp. on the north shore of Moorea to produce enough larvae to support local recruitment and population recovery following a catastrophic disturbance.

  3. 78 FR 266 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Maysville, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ...-270; RM-11676; DA 12-2024] Radio Broadcasting Services; Maysville, GA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Audio Division, at the request of Appalachian Broadcasting... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting...

  4. 75 FR 63431 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications... 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 1. The...

  5. 77 FR 58799 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Roaring Springs, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Roaring Springs, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant... Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 1. The...

  6. 78 FR 71557 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Tohatchi, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Tohatchi, New Mexico AGENCY: Federal Communications... Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio... proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation...

  7. 76 FR 67397 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Llano, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Llano, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant... Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 1. The...

  8. 78 FR 25591 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Crownpoint, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Crownpoint, New Mexico AGENCY: Federal Communications... Act, see U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal...--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for Part 73 continues to read as follows: Authority...

  9. 77 FR 50630 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Westfield, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Westfield, NY AGENCY: Federal Communications... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting...: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for part 73 continues to read as follows...

  10. 75 FR 62690 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Grants Pass, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Grants Pass, Oregon AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Audio Division, at the request of Three Rivers Broadcasting LLC...(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed...

  11. 77 FR 32900 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Llano, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Llano, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Congressional Review Act, see U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting...: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for part 73 continues to read as follows...

  12. 75 FR 76293 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 As stated in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation...

  13. 78 FR 32 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Westley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Westley, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission.... 8. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission... Federal Communications Commission amends 47 CFR Part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1...

  14. 47 CFR 76.1506 - Carriage of television broadcast signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of television broadcast signals. 76.1506 Section 76.1506 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO... television broadcast signals. (a) The provisions of Subpart D shall apply to open video systems in accordance...

  15. 46 CFR 121.506 - Emergency broadcast placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency broadcast placard. 121.506 Section 121.506... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Radio § 121.506 Emergency broadcast placard. A durable placard must be posted next to all radiotelephone installations with the emergency broadcast instructions and information...

  16. 46 CFR 121.510 - Recommended emergency broadcast instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recommended emergency broadcast instructions. 121.510... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Radio § 121.510 Recommended emergency broadcast instructions. The following emergency broadcast instructions, when placed on a placard, will satisfy the...

  17. 47 CFR 74.102 - Uses of experimental broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uses of experimental broadcast stations. 74.102 Section 74.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Experimental...

  18. 47 CFR 1.502 - Emergency Broadcast Authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency Broadcast Authorizations. 1.502 Section 1.502 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Broadcast Applications and Proceedings § 1.502 Emergency Broadcast Authorizations. See § 73.913. General Filing...

  19. 47 CFR 74.101 - Experimental broadcast station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Experimental broadcast station. 74.101 Section 74.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Experimental...

  20. 47 CFR 101.1403 - Broadcast carriage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast carriage requirements. 101.1403... GHz Band § 101.1403 Broadcast carriage requirements. MVDDS licensees are not required to provide all... must-carry rules, nor the local signal carriage requirements of the Rural Local Broadcast Signal Act...

  1. 77 FR 73461 - Commission Seeks Comment on Broadcast Ownership Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... COMMISSION Commission Seeks Comment on Broadcast Ownership Report AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... the Media Bureau's recently released report on the ownership of commercial broadcast stations, which... contained in the Media Bureau's recently released report on the ownership of commercial broadcast stations...

  2. 78 FR 25861 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications....S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal...--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for Part 73 continues to read as follows: Authority...

  3. 78 FR 40402 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Roaring Springs, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Roaring Springs, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications... Table of Allotments and Changes of Community of License in the Radio Broadcast Services, 71 FR 76208, published December 20, 2006. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal...

  4. 76 FR 36384 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Brackettville, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Brackettville, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications..., see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal...--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for part 73 continues to read as follows: Authority...

  5. 78 FR 36683 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Summit, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Summit, Mississippi AGENCY: Federal Communications... U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal... Broadcasting, allots FM Channel 228A ] as a first local service at Summit, Mississippi. To accommodate that...

  6. 77 FR 58800 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Knox City, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Knox City, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. ] List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications... Commission requests comment on a petition filed by Big Cat Broadcasting, LLC, proposing to amend the Table of...

  7. 75 FR 41123 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Gearhart, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 . Radio Broadcasting Services; Gearhart, OR AGENCY: Federal Communications... Radio, Radio broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications... comment on a petition filed by Black Hills Broadcasting, L.P. proposing the allotment of FM Channel 243A...

  8. 76 FR 13524 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications... Congressional Review Act, see U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting... as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for part 73 continues to...

  9. 75 FR 76294 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Fairbanks, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Fairbanks, AK AGENCY: Federal Communications... Review Act, see U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 For... follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for Part 73 continues to read as...

  10. 76 FR 37049 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Bastrop, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Bastrop, LA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez... Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR Part 73 as follows: Part 73--Radio Broadcast Services 1. The...

  11. 78 FR 37474 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, Colorado AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Chief, Audio... amends 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for Part...

  12. 78 FR 26739 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez... filed by S and H Broadcasting, LLC, proposing the substitution of Channel 228C2 for vacant Channel 286C2...

  13. 77 FR 23203 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Summit, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Summit, MS AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez.... The Commission requests comment on a petition filed by Bowen Broadcasting, proposing to amend the...

  14. 77 FR 75946 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 . Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, CO AGENCY: Federal Communications... 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant... Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR Part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 1. The...

  15. 77 FR 64758 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Randsburg, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Randsburg, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications... Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio... amends 47 CFR Part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for part...

  16. 77 FR 50053 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Westley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Westley, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Peter H. Doyle, Chief, Audio... amends 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for part...

  17. 78 FR 4078 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Hebbronville, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Hebbronville, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting...: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for part 73 continues to read as follows...

  18. 75 FR 82279 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations AGENCY: Federal Communications... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 As stated in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCASTING SERVICES 0 1. The...

  19. Religious Broadcasting in the Middle East : Content Analysis of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Arab Media Project at Cambridge, United Kingdom, to map out and conduct a content analysis of the religious broadcasting scene in the Middle East with a view to identifying the issues covered and values advocated in religious broadcasts. Since religious broadcasting is not limited to Islamic ...

  20. The practice of participation in broadcasting for development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: development communication, development broadcasting, development, journalism, participatory broadcasting, educational broadcasting, radio for development. Journal of Social Development in Africa Vol.20(1) 2005: 77-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jsda.v20i1.23895 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  1. Broadcast Journalism Education and the Capstone Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Andrea; Forde, Kathy Roberts; Besley, John C.; Weir, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the current state of the television news capstone experience in accredited journalism and mass communication programs in the United States. Specifically, the authors employed a mixed-methods approach, interviewing 20 television news capstone instructors and conducting an analysis of broadcast journalism curriculum information…

  2. Digital Broadcasting in Hawaii: The Aloha System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Norman

    1974-01-01

    A look at the ALOHA SYSTEM research project at the University of Hawaii, which developed and built a computer-communication network based upon the use of UHF radio broadcast channels for console to computer and computer to computer communication. (Author)

  3. Crisis of Public Broadcasting Japan's Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabira, Chosei

    The public broadcasting service in Japan, the NHK, is a nongovernmental, noncommercial, and nonprofit making organization that is financed solely by fees collected from viewing households. At present, 80% of the total number of households in Japan have a contract with NHK and 96.5% of these households have actually paid the receiving fee to NHK.…

  4. A special broadcast of CERN's Video news

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A special edition of CERN's video news giving a complete update on the LHC project is to be broadcast in the Main Auditorium. After your lunch make a small detour to the Main Auditorium, where you see the big picture. On 14, 15 and 16 May, between 12:30 and 14:00, a special edition of CERN's video news bulletin will be broadcast in the Main Auditorium. You will have the chance get up-to-date on the LHC project and its experiments. With four years to go before the first collisions in the LHC, the LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans will present a status report on the construction of the accelerator. The spokesmen of the five LHC experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and TOTEM) will explain how the work is going and what the state of play will be in four years' time. This special video news broadcast is the result of collaboration between the CERN Audiovisual Service, the Photo Service and the External communication section. The broadcast will begin with a brand-new programme title sequence. And just as in the real c...

  5. Eleanor Roosevelt's Radio Broadcasts in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luscombe, Anya|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339641428

    2017-01-01

    Eleanor Roosevelt wrote books, thousands of newspaper and magazine articles and was a regular broadcaster. Among the radio programs she hosted, and appeared on, were several for the Voice of America. While she was a US delegate to the United Nations in Paris in 1951 and 1952, Mrs. Roosevelt

  6. Video Broadcasting Using Queue Proportional Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Toumpakaris

    2007-01-01

    using a Markov Chain approach leading to a method for approximating the packet delay distribution. Based on the resulting distribution, it is discussed how the video encoding rate can be chosen in order to reduce the expected distortion of streams transmitted through Broadcast Channels.

  7. A Stochastic Broadcast Pi-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei; Nielson, Flemming; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a stochastic broadcast PI-calculus which can be used to model server-client based systems where synchronization is always governed by only one participant. Therefore, there is no need to determine the joint synchronization rates. We also take immediate transitions...

  8. Spawning Coordination of Mates in a Shell Brooding Cichlid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Schütz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. External fertilisation requires synchronisation of gamete release between the two sexes. Adequate synchronisation is essential in aquatic media because sperm is very short-lived in water. In the cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, fertilisation of the eggs takes place inside an empty snail shell, where females stay inside the shell and males have to ejaculate into the shell opening. This spawning pattern makes the coordination of gamete release difficult. Methods. This study examined the synchronisation of males and females during egg laying. Results. The results showed that the male initiates each spawning sequence and that sperm release and egg laying are very well synchronised. 68% of all sperm releases occurred at exactly the same time when the female laid an egg, and 99% of ejaculations occurred within ±5 seconds from egg deposition. On average 95 eggs are laid one by one with intervals of several minutes between subsequent eggs, leading to a total spawning duration in excess of six hours. Conclusions. We discuss this exceptional spawning pattern and how it might reflect a conflict between the sexes, with males attempting to induce egg laying and females extending the egg laying period to raise the chance for parasitic males to participate in spawning.

  9. More Than Just a Spawning Location: Examining Fine Scale Space Use of Two Estuarine Fish Species at a Spawning Aggregation Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. Boucek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many species that provide productive marine fisheries form spawning aggregations. Aggregations are predictable both in time and space and constitute nearly all of the reproductive activity for these species. For species that spend weeks to months on spawning aggregation sites, individuals may need to rely on a forage base at or near the spawning site to balance the high energetic cost associated with reproduction. Here, we ask: do spawning fish with protracted spawning seasons use spawning aggregation sites more or less than adjacent foraging habitats? To answer our research question, we tracked 30 Snook (Centropomus undecimalis and 29 Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus at a spawning site during the 2007 spawning season in Tampa Bay (FL, U.S. using acoustic telemetry. We quantified the amount of time both males and females of both species spent in various habitats with network analyses. Surprisingly, results from network analyses revealed that receivers with the highest edge densities for Snook and Seatrout occurred within the seagrass habitat, not the location of spawning. Likewise, we found that both Snook and Seatrout during the spawning season were using the seagrass habitat near the spawning site as much, or more than the location where spawning occurs. Our results show that if protected areas are formed based on only where spawning occurs, the reproductive stock will not be protected from fishing. Further, our results suggest that spawning aggregation sites and areas surrounding used by fishes, may have multiple ecological functions (i.e., larval dispersal and energy provisioning that may need to be considered in conservation actions. Our case study further supports hypotheses put forth in previous work that suggest we must consider more than just spawning sites in protected area development and ecological conservation.

  10. Irish language broadcast media: the interaction of state language policy, broadcasters and their audiences

    OpenAIRE

    Ó hIfearnáin, Tadhg

    2000-01-01

    peer-reviewed The position of Irish on the airwaves now and through recent history has always been closely linked to the strength of the language in society, its position in public opinion and national language policy and the place of the state-owned broadcaster and its subsidiary channels within the broadcasting domain. Government legislation regulates the private and voluntary sectors, which may also receive indirect state subsidies for Irish language programming. It is therefore impos...

  11. Changes in the timing of spawning of Baltic cod : possible causes and implications for recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid; Horbowa, K.

    2000-01-01

    temperature during the period of gonadal maturation, density-dependent processes related to the size of the spawning stock, and food availability. The age structure of the spawning stock is suggested to have an additional effect. A high proportion of first-time spawners and decreasing water temperature have......Interannual variations in spawning time, defined as the peak in egg abundance, of cod (Gadus morhua) in the Bornholm Basin, Baltic Sea, were analysed. Effects of water temperature, size and age structure of the spawning stock, abundance of food, and timing of spawning in preceding years were...... studied as possible determinants of annual spawning time. During the 1970s and late 1980s, peak spawning took place between the end of April and mid-June. A remarkable shift in the timing of spawning to the end of July was observed in the 1990s. The key factors governing the timing of spawning are water...

  12. Chronicling coral death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebele, Elaine

    How would a geologist approach an assessment of the health of coral reefs? Readers of the June 1997 issue of Geotimes learn the answer by following the thoughts of George, a fictional geologist attending an international conference on global reef decline.In “Gauging the Health of the World's Coral Reefs: Monitoring vs. Mapping,” University of Miami marine geologist Robert N. Ginsburg, using the voice of George, suggests that mapping dead and dying corals would document the history and extent of reef decline and provide more clues about the relationship between coral health and such factors as location and ocean circulation than would monitoring. By some estimates, as many as 10% of the world's reefs have been seriously damaged by over-exploitation, pollution, disease, ocean warming, and predators. Twenty years ago, 50% of the sea floor near Jamaica was covered by living coral; today, that coverage has decreased to 5%. In response to this decline, an international coalition has designated 1997 as the International Year of the Reef.

  13. A Broadcast Channel Assignment Mechanism based on The Broadcast Tree for Multi-radio Multi-channel Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Zeng, Yingzhi

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposed a broadcast Channel Assignment Mechanism on base of optimized Broadcast Tree for wireless Mesh network (WMN), which is created by Branch and Bound Method. The simulations show that our algorithm not only reduces the broadcast redundancy but also avoids the potential channel interferences produced by unnecessary relay nodes.

  14. 47 CFR 0.434 - Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast stations and pending broadcast applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast... Commission § 0.434 Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast stations and pending broadcast applications. Periodically the FCC makes available copies of its data bases and lists containing information about authorized...

  15. 47 CFR 73.3572 - Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. 73.3572 Section 73.3572... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3572 Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast...

  16. Do Norway pout (Trisopterus esmarkii) die from spawning stress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Lambert, G.; Bastardie, Francois

    2012-01-01

    to analyse the natural life-history traits of cohorts in the NP stock in the North Sea. Based on the ICES trawl survey abundance indices, cohort mortality is found to significantly increase with age. We argue that this cannot be explained by selectiveness in the fishery, potential size-specific migrations......The mortality patterns of Norway pout (NP) are not well understood. It has been suggested that NP undergo heavy spawning mortality, and this paper summarizes and provides new evidence in support of this hypothesis. The very low–absent fishing activity in recent years provides a unique opportunity...... out of the area, higher predation pressure on older individuals, or differences in survey catchability by NP age from before to after spawning and that it is higher in the main spawning areas than outside. We found that natural mortality (M) is significantly correlated with sexual maturity, sex...

  17. Spawning strategy in Atlantic bobtail squid Sepiola atlantica (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marcelo; Garcí, Manuel E.; Troncoso, Jesús S.; Guerra, Ángel

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the spawning strategy in the Atlantic bobtail squid Sepiola atlantica, in order to add new information to the knowledge of its reproductive strategy. A total of 12 females that spawned in aquaria were examined. Characteristics of the reproductive traits and egg clutches were similar to those of other known Sepiolidae. Clutch size varied from 31 up to 115 eggs. Females of this species had incorporated up to 1.58 times of their body weight into laid eggs. The size of laid eggs showed a positive correlation with maternal body size, supporting the idea that female size is a determinant of egg size. Our data suggest that S. atlantica is an intermittent terminal spawner , and that its spawning strategy comprises group-synchronous ovary maturation, multiple egg laying, and deposition of egg clutches in different locations. The obtained data provide insights for future comparative studies on reproductive allocation.

  18. Differences in Reproductive Behavior between Spawning and Non-Spawning Zebrafish Pairs and the Effects of 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per G. Henriksen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive success manifested by spawning and fertilization, in most fish, depends partly on an appropriate courtship behavior by both sexes. The zebrafish reproductive behavior can be resolved in some of its constituent elements by a computerized vision system and described in unbiased quantitative terms. Pairs of adult male and female zebrafish were monitored with automatic video tracking at 16 Hz for 45 min in a tank with a spawning area in one corner. Subsequently, spawning, if any, was registered and the swimming behavior and mutual interactions of the two fish were quantified. Further, temporal and frequency distributions of average velocity and turning rate were produced. It is demonstrated that the courtship behavior in spawning pairs differs markedly from non-spawning pairs with differences in both male and female behavior. EE2 (17α-ethinylestradiol, a contraceptive hormone found in aquatic environments, has only a slight effect on these behavior differences between spawning and non-spawning pairs.

  19. Snake bite: coral snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    North American coral snakes are distinctively colored beginning with a black snout and an alternating pattern of black, yellow, and red. They have fixed front fangs and a poorly developed system for venom delivery, requiring a chewing action to inject the venom. The severity of a coral snake bite is related to the volume of venom injected and the size of the victim. The length of the snake correlates positively with the snakes venom yield. Coral snake venom is primarily neurotoxic with little local tissue reaction or pain at the bite site. The net effect of the neurotoxins is a curare like syndrome. In canine victims there have been reports of marked hemolysis with severe anemia and hemoglobinuria. The onset of clinical signs may be delayed for as much as 10 to 18 hours. The victim begins to have alterations in mental status and develops generalized weakness and muscle fasciculations. Progression to paralysis of the limbs and respiratory muscles then follows. The best flied response to coral snake envenomation is rapid transport to a veterinary medical facility capable of 24 hour critical care and assisted ventilation. First aid treatment advocated in Australia for Elapid bites is the immediate use of a compression bandage. The victim should be hospitalized for a minimum of 48 hours for continuous monitoring. The only definitive treatment for coral snake envenomation is the administration of antivenin (M. fulvius). Once clinical signs of coral snake envenomation become manifest they progress with alarming rapidity and are difficult to reverse. If antivenin is not available or if its administration is delayed, supportive care includes respiratory support. Assisted mechanical ventilation can be used but may have to be employed for up to 48 to 72 hours.

