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Sample records for broadband subwavelength grating

  1. Broadband high reflectivity in subwavelength-grating slab waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hao; Cui, Xuan; Du, Yan; Tan, Peng; Shi, Guang; Zhou, Zhongxiang

    2015-10-19

    We computationally study a subwavelength dielectric grating structure, show that slab waveguide modes can be used to obtain broadband high reflectivity, and analyze how slab waveguide modes influence reflection. A structure showing interference between Fabry-Perot modes, slab waveguide modes, and waveguide array modes is designed with ultra-broadband high reflectivity. Owing to the coupling of guided modes, the region with reflectivity R > 0.99 has an ultra-high bandwidth (Δf / ̅f > 30%). The incident-angle region with R > 0.99 extends over a range greater than 40°. Moreover, an asymmetric waveguide structure with a semiconductor substrate is studied.

  2. Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Sirbu, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    A widely-tunable single-mode 1.3 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure incorporating a microelectromechanical system-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) mirror is suggested and numerically investigated. A linear tuning range of 100 nm and a wavelength tuning effi...

  3. Broadband subwavelength grating mirror and its application to vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper; Gilet, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Various high-index-contrast sub-wavelength grating (HCG) mirror designs have been investigated. It reveals that transverse magnetic (TM-) and transverse electric (TE-) HCG reflect the incident fields in quite different ways and that the TM-HCG enables very thin gap below the grating. Based...... on these results, a new HCG VCSEL design with a thin oxide gap has been suggested. The thin oxide gap structure has a number of advantages including easier fabrication, better mechanical stability, and very strong single-mode properties....

  4. Broadband TM-mode-pass polarizer and polarization beam splitter using asymmetrical directional couplers based on silicon subwavelength grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Yang, Junbo; Liang, Linmei; Wu, Wenjun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, an on-chip polarizer passing the transverse-magnetic mode and a polarization beam splitter are proposed. The polarizer achieves an extinction ratio exceeding 20 dB within a spectral range from 1500 nm to 1610 nm, and has a value of 24dB at 1550 nm with a coupling efficiency of 84%. By employing a specific wavelength of 1570 nm, the polarizer behaves as the polarization beam splitter with extinction ratio for the transverse-electric mode and the transverse-magnetic mode of 29dB and 24 dB, respectively. In addition, the coupling efficiency of 95.98% and 78.18% for above two polarizations, demonstrate that our approach has a potential to efficiently control coupling splitting ratio via silicon subwavelength grating.

  5. High-index-contrast subwavelength grating VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilet, Philippe; Olivier, Nicolas; Grosse, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we report our results on 980nm high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) VCSELs for optical interconnection applications. In our structure, a thin undoped HCG layer replaces a thick p-type Bragg mirror. The HCG mirror can feasibly achieve polarization-selective reflectivities...... structures. These results build a bridge between a standard VCSEL and a hybrid laser on silicon, making them of potential use for the realization of silicon photonics....

  6. Liquid crystal on subwavelength metal gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P.; Barnik, M. I.; Artemov, V. V.; Shtykov, N. M.; Geivandov, A. R.; Yudin, S. G.; Gorkunov, M. V. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-14

    Optical and electrooptical properties of a system consisting of subwavelength metal gratings and nematic liquid crystal layer are studied. Aluminium gratings that also act as interdigitated electrodes are produced by focused ion beam lithography. It is found that a liquid crystal layer strongly influences both the resonance and light polarization properties characteristic of the gratings. Enhanced transmittance is observed not only for the TM-polarized light in the near infrared spectral range but also for the TE-polarized light in the visible range. Although the electrodes are separated by nanosized slits, and the electric field is strongly localized near the surface, a pronounced electrooptical effect is registered. The effect is explained in terms of local reorientation of liquid crystal molecules at the grating surface and propagation of the orientational deformation from the surface into the bulk of the liquid crystal layer.

  7. Coupling polariton quantum boxes in sub-wavelength grating microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhaorong; Deng, Hui, E-mail: dengh@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Brodbeck, Sebastian; Kamp, Martin; Schneider, Christian [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Höfling, Sven [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-02

    We report the construction of decoupled, coupled, and quasi-one dimensional polariton systems from zero dimensional polariton quantum boxes using microcavities with sub-wavelength gratings as the top mirror. By designing the tethering patterns around the suspended sub-wavelength gratings, we control the coupling between individual quantum boxes through different optical potentials. Energy levels and real-space or momentum space distributions of the confined modes were measured, which agreed well with simulations.

  8. Subwavelength grating-mirror VCSEL with a thin oxide gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper; Gilet, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    A new vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structure based on a subwavelength grating mirror and a thin oxide gap is suggested and numerically investigated. The structure is shown to exhibit similar threshold gain, suppression of higher order transverse modes, and polarization stability...... as a grating-mirror VCSEL reported in the literature based on a thick air gap. The thin oxide gap structure has a number of advantages including easier fabrication, better mechanical stability, and very strong single-mode properties....

  9. Optimizing the subwavelength grating of L-band annular groove phase masks for high coronagraphic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Catalán, E.; Huby, E.; Forsberg, P.; Jolivet, A.; Baudoz, P.; Carlomagno, B.; Delacroix, C.; Habraken, S.; Mawet, D.; Surdej, J.; Absil, O.; Karlsson, M.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The annular groove phase mask (AGPM) is one possible implementation of the vector vortex coronagraph, where the helical phase ramp is produced by a concentric subwavelength grating. For several years, we have been manufacturing AGPMs by etching gratings into synthetic diamond substrates using inductively coupled plasma etching. Aims: We aim to design, fabricate, optimize, and evaluate new L-band AGPMs that reach the highest possible coronagraphic performance, for applications in current and forthcoming infrared high-contrast imagers. Methods: Rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) is used for designing the subwavelength grating of the phase mask. Coronagraphic performance evaluation is performed on a dedicated optical test bench. The experimental results of the performance evaluation are then used to accurately determine the actual profile of the fabricated gratings, based on RCWA modeling. Results: The AGPM coronagraphic performance is very sensitive to small errors in etch depth and grating profile. Most of the fabricated components therefore show moderate performance in terms of starlight rejection (a few 100:1 in the best cases). Here we present new processes for re-etching the fabricated components in order to optimize the parameters of the grating and hence significantly increase their coronagraphic performance. Starlight rejection up to 1000:1 is demonstrated in a broadband L filter on the coronagraphic test bench, which corresponds to a raw contrast of about 10-5 at two resolution elements from the star for a perfect input wave front on a circular, unobstructed aperture. Conclusions: Thanks to their exquisite performance, our latest L-band AGPMs are good candidates for installation in state of the art and future high-contrast thermal infrared imagers, such as METIS for the E-ELT.

  10. Active resonant subwavelength grating devices for high speed spectroscopic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, A. V.; Kemme, S. A.; Boye, R. R.; Peters, D. W.; Ihlefeld, J. F.; Briggs, R. D.; Wendt, J. R.; Marshall, L. H.; Carter, T. R.; Samora, S.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we describe progress towards a multi-color spectrometer and radiometer based upon an active resonant subwavelength grating (RSG). This active RSG component acts as a tunable high-speed optical filter that allows device miniaturization and ruggedization not realizable using current sensors with conventional bulk optics. Furthermore, the geometrical characteristics of the device allow for inherently high speed operation. Because of the small critical dimensions of the RSG devices, the fabrication of these sensors can prove challenging. However, we utilize the state-of-the-art capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to realize these subwavelength grating devices. This work also leverages previous work on passive RSG devices with greater than 98% efficiency and ~1nm FWHM. Rigorous coupled wave analysis has been utilized to design RSG devices with PLZT, PMN-PT and BaTiO3 electrooptic thin films on sapphire substrates. The simulated interdigitated electrode configuration achieves field strengths around 3×107 V/m. This translates to an increase in the refractive index of 0.05 with a 40V bias potential resulting in a 90% contrast of the modulated optical signal. We have fabricated several active RSG devices on selected electro-optic materials and we discuss the latest experimental results on these devices with variable electrostatic bias and a tunable wavelength source around 1.5μm. Finally, we present the proposed data acquisition hardware and system integration plans.

  11. High speed optical filtering using active resonant subwavelength gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, A. V.; Kemme, S. A.; Boye, R. R.; Peters, D. W.; Ihlefeld, J. F.; Briggs, R. D.; Wendt, J. R.; Ellis, A. R.; Marshall, L. H.; Carter, T. R.; Hunker, J. D.; Samora, S.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we describe the most recent progress towards the device modeling, fabrication, testing and system integration of active resonant subwavelength grating (RSG) devices. Passive RSG devices have been a subject of interest in subwavelength-structured surfaces (SWS) in recent years due to their narrow spectral response and high quality filtering performance. Modulating the bias voltage of interdigitated metal electrodes over an electrooptic thin film material enables the RSG components to act as actively tunable high-speed optical filters. The filter characteristics of the device can be engineered using the geometry of the device grating and underlying materials. Using electron beam lithography and specialized etch techniques, we have fabricated interdigitated metal electrodes on an insulating layer and BaTiO3 thin film on sapphire substrate. With bias voltages of up to 100V, spectral red shifts of several nanometers are measured, as well as significant changes in the reflected and transmitted signal intensities around the 1.55um wavelength. Due to their small size and lack of moving parts, these devices are attractive for high speed spectral sensing applications. We will discuss the most recent device testing results as well as comment on the system integration aspects of this project.

  12. Active resonant subwavelength grating for scannerless range imaging sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Nellums, Robert O.; Boye, Robert R.; Peters, David William

    2006-11-01

    In this late-start LDRD, we will present a design for a wavelength-agile, high-speed modulator that enables a long-term vision for the THz Scannerless Range Imaging (SRI) sensor. It takes the place of the currently-utilized SRI micro-channel plate which is limited to photocathode sensitive wavelengths (primarily in the visible and near-IR regimes). Two of Sandia's successful technologies--subwavelength diffractive optics and THz sources and detectors--are poised to extend the capabilities of the SRI sensor. The goal is to drastically broaden the SRI's sensing waveband--all the way to the THz regime--so the sensor can see through image-obscuring, scattering environments like smoke and dust. Surface properties, such as reflectivity, emissivity, and scattering roughness, vary greatly with the illuminating wavelength. Thus, objects that are difficult to image at the SRI sensor's present near-IR wavelengths may be imaged more easily at the considerably longer THz wavelengths (0.1 to 1mm). The proposed component is an active Resonant Subwavelength Grating (RSG). Sandia invested considerable effort on a passive RSG two years ago, which resulted in a highly-efficient (reflectivity greater than gold), wavelength-specific reflector. For this late-start LDRD proposal, we will transform the passive RSG design into an active laser-line reflector.

  13. 1060-nm Tunable Monolithic High Index Contrast Subwavelength Grating VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Chung, Il-Sug; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2013-01-01

    We present the first tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) where the top distributed Bragg reflector has been completely substituted by an air-cladded high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) mirror. In this way, an extended cavity design can be realized by reducing...... the reflection at the semiconductor #x2013;air interface using an anti-reflective coating (ARC). We demonstrate how the ARC can be integrated in a monolithic structure by oxidizing AlGaAs with high Al-content. The HCG VCSEL has the potential to achieve polarization stable single-mode output with high tuning...... efficiency. The HCG VCSEL shows a total tuning range of 16 nm around an emission wavelength of 1060 nm with 1-mW output power....

  14. Monolithic subwavelength high refractive-index-contrast grating VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Lott, James A.; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present optical design and simulation results of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) that incorporate monolithic subwavelength high refractive-index-contrast grating (MHCG) mirrors - a new variety of HCG mirror that is composed of high index material surrounded only on one side by low index material. We show the impact of an MHCG mirror on the performance of 980 nm VCSELs designed for high bit rate and energy-efficient optical data communications. In our design, all or part of the all-semiconductor top coupling distributed Bragg reflector mirror is replaced by an undoped gallium-arsenide MHCG. We show how the optical field intensity distribution of the VCSEL's fundamental mode is controlled by the combination of the number of residual distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror periods and the physical design of the topmost gallium-arsenide MHCG. Additionally, we numerically investigate the confinement factors of our VCSELs and show that this parameter for the MHCG DBR VCSELs may only be properly determined in two or three dimensions due to the periodic nature of the grating mirror.

  15. Electron beam written subwavelength gratings for polarization separation in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramitha, V.; Gayathri, M. S.; Bhattacharya, Shanti

    2015-03-01

    The design and fabrication of transmission subwavelength binary gratings for operation as polarizing beam splitters (PBSs) at 1550 nm is presented in this paper. An analytical method called the modal method was used for the design as well as to predict the efficiencies of the polarization components in each order. Electron beam lithography has been employed to fabricate the subwavelength grating structures on poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). The performance of the fabricated PBS has been evaluated by optical testing.

  16. Metallic Strip Gratings in the Sub-Subwavelength Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Savin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metallic strip gratings (MSG have different applications, ranging from printed circuits to filters in microwave domains. When they are under the influence of an electromagnetic field, evanescent and/or abnormal modes appear in the region between the traces, their utilization leading to the development of new electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation methods. This paper studies the behavior of MSGs in the sub-subwavelength regime when they are excited with TEz or TMz polarized plane waves and the slits are filled with different dielectrics. The appearance of propagating, evanescent and abnormal modes is emphasized using an electromagnetic sensor with metamaterials lens realized with two conical Swiss rolls, which allows the extraction of the information carried by the guided evanescent waves. The evanescent waves, manipulated by the electromagnetic sensor with metamaterial lenses, improve the electromagnetic images so that a better spatial resolution is obtained, exceeding the limit imposed by diffraction. Their theoretical and experimental confirmation opens the perspective for development of new types of sensors working in radio and microwave frequencies.

  17. Compact polarization rotator for silicon-based cross-slot waveguides using subwavelength gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengbao; Xiao, Jinbiao

    2017-06-10

    A compact and broadband polarization rotator (PR) for silicon-based cross-slot waveguides using subwavelength gratings (SWGs) is proposed and analyzed. To significantly break the symmetry of the waveguide structure, the diagonal regular Si wires of the cross-slot waveguides are replaced with the full etching SWGs. Moreover, the special properties of the SWGs-whose effective index is adjustable-can effectively enhance the modal birefringence between the two lowest-order hybrid modes, resulting in a more compact device. By utilizing interference effect of the hybrid modes, both transverse electric to transverse magnetic (TE-to-TM) and TM-to-TE conversion can be efficiently realized. Numerical results show that a PR of 12.6 μm in length at a wavelength of 1.55 μm is achieved, where the polarization conversion efficiency (PCE) and insertion loss (IL) are, respectively, 97.2% and 0.71 dB, and the reflection loss is below -20.5  dB for both cases. Moreover, a wide bandwidth of ∼260  nm for both polarizations is obtained for keeping the PCE over 90% and IL below 1 dB. In addition, fabrication tolerances to the structural parameters are analyzed in detail, and field evolution along the propagation distance is also presented.

  18. Diffractive optics based on modulated subwavelength-domain V-ridge gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Gaurav; Verhoeven, Antonie; Vartiainen, Ismo; Roussey, Matthieu; Kuittinen, Markku; Tervo, Jani; Turunen, Jari

    2016-08-01

    We study the properties of reflection-type V-ridge gratings in the subwavelength domain and describe a method to realize diffractive optical elements by using such gratings as signal carriers. In particular, we utilize a coding scheme based on position modulation of a high-frequency V-ridge carrier grating. We design and demonstrate beam splitting elements using this coding scheme, electron-beam lithography, anisotropic wet etching of silicon, hot embossing of polymer, and metal deposition. These elements have the outstanding property of operating over a large spectral range from 406 to 520 nm. The measured diffraction patterns show excellent agreement with theoretical results given by rigorous diffraction theory.

  19. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  20. Tarnishing of silver subwavelength slit gratings and its effect on extraordinary optical transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkunov, M. V.; Artemov, V. V.; Yudin, S. G.; Palto, S. P.

    2014-04-01

    We study the impact of tarnishing of silver subwavelength gratings on their optical performance. We report that in the course of months under regular laboratory conditions, the gratings undergo tarnishing very differently from plain silver films: instead of thin layer of evenly distributed silver sulfide, a random pattern of rare larger crystals is formed across the grating area. As typical of plasmonic metamaterials, the gratings appear to be very sensitive to the arising structural disorder and show a very specific modification of the optical transmittance spectra - total degradation of the Wood diffraction anomaly and attenuation of the near-infrared transmission peak. The identified 'optical fingerprints' of the microscopic grating contamination pave a way for prospective plasmonic sensor applications.

  1. Broadband fiber-chip zero-order surface grating coupler with 0.4  dB efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Postigo, Alejandro; Gonzalo Wangüemert-Pérez, J; Luque-González, José Manuel; Molina-Fernández, Íñigo; Cheben, Pavel; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos A; Halir, Robert; Schmid, Jens H; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    Surface grating couplers enable efficient coupling of light between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides. However, in conventional grating couplers, the radiation angle is intrinsically wavelength dependent, thereby limiting their operation bandwidth. In this Letter, we present a zero-order surface grating coupler in silicon-on-insulator which overcomes this limitation by operating in the subwavelength regime. By engineering the effective refractive index of the grating region, both high coupling efficiency and broadband operation bandwidth are achieved. The grating is assisted by a silicon prism on top of the waveguide, which favors upward radiation and minimizes power losses to substrate. Using a linear apodization, our design achieves a coupling efficiency of 91% (-0.41  dB) and a 1-dB bandwidth of 126 nm.

  2. Experimental observation of plasmons in a graphene monolayer resting on a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate graphene-plasmon polariton excitation in a continuous graphene monolayer resting on a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating. The subwavelength silicon grating is fabricated by a nanosphere lithography technique with a self-assembled nanosphere array...... as a template. Measured transmission spectra illustrate the excitation of graphene-plasmon polaritons, which is further supported by numerical simulations and theoretical prediction of plasmon-band diagrams. Our grating-assisted coupling to graphene-plasmon polaritons forms an important platform for graphene......-based opto-electronics applications....

  3. Sub-wavelength grating structure on the planar waveguide (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing-Song, Zhu; Sheng-Hui, Chen

    2016-10-01

    Making progress in recent years, with the technology of the grating, the grating period can be reduced to shrink the size of the light coupler on a waveguide. The working wavelength of the light coupler can be in the range from the near-infrared to visible. In this study , we used E-gun evaporation system with ion-beam-assisted deposition system to fabricate bottom cladding (SiO2), guiding layer (Ta2O5) and Distributed Bragg Reflector(DBR) of the waveguide on the silicon substrate. Electron-beam lithography is used to make sub-wavelength gratings and reflector grating on the planar waveguide which is a coupling device on the guiding layer. The best fabrication parameters were analyzed to deposit the film. The exposure and development times also influenced to fabricate the grating quality. The purpose is to reduce the device size and enhance coupling efficiency which maintain normal incidence of the light . We designed and developed the device using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. The grating period, depth, fill factor, film thickness, Distributed Bragg Reflector(DBR) numbers and reflector grating period have been discussed to enhance coupling efficiency and maintained normal incidence of the light. According to the simulation results, when the wavelength is 1300 nm, the coupling grating period is 720 nm and the Ta2O5 film is 460 nm with 360 nm of reflector grating period and 2 layers of Distributed Bragg Reflector, which had the optimum coupling efficiency and normal incidence angle. In the measurement, We successfully measured the TE wave coupling efficiency of the photoresist grating coupling device.

  4. Focused-ion beam patterning of organolead trihalide perovskite for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2015-07-30

    The coherent amplified spontaneous emission and high photoluminescence quantum efficiency of organolead trihalide perovskite have led to research interest in this material for use in photonic devices. In this paper, the authors present a focused-ion beam patterning strategy for methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite crystal for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications. The essential parameters for milling, such as the number of scan passes, dwell time, ion dose, ion current, ion incident angle, and gas-assisted etching, were experimentally evaluated to determine the sputtering yield of the perovskite. Based on our patterning conditions, the authors observed that the sputtering yield ranged from 0.0302 to 0.0719 μm3/pC for the MAPbBr3 perovskite crystal. Using XeF2 for the focused-ion beam gas-assisted etching, the authors determined that the etching rate was reduced to between 0.40 and 0.97, depending on the ion dose, compared with milling with ions only. Using the optimized patterning parameters, the authors patterned binary and circular subwavelength grating reflectors on the MAPbBr3 perovskite crystal using the focused-ion beam technique. Based on the computed grating structure with around 97% reflectivity, all of the grating dimensions (period, duty cycle, and grating thickness) were patterned with nanoscale precision (>±3 nm), high contrast, and excellent uniformity. Our results provide a platform for utilizing the focused-ion beam technique for fast prototyping of photonic nanostructures or nanodevices on organolead trihalide perovskite.

  5. Visible Wavelength Color Filters Using Dielectric Subwavelength Gratings for Backside-Illuminated CMOS Image Sensor Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Yu; Han, Seunghoon; Lee, Jeong-Yub; Kim, Jaekwan; Kim, Yongsung; Arbabi, Amir; Shin, Changgyun; Shi, Lilong; Arbabi, Ehsan; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Lee, Hong-Seok; Hwang, Sungwoo; Faraon, Andrei

    2017-05-10

    We report transmissive color filters based on subwavelength dielectric gratings that can replace conventional dye-based color filters used in backside-illuminated CMOS image sensor (BSI CIS) technologies. The filters are patterned in an 80 nm-thick poly silicon film on a 115 nm-thick SiO2 spacer layer. They are optimized for operating at the primary RGB colors, exhibit peak transmittance of 60-80%, and have an almost insensitive response over a ± 20° angular range. This technology enables shrinking of the pixel sizes down to near a micrometer.

  6. Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal memory for optically reconfigurable gate array using subwavelength grating mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Akifumi; Watanabe, Minoru; Mabuchi, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Fuminori

    2011-12-01

    Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) memory formed by a subwavelength grating (SWG) mask is presented for new optical information processing. The SWG structure in a photomask is formed on the SiO(2) plate using the anisotropic reactive ion etching technique. The configuration contexts for optically reconfigurable gate arrays (ORGAs) are stored in the HPDLC memory by polarization modulation property based on the form birefringence of the SWG plate. The configuration context pattern in the HPDLC memory is reconstructed to write it for the ORGAs under parallel programmability. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  7. Semiconductor-metal subwavelength grating VCSELs: new concept of emission mirror enabling vertical current injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyszanowski, Tomasz; Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2017-02-01

    We propose semiconductor-metal subwavelength grating (SMSG) which can be implemented as VCSEL mirror. Such new type of SMSG plays a double role of the electric contact and mirror simultaneously. It facilitates high optical power reflectance, perfectly vertical current injection. Such construction eliminates the inbuilt current confinement and allows scaling of emitted power by simple variation of SMSG spatial dimensions. To give the credibility to proposed design we perform numerical analysis of VCSEL with SMSG using fully vectorial optical model. We discuss properties of the proposed design realized in arsenide-based material configuration.

  8. All-Si photodetector for telecommunication wavelength based on subwavelength grating structure and critical coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Zali, Aref Rasoulzadeh; Chung, Il-Sug; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-09-01

    We propose an efficient planar all-Si internal photoemission photodetector operating at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm and numerically investigate its optical and electrical properties. The proposed polarization-sensitive detector is composed of an appropriately engineered subwavelength grating structure topped with a silicide layer of nanometers thickness as an absorbing material. It is shown that a nearly-perfect light absorption is possible for the thin silicide layer by its integration to the grating resonator. The absorption is shown to be maximized when the critical coupling condition is satisfied. Simulations show that the external quantum efficiency of the proposed photodetector with a 2-nm-thick PtSi absorbing layer at the center wavelength of 1550 nm can reach up to ˜60%.

  9. Broadband plasmonic metasurface-enabled quarter waveplates with fence-type grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aijiao; Hu, Jingpei; Wang, Chinhua

    2016-10-01

    We propose an ultrathin, high-performance quarter waveplate with extreme bandwidth in the near-to-mid infrared wavelength range based on a metasurface consisted of Ag fence-type gratings. The broadband quarter waveplate is realized by optimizing the anisotropic response of the metasurface via changing the geometric dimensions of the fence-type gratings to tailor the interference of light at the subwavelength scale. The near-constant phase difference between two perpendicular electric fields within the broad bandwidth is achieved by manipulating the dimensions of the fence-type gratings along two perpendicular directions in which localized plasmonic resonances along the two directions dominate. Compared to previously reported metasurface-enabled waveplates, the phase retardation of the electric components of the transmitted wave of the proposed structure can be fixed at π/2 across a broad wavelength range rather than merely limited within a narrow bandwidth near the resonant wavelength of the metasurface building blocks. Simulation results indicate that a function of quarter waveplates can be realized from 2000nm to 4500nm with the control of polarization orientation of a linearly polarized incident light. Our work gives intriguing possibilities for novel metasurface-enabled optical components with broad bandwidth for photonics devices.

  10. Subwavelength silicon through-hole arrays as an all-dielectric broadband terahertz gradient index metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang-Gil; Jeong, Ki-Hun, E-mail: kjeong@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); KAIST Institute for Optical Science and Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kanghee; Han, Daehoon; Ahn, Jaewook [KAIST Institute for Optical Science and Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Structuring at subwavelength scales brings out artificial media with anomalous optical features called metamaterials. All-dielectric metamaterials have high potential for practical applications over the whole electromagnetic spectrum owing to low loss and optical isotropy. Here, we report subwavelength silicon through-hole arrays as an all-dielectric gradient index metamaterial with broadband THz operation. The unit cell consists of a single subwavelength through-hole on highly resistive monocrystalline silicon. Depending on the fill-factor and period, the effective index was linearly modulated at 0.3–1.6 THz. The experimental results also demonstrate silicon gradient refractive index (Si-GRIN) lenses with parabolic index profiles through the spatial modification of a single unit cell along the radial direction. Si-GRIN lenses either focus 0.4–1.6 THz beam to the diffraction-limit or serve as a flat and thin solid immersion lens on the backside of THz photoconductive antenna for highly efficient pulse extraction. This all-dielectric gradient index metamaterial opens up opportunities for integrated THz GRIN optics.

  11. 80-nm-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL: Proposal and numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper; Sirbu, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    A widely-tunable single-mode long wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure employing a MEMStunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) is suggested and numerically investigated. A very large 80- nm linear tuning range was obtained as the HCG was actuated by -220 to ...

  12. Subwavelength grating as both emission mirror and electrical contact for VCSELs in any material system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyszanowski, Tomasz; Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Wasiak, Michał; Sarzała, Robert; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor-metal subwavelength grating (SMSG) can serve a dual purpose in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), as both optical coupler and current injector. SMSGs provide optical as well as lateral current confinement, eliminating the need for ring contacts and lateral build-in optical and current confinement, allowing their implementation on arbitrarily large surfaces. Using an SMSG as the top mirror enables fabrication of monolithic VCSELs from any type of semiconductor crystal. The construction of VCSELs with SMSGs requires significantly less p-type material, in comparison to conventional VCSELs. In this paper, using a three-dimensional, fully vectorial optical model, we analyse the properties of the stand-alone SMSG in a number of semiconductor materials for a broad range of wavelengths. Integrating the optical model with thermal and electrical numerical models, we then simulate the threshold operation of an exemplary SMSG VCSEL.

  13. Enhanced Etching, Surface Damage Recovery, and Submicron Patterning of Hybrid Perovskites using a Chemically Gas-Assisted Focused-Ion Beam for Subwavelength Grating Photonic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2015-12-22

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted attention for photonic device applications. However, owing to the sensitivity of organic moieties to solvents and temperature, device processing is challenging, particularly for patterning. Here, we report the direct patterning of perovskites using chemically gas-assisted focused-ion beam (GAFIB) etching with XeF2 and I2 precursors. We demonstrate etching enhancement in addition to controllability and marginal surface damage compared to focused-ion beam (FIB) etching without precursors. Utilizing the GAFIB etching, we fabricated a uniform and periodic submicron perovskite subwavelength grating (SWG) absorber with broadband absorption and nanoscale precision. Our results demonstrate the use of FIB as a submicron patterning tool and a means of providing surface treatment (after FIB patterning to minimize optical loss) for perovskite photonic nanostructures. The SWG absorber can be patterned on perovskite solar cells to enhance the device efficiency through increasing light trapping and absorption.

  14. Enhanced Etching, Surface Damage Recovery, and Submicron Patterning of Hybrid Perovskites using a Chemically Gas-Assisted Focused-Ion Beam for Subwavelength Grating Photonic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Mohd S; Yang, Yang; Ng, Tien K; Dursun, Ibrahim; Shi, Dong; Saidaminov, Makhsud I; Priante, Davide; Bakr, Osman M; Ooi, Boon S

    2016-01-07

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted attention for photonic device applications. However, owing to the sensitivity of organic moieties to solvents and temperature, device processing is challenging, particularly for patterning. Here, we report the direct patterning of perovskites using chemically gas-assisted focused-ion beam (GAFIB) etching with XeF2 and I2 precursors. We demonstrate etching enhancement in addition to controllability and marginal surface damage compared to focused-ion beam (FIB) etching without precursors. Utilizing the GAFIB etching, we fabricated a uniform and periodic submicron perovskite subwavelength grating (SWG) absorber with broadband absorption and nanoscale precision. Our results demonstrate the use of FIB as a submicron patterning tool and a means of providing surface treatment (after FIB patterning to minimize optical loss) for perovskite photonic nanostructures. The SWG absorber can be patterned on perovskite solar cells to enhance the device efficiency through increasing light trapping and absorption.

  15. Nonperiodic metallic gratings transparent for broadband terahertz waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    Recently, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that nonperiodic metallic gratings can become transparent for broadband terahertz waves. Quasiperiodic and disordered metallic gratings effectively weaken and even eliminate Wood's anomalies, which are the diffraction-related characters of periodic gratings. Consequently, both the transparence bandwidth and transmission efficiency are significantly increased due to the structural aperiodicity. Furthermore, we show that for a specific light source, for example, a line source, a corresponding nonperiodic transparent grating can be also designed. We expect that our findings can be applied for transparent conducting panels, perfect white-beam polarizers, antireflective conducting solar cells, and beyond. References: X. P. Ren, R. H. Fan, R. W. Peng, X. R. Huang, D. H. Xu, Y. Zhou, and Mu Wang, Physical Review B, 91, 045111 (2015); R. H. Fan, R. W. Peng, X. R. Huang, J. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Hu, Mu. Wang, and X. Zhang, Advanced Materials, 24, 1980 (2012); and X. R. Huang, R. W. Peng, and R. H. Fan. Physical Review Letters, 105, 243901 (2010).

  16. Possibilities of Bragg filtering structures based on subwavelength grating guiding mechanism (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecien, Pavel; Litvik, Ján.; Richter, Ivan; Ctyroký, Jirí; Cheben, Pavel

    2017-05-01

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI), as the most promising platform, for advanced photonic integrated structures, employs a high refractive index contrast between the silicon "core" and surrounding media. One of the recent new ideas within this field is based on the alternative formation of the subwavelength sized (quasi)periodic structures, manifesting as an effective medium with respect to propagating light. Such structures relay on Bloch wave propagation concept, in contrast to standard index guiding mechanism. Soon after the invention of such subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguides, the scientists concentrated on various functional elements such as couplers, crossings, mode transformers, convertors, MMI couplers, polarization converters, resonators, Bragg filters, and others. Our contribution is devoted to a detailed numerical analysis and design considerations of Bragg filtering structures based on SWG idea. Based on our previous studies where we have shown impossibility of application of various 2 and "2.5" dimensional methods for the proper numerical analysis, here we effectively use two independent but similar in-house approaches based on 3D Fourier modal methods, namely aperiodic rigorous coupled wave analysis (aRCWA) and bidirectional expansion and propagation method based on Fourier series (BEX) tools. As it was recently demonstrated, SWG Bragg filters are feasible. Based on this idea, we propose, simulate, and optimize spectral characteristics of such filters. In particular, we have investigated several possibilities of modifications of original SWG waveguides towards the Bragg filtering, including firstly - simple single-segment changes in position, thickness, and width, and secondly - several types of Si inclusions, in terms of perturbed width and thickness (and their combinations). The leading idea was to obtain required (e.g. sufficiently narrow) spectral characteristic while keeping the minimum size of Si features large enough. We have found that the second

  17. Broadband Asymmetric Light Transmission at Metal/Dielectric Composite Grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui; Wu, Xuannan; Hou, Yidong; Zheng, Gaige; Zhu, Jianhua; Gao, Fuhua

    2018-01-17

    Optical diode-like effect has sparked growing interest in recent years due to its potential applications in integrated photonic systems. In this paper, we propose and numerically demonstrate a new type of easy-processing metal/dielectric cylinder composite grating on semi-sphere substrate, which can achieve high-contrast asymmetric transmission of unpolarized light for the sum of all diffraction modes in the entire visible region, and effectively guide the diffraction light transmitting out the substrate. The asymmetric light transmission (ALT) ratio is larger than 2 dB in the waveband from 380 nm to 780 nm and the maximum ALT ratio can reach to 13 dB at specified wavelengths. The thorough theoretical research reveals that the proposed metal/dielectric pillar composite grating structure, together with the substrate, can effectively excite localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) effect and waveguide mode (WGM), and enlarge the diffraction difference between forward and backward transmission spaces, including both number of diffraction orders and diffraction efficiency, thus resulting in high-contrast broadband ALT phenomenon. In particular, lowering the symmetry of the grating can achieve polarization-dependent ALT. Such a type of easy-processing ALT device with high performance for both polarized and unpolarized light can be regarded as suitable candidates in practical applications.

  18. Extraordinary optical transmission based on subwavelength metallic grating with ellipse walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuzhang; Peng, Wei; Hu, Rui; Zou, Helin

    2013-03-11

    This paper presents a nanometer-sized metallic film periodically pierced by narrow slits with ellipse walls deposited on a substrate that demonstrates special optical properties of broadband extraordinary optical transmission (BEOT). Compared to slits with straight walls, the metal slits with nonlinearly tapered ellipse walls can collect more light on the upper surface, which is coupled into a gap plasmon polariton propagating along the ellipse walls, then delivers the light at the smaller exit slit opening. In the visible spectral region, BEOT of TM-polarized light is achieved with up to 80% transmission at resonance, which is resulted from the simultaneous enhancement of zero-order slit resonance and higher-order slit resonances excited due to the existence of the substrate. The spectral range of BEOT is limited by Wood-Rayleigh anomalies and surface plasmon polariton resonances (SPPs). The BEOT spectrum of oblique incidence with small incident angle that is divided into two separate bands are also presented and analyzed theoretically. This metallic grating overcomes the low optical transmission limit of the structures with wavelength-sized grating period in visible and near-IR regions. It can be used to design nanostructured BEOT polarizer, which is an important component in novel biomimetic-based optoelectronic systems especially those in skylight polarized environment.

  19. Ultraviolet laser writing system based on polar scanning strategy to produce subwavelength metal gratings for surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amako, Jun; Fujii, Eiichi

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate the use of ultraviolet (UV) laser lithography in the production of subwavelength metal gratings. A laser writing system with a 413-nm Kr laser is used to write patterns on a resist-coated fused silica substrate mounted on a rotating table with a linear slider. One- and two-dimensional patterns are written in the resist at a selected sampling pitch or grating period, and the substrate is dry etched and coated with Au to obtain metallized gratings. Surface plasmon resonance dips, which appear in the reflectance spectra of the gratings, shift depending on the orientation of the incident polarization, because the gratings lack perfect symmetry owing to a system-induced skew in the writing beam. This dip shift can be considered tolerable when the gratings are used as a signal enhancer in Raman sensing applications. We conclude that UV laser writing based on polar coordinates is a candidate method for surface structuring on submicron scales. Devising a method to attain an unskewed beam will be the subject of future work.

  20. Charging suppression in focused-ion beam fabrication of visible subwavelength dielectric grating reflector using electron conducting polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2015-08-19

    Nanoscale periodic patterning on insulating materials using focused-ion beam (FIB) is challenging because of charging effect, which causes pattern distortion and resolution degradation. In this paper, the authors used a charging suppression scheme using electron conducting polymer for the implementation of FIB patterned dielectric subwavelength grating (SWG) reflector. Prior to the FIB patterning, the authors numerically designed the optimal structure and the fabrication tolerance for all grating parameters (period, grating thickness, fill-factor, and low refractive index layer thickness) using the rigorous-coupled wave analysis computation. Then, the authors performed the FIB patterning on the dielectric SWG reflector spin-coated with electron conducting polymer for the anticharging purpose. They also performed similar patterning using thin conductive film anticharging scheme (30 nm Cr coating) for comparison. Their results show that the electron conducting polymer anticharging scheme effectively suppressing the charging effect during the FIB patterning of dielectric SWG reflector. The fabricated grating exhibited nanoscale precision, high uniformity and contrast, constant patterning, and complied with fabrication tolerance for all grating parameters across the entire patterned area. Utilization of electron conducting polymer leads to a simpler anticharging scheme with high precision and uniformity for FIB patterning on insulator materials.

  1. Efficient and individually controllable mechanisms for mode and polarization selection in VCSELs, based on a common, localized, sub-wavelength surface grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Johan; Haglund, Asa; Vukusić, Josip; Bengtsson, Jörgen; Jedrasik, Piotr; Larsson, Anders

    2005-08-22

    We have theoretically investigated the combined fundamental-mode and polarization selection in 850-nm oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using a locally etched sub-wavelength surface grating. The physical mechanisms behind the selection are, first, the strongly polarization sensitive effective refractive index of the volume occupied by the grating structure, and second, the dramatic change of the reflectivity of a multi-layer Bragg mirror that can occur by simply changing the refractive index of the outermost layer. For a VCSEL cavity this layer is the surface layer and its refractive index is changed by the introduction of the sub-wavelength grating; in this case the grating leads to a higher reflectivity for the desired polarization. By localizing the surface grating area to a carefully chosen region near the optical axis it is therefore possible to ensure that the fundamental mode experiences a high reflectivity, or low cavity loss, while other modes experience more of the low-reflectance region of the peripheral part of the Bragg mirror and thus suffer higher loss. Cold-cavity calculations on a VCSEL with oxide aperture and grating region diameters of 4.5 microm and 2.5 microm, respectively, indicate that a loss difference of ~20 cm(-1) between the fundamental mode and the first higher order mode can be obtained simultaneously with an orthogonal polarization mode discrimination of >15 cm-1. Based on previous experience, these values should enable robust single-mode operation with only the desired polarization orientation. What is also important, for the lasing mode the introduction of a sub-wavelength grating has no detrimental effect, so its characteristics, such as threshold current, slope efficiency, and far-field profile are unaffected. Moreover, since the effective index is a result of an averaging over several sub-wavelength grating periods, it is fairly insensitive to the detailed shape of the grating grooves, which should

  2. Ultra-broadband and wide-angle perfect absorber based on composite metal-semiconductor grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Wang, Zongpeng; Hou, Yumin

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we present an ultra-broadband and wide-angle perfect absorber based on composite Ge-Ni grating. Near perfect absorption above 90% is achieved in a wide frequency range from 150 nm to 4200 nm, which covers almost the full spectrum of solar radiation. The absorption keeps robust in a wide range of incident angle from 0º to 60º. The upper triangle Ge grating works as an antireflection coating. The lower Ni grating works as a reflector and an effective energy trapper. The guided modes inside Ge grating are excited due to reflection of the lower Ni grating surface. In longer wavelength band, gap surface plasmons (GSPs) in the Ni grating are excited and couple with the guided modes inside the Ge grating. The coupled modes extend the perfect absorption band to the near-infrared region (150 nm-4200 nm). This design has potential application in photovoltaic devices and thermal emitters.

  3. Simplified analysis of sub-wavelength triangular gratings by simplified modal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Gayathri; Bhattacharya, Shanti

    2016-12-01

    A phase-equivalence of a triangular grating and a "corresponding" blazed structure is proposed. This equivalence is used to simplify the analysis of the grating, which otherwise would require the repetitive application of the simplified modal method to each lamellar grating that constitutes the triangular grating. The concept is used to arrive at an equation for the phase introduced by the triangular grating. The proposed model is verified by finite element simulations. A method of fabricating a triangular grating in quartz is presented. The proposed theory, along with optical testing, can be used as a non-destructive means by which to estimate the height of the triangular grating during the dry etching process.

  4. Funneling and guiding effects in ultrathin aSi-H solar cells using one-dimensional dielectric subwavelength gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshorbagy, Mahmoud H.; Alda, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Ultrathin amorphous silicon hydrogenated (aSi-H) solar cells grown on a one-dimensional (1-D) dielectric subwavelength gratings improve the short circuit current by a factor of more than 51% when compared with conventional, flat ultrathin aSi-H devices. This improvement is possible due to several mechanisms. In addition the increase in exposed area caused by the nanostructured surface, a reliable computational electromagnetic evaluation of the interaction of the solar spectrum with the cell structure demonstrates that absorption at the active layer is enhanced and also reflectivity is decreased. In addition, the absorbed power at the nonactive layers is larger, helping to increase the temperature and mitigate the Staebler-Wronski effect. The detailed analysis of the power flux inside the structure has also shown that funneling and guiding mechanism are at play, increasing the optical path within the active layer that produces a better performance of the cell.

  5. Particle swarm optimization of broadband field enhancement with a grating-assisted plasmonic taper nanoantenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazizov, A. R.; Zohrabi, M.; Salakhov, M. Kh

    2017-06-01

    This work is dedicated to the improvement of the near-field enhancement beneath the gold and silver tip apex due to plasmons excitation on a sub-wavelength grating engraved on the tip lateral surface. To study conditions of the maximal enhancement we have performed PSO-based optimization of intensity in search space of two parameters for gold and silver tip with different cone angles. Parameters of search space are period of the grating and its position in respect to the apex. The grating-assisted tip is illuminated with the incident light with wavelengths of 400 to 1000 nm in our model. All the simulations of electromagnetic waves scattering on the nanoantenna are based on the finite difference time domain method.

  6. Subwavelength population density gratings in resonant medium created by few-cycle pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, R. M.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Pakhomov, A. V.; Babushkin, I.; Demircan, A.; Morgner, U.; Rosanov, N. N.

    2017-11-01

    We consider theoretically recently proposed a new possibility of creation, erasing and ultrafast control of population density grating. Such grating can be created in resonant medium when ultrashort pulses with duration smaller than relaxation times in the resonant medium (coherent light matter interactions) propagate without overlapping in this medium. Possible applications in the ultrafast optics such as optical switcher and laser beam deflector are discussed.

  7. Automatic tunable and reconfigurable fiberoptic microwave filters based on a broadband optical source sliced by uniform fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, J; Cruz, J; Andres, M; Pastor, D; Sales, S

    2002-11-04

    We demonstrate an automatic tunable transversal notch filter based on uniform fiber Bragg gratings and a broadband optical source. High tunability can be performed by stretching the fiber with the gratings written in series. Also, high sidelobe supression can be achieved by introducing tunable attenuators in a parallel configuration of the gratings.

  8. Broadband Absorber for the Microwave Region Using Ball-Milled Graphite Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiqiao; Zhang, Zilong; Wang, Zilin; Wang, Shuai; Heng, Liuyang; Zou, Yanhong

    2017-10-01

    A broadband absorber for the microwave region based on a dielectric structure with ball-milled graphite gratings has been proposed. In this absorber, electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of 5.4 to 18 GHz are absorbed efficiently with more than 90% absorptivity. The ball-milled graphite with high a imaginary part of its permittivity used in this work can exhibit dielectric loss to some extent, while there is almost no magnetic loss owing to its low permeability. By comparing the electric field of a single absorbing layer and our grating structure, we found that a λ/4 resonance mode with a narrowband property is excited in the single-layer structure, while the cavity-mode resonance and the edge diffraction effects are the main reasons for the broadband absorption of our designed grating structure. This result provides a guideline for microwave-absorbing materials to greatly extend their bandwidth using a simple structure.

  9. Deep Subwavelength Electromagnetic Transparency through Dual Metallic Gratings with Ultranarrow Slits

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Chunyin; Chen, Ruirui; Hou, Bo; Li, Feng; Liu, Zhengyou

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, we study the transmission response of microwaves through two identical metallic plates machined with ultranarrow slit arrays. The measured and calculated transmission spectra consistently display a striking transmission peak at wavelength much larger than any characteristic length of the structure (e.g., about twenty-fold of the lattice period), which can not be directly explained by the existing mechanisms. Both the LC-circuit-based microscopic picture and the effective-medium-based macroscopic model are established to capture the essential physics behind such unexpected resonance at the deep subwavelength scale. Prospective applications of this novel transmission property can be anticipated, considering the merits of compact and excellent immunity to structural imperfections.

  10. Optimization of VCSELs incorporating monolithic subwavelength high-refractive-index contrast surface grating mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebski, Marcin; Marciniak, Magdalena; Dems, Maciej; Czyszanowski, Tomasz; Lott, James A.

    2017-02-01

    We present results of computer simulations of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) using novel, highreflectivity monolithic high refractive-index contrast grating (MHCG) mirrors and their more advanced version, partially covered by a thin metal layer - metallic MHCG (mMHCG) mirrors. The first experimental realization of this new class of mirrors is presented and discussed. We show that the metal layer does not deteriorate the high reflectivity of an mMHCG mirror, but in contrary, is a crucial element which allows high reflectivity and additionally opens a way for a more efficient electrical pumping of a VCSEL. Comparison of results of thermal-electrical-carrier-gain self-consistent simulations of both MHCG- and mMHCG-based VCSELs is presented and discussed. It is shown that using mHCG mirror as a top mirror of a VCSEL improves electrical characteristics and greatly decreases the differential resistance of the device.

  11. Cascading metallic gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Long; Sun, Fuhe [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications-CAS and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Chen, Qin, E-mail: qchen2012@sinano.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications-CAS and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Peking University Shenzhen SOC Key Laboratory, PKU-HKUST Shenzhen-Hong Kong Institute, Hi-Tech Industrial Park South, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2014-04-14

    The incorporation of plasmonic nanostructures in the thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) is a promising route to harvest light into the nanoscale active layer. However, the light trapping scheme based on the plasmonic effects intrinsically presents narrow-band resonant enhancement of light absorption. Here we demonstrate that by cascading metal nanogratings with different sizes atop the TFSCs, broadband absorption enhancement can be realized by simultaneously exciting multiple localized surface plasmon resonances and inducing strong coupling between the plasmonic modes and photonic modes. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate of 66.5% in the photocurrent in an ultrathin amorphous silicon TFSC with two-dimensional cascaded gratings over the reference cell without gratings.

  12. Broadband high-efficiency zero-order surface grating coupler for the near- and mid-infrared wavelength ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Postigo, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Pérez, J. Gonzalo; Luque-González, José Manuel; Molina-Fernández, Íñigo; Cheben, Pavel; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos A.; Halir, Robert; Schmid, Jens H.; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro

    2017-05-01

    Efficient coupling of light from a chip into an optical fiber is a major issue in silicon photonics, as the dimensions of high-index-contrast photonic integrated waveguides are much smaller than conventional fiber diameters. Surface grating couplers address the coupling problem by radiating the optical power from a waveguide through the surface of the chip to the optical fiber, or vice versa. However, since the grating radiation angle substantially varies with the wavelength, conventional surface grating couplers cannot offer high coupling efficiency and broad bandwidth simultaneously. To overcome this limitation, for the near-infrared band we have recently proposed SOI-based zero-order grating couplers, which, making use of a subwavelength-engineered waveguide and a high-index prism, suppress the explicit dependence between the radiation angle and the wavelength, achieving a 1-dB bandwidth of 126 nm at λ = 1.55 μm. However, in the near-infrared, the bandwidth enhancement of zero-order grating couplers is limited by the effective index wavelength dispersion of the grating. In the mid-infrared spectral region, the waveguide dispersion is lower, alleviating the bandwidth limitation. Here we demonstrate numerically our zero-order grating coupler concept in the mid-infrared at λ = 3.8 μm. Several couplers for the silicon-on-insulator and the germanium-on-silicon nitride platforms are designed and compared, with subdecibel coupling efficiencies and 1-dB bandwidths up to 680 nm.

  13. A broadband transparent window in a continuous metal film coated with double layer hybrid dielectric gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Anwei; Tan, Jingfeng

    2017-11-01

    In this letter, we propose a highly conductive and transparent structure which consists of two high-low index dielectric gratings placed on two sides of a continuous metal film. A broadband transparent window with over 550 nm wavelength width and 80% transmission is achieved in both visible and near-infrared regions. The excitation of hybrid plasmons cavity resonances in the structure generates multiple transmission peaks. Three different transmission peaks overlap to yield a broad transparent window with proper parameters. In addition, the transmission spectrum can easily be modified by tuning structural parameters. Its excellent performance makes our proposed structure a promising candidate for optoelectronics, such as the highly conductive transparent electrodes, displays and solar cells.

  14. Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal, David; Li, Jingjing; Peng, Zhen; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Raymond G.

    2010-07-01

    Sub-wavelength dielectric gratings have emerged recently as a promising alternative to distributed Bragg reflection dielectric stacks for broadband, high-reflectivity filtering applications. Such a grating structure composed of a single dielectric layer with the appropriate patterning can sometimes perform as well as 30 or 40 dielectric distributed Bragg reflection layers, while providing new functionalities such as polarization control and near-field amplification. In this Letter, we introduce an interesting property of grating mirrors that cannot be realized by their distributed Bragg reflection counterpart: we show that a non-periodic patterning of the grating surface can give full control over the phase front of reflected light while maintaining a high reflectivity. This new feature of dielectric gratings allows the creation of miniature planar focusing elements that could have a substantial impact on a number of applications that depend on low-cost, compact optical components, from laser cavities to CD/DVD read/write heads.

  15. Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni-acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Stephen Y; Ding, Wei

    2013-01-14

    Three of central challenges in solar cells are high light coupling into solar cell, high light trapping and absorption in a sub-absorption-length-thick active layer, and replacement of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) transparent electrode used in thin-film devices. Here, we report a proposal and the first experimental study and demonstration of a new ultra-thin high-efficiency organic solar cell (SC), termed "plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole-array (PlaCSH) solar cell", that offers a solution to all three issues with unprecedented performances. The ultrathin PlaCSH-SC is a thin plasmonic cavity that consists of a 30 nm thick front metal-mesh electrode with subwavelength hole-array (MESH) which replaces ITO, a thin (100 nm thick) back metal electrode, and in-between a polymer photovoltaic active layer (P3HT/PCBM) of 85 nm thick (1/3 average absorption-length). Experimentally, the PlaCSH-SCs have achieved (1) light coupling-efficiency/absorptance as high as 96% (average 90%), broad-band, and Omni acceptance (light coupling nearly independent of both light incident angle and polarization); (2) an external quantum efficiency of 69% for only 27% single-pass active layer absorptance; leading to (3) a 4.4% power conversion efficiency (PCE) at standard-solar-irradiation, which is 52% higher than the reference ITO-SC (identical structure and fabrication to PlaCSH-SC except MESH replaced by ITO), and also is among the highest PCE for the material system that was achievable previously only by using thick active materials and/or optimized polymer compositions and treatments. In harvesting scattered light, the Omni acceptance can increase PCE by additional 81% over ITO-SC, leading to a total 175% increase (i.e. 8% PCE). Furthermore, we found that (a) after formation of PlaCSH the light reflection and absorption by MESH are reduced by 2 to 6 fold from the values when it is alone; and (b) the sheet resistance of a 30 nm thick MESH is 2.2 ohm/sq or less-4.5 fold or more lower

  16. Underwater giant enhancement of broadband diffraction efficiency of surface diffraction gratings fabricated by femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Cong; Yin, Kai; Dong, Xinran; Song, Yuxin; Tian, Yaxiang; Duan, Ji'an

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a simple approach is proposed to improve the diffraction efficiency of surface diffraction gratings on fused silica fabricated by femtosecond laser. Effects of grating period, pulse energy, scanning speed and wavelength on the total diffraction efficiency are also investigated. In addition, the mechanism of the diffraction efficiency's giant enhancement is discussed by finite difference time domain (FDTD) and optical phase shift structure calculation. It is revealed that: (1) Compared with the diffraction efficiency obtained in air, the underwater image via diffraction grating is clearer than that in air and diffraction pattern in water is much brighter; (2) The diffraction efficiency increases with an increase in wavelength and scanning speed, whereas it decreases while the laser pulse energy is high; and (3) This giant enhancement is attributed to the degree of Mie scattering and refraction, which is effectively reduced for the existence of water.

  17. Temporal dynamics of frequency-tunable graphene-based plasmonic grating structures for ultra-broadband terahertz communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornet, Josep Miquel; Thawdar, Ngwe; Woo, Ethan; Andrello, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    Terahertz (THz) communication is envisioned as a key wireless technology to satisfy the need for 1000x faster wireless data rates. To date, major progress on both electronic and photonic technologies are finally closing the so-called THz gap. Among others, graphene-based plasmonic nano-devices have been proposed as a way to enable ultra-broadband communications above 1THz. The unique dynamic complex conductivity of graphene enables the propagation of Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) waves at THz frequencies. In addition, the conductivity of graphene and, thus, the SPP propagation properties, can be dynamically tuned by means of electrostatic biasing or material doping. This result opens the door to frequency-tunable devices for THz communications. In this paper, the temporal dynamics of graphene-enhanced metallic grating structures used for excitation and detection of SPP waves at THz frequencies are analytically and numerically modeled. More specifically, the response of a metallic grating structure built on top of a graphene-based heterostructure is analyzed by taking into account the grating period and duty cycle and the Fermi energy of the graphene layer. Then, the interfacial charge transfer between a metallic back-gate and the graphene layer in a metal/dielectric/graphene stack is analytically modeled, and the range of achievable Fermi energies is determined. Finally, the rate at which the Fermi energy in graphene can be tuned is estimated starting from the transmission line model of graphene. Extensive numerical and simulation results with COMSOL Multi-physics are provided. The results show that the proposed structure enables dynamic frequency systems with THz bandwidths, thus, enabling resilient communication techniques such as time-hopping THz modulations.

  18. Laser-induced damage of multilayer dielectric for broadband pulse compression grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanyu; Chen, Shunli; Liu, Shijie; Jin, Yunxia; Guan, Heyuan; Du, Ying; Wei, Chaoyang; He, Hongbo; Yi, Kui

    2012-01-01

    The multilayer dielectrics (MLDs) for broad bandwidth 800nm pulse compression gratings were fabricated with optimized design by electron beam evaporation using three different kinds of materials (Ta2O5/SiO2/HfO2), which had more than 99% reflectance with bandwidth larger than 160nm around the center wavelength of 800 nm and high transmission at the exposure wavelength of 413nm. Laser-induced damage behaviors of the mirrors were investigated. It was found that the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the samples could reach 1.0J/cm2 and 2.0J/cm2 in the normal beam (57 degrees, TE mode) at pulse duration of 50fs and 120fs, respectively. The depth information of the damage sites at these two cases was explored by atomic force microscope (AFM). The reason of the sample having so high LIDT was also discussed in this paper. The MLDs provide a solid base for the high laser threshold 800nm pulse compression gratings and may open a new way for broad bandwidth 800nm reflectance coatings used in the ultrashort pulse laser system.

  19. Broadband direction-dependent transmission of light with photonic crystal heterostructure grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, D.; Giden, I. H.; Kurt, H.

    2018-01-01

    Direction-dependent light transmission is a remarkable phenomenon owing to its great potential to be used in optical communication processing systems such as optical diodes, isolators and rectifiers. All these applications require optical reciprocity breaking mechanisms such as magneto-optical effect. Keeping the reciprocity intact, it is possible to manipulate the amount and spatial form of the two oppositely propagating lights exiting from a passive photonic medium. In this paper, a photonic crystal diffraction grating (PCDG) configuration is studied for the investigation of asymmetric light transport due to the spatial inversion symmetry breaking in the designed compact all-dielectric PC heterostructure. Thanks to the periodic corrugations at the back-surface of the designed structure, the backward transmission of the zero-order diffracted wave is notably suppressed while the efficient unidirectional forward transmission is achieved. Numerical calculations show that up to 73% of the incoming electromagnetic energy is transmitted in the forward illumination whereas it reduces down to a value of 6% (which corresponds to 10.85 dB beam suppression) in the case of backward illumination. That asymmetric light transmission leads to a contrast ratio (CR) of above 0.55 (CR  =  (T +x   ‑  T ‑x )/(T +x   +  T ‑x ), in which T ‑x and T +x are the transmission efficiencies in the  ‑x and  +x directions, respectively). The highest contrast ratio of CR  =  0.99 is calculated at the incident frequency of a/λ  =  0.5338 having the forward and backward transmissions of {T +x ,T ‑x }  =  {42%,0.1%}, which corresponds to the beam suppression of 26.23 dB. Furthermore, the proposed PCDG exhibits the diffraction grating effect at the considerable range of angle of incidence up to  ±20° at certain frequencies indicating that the proposed grating system is durable to source misalignments.

  20. Subwavelength metamaterial engineering for silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halir, Robert; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Soler-Penades, Jordi; Luque-González, José M.; Sarmiento-Merenguel, Dario; Sánchez-Postigo, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Pérez, Gonzalo; Schmid, Jens; Xu, Dan-Xia; Janz, Siegfried; Lapointe, Jean; Molina-Fernández, Íñigo; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Cheben, Pavel

    2017-02-01

    Waveguides structured at the subwavelength scale frustrate diffraction and behave as optical metamaterials with controllable refractive index. These structures have found widespread applications in silicon photonics, ranging from sub-decibel efficiency fibre-chip couplers to spectrometers and polarization rotators. Here, we briey describe the design foundations for sub-wavelength waveguide devices, both in terms of analytic effective medium approximations, as well as through rigorous Floch-Bloquet mode simulation. We then focus on two novel structures that exemplify the use of subwavelength waveguides: mid-infrared waveguides and ultra-broadband beamsplitters.

  1. Hybrid III-V on Si grating as a broadband reflector and a high-Q resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Park, Gyeong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid grating (HG) with a high-refractive-index cap layer added onto a high contrast grating (HCG), can provide a high reflectance close 100 % over a broader wavelength range than HCGs, or work as a ultrahigh quality (Q) factor resonator. The reflection and resonance properties of HGs have been...

  2. Broadband tunable bandpass filters using phase shifted vertical side wall grating in a submicrometer silicon-on-insulator waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhathan, P; Murukeshan, V M; Jing, Zhang; Ramana, Pamidighantam V

    2009-10-10

    We propose the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based, phase shifted vertical side wall grating as a resonant transmission filter suitable for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) communication channels with 100 GHz channel spacing. The gratings are designed and numerically simulated to obtain a minimum loss in the resonant cavity by adjusting the grating parameters so that a high transmittivity can be achieved for the resonant transmission. The resonant grating, which is designed to operate in the DWDM International Telecommunication Union (ITU) grid C band of optical communication, has a high free spectral range of 51.7 nm and a narrow band resonant transmission. The wavelength selectivity of the filter is improved through a coupled cavity configuration by applying two phase shifts to the gratings. The observed channel band width and channel isolation of the resonant transmission filter are good and in agreement with the ITU specifications.

  3. Surface plasmons on zig-zag gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Thomas J; Taphouse, Tim S; Rance, Helen J; Kitson, Stephen C; Hibbins, Alastair P; Sambles, J Roy

    2012-10-08

    Optical excitation of surface plasmons polaritons (SPPs) on a 'zig-zag diffraction grating' is explored. The fabricated silver grating consists of sub-wavelength grooves 'zig-zagged' along their length, providing a diffractive periodicity to visible radiation. SPPs propagating in the diffraction plane and scattered by an odd number of grating vectors are only excited by TE polarized radiation, whereas for TM polarized light, which also induces surface charge, SPP excitation is forbidden by the grating's broken-mirror symmetry.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Sub-Wavelength Anti-Reflective Structures for Solar Module Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Katherine; Chang, Chih-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current progress in mathematical modeling of anti-reflective subwavelength structures. Methods covered include effective medium theory (EMT), finite-difference time-domain (FDTD), transfer matrix method (TMM), the Fourier modal method (FMM)/rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) and the finite element method (FEM). Time-based solutions to Maxwell’s equations, such as FDTD, have the benefits of calculating reflectance for multiple wavelengths of light per simulation, but are computationally intensive. Space-discretized methods such as FDTD and FEM output field strength results over the whole geometry and are capable of modeling arbitrary shapes. Frequency-based solutions such as RCWA/FMM and FEM model one wavelength per simulation and are thus able to handle dispersion for regular geometries. Analytical approaches such as TMM are appropriate for very simple thin films. Initial disadvantages such as neglect of dispersion (FDTD), inaccuracy in TM polarization (RCWA), inability to model aperiodic gratings (RCWA), and inaccuracy with metallic materials (FDTD) have been overcome by most modern software. All rigorous numerical methods have accurately predicted the broadband reflection of ideal, graded-index anti-reflective subwavelength structures; ideal structures are tapered nanostructures with periods smaller than the wavelengths of light of interest and lengths that are at least a large portion of the wavelengths considered. PMID:28348287

  5. Experimental testing of focusing properties of subwavelength photon sieves using exposure method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenbo; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    An exposure method is proposed to test the focusing properties of subwavelength photon sieves. To solve the problems caused by the subwavelength photon sieves (such as short focal length and small focal spot size), a grating moiré fringe phase detection technique and a microcontact sensor with lead zirconium titanate (PZT) stepping hybrid technique are used in the experimental setup. The focusing properties of the subwavelength photon sieves are tested by this setup. The results show that the focal length and the focal spot size are close to the designed value. Finally, the intensity distribution of the focal spot is proposed. This research result will be beneficial for understanding the focusing properties of subwavelength photon sieves, will help us to improve the imaging quality, and will provide a good experimental basis for practical applications in the nanolithography field.

  6. Photonic spin Hall effect in hyperbolic metamaterials for polarization-controlled routing of subwavelength modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitanova, Polina V; Ginzburg, Pavel; Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J; Filonov, Dmitry S; Voroshilov, Pavel M; Belov, Pavel A; Poddubny, Alexander N; Kivshar, Yuri S; Wurtz, Gregory A; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2014-01-01

    The routing of light in a deep subwavelength regime enables a variety of important applications in photonics, quantum information technologies, imaging and biosensing. Here we describe and experimentally demonstrate the selective excitation of spatially confined, subwavelength electromagnetic modes in anisotropic metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion. A localized, circularly polarized emitter placed at the boundary of a hyperbolic metamaterial is shown to excite extraordinary waves propagating in a prescribed direction controlled by the polarization handedness. Thus, a metamaterial slab acts as an extremely broadband, nearly ideal polarization beam splitter for circularly polarized light. We perform a proof of concept experiment with a uniaxial hyperbolic metamaterial at radio-frequencies revealing the directional routing effect and strong subwavelength λ/300 confinement. The proposed concept of metamaterial-based subwavelength interconnection and polarization-controlled signal routing is based on the photonic spin Hall effect and may serve as an ultimate platform for either conventional or quantum electromagnetic signal processing.

  7. Ultrahigh sensitive sub-terahertz detection by InP-based asymmetric dual-grating-gate high-electron-mobility transistors and their broadband characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, Y.; Satou, A., E-mail: a-satou@riec.tohoku.ac.jp; Kobayashi, K.; Boubanga Tombet, S.; Suemitsu, T.; Otsuji, T. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ducournau, G. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, 59562 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Coquillat, D.; Knap, W. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, Université Montpellier 2 - CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Meziani, Y. M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca 37008 (Spain); Popov, V. V. [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, 410019 Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-23

    We report on room-temperature plasmonic detection of sub-terahertz radiation by InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistors with an asymmetric dual-grating-gate structure. Maximum responsivities of 22.7 kV/W at 200 GHz and 21.5 kV/W at 292 GHz were achieved under unbiased drain-to-source condition. The minimum noise equivalent power was estimated to be 0.48 pW/Hz{sup 0.5} at 200 GHz at room temperature, which is the record-breaking value ever reported for plasmonic THz detectors. Frequency dependence of the responsivity in the frequency range of 0.2–2 THz is in good agreement with the theory.

  8. Enhancement of broad-band light absorption in monolayer MoS2 using Ag grating hybrid with distributed Bragg reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jintao; Wang, Jin; Yang, Guofeng; Lu, Yann; Sun, Rui; Yan, Pengfei; Gao, Shumei

    2017-10-01

    A hybrid novel structure of monolayer MoS2 with Ag nanograting and DBR on Si substrate has been proposed to obtain broad-band absorption response for two-dimensional (2D) materials. It is effective to reduce light loss and reflect the incident light efficiently for monolayer MoS2 absorption with DBR dielectric layers. Moreover, by combining Ag nanograting with DBR structure, the average absorption achieves as high as 59% within broad wavelength ranging from 420 to 700 nm, which is attributed to the plasmonic resonant effect of metal nanostripes. The absorption would be affected by the duty ratio and period of the Ag nanograting, and shows incident angle dependent characteristics, while an average absorption higher than 60% has been obtained at the incident angle around 40°. These results indicate that 2D MoS2 in combination with DBR and metal nanograting have a promising potential applications for optical nano-devices.