  20. Media and Politics: Re-Thinking the Indonesian Broadcasting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masduki Masduki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the policy of broadcasting liberalization in the established democracies of Europe and North America, which is indicated by the absence of state intervention to broadcasting governance has been influencing broadcasting policy in the new democracies, including Indonesia. Is it true that Indonesia adopts a liberal broadcasting policy? This paper outlines two issues. First, the academic debate surrounding broadcasting system in the world. Second, discussion as stated by scholars on a thesis of the enactment of the liberal media system in Indonesia that is primarily based on the broadcasting policies after Suharto’s reign of power, among others Law 32/2002 on Broadcasting. Based on the intensive literature review, it can be concluded that the broadcasting system prevailing in Indonesia is not purely liberal, but a mix of liberal and authoritarian model, a unique character that also occurs in the post-communist and post-authoritarian states in Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe. This mix is indicated within the last fifteen years through the adoption of public and community broadcasters and the establishment of Komisi Penyiaran Indonesia (KPI as an independent regulator that were accompanied with the existing control of the ruling government to public broadcasters (RRI & TVRI; the weak mandate of KPI and the omission of commercial broadcasting domination.

  1. Modification of Prim’s algorithm on complete broadcasting graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairina; Arif, Salmawaty; Munzir, Said; Halfiani, Vera; Ramli, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Broadcasting is an information dissemination from one object to another object through communication between two objects in a network. Broadcasting for n objects can be solved by n - 1 communications and minimum time unit defined by ⌈2log n⌉ In this paper, weighted graph broadcasting is considered. The minimum weight of a complete broadcasting graph will be determined. Broadcasting graph is said to be complete if every vertex is connected. Thus to determine the minimum weight of complete broadcasting graph is equivalent to determine the minimum spanning tree of a complete graph. The Kruskal’s and Prim’s algorithm will be used to determine the minimum weight of a complete broadcasting graph regardless the minimum time unit ⌈2log n⌉ and modified Prim’s algorithm for the problems of the minimum time unit ⌈2log n⌉ is done. As an example case, here, the training of trainer problem is solved using these algorithms.

  2. Analysis and Implement of Broadcast Program Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jin Bao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the radio and TV industry and the implementation of INT (the integration of telecommunications networks, cable TV networks and the Internet, the contents of programs and advertisements is showing massive, live and interactive trends. In order to meet the security of radio and television, the broadcast of information have to be controlled and administered. In order to master the latest information of public opinion trends through radio and television network, it is necessary research the specific industry applications of broadcast program monitoring. In this paper, the importance of broadcast monitoring in public opinion analysis is firstly analysed. The monitoring radio and television programs broadcast system architecture is proposed combining with the practice, focusing on the technical requirements and implementation process of program broadcast, advertisement broadcast and TV station broadcast monitoring. The more efficient information is generated through statistical analysis, which provides data analysis for radio and television public opinion analysis.

  3. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Steven R; Raber, George T; Roberts, Jason J; Treml, Eric A; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future.

  4. Analysis of the association between spawning time QTL markers and the biannual spawning behavior in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Colihueque

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The rainbow trout is a salmonid fish that occasionally exhibits broodstocks with biannual spawning behavior, a phenomenon known as a double annual reproductive cycle (DARC. Spawning time quantitative trait loci (SPT-QTLs affect the time of the year that female rainbow trout spawn and may influence expression of the DARC trait. In this study, microsatellite markers linked and unlinked to SPT-QTLs were genotyped to investigate the underlying genetics of this trait. SPT-QTLs influenced the DARC trait since in two case-control comparisons three linked markers (OmyFGT12TUF, One3ASC and One19ASC had significant levels of allelic frequency differentiation and marker-character association. Furthermore, alleles of One3ASC and One19ASC had significantly higher frequencies in populations that carried the DARC trait.

  5. Corals from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzert, William C.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this research is to monitor the health and vigor of coral reef ecosystems, and their sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. To achieve these lofty goals, this research is investigating the feasibility of using spaceborne high-resolution spectrometers (on the US Landsat, French Systeme Probatoire pour l'Observation de la Terre [SPOT] and/or the Indian Resources Satellite [IRS 1C & 1D] spacecraft) to first map the aerial extent of coral reef systems, and second separate the amount of particular corals. If this is successful, we could potentially provide a quantum leap in our understanding of coral reef systems, as well as provide much needed baseline data to measure future changes in global coral reef ecosystems. In collaboration with Tomas Tomascik, Yann Morel, and other colleagues, a series of experiments were planned to coordinate in situ coral observations, high-resolution spaceborne imagery (from Landsat, SPOT, and, possibly, IRS IC spacecraft), and NASA Space Shuttle photographs and digital images. Our eventual goal is to develop "coral health algorithms" that can be used to assess time series of imagery collected from satellite sensors (Landsat since 1972, SPOT since 1986) in concert with in situ observations. The bad news from last year was that from 1997 to mid- 1998, the extreme cloudiness over southeast Asia due to prolonged smoke from El Nino-related fires and the economic chaos in this region frustrated both our space and reef-based data collection activities. When this volatile situation stabilizes, we will restart these activities. The good news was that in collaboration with Al Strong at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) we had an exciting year operationally using the NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensor derived sea surface temperature products to warn of coral "bleaching" at many locations throughout the tropics. Data from NOAA's satellites showed that during the El Nino of

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in Puerto Rico using the Coral Demographics method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Demographic method is one of two benthic surveys conducted in Puerto Rico as part of the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). The coral...

  7. Working with, not against, coral-reef fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Charles

    2017-03-01

    The fisheries policies of some Pacific island nations are more appropriate to the biology of their resources than are some of the fisheries policies of more industrialized countries. Exclusive local ownership of natural resources in Palau encourages adjustive management on biologically relevant scales of time and space and promotes responsibility by reducing the tragedy of the commons. The presence of large individuals in fish populations and adequate size of spawning aggregations are more efficient and meaningful cues for timely management than are surveys of abundance or biomass. Taking fish from populations more than halfway to their carrying capacity is working favorably with the fishery because removing fish potentially increases resource stability by negative feedback between stock size and population production. Taking the same amount of fish from a population below half its carrying capacity is working against the fishery, making the population unstable, because reducing the reproductive stock potentially accelerates reduction of the population production by positive feedback. Reef fish are consumed locally, while Palauan laws ban the export of reef resources. This is consistent with the high gross primary production with little excess net production from undisturbed coral-reef ecosystems. The relatively rapid growth rates, short life spans, reliable recruitment and wide-ranging movements of open-ocean fishes such as scombrids make them much more productive than coral-reef fishes. The greater fisheries yield per square kilometer in the open ocean multiplied by well over a thousand times the area of the exclusive economic zone than that of Palau's coral reefs should encourage Palauans to keep reef fishes for subsistence and to feed tourists open-ocean fishes. Fisheries having only artisanal means should be encouraged to increase the yield and sustainability by moving away from coral reefs to bulk harvesting of nearshore pelagics.

  8. Can mesophotic reefs replenish shallow reefs? Reduced coral reproductive performance casts a doubt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlesinger, Tom; Grinblat, Mila; Rapuano, Hanna; Amit, Tal; Loya, Yossi

    2017-12-02

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (i.e. deep coral reefs at 30-120 m depth) appear to be thriving while many shallow reefs in the world are declining. Amidst efforts to understand and manage their decline, it was suggested that mesophotic reefs might serve as natural refuges and a possible source of propagules for the shallow reefs. However, our knowledge of how reproductive performance of corals alters with depth is sparse. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the reproductive phenology, fecundity and abundance of seven reef-building conspecific corals in shallow and mesophotic habitats. Significant differences were found in the synchrony and timing of gametogenesis and spawning between shallow and mesophotic coral populations. Thus, mesophotic populations exhibited delayed or protracted spawning events, which led to spawning of the mesophotic colonies in large proportions at times where the shallow ones had long been depleted of reproductive material. All species investigated demonstrated a substantial reduction in fecundity and/or oocyte sizes at mesophotic depths (40-60 m). Two species (Seriatopora hystrix and Galaxea fascicularis) displayed a reduction in both fecundity and oocyte size at mesophotic depths. Turbinaria reniformis had only reduced fecundity and Acropora squarrosa and Acropora valida only reduced oocyte size. In Montipora verrucosa, reduced fecundity was found during one annual reproductive season while in the following year only reduced oocyte size was found. In contrast, reduced oocyte size in mesophotic populations of Acropora squarrosa was consistent along three studied years. One species, Acropora pharaonis, was found to be infertile at mesophotic depths along two studied years. The above indicate that reproductive performance decreases with depth; and that although some species are capable of reproducing at mesophotic depths, their contribution to the replenishment of shallow reefs may be inconsequential. Reduced reproductive performance

  9. Automatic Dialect Detection in Arabic Broadcast Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ahmed; Bell, Peter; Renals, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We investigate different approaches for dialect identification in Arabic broadcast speech, using phonetic, lexical features obtained from a speech recognition system, and acoustic features using the i-vector framework. We studied both generative and discriminate classifiers, and we combined these featuresusing a multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM).We validated our results on an Arabic/English language identification task, with an accuracy of 100%. We used these features in a binary class...

  10. Automatic Dialect Detection in Arabic Broadcast Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ahmed; Dehak, Najim; Cardinal, Patrick; Khurana, Sameer; Yella, Sree Harsha; Glass, James; Bell, Peter; Renals, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate different approaches for dialect identification in Arabic broadcast speech. These methods are based on phonetic and lexical features obtained from a speech recognition system, and bottleneck features using the i-vector framework. We studied both generative and discriminative classifiers, and we combined these features using a multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM). We validated our results on an Arabic/English language identification task, with an accuracy of 1...

  11. Metadata for the description of broadcast assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efthimiadis, Efthimis N.; Mai, Jens Erik; Burrows, Paul E.

    2003-01-01

    and media companies to deal with the creationand maintenance of metadata, indexing and controlled vocabularies required for effective Media Asset Management of broadcasts. Panelist will provide perspectives of their organization or project, for example, the CPB's PB Core metadata element set, which...... is currently under development; the Disney Nomenclature Registry at Disney Corporation; and the ViDe (video access group) MPEG-7 and Dublin Core mapping....

  12. Secure Broadcasting with Uncertain Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2016-01-06

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper s CSI and not of its channel s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1-a ) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  13. Secure Broadcasting with Uncertain Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2017-03-13

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper\\'s CSI and not of its channel\\'s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1-a ) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  14. Buryat Ethnic Mentality and National Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagbaev E.D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on ways the national (in a regional aspect broadcasting impacts ethnic mind formation and its further development, the latter issues being under a main focus of Buryat State University scholars as well. They set an objective to investigate the issue from different angles, for this reason gathering within scientific projects into scholars’groups took place. In this case the group of educators, philologists and sociologists have focused on media which construct ethnic mind via interiorizing and cultivating ethnic-related ideas and images for five years. Providing a general outlook of the world, National Broadcasting (NB is a proper institutional mechanism that helps a person identify himself / herself among different ethnic groups. Ethnic identity and self-consciousness are manifested in various social and intercultural communications. This allows a person to become aware of the peculiarities of his / her and others’ ethnic communities. The outcomes of a sociological research held by the authors verify the significance of both the posed problems and the TV role. One may find theoretical and empirical data in Zandeeva, S.K. (2012, Dagbaeva, N.Zh.(2012, Dagbaev (2014, Dashinimaeva, P.P., et al (2015. Generally, national programs do contribute to integrating people of the same ethnicity into a common community, to shaping such moral qualities as humanity, love to motherland, respect for the elders and other ethnic nationalities. All these characteristics form proper rules of living in a tolerant community. At the same time, they contribute to strengthening of the feeling of ethnic unity. Beyond any doubt, NB needs a relevant assessment and interest to promote and advance its function in a modern society. On the one hand, telecommunications markets liberalize. On the other hand, broadcasting technologies have developed to a highest extent, leading to the increase of international competition [14]. Anyway, both directions force

  15. Raiding the Coral Nurseries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Jones

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent shift in the pattern of commercial harvest in the Keppel Island region of the southern inshore Great Barrier Reef raises concern about the depletion of a number of relatively rare restricted range taxa. The shift appears to be driven by demand from the United States (US for corals for domestic aquaria. Data from the annual status reports from the Queensland Coral Fishery were compared with export trade data to the US from the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES. Evidence was found of recent increases in the harvest of species from the Mussidae family (Acanthastrea spp. which appears to be largely driven by demand from the US. On present trends, the industry runs the risk of localized depletion of Blastomussa and Scolymia; evidenced by an increase in the harvest of small specimens and the trend of decreasing harvest despite a concurrent increase in demand. Considering their relatively high sediment tolerance compared to other reef-building species, and the current lack of information about their functional role in reef stability, the trend raises concerns about the impact of the harvest on local coral communities. The recent shift in harvest patterns could have impacts on slow-growing species by allowing harvest beyond the rate of population regeneration. In light of these factors, combined with the value of such species to local tourism, a commercial coral fishery based on uncommon but highly sought-after species may not be ecologically sustainable or economically viable in the Keppels.

  16. Spawning migration of Labeobarbus species to some tributary rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spawning migration of Labeobarbus species was studied from August to December 2013 in some tributary rivers (Qimon, Guanta, Shini, and Chibirna) of Lake Tana. Fish specimens and physico-chemical parameters were measured bimonthly in August and September but monthly from October to December. Adult fish ...

  17. Characterising and comparing the spawning habitats of anchovy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between anchovy egg abundance and salinity was strongly positive, but strongly negative with water depth phytoplankton biomass and zooplankton ... differences in spawning habitat selection by anchovy and sardine for SST, salinity and zooplankton biomass, but not for the other environmenta variables.

  18. Fishery benefits from exploiting spawning aggregations not solely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vulnerability of spawning aggregations to exploitation varies among fisheries as a result of differences in the population-density changes associated with this behaviour. However, vulnerability to fishing is also influenced by technology, environmental factors, and fish and fisher behaviours. Focusing on a fishery for the ...

  19. Induced spawning of Liza ramada using three different protocols of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The second strategy was applied with two injections; the priming dose (3500 IU HCG per fish). Then, the resolving dose (200 µg/kg LHRH-a) was given after 24 h later. The three successful spawning attempts occurred within 3 days when the female received an extra dose of LHRH-a 100 µg/kg (3rd injection) from the ...

  20. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Reef Fish Spawning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seychelles, encompassing December to April, is similar to that reported for this species on the northern Great Barrier Reef (Johannes & Squire,. 1988). In the case of E. chlorostigma, for which there were too few reports to adequately assess trends, empirical information reveals a protracted spawning period from November ...

  1. Characterising and comparing the spawning habitats of anchovy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical variables measured included sea surface temperature (SST), surface salinity, water depth, mixed-layer depth, and current and wind speeds; biological variables measured included phytoplankton biomass, and zooplankton biomass and production. Spawning habitat was identified by construction of quotient curves ...

  2. Confirmed Sighting of a Spawning Aggregation of the Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of spawning aggregations at fixed sites and times is well documented for several species of reef fish. These aggregations are known to attract fishers and such species may therefore be vulnerable to overfishing. This is particularly true in the case of groupers which have intrinsically vulnerable life history ...

  3. Stochastic dynamics of genetic broadcasting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoyan, Davit A.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2017-11-01

    The complex genetic programs of eukaryotic cells are often regulated by key transcription factors occupying or clearing out of a large number of genomic locations. Orchestrating the residence times of these factors is therefore important for the well organized functioning of a large network. The classic models of genetic switches sidestep this timing issue by assuming the binding of transcription factors to be governed entirely by thermodynamic protein-DNA affinities. Here we show that relying on passive thermodynamics and random release times can lead to a "time-scale crisis" for master genes that broadcast their signals to a large number of binding sites. We demonstrate that this time-scale crisis for clearance in a large broadcasting network can be resolved by actively regulating residence times through molecular stripping. We illustrate these ideas by studying a model of the stochastic dynamics of the genetic network of the central eukaryotic master regulator NFκ B which broadcasts its signals to many downstream genes that regulate immune response, apoptosis, etc.

  4. Fundamental limitation on quantum broadcast networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Azuma, Koji

    2017-06-01

    The ability to distribute entanglement over complex quantum networks is an important step towards a quantum internet. Recently, there has been significant theoretical effort, mainly focusing on the distribution of bipartite entanglement via a simple quantum network composed only of bipartite quantum channels. There are, however, a number of quantum information processing protocols based on multipartite rather than bipartite entanglement. Whereas multipartite entanglement can be distributed by means of a network of such bipartite channels, a more natural way is to use a more general network, that is, a quantum broadcast network including quantum broadcast channels. In this work, we present a general framework for deriving upper bounds on the rates at which GHZ states or multipartite private states can be distributed among a number of different parties over an arbitrary quantum broadcast network. Our upper bounds are written in terms of the multipartite squashed entanglement, corresponding to a generalisation of recently derived bounds (Azuma et al, (2016), Nat. Commun. 7 13523). We also discuss how lower bounds can be obtained by combining a generalisation of an aggregated quantum repeater protocol with graph theoretic concepts.

  5. Effects of transparent exopolymer particles and muddy terrigenous sediments on the survival of hard coral recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, K. E.; Wild, C.; Wolanski, E.; Abele, D.