  9. Characteristics and applications of acoustic metasurfaces with subwavelength apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuanjun; Zeng, Xinwu; Wang, Jianli; Gao, Dongbao

    2017-10-01

    The reflection characteristics of a unit cell consisting of a grating with subwavelength apertures and a reflection wall are theoretically discussed. An analysis focusing on the influence of material impedance is implemented. The assumption that the grating and the reflection wall were considered as perfectly rigid in previous papers is proven to have little effect on the ultimate results. Meanwhile, the influence of the geometrical parameters of unit cell is also analyzed, which acts as a guide for designing an acoustic metasurface. Applications of an acoustic metasurface in abnormal reflection and acoustic lensing are then realized. COMSOL simulations demonstrate that the designed acoustic metasurfaces with a total thickness of just one-tenth of incident wavelength could indeed control the wavefronts of reflected waves and realize novel phenomena that traditional interfaces cannot achieve.

  10. Focusing of Acoustic Waves through Acoustic Materials with Subwavelength Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Bingmu

    2013-05-01

    In this thesis, wave propagation through acoustic materials with subwavelength slits structures is studied. Guided by the findings, acoustic wave focusing is achieved with a specific material design. By using a parameter retrieving method, an effective medium theory for a slab with periodic subwavelength cut-through slits is successfully derived. The theory is based on eigenfunction solutions to the acoustic wave equation. Numerical simulations are implemented by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the two-dimensional acoustic wave equation. The theory provides the effective impedance and refractive index functions for the equivalent medium, which can reproduce the transmission and reflection spectral responses of the original structure. I analytically and numerically investigate both the validity and limitations of the theory, and the influences of material and geometry on the effective spectral responses are studied. Results show that large contrasts in impedance and density are conditions that validate the effective medium theory, and this approximation displays a better accuracy for a thick slab with narrow slits in it. Based on the effective medium theory developed, a design of a at slab with a snake shaped" subwavelength structure is proposed as a means of achieving acoustic focusing. The property of focusing is demonstrated by FDTD simulations. Good agreement is observed between the proposed structure and the equivalent lens pre- dicted by the theory, which leads to robust broadband focusing by a thin at slab.

  11. Ultracompact resonator with high quality-factor based on a hybrid grating structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2015-01-01

    We numerically investigate the properties of a hybrid grating structure acting as a resonator with ultrahigh quality factor. This reveals that the physical mechanism responsible for the resonance is quite different from the conventional guided mode resonance (GMR). The hybrid grating consists...... of a subwavelength grating layer and an un-patterned high-refractive-index cap layer, being surrounded by low index materials. Since the cap layer may include a gain region, an ultracompact laser can be realized based on the hybrid grating resonator, featuring many advantages over high-contrast-grating resonator...

  12. Broadband and chiral binary dielectric meta-holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Ambrosio, Antonio; Kanhaiya, Pritpal; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Subwavelength structured surfaces, known as meta-surfaces, hold promise for future compact and optically thin devices with versatile functionalities. By revisiting the concept of detour phase, we demonstrate high-efficiency holograms with broadband and chiral imaging functionalities. In our devices, the apertures of binary holograms are replaced by subwavelength structured microgratings. We achieve broadband operation from the visible to the near infrared and efficiency as high as 75% in the 1.0 to 1.4 μm range by compensating for the inherent dispersion of the detour phase with that of the subwavelength structure. In addition, we demonstrate chiral holograms that project different images depending on the handedness of the reference beam by incorporating a geometric phase. Our devices' compactness, lightness, and ability to produce images even at large angles have significant potential for important emerging applications such as wearable optics.

  13. Broadband and chiral binary dielectric meta-holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Ambrosio, Antonio; Kanhaiya, Pritpal; Capasso, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength structured surfaces, known as meta-surfaces, hold promise for future compact and optically thin devices with versatile functionalities. By revisiting the concept of detour phase, we demonstrate high-efficiency holograms with broadband and chiral imaging functionalities. In our devices, the apertures of binary holograms are replaced by subwavelength structured microgratings. We achieve broadband operation from the visible to the near infrared and efficiency as high as 75% in the 1.0 to 1.4 μm range by compensating for the inherent dispersion of the detour phase with that of the subwavelength structure. In addition, we demonstrate chiral holograms that project different images depending on the handedness of the reference beam by incorporating a geometric phase. Our devices’ compactness, lightness, and ability to produce images even at large angles have significant potential for important emerging applications such as wearable optics. PMID:27386518

  14. Electronically tunable metamaterials using subwavelength magnetoresponsive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Monica; Allen, Jeffery; Parrow, Jacob; Asif, Sajid; Iftikar, Adnan; Wenner, Brett; Braaten, Benjamin

    We demonstrate tunability of material properties of an engineered electromagnetic material in the RF regime using microparticles that respond to static magnetic biasing fields. The magnetic particles align with field lines creating a short/inductive state of the switch in the addressed voxel. When the biasing magnetic field is removed, the switch returns to an open/capacitive state. Each voxel measures 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm x 0.508 mm in the x, y, and z direction respectively, with a 0.9 mm diameter cylindrical cavity. The cavity is along the z-axis and is partially filled with microparticles composed of a magnetite core with Ag coating. Cu foil placed on the top and bottom encloses the particles in the cavity and acts as the biasing electrodes. Switching between inductive and capacitive states in spatially addressed voxels controls the cumulative ɛ and μ of the host material (i.e., layer) and controls the phase of an incident wave. We present finite element based models of prototype voxels with experimental measurements that validate the models on a host. This research can be applied to real-time tuning of material parameters with subwavelength voxel precision enabling wave control/manipulation as well as devices for switching and software-dictated tunable impedance capabilities. Authors JWA, MSA and BRW are grateful for support from AFOSR Lab Task 17RWCOR397 (Dr. H. Weinstock). NDSU was supported by (FA-8651-15-2-002) from the US Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate.

  15. Resonance phenomena in one-dimensional grating-based structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Ya. Yaremchuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced optical transmission through metallic 1-D grating-based structures has been studied using the rigorous coupled wave analysis. The results have shown that optical transmission is determined by waveguide properties of the grating slit, and there is a minimum width of slit for TE polarization, when high transmission occurs due to waveguide effect. In contrast, this limitation doesn’t exist for TM polarization, and extraordinary transmission is obtained at the sub-wavelength slit. As a result, high transmission is reached due to resonance of electromagnetic field inside the grating slit.

  16. Broadband frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    We present a simple, passive and static setup for broadband frequency conversion. By using simple optical components like lenses, mirrors and gratings, we obtain the spectral angular dispersion to match the second harmonic generation phasematching angles in a nonlinear BiBO crystal. We are able...... to frequency double a single-frequency diode laser, tunable in the 1020-1090 nm range, with almost equal efficiency for all wavelengths. In the experimental setup, the width of the phasematch was increased with a factor of 50. The method can easily be extended to other wavelength ranges and nonlinear crystals...

  17. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Jiaguang [OSU; Lu, Xinchao [OSU; Zhang, Weili [OSU

    2009-01-01

    The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays m!lde from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottkey diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.

  18. In-line measuring method for periodical sub-wavelength nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexe, Gabriela; Tausendfreund, Andreas; Stöbener, Dirk; Fischer, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this work is to describe a simulatively designed scatterometry approach for the in-line characterization of sub-wavelength sinusoidal gratings, which are formed on a transparent foil in a roll-to-roll procedure. The challenge is to acquire the 3D information of the workpiece, i.e., to measure the grating height in addition to the grating period with nm precision. The grating period is obtained straightforward from the position of the first order diffraction maxima in the reflection and the transmission region. For determining the grating height, the inverse problem is solved, i.e., the relation between the scattered intensities of the diffraction maxima and the grating height is extracted from light scattering simulations. The measurement uncertainty is evaluated for different instrumentation and simulation parameters, such as the detection and incidence angle, the laser wavelength as well as the input parameters of the simulation. As a result, the measurement uncertainty for the grating period and the height is estimated to 0.3 nm and ≤8 nm, respectively, when using laser light in the visible wavelength range. Large area scanning measurements performed offline using the setup parameters derived from simulations verify the sensitivity of the presented measurement approach for identifying local variations of the spatial surface properties. Depending on the chosen detection system, sampling rates up to the MHz range are feasible meeting the requirements of in-line process control of the roll-to-roll production procedure.

  19. Subwavelength micropillar array terahertz lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Michael; Brandstetter, Martin; Deutsch, Christoph; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl

    2014-01-13

    We report on micropillar-based terahertz lasers with active pillars that are much smaller than the emission wavelength. These micropillar array lasers correspond to scaled-down band-edge photonic crystal lasers forming an active photonic metamaterial. In contrast to photonic crystal lasers which use significantly larger pillar structures, lasing emission is not observed close to high-symmetry points in the photonic band diagram, but in the effective medium regime. We measure stimulated emission at 4 THz for micropillar array lasers with pillar diameters of 5 µm. Our results not only demonstrate the integration of active subwavelength optics in a terahertz laser, but are also an important step towards the realization of nanowire-based terahertz lasers.

  20. Model-assisted measuring method for periodical sub-wavelength nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexe, Gabriela; Tausendfreund, Andreas; Stöbener, Dirk; Fischer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a scatterometry approach designed by simulations for the in-line characterization of sub-wavelength sinusoidal gratings, which are formed on a transparent foil in a roll-to-roll procedure. Currently used methods are based on series of in situ measurements of the specular optical response at different incident angles or wavelengths for acquiring dimensional information on the gratings. The capability of single measurements of the first diffraction maxima at a fixed incident angle and wavelength to accurately measure the height of the sub-wavelength sinusoidal gratings is investigated in this work. The relation between the scattered powers of the diffraction maxima and the grating height is extracted from light scattering simulations, i.e., the inverse problem is solved. Optimal setup parameters for the measurement of grating heights ranging from 100 nm to 300 nm are derived from simulations. Limits of measurability and the measurement uncertainty are evaluated for different instrumentation and simulation parameters. When using laser light in the visible wavelength range, the measurement uncertainty is physically limited by the photon shot noise to the picometer range, but the systematic contributions dominate the uncertainty. As a result, the measurement uncertainty for the grating height is estimated to ≤12  nm, with a potential for <4  nm. Large-area scanning measurements performed offline and reference atomic force microscopy measurements verify the sensitivity of the presented measurement approach for identifying local variations of the spatial surface properties. Depending on the chosen detection system, sampling rates up to the MHz range are feasible, meeting the requirements of in-line process control of the roll-to-roll production process.

  1. Subwavelength Hyperlens Resolution With Perfect Contrast Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Repän, Taavi; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2018-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that plasmonic effects in hyperbolic metamaterials may facilitate overcoming the diffraction limit and enhance the contrast function of an image by filtering background radiation. Unfortunately, the contrast function of such a dark‐field hyperlens degrades in the deep......‐subwavelength regime. We push forward the concept of the contrast function revival in the subwavelength imaging by introduction of the proper phase difference between coherent sources. To study this effect we develop a simplified theory of the wave propagation through a hyperbolic metamaterial and show that......, in principle, two sources standing apart at any subwavelength distance can be distinguished. We suggest two feasible designs, the first of which employs the obliquely incident light, while the second one is based on a properly designed metasurface. The concept can be used in high‐contrast subwavelength...

  2. Slow-light effect via Rayleigh anomaly and the effect of finite gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Youm; Chong, Xinyuan; Ren, Fanghui; Wang, Alan X

    2015-11-15

    In this Letter, we investigate the slow-light effect of subwavelength diffraction gratings via the Rayleigh anomaly using a fully analytical approach without needing to consider specific grating structures. Our results show that the local group velocity of the transmitted light can be significantly reduced due to the optical vortex, which can inspire a new mechanism to enhance light-matter interactions for optical sensing and photodetection. However, the slow-light effect will diminish as the transmitted light propagates farther from the grating surface, and the slowdown factor decreases as the grating size shrinks.

  3. Broadband manipulation of acoustic wavefronts by pentamode metasurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Ye; Wei, Qi, E-mail: weiqi@nju.edu.cn; Cheng, Ying [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Zheng [School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Liu, Xiaojun, E-mail: liuxiaojun@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-11-30

    An acoustic metasurface with a sub-wavelength thickness can manipulate acoustic wavefronts freely by the introduction of abrupt phase variation. However, the existence of a narrow bandwidth and a low transmittance limits further applications. Here, we present a broadband and highly transparent acoustic metasurface based on a frequency-independent generalized acoustic Snell's law and pentamode metamaterials. The proposal employs a gradient velocity to redirect refracted waves and pentamode metamaterials to improve impedance matching between the metasurface and the background medium. Excellent wavefront manipulation based on the metasurface is further demonstrated by anomalous refraction, generation of non-diffracting Bessel beam, and sub-wavelength flat focusing.

  4. Theoretical Investigation of Subwavelength Gratings and Vertical Cavity Lasers Employing Grating Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza

    directions, which is analogous to electronic quantum wells in conduction or valence bands. Several interesting configurations of heterostructures have been investigated and their potential in fundamental physics study and applications are discussed. For numerical and theoretical studies, a three...... laterally coupled cavities is proposed and investigated, which exhibits the breaking of parity-time (PT) symmetry in vertical cavity structures. Compared to other types of platform for studying this phenomenon such as ring/disk resonators and photonic crystal cavities, the HCG/HG-based vertical cavities...... appear to be more feasible for realizing an electrically pumped device, which may pave the way for finding device applications for PT-symmetry breaking phenomenon....

  5. Dispersion free control of hydroelastic waves down to sub-wavelength scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Lucie; Fermigier, Marc; Fort, Emmanuel; Eddi, Antonin

    2017-11-01

    Hydroelastic surface waves propagate at the surface of water covered by a thin elastic sheet and can be directly measured with accurate space and time resolution. We present an experimental approach using hydroelastic waves that allows us to control waves down to the sub-wavelength scale. We tune the wave dispersion relation by varying locally the properties of the elastic cover and we introduce a local index contrast. This index contrast is independent of the frequency leading to a dispersion-free Snell-Descartes law for hydroelastic waves. We then show experimental evidence of broadband focusing, reflection and refraction of the waves. We also investigate the limits of diffraction through the example of a macroscopic analog to optical nanojets, revealing that any sub-wavelength configuration gives access to new features for surface waves.

  6. Sub-wavelength surface structuring of NiTi alloy by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yang, Jianjun; Liang, Chunyong; Wang, Hongshui; Zhu, Xiaonong; Kuang, Dengfeng; Yang, Yong

    2008-08-01

    Generation of self-organized sub-wavelength surface structures on a nickel titanium alloy plate by femtosecond laser pulses is investigated experimentally through line-scribing experiments in air. It is found that Bragg-like relief gratings, with the orientation perpendicular to the laser polarization, are formed over the entire laser-scribed regions. The average period is measured as 630±30 nm. Distinctive features of these novel surface structures include nanoparticle-covered grating ridges and the maintainable spatial period regardless of incidence angles. With different laser parameters and sample scan speeds, sub-wavelength grating structures can evolve into cellular-like nanotextures. Optimal conditions for forming these surface structures are determined in terms of laser energy and scan speed. Elementary analyses of the structured surfaces by X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that both the crystal structures and the chemical elements can remain in their original states, but the surface grains are refined and the atomic percentages are varied after femtosecond laser treatments.

  7. Electrically controlled infrared optical transmission and reflection through metallic grating using NEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kenzo; Fujii, Masamitsu

    2015-12-01

    The enhanced optical properties of metallic subwavelength gratings with very narrow slits have recently been extensively studied in the field of plasmonics. The optical transmission and reflection of such nanostructures, which act as nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) actuators, can be electrically controlled by varying their geometrical parameters, giving them great flexibility for numerous applications in photonics, opto-electronics, and sensing. The previous challenges in controlling the optical properties were overcome by forming a metallic subwavelength grating with an NEMS actuator in mid-air, allowing the grating to be physically moved with the bias voltage. The device can shift the plasmon resonance wavelength with an electrical signal. The resonance wavelength for Wood's anomaly at the infrared region is predicted through simulations to shift by approximately 150 nm. We discuss the effect of polarization on the optical properties and grating mechanism. The reported effect may be used to achieve active spectral tuning and switching in a wide range of applications.

  8. Spectral Collocation and FDTD Approaches for the Design of Focusung Grating Couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dridi, Kim; Dinesen, P.G.

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical investigations on sub-wavelength waveguide focusing grating couplers are presented. The analyses are based on two approaches, the spectral collocation method and the finite-difference time-domain method. The methods solve the full-vectorial time-domain Maxwell equations....

  9. Broadband radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, T.W.

    1994-07-26

    A broadband radiometer is disclosed including (a) an optical integrating sphere having generally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample. 8 figs.

  10. High efficiency geometric-phase polarization fan-out grating on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chenhao; Lombardo, David; Sarangan, Andrew; Zhan, Qiwen

    2017-10-02

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a 1-by-5 geometric-phase polarization fan-out grating for coherent beam combining at 1550 nm. The phase profile of the grating is accurately controlled by the local orientation of the binary subwavelength structure instead of the etching depth and profile empowering the grating to be more tolerant to fabrication errors. Deep-UV interference lithography on silicon offers an inexpensive, highly efficient and high damage threshold solution to fabricating large-area fan-out gratings than electron beam lithography (EBL) and photoalignment liquid crystals. The theoretical and experimental diffraction efficiency of the grating is 87% and 85.7% respectively. Such a fan-out grating may find application to high-power beam combining in the infrared regime.

  11. Broadband infrared meanderline reflective quarter-wave plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Samuel L; Boreman, Glenn D

    2011-05-23

    We present a novel reflective quarter-wave plate comprised of subwavelength meanderline elements. The device is operational over the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectrum, with significant spectral and angular bandwidths. Power reflection is approximately 70% over the majority of the LWIR. Efficient conversion from a 45° linear polarization state into circular polarization is demonstrated from finite-element electromagnetic simulations and from broadband polarimetric measurements.

  12. Continuously tunable pulsed Ti:Sa laser self-seeded by an extended grating cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ruohong; Rothe, Sebastian; Teigelhöfer, Andrea; Mostamand, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    A continuously tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser self-seeded by an extended grating cavity was demonstrated and characterized. By inserting a partially reflecting mirror inside the cavity of a classic single-cavity grating laser, two oscillators are created: a broadband power oscillator, and a narrowband oscillator with a prism beam expander and a diffraction grating in Littrow configuration. By coupling the grating cavity oscillation into the power oscillator, a power-enhanced narrow-linewidth laser oscillation is achieved. Compared to the classic grating laser, this simple modification significantly increases the laser output power without considerably broadening the linewidth. With most of the oscillating laser power confined inside the broadband power cavity and lower power incident onto the grating, the new configuration also allows higher pump power, which is typically limited by the thermal deformation of the grating coating at high oscillation power.

  13. Subwavelength light confinement with surface plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.

    2009-01-01

    In free space, the diffraction limit sets a lower bound to the size to which light can be confined. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which are electromagnetic waves bound to the interface between a metal and a dielectric, allow the control of light on subwavelength length scales. This opens up a

  14. Cylindrical metamaterial-based subwavelength antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Arslanagic, Samel

    2009-01-01

    A subwavelength monopole antenna radiating in the presence of a truncated cylindrical shell, which has a capped top face and is made of a negative permittivity metamaterial, is analyzed numerically by a method of moments for the volume-surface integral equation oil the one hand, and a finite...

  15. Subwavelength terahertz imaging with graphene hyperlens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    of the homogeneous medium approach. Our numerical simulations in COMSOL and CST Microwave Studio confirm the subwavelength imaging properties of the graphene hyperlens. An example of magnification of two point sources separated by λ/5 to the size of few wavelength, which then can be detected with conventional optics...

  16. Subwavelength nanopatterning of photochromic diarylethene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu, Precious; Brimhall, Nicole; Menon, Rajesh [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Andrew, Trisha L. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Castagna, Rossella; Bertarelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' ' Giulio Natta' ' , Politecnico di Milano, P.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology - PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-04-30

    The resolution of optical patterning is constrained by the far-field diffraction limit. In this letter, we describe an approach that exploits the unique photo- and electro-chemistry of diarylethene photochromic molecules to overcome this diffraction limit and achieve sub-wavelength nanopatterning.

  17. Subwavelength line imaging using plasmonic waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podoliak, N.; Horak, P.; Prangsma, Jord; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the subwavelength imaging capacity of a 2-D fanned-out plasmonic waveguide array, formed by air channels surrounded by gold metal layers for operation at near-infrared wavelengths, via finite-element simulations. High resolution is achieved on one side of the device by tapering down

  18. Broadband and omnidirectional light harvesting enhancement of fluorescent SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Hens, Philip

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, antireflective sub-wavelength structures have been fabricated on fluorescent 6H-SiC to enhance the white light extraction efficiency by using the reactive-ion etching method. Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection characteristics show that 6H-SiC with antireflective sub...

  19. Monolithic high-index contrast grating: a material independent high-reflectance VCSEL mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gębski, M; Dems, M; Szerling, A; Motyka, M; Marona, L; Kruszka, R; Urbańczyk, D; Walczakowski, M; Pałka, N; Wójcik-Jedlińska, A; Wang, Q J; Zhang, D H; Bugajski, M; Wasiak, M; Czyszanowski, T

    2015-05-04

    In this paper we present an extensive theoretical and numerical analysis of monolithic high-index contrast grating, facilitating simple manufacture of compact mirrors for very broad spectrum of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting from ultraviolet to mid-infrared. We provide the theoretical background explaining the phenomenon of high reflectance in monolithic subwavelength gratings. In addition, by using a three-dimensional, fully vectorial optical model, verified by comparison with the experiment, we investigate the optimal parameters of high-index contrast grating enabling more than 99.99% reflectance in the diversity of photonic materials and in the broad range of wavelengths.

  20. Design and analysis of all-dielectric subwavelength focusing flat lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turduev, M.; Bor, E.; Kurt, H.

    2017-09-01

    In this letter, we numerically designed and experimentally demonstrated a compact photonic structure for the subwavelength focusing of light using all-dielectric absorption-free and nonmagnetic scattering objects distributed in an air medium. In order to design the subwavelength focusing flat lens, an evolutionary algorithm is combined with the finite-difference time-domain method for determining the locations of cylindrical scatterers. During the multi-objective optimization process, a specific objective function is defined to reduce the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and diminish side lobe level (SLL) values of light at the focal point. The time-domain response of the optimized flat lens exhibits subwavelength light focusing with an FWHM value of 0.19λ and an SLL value of 0.23, where λ denotes the operating wavelength of light. Experimental analysis of the proposed flat lens is conducted in a microwave regime and findings exactly verify the numerical results with an FWHM of 0.192λ and an SLL value of 0.311 at the operating frequency of 5.42 GHz. Moreover, the designed flat lens provides a broadband subwavelength focusing effect with a 9% bandwidth covering frequency range of 5.10 GHz-5.58 GHz, where corresponding FWHM values remain under 0.21λ. Also, it is important to note that the designed flat lens structure performs a line focusing effect. Possible applications of the designed structure in telecom wavelengths are speculated upon for future perspectives. Namely, the designed structure can perform well in photonic integrated circuits for different fields of applications such as high efficiency light coupling, imaging and optical microscopy, with its compact size and ability for strong focusing.

  1. Plasmonics: Manipulating Light at the Subwavelength Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yuan Zhu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of light to collective oscillation of electrons on the metal surface allows the creation of surface plasmon-polariton wave. This surface wave is of central interest in the field of plasmonics. In this paper, we will present a brief review of this field, focusing on the plasmonic waveguide and plasmonic transmission. In the plasmonic waveguide, the light can be guided along the metal surface with subwavelength lateral dimensions, enabling the possibility of high-density integration of the optical elements. On the other hand, in the plasmonic transmission, the propagation of light through a metal surface can be tailored with the subwavelength holes, leading to the anomalous transmission behaviors which have received extensive investigations in recent years. In addition, as a supplement to plasmonics in the visible and near-infrared region, the study of THz plasmonics has also been discussed.

  2. Terahertz Subwavelength Structures for Sensing and Nde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalsami, N.; Heifetz, A.; Chien, H. T.; Raptis, A. C.

    2010-02-01

    The ability to control and concentrate electromagnetic (EM) energy in length scales much smaller than the excitation wavelength opens up new opportunities for sensing and NDE. Ordinarily EM wave transmission through such structures becomes infinitesimally small as the slit opening becomes much smaller than the wavelength; however, extraordinary transmission through these structures has been observed by researchers, which is believed to be due to surface plasmonic effect. We have investigated THz subwavelength slit structures for sensing and NDE. In a deep slit structure with subwavelength width, not only are the waves transmitted through, but also are found to be resonating because of the reflections caused by the impedance mismatch at the open ends. As a result, this structure can sense the dielectric properties of materials, which may be in gas, liquid, or solid forms, with high sensitivity and selectivity depending on the quality factor of the cavity resonance. Subwavelength aperture allows for near field imaging of materials with spatial resolution below the Abbe diffraction limit. To understand the electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through subwavelength structures, we have performed a computational analysis of the EM fields with finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique. Simulated responses were compared with swept-frequency cw THz waves (230-300 GHz) in straight and stepped cavities with 50 μm slits on both ends and increased width in the middle. FDTD modeling of straight slits indicated Fabry-Perot (F-P) resonance peaks with low quality factor. We modified the slit to form a stepped cavity which increased the quality factor because of increased reflection coefficient at the slit ends. We fabricated straight and stepped cavities and tested with THz radiation in the 250-300 GHz range. The stepped cavity appears to have desirable features for sensing: good transmissivity, high-Q F-P resonance, compactness, and ruggedness.

  3. Subwavelength resonant nanostructured films for sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Edwards, Daniel L.; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-05-29

    We present a novel subwavelength nanostructure architecture that may be utilized for optical standoff sensing applications. The subwavelength structures are fabricated via a combination of nanoimprint lithography and metal sputtering to create metallic nanostructured films encased within a transparent media. The structures are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant LC circuits, which display a resonance frequency that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any perturbation of the nanostructured films due to chemical or environmental effects can alter the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which can shift the resonant frequency and provide an indication of the external stimulus. This shift in resonance can be interrogated remotely either actively using either laser illumination or passively using hyperspectral or multispectral sensing. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also provide polarization-sensitive interrogation. Due to the nanometer-scale of the structures, they can be tailored to be optically responsive in the visible or near infrared spectrum with a highly reflective resonant peak that is dependent solely on structural dimensions and material characteristics. We present experimental measurements of the optical response of these structures as a function of wavelength, polarization, and incident angle demonstrating the resonant effect in the near infrared region. Numerical modeling data showing the effect of different fabrication parameters such as structure parameters are also discussed.

  4. Tunable all-optical negative multitap microwave filters based on uniform fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J; Andrés, M V; Cruz, J L; Ortega, B; Capmany, J; Pastor, D; Sales, S

    2003-08-01

    We present a novel and simple technique for obtaining transversal filters with negative coefficients by using uniform fiber Bragg gratings. We demonstrate a wide tuning range, good performance, low cost, and easy implementation of multitap filters in an all-optical passive configuration in which negative taps are obtained by use of the transmission of a broadband source through uniform Bragg gratings.

  5. On-chip near-wavelength diffraction gratings for surface electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezus, Evgeni A.; Podlipnov, Vladimir V.; Morozov, Andrey A.; Doskolovich, Leonid L.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, on-chip dielectric diffraction gratings for steering the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) are theoretically, numerically and experimentally studied. The investigated plasmonic gratings consist of dielectric ridges located on the SPP propagation surface (on the metal surface). In contrast to Bragg gratings, at normal incidence the periodicity direction of the grating is perpendicular to the SPP propagation direction. The studied gratings are designed using a simple plane-wave grating model and rigorously simulated using the aperiodic Fourier modal method for numerical solution of Maxwell's equations. In particular, plasmonic grating-based beam splitter with subwavelength footprint in the propagation direction is presented. Along with the theoretical and numerical results, proof-of-concept experimental results are presented. The investigated grating-based plasmonic gratings were fabricated from resist on a silver film using electron beam lithography and characterized using the leakage radiation microscopy technique. The obtained experimental results are in good agreement with the performed numerical simulations. The proposed on-chip gratings may find application in the design of systems for optical information transmission and processing at the nanoscale.

  6. Sub-wavelength resonances in polygonal metamaterial cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that the sub-wavelength resonances of circular MTM cylinders also occur for polygonal MTM cylinders. This is the case for lossless and non-dispersive cylinders as well as lossy and dispersive cylinders. The sub-wavelength resonances are thus not limited to structures of canonica...

  7. Topology Optimization of Sub-Wavelength Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We propose a topology optimization strategy for the systematic design of a three-dimensional (3D), conductor-based sub-wavelength antenna. The post-processed finite-element (FE) models of the optimized structure are shown to be self-resonant, efficient and exhibit distorted omnidirectional......, elliptically polarized far-field radiation patterns. The computed approximate Q value for this antenna is QZ(ω0)≈ 7.74 for ω0=2π × 350.8 MHz and it is 1.64 times larger than the theoretical lower bound value....

  8. Theoretical and numerical investigations of sub-wavelength diffractive optical structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dridi, Kim

    2000-01-01

    defect is described via the effective propagation puted for different crystal lattices and waveguide widths. Both strong positive, strong negative and zero disperions are possible. It is shown that geometric parameters such as the nature of the lattice, the line defect orientation, the defect width......The work in this thesis concerns theoretical and numerical investigations of sub-wavelength diffractive optical structures, relying on advanced two-dimensional vectorial numerical models that have applications in Optics and Electromagnetics. Integrated Optics is predicted to play a major role......, such as in dielectric waveguides with gratings and periodic media or photonic crystal structures. The vectorial electromagnetic nature of light is therefore taken into account in the modeling of these diffractive structures. An electromagnetic vector-field model for optical components design based on the classical...

  9. Engineering of effective quadratic and cubic nonlinearities in two-period QPM gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Torner, L.

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. Quasi-phase-matching (QPM) by electric-field poling in ferro-electric materials, such as LiNbO3 , is promising due to the possibilities of engineering the photolithographic mask, and thus the QPM grating, without also generating a linear grating. A proper design of the lo......Summary form only given. Quasi-phase-matching (QPM) by electric-field poling in ferro-electric materials, such as LiNbO3 , is promising due to the possibilities of engineering the photolithographic mask, and thus the QPM grating, without also generating a linear grating. A proper design...... of the longitudinal grating structure allows for distortion free temporal pulse compression, soliton shaping, broad-band phase matching, multiwavelength second-harmonic generation (SHG), and an enhanced cascaded phase shift. Transverse patterning can be used for beam-tailoring, broad-band SHG and soliton steering....

  10. Total absorption of visible light in ultra-thin weakly-absorbing semiconductor gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmberg, Björn C P; Choi, Duk-Yong; White, Thomas P; Botten, Lindsay C; Dossou, Kokou B; Poulton, Christopher G; Catchpole, Kylie R; McPhedran, Ross C; de Sterke, C Martijn

    2016-01-01

    The perfect absorption of light in subwavelength thickness layers generally relies on exotic materials, metamaterials or thick metallic gratings. Here we demonstrate that total light absorption can be achieved in ultra-thin gratings composed of conventional materials, including relatively weakly-absorbing semiconductors, which are compatible with optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors and optical modulators. We fabricate a 41 nm thick antimony sulphide grating structure that has a measured absorptance of A = 99.3% at a visible wavelength of 591 nm, in excellent agreement with theory. We infer that the absorption within the grating is A = 98.7%, with only A = 0.6% within the silver mirror. A planar reference sample absorbs A = 7.7% at this wavelength.

  11. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-10-01

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  12. Adoption of Broadband Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Broadband is seen as a key infrastructure for developing the information society. For this reason many Governments are actively engaged in stimulating investments in broadband infrastructures and use of broadband services. This chapter compares a wide range of broadband strategies in the most...... successful markets for broadband. This is done through analysis of national policies in three European countries-Denmark, Sweden, and Germany-and the U.S., Japan, and South Korea. We concluded that successful implementation of broadband depends on the kind of policy measures to be taken at the national level...