    2003-07-01

    Sedimentation is a major cause of mortality in scleractinian coral recruits. In this study, we compared the effects of muddy coastal sediments, with and without enrichment by 'marine snow', on the survivorship of recruits of the hard coral Acropora willisae. Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) were measured as characteristic components of marine snow using a staining method (Passow & Alldredge, Limnol. Oceangr. 40 (1995) 1326). Four-week-old recruits were exposed to: (1) muddy coastal sediments; (2) TEP; (3) TEP-enriched muddy coastal sediments; and (4) unfiltered sea water, for 43 h in aerated flow chambers. Thirty-three percent (±5 SE) of coral recruits died after 43-h exposure to TEP-enriched muddy coastal sediments (˜14 mg cm -2 sediments enriched with 3.8 ± 0.2 μg cm -2 gum xanthan equivalents (GX) TEP). In contrast, no or minimal mortality was observed in the other three treatments. Mortality increased to >80% when the amount of deposited TEP was almost tripled (10.9 ± 1.3 μg cm -2 GX) and sediment increased by 50%. Thus, coral recruits survived short-term exposure to low levels of TEP and low levels of muddy sediments, but sediments enriched with TEP at concentrations recorded at some of the inshore stations proved to be detrimental. Concentrations of TEP were measured in the central Great Barrier Reef (latitude 16-18°S) in summer, the season of coral spawning and recruitment. Within reefs >40 km off the coast. Our study suggests that both sediment composition and short-term (43 h) sediment deposition affect survival of coral juveniles, which has implications for the capacity of inshore reefs to be recolonised by corals to recover from acute disturbance events.

  6. Effects of coal contamination on early life history processes of a reef-building coral, Acropora tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn L E; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Brinkman, Diane L; Burns, Kathryn A; Negri, Andrew P

    2017-01-15

    Successful reproduction and larval dispersal are important for the persistence of marine invertebrate populations, and these early life history processes can be sensitive to marine pollution. Coal is emerging as a contaminant of interest due to the proximity of ports and shipping lanes to coral reefs. To assess the potential hazard of this contaminant, gametes, newly developed embryos, larvae and juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis were exposed to a range of coal leachate, suspended coal, and coal smothering treatments. Fertilisation was the most sensitive reproductive process tested. Embryo survivorship decreased with increasing suspended coal concentrations and exposure duration, effects on larval settlement varied between treatments, while effects on juvenile survivorship were minimal. Leachate exposures had negligible effects on fertilisation and larval settlement. These results indicate that coral recruitment could be affected by spills that produce plumes of suspended coal particles which interact with gametes and embryos soon after spawning. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecological intereactions of reef building corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are very important marine ecosystems because they support tremendous biodiversity and reefs are critical economic resources many coastal nations. Tropical reef structures are largely built by stony corals. This presentation provides background on basic coral biology t...

  8. Emergency department visits during an Olympic gold medal television broadcast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Vermeulen, Marian J

    2011-01-01

    Practice pattern variations are often attributed to physician decision-making with no accounting for patient preferences. To test whether a mass media television broadcast unrelated to health was associated with changes in the rate and characteristics of visits for acute emergency care. Time-series analysis of emergency department visits for any reason. Population-based sample of all patients seeking emergency care in Ontario, Canada. The broadcast day was defined as the Olympic men's gold medal ice hockey game final. The control days were defined as the 6 Sundays before and after the broadcast day. A total of 99 447 visits occurred over the 7 Sundays, of which 13 990 occurred on the broadcast day. Comparing the broadcast day with control days, we found no significant difference in the hourly rate of visits before the broadcast (544 vs 537, p = 0.41) or after the broadcast (647 vs 639, p = 0.55). In contrast, we observed a significant reduction in hourly rate of visits during the broadcast (647 vs 783, p broadcast was particularly large for adult men with low triage severity. The greatest reductions were for patients with abdominal, musculoskeletal or traumatic disorders. Mass media television broadcasts can influence patient preferences and thereby lead to a decrease in emergency department visits.

  9. The 2014 coral bleaching and freshwater flood events in Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Keisha D; Jokiel, Paul L; Rodgers, Kuʻulei S

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, subtropical Hawai'i escaped the major bleaching events that have devastated many tropical regions, but the continued increases in global long-term mean temperatures and the apparent ending of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) cool phase have increased the risk of bleaching events. Climate models and observations predict that bleaching in Hawai'i will occur with increasing frequency and increasing severity over future decades. A freshwater "kill" event occurred during July 2014 in the northern part of Kāne'ohe Bay that reduced coral cover by 22.5% in the area directly impacted by flooding. A subsequent major bleaching event during September 2014 caused extensive coral bleaching and mortality throughout the bay and further reduced coral cover in the freshwater kill area by 60.0%. The high temperature bleaching event only caused a 1.0% reduction in live coral throughout the portion of the bay not directly impacted by the freshwater event. Thus, the combined impact of the low salinity event and the thermal bleaching event appears to be more than simply additive. The temperature regime during the September 2014 bleaching event was analogous in duration and intensity to that of the large bleaching event that occurred previously during August 1996, but resulted in a much larger area of bleaching and coral mortality. Apparently seasonal timing as well as duration and magnitude of heating is important. Coral spawning in the dominant coral species occurs early in the summer, so reservoirs of stored lipid in the corals had been depleted by spawning prior to the September 2014 event. Warm months above 27 °C result in lower coral growth and presumably could further decrease lipid reserves, leading to a bleaching event that was more severe than would have happened if the high temperatures occurred earlier in the summer. Hawaiian reef corals decrease skeletal growth at temperatures above 27 °C, so perhaps the "stress period" actually started long before the

  10. To understand coral disease, look at coral cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Meteyer, Carol U.

    2014-01-01

    Diseases threaten corals globally, but 40 years on their causes remain mostly unknown. We hypothesize that inconsistent application of a complete diagnostic approach to coral disease has contributed to this slow progress. We quantified methods used to investigate coral disease in 492 papers published between 1965 and 2013. Field surveys were used in 65% of the papers, followed by biodetection (43%), laboratory trials (20%), microscopic pathology (21%), and field trials (9%). Of the microscopic pathology efforts, 57% involved standard histopathology at the light microscopic level (12% of the total investigations), with the remainder dedicated to electron or fluorescence microscopy. Most (74%) biodetection efforts focused on culture or molecular characterization of bacteria or fungi from corals. Molecular and immunological tools have been used to incriminate infectious agents (mainly bacteria) as the cause of coral diseases without relating the agent to specific changes in cell and tissue pathology. Of 19 papers that declared an infectious agent as a cause of disease in corals, only one (5%) used microscopic pathology, and none fulfilled all of the criteria required to satisfy Koch’s postulates as applied to animal diseases currently. Vertebrate diseases of skin and mucosal surfaces present challenges similar to corals when trying to identify a pathogen from a vast array of environmental microbes, and diagnostic approaches regularly used in these cases might provide a model for investigating coral diseases. We hope this review will encourage specialists of disease in domestic animals, wildlife, fish, shellfish, and humans to contribute to the emerging field of coral disease.

  11. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldo, Roberta M; Hay, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae), and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa) against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals.

  12. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M Bonaldo

    Full Text Available Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae, and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals.

  13. Using MPEG- at the Consumer Terminal in Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalmas Mounia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union IST research programme SAMBITS (System for Advanced Multimedia Broadcast and IT Services project is using Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB, the DVB Multimedia Home Platform (MHP standard, MPEG- and MPEG- in a studio production and multimedia terminal system to integrate broadcast data and Internet data. This involves using data delivery over multiple paths and the use of a back channel for interaction. MPEG- is being used to identify programme content and to construct queries to allow users to identify and retrieve interesting related content. Searching for content is being carried out using the HySpirit search engine. The paper deals with terminal design issues, the use of MPEG- for broadcasting applications and using a consumer broadcasting terminal for searching for material related to a broadcast.

  14. In Brief: Coral ecosystems plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-08-01

    With climate change, unsustainable fishing practices, and disease ``transforming coral communities at regional to global scales,'' a 30 July report from the U.S. Geological Survey outlines a strategy for conducting research on coral ecosystems. The report indicates that USGS coral ecosystem research will focus on three major themes during the next five years, as funding permits: reef structure, ecological integrity, and the role of marine reserves; land-based and local impacts; and responses to global change.

  15. Sexual reproduction of the reef-building coral Diploria labyrinthiformis (Scleractinia:Faviidae,in the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira M Alvarado Ch

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual reproduction of the coral Diploria labyrinthiformis was studied for the first time.Monthly histological analyses at the Corales del Rosario National Park (Colombian Caribbean from May 1997 to April 1998 show that D.labyrinthiformis is a hermaphroditic broadcasting species.It presents an annual gametogenic cycle with a 10-11 month period for gonad investment,in which oogenesis begins in August and ends in May- June.Spermiogenesis is short because sperm cysts were only observed in May tissue samples.In histological collected in May,an average of four mature eggs and six spermatic cysts per fertile mesentery were found.The mean diameter of mature eggs was 297 µm (±97 SDand 90 µm (±33for spermatic cysts.Rapid maturation of eggs from stage II to stage III coincides with increases in air temperature,high number of solar hours per month,decreases in wind velocity and absence of rainfall.Reproductive effort for D.labyrinthiformis (14.07 mm³/cm²/yearwas similar to other Faviidae species.Although gamete release was not observed in the field,the absence of gonads in histological samples in June suggests spawning between May 25 (five days after full moon and June 24.This event coincides with high air temperature,low number of solar hours per month,low wind velocity,and initiation of the rainy season.The earlier spawning time of this species differs from other species of the same family known for the Caribbean region.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:859-868.Epub 2005 Jun 24.La reproducción sexual del coral Diploria labyrinthiformis fue estudiada por primera vez.Análisis histológicos mensuales de muestras de D.labyrinthiformis extraídas en el Parque Nacional Natural Corales del Rosario (Caribe colombianoentre mayo de 1997 a abril de 1998,muestran que es una especie hermafrodita,liberadora de gametos. Presenta un ciclo gametogénico anual de 10-11 meses para inversión en gónadas,en el cual la oogénesis comienza en agosto y termina en mayo

  16. Norwegian Radio Broadcasting : from public monopoly to competitive homogeneity?

    OpenAIRE

    Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Østbye, Helge

    2006-01-01

    The present article discusses whether competition in radio broadcasting creates diversity. We start out by giving a brief overview of the development of competition within the European broadcasting markets. However, our main focus will be the market for commercial radio in Norway, partly because this represents a very interesting case from a regulatory point of view. We argue that the claimed lack of diversity in Norwegian radio broadcasting is a consequence of both the regulatory policy and ...

  17. Spawning Site Selection and Contingent Behavior in Common Snook, Centropomus undecimalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan; Villegas-Ríos, David; Walters, Sarah; Bickford, Joel; Cooper, Wade; Muller, Robert; Trotter, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive behavior affects spatial population structure and our ability to manage for sustainability in marine and diadromous fishes. In this study, we used fishery independent capture-based sampling to evaluate where Common Snook occurred in Tampa Bay and if it changed with spawning season, and passive acoustic telemetry to assess fine scale behavior at an inlet spawning site (2007–2009). Snook concentrated in three areas during the spawning season only one of which fell within the expected spawning habitat. Although in lower numbers, they remained in these areas throughout the winter months. Acoustically-tagged snook (n = 31) showed two seasonal patterns at the spawning site: Most fish occurred during the spawning season but several fish displayed more extended residency, supporting the capture-based findings that Common Snook exhibit facultative catadromy. Spawning site selection for iteroparous, multiple-batch spawning fishes occurs at the lifetime, annual, or intra-annual temporal scales. In this study we show colonization of a new spawning site, indicating that lifetime spawning site fidelity of Common Snook is not fixed at this fine spatial scale. However, individuals did exhibit annual and intra-seasonal spawning site fidelity to this new site over the three years studied. The number of fish at the spawning site increased in June and July (peak spawning months) and on new and full lunar phases indicating within population variability in spawning and movement patterns. Intra-seasonal patterns of detection also differed significantly with sex. Common Snook exhibited divergent migration tactics and habitat use at the annual and estuarine scales, with contingents using different overwintering habitat. Migration tactics also varied at the spawning site at the intra-seasonal scale and with sex. These results have important implications for understanding how reproductive behavior affects spatio-temporal patterns of fish abundance and their resilience to

  18. Effects of lake surface elevation on shoreline-spawning Lost River Suckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Hewitt, David A.; Rasmussen, J.E.; Hayes, Brian; Janney, Eric; Harris, Alta C.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed remote detection data from PIT-tagged Lost River Suckers Deltistes luxatus at four shoreline spawning areas in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, to determine whether spawning of this endangered species was affected by low water levels. Our investigation was motivated by the observation that the surface elevation of the lake during the 2010 spawning season was the lowest in 38 years. Irrigation withdrawals in 2009 that were not replenished by subsequent winter-spring inflows caused a reduction in available shoreline spawning habitat in 2010. We compared metrics of skipped spawning, movement among spawning areas, and spawning duration across 8 years (2006-2013) that had contrasting spring water levels. Some aspects of sucker spawning were similar in all years, including few individuals straying from the shoreline areas to spawning locations in lake tributaries and consistent effects of increasing water temperatures on the accumulation of fish at the spawning areas. During the extreme low water year of 2010, 14% fewer female and 8% fewer male suckers joined the shoreline spawning aggregation than in the other years. Both males and females visited fewer spawning areas within Upper Klamath Lake in 2010 than in other years, and the median duration at spawning areas in 2010 was at least 36% shorter for females and 20% shorter for males relative to other years. Given the imperiled status of the species and the declining abundance of the population in Upper Klamath Lake, any reduction in spawning success and egg production could negatively impact recovery efforts. Our results indicate that lake surface elevations above 1,262.3-1,262.5 m would be unlikely to limit the number of spawning fish and overall egg production.

  19. Adaptive significance of the formation of multi-species fish spawning aggregations near submerged capes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Karnauskas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many fishes are known to spawn at distinct geomorphological features such as submerged capes or "promontories," and the widespread use of these sites for spawning must imply some evolutionary advantage. Spawning at these capes is thought to result in rapid offshore transport of eggs, thereby reducing predation levels and facilitating dispersal to areas of suitable habitat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this "off-reef transport" hypothesis, we use a hydrodynamic model and explore the effects of topography on currents at submerged capes where spawning occurs and at similar capes where spawning does not occur, along the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. All capes modeled in this study produced eddy-shedding regimes, but specific eddy attributes differed between spawning and non-spawning sites. Eddies at spawning sites were significantly stronger than those at non-spawning sites, and upwelling and fronts were the products of the eddy formation process. Frontal zones, present particularly at the edges of eddies near the shelf, may serve to retain larvae and nutrients. Spawning site eddies were also more predictable in terms of diameter and longevity. Passive particles released at spawning and control sites were dispersed from the release site at similar rates, but particles from spawning sites were more highly aggregated in their distributions than those from control sites, and remained closer to shore at all times. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings contradict previous hypotheses that cape spawning leads to high egg dispersion due to offshore transport, and that they are attractive for spawning due to high, variable currents. Rather, we show that current regimes at spawning sites are more predictable, concentrate the eggs, and keep larvae closer to shore. These attributes would confer evolutionary advantages by maintaining relatively similar recruitment patterns year after year.

  20. Adaptive significance of the formation of multi-species fish spawning aggregations near submerged capes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnauskas, Mandy; Chérubin, Laurent M; Paris, Claire B

    2011-01-01

    Many fishes are known to spawn at distinct geomorphological features such as submerged capes or "promontories," and the widespread use of these sites for spawning must imply some evolutionary advantage. Spawning at these capes is thought to result in rapid offshore transport of eggs, thereby reducing predation levels and facilitating dispersal to areas of suitable habitat. To test this "off-reef transport" hypothesis, we use a hydrodynamic model and explore the effects of topography on currents at submerged capes where spawning occurs and at similar capes where spawning does not occur, along the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. All capes modeled in this study produced eddy-shedding regimes, but specific eddy attributes differed between spawning and non-spawning sites. Eddies at spawning sites were significantly stronger than those at non-spawning sites, and upwelling and fronts were the products of the eddy formation process. Frontal zones, present particularly at the edges of eddies near the shelf, may serve to retain larvae and nutrients. Spawning site eddies were also more predictable in terms of diameter and longevity. Passive particles released at spawning and control sites were dispersed from the release site at similar rates, but particles from spawning sites were more highly aggregated in their distributions than those from control sites, and remained closer to shore at all times. Our findings contradict previous hypotheses that cape spawning leads to high egg dispersion due to offshore transport, and that they are attractive for spawning due to high, variable currents. Rather, we show that current regimes at spawning sites are more predictable, concentrate the eggs, and keep larvae closer to shore. These attributes would confer evolutionary advantages by maintaining relatively similar recruitment patterns year after year.

  1. Spawning Dynamics and Size Related Trends in Reproductive Parameters of Southern Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus maccoyii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica H Farley

    Full Text Available Knowledge of spawning behaviour and fecundity of fish is important for estimating the reproductive potential of a stock and for constructing appropriate statistical models for assessing sustainable catch levels. Estimates of length-based reproductive parameters are particularly important for determining potential annual fecundity as a function of fish size, but they are often difficult to estimate reliably. Here we provide new information on the reproductive dynamics of southern bluefin tuna (SBT Thunnus maccoyii through the analysis of fish size and ovary histology collected on the spawning ground in 1993-1995 and 1999-2002. These are used to refine previous parameter estimates of spawning dynamics and investigate size related trends in these parameters. Our results suggest that the small SBT tend to arrive on the spawning ground slightly later and depart earlier in the spawning season relative to large fish. All females were mature and the majority were classed as spawning capable (actively spawning or non-spawning with a very small proportion classed as regressing. The fraction of females spawning per day decreased with fish size, but once females start a spawning episode, they spawned daily irrespective of size. Mean batch fecundity was estimated directly at 6.5 million oocytes. Analysis of ovary histology and ovary weight data indicated that relative batch fecundity, and the duration of spawning and non-spawning episodes, increased with fish size. These reproductive parameter estimates could be used with estimates of residency time on the spawning ground as a function of fish size (if known and demographic data for the spawning population to provide a time series of relative annual fecundity for SBT.