  13. Subwavelength metastructures for dispersion engineering in planar waveguide devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halir, Robert; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Cheben, Pavel; Maese-Novo, Alejandro; Pérez-Galacho, Diego; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Molina-Fernández, Íñigo; Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.; Schmid, Jens H.; Xu, Dan-Xia; Janz, Siegfried

    2014-02-01

    High contrast structures with a sub-wavelength pitch, small enough to suppress diffraction, exhibit extraordinary optical properties: depending on the design they may behave as perfect mirrors, anti-reflective interfaces, homogenous materials with controllable refractive index, or strongly dispersive materials. Here we discuss on the design possibilities such structures offer in planar waveguide devices in silicon-on-insulator. We briefly review the application of sub-wavelength structures in a variety of waveguide devices. We then focus on some of the latest advances in the design ultra-compact and ultra-wideband multimode interference couplers based on dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structures.

  14. Subwavelength line imaging using plasmonic waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Podoliak, Nina; Prangsma, Jord C; Pinkse, Pepijn W H

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the subwavelength imaging capacity of a two-dimensional fanned-out plasmonic waveguide array, formed by air channels surrounded by gold metal layers for operation at near-infrared wavelengths, via finite element simulations. High resolution is achieved on one side of the device by tapering down the channel width while simultaneously maintaining propagation losses of a few dB. On the other, low-resolution side, output couplers are designed to optimize coupling to free space and to minimize channel cross talk via surface plasmons. Point sources separated by {\\lambda}/15 can still be clearly distinguished. Moreover, up two 90% of the power of a point dipole is coupled to the device. Applications are high-resolution linear detector arrays and, by operating the device in reverse, high-resolution optical writing.

  15. Tunable and reconfigurable microwave filter by use of a Bragg-grating-based acousto-optic superlattice modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Pinar, M; Mora, J; Díez, A; Andrés, M V; Ortega, B; Capmany, J

    2005-01-01

    We present an all-optical novel configuration for implementing multitap transversal filters by use of a broadband source sliced by fiber Bragg grating arrays generated by propagating an acoustic wave along a strong uniform fiber Bragg grating. The tunability and reconfigurability of the microwave filter are demonstrated.

  16. Self-Affine Graphene Metasurfaces for Tunable Broadband Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pin Chieh; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Tsai, Din Ping

    2016-10-01

    Graphene has emerged as a promising platform for THz metasurfaces supporting electrically tunable deep-subwavelength plasmonic excitations. Here, we introduce a broadband graphene metasurface based on the Hilbert curve, a continuous, space-filling fractal. We demonstrate the enhancement of graphene absorption over a broad frequency band (0.5-60 THz) with an average absorption level exceeding 20%. Owing to the continuous nature of the metasurface patterns, both the absorption level and the bandwidth can be controlled electrically by varying the graphene charge-carrier concentration.

  17. Sub-wavelength antenna enhanced bilayer graphene tunable photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beechem, III, Thomas Edwin; Howell, Stephen W.; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul; Ohta, Taisuke

    2016-03-22

    The integration of bilayer graphene with an absorption enhancing sub-wavelength antenna provides an infrared photodetector capable of real-time spectral tuning without filters at nanosecond timescales.

  18. Crystalline metamaterials for topological properties at subwavelength scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yves, Simon; Fleury, Romain; Berthelot, Thomas; Fink, Mathias; Lemoult, Fabrice; Lerosey, Geoffroy

    2017-01-01

    The exciting discovery of topological condensed matter systems has lately triggered a search for their photonic analogues, motivated by the possibility of robust backscattering-immune light transport. However, topological photonic phases have so far only been observed in photonic crystals and waveguide arrays, which are inherently physically wavelength scaled, hindering their application in compact subwavelength systems. In this letter, we tackle this problem by patterning the deep subwavelength resonant elements of metamaterials onto specific lattices, and create crystalline metamaterials that can develop complex nonlocal properties due to multiple scattering, despite their very subwavelength spatial scale that usually implies to disregard their structure. These spatially dispersive systems can support subwavelength topological phases, as we demonstrate at microwaves by direct field mapping. Our approach gives a straightforward tabletop platform for the study of photonic topological phases, and allows to envision applications benefiting the compactness of metamaterials and the amazing potential of topological insulators. PMID:28719573

  19. Extreme localization of light with femtosecond subwavelength rogue waves

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Changxu

    2015-01-01

    By using theory and experiments, we investigate a new mechanism based on spontaneous synchronization of random waves which generates ultrafast subwavelength rare events in integrated photonic chips. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  20. Silicon immersion gratings and their spectroscopic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Powell, Scott; Fletcher, Adam; Wan, Xiaoke; Chang, Liang; Jakeman, Hali; Koukis, Dimitrios; Tanner, David B.; Ebbets, Dennis; Weinberg, Jonathan; Lipscy, Sarah; Nyquist, Rich; Bally, John

    2012-09-01

    Silicon immersion gratings (SIGs) offer several advantages over the commercial echelle gratings for high resolution infrared (IR) spectroscopy: 3.4 times the gain in dispersion or ~10 times the reduction in the instrument volume, a multiplex gain for a large continuous wavelength coverage and low cost. We present results from lab characterization of a large format SIG of astronomical observation quality. This SIG, with a 54.74 degree blaze angle (R1.4), 16.1 l/mm groove density, and 50x86 mm2 grating area, was developed for high resolution IR spectroscopy (R~70,000) in the near IR (1.1-2.5 μm). Its entrance surface was coated with a single layer of silicon nitride antireflection (AR) coating and its grating surface was coated with a thin layer of gold to increase its throughput at 1.1-2.5 μm. The lab measurements have shown that the SIG delivered a spectral resolution of R=114,000 at 1.55 μm with a lab testing spectrograph with a 20 mm diameter pupil. The measured peak grating efficiency is 72% at 1.55 μm, which is consistent with the measurements in the optical wavelengths from the grating surface at the air side. This SIG is being implemented in a new generation cryogenic IR spectrograph, called the Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectrometer (FIRST), to offer broad-band high resolution IR spectroscopy with R=72,000 at 1.4-1.8 um under a typical seeing condition in a single exposure with a 2kx2k H2RG IR array at the robotically controlled Tennessee State University 2-meter Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona. FIRST is designed to provide high precision Doppler measurements (~4 m/s) for the identification and characterization of extrasolar planets, especially rocky planets in habitable zones, orbiting low mass M dwarf stars. It will also be used for other high resolution IR spectroscopic observations of such as young stars, brown dwarfs, magnetic fields, star formation and interstellar mediums. An optimally designed

  1. A comparison of vernier acuity for narrowband and broadband stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Brendan T; Whitaker, David

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of contrast and exposure duration on vernier acuity thresholds for abutting and separated narrowband stimuli, and asks whether these data can predict broadband vernier performance. Vernier thresholds were determined for sinusoidal grating stimuli at two spatial frequencies (1 and 8 c/deg) across a range of contrasts (0.05-0.8) and exposure durations (35-2100 ms). Performance was assessed for the abutting configuration, and when a gap equivalent to 0.5 to 1.5 times the spatial period of the grating was introduced between the upper and lower halves of the grating. Vernier thresholds were also determined for a square-wave stimulus as a function of contrast (0.06 to 0.78). Exposure duration was fixed at 2100 ms. In addition, thresholds were determined at the appropriate contrast levels for the fundamental frequency (1.8 c/deg) of the square-wave, and for a number of the harmonics (3F, 5F, 7F, 9F). Our results provide support for filter models of vernier acuity by showing that vernier performance for abutting and closely-separated broadband stimuli represents the envelope of vernier sensitivity of those spatial frequency mechanisms that are activated by the broadband stimulus. In the case of high frequency grating stimuli presented for long exposure durations, vernier performance can be invariant across much of the contrast range. Despite this, however, contrast independence is not exhibited for abutting broadband stimuli because, within the broadband stimuli, the contrast of the higher harmonic components never reaches a level to reveal this plateau.

  2. Short period resonant dual-grating structures for applications to anisotropic color change securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongli; Liu, Wenxia

    2011-04-01

    A subwavelength grating with resonant behaviors can be used to exploit security productions with characteristics of anisotropic color variation, i.e., its color has been changed when the grating is rotated on its own plane. In this paper, a novel grating structure with potentials of broadening its spectral bandwidths and improving its color aspects is proposed and its design principles and fabrication methods are also provided. The design of it is completely based on rectangular gratings with a filling factor of 0.5, but the grating regions of fabricated structures have profiles of sinusoidal gratings. Reflection spectra of such two structures are simulated and compared using vector diffraction methods and compared. Moreover, a security grating with unique characteristics of color change has been successfully designed and fabricated, and the changes of color aspects of it have also been verified from both theory and experiment. The proposed structure and its related fabrication methods are feasible in practical application of security and have better values and potentials for mass productions through holographic embossing equipments.

  3. Femtosecond direct-writing of low-loss fiber Bragg gratings using a continuous core-scanning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Krämer, Ria G; Nolte, Stefan; Withford, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    We report the inscription of low-loss fiber Bragg gratings using focused femtosecond (fs) pulses and a continuous core-scanning technique. This direct-write technique produces high-fidelity Type I-IR gratings that share the inherent advantages of other direct-write methods, such as the point-by-point (PbP) method, for which the grating period is a free parameter. However, here we demonstrate an order of magnitude improvement in scattering loss compared to PbP gratings, to a level comparable with that of phase-mask-based fs inscription. A first-order grating was inscribed in standard telecommunications fiber with -49 dB transmission at the Bragg wavelength and 0.1 dB broadband scattering loss. Potential application of these gratings to large-mode-area fibers and chirped grating fabrication are highlighted.

  4. Laguerre-Gauss beam generation in IR and UV by subwavelength surface-relief gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertchenko, Larissa; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Malureanu, Radu

    2017-01-01

    layerdepositions and dry etch techniques. We exploit the phenomenon of formbirefringence to give rise to the spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion.We demonstrate that these plates can generate beams with high quality for theUV and IR range, allowing them to interact with high power laser sources orinside...... an opticaldevice known as q-plate. However, due to the usage of liquid crystals, thesecomponents may be restricted to operate in specific wavelengths and low powersources. Here we present the fabrication and characterization of q-plates madewithout liquid crystals, using processes of e-beam lithography, atomic...

  5. All-Si photodetector for telecommunication wavelength based on subwavelength grating structure and critical coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Rasoulzadeh Zali, Aref; Chung, Il-Sug

    2017-01-01

    We propose an efficient planar all-Si internal photoemission photodetector operating at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm and numerically investigate its optical and electrical properties. The proposed polarization-sensitive detector is composed of an appropriately engineered subwavelen......We propose an efficient planar all-Si internal photoemission photodetector operating at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm and numerically investigate its optical and electrical properties. The proposed polarization-sensitive detector is composed of an appropriately engineered...

  6. Excitation of plasmon modes in a graphene monolayer supported on a 2D subwavelength silicon grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional (2D) carbon-based material, whose unique electronic and optical properties have attracted a great deal of research interest. Despite the fact that graphene is an atomically thin layer the optical absorption of a single layer can be as high as 2.3% (defined by the fin...

  7. Laguerre-Gauss beam generation in IR and UV by subwavelength surface-relief gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Vertchenko, Larissa; Malureanu, Radu; Monken, Carlos H

    2016-01-01

    The angular momentum of light can be described by the states of spin angular momentum, associated with polarization, and orbital angular momentum, related to the helical structure of the wave front. Laguerre-Gaussian beams carry orbital angular momentum and their generation can be done by using an optical device known as q-plate. However, due to the usage of liquid crystals, these components may be restricted to operate in specific wavelengths and low power sources. Here we present the fabrication and characterization of q-plates made without liquid crystals, using processes of e-beam lithography, atomic layer depositions and dry etch techniques. We exploit the phenomenon of form birefringence to give rise to the spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion. We demonstrate that these plates can generate beams with high quality for the UV and IR range, allowing them to interact with high power laser sources or inside laser cavities.

  8. Fully etched apodized grating coupler on the SOI platform with −058 dB coupling efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Peucheret, Christophe; Ou, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    We design and fabricate an ultrahigh coupling efficiency (CE) fully etched apodized grating coupler on the silicon- on-insulator (SOI) platform using subwavelength photonic crystals and bonded aluminum mirror. Fabrication error sensitivity andcoupling angle dependence are experimentally investiga...... investigated. A recordultrahighCE of − 0 . 58 dB with a 3 dB bandwidth of 71 nm and low back reflection are demonstrated....

  9. Transmission grating spectrometer for broadband characterization of EUV sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayraktar, Muharrem; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Bruineman, C.; Vratzov, B.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Emission from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources for lithography and metrology applications needs to be maximized in a narrow wavelength band. On the other hand, these sources also emit radiation outside this wavelength band, extending into the deep ultraviolet (DUV) and visible/IR range. To

  10. Spherical grating spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  11. Refractive index biosensor using sidewall gratings in dual-slot waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sourabh; Ali, Jalil; Singh, Ghanshyam

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an optical biosensor using sidewall grating in dual slot waveguide, modeled on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. By optimizing the geometric parameters of the device, the spectral response is tailored to obtain a sharp resonant peak with high transmissivity that also enhances the limit-of-detection. The device detects the shift in resonant wavelength on a variation of the biomaterial refractive index. The simulation study has performed using the transfer matrix method. The obtained characteristics of the sensors include linear response to a change in refractive index of biomaterial, limit of detection of the order of 10-6 and ease of fabrication. The device performance has also compared with other SOI resonator structures like photonic crystal waveguide, sub-wavelength grating, ring resonator and grating resonator.

  12. Fabrication of broadband antireflective sub-wavelength structures on fluorescent SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicus, V.; Kaiser, M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface nanocones on 6H-SiC have been developed and demonstrated as an effective method of enhancing the light extraction efficiency from fluorescent SiC layers. The surface reflectance, measured from the opposite direction of light emission, over a broad bandwidth range is significantly suppress...

  13. Rabi oscillations and stimulated mode conversion on the subwavelength scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Ye, Fangwei; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Chen, Xianfeng

    2015-03-09

    We study stimulated mode conversion and dynamics of Rabi-like oscillations of weights of guided modes in deeply subwavelength guiding structures, whose dielectric permittivity changes periodically in the direction of light propagation. We show that despite strong localization of the fields of eigenmodes on the scales below the wavelength of light, even weak longitudinal modulation couples modes of selected parity and causes periodic energy exchange between them, thereby opening the way for controllable transformation of the internal structure of subwavelength beams. The effect is reminiscent of Rabi oscillations in multilevel quantum systems subjected to the action of periodic external fields. By using rigorous numerical solution of the full set of the Maxwell's equations, we show that the effect takes place not only in purely dielectric, but also in metallic-dielectric structures, despite the energy dissipation inherent to the plasmonic waveguides. The stimulated conversion of subwavelength light modes is possible in both linear and nonlinear regimes.

  14. Periodicity-induced effects in the scattering and absorption of light by infinite and finite gratings of circular silver nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarov, Denys M; Byelobrov, Volodymyr O; Sauleau, Ronan; Benson, Trevor M; Nosich, Alexander I

    2011-10-24

    We study numerically the effect of periodicity on the plasmon-assisted scattering and absorption of visible light by infinite and finite gratings of circular silver nanowires. The infinite grating is a convenient object of analysis because of the possibility to reduce the scattering problem to one period. We use the well-established method of partial separation of variables however make an important improvement by casting the resulting matrix equation to the Fredholm second-kind type, which guarantees convergence. If the silver wires have sub-wavelength radii, then two types of resonances co-exist and may lead to enhanced reflection and absorption: the plasmon-type and the grating-type. Each type is caused by different complex poles of the field function. The low-Q plasmon poles cluster near the wavelength where dielectric function equals -1. The grating-type poles make multiplets located in close proximity of Rayleigh wavelengths, tending to them if the wires get thinner. They have high Q-factors and, if excited, display intensive near-field patterns. A similar interplay between the two types of resonances takes place for finite gratings of silver wires, the sharpness of the grating-type peak getting greater for longer gratings. By tuning carefully the grating period, one can bring together two resonances and enhance the resonant scattering of light per wire by several times. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. Wide wavelength-tuning of a double-clad Yb3+-doped fiber laser based on a fiber bragg grating array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez-Chavez, J.A.; Martinez-Rios, A.; Torres-Gomez, I.; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2007-01-01

    We report wide wavelength tuning in a double-clad ytterbium-doped fiber laser. The laser cavity consists of an array of broadband high-reflection fiber Bragg gratings and a bulk grating as output coupler and wavelength selection element. The proposed fiber laser configuration combines low

  16. Properties of Sub-wavelength Resonances in Metamaterial Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Clausen, N.C.J.; Pedersen, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    The analytical solution for the canonical configuration with electric line source illumination of concentric metamaterial cylinders is employed to study the properties of the observed sub-wavelength resonances. The near- and far-field distributions, the frequency and geometry bandwidths, and the ......The analytical solution for the canonical configuration with electric line source illumination of concentric metamaterial cylinders is employed to study the properties of the observed sub-wavelength resonances. The near- and far-field distributions, the frequency and geometry bandwidths......, and the line source impedance are investigated for varying electromagnetic and geometrical parameters. The results of this study are of importance for metamaterial-based miniaturization of antennas....

  17. Transmission of electromagnetic waves through sub-wavelength channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method of tunneling electromagnetic (EM) waves through a channel with sub-wavelength cross section. By filling the channel with high-ε isotropic material and implementing two matching layers with uniaxial metamterial substrates, the guided waves can go through the narrow channel...... without being cut off, as if it has just passed through the original empty waveguide. Both the magnitude and phase information of the EM fields can be effectively restored after passing this channel, regardless of the polarization of the incoming wave. The performance of this subwavelength channel, which...

  18. Transmission of electromagnetic waves through sub-wavelength channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2010-02-15

    We propose a method of tunneling electromagnetic (EM) waves through a channel with sub-wavelength cross section. By filling the channel with high-epsilon isotropic material and implementing two matching layers with uniaxial metamterial substrates, the guided waves can go through the narrow channel without being cut off, as if it has just passed through the original empty waveguide. Both the magnitude and phase information of the EM fields can be effectively restored after passing this channel, regardless of the polarization of the incoming wave. The performance of this sub-wavelength channel, which is designed with coordinate transformation methodology, is studied theoretically and numerically.

  19. Switchable subwavelength plasmonic structures with phase-change materials for reflection-type active metasurfaces in the visible region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chi-Young; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Yong-Hae; Kim, Tae-Youb; Kim, Gi Heon; Yang, Jong-Heon; Pi, Jae-Eun; Choi, Ji Hun; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Hee-Ok; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a switchable plasmonic structure is proposed for reflection-type spatial light modulation in the visible range with subwavelength resolution. This structure is based on a metallic grating in which each resonant cavity couples the incident light into a gap surface plasmon mode and then reflects the light modulated in the cavity. By incorporating an ultrathin layer of the phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5 at the entrance of the cavity, the optical modulation characteristic of the structure can be switched between two modes. Numerical investigations are conducted to verify the proposed structure, with the focused analysis of two common types of binary modulations: amplitude-only and phase-only modulations.

  20. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Joshua R.; Vangala, Shivashankar; Nader, Nima; Leedy, Kevin; Guo, Junpeng; Cleary, Justin W.

    2015-11-01

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabrication result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, Joshua R., E-mail: joshua.hendrickson.4@us.af.mil; Leedy, Kevin; Cleary, Justin W. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Vangala, Shivashankar [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); SURVICE Engineering, 4141 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States); Nader, Nima [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Solid State Scientific Corporation, 12 Simon St., Nashua, New Hampshire 03060 (United States); Guo, Junpeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabrication result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Grating-flanked plasmonic coaxial apertures for efficient fiber optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Amr A E; Sheikhoelislami, Sassan; Gastelum, Steven; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2016-09-05

    Subwavelength plasmonic apertures have been foundational for direct optical manipulation of nanoscale specimens including sub-100 nm polymeric beads, metallic nanoparticles and proteins. While most plasmonic traps result in two-dimensional localization, three-dimensional manipulation has been demonstrated by integrating a plasmonic aperture on an optical fiber tip. However, such 3D traps are usually inefficient since the optical mode of the fiber and the subwavelength aperture only weakly couple. In this paper we design more efficient optical-fiber-based plasmonic tweezers combining a coaxial plasmonic aperture with a plasmonic grating coupler at the fiber tip facet. Using full-field finite difference time domain analysis, we optimize the grating design for both gold and silver fiber-based coaxial tweezers such that the optical transmission through the apertures is maximized. With the optimized grating, we show that the maximum transmission efficiency increases from 2.5% to 19.6% and from 1.48% to 16.7% for the gold and silver structures respectively. To evaluate their performance as optical tweezers, we calculate the optical forces and the corresponding trapping potential on dielectric particles interacting with the apertures. We demonstrate that the enahncement in the transmission translates into an equivalent increase in the optical forces. Consequently, the optical power required to achieve stable optical trapping is significantly reduced allowing for efficient localization and 3D manipulation of sub-30 nm dielectric particles.

  3. Low-loss intersection of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2008-01-01

    The properties of crossing for two perpendicular subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides are theoretically investigated. Results show when encountering a nano intersection the crosstalk for the direct crossing is around 25%, almost the same as throughput. In terms of symmetry considerations and r...

  4. Subwavelength propagation and localization of light using surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-09

    Jan 9, 2014 ... ... methods; (2) how SPPs and LSPs in plasmonic nanowires can be utilized for subwavelength polarization optics and single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on a photonic chip; and (3) how individual plasmonic nanowire can be optically manipulated using optical trapping methods.

  5. Retrieval of Effective Parameters of Subwavelength Periodic Photonic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Yankovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the standard Nicolson Ross Weir method of effective permittivity and permeability restoration of photonic structures for the case of subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayers. We show that the direct application of the standard method yields a false zero-epsilon point and an associated...

  6. Sub-wavelength metamaterial cylinders with multiple dipole resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that the sub-wavelength resonances of the individual MTM cylinders also occur for electrically small configurations combining 2 or 4 cylinders. For the 2-and 4-cylinder configurations the overall size is 1/20 and 1/12.5 of the smallest wavelength, respectively. These MTM configu...

  7. Slot-grating flat lens for telecom wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jonathan R; Stokes, Jamie L; Lopez-Garcia, Martin; Gan, Choon-How; Nash, Geoff R; Rarity, John G; Cryan, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    We present a stand-alone beam-focusing flat lens for use in the telecommunications wavelength range. Light incident on the back surface of the lens propagates through a subwavelength aperture and is heavily diffracted on exit and partially couples into a surface plasmon polariton and a surface wave propagating along the surface of the lens. Interference between the diffracted wave and re-emission from a grating patterned on the surface produces a highly collimated beam. We show for the first time a geometry at which a lens of this type can be used at telecommunication wavelengths (λ=1.55 μm) and identify the light coupling and re-emission mechanisms involved. Measured beam profile results at varying incident wavelengths show excellent agreement with Lumerical FDTD simulation results.

  8. Birefringence Bragg Binary (3B) grating, quasi-Bragg grating and immersion gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebizuka, Noboru; Morita, Shin-ya; Yamagata, Yutaka; Sasaki, Minoru; Bianco, Andorea; Tanabe, Ayano; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Aoki, Wako

    2014-07-01

    A volume phase holographic (VPH) grating achieves high angular dispersion and very high diffraction efficiency for the first diffraction order and for S or P polarization. However the VPH grating could not achieve high diffraction efficiency for non-polarized light at a large diffraction angle because properties of diffraction efficiencies for S and P polarizations are different. Furthermore diffraction efficiency of the VPH grating extinguishes toward a higher diffraction order. A birefringence binary Bragg (3B) grating is a thick transmission grating with optically anisotropic material such as lithium niobate or liquid crystal. The 3B grating achieves diffraction efficiency up to 100% for non-polarized light by tuning of refractive indices for S and P polarizations, even in higher diffraction orders. We fabricated 3B grating with liquid crystal and evaluated the performance of the liquid crystal grating. A quasi-Bragg (QB) grating, which consists long rectangle mirrors aligned in parallel precisely such as a window shade, also achieves high diffraction efficiency toward higher orders. We fabricated QB grating by laminating of silica glass substrates and glued by pressure fusion of gold films. A quasi-Bragg immersion (QBI) grating has smooth mirror hypotenuse and reflector array inside the hypotenuse, instead of step-like grooves of a conventional immersion grating. An incident beam of the QBI grating reflects obliquely at a reflector, then reflects vertically at the mirror surface and reflects again at the same reflector. We are going to fabricate QBI gratings by laminating of mirror plates as similar to fabrication of the QB grating. We will also fabricate silicon and germanium immersion gratings with conventional step-like grooves by means of the latest diamond machining methods. We introduce characteristics and performance of these gratings.

  9. Broadband Electromagnetic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    The objectives of this project are to continue the enhancements to the combined Broadband Electromagnetic and Full Encirclement Unit (BEM-FEU) technologies and to evaluate the systems capability in the laboratory and the field. The BEM instrument ...

  10. Genetic algorithm optimization of grating coupled near-field interference lithography systems at extreme numerical apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Levi; Blaikie, Richard J.

    2017-09-01

    Grating coupled near-field interference lithography has the ability to produce deep-subwavelength interference patterns. Simulations of these systems is very computationally intensive. An inverse design procedure employing a genetic algorithm is utilized here to massively reduce the computational load and allow for the design of systems capable of interfering extremely high numerical apertures. This method is used to optimize systems with an interference patterns with a half pitch of λ /40 corresponding to a numerical aperture of 20. It is also used to demonstrate interference of higher | m| diffraction orders.

  11. Time Reversal in Subwavelength-Scaled Resonant Media: Beating the Diffraction Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Lemoult

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Time reversal is a physical concept that can focus waves both spatially and temporally regardless of the complexity of the propagation medium. Time reversal mirrors have been demonstrated first in acoustics, then with electromagnetic waves, and are being intensively studied in many fields ranging from underwater communications to sensing. In this paper, we will review the principles of time reversal and in particular its ability to focus waves in complex media. We will show that this focusing effect depends on the complexity of the propagation medium rather than on the time reversal mirror itself. A modal approach will be utilized to explain the physical mechanism underlying the concept. A particular focus will be given on the possibility to break the diffraction barrier from the far field using time reversal. We will show that finite size media made out of coupled subwavelength resonators support modes which can radiate efficiently in the far field spatial information of the near field of a source. We will show through various examples that such a process, due to reversibility, permits to beat the diffraction limit using far field time reversal, and especially that this result occurs owing to the broadband inherent nature of time reversal.

  12. Deep-subwavelength imaging of both electric and magnetic localized optical fields by plasmonic campanile nanoantenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Niccolò; La China, Federico; Bao, Wei; Riboli, Francesco; Gerardino, Annamaria; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H; Pagliano, Francesco; Fiore, Andrea; Schuck, P James; Cabrini, Stefano; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Gurioli, Massimo; Intonti, Francesca

    2015-06-05

    Tailoring the electromagnetic field at the nanoscale has led to artificial materials exhibiting fascinating optical properties unavailable in naturally occurring substances. Besides having fundamental implications for classical and quantum optics, nanoscale metamaterials provide a platform for developing disruptive novel technologies, in which a combination of both the electric and magnetic radiation field components at optical frequencies is relevant to engineer the light-matter interaction. Thus, an experimental investigation of the spatial distribution of the photonic states at the nanoscale for both field components is of crucial importance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a concomitant deep-subwavelength near-field imaging of the electric and magnetic intensities of the optical modes localized in a photonic crystal nanocavity. We take advantage of the "campanile tip", a plasmonic near-field probe that efficiently combines broadband field enhancement with strong far-field to near-field coupling. By exploiting the electric and magnetic polarizability components of the campanile tip along with the perturbation imaging method, we are able to map in a single measurement both the electric and magnetic localized near-field distributions.

  13. Holographic Grating Study. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    EFFICIENCY GRATING ANALYSIS AND MEASUREMENT 167 4. 1 High-Efficiency Holographic Grating Desl ^ri Isaues .... 167 4.2 Computer Modeling of High...one or more higher orders is maximized . This distinguishes them from low-efficiency gratings which utilize the zero order at hi^h efficiency

  14. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G P; Cooksey, C C; Yoon, H W; Hanssen, L M; Podobedov, V B; Vest, R E; Arp, U; Miller, C C

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  15. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed. PMID:28649167

  16. Tracing the phase of focused broadband laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dominik; Krüger, Michael; Maisenbacher, Lothar; Sayler, A. M.; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Precise knowledge of the behaviour of the phase of light in a focused beam is fundamental to understanding and controlling laser-driven processes. More than a hundred years ago, an axial phase anomaly for focused monochromatic light beams was discovered and is now commonly known as the Gouy phase. Recent theoretical work has brought into question the validity of applying this monochromatic phase formulation to the broadband pulses becoming ubiquitous today. Based on electron backscattering at sharp nanometre-scale metal tips, a method is available to measure light fields with sub-wavelength spatial resolution and sub-optical-cycle time resolution. Here we report such a direct, three-dimensional measurement of the spatial dependence of the optical phase of a focused, 4-fs, near-infrared pulsed laser beam. The observed optical phase deviates substantially from the monochromatic Gouy phase--exhibiting a much more complex spatial dependence, both along the propagation axis and in the radial direction. In our measurements, these significant deviations are the rule and not the exception for focused, broadband laser pulses. Therefore, we expect wide ramifications for all broadband laser-matter interactions, such as in high-harmonic and attosecond pulse generation, femtochemistry, ophthalmological optical coherence tomography and light-wave electronics.

  17. Switchable Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Carl Johan

    2003-01-01

    . Characterization of the third-order nonlinearities and the frozen-in field were performed using a new measurement method where the Bragg gratings were used as probes. Good coherence was obtained between this new measurement method and the traditional Mach-Zehnder interferometer method. In the project, several...

  18. Comparison of 2D and 3D Fourier modal methods for modeling subwavelength-structured silicon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecien, Pavel; Richter, Ivan; Čtyroký, Jiří

    2012-02-01

    Frequency-domain Fourier modal methods have recently evolved into efficient tools for rigorous numerical modeling of a wide class of photonic and plasmonic structures and devices. In this contribution we describe the application of our 2D and 3D in-house tools, namely aperiodic rigorous coupled wave analysis (aRCWA) and bi-directional mode expansion propagation method using harmonic expansion (BEXX), on a recently described novel type of subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguides. They are created by means of periodically interlacing silicon segments with a superstrate material with a lower refractive index. It has been shown recently, both theoretically and experimentally, that for a suitable choice of SWG parameters such as grating period and duty cycle, the structure can support low-loss guided (Bloch) mode. Its effective index, mode profile and dispersion characteristics can thus be tailored to specific needs without the necessity of changing material composition. In our methods, either complex coordinate transformation or uniaxial anisotropic perfectly matched layers have been applied as efficient absorption boundary conditions. In order to reduce the number of expansion terms needed to reach required accuracy, the adaptive spatial resolution technique has been implemented. Structural symmetries of the devices can be fully utilized to this aim, too. Propagation constants of Bloch modes are also compared with those obtained with a full-vector film mode matching (FiMM) mode solver using the very simple effective medium theory (EMT).

  19. Sensored fiber reinforced polymer grate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael P.; Mack, Thomas Kimball

    2017-08-01

    Various technologies described herein pertain to a sensored grate that can be utilized for various security fencing applications. The sensored grate includes a grate framework and an embedded optical fiber. The grate framework is formed of a molded polymer such as, for instance, molded fiber reinforced polymer. Further, the grate framework includes a set of elongated elements, where the elongated elements are spaced to define apertures through the grate framework. The optical fiber is embedded in the elongated elements of the grate framework. Moreover, bending or breaking of one or more of the elongated elements can be detected based on a change in a characteristic of input light provided to the optical fiber compared to output light received from the optical fiber.

  20. Terahertz spoof surface-plasmon-polariton subwavelength waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying

    2017-12-11

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the features of subwavelength confinement and strong enhancements have sparked enormous interest. However, in the terahertz regime, due to the perfect conductivities of most metals, it is hard to realize the strong confinement of SPPs, even though the propagation loss could be sufficiently low. One main approach to circumvent this problem is to exploit spoof SPPs, which are expected to exhibit useful subwavelength confinement and relative low propagation loss at terahertz frequencies. Here we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of terahertz spoof SPP waveguides based on corrugated metal surfaces. The various waveguide components, including a straight waveguide, an S-bend waveguide, a Y-splitter, and a directional coupler, were experimentally demonstrated using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed waveguide indeed enables propagation, bending, splitting, and coupling of terahertz SPPs and thus paves a new way for the development of flexible and compact plasmonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies. (C) 2017 Chinese Laser Press

  1. Subwavelength coupling strengthened optical amplification in nematic liquid crystal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Xue, Tingyu; Su, Hang; Wang, Yingce; Zhang, Jingwen

    2017-09-01

    We observed strikingly different first reflection dynamics of two counter-propagating laser beams passing through a wedge-shaped C60-doped liquid crystal cell sandwiched between two ZnSe-coated ITO glass plates without applied electric field, suggesting a strong subwavelength energy coupling between light beams. Exponential gain coefficient as high as 10 574 cm-1 was obtained from the 1.1 μm-thick portion of the cell under applied voltage U0 = 3.0 V, consisting with the subwavelength coupling picture. Surface plasmon polariton (SPP) supporting layer is identified by considering dipolar properties of liquid crystal molecules that are well aligned. The specific features in energy coupling dynamics and 2D diffraction patterns perceived suggest that SPP mediated coupling is responsible for all the findings.

  2. Resonant Excitation of Terahertz Surface Plasmons in Subwavelength Metal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of experimental studies of resonant excitation of terahertz surface plasmons in two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength metal holes. Resonant transmission efficiency higher than unity was recently achieved when normalized to the area occupied by the holes. The effects of hole shape, hole dimensions, dielectric function of metals, polarization dependence, and array film thickness on resonant terahertz transmission in metal arrays were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In particular, extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated in arrays of subwavelength holes made even from Pb, a generally poor metal, and having thickness of only one-third of skin depth. Terahertz surface plasmons have potential applications in terahertz imaging, biosensing, interconnects, and development of integrated plasmonic components for terahertz generation and detection.

  3. Directional perfect absorption using deep subwavelength low permittivity films

    CERN Document Server

    Luk, Ting S; Kim, Iltai; Feng, Simin; Jun, Young Chul; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy B; Brener, Igal; Catrysse, Peter B; Fan, Shanhui; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate single beam directional perfect absorption (to within experimental accuracy) of p-polarized light in the near-infrared using unpatterned, deep subwavelength films of indium tin oxide (ITO) on Ag. The experimental perfect absorption occurs slightly above the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) frequency of ITO where the permittivity is less than one. Remarkably, we obtain perfect absorption for films whose thickness is as low as ~1/50th of the operating free-space wavelength and whose single pass attenuation is only ~ 5%. We further derive simple analytical conditions for perfect absorption in the subwavelength-film regime that reveal the constraints that the ITO permittivity must satisfy if perfect absorption is to be achieved. Then, to get a physical insight on the perfect absorption properties, we analyze the eigenmodes of the layered structure by computing both the real-frequency/complex-wavenumber and the complex-frequency/real-wavenumber modal dispersion diagrams. These analyses allow u...

  4. Far-Field Microscopy of Sparse Subwavelength Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Szameit, A; Dana, H; Steiner, S; Gazit, S; Cohen-Hyams, T; Bullkich, E; Cohen, O; Eldar, Y C; Shoham, S; Kley, E B; Segev, M

    2010-01-01

    We present the experimental reconstruction of sub-wavelength features from the far-field of sparse optical objects. We show that it is sufficient to know that the object is sparse, and only that, and recover 100 nm features with the resolution of 30 nm, for an illuminating wavelength of =532 nm. Our technique works in real-time, requires no scanning, and can be implemented in all existing microscopes - optical and non-optical.

  5. A low-threshold high-index-contrast grating (HCG)-based organic VCSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh, Mohammad Reza; Darvish, Ghafar; Ahmadi, Vahid

    2015-12-01

    We propose a low-threshold high-index-contrast grating (HCG)-based organic vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (OVCSEL). The device has the feasibility to apply both electrical and optical excitation. The microcavity of the laser is a hybrid photonic crystal (HPC) in which the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) is replaced by a sub-wavelength high-contrast-grating layer, and provides a high-quality factor. The simulated quality factor of the microcavity is shown to be as high as 282,000. We also investigate the threshold behavior and the dynamics of the OVCSEL optically pumped with sub-picosecond pulses. Results from numerical simulation show that lasing threshold is 75 nJ/cm2.

  6. Direct UV-written broadband directional broadband planar waveguide couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    We report the fabrication of broadband directional couplers by direct UV-writing. The fabrication process is shown to be beneficial, robust and flexible. The components are compact and show superior performance in terms of loss and broadband operation....

  7. Optimization and tunability of deep subwavelength resonators for metamaterial applications: complete enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alici, Kamil Boratay; Bilotti, Filiberto; Vegni, Lucio; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2009-04-13

    In the present work, we studied particle candidates for metamaterial applications, especially in terms of their electrical size and resonance strength. The analyzed particles can be easily produced via planar fabrication techniques. The electrical size of multi-split ring resonators, spiral resonators, and multi-spiral resonators are reported as a function of the particle side length and substrate permittivity. The study is continued by demonstrating the scalability of the particles to higher frequencies and the proposition of the optimized particle for antenna, absorber, and superlens applications: a multi-spiral resonator with lambda/30 electrical size operating at 0.810 GHz. We explain a method for tuning the resonance frequency of the multi-split structures. Finally, we demonstrate that by inserting deep subwavelength resonators into periodically arranged subwavelength apertures, complete transmission enhancement can be obtained at the magnetic resonance frequency.

  8. Dual broadband metamaterial absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ju; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-02-23

    We propose polarization-independent and dual-broadband metamaterial absorbers at microwave frequencies. This is a periodic meta-atom array consisting of metal-dielectric-multilayer truncated cones. We demonstrate not only one broadband absorption from the fundamental magnetic resonances but additional broadband absorption in high-frequency range using the third-harmonic resonance, by both simulation and experiment. In simulation, the absorption was over 90% in 3.93-6.05 GHz, and 11.64-14.55 GHz. The corresponding experimental absorption bands over 90% were 3.88-6.08 GHz, 9.95-10.46 GHz and 11.86-13.84 GHz, respectively. The origin of absorption bands was elucidated. Furthermore, it is independent of polarization angle owing to the multilayered circular structures. The design is scalable to smaller size for the infrared and the visible ranges.

  9. Performance enhancement of thin film silicon solar cells based on distributed Bragg reflector & diffraction grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Dubey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various designing parameters were investigated and explored for high performance solar cells. Single layer grating based solar cell of 50 μm thickness gives maximum efficiency up to 24 % whereas same efficiency is achieved with the use of three bilayers grating based solar cell of 30 μm thickness. Remarkably, bilayer grating based solar cell design not only gives broadband absorption but also enhancement in efficiency with reduced cell thickness requirement. This absorption enhancement is attributed to the high reflection and diffraction from DBR and grating respectively. The obtained short-circuit current were 29.6, 32.9, 34.6 and 36.05 mA/cm2 of 5, 10, 20 and 30 μm cell thicknesses respectively. These presented designing efforts would be helpful to design and realize new generation of solar cells.

  10. Ultra sub-wavelength surface plasmon confinement using air-gap, sub-wavelength ring resonator arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jaehak; Sung, Sangkeun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Arrays of sub-wavelength, sub-10 nm air-gap plasmonic ring resonators are fabricated using nanoimprinting. In near infra-red (NIR) range, the resonator supports a single dipole mode which is excited and identified via simple normal illumination and explored through transmission measurements...... sensitivity up to 69 nm/nm is achieved as the modal height approaches the thickness of the adsorbed molecule layers....

  11. Broadband frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    We demonstrate a method for frequency conversion of broadly tunable or broad bandwidth light in a static, passive setup. Using simple optical components like lenses, mirrors and gratings and a BiBO crystal as the nonlinear material, we are able to frequency double a single-frequency, tunable...

  12. Tuning Fano resonances of graphene-based gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceglia, Domenico; Vincenti, Maria A.; Grande, Marco; Bianco, Giuseppe Valerio; Bruno, Giovanni; D'Orazio, Antonella; Scalora, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We present a strategy to control Fano resonances in hybrid graphene-silicon-on-insulator gratings. The presence of a mono- or few-layer graphene film allows to electrically and/or chemically tuning the Fano resonances that result from the interaction of narrow-band, quasi-normal modes and broad-band, Fabry-Perot-like modes. Transmission, reflection and absorption spectra undergo significant modulations under the application of a static voltage to the graphene film. In particular, for low values of the graphene chemical potential, the structure exhibits a symmetric Lorentzian resonance; when the chemical potential increases beyond a specific threshold, the grating resonance becomes Fano-like, hence narrower and asymmetric. This transition occurs when the graphene optical response changes from that of a lossy dielectric medium into that of a low-loss metal. Further increasing the chemical potential allows to blue-shift the Fano resonance, leaving its shape and linewidth virtually unaltered. We provide a thorough description of the underlying physics by resorting to the quasi-normal mode description of the resonant grating and retrieve perturbative expressions for the characteristic wavelength and linewidth of the resonance. The roles of number of graphene layers, waveguide-film thickness and graphene quality on the tuning abilities of the grating will be discussed. Although developed for infrared telecom wavelengths and silicon-on-insulator technology, the proposed structure can be easily designed for other wavelengths, including visible, far-infrared and terahertz, and other photonic platforms.

  13. Snapshot imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter using polarization gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudenov, Michael W; Escuti, Michael J; Hagen, Nathan; Dereniak, Eustace L; Oka, Kazuhiko

    2012-04-15

    A snapshot imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter (SIMMP) is theoretically described and empirically demonstrated through simulation. Spatial polarization fringes are localized onto a sample by incorporating polarization gratings (PGs) into a polarization generator module. These fringes modulate the Mueller matrix (MM) components of the sample, which are subsequently isolated with PGs in an analyzer module. The MM components are amplitude modulated onto spatial carrier frequencies which, due to the PGs, maintain high visibility in spectrally broadband illumination. An interference model of the SIMMP is provided, followed by methods of reconstruction and calibration. Lastly, a numerical simulation is used to demonstrate the system's performance in the presence of noise. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  14. Grating exchange system of independent mirror supported by floating rotary stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhuan; Tao, Jin; Liu, Yan; Nan, Yan

    2015-10-01

    The performance of The Grating Exchange System can satisfy the Thirty Meter Telescope - TMT for astronomical observation WFOS index requirements and satisfy the requirement of accuracy in the grating exchange. It is used to install in the MOBIE and a key device of MOBIE. The Wide Field Optical Spectrograph (WFOS) is one of the three first-light observing capabilities selected by the TMT Science Advisory Committee. The Multi-Object Broadband Imaging Echellette (MOBIE) instrument design concept has been developed to address the WFOS requirements as described in the TMT Science-Based Requirements Document (SRD). The Grating Exchange System uses a new type of separate movement way of three grating devices and a mirror device. Three grating devices with a mirror are able to achieve independence movement. This kind of grating exchange system can effectively solve the problem that the volume of the grating change system is too large and that the installed space of MOBIE instruments is too limit. This system adopts the good stability, high precision of rotary stage - a kind of using air bearing (Air bearing is famous for its ultra-high precision, and can meet the optical accuracy requirement) and rotation positioning feedback gauge turntable to support grating device. And with a kind of device which can carry greater weight bracket fixed on the MOBIE instrument, with two sets of servo motor control rotary stage and the mirror device respectively. And we use the control program to realize the need of exercising of the grating device and the mirror device. Using the stress strain analysis software--SolidWorks for stress and strain analysis of this structure. And then checking the structure of the rationality and feasibility. And prove that this system can realize the positioning precision under different working conditions can meet the requirements of imaging optical grating diffraction efficiency and error by the calculation and optical performance analysis.

  15. Low crosstalk Arrayed Waveguide Grating with Cascaded Waveguide Grating Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Yang; Liu Yuan; Gao Dingshan, E-mail: dsgao@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    We propose a highly compact and low crosstalk arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with cascaded waveguide grating (CWGF). The side lobes of the silicon nanowire AWG, which are normally introduced by fabrication errors, can be effectively suppressed by the CWGF. And the crosstalk can be improved about 15dB.

  16. Bragg Gratings in GIPOF

    OpenAIRE

    Van Boxel, Roel

    2005-01-01

    Chapter 1: Optical Fibres 1.1 Optical Communication 1.2 Light 1.3 Refractive Index 1.4 Total Internal Reflection 1.5 Fibre Parameters 1.6 Ray Types 1.7 Mode concept 1.8 Fibre Modes 1.9 Number of Modes 1.10 Mode coupling and Mode conversion 1.11 Attenuation 1.12 Dispersion and Bandwidth 1.13 Types of fibres 1.14 Graded Index Polymer Optical Fibre (GIPOF) 1.15 Summary 1.16 References Chapter 2: Bragg Gratings 2.1 Theory 2.2 Photosensi...

  17. Broadband and energy-concentrating terahertz coherent perfect absorber based on a self-complementary metasurface

    CERN Document Server

    Urade, Yoshiro; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kitano, Masao

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that a self-complementary checkerboard-like metasurface works as a broadband coherent perfect absorber (CPA) when symmetrically illuminated by two counter-propagating incident waves. A theoretical analysis based on wave interference and results of numerical simulations of the proposed metasurface are provided. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate the proposed CPA in the terahertz regime by using a time-domain spectroscopy technique. We observe that the metasurface can work as a CPA below its lowest diffraction frequency. The size of the absorptive areas of the proposed CPA can be much smaller than the incident wavelength. Unlike conventional CPAs, the presented one simultaneously achieves the broadband operation and energy concentration of electromagnetic waves at the deep-subwavelength scale.

  18. Water metamaterial for ultra-broadband and wide-angle absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianwen; Zhu, Weiren; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Xiao, Fajun; He, Chong; Geng, Junping; Liang, Xianling; Jin, Ronghong; Premaratne, Malin

    2018-02-19

    A subwavelength water metamaterial is proposed and analyzed for ultra-broadband perfect absorption at microwave frequencies. We experimentally demonstrate that this metamaterial shows over 90% absorption within almost the entire frequency band of 12-29.6 GHz. It is also shown that the proposed metamaterial exhibits a good thermal stability with its absorption performance almost unchanged for the temperature range from 0 to 100°C. The study of the angular tolerance of the metamaterial absorber shows its ability of working at wide angles of incidence. Given that the proposed water metamaterial absorber is low-cost and easy for manufacture, we envision it may find numerous applications in electromagnetics such as broadband scattering reduction and electromagnetic energy harvesting.

  19. Assessing fabrication tolerances for a multilevel 2D binary grating for 3D multifocus microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davanco, Marcelo; Yu, Liya; Chen, Lei; Luciani, Vincent; Liddle, James Alexander

    2016-05-02

    We perform a comprehensive theoretical assessment of fabrication tolerances for a 2D eight-level binary phase grating that is the central element of a multi-focal plane 3D microscopy apparatus. The fabrication process encompasses a sequence of aligned lithography and etching steps with stringent requirements on layer-to-layer overlay, etch depth and etched sidewall slope, which we show are nonetheless achievable with state-of-the-art optical lithography and etching tools. We also perform broadband spectroscopic diffraction pattern measurements on a fabricated grating, and show how such measurements can be valuable in determining small fabrication errors in diffractive optical elements.

  20. Enhanced transmission of transverse electric waves through periodic arrays of structured subwavelength apertures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Peng, Liang; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    Transmission through sub-wavelength apertures in perfect metals is expected to be strongly suppressed. However, by structural engineering of the apertures, we numerically demonstrate that the transmission of transverse electric waves through periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures in a thin...

  1. Resonating Terahertz Response of Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Apertures

    KAUST Repository

    D’Apuzzo, Fausto

    2014-10-11

    Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) peaks mediated by plasmonic excitations can be observed in a variety of subwavelength patterned metallic surfaces. In this paper, we have fabricated and spectroscopically characterized plasmon devices exhibiting EOT peaks at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These devices, which resonate with intermediate and collective modes of macromolecules, can be used for detection of materials of biological interest and their performances have been experimentally determined by measuring the variation of the EOT frequencies for thin sub-micrometric organic layers deposited onto the device surface.

  2. Picosecond Holographic-Grating Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duppen, K.

    1987-01-01

    Interfering light waves produce an optical interference pattern in any medium that interacts with light. This modulation of some physical parameter of the system acts as a classical holographic grating for optical radiation. When such a grating is produced through interaction of pulsed light waves

  3. Imaging properties of diffraction gratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, W.

    1970-01-01

    For almost a century now diffraction gratings are being used as the dispersing element in spectroscopic systems. In the greater majority of cases this grating is of the reflecting type, which (among others) has the advantage that the radiation to be analysed need not pass absorbing material as is

  4. Broadband non-unity magnetic permeability in planar hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgia Theano; Fleischman, Dagny; Davoyan, Artur R.; Thyagarajan, Krishnan; Atwater, Harry A.

    Metal/dielectric heterostructures with extreme anisotropy and topologically nontrivial dispersion are of fundamental and applied interest due to unique optical and opto-electronic properties. Here we demonstrate that, surprisingly, such systems exhibit a broadband non-unity magnetic response. Typically the electromagnetic properties of such metal-dielectric stacks are deduced from effective medium theories for unbounded, i.e., infinite in size periodic arrangements (c.f., Maxwell-Garnett approximation). In this talk, we show that this description is incomplete for metamaterials with finite number of layers. We demonstrate that a few-layer metal-dielectric metamaterial exhibits a non-unity magnetic permeability across the whole visible spectrum. The response can be diamagnetic or paramagnetic depending on the type of the terminating layers: metallic or dielectric, with non-resonant magnetic permeability that can be engineered to attain values as low as -2 or as high as 2. We have developed a theoretical model that explains the underlying mechanism. We further experimentally validate non-unity effective permeability in the optical range of frequencies. Ag/SiO2 and Ge-based metamaterials fabricated with electron beam evaporation are characterized by ellipsometric measurements and also phase and amplitude of transmittance/reflectance. These results open pathways for creating broadband subwavelength magnetic structures in the visible regime.

  5. Optical Fiber Grating based Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis differenct optical fiber gratings are used for sensor purposes. If a fiber with a core concentricity error (CCE) is used, a directional dependent bend sensor can be produced. The CCE direction can be determined by means of diffraction. This makes it possible to produce long......-period gratings in a fiber with a CCE direction parallel or perpendicular to the writing direction. The maximal bending sensitivity is independent on the writing direction, but the detailed bending response is different in the two cases. A temperature and strain sensor, based on a long-period grating and two...... sampled gratings, was produced and investigated. It is based on the different temperature and strain response of these gratings. Both a transfer matrix method and an overlap calculation is performed to explain the sensor response. Another type of sensor is based on tuning and modulation of a laser...

  6. A super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Edward T F; Lindberg, Jari; Roy, Tapashree; Savo, Salvatore; Chad, John E; Dennis, Mark R; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2012-03-25

    The past decade has seen an intensive effort to achieve optical imaging resolution beyond the diffraction limit. Apart from the Pendry-Veselago negative index superlens, implementation of which in optics faces challenges of losses and as yet unattainable fabrication finesse, other super-resolution approaches necessitate the lens either to be in the near proximity of the object or manufactured on it, or work only for a narrow class of samples, such as intensely luminescent or sparse objects. Here we report a new super-resolution microscope for optical imaging that beats the diffraction limit of conventional instruments and the recently demonstrated near-field optical superlens and hyperlens. This non-invasive subwavelength imaging paradigm uses a binary amplitude mask for direct focusing of laser light into a subwavelength spot in the post-evanescent field by precisely tailoring the interference of a large number of beams diffracted from a nanostructured mask. The new technology, which--in principle--has no physical limits on resolution, could be universally used for imaging at any wavelength and does not depend on the luminescence of the object, which can be tens of micrometres away from the mask. It has been implemented as a straightforward modification of a conventional microscope showing resolution better than λ/6.

  7. Broadband Radio Service (BRS) and Educational Broadband Service (EBS) Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Broadband Radio Service (BRS), formerly known as the Multipoint Distribution Service (MDS)/Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS), is a commercial...

  8. Fabrication of Polymer Optical Fibre (POF) Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanhua; Yan, Binbin; Zhang, Qijin; Peng, Gang-Ding; Wen, Jianxiang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2017-01-01

    Gratings inscribed in polymer optical fibre (POF) have attracted remarkable interest for many potential applications due to their distinctive properties. This paper overviews the current state of fabrication of POF gratings since their first demonstration in 1999. In particular we summarize and discuss POF materials, POF photosensitivity, techniques and issues of fabricating POF gratings, as well as various types of POF gratings. PMID:28273844

  9. Broadband terahertz fiber directional coupler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We present the design of a short broadband fiber directional coupler for terahertz (THz) radiation and demonstrate a 3 dB coupler with a bandwidth of 0:6 THz centered at 1:4 THz. The broadband coupling is achieved by mechanically downdoping the cores of a dual-core photonic crystal fiber by micro......We present the design of a short broadband fiber directional coupler for terahertz (THz) radiation and demonstrate a 3 dB coupler with a bandwidth of 0:6 THz centered at 1:4 THz. The broadband coupling is achieved by mechanically downdoping the cores of a dual-core photonic crystal fiber...

  10. Toward broadband mechanical spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Torchinsky, Darius; Klieber, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Diverse material classes exhibit qualitatively similar behavior when made viscous upon cooling toward the glass transition, suggesting a common theoretical basis. We used seven different measurement methods to determine the mechanical relaxation kinetics of a prototype molecular glass former over...... a temporal range of 13 decades and over a temperature range spanning liquid to glassy states. The data conform to time–temperature superposition for the main (alpha) process and to a scaling relation of schematic mode-coupling theory. The broadband mechanical measurements demonstrated have fundamental...

  11. BPL (Broadband Power Line)

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    El mundo actual requiere cada vez más el estar conectados con la sociedad de la Información y el Conocimiento, esto demanda que en los hogares, lugares de turismo, trabajos, universidades, etcétera, se cuente con una conexión a Internet de Alta Velocidad, que además sea segura y confiable. En este documento se presenta las características más importantes de la tecnología BPL (Broadband Power Line) o PLC (Power Line Comunication), la cual permite brindar el servicio de Internet ...

  12. Topology optimization of anisotropic broadband double-negative elastic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao-Wen; Zhao, Sheng-Dong; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2017-08-01

    As the counterpart of electromagnetic and acoustic metamaterials, elastic metamaterials are artificial periodic elastic composite materials offering the possibility to manipulate elastic wave propagation in the subwavelength scale through different mechanisms. For the promising superlensing in the medical ultrasonic detection, double-negative metamaterials possessing the negative effective mass density and elastic modulus simultaneously can be utilized as the ideal superlens for breaking the diffraction limit. In this paper, we present a topology optimization scheme to design the two-dimensional (2D) single-phase anisotropic elastic metamaterials with broadband double-negative effective material properties and demonstrate the superlensing effect at the deep-subwavelength scale. We also discuss the impact of several design parameters adopted in the objective function and constraints on the optimized results. Unlike all previously reported mechanisms, the present optimized structures exhibit the novel quadrupolar or multipolar resonances for the negative effective mass density and negative effective elastic modulus. In addition, negative refraction of the transverse waves in a single-phase material is observed. Most optimized structures in this paper can serve as the anisotropic zero-index metamaterials for the longitudinal or transverse waves at a certain frequency. The cloaking effect is demonstrated for both the longitudinal and transverse waves. Moreover, with the particular constraints in the optimization procedure, a super-anisotropic metamaterial exhibiting the double-negative and hyperbolic dispersions in two principal directions within two different frequency ranges is obtained. The developed optimization scheme provides a robust computational tool for negative-index engineering of elastic metamaterials and may guide the design and optimization of other types of metamaterials, including the electromagnetic and acoustic metamaterials. The unusual properties

  13. Generation of Subwavelength Plasmonic Nanovortices via Helically Corrugated Metallic Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changming; Chen, Xianfeng; Oladipo, Abiola O; Panoiu, Nicolae C; Ye, Fangwei

    2015-08-17

    We demonstrate that plasmonic helical gratings consisting of metallic nanowires imprinted with helical grooves or ridges can be used efficiently to generate plasmonic vortices with radius much smaller than the operating wavelength. In our proposed approach, these helical surface gratings are designed so that plasmon modes with different azimuthal quantum numbers (topological charge) are phase-matched, thus allowing one to generate optical plasmonic vortices with arbitrary topological charge. The general principles for designing plasmonic helical gratings that facilitate efficient generation of such plasmonic vortices are derived and their applicability to the conversion of plasmonic vortices with zero angular momentum into plasmonic vortices with arbitrary angular momentum is illustrated in several particular cases. Our analysis, based both on the exact solutions for the electromagnetic field propagating in the helical plasmonic grating and a coupled-mode theory, suggests that even in the presence of metal losses the fundamental mode with topological charge m = 0 can be converted to plasmon vortex modes with topological charge m = 1 and m = 2 with a conversion efficiency as large as 60%. The plasmonic nanovortices introduced in this study open new avenues for exciting applications of orbital angular momentum in the nanoworld.

  14. Subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide with trapezoidal shaped dielectric pillars in optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Ray T.

    2017-02-07

    A method for reducing loss in a subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide bend is disclosed. The method comprising: forming the subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide bend with a series of trapezoidal shaped dielectric pillars centered about a bend radius; wherein each of the trapezoidal shaped dielectric pillars comprise a top width, a bottom width, and a trapezoid height; wherein the length of the bottom width is greater than the length of the top width; and wherein the bottom width is closer to the center of the bend radius of the subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide bend than the top width. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  15. Bragg gratings: Optical microchip sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Sam

    2010-07-01

    A direct UV writing technique that can create multiple Bragg gratings and waveguides in a planar silica-on-silicon chip is enabling sensing applications ranging from individual disposable sensors for biotechnology through to multiplexed sensor networks in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

  16. Encapsulation process for diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzsch, Stephan; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2015-07-13

    Encapsulation of grating structures facilitates an improvement of the optical functionality and/or adds mechanical stability to the fragile structure. Here, we introduce novel encapsulation process of nanoscale patterns based on atomic layer deposition and micro structuring. The overall size of the encapsulated structured surface area is only restricted by the size of the available microstructuring and coating devices; thus, overcoming inherent limitations of existing bonding processes concerning cleanliness, roughness, and curvature of the components. Finally, the process is demonstrated for a transmission grating. The encapsulated grating has 97.5% transmission efficiency in the -1st diffraction order for TM-polarized light, and is being limited by the experimental grating parameters as confirmed by rigorous coupled wave analysis.

  17. MEMS Bragg grating force sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Hansen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We present modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of a new type of all-optical frequency modulated MEMS force sensor based on a mechanically amplified double clamped waveguide beam structure with integrated Bragg grating. The sensor is ideally suited for force measurements in harsh...... environments and for remote and distributed sensing and has a measured sensitivity of -14 nm/N, which is several times higher than what is obtained in conventional fiber Bragg grating force sensors. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  18. Bio-functional subwavelength optical waveguides for biodetection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirbuly, D J; Fischer, N; Huang, S; Artyukhin, A

    2007-07-10

    We report a versatile biofunctional subwavelength photonic device platform for real-time detection of biological molecules. Our devices contain lipid bilayer membranes fused onto metal oxide nanowire waveguides stretched across polymeric flow channels. The lipid bilayers incorporating target receptors are submersed in the propagating evanescent field of the optical cavity. We show that the lipid bilayers in our devices are continuous, have very high mobile fraction, and are resistant to fouling. We also demonstrate that our platform allows rapid membrane exchange. Finally we use this device for detection of specific DNA sequences in solution by anchoring complementary DNA target strands in the lipid bilayer. This evanescent wave sensing architecture holds great potential for portable, all-optical detection systems.

  19. Massively sub-wavelength guiding of electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, I R; Tremain, B; Dockrey, J A; Hibbins, A P

    2014-12-16

    Recently a new form of ultra-thin flexible waveguide consisting of a conducting comb-like structure with a thickness of the order of 1/600(th) of the operating wavelength was presented. However, whilst the thickness of the guide was massively sub-wavelength, the remaining dimensions (the height and period of the comb) were much longer. In this paper we propose, and experimentally verify, that a modified guiding geometry consisting of a chain of ultra-thin conducting spirals allows guiding of electromagnetic waves with wavelengths that are many times (40+) longer than any characteristic dimension of the guide, enabling super-sub-wavelength guiding and localisation of electromagnetic energy.

  20. Complete polarimetry on the asymmetric transmission through subwavelength hole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Oriol; Maoz, Ben M; Nichols, Shane; Markovich, Gil; Kahr, Bart

    2014-06-02

    Dissymmetric, periodically nanostructured metal films can show non-reciprocal transmission of polarized light, in apparent violation of the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. The wave vector dependence of the extraordinary optical transmission in gold films with square and oblique subwavelength hole arrays was examined for the full range of polarized light input states. In normal incidence, the oblique lattice, in contrast to square lattice, showed strong asymmetric, non-reciprocal transmission of circularly polarized light. By analyzing the polarization of the input and the output with a complete Mueller matrix polarimeter the mechanisms that permits asymmetric transmission while preserving the requirement of electromagnetic reciprocity is revealed: the coupling of the linear anisotropies induced by misaligned surface plasmons in the film. The square lattice also shows asymmetric transmission at non-normal incidence, whenever the plane of incidence does not coincide with a mirror line.

  1. Robust subwavelength focusing of surface plasmons on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yang; Zhang, Zhengren; Su, Xiaopeng

    2016-11-01

    Graphene plays a substantial role in nano-scale optical engineering and miniature information signal processing systems gradually. In this letter, we propose a pipe-like substrate scheme to achieve the properly designed inhomogeneous, nonuniform conductivity distribution on a single sheet of graphene. The transverse-magnetic surface plasmon polariton wave supported by graphene will oscillate like water running in an inclined pipe and focus onto one point in a deep-subwavelength scale in the graphene sheet. Importantly, we find that this focusing behavior is robust and insensitive to the variance of background Fermi energy and incident frequency based on the analytic analysis. We verify our scheme by exploiting Hamiltonian optics and numerical calculation. This nano-scale optical manipulation will lead to the development of miniature optical system integration on a 1-atom-thick structure.

  2. High-Q Supercavity Modes in Subwavelength Dielectric Resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, Mikhail V; Koshelev, Kirill L; Sadrieva, Zarina F; Samusev, Kirill B; Bogdanov, Andrey A; Limonov, Mikhail F; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2017-12-15

    Recent progress in nanoscale optical physics is associated with the development of a new branch of nanophotonics exploring strong Mie resonances in dielectric nanoparticles with a high refractive index. The high-index resonant dielectric nanostructures form building blocks for novel photonic metadevices with low losses and advanced functionalities. However, unlike extensively studied cavities in photonic crystals, such dielectric resonators demonstrate low quality factors (Q factors). Here, we uncover a novel mechanism for achieving giant Q factors of subwavelength nanoscale resonators by realizing the regime of bound states in the continuum. In contrast to the previously suggested multilayer structures with zero permittivity, we reveal strong mode coupling and Fano resonances in homogeneous high-index dielectric finite-length nanorods resulting in high-Q factors at the nanoscale. Thus, high-index dielectric resonators represent the simplest example of nanophotonic supercavities, expanding substantially the range of applications of all-dielectric resonant nanophotonics and meta-optics.

  3. Efficient Vortex Generation in Subwavelength Epsilon-Near-Zero Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Marini, Andrea; Rizza, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    We show that a homogeneous and isotropic slab, illuminated by a circularly polarized beam with no topological charge, produces vortices of order 2 in the opposite circularly polarized components of the reflected and transmitted fields, as a consequence of the transverse magnetic and transverse electric asymmetric response of the rotationally invariant system. In addition, in the epsilon-near-zero regime, we find that vortex generation is remarkably efficient in subwavelength thick slabs up to the paraxial regime. This physically stems from the fact that a vacuum paraxial field can excite a nonparaxial field inside an epsilon-near-zero slab since it hosts slowly varying fields over physically large portions of the bulk. Our theoretical predictions indicate that epsilon-near-zero media hold great potential as nanophotonic elements for manipulating the angular momentum of the radiation, since they are available without resorting to complicated micro- or nanofabrication processes and can operate even at very small (ultraviolet) wavelengths.

  4. Seismic metasurfaces: Sub-wavelength resonators and Rayleigh wave interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Colquitt, D J; Craster, R V; Roux, P; Guenneau, S R L

    2016-01-01

    We consider the canonical problem of an array of rods, which act as resonators, placed on an elastic substrate; the substrate being either a thin elastic plate or an elastic half-space. In both cases the flexural plate, or Rayleigh surface, waves in the substrate interact with the resonators to create interesting effects such as effective band-gaps for surface waves or filters that transform surface waves into bulk waves; these effects have parallels in the field of optics where such sub-wavelength resonators create metamaterials, and metasurfaces, in the bulk and at the surface respectively. Here we carefully analyse this canonical problem by extracting the dispersion relations analytically thereby examining the influence of both the flexural and compressional resonances on the propagating wave. For an array of resonators atop an elastic half-space we augment the analysis with numerical simulations. Amongst other effects, we demonstrate the striking effect of a dispersion curve that transitions from Rayleigh...