  2. Spawning site selection and contingent behavior in Common Snook, Centropomus undecimalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowerre-Barbieri

    Full Text Available Reproductive behavior affects spatial population structure and our ability to manage for sustainability in marine and diadromous fishes. In this study, we used fishery independent capture-based sampling to evaluate where Common Snook occurred in Tampa Bay and if it changed with spawning season, and passive acoustic telemetry to assess fine scale behavior at an inlet spawning site (2007-2009. Snook concentrated in three areas during the spawning season only one of which fell within the expected spawning habitat. Although in lower numbers, they remained in these areas throughout the winter months. Acoustically-tagged snook (n = 31 showed two seasonal patterns at the spawning site: Most fish occurred during the spawning season but several fish displayed more extended residency, supporting the capture-based findings that Common Snook exhibit facultative catadromy. Spawning site selection for iteroparous, multiple-batch spawning fishes occurs at the lifetime, annual, or intra-annual temporal scales. In this study we show colonization of a new spawning site, indicating that lifetime spawning site fidelity of Common Snook is not fixed at this fine spatial scale. However, individuals did exhibit annual and intra-seasonal spawning site fidelity to this new site over the three years studied. The number of fish at the spawning site increased in June and July (peak spawning months and on new and full lunar phases indicating within population variability in spawning and movement patterns. Intra-seasonal patterns of detection also differed significantly with sex. Common Snook exhibited divergent migration tactics and habitat use at the annual and estuarine scales, with contingents using different overwintering habitat. Migration tactics also varied at the spawning site at the intra-seasonal scale and with sex. These results have important implications for understanding how reproductive behavior affects spatio-temporal patterns of fish abundance and their

  3. 47 CFR 73.201 - Numerical designation of FM broadcast channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Numerical designation of FM broadcast channels. 73.201 Section 73.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.201 Numerical designation of FM broadcast...

  4. 47 CFR 73.23 - AM broadcast station applications affected by international agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM broadcast station applications affected by international agreements. 73.23 Section 73.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.23 AM broadcast station...

  5. 47 CFR 73.801 - Broadcast regulations applicable to LPFM stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast regulations applicable to LPFM stations. 73.801 Section 73.801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.801 Broadcast...

  6. 47 CFR 73.4157 - Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... affiliate broadcast service. 73.4157 Section 73.4157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4157 Network signals which adversely affect affiliate broadcast service. See Public Notice, FCC 79-387...

  7. 47 CFR 73.4107 - FM broadcast assignments, increasing availability of.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM broadcast assignments, increasing...) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4107 FM broadcast assignments, increasing availability of. (a) See, First Report and Order MM Docket 84-231, FCC 84...

  8. 47 CFR 73.1208 - Broadcast of taped, filmed, or recorded material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast of taped, filmed, or recorded material. 73.1208 Section 73.1208 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1208 Broadcast...

  9. 47 CFR 73.4185 - Political broadcasting and telecasting, the law of.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Political broadcasting and telecasting, the law of. 73.4185 Section 73.4185 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4185 Political broadcasting and telecasting, the law of. (...

  10. Energy Efficient Probabilistic Broadcasting for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2017-06-01

    In mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs) flooding method is used for broadcasting route request (RREQ) packet from one node to another node for route discovery. This is the simplest method of broadcasting of RREQ packets but it often results in broadcast storm problem, originating collisions and congestion of packets in the network. A probabilistic broadcasting is one of the widely used broadcasting scheme for route discovery in MANETs and provides solution for broadcasting storm problem. But it does not consider limited energy of the battery of the nodes. In this paper, a new energy efficient probabilistic broadcasting (EEPB) is proposed in which probability of broadcasting RREQs is calculated with respect to remaining energy of nodes. The analysis of simulation results clearly indicate that an EEPB route discovery scheme in ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) can increase the network lifetime with a decrease in the average power consumption and RREQ packet overhead. It also decreases the number of dropped packets in the network, in comparison to other EEPB schemes like energy constraint gossip (ECG), energy aware gossip (EAG), energy based gossip (EBG) and network lifetime through energy efficient broadcast gossip (NEBG).

  11. Histories of Public Service Broadcasters on the Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume details multiple and dynamic histories of relations between public service broadcasters and the World Wide Web. What does it mean to be a national broadcaster in a global communications environment? What are the commercial and public service pressures that were brought to bear...... when public service broadcasters implemented web services? How did “one- to-many” broadcasters adapt to the “many-to-many” medium of the internet? The thematic or- ganisation of this collection addresses such major issues, while each chapter offers a particular historical account of relations between...

  12. Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast Verification and Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automatic Dependent Surveillance ? Broadcast (ADS-B) is an emerging Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) technology that will vastly expand the state...

  13. Minimizing Broadcast Expenses in Clustered Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeeshan Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One way to minimize the broadcast expenses of routing protocols is to cluster the network. In clustered ad-hoc networks, all resources can be managed easily by resolving scalability issues. However, blind query broadcast is a major issue that leads to the broadcast storm problem in clustered ad-hoc networks. This query broadcast is done to carry out the route-search task that leads to the unnecessary propagation of route-query even after route has been found. Hence, this query propagation poses the problem of congestion in the network. In particular this motivates us to propose a query-control technique in such networks which works based on broadcast repealing. A huge amount of work has been devoted to propose the query control broadcasting techniques. However, such techniques used in traditional broadcasting mechanisms need to be properly extended for use in the cluster based routing architecture. In this paper, query-control technique is proposed for cluster based routing technique to reduce the broadcast expenses. Finally, we report some experiments which compare the proposed technique to other commonly used techniques including standard one-class AODV that follows TTL-sequence based broadcasting technique.

  14. A broadcast engineering tutorial for non-engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzi, Skip

    2014-01-01

    A Broadcast Engineering Tutorial for Non-Engineers is the leading publication on the basics of broadcast technology. Whether you are new to the industry or do not have an engineering background, this book will give you a comprehensive primer of television, radio, and digital media relating to broadcast-it is your guide to understanding the technical world of radio and television broadcast engineering. It covers all the important topics such as DTV, IBOC, HD, standards, video servers, editing, electronic newsrooms, and more.

  15. Implications of coral harvest and transplantation on reefs in northwestern Dominica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Bruckner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In June, 2002, the government of Dominica requested assistance in evaluating the coral culture and transplantation activities being undertaken by Oceanographic Institute of Dominica (OID, a coral farm culturing both western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific corals for restoration and commercial sales. We assessed the culture facilities of OID, the condition of reefs, potential impacts of coral collection and benefits of coral transplantation. Coral reefs (9 reefs, 3-20m depth were characterized by 35 species of scleractinian corals and a live coral cover of 8-35%. Early colonizing, brooders such as Porites astreoides (14.8% of all corals, P. porites (14.8%, Meandrina meandrites (14.7% and Agaricia agaricites (9.1% were the most abundant corals, but colonies were mostly small (mean=25cm diameter. Montastraea annularis (complex was the other dominant taxa (20.8% of all corals and colonies were larger (mean=70cm. Corals (pooled species were missing an average of 20% of their tissue, with a mean of 1.4% recent mortality. Coral diseases affected 6.4% of all colonies, with the highest prevalence at Cabrits West (11.0%, Douglas Bay (12.2% and Coconut Outer reef (20.7%. White plague and yellow band disease were causing the greatest loss of tissue, especially among M. annularis (complex, with localized impacts from corallivores, overgrowth by macroalgae, storm damage and sedimentation. While the reefs appeared to be undergoing substantial decline, restoration efforts by OID were unlikely to promote recovery. No Pacific species were identified at OID restoration sites, yet species chosen for transplantation with highest survival included short-lived brooders (Agaricia and Porites that were abundant in restoration sites, as well as non-reef builders (Palythoa and Erythropodium that monopolize substrates and overgrow corals. The species of highest value for restoration (massive broadcast spawners showed low survivorship and unrestored populations of these species

  16. Scheduling Broadcasts in a Network of Timelines

    KAUST Repository

    Manzoor, Emaad A.

    2015-05-12

    Broadcasts and timelines are the primary mechanism of information exchange in online social platforms today. Services like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram have enabled ordinary people to reach large audiences spanning cultures and countries, while their massive popularity has created increasingly competitive marketplaces of attention. Timing broadcasts to capture the attention of such geographically diverse audiences has sparked interest from many startups and social marketing gurus. However, formal study is lacking on both the timing and frequency problems. In this thesis, we introduce, motivate and solve the broadcast scheduling problem of specifying the timing and frequency of publishing content to maximise the attention received. We validate and quantify three interacting behavioural phenomena to parametrise social platform users: information overload, bursty circadian rhythms and monotony aversion, which is defined here for the first time. Our analysis of the influence of monotony refutes the common assumption that posts on social network timelines are consumed piecemeal independently. Instead, we reveal that posts are consumed in chunks, which has important consequences for any future work considering human behaviour over social network timelines. Our quantification of monotony aversion is also novel, and has applications to problems in various domains such as recommender list diversification, user satiation and variety-seeking consumer behaviour. Having studied the underlying behavioural phenomena, we link schedules, timelines, attention and behaviour by formalising a timeline information exchange process. Our formulation gives rise to a natural objective function that quantifies the expected collective attention an arrangement of posts on a timeline will receive. We apply this formulation as a case-study on real-data from Twitter, where we estimate behavioural parameters, calculate the attention potential for different scheduling strategies and, using the

  17. Digital terrestrial television broadcasting technology and system

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Now under massive deployment worldwide, digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) offers one of the most attractive ways to deliver digital TV over the VHF/UHF band. Written by a team of experts for specialists and non-specialists alike, this book serves as a comprehensive guide to DTTB. It covers the fundamentals of channel coding and modulation technologies used in DTTB, as well as receiver technology for synchronization, channel estimation, and equalization. It also covers the recently introduced Chinese DTTB standard, using the SFN network in Hong Kong as an example.

  18. Spawning phenology and geography of Aleutian Islands and eastern Bering Sea Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidetcher, Sandra K.; Hurst, Thomas P.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Logerwell, Elizabeth A.

    2014-11-01

    Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) is an economically and ecologically important species in the southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, yet little is known about the spawning dynamics of Pacific cod in these regions. To address this knowledge gap, we applied a gross anatomical maturity key for Pacific cod to describe temporal and spatial patterns of reproductive status over three winter spawning seasons: 2005, 2006, and 2007. Maturity status of female Pacific cod was assessed by fishery observers during sampling of commercial catches and used to construct maps showing spawning activity in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. Most spawning activity was observed on the Bering Sea shelf and Aleutian Island plateaus between 100 and 200 m depth. Data for those days when a high percentage of spawning stage fish were observed were used to identify areas with concentrations of spawning fish. Spawning concentrations were identified north of Unimak Island, in the vicinity of the Pribilof Islands, at the shelf break near Zhemchug Canyon, and adjacent to islands in the central and western Aleutian Islands along the continental shelf. The spawning season was found to begin in the last days of February or early March and extend through early to mid-April. Variation in spawning time (averaging ~10 days between years) may have been associated with a change from warm (2005) to cold (2007) climate conditions during the study period. Our information on Pacific cod spawning patterns will help inform fishery management decisions, models of spawning and larval dispersal and the spatial structure of the stock.

  19. Osmoadjustment in the Coral Holobiont

    KAUST Repository

    Röthig, Till

    2017-04-01

    Coral reefs are under considerable decline. The framework builders in coral reefs are scleractinian corals, which comprise so-called holobionts, consisting of cnidarian host, algal symbionts (genus Symbiodinium), and other associated microbes. Corals are commonly considered stenohaline osmoconformers, possessing limited capability to adjust to salinity changes. However, corals differ in their ability to cope with different salinities. The underlying mechanisms have not yet been addressed. To further understand putative mechanisms involved, I examined coral holobiont osmoregulation conducting a range of experiments on the coral Fungia granulosa. In my research F. granulosa from the Red Sea exhibited pronounced physiological reactions (decreased photosynthesis, cessation of calcification) upon short-term incubations (4 h) to high salinity (55). However, during a 29-day in situ salinity transect experiment, coral holobiont photosynthesis was unimpaired under high salinity (49) indicating acclimatization. F. granulosa microbiome changes after the 29-day high salinity exposure aligned with a bacterial community restructuring that putatively supports the coral salinity acclimatization (osmolyte synthesis, nutrient fixation/cycling). Long-term incubations (7 d) of cultured Symbiodinium exhibited cell growth even at ‘extreme’ salinity levels of 25 and 55. Metabolic profiles of four Symbiodinium strains exposed to increased (55) and decreased (25) salinities for 4 h indicated distinct carbohydrates and amino acids to be putatively involved in the osmoadjustment. Importantly, under high salinity the osmolyte floridoside was consistently increased. This could be corroborated in the coral model Aiptasia and in corals from the Persian/Arabian Gulf, where floridoside was also markedly increased upon short- (15 h) and long-term (>24 months) exposure to high salinity, confirming an important role of floridoside in the osmoadjustment of cnidarian holobionts. This thesis

  20. Spawning sites of the Japanese eel in relation to oceanographic structure and the West Mariana Ridge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Aoyama

    Full Text Available The Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, spawns within the North Equatorial Current that bifurcates into both northward and southward flows in its westward region, so its spawning location and larval transport dynamics seem important for understanding fluctuations in its recruitment to East Asia. Intensive research efforts determined that Japanese eels spawn along the western side of the West Mariana Ridge during new moon periods, where all oceanic life history stages have been collected, including eggs and spawning adults. However, how the eels decide where to form spawning aggregations is unknown because spawning appears to have occurred at various latitudes. A salinity front formed from tropical rainfall was hypothesized to determine the latitude of its spawning locations, but an exact spawning site was only found once by collecting eggs in May 2009. This study reports on the collections of Japanese eel eggs and preleptocephali during three new moon periods in June 2011 and May and June 2012 at locations indicating that the distribution of lower salinity surface water or salinity fronts influence the latitude of spawning sites along the ridge. A distinct salinity front may concentrate spawning south of the front on the western side of the seamount ridge. It was also suggested that eels may spawn at various latitudes within low-salinity water when the salinity fronts appeared unclear. Eel eggs were distributed within the 150-180 m layer near the top of the thermocline, indicating shallow spawning depths. Using these landmarks for latitude (salinity front, longitude (seamount ridge, and depth (top of the thermocline to guide the formation of spawning aggregations could facilitate finding mates and help synchronize their spawning.

  1. An accurate method for measuring triploidy of larval fish spawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Glennon, Robert; Kelly, Anita; Brown, Bonnie L.; Morrison, John

    2017-01-01

    A standard flow cytometric protocol was developed for estimating triploid induction in batches of larval fish. Polyploid induction treatments are not guaranteed to be 100% efficient, thus the ability to quantify the proportion of triploid larvae generated by a particular treatment helps managers to stock high-percentage spawns and researchers to select treatments for efficient triploid induction. At 3 d posthatch, individual Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were mechanically dissociated into single-cell suspensions; nuclear DNA was stained with propidium iodide then analyzed by flow cytometry. Following ploidy identification of individuals, aliquots of diploid and triploid cell suspensions were mixed to generate 15 levels (0–100%) of known triploidy (n = 10). Using either 20 or 50 larvae per level, the observed triploid percentages were lower than the known, actual values. Using nonlinear regression analyses, quadratic equations solved for triploid proportions in mixed samples and corresponding estimation reference plots allowed for predicting triploidy. Thus, an accurate prediction of the proportion of triploids in a spawn can be made by following a standard larval processing and analysis protocol with either 20 or 50 larvae from a single spawn, coupled with applying the quadratic equations or reference plots to observed flow cytometry results. Due to the universality of triploid DNA content being 1.5 times the diploid level and because triploid fish consist of fewer cells than diploids, this method should be applicable to other produced triploid fish species, and it may be adapted for use with bivalves or other species where batch analysis is appropriate.

  2. Internet broadcast of hockey: a scale prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jeffrey E.; Sayles, Maxwell; Olsen, Luke; Tarjan, Paul

    2003-12-01

    We present a system for the broadcast of hockey games over the internet. The system allows users to experience the hockey game while it is in progress. Our system uses generic content description servers that acquire information from an external source, process it, and serve the processed data to client systems. Dynamic configuration of the servers allows us to use them in a variety of roles. For example, video information servers, like an MPEG-7 camera, produce XML documents that describe the motion of objects in the scene in addition to unprocessed video. Unlike an MPEG-7 camera, our video information servers interact with client systems, and can change their behavior through dynamic configuration. In an alternate configuration, a content description server acts as a game server in our hockey broadcast system. The game server forms an environment model that encapsulates the state of the hockey game and serves data from the model to clients. We developed and tested our system using a 1/32-scale model of a hockey rink. Early results using data acquired at a real rink indicate that the system performs as expected.

  3. Reliable Delay Constrained Multihop Broadcasting in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koubek Martin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication is regarded as a major innovative feature for in-car technology. While improving road safety is unanimously considered the major driving factor for the deployment of Intelligent Vehicle Safety Systems, the challenges relating to reliable multi-hop broadcasting are exigent in vehicular networking. In fact, safety applications must rely on very accurate and up-to-date information about the surrounding environment, which in turn requires the use of accurate positioning systems and smart communication protocols for exchanging information. Communications protocols for VANETs must guarantee fast and reliable delivery of information to all vehicles in the neighbourhood, where the wireless communication medium is shared and highly unreliable with limited bandwidth. In this paper, we focus on mechanisms that improve the reliability of broadcasting protocols, where the emphasis is on satisfying the delay requirements for safety applications. We present the Pseudoacknowledgments (PACKs scheme and compare this with existing methods over varying vehicle densities in an urban scenario using the network simulator OPNET.

  4. Structuring Broadcast Audio for Information Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Jean-Luc; Lamel, Lori

    2003-12-01

    One rapidly expanding application area for state-of-the-art speech recognition technology is the automatic processing of broadcast audiovisual data for information access. Since much of the linguistic information is found in the audio channel, speech recognition is a key enabling technology which, when combined with information retrieval techniques, can be used for searching large audiovisual document collections. Audio indexing must take into account the specificities of audio data such as needing to deal with the continuous data stream and an imperfect word transcription. Other important considerations are dealing with language specificities and facilitating language portability. At Laboratoire d'Informatique pour la Mécanique et les Sciences de l'Ingénieur (LIMSI), broadcast news transcription systems have been developed for seven languages: English, French, German, Mandarin, Portuguese, Spanish, and Arabic. The transcription systems have been integrated into prototype demonstrators for several application areas such as audio data mining, structuring audiovisual archives, selective dissemination of information, and topic tracking for media monitoring. As examples, this paper addresses the spoken document retrieval and topic tracking tasks.