  5. Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Alexander S; Pors, Anders; Albrektsen, Ole; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2014-02-12

    We demonstrate plasmonic color printing with subwavelength resolution using circular gap-plasmon resonators (GPRs) arranged in 340 nm period arrays of square unit cells and fabricated with single-step electron-beam lithography. We develop a printing procedure resulting in correct single-pixel color reproduction, high color uniformity of colored areas, and high reproduction fidelity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, due to inherent stability of GPRs with respect to surfactants, the fabricated color print can be protected with a transparent dielectric overlay for ambient use without destroying its coloring. Using finite-element simulations, we uncover the physical mechanisms responsible for color printing with GPR arrays and suggest the appropriate design procedure minimizing the influence of the protection layer.

  6. Study on differences between high contrast grating reflectors for TM and TE polarizations and their impact on VCSEL designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Il-Sug

    2015-06-29

    A theoretical study of differences in broadband high-index-contrast grating (HCG) reflectors for TM and TE polarizations is presented, covering various grating parameters and properties of HCGs. It is shown that the HCG reflectors for TM polarization (TM HCG reflectors) have much thicker grating thicknesses and smaller grating periods than the TE HCG reflectors. This difference is found to originate from the different boundary conditions met for the electric field of each polarization. Due to this difference, the TM HCG reflectors have much shorter evanescent extension of HCG modes into low-refractive-index media surrounding the HCG. This enables to achieve a very short effective cavity length for VC-SELs, which is essential for ultrahigh speed VCSELs and MEMS-tunable VCSELs. The obtained understandings on polarization dependences will be able to serve as important design guidelines for various HCG-based devices.

  7. Infants' responsiveness to rivalrous gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavšek, Michael

    2013-01-14

    The study investigated the early development of responsiveness to rivalrous gratings. Infants were tested weekly between 6 and 16 weeks of age for their ability to discriminate between interocularly identical (fusible) lines and interocularly orthogonal (unfusible, rivalrous) lines. The stimuli were presented on an autostereoscopic monitor equipped with a face-tracking device. Two psychophysical techniques, the forced-choice preferential looking (FPL) method and measurement of looking times, were employed. Contrary to earlier findings, infants at all ages avoided looking at the rivalrous gratings instead of showing a developmental shift from a relative preference for unfusible, rivalrous gratings to a relative preference for fusible gratings. Avoidance of the rivalrous gratings became significant at 8-9weeks of age, suggesting that infants clearly exhibit binocular rivalry from that age onwards. Control experiments secured that the infants' preference for the fusible gratings was not governed by a natural preference for less over more complex line patterns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 75 FR 29516 - Broadband Researchers' Data Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Administration Broadband Researchers' Data Workshop AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information... demonstrated in the agency's October 30, 2009, Broadband Data Transparency Public Workshop.\\2\\ \\2\\ See http...

  9. Phase-shift anomaly caused by subwavelength-scale metal slit or aperture diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kanghee; Yi, Minwoo; Park, Sang Eon; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-01-15

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy probes anomalous phase-shift caused by wave diffraction from a subwavelength-scale metal slit or aperture. Carrier frequency phase measurements in the far-field region reveals that nearly 30° phase advance is induced from a subwavelength slit diffraction and that 180° phase-advance from a subwavelength aperture. These results indicate that the conventional 90° phase advance of diffracted waves in the far-field region, known as the Gouy phase shift, is not valid for subwavelength diffraction phenomena. The physical origin of these phase-shift anomalies is attributed to induced electric currents or magnetic dipole radiation, and theoretical analyses based on these factors are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. Conception of broadband stigmatic high-resolution spectrometers for the soft X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnyakov, E A; Shatokhin, A N; Ragozin, E N [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    We formulate an approach to the development of stigmatic high-resolution spectral instruments for the soft X-ray range (λ ≤ 300 Å), which is based on the combined operation of normalincidence multilayer mirrors (including broadband aperiodic ones) and grazing-incidence reflection gratings with nonequidistant grooves (so-called VLS gratings). A concave multilayer mirror serves to produce a slightly astigmatic image of the radiation source (for instance, an entrance slit), and the diffraction grating produces a set of its dispersed stigmatic spectral images. The width of the operating spectral region is determined by the aperiodic structure of the multilayer mirror and may range up to an octave in wavelength. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  11. PECASE: Resonantly-Enhanced Lanthanide Emitters for Subwavelength-Scale, Active Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-19

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0052 PECASE- RESONATLY-ENHANCHED LANTHANIDE EMITTERS FOR SUBWAVELENGTH-SCALE, ACTIVE Photonics Rashid Zia BROWN UNIVERSITY IN...From - To) 15 Dec. 2009 – 14 Dec. 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE i i i 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER PECASE: Resonantly-Enhanced Lanthanide Emitters for...PECASE: Resonantly-Enhanced Lanthanide Emitters for Subwavelength-Scale, Active Photonics Contract/Grant #: FA9550-10-1-0026 Reporting Period: 15

  12. Broadband unidirectional ultrasound propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2017-12-12

    A passive, linear arrangement of a sonic crystal-based apparatus and method including a 1D sonic crystal, a nonlinear medium, and an acoustic low-pass filter, for permitting unidirectional broadband ultrasound propagation as a collimated beam for underwater, air or other fluid communication, are described. The signal to be transmitted is first used to modulate a high-frequency ultrasonic carrier wave which is directed into the sonic crystal side of the apparatus. The apparatus processes the modulated signal, whereby the original low-frequency signal exits the apparatus as a collimated beam on the side of the apparatus opposite the sonic crystal. The sonic crystal provides a bandpass acoustic filter through which the modulated high-frequency ultrasonic signal passes, and the nonlinear medium demodulates the modulated signal and recovers the low-frequency sound beam. The low-pass filter removes remaining high-frequency components, and contributes to the unidirectional property of the apparatus.

  13. Broadband light absorber based on porous alumina structure covered with ultrathin iridium film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bo; Yang, Chenying; Pang, Chenlei; Shen, Weidong; Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Yueguang; Yuan, Wenjia; Liu, Xu

    2017-04-01

    In this letter, we propose a broadband absorber with high efficiency by an atomic layer depositing nanometer iridium (Ir) film onto a porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. The average absorption is able to achieve as high as 93.4% from 400 to 1100 nm and the absorption efficiency can reach up to 96.8% for the improved structure of the quadrangular frustum pyramid array. Not only the hexagonal latticed structures of the PAA template but also many similar structures based on gratings or holes with the square latticed or other latticed mode can realize the broadband high absorption efficiency. The light absorbed within the Ir/Glass interface and the sidewalls of PAA by the light funneling effect both contribute to the broadband absorption with high efficiency. This absorber, described in this paper, can be manufactured with a low-cost and large-area manner and has potential applications in fields of light harvesting, imaging, etc.

  14. Graphene based metamaterials for terahertz cloaking and subwavelength imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzmand, Seyedali

    Graphene is a two-dimensional carbon crystal that became one of the most controversial topics of research in the last few years. The intense interest in graphene stems from recent demonstrations of their potentially revolutionary electromagnetic applications -- including negative refraction, subdiffraction imaging, and even invisibility -- which have suggested a wide range of new devices for communications, sensing, and biomedicine. In addition, it has been shown that graphene is amenable to unique patterning schemes such as cutting, bending, folding, and fusion that are predicted to lead to interesting properties. A recent proposed application of graphene is in engineering the scattering properties of objects, which may be leveraged in applications such as radar-cross-section management and stealth, where it may be required to make one object look like another object or render an object completely invisible. We present the analytical formulation for the analysis of electromagnetic interaction with a finite conducting wedge covered with a cylindrically shaped nanostructured graphene metasurface, resulting in the scattering cancellation of the dominant scattering mode for all the incident and all the observation angles. Following this idea, the cylindrical graphene metasurface is utilized for cloaking of several concentric finite conducting wedges. In addition, a wedge shaped metasurface is proposed as an alternative approach for cloaking of finite wedges. The resolution of the conventional imaging lenses is restricted by the natural diffraction limit. Artificially engineered metamaterials now offer the possibility of creating a superlens that overcomes this restriction. We demonstrate that a wire medium (WM) slab loaded with graphene sheets enables the enhancement of the near field for subwavelength imaging at terahertz (THz) frequencies. The analysis is based on the nonlocal homogenization model for WM with the additional boundary condition in the connection of

  15. Tunable VCSEL with ultra-thin high contrast grating for high-speed tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Huang, Michael C; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2008-09-01

    We report a nano-electromechanical optoelectronic (NEMO) tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with an ultra-thin (145 nm) electrostatically actuated high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) designed to strongly reflect TE-polarized light. Single mode emission (SMSR >45 dB) and continuous wavelength tuning (approximately 4 nm) were obtained at room temperature with output power up to 2 mW under continuous wave (CW) operation. A record short wavelength tuning time (approximately 90 ns) is experimentally demonstrated, which is >100 times faster than previously reported DBR-based tunable VCSELs and a 1.7 times improvement over the previously reported TM polarized NEMO tunable VCSELs.

  16. Etched silicon gratings for NGST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, J.; Ciarlo, D.; Kuzmenko, P.; Macintosh, B.; Alcock, C.; Cook, K.

    1999-10-28

    The authors have developed the world's first etched silicon grisms at LLNL in September 1999. The high optical surface quality of the grisms allows diffraction-limited spectral resolution in the IR wavelengths where silicon has good transmission. They estimated that the scattering light level is less than 4% at 2.2 {micro}m. Silicon can significantly increase the dispersive power of spectroscopic instruments for NGST due to its very large refractive index (n = 3.4). For example, a silicon grism with 40 mm clear entrance aperture and a 46 wedge angle can provide R = 10,000--100,000 in {approximately} 1--10 {micro}m. The same grating working in the immersed reflection mode can provide {approximately} three times higher spectral resolution than in the transmission mode. To achieve a desired spectral resolution for NGST, the spectrograph size and weight can be significantly reduced if silicon gratings are used instead of conventional gratings.

  17. Engineered plasmon focusing on functional gratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, Herman L.; van den Bergen, B; van Hulst, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the engineering of plasmon propagation and focusing by dedicated curved gratings and noncollinear phasematching. Gratings were created on gold by focused ion beam milling and plasmons were measured using phase sensitive PSTM.

  18. High Efficiency Low Scatter Echelle Grating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high efficiency low scatter echelle grating will be developed using a novel technique of multiple diamond shaving cuts. The grating will have mirror surfaces on...

  19. Polymer optical fiber bragg grating sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Yuan, Scott Wu; Andresen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-optical accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings are reported. We have written fiber Bragg gratings for 1550 nm and 850 nm operations, characterized their temperature and strain response, and tested their performance in a prototype accelerometer....

  20. Tunable grating with active feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Samuel; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Gisby, Todd; Xu, Daniel; Shea, Herbert R.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2013-04-01

    We report on the use of capacitive self-sensing to operate a DEA-based tunable grating in closed-loop mode. Due to their large strain capabilities, DEAs are key candidates for tunable optics applications. However, the viscoelasticity of elastomers is detrimental for applications that require long-term stability, such as tunable gratings and lenses. We show that capacitive sensing of the electrode strain can be used to suppress the strain drift and increase the response speed of silicone-based actuators. On the other hand, VHB actuators exhibit a time-dependent permittivity, which causes a drift between the device capacitance and its strain.

  1. Broadband Advanced Spectral System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NovaSol proposes to develop an advanced hyperspectral imaging system for earth science missions named BRASS (Broadband Advanced Spectral System). BRASS combines...

  2. Fabrication of Polymer Optical Fibre (POF Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Luo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gratings inscribed in polymer optical fibre (POF have attracted remarkable interest for many potential applications due to their distinctive properties. This paper overviews the current state of fabrication of POF gratings since their first demonstration in 1999. In particular we summarize and discuss POF materials, POF photosensitivity, techniques and issues of fabricating POF gratings, as well as various types of POF gratings.

  3. Does broadband internet affect fertility?

    OpenAIRE

    Billari, Francesco C.; Giuntella, Osea; Stella, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The spread of high-speed Internet epitomizes the digital revolution, affecting several aspects of our life. Using German panel data, we test whether the availability of broadband Internet influences fertility choices in a low-fertility setting, which is well-known for the difficulty to combine work and family life. We exploit a strategy devised by Falck et al. (2014) to obtain causal estimates of the impact of broadband on fertility. We find positive effects of highspeed Internet availability...

  4. Advanced Fibre Bragg Grating and Microfibre Bragg Grating Fabrication Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kit Man

    Fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) have become a very important technology for communication systems and fibre optic sensing. Typically, FBGs are less than 10-mm long and are fabricated using fused silica uniform phase masks which become more expensive for longer length or non-uniform pitch. Generally, interference UV laser beams are employed to make long or complex FBGs, and this technique introduces critical precision and control issues. In this work, we demonstrate an advanced FBG fabrication system that enables the writing of long and complex gratings in optical fibres with virtually any apodisation profile, local phase and Bragg wavelength using a novel optical design in which the incident angles of two UV beams onto an optical fibre can be adjusted simultaneously by moving just one optical component, instead of two optics employed in earlier configurations, to vary the grating pitch. The key advantage of the grating fabrication system is that complex gratings can be fabricated by controlling the linear movements of two translation stages. In addition to the study of advanced grating fabrication technique, we also focus on the inscription of FBGs written in optical fibres with a cladding diameter of several ten's of microns. Fabrication of microfibres was investigated using a sophisticated tapering method. We also proposed a simple but practical technique to filter out the higher order modes reflected from the FBG written in microfibres via a linear taper region while the fundamental mode re-couples to the core. By using this technique, reflection from the microfibre Bragg grating (MFBG) can be effectively single mode, simplifying the demultiplexing and demodulation processes. MFBG exhibits high sensitivity to contact force and an MFBG-based force sensor was also constructed and tested to investigate their suitability for use as an invasive surgery device. Performance of the contact force sensor packaged in a conforming elastomer material compares favourably to one

  5. Slow-light enhanced subwavelength plasmonic waveguide refractive index sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yin; Min, Changjun; Dastmalchi, Pouya; Veronis, Georgios

    2015-06-01

    We introduce slow-light enhanced subwavelength scale refractive index sensors which consist of a plasmonic metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide based slow-light system sandwiched between two conventional MDM waveguides. We first consider a MDM waveguide with small width structrue for comparison, and then consider two MDM waveguide based slow light systems: a MDM waveguide side-coupled to arrays of stub resonators system and a MDM waveguide side-coupled to arrays of double-stub resonators system. We find that, as the group velocity decreases, the sensitivity of the effective index of the waveguide mode to variations of the refractive index of the fluid filling the sensors as well as the sensitivities of the reflection and transmission coefficients of the waveguide mode increase. The sensing characteristics of the slow-light waveguide based sensor structures are systematically analyzed. We show that the slow-light enhanced sensors lead to not only 3.9 and 3.5 times enhancements in the refractive index sensitivity, and therefore in the minimum detectable refractive index change, but also to 2 and 3 times reductions in the required sensing length, respectively, compared to a sensor using a MDM waveguide with small width structure.

  6. Application of plasmonic subwavelength structuring to enhance infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul S.; Kim, Jin K.; Leonhardt, Darin; Beechem, Thomas E.; Howell, Stephen W.; Ohta, Taisuke; Wendt, Joel R.; Montoya, John A.

    2014-02-01

    Nanoantennas are an enabling technology for visible to terahertz components and may be used with a variety of detector materials. We have integrated subwavelength patterned metal nanoantennas with various detector materials for infrared detection: midwave infrared indium gallium arsenide antimonide detectors, longwave infrared graphene detectors, and shortwave infrared germanium detectors. Nanoantennas offer a means to make infrared detectors much thinner, thus lowering the dark current and improving performance. The nanoantenna converts incoming plane waves to more tightly bound and concentrated surface waves. The active material only needs to extend as far as these bound fields. In the case of graphene detectors, which are only one or two atomic layers thick, such field concentration is a necessity for usable device performance, as single pass absorption is insufficient. The nanoantenna is thus the enabling component of these thin devices. However nanoantenna integration and fabrication vary considerably across these platforms as do the considerations taken into account during design. Here we discuss the motivation for these devices and show examples for the three material systems. Characterization results are included for the midwave infrared detector.

  7. Optomechanical THz detection with a sub-wavelength resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Belacel, Cherif; Barbieri, Stefano; Gacemi, Djamal; Favero, Ivan; Sirtori, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The terahertz spectral domain offers a myriad of applications spanning chemical spectroscopy, medicine, security and imaging [1], it has also recently become a playground for fundamental studies of light-matter interactions [2-6]. Terahertz science and technology could benefit from optomechanical approaches, which harness the interaction of light with miniature mechanical resonators [7,8]. So far, optomechanics has mostly focused on the optical and microwave domains, leading to new types of quantum experiments [9-11] and to the development of optical-microwave converters [12-14]. Here we propose and validate the concept of terahertz optomechanics, by coupling far-infrared photons to the mechanical degrees of freedom of the flexible part of a sub-wavelength split-ring resonator [15]. The resulting mechanical signal is read-out optically, allowing our semiconductor/metal device to operate as a compact and efficient terahertz detector with a noise equivalent power of 8 nW/Hz^0.5 and a linear dynamics over five d...

  8. Subwavelength-Sized Narrow-Band Anechoic Waveguide Terminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, Arturo; Ćrenlund, Emil; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-11-01

    We propose and demonstrate the use of a pair of detuned acoustic resonators to efficiently absorb narrow-band sound waves in a terminated waveguide. The suggested configuration is relatively simple and advantageous for usage at low frequencies, since the dimensions of the resonators are very small compared to the wavelength. We present a theoretical description based on lumped parameters to calculate the absorption coefficient, which agrees very well with experimental data. The experimental results verify that the anechoic (reflection approximately -38 dB ) narrow-band (Δ f /f ˜0.1 ) termination with deeply subwavelength (<λ /10 ) sizes can be realized at a target frequency, suggesting thereby applications for noise control and sensing. As an illustration of possible applications for sound absorption in a room, we demonstrate by use of numerical simulations that a given axial resonant excitation in a room can be practically eliminated. Thus, a reduction of approximately 24 dB in the average acoustic energy is achieved in the room when using only four Helmholtz resonators. We also discuss various scenarios of noise control in rooms.

  9. Studies on omnidirectional enhancement of giga-hertz radiation by sub-wavelength plasma modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanrong, KONG; Qiuyue, NIE; Shu, LIN; Zhibin, WANG; Bowen, LI; Shulei, ZHENG; Binhao, JIANG

    2018-01-01

    The technology of radio frequency (RF) radiation intensification for radio compact antennas based on modulation and enhancement effects of sub-wavelength plasma structures represents an innovative developing strategy. It exhibits important scientific significance and promising potential of broad applications in various areas of national strategic demands, such as electrical information network and microwave communication, detection and control technology. In this paper, laboratory experiments and corresponding analyses have been carried out to investigate the modulation and enhancement technology of sub-wavelength plasma structure on the RF electromagnetic radiation. An application focused sub-wavelength plasma-added intensification up to ∼7 dB higher than the free-space radiation is observed experimentally in giga-hertz (GHz) RF band. The effective radiation enhancement bandwidth covers from 0.85 to 1.17 GHz, while the enhanced electromagnetic signals transmitted by sub-wavelength plasma structures maintain good communication quality. Particularly, differing from the traditional RF electromagnetic radiation enhancement method characterized by focusing the radiation field of antenna in a specific direction, the sub-wavelength plasma-added intensification of the antenna radiation presents an omnidirectional enhancement, which is reported experimentally for the first time. Corresponding performance characteristics and enhancement mechanism analyses are also conducted in this paper. The results have demonstrated the feasibility and promising potential of sub-wavelength plasma modulation in application focused RF communication, and provided the scientific basis for further research and development of sub-wavelength plasma enhanced compact antennas with wide-range requests and good quality for communication.

  10. Broadband accelerator control network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelly, J.; Clifford, T.; Frankel, R.

    1983-01-01

    A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AG) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating system has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel.

  11. Broadband transmission EPR spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred R Hagen

    Full Text Available EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9-10 GHz range. Most (biomolecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin - nuclear spin interactions and electron spin - electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8-2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed.

  12. ATST visible broadband imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, William R.; Wöger, Friedrich; Hegwer, Steve L.; Ferayorni, Andrew; Gregory, B. Scott

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is a 4 meter class telescope for observation of the solar atmosphere currently in the construction phase. The Visible Broadband Imager (VBI) is a diffraction limited imaging instrument planned to be the first-light instrument in the ATST instrumentation suite. The VBI is composed of two branches, the "VBI blue" and the "VBI red", and uses state-of-the-art narrow bandwidth interference filters and two custom designed high speed filter wheels to take bursts of images that will be re-constructed using a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) optimized near-real-time speckle image reconstruction engine. At first light, the VBI instrument will produce diffraction-limited movies of solar activity at eight discrete wavelengths with a field of view of 2 arc minutes square. In this contribution, the VBI design team will discuss the capabilities of the VBI and describe the design of the instrument, highlighting the unique challenges faced in the development of this unique instrument.

  13. 3D Printed Terahertz Focusing Grating Couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, David; Weidenbach, Marcel; Lehr, Jannik; Becker, Leonard; Beltrán-Mejía, Felipe; Busch, Stefan F.; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2017-06-01

    We have designed, constructed and characterized a grating that focuses electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies out of a dielectric waveguide. A simple theoretical model predicts the focusing behaviour of these chirped gratings, along with numerical results that support our assumptions and improved the grating geometry. The leaky waveguide was 3D printed and characterized at 120 GHz demonstrating its potential for manipulating terahertz waves.

  14. Hybrid grating reflectors: Origin of ultrabroad stopband

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Gyeong Cheol; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Chung, Il-Sug

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid grating (HG) reflectors with a high-refractive-index cap layer added onto a high contrast grating (HCG) provide a high reflectance close to 100% over a broader wavelength range than HCGs. The combination of a cap layer and a grating layer brings a strong Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance as well ...

  15. Holographic Gratings for Slow-Neutron Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, Juergen; Pruner, Christian; Tomita, Yasuo; Geltenbort, Peter; Drevenšek-Olenik, Irena; Gyergyek, Saso; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Fally, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of holographic gratings for neutron-optics applications is reviewed. We summarize the properties of gratings recorded in deuterated (poly)methylmethacrylate, holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals and nanoparticle-polymer composites revealed by diffraction experiments with slow neutrons. Existing and anticipated neutron-optical instrumentations based on holographic gratings are discussed.

  16. Broadband metasurfaces for anomalous transmission and spectrum splitting at visible frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhongyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergent ultrathin metasurfaces are promising optical materials to enable novel photonic functionality and miniature optical devices. By elaborately design the interfacial phase shift from discrete nanoantennas with distinctive geometries, metasurfaces have the potential to shape desired wavefronts and arbitrary steer light propagation. However, the realization of broadband transmission-mode metasurfaces that operates at visible frequencies have still been significant challenging. Because it is difficult to achieve drastic broadband optical response depending on discrete plasmonic resonators and the fabrication of such subwavelength-size resonators with high uniformity is also challenging. Here, we propose an efficient yet a simple transmission-mode metasurface design comprising of a single, quasi-continuous nanoantenna as the build block. Each nanoantenna consist of a trapezoid-shaped triple-layered (Ag-SiO2-Ag plasmonic resonator which could induce drastic gradient phase shifts for transmitted light. We numerically demonstrated broadband (500–850 nm anomalous transmitted propagation and spectrum splitting at visible frequencies and beyond. The average power ratio of anomalous transmission mode to the first-order diffraction mode was calculated to be ~1000. Such proposed metasurface design is a clear departure from conventional metasurfaces utilizing multiple discrete resonators, and suggests applications for achieving ultrathin lenses, high SNR spectrometers, directional emitters and spectrum splitting surfaces for photovoltaics.

  17. Broadband terahertz generation from metamaterials and their hybrid quantum structures (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jigang

    2017-02-01

    The terahertz spectral regime, ranging from about 0.1-15 THz, is one of the least explored yet most technologically transformative spectral regions. One current challenge is to develop efficient and compact terahertz emitters/detectors with a broadband and gapless spectrum that can be tailored for various pump photon energies. A particularly essential and topical question is how to create nonlinear broadband terahertz devices using deeply subwavelength nanoscale meta-atom resonators. Here we demonstrate efficient single-cycle broadband THz generation, ranging from about 0.1-4 THz, in two model hybrid quantum nanostructures: (1) a thin layer of split-ring resonators (SRRs) with few tens of nanometers thickness by pumping at the telecommunications wavelength of 200 THz; (2) SRRs coupled to intersubband transitions in quantum wells pumping at 30 THz. We also reveal a giant sheet nonlinear susceptibility that far exceeds thin films and bulk non-centrosymmetric materials. Finally, I will also discuss their significances for THz enabled nonlinear spectroscopy and quantum phase discovery applications.

  18. Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-03-21

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

  19. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  20. Broadband Transmission EPR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9–10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin – nuclear spin interactions and electron spin – electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8–2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed. PMID:23555819

  1. Driving demand for broadband networks and services

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Raul L

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the reasons why various groups around the world choose not to adopt broadband services and evaluates strategies to stimulate the demand that will lead to increased broadband use. It introduces readers to the benefits of higher adoption rates while examining the progress that developed and emerging countries have made in stimulating broadband demand. By relying on concepts such as a supply and demand gap, broadband price elasticity, and demand promotion, this book explains differences between the fixed and mobile broadband demand gap, introducing the notions of substitution and complementarity between both platforms. Building on these concepts, ‘Driving Demand for Broadband Networks and Services’ offers a set of best practices and recommendations aimed at promoting broadband demand.  The broadband demand gap is defined as individuals and households that could buy a broadband subscription because they live in areas served by telecommunications carriers but do not do so because of either ...

  2. Broadband enhancement of local density of states using silicon-compatible hyperbolic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Inampudi, Sandeep; Capretti, Antonio [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Sugimoto, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Fujii, Minoru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Dal Negro, Luca, E-mail: dalnegro@bu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary' s Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Light emitting silicon quantum dots by colloidal synthesis were uniformly spin-coated into a 20 nm-thick film and deposited atop a hyperbolic metamaterial of alternating TiN and SiO{sub 2} sub-wavelength layers. Using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy as a function of the emission wavelength in partnership with rigorous electromagnetic modeling of dipolar emission, we demonstrate enhanced Local Density of States and coupling to high-k modes in a broad spectral range. These findings provide an alternative approach for the engineering of novel Si-compatible broadband sources that leverage the control of radiative transitions in hyperbolic metamaterials and the flexibility of the widespread Si platform.

  3. Reflectivity-modulated grating-mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to vertical cavity lasers (VCL) incorporating a reflectivity-modulated grating mirror (1) for modulating the laser output. A cavity is formed by a bottom mirror (4), an active region (3), and an outcoupling top grating mirror (1) formed by a periodic refractive index grating...... region in a layer structure comprising a p- and a n-doped semiconductor layer with an electrooptic material layer (12) arranged there between. The grating region comprises a grating structure formed by periodic perforations to change the refractive index periodically in directions normal...... to the oscillation axis. A modulated voltage (91) is applied in reverse bias between the n- and p-doped layers to modulate the refractive index of the electrooptic material layer (12) and thereby the reflectivity spectrum of the grating mirror (1). The reflectivity of the grating mirror (1) can be modulated between...

  4. Curved VPH gratings for novel spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J. Christopher; O'Donoghue, Darragh; Dunlap, Bart H.

    2014-07-01

    The introduction of volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings into astronomy over a decade ago opened new possibilities for instrument designers. In this paper we describe an extension of VPH grating technology that will have applications in astronomy and beyond: curved VPH gratings. These devices can disperse light while simultaneously correcting aberrations. We have designed and manufactured two different kinds of convex VPH grating prototypes for use in off-axis reflecting spectrographs. One type functions in transmission and the other in reflection, enabling Offnerstyle spectrographs with the high-efficiency and low-cost advantages of VPH gratings. We will discuss the design process and the tools required for modelling these gratings along with the recording layout and process steps required to fabricate them. We will present performance data for the first convex VPH grating produced for an astronomical spectrograph.

  5. Multi-objective inverse design of sub-wavelength optical focusing structures for heat assisted magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Samarth; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2014-09-01

    We report using Inverse Electromagnetic Design to computationally optimize the geometric shapes of metallic optical antennas or near-field transducers (NFTs) and dielectric waveguide structures that comprise a sub-wavelength optical focusing system for practical use in Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR). This magnetic data-recording scheme relies on focusing optical energy to locally heat the area of a single bit, several hundred square nanometers on a hard disk, to the Curie temperature of the magnetic storage layer. There are three specifications of the optical system that must be met to enable HAMR as a commercial technology. First, to heat the media at scan rates upward of 10 m/s, ~1mW of light (<1% of typical laser diode output power) must be focused to a 30nm×30nm spot on the media. Second, the required lifetime of many years necessitates that the nano-scale NFT must not over-heat from optical absorption. Third, to avoid undesired erasing or interference of adjacent tracks on the media, there must be minimal stray optical radiation away from the hotspot on the hard disk. One cannot design the light delivery system by tackling each of these challenges independently, because they are governed by coupled electromagnetic phenomena. Instead, we propose multiobjective optimization using Inverse Electromagnetic Design in conjunction with a commercial 3D FDTD Maxwell's equations solver. We computationally generated designs of a metallic NFT and a high-index waveguide grating that meet the HAMR specifications simultaneously. Compared to a mock industry design, our proposed design has a similar optical coupling efficiency, ~3x improved suppression of stray optical radiation, and a 60% (280°C) reduction in NFT temperature rise. We also distributed the Inverse Electromagnetic Design software online so that industry partners can use it as a repeatable design process.

  6. High-efficiency multilayer-dielectric diffraction gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, M.D.; Boyd, R.D.; Britten, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    The ability to produce short laser pulses of extremely high power and high irradiance, as is needed for fast ignitor research in inertial confinement fusion, places increasing demands on optical components such as amplifiers, lenses, and mirrors that must remain undamaged by the radiation. The higher refractive index in the center of an intense laser beam acts as a focusing lens. The resulting wavefront distortion, left uncorrected, eventually leads to catastrophic filamentation. Major advances in energy extraction and resulting increases in focused irradiance have been made possible by the use of chirped-pulse amplification (CPA), long used in radar applications and newly applied to optical frequencies. Optical-frequency CPA systems begin with a mode-locked oscillator that produces low-energy seed pulses with durations of ten to a few hundred femtoseconds. As a result of the classical uncertainty relation between time and frequency, these short pulses have a very broad frequency distribution. A pair of diffraction gratings (or other dispersive elements) lengthens the laser pulse and induces a time-varying frequency (or chirp). Following amplification, diffraction gratings compress the pulse back to nearly the original duration. Typically a nanojoule, femtosecond pulse is stretched by a factor of several thousand and is amplified by as much as 12 orders of magnitude before recompression. By producing the short pulse only after amplification, this technique makes possible efficient extraction of energy from a variety of broadband solid state materials. Achieving high focused irradiance from a pulse ultimately requires both high peak power and excellent beam quality. There is therefore a demand for diffraction gratings that produce a high-quality diffracted wavefront, have high diffraction efficiency, and exhibit a high threshold for laser damage.

  7. Point-by-point written fiber-Bragg gratings and their application in complex grating designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Graham D; Williams, Robert J; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Steel, M J; Withford, Michael J

    2010-09-13

    The point-by-point technique of fabricating fibre-Bragg gratings using an ultrafast laser enables complete control of the position of each index modification that comprises the grating. By tailoring the local phase, amplitude and spacing of the grating's refractive index modulations it is possible to create gratings with complex transmission and reflection spectra. We report a series of grating structures that were realized by exploiting these flexibilities. Such structures include gratings with controlled bandwidth, and amplitude- and phase-modulated sampled (or superstructured) gratings. A model based on coupled-mode theory provides important insights into the manufacture of such gratings. Our approach offers a quick and easy method of producing complex, non-uniform grating structures in both fibres and other mono-mode waveguiding structures.

  8. Subwavelength core/shell cylindrical nanostructures for novel plasmonic and metamaterial devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; No, You-Shin

    2017-12-01

    In this review, we introduce novel plasmonic and metamaterial devices based on one-dimensional subwavelength nanostructures with cylindrical symmetry. Individual single devices with semiconductor/metal core/shell or dielectric/metal core/multi-shell structures experience strong light-matter interaction and yield unique optical properties with a variety of functions, e.g., invisibility cloaking, super-scattering/super-absorption, enhanced luminescence and nonlinear optical activities, and deep subwavelength-scale optical waveguiding. We describe the rational design of core/shell cylindrical nanostructures and the proper choice of appropriate constituent materials, which allow the efficient manipulation of electromagnetic waves and help to overcome the limitations of conventional homogeneous nanostructures. The recent developments of bottom-up synthesis combined with the top-down fabrication technologies for the practical applications and the experimental realizations of 1D subwavelength core/shell nanostructure devices are briefly discussed.

  9. Light Trapping Textures Designed by Electromagnetic Optimization for Sub-Wavelength Thick Solar Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ganapati, Vidya; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Light trapping in solar cells allows for increased current and voltage, as well as reduced materials cost. It is known that in geometrical optics, a maximum 4n^2 absorption enhancement factor can be achieved by randomly texturing the surface of the solar cell, where n is the material refractive index. This ray-optics absorption enhancement limit only holds when the thickness of the solar cell is much greater than the optical wavelength. In sub-wavelength thin films, the fundamental questions remain unanswered: (1) what is the sub-wavelength absorption enhancement limit and (2) what surface texture realizes this optimal absorption enhancement? We turn to computational electromagnetic optimization in order to design nanoscale textures for light trapping in sub-wavelength thin films. For high-index thin films, in the weakly absorbing limit, our optimized surface textures yield an angle- and frequency-averaged enhancement factor ~39. They perform roughly 30% better than randomly textured structures, but they fall...

  10. Graphene based silicon–air grating structure to realize electromagnetically-induced-transparency and slow light effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Buzheng; Liu, Huaiqing [Key Lab of All Optical Network & Advanced Telecommunication Network of EMC, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Institute of Lightwave Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Ren, Guobin, E-mail: gbren@bjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of All Optical Network & Advanced Telecommunication Network of EMC, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Institute of Lightwave Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Yang, Yuguang; Ye, Shen; Pei, Li; Jian, Shuisheng [Key Lab of All Optical Network & Advanced Telecommunication Network of EMC, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Institute of Lightwave Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2017-01-23

    Highlights: • The EIT and slow light effect are achieved by our novel graphene based structure. • Excellent tunability of wide wavelength range can be obtained only by a small change in Fermi energy level. • The group velocity of incident light is reduced to more than 1/600 of that in vacuum. • Position control is realized by designing a graded period grating. - Abstract: A broad band tunable graphene based silicon–air grating structure is proposed. Electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) window can be successfully tuned by virtually setting the desired Fermi energy levels on graphene sheets. Carrier mobility plays an important role in modulating the resonant depth. Furthermore, by changing the grating periods, light can be trapped at corresponding resonant positions where slow down factor is relatively larger than in the previous works. This structure can be used as a highly tunable optoelectronic device such as optical filter, broad-band modulator, plasmonic switches and buffers.

  11. High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L; Little, L M; Bixler, J V

    2006-05-01

    We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 10{sup 4}. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO{sub 2} laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.

  12. Sparsity-based single-shot sub-wavelength coherent diffractive imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Szameit, A; Osherovich, E; Bullkich, E; Sidorenko, P; Dana, H; Steiner, S; Kley, E B; Gazit, S; Cohen-Hyams, T; Shoham, S; Zibulevsky, M; Yavneh, I; Eldar, Y C; Cohen, O; Segev, M

    2011-01-01

    We present the experimental reconstruction of sub-wavelength features from the far-field intensity of sparse optical objects: sparsity-based sub-wavelength imaging combined with phase-retrieval. As examples, we demonstrate the recovery of random and ordered arrangements of 100 nm features with the resolution of 30 nm, with an illuminating wavelength of 532 nm. Our algorithmic technique relies on minimizing the number of degrees of freedom; it works in real-time, requires no scanning, and can be implemented in all existing microscopes - optical and non-optical.

  13. Fixational saccades during grating detection and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotorno, Sara; Masson, Guillaume S; Montagnini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the patterns of fixational saccades in human observers performing two classical perceptual tasks: grating detection and discrimination. First, participants were asked to detect a vertical or tilted grating with one of three spatial frequencies and one of four luminance contrast levels. In the second experiment, participants had to discriminate the spatial frequency of two supra-threshold gratings. The gratings were always embedded in additive, high- or low-contrast pink noise. We observed that the patterns of fixational saccades were highly idiosyncratic among participants. Moreover, during the grating detection task, the amplitude and the number of saccades were inversely correlated with stimulus visibility. We did not find a systematic relationship between saccade parameters and grating frequency, apart from a slight decrease of saccade amplitude during grating discrimination with higher spatial frequencies. No consistent changes in the number and amplitude of fixational saccades with performance accuracy were reported. Surprisingly, during grating detection, saccade number and amplitude were similar in grating-with-noise and noise-only displays. Grating orientation did not affect substantially saccade direction in either task. The results challenge the idea that, when analyzing low-level spatial properties of visual stimuli, fixational saccades can be adapted in order to extract task-relevant information optimally. Rather, saccadic patterns seem to be overall modulated by task context, stimulus visibility and individual variability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impedance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impedance modelling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f. cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impedance which follow from the general properties of impedances. (author)

  15. 75 FR 27984 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... interoperability framework for use across the United States. The FCC's National Broadband Plan recognized that... Research, Projects, at http://www.pscr.gov/projects/broadband/700mhz/700mhz.php . Pursuant to the eligible...

  16. Highly efficient waveguide display with space-variant volume holographic gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Peng, Yifan; Zhao, Qing; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu

    2017-12-01

    We propose a highly efficient waveguide display based on space-variant volume holographic gratings (SVVHGs). The local period and slant angle of the SVVHG vary along the tangential direction, enabling variant incident angles to satisfy the Bragg condition of the local gratings. As a result, we enlarge the field of view (FOV) without using the conventional multiplexing scheme, while achieving high efficiency and large FOV at the same time. We experimentally record the SVVHGs on Bayfol HX200 films. We demonstrate that the proposed display can achieve 31.9% system efficiency for a broadband light source and 52.3% for a coherent light source, 20° FOV, and high brightness uniformity, making it a promising candidate for widespread applications in the augmented reality (AR) industry.

  17. Broadband Synthetic Ground Motion Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset contains broadband synthetic ground motion records for three events: 1) 1994 M6.7 Northridge, CA, 2) 1989 M7.0 Loma Prieta, CA, and 3) 1999 M7.5 Izmit,...

  18. Ultrasonic sensor employing two cascaded phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings suitable for multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Okabe, Yoji

    2012-08-15

    An ultrasonic sensor based on two cascaded phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings (PS-FBGs) is proposed and demonstrated. In place of an external cavity laser, a broadband amplified spontaneous emission light source is used to demonstrate multiplexing ability suitable for sensor networks. The system has a high sensitivity to ultrasonic waves generated by a PZT actuator placed 7.5 cm away from the PS-FBG, because of the steep slope in the center of the PS-FBG spectrum. A second advantage of the phase shift is to reduce the effective sensor length, leading to the achievement of broadband characteristics. A pencil lead break test was performed and all results are compared to a traditional PZT sensor.

  19. Tunable Resonant-Cavity-Enhanced Photodetector with Double High-Index-Contrast Grating Mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Yvind, Kresten; Chung, Il-Sug

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a broadband-tunable resonant-cavity-enhanced photodetector (RCE-PD) structure with double high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirrors and numerically investigate its characteristics. The detector is designed to operate at 1550-nm wavelength. The detector structure consists...... of a top InP HCG mirror, a p-i-n photodiode embedding multiple quantum wells, and a Si HCG mirror formed in the Si layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The detection wavelength can be changed by moving the top InP HCG mirror suspended in the air. High reflectivity and small penetration length of HCGs...

  20. Nanoporous Polymeric Grating-Based Biosensors

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Tieyu

    2012-05-02

    We demonstrate the utilization of an interferometrically created nanoporous polymeric gratings as a platform for biosensing applications. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings was fabricated by combining holographic interference patterning and APTES-functionalization of pre-polymer syrup. The successful detection of multiple biomolecules indicates that the biofunctionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings can act as biosensing platforms which are label-free, inexpensive, and applicable as high-throughput assays. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  1. Temperature tunable optical gratings in nematic elastomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sungur, Emel; Mager, Loic; Boeglin, Alex; Dorkenoo, Kokou D. [IPCMS-CNRS UMR 7504, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Li, Min-Hui; Keller, Patrick [Institut Curie, CNRS 168, Paris Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-01-15

    We have investigated the behaviour of temperature dependent periodic-index gratings fabricated in a nematic elastomer. The gratings have been obtained by photopolymerisation under a microscopy apparatus. Contraction properties, as well as diffraction properties, have been studied as a function of temperature. Unidirectional contraction has been demonstrated by means of circular figure deformation and the polarisation dependency of the diffraction by the gratings has been determined. (orig.)

  2. Triangular metal wedges for subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding at telecom wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Volkov, V.S.; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard

    2008-01-01

    We report on subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding by triangular metal wedges at telecom wavelengths. A high-quality fabrication procedure for making gold wedge waveguides, which is also mass- production compatible offering large-scale parallel fabrication of plasmonic components, is developed...

  3. Local investigation of the optical properties of subwavelength rectangular holes with a focused beam of electrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prangsma, J.C.; van Oosten, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269286470; Kuipers, L.

    2011-01-01

    The optical properties of rectangular subwavelength holes in a gold film are investigated using the light generated when a focused beam of electrons impinges on the sample close to the hole. Using this technique, multi-spectral maps of the holes are obtained with a resolution beyond the optical

  4. Tunable sub-wavelength acoustic energy harvesting with a metamaterial plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudich, Mourad; Li, Yong

    2017-08-01

    We report theoretically on sub-wavelength acoustic energy harvesting (AEH) using a thin acoustic metamaterial (AM) made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic thin plate. Considering an incident acoustic wave hitting the AM plate, tunable and highly efficient AEH is achieved by introducing a sub-wavelength defect inside the AM structure to confine the elastic energy into a spot which is then electromechanically converted into electrical power using a ceramic PZT patch. Several types of sub-wavelength cavities capable of confining acoustic energy at the sonic regime are extensively investigated for the optimization of AEH. Three analytical approaches—band structure, sound transmission loss and electrical-to-mechanical energy conversion—are proposed to fully describe the system interaction with the acoustic wave and quantify the AEH performance. The computed results show that an average power of 18 μW can be harvested using a specific cavity design of only 3 × 3 cm2 size from an incident acoustic wave with a sound pressure level of 100 dB at 520 Hz. Such a system can open up a way through the design of effective tunable sub-wavelength acoustic energy harvesters based on AM applied to scavenge energy from sound.

  5. Large bandwidth, highly efficient optical gratings through high index materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathgen, H.; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the diffraction characteristics of dielectric gratings that feature a high index grating layer, and devise, through rigorous numeri-cal calculations, large bandwidth, highly efficient, high dispersion dielectric gratings in reflection, transmission, and immersed transmission geometry. A

  6. Fiber Bragg Grating Based Thermometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Guthrie, William; Quintavalle, John

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in developing photonic temperature sensors such as the Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) as an alternative to resistance thermometry. In this study we examine the thermal response of FBGs over the temperature range of 233 K to 393 K. We demonstrate, in a hermetically sealed dry Argon environment, that FBG devices show a quadratic dependence on temperature with expanded uncertainties (k = 2) of ~500 mK. Our measurements indicate that the combined measurement uncertainty is dominated by uncertainty in determining the peak center fitting and by thermal aging of polyimide coated fibers.

  7. Thermally tunable broadband omnidirectional and polarization-independent super absorber using phase change material VO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhejun Liu

    Full Text Available In this letter, we numerically demonstrate a thermally tunable super absorber by using phase change material VO2 as absorbing layer in metal-insulator-metal structure. An omnidirectional super absorption at λ=2.56μm can be realized by heating the patterned grating VO2 film due to magnetic resonance mechanism. Furthermore, a broadband super absorption higher than 0.8 in the entire 1.6μm–4μm region is achieved when VO2 film is patterned chessboard structure and transformed to metal phase beyond transition temperature. This broadband super absorption can be fulfilled in a wide range of incident angle (0°–70° and under all polarization conditions. Keywords: Phase change material, Metal-insulator-metal, Super absorption, Magnetic resonance

  8. Broadband Tuning (170nm) of InGaAs Quantum Well Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Eng, L. E.; Mehuys, D. G.; Mittelstein, M.; Yariv, A.

    1990-01-01

    The wavelength tuning properties of strained InGaAs quantum well lasers using an external grating for feedback is reported. Tunable laser oscillation has been observed over a range of 170 nm, between 840 and 1010 nm, under pulsed current excitation. The optimal conditions for broadband tunability for the InGaAs lasers are different from GaAs lasers, which is attributed to a difference in spectral gain curves. Together with an optimised GaAs quantum well laser the entire region between 740 and...

  9. Broadband, ultralow reflectance surface structures on silica windows for high-energy laser applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Lynda E.; Frantz, Jesse A.; Shaw, L. Brandon; Poutous, Menelaos K.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.

    2017-05-01

    The characteristics of broadband transmission, environmental durability, and laser damage resistance are critical for silica glass exit aperture windows for their use in kW-level, high energy laser systems. The use of conventional antireflective (AR) coatings on windows for high energy lasers operating in the near infrared is impacted by laser induced damage that occurs under high power irradiation as well as the potential for delamination in operational environments. Novel methods for fabricating antireflective surface structures (ARSS) directly on optics have resulted not only in reduced reflection loss, but also in other advantages to AR coatings as well. The ARSS approach involves sub-wavelength surface structures fabricated directly into the actual surface of the window, eliminating the need for a coating of extraneous materials. We will report on results for ARSS fabricated on silica glass windows. Recently we have reported broadband, low reflectance (silica glass windows with random ARSS, fabricated using reactive ion etching. These windows have shown remarkably high laser damage thresholds of 100 J/cm2 at 1.06 µm, which is 5x the threshold measured for a conventional AR coating. We will also present results for MILSPEC durability tests on silica windows, both with and without ARSS, for rain and sand erosion as well as salt fog testing, conducted at a government facility. We will also report on scale up of ARSS on silica windows of large sizes (33 cm), making them practical for system implementation.

  10. Realizing Broadband and Invertible Linear-to-circular Polarization Converter with Ultrathin Single-layer Metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhancheng; Liu, Wenwei; Cheng, Hua; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    The arbitrary control of the polarization states of light has attracted the interest of the scientific community because of the wide range of modern optical applications that such control can afford. However, conventional polarization control setups are bulky and very often operate only within a narrow wavelength range, thereby resisting optical system miniaturization and integration. Here, we present the basic theory, simulated demonstration, and in-depth analysis of a high-performance broadband and invertible linear-to-circular (LTC) polarization converter composed of a single-layer gold nanorod array with a total thickness of ~λ/70 for the near-infrared regime. This setup can transform a circularly polarized wave into a linearly polarized one or a linearly polarized wave with a wavelength-dependent electric field polarization angle into a circularly polarized one in the transmission mode. The broadband and invertible LTC polarization conversion can be attributed to the tailoring of the light interference at the subwavelength scale via the induction of the anisotropic optical resonance mode. This ultrathin single-layer metasurface relaxes the high-precision requirements of the structure parameters in general metasurfaces while retaining the polarization conversion performance. Our findings open up intriguing possibilities towards the realization of novel integrated metasurface-based photonics devices for polarization manipulation, modulation, and phase retardation.

  11. The Flexibility of Pusher Furnace Grate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słowik J.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lifetime of guide grates in pusher furnaces for heat treatment could be increased by raising the flexibility of their structure through, for example, the replacement of straight ribs, parallel to the direction of grate movement, with more flexible segments. The deformability of grates with flexible segments arranged in two orientations, i.e. crosswise (perpendicular to the direction of compression and lengthwise (parallel to the direction of compression, was examined. The compression process was simulated using SolidWorks Simulation program. Relevant regression equations were also derived describing the dependence of force inducing the grate deformation by 0.25 mm ‒ modulus of grate elasticity ‒ on the number of flexible segments in established orientations. These calculations were made in Statistica and Scilab programs. It has been demonstrated that, with the same number of segments, the crosswise orientation of flexible segments increases the grate structure flexibility in a more efficient way than the lengthwise orientation. It has also been proved that a crucial effect on the grate flexibility has only the quantity and orientation of segments (crosswise / lengthwise, while the exact position of segments changes the grate flexibility by less than 1%.

  12. Straw combustion on slow-moving grates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2005-01-01

    Combustion of straw in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively poor fuel burnout. A numerical grate combustion model was developed to assist in improving the combustion performance of these boilers. The model is based on a one-dimensional ‘‘walking...

  13. Overview on grating developments at ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldimann, B.; Deep, A.; Vink, R.; Harnisch, B.; Kraft, S.; Sierk, B.; Bazalgette, G.; Bézy, J.-L.

    2017-11-01

    In the frame of recent studies and missions, ESA has been performing various pre-developments of optical gratings for instruments operating at wavelengths from the UV up to the SWIR. The instrument requirements of Sentinel-4, Sentinel-5, CarbonSat and FLEX are driving the need for advanced designs and technologies leading to gratings with high efficiency, high spectral resolution, low stray light and low polarization sensitivities. Typical ESA instruments (e.g. Sciamachy, GOME, MERIS, OLCI, NIRSpec) were and are based on ruled gratings or gratings manufactured with one holographic photoresist mask layer which is transferred to an optical substrate (e.g. glass, glass ceramic) with dry etching methods and subsequently either coated with a reflective coating or used as a mold for replication. These manufacturing methods lead to blazed grating profiles with a metallic reflective surface. The vast majority of spectrometers on ground are still based on such gratings. In general, gratings based on grooved metallic surfaces tend for instance to polarize the incoming light significantly and are therefore not always suitable for ESA's needs of today. Gratings made for space therefore evolved to many other designs and concepts which will be reported in this paper.

  14. New generation DWDM fibre grating devices

    OpenAIRE

    Zervas, M.N.

    2000-01-01

    Using a recently developed inverse scattering layer-peeling algorithm and a modified stroboscopic grating writing technique, we have designed and successfully demonstrated novel grating devices, such as 50GHz-bandwidth dispersion compensators and square dispersionless filters, suitable for future high performance DWDM optical systems.

  15. Diffractive Optics of Anisotropic Polarization Gratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, M.

    2009-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are being used to manipulate light in many different applications, such as in flat panel display systems, modern lighting systems, and optical recording. Diffraction gratings can be made polarization selective due to form birefringence. An alternative approach to polarization

  16. High order Bragg grating microfluidic dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Kristensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate a single mode distributed feedback liquid dye laser, based on a short 133 'rd order Bragg grating defined in a single polymer layer between two glass substrates.......We demonstrate a single mode distributed feedback liquid dye laser, based on a short 133 'rd order Bragg grating defined in a single polymer layer between two glass substrates....

  17. Linearization of broadband microwave amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The linearization of broadband power amplifier for application in the frequency range 0.9-1.3 GHz is considered in this paper. The amplifier is designed for LDMOSFET characterized by the maximum output power 4W designing the broadband lumped element matching circuits and matching circuits in topologies that combines LC elements and transmission lines. The linearization of the amplifier is carried out by the second harmonics of the fundamental signals injected at the input and output of the amplifier transistor. The effects of linearization are considered for the case of two sinusoidal signals separated in frequency by different intervals up to 80 MHz ranging input power levels to saturation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-32052

  18. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-07-03

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the means for receiving the light and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light to the means for receiving the light, and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the detector array.

  19. Chirped polymer optical fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carlos A. F.; Pereira, L.; Antunes, P.; Mergo, P.; Webb, D. J.; Pinto, J. L.; André, P.

    2017-05-01

    We report chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBGs) photo-inscribed in undoped PMMA polymer optical fibre (POF) for the first time. The chirped polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (CPOFBGs) were inscribed using an UV KrF excimer laser operating at 248 nm. The rectangular gauss laser beam was expanded to 25 mm in horizontal direction along the fiber core by a cylindrical lens, giving a total of 25 mm grating length. A 25 mm long chirped phase mask chosen for 1550 nm grating inscription was used. The laser frequency was 1 Hz with an energy of 5 mJ per exposure, exposing few pulses for each grating inscription. The reflection amplitude spectrum evolution of a CPOFBG is investigated as a function of the applied strain and temperature. Also, some results regarding to group delay are collected and discussed. These results pave the way to further developments in different fields, where POFs could present some advantages preferably replacing their silica counterparts.

  20. Broadband light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Ian J.; Klem, John F.; Hafich, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A broadband light-emitting diode. The broadband light-emitting diode (LED) comprises a plurality of III-V compound semiconductor layers grown on a semiconductor substrate, with the semiconductor layers including a pair of cladding layers sandwiched about a strained-quantum-well active region having a plurality of different energy bandgaps for generating light in a wavelength range of about 1.3-2 .mu.m. In one embodiment of the present invention, the active region may comprise a first-grown quantum-well layer and a last-grown quantum-well layer that are oppositely strained; whereas in another embodiment of the invention, the active region is formed from a short-period superlattice structure (i.e. a pseudo alloy) comprising alternating thin layers of InGaAs and InGaAlAs. The use a short-period superlattice structure for the active region allows different layers within the active region to be simply and accurately grown by repetitively opening and closing one or more shutters in an MBE growth apparatus to repetitively switch between different growth states therein. The broadband LED may be formed as either a surface-emitting LED or as an edge-emitting LED for use in applications such as chemical sensing, fiber optic gyroscopes, wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) fiber-optic data links, and WDM fiber-optic sensor networks for automobiles and aircraft.

  1. Achieving planar plasmonic subwavelength resolution using alternately arranged insulator-metal and insulator-insulator-metal composite structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo Han; Chang, Kai Jiun; Lan, Yung-Chiang; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-01-23

    This work develops and analyzes a planar subwavelength device with the ability of one-dimensional resolution at visible frequencies that is based on alternately arranged insulator-metal (IM) and insulator-insulator-metal (IIM) composite structures. The mechanism for the proposed device to accomplish subwavelength resolution is elucidated by analyzing the dispersion relations of the IM-IIM composite structures. Electromagnetic simulations based on the finite element method (FEM) are performed to verify that the design of the device has subwavelength resolution. The ability of subwavelength resolution of the proposed device at various visible frequencies is achieved by slightly varying the constituent materials and geometric parameters. The proposed devices have potential applications in multi-functional material, real-time super-resolution imaging, and high-density photonic components.

  2. Analysis of the Proposed Ghana Broadband Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit; Botwe, Yvonne

    This project studied the Ghana Broadband Strategy with the aim of evaluating the recommendations in the strategy side by side the broadband development in Ghana. The researchers conducted interviews both officially and unofficially with ICT stakeholders, made observations, studied Government...... intervention policies recommended in the Ghana broadband policy is used to evaluate the broadband market to find out whether the strategy consolidates with the Strengths and opportunities of the market and whether it corrects the anomalies that necessitate the weaknesses and threats to the market....... The strategy did address some threats and weaknesses of the broadband market. It also consolidated on some strengths and opportunities of the broadband market. The researchers also discovered that a market can actually grow without a policy. But a market will grow faster if a well implemented policy is guiding...

  3. VEP vernier, VEP grating, and behavioral grating acuity in patients with cortical visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tonya; Orel-Bixler, Deborah; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla

    2009-06-01

    Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a leading cause of bilateral vision impairment. Because many patients with CVI cannot perform an optotype test, their acuity is often measured with a grating stimulus using a preferential looking (PL) test or the visual-evoked potential (VEP) recording. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship among VEP vernier acuity, VEP grating acuity, and behavioral grating acuity in patients with CVI. Sweep VEP vernier acuity, sweep VEP grating acuity, and behavioral grating acuity (measured with PL cards) were measured in 29 patients with CVI. The patients ranged in age from 3.2 to 22.7 years (mean: 12.3; SD: 5.3). Because the measures of vernier acuity and grating acuity have different units, the results were expressed as the log deficit (with normal being 30 cycles per degrees and 0.5 arc min, respectively). VEP grating acuity loss and VEP vernier acuity loss were significantly related (r = 0.70) with a slope of 1.31, indicating that indicating that on average, vernier acuity showed a 0.2 log unit deficit compared with VEP grating acuity. Behavioral grating acuity loss and VEP grating acuity loss were also significantly related (r = 0.64) with a slope of 1.55, indicating that behavioral acuity was more reduced (by approximately 0.3 log unit). VEP vernier acuity loss and behavioral grating acuity loss were significantly related (r = 0.66) with a slope of 0.85, indicating that behavioral acuity and VEP vernier acuity showed a similar magnitude of reduction. A Bland-Altman comparison between the VEP vernier acuity method and the behavioral acuity method showed a flat slope (0.30), indicating that the two measures produce similar visual acuity measures across the range of acuity levels. In patients with CVI, VEP vernier acuity showed greater deficits than VEP grating acuity and was more similar to the behavioral measures of grating acuity.

  4. Principles of broadband switching and networking

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Soung C

    2010-01-01

    An authoritative introduction to the roles of switching and transmission in broadband integrated services networks Principles of Broadband Switching and Networking explains the design and analysis of switch architectures suitable for broadband integrated services networks, emphasizing packet-switched interconnection networks with distributed routing algorithms. The text examines the mathematical properties of these networks, rather than specific implementation technologies. Although the pedagogical explanations in this book are in the context of switches, many of the fundamenta

  5. Broadband Traffic Forecasting in the Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Radojičić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a modification of traffic forecast model generated by residential and small business (SOHO, Small Office Home Office users. The model includes forecasted values of different relevant factors and competition on broadband market. It allows forecasting the number of users for various broadband technologies and interaction impact of long-standing technologies as well as the impact of the new technology entrant on the market. All the necessary parameters are evaluated for the Serbian broadband market. The long-term forecasted results of broadband traffic are given. The analyses and evaluations performed are important inputs for the transport network resources planning.

  6. Extraordinary mid-infrared transmission of subwavelength holes in gold films

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2014-04-01

    Gold (Au) nanoholes are fabricated with electron-beam lithography and used for the investigation of extraordinary transmission in mid-infrared regime. Transmission properties of the nanoholes are studied as the dependence on hole-size. Transmittance spectra are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and enhanced transmittance through the subwavelength holes is observed. The transmission spectra exhibit well-defined maximum and minimum of which the position are determined by the lattice of the hole array. The hole-size primarily influence the transmission intensity and bandwidth of the resonance peak. With an increase of hole-size, while keep lattice constant fixed, the intensity of the resonance peak and the bandwidth increases, which are due to the localized surface plasmons. Numerical simulation for the transmission through the subwavelength holes is performed and the simulated results agree with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.

  7. Subwavelength wave manipulation in a thin surface-wave bandgap crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Wang, Zhuoyuan; Zhang, Baile

    2018-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the unit cell of wire media metamaterials can be tailored locally to shape the flow of electromagnetic waves at deep-subwavelength scales [Nat. Phys.9, 55 (2013)NPAHAX1745-247310.1038/nphys2480]. However, such bulk structures have a thickness of at least the order of wavelength, thus hindering their applications in the on-chip compact plasmonic integrated circuits. Here, based upon a Sievenpiper "mushroom" array [IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.47, 2059 (1999)IETMAB0018-948010.1109/22.798001], which is compatible with standard printed circuit board technology, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the subwavelength manipulation of surface waves on a thin surface-wave bandgap crystal with a thickness much smaller than the wavelength (1/30th of the operating wavelength). Functional devices including a T-shaped splitter and sharp bend are constructed with good performance.

  8. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Harsh Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Mihailov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to directly measure physical parameters such as temperature and strain, fiber Bragg grating sensors have developed beyond a laboratory curiosity and are becoming a mainstream sensing technology. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on regeneration techniques and femtosecond infrared laser processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This paper will present a review of some of the more recent developments.

  9. Optical Fiber Grating Hydrogen Sensors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jixiang; Zhu, Li; Wang, Gaopeng; Xiang, Feng; Qin, Yuhuan; Wang, Min; Yang, Minghong

    2017-03-12

    In terms of hydrogen sensing and detection, optical fiber hydrogen sensors have been a research issue due to their intrinsic safety and good anti-electromagnetic interference. Among these sensors, hydrogen sensors consisting of fiber grating coated with sensitive materials have attracted intensive research interests due to their good reliability and distributed measurements. This review paper mainly focuses on optical fiber hydrogen sensors associated with fiber gratings and various materials. Their configurations and sensing performances proposed by different groups worldwide are reviewed, compared and discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, the challenges for fiber grating hydrogen sensors are also addressed.

  10. Speed enhancement in VCSELs employing grating mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, various approaches to improve the speed of directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have been reported and demonstrated good improvement. In this paper, we propose and numerically investigate a new possibility of using high-index-contrast grating (HCG......) as mirror for VCSELs. By changing the grating design, one can control the reflection delay of the grating mirror, enabling the control of cavity photon lifetime. On the other hand, short energy penetration depth of the HCG results in smaller modal volume, compared to DBR VCSELs. An example structure shows...... that the HCG VCSEL has a 30-% higher 3-dB bandwidth than the DBR VCSEL....

  11. A subwavelength resolution microwave/6.3 GHz camera based on a metamaterial absorber

    OpenAIRE

    Yunsong Xie; Xin Fan; Yunpeng Chen; Jeffrey D. Wilson; Rainee N. Simons; John Q. Xiao

    2017-01-01

    The design, fabrication and characterization of a novel metamaterial absorber based camera with subwavelength spatial resolution are investigated. The proposed camera is featured with simple and lightweight design, easy portability, low cost, high resolution and sensitivity, and minimal image interference or distortion to the original field distribution. The imaging capability of the proposed camera was characterized in both near field and far field ranges. The experimental and simulated near...

  12. A numerical investigation of sub-wavelength resonances in polygonal metamaterial cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    The sub-wavelength resonances, known to exist in metamaterial radiators and scatterers of circular cylindrical shape, are investigated with the aim of determining if these resonances also exist for polygonal cylinders and, if so, how they are affected by the shape of the polygon. To this end, a set....... The dispersion and loss, inevitably present in realistic metamaterials, are modeled by the Drude and Lorentz dispersion models to study the bandwidth properties of the resonances....

  13. Light Trapping Textures Designed by Electromagnetic Optimization for Sub-Wavelength Thick Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapati, Vidya; Miller, Owen D.; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Light trapping in solar cells allows for increased current and voltage, as well as reduced materials cost. It is known that in geometrical optics, a maximum 4n^2 absorption enhancement factor can be achieved by randomly texturing the surface of the solar cell, where n is the material refractive index. This ray-optics absorption enhancement limit only holds when the thickness of the solar cell is much greater than the optical wavelength. In sub-wavelength thin films, the fundamental questions ...

  14. Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole-arrays at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul Kalam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Hou - Tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-10

    Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength metallic hole-arrays has been an active research area since its first demonstration. The frequency selective resonance properties of subwavelength metallic hole arrays, generally known as surface plasmon polaritons, have potential use in functional plasmonic devices such as filters, modulators, switches, etc. Such plasmonic devices are also very promising for future terahertz applications. Ultrafast switching or modulation of the resonant behavior of the 2-D metallic arrays in terahertz frequencies is of particular interest for high speed communication and sensing applications. In this paper, we demonstrate optical control of surface plasmon enhanced resonant terahertz transmission in two-dimensional subwavelength metallic hole arrays fabricated on gallium arsenide based substrates. Optically pumping the arrays creates a conductive layer in the substrate reducing the terahertz transmission amplitude of both the resonant mode and the direct transmission. Under low optical fluence, the terahertz transmission is more greatly affected by resonance damping than by propagation loss in the substrate. An ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattice substrate is shown to allow ultrafast control with a switching recovery time of {approx}10 ps. We also present resonant terahertz transmission in a hybrid plasmonic film comprised of an integrated array of subwavelength metallic islands and semiconductor holes. A large dynamic transition between a dipolar localized surface plasmon mode and a surface plasmon resonance near 0.8 THz is observed under near infrared optical excitation. The reversal in transmission amplitude from a stopband to a passband and up to {pi}/2 phase shift achieved in the hybrid plasmonic film make it promising in large dynamic phase modulation, optical changeover switching, and active terahertz plasmonics.