  5. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... by increasing the level of suspended particulates. Coral organisms are extremely sensitive to even...

  6. The Biology and Economics of Coral Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, R.; Schutter, M.; Griffioen, B.; Wijffels, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Shafit, S.; Henard, S.; Taruffi, M.; Gili, C.; Lavorano, S.

    2011-01-01

    To protect natural coral reefs, it is of utmost importance to understand how the growth of the main reef-building organisms-the zooxanthellate scleractinian corals-is controlled. Understanding coral growth is also relevant for coral aquaculture, which is a rapidly developing business. This review

  7. Empirical observations of the spawning migration of European eels: The long and dangerous road to the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Righton, David; Westerberg, H.; Feunteun, E.

    2016-01-01

    Fresh data on the timing and speed of the oceanic spawning migration of European eels suggest a new paradigm for spawning ecology.......Fresh data on the timing and speed of the oceanic spawning migration of European eels suggest a new paradigm for spawning ecology....

  8. Field Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the broadcast spawning coral Acropora millepora. Marine Ecology Progress Series 362: 129-137. Benzoni F, Basso D, Caragnano A, Rodondi G (2011) Hydrolithon spp. (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) overgrow live corals (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) in Yemen. Marine Biology 158: 2419-2428. Figure 1. Hydrolithon sp. overgrowing ...

  9. Induced Spawning of Giant Gouramy Osphronemus gouramy Lac. by Ovaprim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arfah

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Spawning season of giant gouramy Osphronemus gouramy Lac is not happen continuously through the year so the supply of fry is not enough for fulfilling the demand.  Artificial fertilization will be useful to produce larvae and fry at out of their spawning season.  In this study, three dose levels of ovaprim, i.e. 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 ml/kg fish were used to induce spawning of giant gouramy.  Parameters observed were the width of abdomen, number of eggs, fertilization rate, hatching rate, and survival rate of larvae.  The results of this study showed that average of fertilization rate reached 4.3% with number of eggs fertilized was 50 eggs, hatching rate 78.5% with number of larvae hatched was 43 larvas.   Average of larvae survived until the end of experiment was 35, with average survival rate was 76.82%.  Based on the achievement in this study, induced spawning by ovaprim could be applied to giant gouramy, although the success is still very low. Keywords: giant gouramy, Osphronemus gouramy Lac., artificial spawning, ovaprim.   ABSTRAK Musim pemijahan ikan gurame Osphronemus gouramy Lac. bukan sepanjang tahun sehingga pasokan benih tidak selalu tersedia dalam jumlah yang cukup. Pemijahan buatan memungkinkan untuk memperoleh suplai larva dan benih di luar musim pemijahannya. Pada penelitian ini tiga tingkatan dosis ovaprim, yaitu  0,6 ml/kg, 0,7 ml/kg, 0,8 ml/kg ikan digunakan untuk merangsang pemijahan ikan gurame. Parameter yang diamati adalah lebar perut, jumlah telur, derajat pembuahan telur (Fertilization Rate, derajat penetasan telur (Hatching Rate dan tingkat kelangsungan hidup larva (Survival Rate. Rata-rata derajat pembuahan telur ikan gurame yang dipijahkan secara buatan mencapai 4,30% dengan jumlah telur yang dibuahi sebanyak 50 butir, sedangkan derajat penetasan rata-rata adalah 78,50 % dengan jumlah rata-rata telur yang menetas sebanyak 43 butir. Rata-rata jumlah larva hidup pada akhir masa pemeliharaan adalah 35 ekor, dengan

  10. 77 FR 33098 - Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 15 Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Band AGENCY: Federal Communications... Memorandum Opinion and Order, in the matter of ``Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Band Approval... final regulations that are the subject of this correction relate to ``Unlicensed Operation in the TV...

  11. 77 FR 25112 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Centerville and Midway, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Centerville and Midway, TX AGENCY: Federal... filing procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio Division...

  12. 75 FR 3694 - Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.4125 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to...

  13. 76 FR 69222 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Altamont, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Altamont, OR AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... 47 CFR Part 73 Radio. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio... Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 1. The authority...

  14. 77 FR 62481 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Crownpoint, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Crownpoint, NM AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications... preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR Part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO...

  15. 78 FR 12622 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Greenup, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Greenup, IL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. ] Federal... a first and/or second NCE radio service to 67.5 percent (21,149 persons) of the total population of...

  16. 77 FR 16800 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Westfield, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Westfield, NY AGENCY: Federal Communications... filing procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio Division...

  17. 75 FR 52649 - Radio Broadcasting Services; DeBeque, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 . Radio Broadcasting Services; DeBeque, Colorado AGENCY: Federal Communications... Congressional Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 As stated in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47 CFR part 73 as...

  18. 78 FR 12010 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pearsall, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pearsall, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications... preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO...

  19. RSBP: a reliable slotted broadcast protocol in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Phan Van; Oh, Hoon

    2012-10-31

    In wireless sensor networks for monitoring and control applications, a sink node needs to disseminate messages to all nodes to acquire monitoring data or to control the operation of sensor nodes. The basic flooding protocol suffers from low transmission reliability in broadcasting messages due to the hidden terminal problem. Besides, it can cause the broadcast storm problem by having many nodes rebroadcast the received message simultaneously. In order to resolve these problems while minimizing energy consumption in delivery of broadcast messages, we propose a reliable slotted broadcast protocol (RSBP) that allocates broadcast time slots to nodes based on their slot demands and then allows every node to transmit its broadcast message within the allocated slots. Then, every node can broadcast messages safely in a contention-free manner. Moreover, RSBP can be deployed easily since it does not have any specific requirements such as GPS, multi-channels and directional antennas that may not be always available in real scenarios. We show by experimental study that RSBP significantly outperforms other broadcast protocols in terms of safety-critical packet delivery and energy consumption.

  20. 47 CFR 76.66 - Satellite broadcast signal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... digital signals of each television broadcast station that is located in a local market in Alaska or Hawaii... reasonable digital compression techniques in the carriage of local television stations. (2) Satellite... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.66 Satellite...

  1. 78 FR 42700 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Matagorda, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Matagorda, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Audio Division, at the request of Tejas Broadcasting Ltd., LLP... the Congressional Review Act, see U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR part 73 Radio, Radio...

  2. 78 FR 42700 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations AGENCY: Federal Communications...), because these allotments were previously reported. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio Division, Media Bureau...

  3. 77 FR 64792 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications... preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO...

  4. Radio Broadcasting for Adult Nonformal Environmental Education in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, Juma E.

    1995-01-01

    Radio broadcasting is used in Botswana to inform, teach, and persuade adults about issues in agriculture, health, wildlife, conservation, and other areas. However, open broadcasting is not an effective nonformal education tool. Active and guided group listening to radio enables discussion and feedback. (SK)

  5. 76 FR 79113 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Bastrop, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Bastrop, LA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Part 73 Radio. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio Division, Media... amends 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for part...

  6. 77 FR 43216 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Randsburg, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Randsburg, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications... preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO...

  7. 78 FR 73793 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Evart and Ludington, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Evart and Ludington, Michigan AGENCY: Federal... filing procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio Division...

  8. 76 FR 13579 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Hebbronville, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Hebbronville, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... filing procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  9. Depression Radio Broadcast Dramas in the Canadian History Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan on the Great Depression in which students examine the social, economic, and political events of the period through a study of radio broadcasting. Describes an activity in which students research the era and create a radio broadcast. Outlines activity guidelines, radio language, and evaluation methods. (RW)

  10. 75 FR 71044 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Onekama, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Onekama, MI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Audio Division, at the request of Northern Radio of Michigan, Inc., in... CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  11. Canal + Spain & Live Football Broadcasts: A Whole Different Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez Ortega, Vicente; Romero Santos, Rubén

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn 1988 the Law for Private Television Broadcasting was approved by Spanish parliament. Three licenses were initially awarded. Soon thereafter, in 1990, three channels started broadcasting: Antena 3, Berlusconi-related Tele 5 and, against all odds, a pay channel, Canal + Spain. This

  12. Religious Broadcasting in the Middle East : Content Analysis of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Religious Broadcasting in the Middle East : Content Analysis of Selected Channels and Programs. Over the past decade, television broadcasting has become central in shaping public attitudes in the Middle East. Against a backdrop of authoritarian governments, political instability, war and pervasive foreign military ...

  13. 46 CFR 184.506 - Emergency broadcast placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency broadcast placard. 184.506 Section 184.506 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Radio § 184.506 Emergency broadcast...

  14. 75 FR 9859 - Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons...

  15. 76 FR 35831 - Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...; DA 11-1034] Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications... Gray Television Licensee, LLC (``Gray''), the licensee of station WEAU-TV, channel 13, Eau Claire... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal...

  16. 75 FR 10692 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... Alabama Educational Television Commission, the licensee of noncommercial educational station WBIQ(TV... CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...

  17. 75 FR 5015 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications... procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  18. 76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the...

  19. 77 FR 64946 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Maysville, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... filed by Appalachian Broadcasting Company, Inc., proposing the allotment of Channel 265A at Maysville... Broadcasting Company, Post Office Drawer E, 233 Big A Road, Toccoa, Georgia 30577. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... released September 28, 2012. The full text of this Commission decision is available for inspection and...

  20. Broadcast, Denial-of-Service, and Secure Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2013-01-01

    A main challenge in the design of wireless-based Cyber-Physical Systems consists in balancing the need for security and the effect of broadcast communication with the limited capabilities and reliability of sensor nodes. We present a calculus of broadcasting processes that enables to reason about...

  1. Team Automata for Security Analysis of Multicast/Broadcast Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, Maurice; Lenzini, Gabriele; Petrocchi, Marinella; Busi, N.; Gorrieri, R.; Martinelli, F.

    We show that team automata (TeA) are well suited to model secure multicast/broadcast communication with possible packet loss. This is a consequence of the natural way in which one-to-many (one-to-all) transmissions typical of multicast (broadcast) sessions can be modelled as communications between

  2. Listenership of Radio Agricultural Broadcasts in Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Adekoya Adegbenga; Olabode, Badiru Idris

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural broadcasts on radio play a major role in agricultural extension and rural development in Nigeria due to the low ratio of extension agents in relation to the farming population. The broadcasts have been on air for some time and therefore there is a need to investigate their acceptance among the rural dwellers in Southwestern Nigeria.…

  3. Public and Private Activity in Commercial TV Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olai Hansen, Bodil; Keiding, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We consider a model of commercial television market, where private broadcasters coexist with a public television broadcaster. Assuming that the public TV station follows a policy of Ramsey pricing whereas the private stations are profit maximizers, we consider the equilibria in this market...

  4. Private Sponsorship of Rural Development Broadcasts on Radio in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased brand awareness was the most important reason (46.7%) that propelled sponsors to support broadcasts. Most sponsors (66.7%) would be willing to support RDBs on radio. Sponsors' characteristics were not significantly related to their willingness to sponsor RDBs. Stakeholders in rural development broadcasting ...

  5. Repeat surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in western Lake Superior: timing, distribution and composition of spawning stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Addison, Peter A.; Seider, Michael J.; Evrard, Lori M.; Geving, Steven A.; Quinlan, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic (AC) and midwater trawl (MT) surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Lake Superior have been combined with commercial yield to estimate exploitation. To time surveys properly, it is important to understand when adults typically arrive at spawning grounds and how numbers change as the spawning season progresses. We conducted repeat autumn surveys during nighttime hours at coastal sites where commercial roe fisheries occur. Spawner densities increased significantly from October to mid-November, but differences measured at sites sampled from mid- to late-November were comparatively small. Spawners occupied the upper 20–30 m of the water column during mid-November before utilizing a wider range of depths by late-November. We compared repeat AC densities to temporal trends of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in suspended commercial gillnets and found good agreement within sites. Because different gillnet mesh sizes were used in each roe fishery. CPUE and AC density were poorly correlated among sites. We recommend that future surveys be conducted between mid- and late-November, and that MT gear be used to measure cisco densities in the uppermost 10 m of the water column where AC estimates may be conservative. Given the short temporal window for assessing spawner density, we believe both AC-MT and gillnet surveys will be needed to ensure that harvest of different stocks is kept at a sustainable level.

  6. Mobile Broadcast DRM Based on User Identity Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Rae Lee

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The current mobile broadcast systems do not provide efficient solution for consumption of service and content based on the user identity card such as a smartcard. This prevents users from consuming broadcast service and contents independent of a specific terminal (e.g., the one used for registration or purchase. To provide usage of broadcast services based on the user identity card, mutual authentication needs to be established among the service provider, the terminal, and the user identity card whenever the terminal is changed. The crucial element for this is assuring the service provider, the terminal, and the user identity card by authenticating each entity to the other entities. In this paper, we propose the new authentication scheme, which provides efficient scheme for three kinds of mutual authentications among the service provider, the terminal, and the user identity card. We also construct mobile broadcast DRM system based on the proposed authentication scheme for consumption of broadcast services with multiple terminals.

  7. Method and apparatus for scheduling broadcasts in social networks

    KAUST Repository

    Manzoor, Emaad Ahmed

    2016-08-25

    A method, apparatus, and computer readable medium are provided for maximizing consumption of broadcasts by a producer. An example method includes receiving selection of a total number of time slots to use for scheduling broadcasts, and receiving information regarding the producer\\'s followers. The example method further 5 includes identifying, by a processor and based on the received information, discount factors associated with the producer\\'s followers, and calculating, by the processor and based on the received information, a predicted number of competitor broadcasts during each time slot of the total number of time slots. Finally, the example method includes determining, by the processor and based on the discount factors and the predicted 10 number of competitor broadcasts during each time slot, a number of broadcasts for the producer to transmit in each time slot of the total number of time slots.

  8. Small-Boat Noise Impacts Natural Settlement Behavior of Coral Reef Fish Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N; Holles, Sophie; Ferarri, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    After a pelagic larval phase, settlement-stage coral reef fish must locate a suitable reef habitat for juvenile life. Reef noise, produced by resident fish and invertebrates, provides an important cue for orientation and habitat selection during this process, which must often occur in environments impacted by anthropogenic noise. We adapted an established field-based protocol to test whether recorded boat noise influenced the settlement behavior of reef fish. Fewer fish settled to patch reefs broadcasting boat + reef noise compared with reef noise alone. This study suggests that boat noise, now a common feature of many reefs, can compromise critical settlement behavior of reef fishes.

  9. Reproductive biology of the black coral Antipathella wollastoni (Cnidaria: Antipatharia) in the Azores (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakka, Maria; Orejas, Covadonga; Sampaio, Iris; Monteiro, João; Parra, Hugo; Carreiro-Silva, Marina

    2017-11-01

    Antipathella wollastoni is an antipatharian species common to Macaronesia, occurring in depths between 20 and 1425 m. Despite its importance as a habitat-forming species, there is no information about its basic biology. The aim of the current study is to describe its reproductive strategy, gametogenic cycle and reproductive timing. Sampling was performed monthly on six tagged colonies during one year and specimens were histologically processed. A. wollastoni was found to be a gonochoric broadcast spawner. Gametogenesis took place within the primary transversal mesenteries, and followed an annual cycle. The reproductive season coincided with an increase in seawater temperature but spawning, inferred from the disappearance of gametes, likely happened after the sea surface temperature peak of the year (September 2009). Polyp fecundity ranged from 1 to 309 oocytes/polyp. A decrease in polyp fecundity was detected in samples at the higher pre-spawning maturity stage, indicating possible repetitive spawning or oocyte absorption. Intra-colonial comparisons revealed a longer duration of the reproductive cycle in the medial colony section, and a gradient of increased oocyte size towards the apical section, possibly due to intra-colonial differences in energy allocation between reproduction and other biological processes, or as a strategy against predation on gametes/larvae. Colony height was positively correlated with polyp fecundity indicating that the reproductive output increases with colony size.

  10. Acoustic characteristics of male commercial and public radio broadcast voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, Samantha; McCabe, Patricia; Yiu, Edwin; Heard, Robert; Madill, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Radio broadcasters need to have a voice that suits the station, which employs them. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are any acoustic measures that reflect differences between male broadcasters, who use their voices on commercial and public radio stations, and nonbroadcasting, male controls. Male commercial (n = 4) and public (n = 11) broadcasters and two groups of male, age-matched controls were recorded while reading the "Rainbow Passage" as if presenting on radio. Reading productions were analyzed for equivalent sound level (L(eq)), two measures of the long-term average spectrum and two measures of cepstral peak prominence. A two-group (ie, commercial vs public) by two-paired (broadcaster/matching control) analysis of variance was performed for each measure. An interaction effect was observed such that commercial broadcasters had a higher peak in speaker's formant (SF) region and lower alpha ratio (AR) (lower level difference between 0 and 1 k Hz and 1 and 4 kHz ranges) than public broadcasters and controls. Post hoc discriminant function analyses showed that AR could predict whether a radio performer worked on commercial or public radio network to 81% accuracy (R(2) = 0.810, P broadcasters have a more prominent peak in the SF region and smaller AR than public broadcasters and controls, similar to levels documented in actors. Given these features were not found in the public broadcasters and either control group, these results indicate that voice quality requirements for broadcasters may distinctly differ based on their station of employment. Further research with a larger sample size is required to validate this hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Camacho, Raúl; Gil-Agudelo, Diego Luis; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Reyes-Nivia, María Catalina; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC) has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá). The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10 x 2m) with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters) are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2), and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2). Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD), and White Plague Disease (WPD) were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A. grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years) variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few long

  12. Coral life history and symbiosis: Functional genomic resources for two reef building Caribbean corals, Acropora palmata and Montastraea faveolata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmant Alina M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scleractinian corals are the foundation of reef ecosystems in tropical marine environments. Their great success is due to interactions with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp., with which they are obligately symbiotic. To develop a foundation for studying coral biology and coral symbiosis, we have constructed a set of cDNA libraries and generated and annotated ESTs from two species of corals, Acropora palmata and Montastraea faveolata. Results We generated 14,588 (Ap and 3,854 (Mf high quality ESTs from five life history/symbiosis stages (spawned eggs, early-stage planula larvae, late-stage planula larvae either infected with symbionts or uninfected, and adult coral. The ESTs assembled into a set of primarily stage-specific clusters, producing 4,980 (Ap, and 1,732 (Mf unigenes. The egg stage library, relative to the other developmental stages, was enriched in genes functioning in cell division and proliferation, transcription, signal transduction, and regulation of protein function. Fifteen unigenes were identified as candidate symbiosis-related genes as they were expressed in all libraries constructed from the symbiotic stages and were absent from all of the non symbiotic stages. These include several DNA interacting proteins, and one highly expressed unigene (containing 17 cDNAs with no significant protein-coding region. A significant number of unigenes (25 encode potential pattern recognition receptors (lectins, scavenger receptors, and others, as well as genes that may function in signaling pathways involved in innate immune responses (toll-like signaling, NFkB p105, and MAP kinases. Comparison between the A. palmata and an A. millepora EST dataset identified ferritin as a highly expressed gene in both datasets that appears to be undergoing adaptive evolution. Five unigenes appear to be restricted to the Scleractinia, as they had no homology to any sequences in the nr databases nor to the non

  13. Coral reef ecosystem

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.

    is unparalleled by any other marine ecosystem. More than 2,200 fishes are known allover the world reefs (Sale 1980), ofwhich several hundreds may orcur at any time in a single reef (Sale et al. 1994). So is the order ofsome other invertebrate groups: corals (800... skeleton. in bone transplants). Capacity Building in Intellectual Property Rights (/PR) Technological benefits from the use of hiodiversity can be in lhe order of millions of dollars. For example, sale ofTaq D!'IA polymerase, produced from thennophi)ic...

  14. Nitrification in reef corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; David, J.J.

    (Taube 1970; Linck 1976). This stability of the hy- dration ion sphere imposes limitations on the mechanism of electron transfer reac- tions. The solubility of Cr(OH), (s) is about 400 nM at pH 8.5 and is controlled by the Cr(OH),+ and Cr... pho- tosynthesis (Olson cited by Kaplan 1983). Because our experiments were run in the 725 726 Notes Table 1. Production rates of NH,’ and N03- [nmol (mg coral tissue N)-’ h-l] with and without N-Serve addition (mean i 1 SD). Treatment Control...

  15. Coral reef protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration announced the establishment on 13 November of the first U.S. zone to protect a sensitive coral reef area from potential damage by ships.The Florida Keys' Particularly Sensitive Sea Area, just one of a handful of such areas globally, has been designated by the International Maritime Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations. The area protects a zone of more than 3,000 square nautical miles stretching from the Biscayne National Park to the Dry Tortugas.

  16. A study on the recovery of Tobago's coral reefs following the 2010 mass bleaching event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglass, Salome; Donner, Simon D; Alemu I, Jahson B

    2016-03-15

    In 2010, severe coral bleaching was observed across the southeastern Caribbean, including the island of Tobago, where coral reefs are subject to sedimentation and high nutrient levels from terrestrial runoff. Here we examine changes in corals' colony size distributions over time (2010-2013), juvenile abundances and sedimentation rates for sites across Tobago following the 2010 bleaching event. The results indicated that since pre-bleaching coral cover was already low due to local factors and past disturbance, the 2010 event affected only particular susceptible species' population size structure and increased the proportion of small sized colonies. The low density of juveniles (mean of 5.4±6.3 juveniles/m(-2)) suggests that Tobago's reefs already experienced limited recruitment, especially of large broadcasting species. The juvenile distribution and the response of individual species to the bleaching event support the notion that Caribbean reefs are becoming dominated by weedy non-framework building taxa which are more resilient to disturbances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Calcification responses of symbiotic and aposymbiotic corals to near-future levels of ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, S.; Irie, T.; Inoue, M.; Shinmen, K.; Kawahata, H.; Nakamura, T.; Kato, A.; Nojiri, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Sakai, K.; van Woesik, R.

    2013-11-01

    Increasing the acidity of ocean waters will directly threaten calcifying marine organisms such as reef-building scleractinian corals, and the myriad of species that rely on corals for protection and sustenance. Ocean pH has already decreased by around 0.1 pH units since the beginning of the industrial revolution, and is expected to decrease by another 0.2-0.4 pH units by 2100. This study mimicked the pre-industrial, present, and near-future levels of pCO2 using a precise control system (± 5% pCO2), to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the calcification of recently settled primary polyps of Acropora digitifera, both with and without symbionts, and adult fragments with symbionts. The increase in pCO2 of ~100 μatm between the pre-industrial period and the present had more effect on the calcification rate of adult A. digitifera than the anticipated future increases of several hundreds of micro-atmospheres of pCO2. The primary polyps with symbionts showed higher calcification rates than primary polyps without symbionts, suggesting that: (i) primary polyps housing symbionts are more tolerant to near-future ocean acidification than organisms without symbionts, and (ii) corals acquiring symbionts from the environment (i.e., broadcasting species) will be more vulnerable to ocean acidification than corals that maternally acquire symbionts.

  18. User innovation in public service broadcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis; Tadayoni, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to understand how public service media can encourage media entrepreneurship in the society to enrich user innovations as a source of ideas, products, contents, talent and creativity. The assumption is that media entrepreneurs turn users into sources of external creativity...... and develop user innovations into professional content. This study follows a qualitative approach with a document study of Denmark's public service broadcast and two interviews. Findings indicate that the commitment to quality and professional content prevents managers of PSBs from outsourcing...... their production to media entrepreneurs, but they trust large media companies as external producers. This research contributes to the field by proposing that public service media can foster media entrepreneurship in a society indirectly and by creating demand for external sources of creativity. Large media...

  19. Sales plan generation problem on TV broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Cosgun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Major advertisers and/or advertisement agencies purchase hundreds of slots during a given broadcast period. Deterministic optimization approaches have been well developed for the problem of meeting client requests. The challenging task for the academic research currently is to address optimization problem under uncertainty. This paper is concerned with the sales plan generation problem when the audience levels of advertisement slots are random variables with known probability distributions. There are several constraints the TV networks must meet including client budget, product category and demographic information, plan weighting by week, program mix requirements, and the lengths of advertisement slots desired by the client. We formulate the problem as a chance constrained goal program and we demonstrate that it provides a robust solution with a user specified level of reliability.

  20. Strategy and Space for Broadcasting Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on results from an ongoing research project on space strategies and building values, which in-cludes a major case study of the development of facilities for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation over time. The focus is to identify, how different space strategies have been...... implemented in different periods and how these strate-gies can be related to the general conditions of the corporation. Based on theories from Martha O’Mara’s book on Space and Strategy (Free Press, 1999) development in the strategic uncertainty of the corporation is investigated as a main determining factor...... for changes in space strategy. The paper will also explain how space strategies in different periods deals with the need for adaptability and how adaptability is interpreted differently in various periods. The conclusions include relations between value-based space strategies and the presence of visionary...

  1. Efficient broadcast on random geometric graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elsasser, Robert [UNIV OF PADERBORN; Friedrich, Tobias [INTERNATIONAL COMPUTER SCI.; Sauerwald, Thomas [INTERNATIONAL COMPUTER SCI.

    2009-01-01

    A Randon Geometric Graph (RGG) is constructed by distributing n nodes uniformly at random in the unit square and connecting two nodes if their Euclidean distance is at most r, for some prescribed r. They analyze the following randomized broadcast algorithm on RGGs. At the beginning, there is only one informed node. Then in each round, each informed node chooses a neighbor uniformly at random and informs it. They prove that this algorithm informs every node in the largest component of a RGG in {Omicron}({radical}n/r) rounds with high probability. This holds for any value of r larger than the critical value for the emergence of a giant component. In particular, the result implies that the diameter of the giant component is {Theta}({radical}n/r).

  2. Broadcast Communication by System Frequency Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; You, Shi; Heussen, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Load controllers available today can measure AC system frequency and react to frequency deviations. A system operator can communicate to frequency sensitive loads by changing the set-points of the system’s dispatchable frequency regulation resources. Explicitly signaling system state by generating...... off-nominal system frequency values is a novel narrowband broadcast communications channel between system operators and frequency sensitive distributed energy resources (FS-DER). The feasibility of the proposed system is evaluated on an existing island power system in Denmark. This study shows...... these constraints, the proposed system would allow operators to dispatch FS-DER in a robust manner, without using an external digital control channel. By dispatching FS-DER, their well known role as a power balancing resource can be expanded to include energy balancing services....

  3. New perspectives on ecological mechanisms affecting coral recruitment on reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritson-Williams, R.; Arnold, S.N.; Fogarty, N.D.; Steneck, R.S.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Paul, V.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coral mortality has increased in recent decades, making coral recruitment more important than ever in sustaining coral reef ecosystems and contributing to their resilience. This review summarizes existing information on ecological factors affecting scleractinian coral recruitment. Successful

  4. Spawning distribution of sockeye salmon in a glacially influenced watershed: The importance of glacial habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel B.; Woody, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The spawning distribution of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka was compared between clear and glacially turbid habitats in Lake Clark, Alaska, with the use of radiotelemetry. Tracking of 241 adult sockeye salmon to 27 spawning locations revealed both essential habitats and the relationship between spawn timing and seasonal turbidity cycles. Sixty-six percent of radio-tagged sockeye salmon spawned in turbid waters (???5 nephelometric turbidity units) where visual observation was difficult. Spawning in turbid habitats coincided with seasonal temperature declines and associated declines in turbidity and suspended sediment concentration. Because spawn timing is heritable and influenced by temperature, the observed behavior suggests an adaptive response to glacier-fed habitats, as it would reduce embryonic exposure to the adverse effects of fine sediments. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  5. Coral morphology and sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Alan; Giofre, Natalie; Jones, Ross

    2017-08-29

    The sediment rejection ability of 8 coral species of 5 families and 3 morphologies were assessed in a series of short term exposure tests over a sedimentation range of 0.5-40mgcm(-2)d(-1) and one longer term exposure test of 235mgcm(-2). Sediment accumulation rates on live corals and dead (enamel-covered) skeletons varied between morphologies, with branching species often more adept at self-cleaning. Flow rates (0-17cms(-1)) significantly affected sediment-shedding ability as did differences in particle sizes, with coarse silt rejected faster than fine silt, but only at very high (235mgcm(-2)) deposition rates. Siliciclastic sediment was rejected faster than carbonate sediments and smothering for many days by mms of low organic content carbonate sediment resulted in bleaching, but no mortality. The findings are discussed with respect to turbidity generated in natural and dredging-related resuspension events and in the context for impact prediction for dredging projects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. TV Broadcast Efficiency in 5G Networks from Subscriber Prospective

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2015-12-06

    The flexibility of radio access network facilitated by 5G networks opens the gateway of deploying dynamic strategies for broadcasting TV channels in an efficient way. Currently, spectrum efficiency and bandwidth efficiency are the two common metrics measuring the efficiency of a system. These metrics assess the net bitrate for a unit of spectrum bandwidth. However, there is a lack of measurement, quantifying the effectiveness of a broadcasting strategy from the user perspective. In this paper, we introduce a novel measurement approach, called broadcast efficiency which considers the mobile user as a main reference. Broadcast efficiency is calculated as the number of served audiences per unit of radio resource. From numerical analysis, we show that broadcasting unpopular TV channels dramatically decreases the broadcast efficiency. This finding is evaluated by employing multiple distributions on the size of audience among TV channels. Furthermore, by conducting a real-life simulation, we discover that a high broadcast efficiency may result in a low percentage of served audiences if the audiences of TV channels are quite evenly distributed.

  7. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral, Coral...

  8. Population characteristics of a recovering US Virgin Islands red hind spawning aggregation following protection

    OpenAIRE

    Nemeth, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    Many species of groupers form spawning aggregations, dramatic events where 100s to 1000s of individuals gather annually at specific locations for reproduction. Spawning aggregations are often targeted by local fishermen, making them extremely vulnerable to over fishing. The Red Hind Bank Marine Conservation District located in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands, was closed seasonally in 1990 and closed permanently in 1999 to protect an important red hind Epinephelus guttatus spawning si...

  9. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  10. Spawning patterns of Pacific Lamprey in tributaries to the Willamette River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, M.P.; Schultz, Luke; Wyss, Lance A.; Clemens, B. J.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the ongoing decline of Pacific Lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus across its range along the west coast of North America requires an understanding of all life history phases. Currently, spawning surveys (redd counts) are a common tool used to monitor returning adult salmonids, but the methods are in their infancy for Pacific Lamprey. To better understand the spawning phase, our objective was to assess temporal spawning trends, redd abundance, habitat use, and spatial patterns of spawning at multiple spatial scales for Pacific Lamprey in the Willamette River basin, Oregon. Although redd density varied considerably across surveyed reaches, the observed temporal patterns of spawning were related to physical habitat and hydrologic conditions. As has been documented in studies in other basins in the Pacific Northwest, we found that redds were often constructed in pool tailouts dominated by gravel, similar to habitat used by spawning salmonids. Across the entire Willamette Basin, Pacific Lampreys appeared to select reaches with alluvial geology, likely because this is where gravel suitable for spawning accumulated. At the tributary scale, spawning patterns were not as strong, and in reaches with nonalluvial geology redds were more spatially clumped than in reaches with alluvial geology. These results can be used to help identify and conserve Pacific Lamprey spawning habitat across the Pacific Northwest.

  11. Population characteristics of a recovering US Virgin Islands red hind spawning aggregation following protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Richard S

    2005-02-01

    Many species of groupers form spawning aggregations, dramatic events where 100s to 1000s of individuals gather annually at specific locations for reproduction. Spawning aggregations are often targeted by local fishermen, making them extremely vulnerable to over fishing. The Red Hind Bank Marine Conservation District located in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands, was closed seasonally in 1990 and closed permanently in 1999 to protect an important red hind Epinephelus guttatus spawning site. This study provides some of the first information on the population response of a spawning aggregation located within a marine protected area. Tag-and-release fishing and fish transects were used to evaluate population characteristics and habitat utilization patterns of a red hind spawning aggregation between 1999 and 2004. Compared with studies conducted before the permanent closure, the average size of red hind increased mostly during the seasonal closure period (10 cm over 12 yr), but the maximum total length of male red hind increased by nearly 7 cm following permanent closure. Average density and biomass of spawning red hind increased by over 60% following permanent closure whereas maximum spawning density more than doubled. Information from tag returns indicated that red hind departed the protected area following spawning and migrated 6 to 33 km to a ca. 500 km(2) area. Protection of the spawning aggregation site may have also contributed to an overall increase in the size of red hind caught in the commercial fishery, thus increasing the value of the grouper fishery for local fishermen.

  12. National association of broadcasters engineering handbook NAB engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Graham A; Osenkowsky, Thomas G; Williams, Edmund A

    2013-01-01

    The NAB Engineering Handbook provides detailed information on virtually every aspect of the broadcast chain, from news gathering, program production and postproduction through master control and distribution links to transmission, antennas, RF propagation, cable and satellite. Hot topics covered include HD Radio, HDTV, 2 GHz broadcast auxiliary services, EAS, workflow, metadata, digital asset management, advanced video and audio compression, audio and video over IP, and Internet broadcasting. A wide range of related topics that engineers and managers need to understand are also covered, includ

  13. Direct broadcast of a sporting event as televisual cultural form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct TV broadcasting of sport events is undoubtedly the focal point of interest of sport fans in sports media as well as of sponsors and investors responsible for the global mediatisation of popular sports. In this article, the centrality of direct TV broadcasts in the televisual coverage of sports, as well as in the presence of sports in new media in general is explained in the context of the impact of the mediatisation of sports upon cultural forms of TV coverage of sports. The complexity of these forms and its main features (the role of the commentator, the rules of editing, dramatisation and narrativisation in direct broadcasts are analysed.

  14. Direct broadcasting by satellite for the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainger, P.; Phillips, G. J.

    1980-09-01

    The 1977 ITU broadcast allocations provide five frequency channels on the 12 GHz microwave band to each of its European member countries. The paper discusses the economic considerations and engineering aspects of implementing Direct Broadcasting Satellite (DBS) services by 1985-1987. A 1984 Ariane-3 launch will lift a package into geosynchronous orbit for the purpose of conducting satellite broadcasting demonstrations and pre-operational testing. Two DBS program services have been proposed by the BBC - subscription television and a national program, UK1 - with the IBA and the BBC sharing regulatory authority

  15. The Two-User Gaussian Fading Broadcast Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarian, Amin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents outerbounds for the two-user Gaussian fading broadcast channel. These outerbounds are based on Costa's entropy power inequality (Costa-EPI) and are formulated mathematically as a feasibility problem. For classes of the two-user Gaussian fading broadcast channel where the outerbound is found to have a feasible solution, we find conditions under which a suitable inner and outer bound meet. For all such cases, this paper provides a partial characterization of the capacity region of the Gaussian two-user fading broadcast channel.

  16. Coral Reef Protection Implementation Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobel, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    This document identify policies and actions to implement the Department of Defense's responsibilities under Executive Order 13089 on Coral Reef Protection, and are a requirement of the interim Task...

  17. Coral reefs at the crossroads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hubbard, Dennis K; Rogers, Caroline S; Lipps, Jere H; Stanley, George D

    2016-01-01

    .... More than any other earth system, coral reefs sit at a disciplinary crossroads. Most recently, they have reached another crossroads - fundamental changes in their bio-physical structure greater than those of previous centuries or even millennia...

  18. Advancing Ocean Monitoring Near Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Scott F.; Steinberg, Craig R.; Heron, Mal L.; Mantovanelli, Alessandra; Jaffrés, Jasmine B. D.; Skirving, William J.; McAllister, Felicity; Rigby, Paul; Wisdom, Daniel; Bainbridge, Scott

    2010-10-01

    Corals, the foundation of tropical marine ecosystems, exist in a symbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae (algae). The corals obtain much of their energy by consuming compounds derived from photosynthesis by these microorganisms; the microorganisms, which reside in the coral tissue, in turn use waste products from the corals to sustain photosynthesis. This symbiosis is very sensitive to subtle changes in environment, such as increased ocean acidity, temperature, and light. When unduly stressed, the colorful algae are expelled from the corals, causing the corals to “bleach” and potentially die [e.g., van Oppen and Lough, 2009].

  19. 47 CFR 73.4163 - Noncommercial nature of educational broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Noncommercial nature of educational broadcast stations. 73.4163 Section 73.4163 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4163...

  20. 47 CFR 73.2090 - Ban on discrimination in broadcast transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ban on discrimination in broadcast transactions. 73.2090 Section 73.2090 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.2090 Ban on...

  1. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast regulations applicable to translators... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast...

  2. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power...) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES General; Rules Applicable to All Services in Part 74 § 74.6 Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and...

  3. 78 FR 67025 - Domestic Requests for Broadcasting Board of Governors Program Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ...; and (b) The TV Marti Division of the Office of Cuba Broadcasting for broadcast-quality copies of TV or... for media and organization one-time requests for broadcast-quality agency program materials, and... as follows: Sec. 502.4 Media or organization one-time requests for broadcast quality agency program...

  4. 47 CFR 73.6026 - Broadcast regulations applicable to Class A television stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... television stations. 73.6026 Section 73.6026 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6026 Broadcast regulations applicable to Class A television stations. The following rules are applicable to Class A...

  5. 47 CFR 73.9001 - Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Redistribution control of digital television... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73.9001 Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts. Licensees of TV broadcast stations may utilize the...

  6. Coral Reef Protection Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-19

    island attracts the largest popula- . I tion of laysan albatross , 16 species of seabirds 4.1 (over twormillion birds), a variety of shore birds, the...clogs the coral’s feeding struc- Diego Garcia tures, eventually killing it. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CORAL REEF POLICY STATEMENTS One of DoD’s earliest...tentacles. The fish returns the favor by chasing away other fishes that feed on the anemone. Certain species of clownfish live only with certain species

  7. Microbial regulation in gorgonian corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Laura R; Smith, Stephanie M; Downum, Kelsey R; Mydlarz, Laura D

    2012-06-01

    Gorgonian corals possess many novel natural products that could potentially mediate coral-bacterial interactions. Since many bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) signals to facilitate colonization of host organisms, regulation of prokaryotic cell-to-cell communication may represent an important bacterial control mechanism. In the present study, we examined extracts of twelve species of Caribbean gorgonian corals, for mechanisms that regulate microbial colonization, such as antibacterial activity and QS regulatory activity. Ethanol extracts of gorgonians collected from Puerto Rico and the Florida Keys showed a range of both antibacterial and QS activities using a specific Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS reporter, sensitive to long chain AHLs and a short chain N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) biosensor, Chromobacterium violaceium. Overall, the gorgonian corals had higher antimicrobial activity against non-marine strains when compared to marine strains. Pseudopterogorgia americana, Pseusopterogorgia acerosa, and Pseudoplexuara flexuosa had the highest QS inhibitory effect. Interestingly, Pseudoplexuara porosa extracts stimulated QS activity with a striking 17-fold increase in signal. The stimulation of QS by P. porosa or other elements of the holobiont may encourage colonization or recruitment of specific microbial species. Overall, these results suggest the presence of novel stimulatory QS, inhibitory QS and bactericidal compounds in gorgonian corals. A better understanding of these compounds may reveal insight into coral-microbial ecology and whether a therapeutic potential exists.

  8. Preserving and using germplasm and dissociated embryonic cells for conserving Caribbean and Pacific coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hagedorn

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are experiencing unprecedented degradation due to human activities, and protecting specific reef habitats may not stop this decline, because the most serious threats are global (i.e., climate change, not local. However, ex situ preservation practices can provide safeguards for coral reef conservation. Specifically, modern advances in cryobiology and genome banking could secure existing species and genetic diversity until genotypes can be introduced into rehabilitated habitats. We assessed the feasibility of recovering viable sperm and embryonic cells post-thaw from two coral species, Acropora palmata and Fungia scutaria that have diffferent evolutionary histories, ecological niches and reproductive strategies. In vitro fertilization (IVF of conspecific eggs using fresh (control spermatozoa revealed high levels of fertilization (>90% in A. palmata; >84% in F. scutaria; P>0.05 that were unaffected by tested sperm concentrations. A solution of 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO at cooling rates of 20 to 30°C/min most successfully cryopreserved both A. palmata and F. scutaria spermatozoa and allowed producing developing larvae in vitro. IVF success under these conditions was 65% in A. palmata and 53% in F. scutaria on particular nights; however, on subsequent nights, the same process resulted in little or no IVF success. Thus, the window for optimal freezing of high quality spermatozoa was short (∼5 h for one night each spawning cycle. Additionally, cryopreserved F. scutaria embryonic cells had∼50% post-thaw viability as measured by intact membranes. Thus, despite some differences between species, coral spermatozoa and embryonic cells are viable after low temperature (-196°C storage, preservation and thawing. Based on these results, we have begun systematically banking coral spermatozoa and embryonic cells on a large-scale as a support approach for preserving existing bio- and genetic diversity found in reef systems.

  9. Preserving and using germplasm and dissociated embryonic cells for conserving Caribbean and Pacific coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Mary; Carter, Virginia; Martorana, Kelly; Paresa, Malia K; Acker, Jason; Baums, Iliana B; Borneman, Eric; Brittsan, Michael; Byers, Michael; Henley, Michael; Laterveer, Michael; Leong, Jo-Ann; McCarthy, Megan; Meyers, Stuart; Nelson, Brian D; Petersen, Dirk; Tiersch, Terrence; Uribe, Rafael Cuevas; Woods, Erik; Wildt, David

    2012-01-01

    Coral reefs are experiencing unprecedented degradation due to human activities, and protecting specific reef habitats may not stop this decline, because the most serious threats are global (i.e., climate change), not local. However, ex situ preservation practices can provide safeguards for coral reef conservation. Specifically, modern advances in cryobiology and genome banking could secure existing species and genetic diversity until genotypes can be introduced into rehabilitated habitats. We assessed the feasibility of recovering viable sperm and embryonic cells post-thaw from two coral species, Acropora palmata and Fungia scutaria that have diffferent evolutionary histories, ecological niches and reproductive strategies. In vitro fertilization (IVF) of conspecific eggs using fresh (control) spermatozoa revealed high levels of fertilization (>90% in A. palmata; >84% in F. scutaria; P>0.05) that were unaffected by tested sperm concentrations. A solution of 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at cooling rates of 20 to 30°C/min most successfully cryopreserved both A. palmata and F. scutaria spermatozoa and allowed producing developing larvae in vitro. IVF success under these conditions was 65% in A. palmata and 53% in F. scutaria on particular nights; however, on subsequent nights, the same process resulted in little or no IVF success. Thus, the window for optimal freezing of high quality spermatozoa was short (∼5 h for one night each spawning cycle). Additionally, cryopreserved F. scutaria embryonic cells had∼50% post-thaw viability as measured by intact membranes. Thus, despite some differences between species, coral spermatozoa and embryonic cells are viable after low temperature (-196°C) storage, preservation and thawing. Based on these results, we have begun systematically banking coral spermatozoa and embryonic cells on a large-scale as a support approach for preserving existing bio- and genetic diversity found in reef systems.

  10. Passive acoustic monitoring to detect spawning in large-bodied catostomids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Carrie A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Documenting timing, locations, and intensity of spawning can provide valuable information for conservation and management of imperiled fishes. However, deep, turbid or turbulent water, or occurrence of spawning at night, can severely limit direct observations. We have developed and tested the use of passive acoustics to detect distinctive acoustic signatures associated with spawning events of two large-bodied catostomid species (River Redhorse Moxostoma carinatum and Robust Redhorse Moxostoma robustum) in river systems in north Georgia. We deployed a hydrophone with a recording unit at four different locations on four different dates when we could both record and observe spawning activity. Recordings captured 494 spawning events that we acoustically characterized using dominant frequency, 95% frequency, relative power, and duration. We similarly characterized 46 randomly selected ambient river noises. Dominant frequency did not differ between redhorse species and ranged from 172.3 to 14,987.1 Hz. Duration of spawning events ranged from 0.65 to 11.07 s, River Redhorse having longer durations than Robust Redhorse. Observed spawning events had significantly higher dominant and 95% frequencies than ambient river noises. We additionally tested software designed to automate acoustic detection. The automated detection configurations correctly identified 80–82% of known spawning events, and falsely indentified spawns 6–7% of the time when none occurred. These rates were combined over all recordings; rates were more variable among individual recordings. Longer spawning events were more likely to be detected. Combined with sufficient visual observations to ascertain species identities and to estimate detection error rates, passive acoustic recording provides a useful tool to study spawning frequency of large-bodied fishes that displace gravel during egg deposition, including several species of imperiled catostomids.

  11. Temporal patterns of migration and spawning of river herring in coastal Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Julianne; Roy, Allison; Gahagan, Benjamin I.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Armstrong, Michael P.; Sheppard, John J.; Jordaan, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Migrations of springtime Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and Blueback Herring A. aestivalis, collectively referred to as river herring, are monitored in many rivers along the Atlantic coast to estimate population sizes. While these estimates give an indication of annual differences in the number of returning adults, links to the subsequent timing and duration of spawning and freshwater juvenile productivity remain equivocal. In this study, we captured juvenile river herring at night in 20 coastal Massachusetts lakes using a purse seine and extracted otoliths to derive daily fish ages and back-calculate spawn dates. Estimates of spawning dates were compared with fishway counts of migrating adults to assess differences in migration timing and the timing and duration of spawning. We observed a distinct delay between the beginning of the adult migration run and the start of spawning, ranging from 7 to 28 d across the 20 lakes. Spawning continued 13–48 d after adults stopped migrating into freshwater, further demonstrating a pronounced delay in spawning following migration. Across the study sites the duration of spawning (43–76 d) was longer but not related to the duration of migration (29–66 d). The extended spawning period is consistent with recent studies suggesting that Alewives are indeterminate spawners. The long duration in freshwater provides the opportunity for top-down (i.e., predation on zooplankton) and bottom-up (i.e., food for avian, fish, and other predators) effects, with implications for freshwater food webs and nutrient cycling. General patterns of spawn timing and duration can be incorporated into population models and used to estimate temporal changes in productivity associated with variable timing and density of spawning river herring in lakes.

  12. 78 FR 12967 - Broadcast Services; Children's Television; Cable Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Broadcast Services; Children's Television; Cable Operators AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: This document announces...

  13. 76 FR 43933 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Markham, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Markham, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... petition for reconsideration of Victoria Radio Works, LLC (``VRW''), seeking reconsideration of the Audio...

  14. Low Cost Antennas for Direct Broadcast Satellite Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T. K.; Huang, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two omni-directional and circularly polarized low gain antennas (the crossed drooping dipole and the TM(sub 21) mode circular patch antenna)are developed for direct broadcast satellite radio (DBSR) outdoor mobile terminal applications.

  15. The Educational Project for Media Literacy Using Radio Broadcasting System

    OpenAIRE

    北村, 順生; Kitamura, Yorio

    2009-01-01

    This report outlines the educational project for media literacy using radio broadcasting system. The practical activity to produce a radio program are very effective on the students to cultivate their media literacy.

  16. 77 FR 38761 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposal rule; dismissal. SUMMARY: The Audio Division dismisses the petition for...

  17. 78 FR 11987 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Avalon, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Avalon, California AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: This document announces the...

  18. 75 FR 81190 - Television Broadcasting Services; Yuma, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Yuma, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Dismissal. SUMMARY: The Commission dismisses the petition for rulemaking filed by Arizona...

  19. 76 FR 18497 - Television Broadcasting Services; Augusta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Augusta, GA AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division, Media...

  20. Real-time data compression of broadcast video signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkauser, Mary Jo W. (Inventor); Whyte, Wayne A., Jr. (Inventor); Barnes, Scott P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A non-adaptive predictor, a nonuniform quantizer, and a multi-level Huffman coder are incorporated into a differential pulse code modulation system for coding and decoding broadcast video signals in real time.

  1. Surveying woodland raptors by broadcast of conspecific vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, J.A.; Fuller, M.R.; Kopeny, M.

    1990-01-01

    We surveyed for raptors in forests on study areas in five of the eastern United States. For Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperi), Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus), and Barred Owls (Strix varia) the contact rates obtained by broadcasting taped vocalizations of conspecifics along roads were significantly greater than contact rates obtained by only looking and listening from the roadside. Broad-winged Hawks (B. platypterus) were detected only after their calls were broadcast. Most raptors were detected within 10 min of the beginning of the broadcasts. Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis) and Goshawks (A. gentilis) nested infrequently on our study areas, and we were unable to increase detections of these species. Generally, point count transects along woodland roads, from which conspecific vocalizations were broadcast, resulted in higher species specific detection rates than when walking, driving continuously, or only looking and listening for raptors at roadside stops.

  2. An interference cancellation strategy for broadcast in hierarchical cell structure

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical cell structure is considered, where public safety broadcasting is fulfilled in a femtocell located within a macrocell. In the femtocell, also known as local cell, an access point broadcasts to each local node (LN) over an orthogonal frequency sub-band independently. Since the local cell shares the spectrum licensed to the macrocell, a given LN is interfered by transmissions of the macrocell user (MU) in the same sub-band. To improve the broadcast performance in the local cell, a novel scheme is proposed to mitigate the interference from the MU to the LN while achieving diversity gain. For the sake of performance evaluation, ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is quantified and a corresponding closed-form expression is obtained. By comparing with the traditional scheme that suffers from the MU\\'s interference, numerical results substantiate the advantage of the proposed scheme and provide a useful tool for the broadcast design in hierarchical cell systems.

  3. Print, Broadcast Students Share VDTs at West Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Churchill L.; Dickson, Sandra H.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of video display terminals in the journalism lab of a Florida university. Discusses the different purposes for which broadcast and print journalism students use such equipment. (HTH)

  4. Coral calcification and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Jury, Christopher P.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, the discovery that light increased calcification in the coral plant-animal symbiosis triggered interest in explaining the phenomenon and understanding the mechanisms involved. Major findings along the way include the observation that carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the zooxanthellae is translocated to animal cells throughout the colony and that corals can therefore live as autotrophs in many situations. Recent research has focused on explaining the observed reduction in calcification rate with increasing ocean acidification (OA). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between declining ocean pH, declining aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), declining [CO32_] and coral calcification. Nearly all previous reports on OA identify Ωarag or its surrogate [CO32] as the factor driving coral calcification. However, the alternate “Proton Flux Hypothesis” stated that coral calcification is controlled by diffusion limitation of net H+ transport through the boundary layer in relation to availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The “Two Compartment Proton Flux Model” expanded this explanation and synthesized diverse observations into a universal model that explains many paradoxes of coral metabolism, morphology and plasticity of growth form in addition to observed coral skeletal growth response to OA. It is now clear that irradiance is the main driver of net photosynthesis (Pnet), which in turn drives net calcification (Gnet), and alters pH in the bulk water surrounding the coral. Pnet controls [CO32] and thus Ωarag of the bulk water over the diel cycle. Changes in Ωarag and pH lag behind Gnet throughout the daily cycle by two or more hours. The flux rate Pnet, rather than concentration-based parameters (e.g., Ωarag, [CO3 2], pH and [DIC]:[H+] ratio) is the primary driver of Gnet. Daytime coral metabolism rapidly removes DIC from the bulk seawater. Photosynthesis increases the bulk seawater pH while providing the energy that drives

  5. THE CONDITION OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTH FLORIDA (2000) USING CORAL DISEASE AND BLEACHING AS INDICATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The destruction for coral reef habitats is occurring at unprecedented levels. Coral disease epizootics in the Southwestern Atlantic have lead to coral replacement by turf algae, prompting a call to classify some coral species as endangered. In addition, a massive bleaching event ...

  6. Vibrio Zinc-Metalloprotease Causes Photoinactivation of Coral Endosymbionts and Coral Tissue Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sussman, Meir; Mieog, Jos C.; Doyle, Jason; Victor, Steven; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Coral diseases are emerging as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide. Of nine coral infectious diseases, whose pathogens have been characterized, six are caused by agents from the family Vibrionacae, raising questions as to their origin and role in coral disease aetiology.

  7. How we use online broadcasting - Web TV - for community engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Conway, F. M.; Matti, J.; Palmer, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Arizona Geological Survey uses online broadcasting (Webcast or 'Web TV') to help fulfill our statutory mission to 'Inform, advise and assist the public in matters concerning the geological processes, materials and landscapes and the development and use of the mineral resources of this state.' We launched a monthly online broadcast called 'Arizona Mining Review' via Livestream, a low-cost or free video streaming service. The show provides news, interviews, and discussions about mining and mineral resources topics of interest in Arizona, the nation's second largest non-fuel mining state. The costs to set up and broadcast are minor. Interviews with local guests are held in a corner of the AZGS conference room with easy chairs and a couch; long-distance interviews are held via Skype. The broadcast originates from a desktop computer with a webcam, a $60 microphone, three sets of earbud headphones and a powered amplifier. During broadcasts, we supplement interview footage with slides, photos, or video clips that we have or are provided by guests. Initial broadcasts were live; recordings of these were later uploaded to our YouTube channel. Because scheduling and executing a live Internet broadcast is stressful and demanding for both the production team and guests, we recently elected to record and produce episodes prior to broadcasting them. This allows us more control over supplementary materials used during the broadcast; it also permits us to record the broadcast using a high-definition digital video camera that cannot be used for streaming video. In addition to the Arizona Mining Review, we record conferences and workshops and special presentations on topical issues. A video on the recently discovered Little Chino fault has drawn over 3,000 views. Our latest presentations are short 1-2 minute 'video abstracts' delivered by authors of new publications released by the Survey. These include maps and graphics from the reports to help illustrate the topics and their

  8. Broadcast Abstraction in a Stochastic Calculus for Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei; Godskesen, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    topology constraint. We allow continuous time stochastic behavior of processes running at network nodes, e.g. in order to be able to model randomized protocols. The introduction of group broadcast and an operator to help avoid flooding allows us to define a novel notion of broadcast abstraction. Finally......, we define a weak bisimulation congruence and apply our theory on an example of a leader election protocol....

  9. At the Digital Watershed: Terrestrial Television Broadcasting in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Koga-Browes, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The switch to digital terrestrial broadcasting on 24 July 2011 marked a watershed for the broadcasting industry in Japan. Digitalisation is the single largest industry-wide event since the advent of alternative distribution technologies, satellite and cable, in the 1980s. Preparation for the switch to digital, known as chideji-ka, has put existing business arrangements under pressure and has led to a renewed focus on the future shape of the industry. There is increasing acknowledgement that c...

  10. Transmission techniques for emergent multicast and broadcast systems

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Mario Marques; Dinis, Rui; Souto, Nuno; Silva, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Describing efficient transmission schemes for broadband wireless systems, Transmission Techniques for Emergent Multicast and Broadcast Systems examines advances in transmission techniques and receiver designs capable of supporting the emergent wireless needs for multimedia broadcast and multicast service (MBMS) requirements. It summarizes the research and development taking place in wireless communications for multimedia MBMS and addresses the means to improved spectral efficiency to allow for increased user bit rate, as well as increased capacity of the digital cellular radio network.The text

  11. Recent and future applications of video compression in broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, G. M.

    1995-02-01

    This paper considers the role of video compression in the transmission of television signals. It highlights contribution and distribution as well as direct-to-home broadcasting applications on satellite which are current and describes aspects of the standards, technology and systems required to support them. Some aspects of system performance are discussed together with a brief summary of future developments particularly on other media than those traditionally used by broadcasters.

  12. Beyond Broadcast Yourself ™: The Future of YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrett, Kylie

    2008-01-01

    Since its launch in early 2005, video sharing website YouTube has emerged as a culturally, politically and economically significant medium and as one of the inheritors of the social role played by broadcast television. However its continued growth and journey to profitability is not guaranteed. This paper queries the future of YouTube by exploring the tension inherent in the site’s 3 key characteristics embodied within its slogan Broadcast Yourself ™. The site is based within r...

  13. French Musical Broadcasting from 1955 to 1964: New Paths for the Broadcasting of Music

    OpenAIRE

    Bennet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    During the 55-64 decade, French radio knows very serious modifications. Beside the birth of the private station Europe #1 (which doesn't concern our topic, since it hardly broadcasts any classical music), which is going to overshadow the national radio, it is going to be transformed, parallel to the replacement of its successive managers. The eleven years with Wladimir Porché at the helm were essential. Parallel to the development of the radio (the multiplication of the stations, programs, tr...

  14. Gaze location prediction for broadcast football video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qin; Agrafiotis, Dimitris; Achim, Alin M; Bull, David R

    2013-12-01

    The sensitivity of the human visual system decreases dramatically with increasing distance from the fixation location in a video frame. Accurate prediction of a viewer's gaze location has the potential to improve bit allocation, rate control, error resilience, and quality evaluation in video compression. Commercially, delivery of football video content is of great interest because of the very high number of consumers. In this paper, we propose a gaze location prediction system for high definition broadcast football video. The proposed system uses knowledge about the context, extracted through analysis of a gaze tracking study that we performed, to build a suitable prior map. We further classify the complex context into different categories through shot classification thus allowing our model to prelearn the task pertinence of each object category and build the prior map automatically. We thus avoid the limitation of assigning the viewers a specific task, allowing our gaze prediction system to work under free-viewing conditions. Bayesian integration of bottom-up features and top-down priors is finally applied to predict the gaze locations. Results show that the prediction performance of the proposed model is better than that of other top-down models that we adapted to this context.

  15. Broadcasted Location-Aware Data Cache for Vehicular Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda Akira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the exploitation of advances in information technology, for example, mobile computing and wireless communications in ITS (intelligent transport systems. Classes of applications that can benefit from such an infrastructure include traffic information, roadside businesses, weather reports, entertainment, and so on. There are several wireless communication methods currently available that can be utilized for vehicular applications, such as cellular phone networks, DSRC (dedicated short-range communication, and digital broadcasting. While a cellular phone network is relatively slow and a DSRC has a very small communication area, one-segment digital terrestrial broadcasting service was launched in Japan in 2006, high-performance digital broadcasting for mobile hosts has been available recently. However, broadcast delivery methods have the drawback that clients need to wait for the required data items to appear on the broadcast channel. In this paper, we propose a new cache system to effectively prefetch and replace broadcast data using "scope" (an available area of location-dependent data and "mobility specification" (a schedule according to the direction in which a mobile host moves. We numerically evaluate the cache system on the model close to the traffic road environment, and implement the emulation system to evaluate this location-aware data delivery method for a concrete vehicular application that delivers geographic road map data to a car navigation system.

  16. Performance Analysis of Reuse Distance in Cooperative Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmi Grönkvist

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative broadcasting is a promising technique for robust broadcast with low overhead and delay in mobile ad hoc networks. The technique is attractive for mission-oriented mobile communication, where a majority of the traffic is of broadcast nature. In cooperative broadcasting, all nodes simultaneously retransmit packets. The receiver utilizes cooperative diversity in the simultaneously received signals. The retransmissions continue until all nodes are reached. After the packet has traveled a specific number of hops out from the source, denoted as reuse distance, the source node transmits a new broadcast packet in the time slot used for the previous broadcast packet. If the reuse distance is too small, interference causes packet loss in intermediate nodes. In the literature, a reuse distance of three is common. With an analysis based on a realistic interference model and real terrain data, we show that a reuse distance of at least four is necessary to avoid packet loss in sparsely connected networks, especially for high spectral efficiencies. For frequency hopping, widely used in military systems, we propose a novel method. This method almost eliminates interference for a reuse distance of three, increasing the throughput by 33% compared to systems with a reuse distance of four.

  17. Broadcasted Location-Aware Data Cache for Vehicular Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenya Sato

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the exploitation of advances in information technology, for example, mobile computing and wireless communications in ITS (intelligent transport systems. Classes of applications that can benefit from such an infrastructure include traffic information, roadside businesses, weather reports, entertainment, and so on. There are several wireless communication methods currently available that can be utilized for vehicular applications, such as cellular phone networks, DSRC (dedicated short-range communication, and digital broadcasting. While a cellular phone network is relatively slow and a DSRC has a very small communication area, one-segment digital terrestrial broadcasting service was launched in Japan in 2006, high-performance digital broadcasting for mobile hosts has been available recently. However, broadcast delivery methods have the drawback that clients need to wait for the required data items to appear on the broadcast channel. In this paper, we propose a new cache system to effectively prefetch and replace broadcast data using “scope” (an available area of location-dependent data and “mobility specification” (a schedule according to the direction in which a mobile host moves. We numerically evaluate the cache system on the model close to the traffic road environment, and implement the emulation system to evaluate this location-aware data delivery method for a concrete vehicular application that delivers geographic road map data to a car navigation system.

  18. Deep-Sea Soft Coral Habitat Suitability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  19. Deep-Sea Stony Coral Habitat Suitability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  20. Coral Reef Ecosystems Monitoring Feature Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Ecosystem Monitoring GIS data service provides access to data collected in the Mariana Archipelago by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program of the Pacific...

  1. AFSC/ABL: Coldwater coral growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Colonies of the gorgonian coral Calcigorgia spiculifera were tagged at three sites in Southeast Alaska, Little Port Walter, Tenakee Inlet, and Kelp Bay. The corals...

  2. Elkhorn and Staghorn Corals Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (A. cervicornis) as designated by 73 FR 72210, November 26, 2008,...

  3. Coral Reef Watch, Hotspots, 50 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch provides Coral Bleaching hotspot maps derived from NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). This data provides global area...

  4. EOP Temperature data for deep corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Thermographs were deployed opportunistically in patches of deep coral at depths greater than 300 m. Sites included the Makapuu precious coral bed, the Cross Seamount...

  5. Spawning pattern of the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida around the Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmamony Vijai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, is an oceanic squid species that is widely distributed in the North Pacific, with the winter-spring cohort spawning around the Hawaiian Islands. Here, we investigated the spawning characteristics of O. bartramii by analyzing various reproductive parameters of individuals (622 males, 108 females collected in this region. Female spawning status was determined from the somatic indices and histological characteristics of the ovaries. At all developmental stages, the ovaries of spawned females contained oocytes, and oviduct fullness was not correlated with body size. Thus, because the eggs mature asynchronously, with multiple filling and evacuation events, this species is considered an intermittent spawner. Mature males with developed accessory glands were also present within the distribution range of healthy spawned females, indicating that mating occurs between spawning events. Our data indicate that the first spawning event occurs at a mantle length of ~520-540 mm for Hawaiian O. bartramii. Subsequently, the squid forage and grow, and refill the oviducts, before the second spawning event occurs.

  6. Evidence of sound production by spawning lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in lakes Huron and Champlain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Higgs, Dennis; Binder, Thomas R.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Buchinger, Tyler John; Brege, Linnea; Bruning, Tyler; Farha, Steve A.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2017-01-01

    Two sounds associated with spawning lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in lakes Huron and Champlain were characterized by comparing sound recordings to behavioral data collected using acoustic telemetry and video. These sounds were named growls and snaps, and were heard on lake trout spawning reefs, but not on a non-spawning reef, and were more common at night than during the day. Growls also occurred more often during the spawning period than the pre-spawning period, while the trend for snaps was reversed. In a laboratory flume, sounds occurred when male lake trout were displaying spawning behaviors; growls when males were quivering and parallel swimming, and snaps when males moved their jaw. Combining our results with the observation of possible sound production by spawning splake (Salvelinus fontinalis × Salvelinus namaycush hybrid), provides rare evidence for spawning-related sound production by a salmonid, or any other fish in the superorder Protacanthopterygii. Further characterization of these sounds could be useful for lake trout assessment, restoration, and control.

  7. Spawning migration of sea trout ( Salmo trutta (L)) in a Danish river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels

    1998-01-01

    trout ascended the river. They were tracked every third day, for up to six months, until death or descent. Great variation was found in migration pattern and duration of river residence. Some fish spawned and left the river, some died after spawning, while others died unspent. The sea trout preferred...... of a fish ladder...

  8. Using genetic and phenotypic comparisons to evaluate apparent segregation among Kokanee spawning groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Steven L.; Campbell, Matthew R.; Quist, Michael C.; Dux, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and phenotypic traits of spatially and temporally segregated kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka spawning groups in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, were compared to test for evidence of divergence on the basis of ecotype (stream- versus shore-spawning) and spawn timing, and to describe morphological, life history, and reproductive variation within and among groups. Early and late spawning runs were found to be reproductively isolated; however, there was no clear evidence of genetic differentiation between ecotypes. Spawning groups within the same ecotype differed in length, age distribution, mean-length-at-age, fecundity, and egg size. Variation in reproductive attributes was due primarily to differences in length distributions. Larger-bodied shore-spawning kokanee were located in areas where egg survival is known to be enhanced by downwelling, suggesting that the distribution of shore-spawning kokanee may be partly structured by competition for spawning habitats with groundwater influence. This study contributes to other research that suggests introduced kokanee populations are unlikely to undergo adaptive divergence if they have a history of population fluctuations and are supplemented regularly.

  9. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2000-04-01

    This report is separated into 2 chapters. The chapters are (1) Progress toward determining the spawning distribution of supplemented fall chinook salmon in the Snake River in 1999; and (2) Fall chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in the Snake River, 1999.

  10. Spawning strategies and transport of early stages of the two Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal and short-term variability of environmental parameters influence the spawning strategies of fish species. In this study, the spawning strategies and the transport of early stages of the two Cape hake species off South Africa were investigated. Distribution of eggs and larvae of Merluccius paradoxus and M. capensis ...

  11. Hydrographic features of anguillid spawning areas: Potential signposts for migrating eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schabetsberger, Robert; Miller, Michael J.; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Catadromous anguillid eels (genus Anguilla) migrate from their freshwater or estuarine habitats to marine spawning areas. Evidence from satellite tagging studies indicates that tropical and temperate eel species exhibit pronounced diel vertical migrations, from between 150-300 m nighttime depths ...... possess acute sensory capabilities to detect these hydrographic features as potential signposts, guiding them to their spawning areas....

  12. Fertilization of terrestrial vegetation by spawning Pacific salmon: the role of flooding and predator activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Ben-David; T.A. Hanley; D.M. Schell

    1998-01-01

    Spawning Pacific salmon (Onchorhynchus) transport marine-derived nutrients into streams and rivers. Subsequently, these marine-derived nutrients are incorporated into freshwater and terrestrial food webs through decomposition and predation. In this study, we investigated the influence of spawning Pacific salmon on terrestrial vegetation using...

  13. Effects of habitat quality and ambient hyporheic flows on salmon spawning site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan Benjankar; Daniele Tonina; Alessandra Marzadri; Jim McKean; Daniel J. Isaak

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the role of stream hydrologic and morphologic variables on the selection of spawning sites by salmonid fishes at high resolution across broad scales is needed for effective habitat restoration and protection. Here we used remotely sensed meter-scale channel bathymetry for a 13.5 km reach of Chinook salmon spawning stream in central Idaho to...

  14. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Navas-Camacho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá. The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10x2m with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2, and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2. Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD, and White Plague Disease (WPD were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A.grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few

  15. Applying New Methods to Diagnose Coral Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Zawada, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Coral disease, one of the major causes of reef degradation and coral death, has been increasing worldwide since the 1970s, particularly in the Caribbean. Despite increased scientific study, simple questions about the extent of disease outbreaks and the causative agents remain unanswered. A component of the U.S. Geological Survey Coral Reef Ecosystem STudies (USGS CREST) project is focused on developing and using new methods to approach the complex problem of coral disease.

  16. Impact of Global Warming on Coral Reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Sirilak CHUMKIEW; Mullica JAROENSUTASINEE; Krisanadej JAROENSUTASINEE

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review coral reef responses to climate variability and discuss the possible mechanisms by which climate impacts the coral reef ecosystem. Effects of oceanographic variables such as sea temperature, turbulence, salinity, and nutrients on the coral reef are discussed in terms of their influence on coral growth, reproduction, mortality, acclimation and adaptation. Organisms tend to be limited to specific thermal ranges with experimental findings showing that sufficient oxygen s...

  17. Localization of early germ cells in a stony coral, Euphyllia ancora: potential implications for a germline stem cell system in coral gametogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikina, Shinya; Chung, Yi-Jou; Wang, Hsiang-Ming; Chiu, Yi-Ling; Shao, Zih-Fang; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2015-06-01

    Most corals exhibit annual or multiple gametogenic cycles. Thus far, coral gametogenesis has been studied in many species and locations during the past three decades; however, currently, only a few papers exist that describe the origin of germ cells, such as germline stem cells (GSCs), which support the continuous production of gametes in every reproductive cycle. To address this issue, in this study, we focused on and identified piwi gene, which has been used as a marker of germline cells, including GSCs, in various metazoans, in a scleractinian coral, Euphyllia ancora. Reverse-transcription PCR and Western blotting analyses revealed that E. ancora piwi-like ( Eapiwi) is expressed in mesentery tissues where the sites of gametogenesis are located for both sexes. Immunohistochemistry with a specific antibody against Eapiwi revealed strong immunoreactivity in the spermatogonia in males and in the oogonia and early oocytes in females, demonstrating that Eapiwi could be used as an early germ cell marker in E. ancora. Subsequent immunohistochemical analyses regarding the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of early germ cells in mesentery tissues revealed that early germ cells were present throughout the year in the mesentery tissue we examined, regardless of the sexual reproductive cycle. In particular, small numbers of early germ cells were observed in specific sites of mesentery tissues with fully matured gonads in both sexes. These early germ cells were not released together with mature gametes during the spawning period and remained in the mesentery tissues. These results suggested that these early germ cells most likely serve as a reservoir of germline cells and that some of these cells would produce differentiated germ cells for the upcoming sexual reproduction period; hence, these cells would function as GSCs. Our data provide new information for understanding continuous gamete production in corals.

  18. Male reproductive competition in spawning aggregations of cod ( Gadus morhua , L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2002-01-01

    was dependent on the magnitude of the size difference between a female and a male. We discuss our results in relation to the cod mating system. Finally, we suggest that the highly skewed distribution of paternity success observed in cod may be a factor contributing to the low effective population size......Reproductive competition may lead to a large skew in reproductive success among individuals. Very few studies have analysed the paternity contribution of individual males in spawning aggregations of fish species with huge census population sizes. We quantified the variance in male reproductive...... success in spawning aggregations of cod under experimental conditions over an entire spawning season. Male reproductive success was estimated by microsatellite-based parentage analysis of offspring produced in six separate groups of spawning cod. In total, 1340 offspring and 102 spawnings distributed...

  19. Spawning, copulation and inbreeding coefficients in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, J A; Hart, M W

    2005-12-22

    Patterns of population genetic variation have frequently been understood as consequences of life history covariates such as dispersal ability and breeding systems (e.g. selfing). For example, marine invertebrates show enormous variation in life history traits that are correlated with the extent of gene flow between populations and the magnitude of differentiation among populations at neutral genetic markers (FST). Here we document an unexpected correlation between marine invertebrate life histories and deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (non-zero values of FIS, the inbreeding coefficient). FIS values were significantly higher in studies of species with free-spawned planktonic sperm than in studies of species that copulate or have some form of direct sperm transfer to females or benthic egg masses. This result was robust to several different analytical approaches. We note several mechanisms that might contribute to this pattern, and appeal for more studies and ideas that might help to explain our observations.

  20. Correlated evolution of sex and reproductive mode in corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Alexander M; Baird, Andrew H; Hughes, Terry P

    2011-01-07

    Sexuality and reproductive mode are two fundamental life-history traits that exhibit largely unexplained macroevolutionary patterns among the major groups of multicellular organisms. For example, the cnidarian class Anthozoa (corals and anemones) is mainly comprised of gonochoric (separate sex) brooders or spawners, while one order, Scleractinia (skeleton-forming corals), appears to be mostly hermaphroditic spawners. Here, using the most complete phylogeny of scleractinians, we reconstruct how evolutionary transitions between sexual systems (gonochorism versus hermaphrodism) and reproductive modes (brooding versus spawning) have generated large-scale taxonomic patterns in these characters. Hermaphrodites have independently evolved in three large, distantly related lineages consisting of mostly reef-building species. Reproductive mode in corals has evolved at twice the rate of sexuality, while the evolution of sexuality has been heavily biased: gonochorism is over 100 times more likely to be lost than gained, and can only be acquired by brooders. This circuitous evolutionary pathway accounts for the prevalence of hermaphroditic spawners among reef-forming scleractinians, despite their ancient gonochoric heritage.