  15. Advanced experimental applications for x-ray transmission gratings spectroscopy using a novel grating fabrication method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurvitz, G.; Ehrlich, Y.; Shpilman, Z.; Levy, I.; Fraenkel, M. [Plasma Physics Department, Applied Physics Division, Soreq NRC, Yavne (Israel); Strum, G. [Solid State Department, Applied Physics Division, Soreq NRC, Yavne (Israel)

    2012-08-15

    A novel fabrication method for soft x-ray transmission grating and other optical elements is presented. The method uses focused-ion-beam technology to fabricate high-quality free standing grating bars on transmission electron microscopy grids. High quality transmission gratings are obtained with superb accuracy and versatility. Using these gratings and back-illuminated CCD camera, absolutely calibrated x-ray spectra can be acquired for soft x-ray source diagnostics in the 100-3000 eV spectral range. Double grating combinations of identical or different parameters are easily fabricated, allowing advanced one-shot application of transmission grating spectroscopy. These applications include spectroscopy with different spectral resolutions, bandwidths, dynamic ranges, and may serve for identification of high-order contribution, and spectral calibrations of various x-ray optical elements.

  16. Achieving universal access to broadband

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures...... to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization...

  17. POTS to broadband ... cable modems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    There have been 3 columns talking about broadband communications and now at the very end when it's time to compare using a telco or cableco, I'm asking does it really matter? So what if I can actually get the whole 30 Mbps with a cable network when the website I'm connecting to is running on an ISDN line at 128 Kbps? Broadband offers a lot more bandwidth than the connections many Internet servers have today. Except for the biggest websites, many servers connect to the Internet with a switched 56-Kbps, ISDN, or fractional T1 line. Even with the big websites, my home network only runs a 10 Mbps Ethernet connection to my cable modem. Maybe it doesn't matter that the cable lines are shared or that I can only get 8 Mbps from an ADSL line. Maybe the ISP that I use has a T1 line connection to the Internet so my new ADSL modem has a fatter pipe than my provider! (See table 1). It all makes me wonder what's in store for us in the future. PC technology has increased exponentially in the last 10 years with super fast processor speeds, hard disks of hundreds of gigabytes, and amazing video and audio. Internet connection speeds have failed to keep the same pace. Instead of hundreds of times better or faster--modem speeds are barely 10 times faster. Broadband connections offer some additional speed but still not comparable growth as broadband connections are still in their infancy. Rather than trying to make use of existing communication paths, maybe we need a massive infrastructure makeover of something new. How about national wireless access points so we can connect anywhere, anytime? To use the latest and fastest wireless technology you will simply need to buy another $9.95 WLAN card or download the latest super slick WLAN compression/encryption software. Perhaps it is time for a massive infra-restructuring. Consider the past massive infrastructure efforts. The telcos needed to put in their wiring infrastructure starting in the 1870s before telephones were useful to the

  18. Achieving Universal Access to Broadband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten FALCH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.

  19. Understanding broadband over power line

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Understanding Broadband over Power Line explores all aspects of the emerging technology that enables electric utilities to provide support for high-speed data communications via their power infrastructure. This book examines the two methods used to connect consumers and businesses to the Internet through the utility infrastructure: the existing electrical wiring of a home or office; and a wireless local area network (WLAN) access point.Written in a practical style that can be understood by network engineers and non-technologists alike, this volume offers tutorials on electric utility infrastru

  20. Lithographically Defined, Room Temperature Low Threshold Subwavelength Red-Emitting Hybrid Plasmonic Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Gocalinska, Agnieszka; Justice, John; Gity, Farzan; Povey, Ian; McCarthy, Brendan; Pemble, Martyn; Pelucchi, Emanuele; Wei, Hong; Silien, Christophe; Xu, Hongxing; Corbett, Brian

    2016-12-14

    Hybrid plasmonic lasers provide deep subwavelength optical confinement, strongly enhanced light-matter interaction and together with nanoscale footprint promise new applications in optical communication, biosensing, and photolithography. The subwavelength hybrid plasmonic lasers reported so far often use bottom-up grown nanowires, nanorods, and nanosquares, making it difficult to integrate these devices into industry-relevant high density plasmonic circuits. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of AlGaInP based, red-emitting hybrid plasmonic lasers at room temperature using lithography based fabrication processes. Resonant cavities with deep subwavelength 2D and 3D mode confinement of λ2/56 and λ3/199, respectively, are demonstrated. A range of cavity geometries (waveguides, rings, squares, and disks) show very low lasing thresholds of 0.6-1.8 mJ/cm2 with wide gain bandwidth (610 nm-685 nm), which are attributed to the heterogeneous geometry of the gain material, the optimized etching technique, and the strong overlap of the gain material with the plasmonic modes. Most importantly, we establish the connection between mode confinements and enhanced absorption and stimulated emission, which plays critical roles in maintaining low lasing thresholds at extremely small hybrid plasmonic cavities. Our results pave the way for the further integration of dense arrays of hybrid plasmonic lasers with optical and electronic technology platforms.

  1. Broadband Wireline Provider Service Summary; BBRI_wirelineSum12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via all wireline technologies assessed by Broadband Rhode Island. Broadband...

  2. Broadband Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Visible Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Quanfu; Bluvshtein, Nir; Segev, Lior; Flores, Michel; Rudich, Yinon; Washenfelder, Rebecca; Brown, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence the Earth's radiative budget directly by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. Aerosol direct forcing remains one of the largest uncertainties in quantifying the role that aerosols play in the Earth's radiative budget. The optical properties of aerosols vary as a function of wavelength, but few measurements reported the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction cross section and complex refractive indices, particularly in the blue and visible spectral range. There is also currently a large gap in our knowledge of how the optical properties evolve as a function of atmospheric aging in the visible spectrum. In this study, we constructed a new and novel laboratory instrument to measure aerosol extinction as a function of wavelength, using cavity enhanced spectroscopy with a white light source. This broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy (BBCES) covers the 395-700 nm spectral region using a broadband light source and a grating spectrometer with charge-coupled device detector (CCD). We evaluated this BBCES by measuring extinction cross section for aerosols that are pure scattering, slightly absorbing and strongly absorbing atomized from standard materials. We also retrieved the refractive indices from the measured extinction cross sections. Secondary organic aerosols from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors were "aged" to differential time scales (1 to 10 days) in an Oxidation Flow Reactor (OFR) under the combined influence of OH, O3 and UV light. The new BBCES was used to online measure the extinction cross sections of the SOA. This talk will provide a comprehensive understanding of aerosol optical properties alerting during aging process in the 395 - 700 nm spectrum.

  3. Broadband measurements of aerosol extinction in the ultraviolet spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Flores, J. M.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.; Rudich, Y.

    2013-04-01

    Aerosols influence the Earth's radiative budget by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. The optical properties of aerosols vary as a function of wavelength, but few measurements have reported the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction cross sections and complex refractive indices. We describe a new laboratory instrument to measure aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength, using cavity enhanced spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The instrument consists of two broadband channels which span the 360-390 and 385-420 nm spectral regions using two light emitting diodes (LED) and a grating spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. We determined aerosol extinction cross sections and directly observed Mie scattering resonances for aerosols that are purely scattering (polystyrene latex spheres and ammonium sulfate), slightly absorbing (Suwannee River fulvic acid), and strongly absorbing (nigrosin dye). We describe an approach for retrieving refractive indices as a function of wavelength from the measured extinction cross sections over the 360-420 nm wavelength region. The retrieved refractive indices for PSL and ammonium sulfate agree within uncertainty with the literature values for this spectral region. The refractive index determined for nigrosin is 1.78 (± 0.03) + 0.19 (± 0.08)i at 360 nm and 1.63 (± 0.03) + 0.21 (± 0.05)i at 420 nm. The refractive index determined for Suwannee River fulvic acid is 1.71 (± 0.02) + 0.07 (± 0.06)i at 360 nm and 1.66 (± 0.02) + 0.06 (± 0.04)i at 420 nm. These laboratory results support the potential for a field instrument capable of determining ambient aerosol optical extinction, average aerosol extinction cross section, and complex refractive index as a function of wavelength.

  4. Access Platforms for Offshore Wind Turbines Using Gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with forces generated by a stationary jet on different types of gratings and a solid plate. The force reduction factors for the different gratings compared to the solid plate mainly depend on the porosity of the gratings, but the geometry of the grating is also of some importance........ The derived reduction factors are expected to be applicable to design of offshore wind turbine access platforms with gratings where slamming also is an important factor....

  5. Electronically Switchable Broadband Metamaterial Absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongju; Jeong, Heijun; Lim, Sungjoon

    2017-07-07

    In this study, the novel electronically switchable broadband metamaterial absorber, using a PIN diode, is proposed. The unit cell of the absorber was designed with a Jerusalem-cross resonator and an additive ring structure, based on the FR-4 dielectric substrate. Chip resistors and PIN diodes were used to provide both a broadband characteristic and a switching capability. To satisfy the polarization insensitivity, the unit cell was designed as a symmetrical structure, including the DC bias network, electronic devices, and conductor patterns. The performance of the proposed absorber was verified using full-wave simulation and measurements. When the PIN diode was in the ON state, the proposed absorber had a 90% absorption bandwidth from 8.45-9.3 GHz. Moreover, when the PIN diode was in the OFF state, the 90% absorption bandwidth was 9.2-10.45 GHz. Therefore, the absorption band was successfully switched between the low-frequency band and the high-frequency band as the PIN diode was switched between the ON and OFF states. Furthermore, the unit cell of the proposed absorber was designed as a symmetrical structure, and its performance showed insensitivity with respect to the polarization angle.

  6. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottes, Steven A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, Cezary [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  7. 78 FR 32165 - Broadband Over Power Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... providing for Access BPL technology--which has potential applications for broadband and Smart Grid uses... strike an appropriate balance between the dual objectives of providing for Access BPL technology--which has potential applications for broadband and Smart Grid uses--while protecting incumbent radio...

  8. Broadband Helps Bridge the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jamal

    2013-01-01

    In education, technology is giving new meaning to the phrase "equal opportunity." Teachers and students in schools across America--urban, rural, wealthy, and impoverished--are gaining access to online learning and all of its benefits through broadband technology. What is broadband? According to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), it is…

  9. Beyond the Lambertian limit: Novel low-symmetry gratings for ultimate light trapping enhancement in next-generation photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, Robert [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Hu, Juejun [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Richardson, Kathleen [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). College of Optics and Photonics, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL)

    2016-05-20

    This project aims at addressing the efficiency limit and high fabrication cost of current light trapping methods by developing novel low-symmetry gratings (LSG) for next-generation thin c-Si photovoltaic (PV) cells. The LSG design achieves light trapping enhancement exceeding the 4n2 Lambertian limit and can be fabricated over large areas using low-cost, single-step nanoimprint techniques. We further explored the use of deposited high-refractive-index glass materials for low-temperature LSG processing, which enables direct imprint sculpting of even complex grating geometries in glass without requiring an additional pattern transfer step, which minimizes processing cost and surface damage to PV cells. In the project, we have demonstrated fabrication and integration of sub-wavelength LSG with thin c-Si wafers and bifacial solar cells with low defect density. Optical absorption measurements indicate that LSGs demonstrated superior absorption enhancement compared to their traditional symmetric counterparts as predicted by our simulations. Efficiency enhancement was observed in solar cells integrated with LSGs although fabrication yield of the LSG-integrated cells remains a challenge

  10. High-contrast grating MEMS optical phase-shifters for two-dimensional free-space beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megens, Mischa; Yoo, Byung-Wook; Chan, Trevor; Yang, Weijian; Sun, Tianbo; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.; Wu, Ming C.; Horsley, David A.

    2014-02-01

    We report an optical phased array (OPA) for two-dimensional free-space beam steering. The array is composed of tunable MEMS all-pass filters (APFs) based on polysilicon high contrast grating (HCG) mirrors. The cavity length of each APF is voltage controlled via an electrostatically-actuated HCG top mirror and a fixed DBR bottom mirror. The HCG mirrors are composed of only a single layer of polysilicon, achieving >99% reflectivity through the use of a subwavelength grating patterned into the polysilicon surface. Conventional metal-coated MEMS mirrors must be thick (1-50 μm) to prevent warpage arising from thermal and residual stress. The single material construction used here results in a high degree of flatness even in a thin 350 nm HCG mirror. Relative to beamsteering systems based on a single rotating MEMS mirror, which are typically limited to bandwidths below 50 kHz, the MEMS OPA described here has the advantage of greatly reduced mass and therefore achieves a bandwidth over 500 kHz. The APF structure affords large (~2π) phase shift at a small displacement (< 50 nm), an order-of-magnitude smaller than the displacement required in a single-mirror phase-shifter design. Precise control of each all-pass-filter is achieved through an interferometric phase measurement system, and beam steering is demonstrated using binary phase patterns.

  11. Customer Churn Prediction for Broadband Internet Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. Q.; Kechadi, M.-T.; Buckley, B.

    Although churn prediction has been an area of research in the voice branch of telecommunications services, more focused studies on the huge growth area of Broadband Internet services are limited. Therefore, this paper presents a new set of features for broadband Internet customer churn prediction, based on Henley segments, the broadband usage, dial types, the spend of dial-up, line-information, bill and payment information, account information. Then the four prediction techniques (Logistic Regressions, Decision Trees, Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines) are applied in customer churn, based on the new features. Finally, the evaluation of new features and a comparative analysis of the predictors are made for broadband customer churn prediction. The experimental results show that the new features with these four modelling techniques are efficient for customer churn prediction in the broadband service field.

  12. Control of light absorbance using plasmonic grating based perfect absorber at visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Lee, Dasol; Rho, Junsuk

    2017-06-01

    Conventional metamaterial absorbers have multilayer designs, where the dielectric interlayer is sandwiched between a top patterned metallic structure and bottom metallic film. Here, we demonstrate that a highly polarization-sensitive perfect absorber canbe realized by replacing the bottom metallic film with a plasmonic grating. Designs for broadband and narrowband of wavelength are proposed and numerically investigated. The designed absorbers perform high light absorption, which is above 90% over the wavelength range of 0.4-1.4 µm for the broadband absorber and 98% for the absorption peak in case of the narrowband design, with a specific polarization of incident light. We find that the absorption is tunable by changing the polarization. Such absorbers offer new approach for active control of light absorbance with strong impacts for solar energy harvesting, light emitting and sensing.

  13. High-efficiency, broad band, high-damage threshold high-index gratings for femtosecond pulse compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Frederico; Clady, Raphael; Chambaret, Jean-Paul; Flury, Manuel; Tonchev, Svtelen; Fechner, Renate; Parriaux, Olivier

    2007-11-12

    High efficiency, broad-band TE-polarization diffraction over a wavelength range centered at 800 nm is obtained by high index gratings placed on a non-corrugated mirror. More than 96% efficiency wide band top-hat diffraction efficiency spectra, as well as more than 1 J/cm(2) damage threshold under 50 fs pulses are demonstrated experimentally. This opens the way to high-efficiency Chirped Pulse Amplification for high average power laser machining by means of all-dielectric structures as well as for ultra-short high energy pulses by means of metal-dielectric structures.

  14. A novel single-order diffraction grating: Random position rectangle grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhua, Yang; Qiangqiang, Zhang; Jing, Wang; Quanping, Fan; Yuwei, Liu; Lai, Wei; Leifeng, Cao

    2016-05-01

    Spectral diagnosis of radiation from laser plasma interaction and monochromation of radiation source are hot and important topics recently. Grating is one of the primary optical elements to do this job. Although easy to fabricate, traditional diffraction grating suffers from multi-order diffraction contamination. On the other hand, sinusoidal amplitude grating has the nonharmonic diffraction property, but it is too difficult to fabricate, especially for x-ray application. A novel nonharmonic diffraction grating named random position rectangle grating (RPRG) is proposed in this paper. Theoretical analysis and experiment results show that the RPRG is both higher order diffraction suppressing and not difficult to fabricate. Additionally, it is highly efficient; its first order absolute theoretical diffraction efficiency reaches 4.1%. Our result shows that RPRG is a novel tool for radiation diagnosis and monochromation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375160) and the National Science Instruments Major Project of China (Grant No. 2012YQ130125).

  15. Hybrid grating reflector with high reflectivity and broad bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Park, Gyeong Cheol; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a new type of grating reflector denoted hybrid grating (HG) which shows large reflectivity in a broad wavelength range and has a structure suitable for realizing a vertical cavity laser with ultra-small modal volume. The properties of the grating reflector are investigated numerically...... and explained. The HG consists of an un-patterned III-V layer and a Si grating. The III-V layer has a thickness comparable to the grating layer, introduces more guided mode resonances and significantly increases the bandwidth of the reflector compared to the well-known high-index-contrast grating (HCG...

  16. Hyperspectral grating optimization and manufacturing considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziph-Schatzberg, Leah; Swartz, Barry; Warren, Chris; Santman, Jeff; Saleh, Mohammad; Wiggins, Richard; Crifasi, Joe; Comstock, Lovell; Taylor, Kevan

    2015-06-01

    Hyperspectral imaging systems are finding broader applications in both the commercial and aerospace markets. It is becoming clear that to optimize the performance of these systems, their instrument transfer function needs to be tailored for each application. Vis-SWIR systems in the full 400nm to 2500nm waveband present particular design and manufacturing challenges. A single blazed grating is inadequate for a system operating in the full vis-SWIR wavelength range. In addition, optical materials and broad band coatings present a challenge for non-reflective systems. An understanding of the application and wavelengths of interest, combined with a judicious choice of a focal plane array, can then lead to an optimized system for the specific application. The ability to tailor the grating and manufacture a wide variety of grating profiles and substrate shapes becomes a significant performance enabler. This paper will discuss how the use of optical, coating, and grating design/analysis software, combined with grating manufacturing techniques assure meeting high performance requirements for different applications.

  17. Scanning for piecewise holographic grating generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, Miroslav; Kostka, František; Dvořák, Martin

    2006-03-01

    Holographic gratings that are recorded as a whole in a single exposition are limited in size because of the available power of suitable laser sources and nonlinear response of and/or reciprocity effects in a recording medium. A sequential-illumination technique can help in this case. This technique relies on piecewise grating recording that consists in scanning with a relatively narrow laser beam, a pencil, across the grating surface employing an appropriate optical set up. The contribution describes a method utilizing a small parallel displacement of the laser pencil by turning a plane-parallel plate, which is then transferred to a larger angular deflection by a short focus lens. Simultaneously, the beam is expanded angularly. This all can take place either before light enters the beam-splitter or along paths of both the interfering beams. In this way, uniform diffraction efficiency gratings that are much larger than the cross-section of the beam can be achieved. The laser pencil can be moved in polar or rectangular coordinates. Recording of larger gratings supposes large precise collimating mirrors. If they are not available e.g. due to their high price, they can be replaced by long propagating homocentric beams with their origins in the same distance from the recording plate.

  18. Control of subwavelength flexural waves via kirigami-based hyperlens (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui; Yasuda, Hiromi; Huang, Guoliang; Yang, Jinkyu

    2017-04-01

    In this presentation, we propose a novel design of elastic metamaterial that possesses unique anisotropic mass density and hyperbolic dispersion, which enables subwavelength-scale flexural wave manipulation. The metamaterial unit cell is inspired by kirigami, an ancient art of paper cutting and folding. A three-dimensional kirigami microstructure can be obtained by simply cutting and folding a thin metallic plate. By attaching the resonant kirigami microstructures periodically on the top of a host plate, a hyperbolic metamaterial plate can be manufactured without any perforation that degrades the strength of the pristine plate. A theoretical model based on the classic plate theory and mass-spring model is developed to understand the working mechanism of the elastic metamaterial. Dispersion curves are obtained by using an extended plane wave expansion method. An anisotropic effective mass density tensor is retrieved based on effective medium theory, which explains the different couplings between the local resonance of kirigami microstructure and the global flexural wave propagations in the host plate along two in-plane principal directions. Finally, numerical simulation on an elastic hyperlens is conducted to demonstrate the subwavelength-scale flexural wave control and super-resolution imaging abilities. The advantages of the proposed kirigami-based elastic hyperbolic metamaterial are twofold: (i) simple manufacturing process without perforation in the pristine plate and (ii) subwavelength flexural wave manipulation providing a high signal-to-noise ratio in plate-like engineering structures. Therefore, the proposed elastic hyperbolic metamaterial could be highly promising for high resolution damage imaging in nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring.

  19. 47 CFR 27.1305 - Shared wireless broadband network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shared wireless broadband network. 27.1305... broadband network. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network developed by the 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership must be designed to meet requirements associated with a nationwide, public safety broadband network. At...

  20. 47 CFR 90.1405 - Shared wireless broadband network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shared wireless broadband network. 90.1405... broadband network. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network developed by the 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership must be designed to meet requirements associated with a nationwide, public safety broadband network. At...

  1. Subwavelength-Diameter Silica Wire and Photonic Crystal Waveguide Slow Light Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Counter-directional coupling between subwavelength-diameter silica wire and single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguide is studied numerically using parallel three-dimensional finite-different time-domain method. By modifying silica wire properties or engineering photonic crystal waveguide dispersion band, the coupling central wavelength can be moved to the slow light region and the coupling efficiency improves simultaneously. One design gives 82% peak power transmission from silica wire to photonic crystal waveguide over an interacting distance of 50 lattice constants. The group velocity is estimated as 1/35 of light speed in vacuum.

  2. The Subwavelength Optical Field Confinement in a Multilayered Microsphere with Quasiperiodic Spherical Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy N. Burlak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the frequency spectrum of nanoemitters placed in a microsphere with a quasiperiodic subwavelength spherical stack. The spectral evolution of transmittancy at the change of thickness of two-layer blocks, constructed following the Fibonacci sequence, is investigated. When the number of layers (Fibonacci order increases, the structure of spectrum acquires a fractal form. Our calculations show the radiation confinement and gigantic field enhancement, when the ratio of layers’ widths in twolayer blocks of the stack is close to the golden mean value.

  3. Phase study of the generated surface plasmon waves in light transmission through a subwavelength aperture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Mahdieh; Xiao, Sanshui; Farzad, Mahmood Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Interference of surface plasmon (SP) waves plays a key role in light transmission through a subwavelength aperture surrounded by groove structures. In order to characterize interference of the hole and groove-generated SP waves, their phase information was carefully investigated using finite...... difference time domain simulations. In a structure with only one groove, constructive interference of the generated SP waves will enhance transmitted light by a factor of 5.4 compared with that of a single hole. Increasing the groove number to 3 in the design, which supports constructive interference of SP...... waves, will enhance the transmission coefficient to 10.5 times that for the single-hole transmission coefficient....

  4. ZnO subwavelength wires for fast-response mid-infrared detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Yang, Qing; Gu, Fuxing; Tong, Limin

    2009-11-23

    Room temperature operating thermal detection for mid-infrared light based on ZnO subwavelength wires has been demonstrated. Electric resistance in ZnO wires increases linearly with the intensity of incident light. Noise equivalent power (NEP) of 5.8 microW/Hz(1/2) (at 1 kHz) with typical response times as fast as 1.3 ms is obtained at 10.6-microm wavelength. The sensitivity and response time of the detector are also found to be insensitive to the ambient.

  5. Experimental demonstration of tunable directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons with a subwavelength metallic double slit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Tan, Qiaofeng; Bai, Benfeng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a metal film by a subwavelength double slit under backside illumination, based on the interference of SPPs generated by the two slits. By varying the incident angle, the SPPs can be tunably directed into two opposite propagating directions with a predetermined splitting ratio. Under certain incident angle, unidirectional SPP excitation can be achieved. This compact directional SPP coupler is potentially useful for many on-chip applications. As an example, we show the integration of the double-slit couplers with SPP Bragg mirrors, which can effectively realize selective coupling of SPPs into different ports in an integrated plasmonic chip.

  6. Interferometric characterization of a sub-wavelength near-infrared negative index metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuhuai; Davanço, Marcelo; Maller, Kara; Jarvis, Thomas W; Wu, Chihhui; Fietz, Chris; Korobkin, Dmitriy; Li, Xiaoqin; Shvets, Gennady; Forrest, Stephen R

    2010-08-16

    Negative phase advance through a single layer of near-IR negative index metamaterial (NIM) is identified through interferometric measurements. The NIM unit cell, sub-wavelength in both the lateral and light propagation directions, is comprised of a pair of Au strips separated by two dielectric and one Au film. Numerical simulations show that the negative phase advance through the single-layer sample is consistent with the negative index exhibited by a bulk material comprised of multiple layers of the same structure. We also numerically demonstrate that the negative index band persists in the lossless limit.

  7. Deep-subwavelength plasmonic-photonic hybrid band gap opening by acoustic Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jin-Chen; Shih, Jheng-Hong; Lin, Tzy-Rong

    2017-07-01

    In this letter, the efficient generation of tunable optical band gaps with the help of acousto-optic (AO) interactions in the deep subwavelength regime is proposed. The optical system consists of a thin dielectric slab and a metal surface separated by a nanoscale air gap. This structure allowed for the confinement of hybridized plasmonic-photonic gap modes, which are highly guided within the air gap. The enhanced AO interaction originated from the disturbance of the acoustic Lamb waves of the slab that can strongly boost the AO interface effect and scatter the optical fields. Therefore, wide optical band gaps and forbidden transmissions were observed in hybrid gap modes at telecommunication wavelengths.

  8. Optical surface edge Bloch modes: low-loss subwavelength-scale 2D light localization

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Shu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Edge modes of a finite-size woodpile can appear within a complete bandgap on an edge. The mode area is as small as 0.066 squared half-in-vacuum-wavelengths, and the propagation loss is small. The field maxima occur at a dielectric-vacuum interface, like at a metal-dielectric interface for surface plasmon modes. The edge mode is a subwavelength-scale 2D light localization mode in non-metallic materials. Analysis of two-mode co-directional coupling between identical surface Bloch modes suggests that a large photonic crystal or surface designing would be needed for suppressing the evanescent field coupling in the woodpile.

  9. Hydrofluoric acid flow etching of low-loss subwavelength-diameter biconical fiber tapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Eric J; Sacher, Wesley D; Poon, Joyce K S

    2010-10-11

    An etch method based on surface tension driven flows of hydrofluoric acid microdroplets for the fabrication of low-loss, subwavelength-diameter biconical fiber tapers is presented. Tapers with losses less than 0.1 dB/mm are demonstrated, corresponding to an order of magnitude increase in the optical transmission over previous acid-etch techniques. The etch method produces adiabatic taper transitions with minimal surface corrugations. A biconical fiber taper fabricated using this method is used to demonstrate an erbium doped silica microsphere laser.

  10. Extraordinary light transmission through a metal film perforated by a subwavelength hole array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyablovskii, A. A.; Pavlov, A. A.; Klimov, V. V.; Pukhov, A. A.; Dorofeenko, A. V.; Vinogradov, A. P.; Lisyanskii, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    It is shown that, depending on the incident wave frequency and the system geometry, the extraordinary transmission of light through a metal film perforated by an array of subwavelength holes can be described by one of the three mechanisms: the "transparency window" in the metal, excitation of the Fabry-Perot resonance of a collective mode produced by the hybridization of evanescence modes of the holes and surface plasmons, and excitation of a plasmon on the rear boundary of the film. The excitation of a plasmon resonance on the front boundary of the metal film does not make any substantial contribution to the transmission coefficient, although introduces a contribution to the reflection coefficient.

  11. The mechanism of the polarization dependence of the optical transmission in subwavelength metal hole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Qian; Zhou, Yun-Song; Wang, Huai-Yu

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the mechanism of extraordinary optical transmission in subwave-length metal hole arrays. Experimental results for the arrays consisting of square or rectangle holes are well explained about the dependence of transmission strength on the polarization direction of the incident light. This polarization dependence occurs in each single-hole. For a hole array, there is in addition an interplay between the adjacent holes which is caused by the transverse magnetic field of surface plasmon polariton on the metal film surfaces. Based on the detailed study of a single-hole and two-hole structures, a simple method to calculate the total tranmissivity of hole arrays is proposed.

  12. Enhancing monochromatic multipole emission by a subwavelength enclosure of degenerate Mie resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Jiajun

    2017-07-06

    Sound emission is inefficient at low frequencies as limited by source size. This letter presents enhancing emission of monochromatic monopole and multipole sources by enclosing the source with a subwavelength circular enclosure filled of an anisotropic material of a low radial sound speed. The anisotropy is associated with an infinite tangential density along the azimuth. Numerical simulations show that emission gain is produced at frequencies surrounding degenerate Mie resonant frequencies of the enclosure, and meanwhile the radiation directivity pattern is well preserved. The degeneracy is theoretically analyzed. A realization of the material is suggested by using a space-coiling structure.

  13. Local investigation of the optical properties of subwavelength rectangular holes with a focused beam of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prangsma, J C; van Oosten, D; Kuipers, L

    2011-09-13

    The optical properties of rectangular subwavelength holes in a gold film are investigated using the light generated when a focused beam of electrons impinges on the sample close to the hole. Using this technique, multi-spectral maps of the holes are obtained with a resolution beyond the optical diffraction limit. The results show the influence of hole shape on the spectrum of locally scattered light. Rectangular holes of varying shape and size are investigated, and the spatial distribution of the polarization of the observed light is measured. The influence of neighbouring holes is investigated by measuring small clusters of holes.

  14. Light polarization management via reflection from arrays of sub-wavelength metallic twisted bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, M.; Haberko, J.; Zinkiewicz, Ł.; Wasylczyk, P.

    2017-12-01

    With constant progress of nano- and microfabrication technologies, photolithography in particular, a number of sub-wavelength metallic structures have been demonstrated that can be used to manipulate light polarization. Numerical simulations of light propagation hint that helical twisted bands can have interesting polarization properties. We use three-dimensional two-photon photolithography (direct laser writing) to fabricate a few-micrometer-thick arrays of twisted bands and coat them uniformly with metal. We demonstrate that circular polarization can be generated from linear polarization upon reflection from such structures over a broad range of frequencies in the mid infrared.

  15. Circuit-tunable sub-wavelength THz resonators: hybridizing optical cavities and loop antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulillo, B; Manceau, J M; Degiron, A; Zerounian, N; Beaudoin, G; Sagnes, I; Colombelli, R

    2014-09-08

    We demonstrate subwavelength electromagnetic resonators operating in the THz spectral range, whose spectral properties and spatial/angular patterns can be engineered in a similar way to an electronic circuit. We discuss the device concept, and we experimentally study the tuning of the resonant frequency as a function of variable capacitances and inductances. We then elucidate the optical coupling properties. The radiation pattern, obtained by angle-resolved reflectance, reveals that the system mainly couples to the outside world via a magnetic dipolar interaction.

  16. Optically tunable chirped fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Chen, Zhe; Hsiao, V K S; Tang, Jie-Yuan; Zhao, Fuli; Jiang, Shao-Ji

    2012-05-07

    This work presents an optically tunable chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG). The CFBG is obtained by a side-polished fiber Bragg grating (SPFBG) whose thickness of the residual cladding layer in the polished area (D(RC)) varies with position along the length of the grating, which is coated with a photoresponsive liquid crystal (LC) overlay. The reflection spectrum of the CFBG is tuned by refractive index (RI) modulation, which comes from the phase transition of the overlaid photoresponsive LC under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. The broadening in the reflection spectrum and corresponding shift in the central wavelength are observed with UV light irradiation density of 0.64mW/mm. During the phase transition of the photoresponsive LC, the RI increase of the overlaid LC leads to the change of the CFBG reflection spectrum and the change is reversible and repeatable. The optically tunable CFBGs have potential use in optical DWDM system and an all-fiber telecommunication system.

  17. Diffusion of solid fuelon a vibrating grate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabelström, Hanna Katarina

    of vibrations can be incorporated into a numerical model. The chosen model approach has been to separate the gas and solid phases into two independent models related to each other through the bed porosity. By treating the bed as a porous media and using Ergun's equation for the gas flow, the numerical work...... is simplified and the computational time shortened. The vibrations are affecting the transport and mixing of the fuel and incorporated into the model through the diffusion coefficient in the conservation equation of the solid phase. Experimental work has been carried out with the aim to study the behaviour...... of wood pellets on a vibrating grate and deriving the diffusion coefficient to be used in the numerical model. Three different grate designs are used and the particle trajectories have been captured by a camera placed above the grate. The diffusion coefficient is defined as the deviation from the mean...

  18. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    , upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important......Agriculture industry has been evolving for centuries. Currently, the technological development of Internet oriented farming tools allows to increase the productivity and efficiency of this sector. Many of the already available tools and applications require high bandwidth in both directions...... difference between the broadband availability for farms and the rest of the households/buildings the country. This divide may be slowing down the potential technological development of the farming industry, in order to keep their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, broadband development in rural areas...

  19. 75 FR 3820 - Broadband Initiatives Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... the RUS, under the Recovery Act. Broadband means providing two-way data transmission with advertised... no cost (including no costs for installation, activation, or other hidden fees) and to providing to...

  20. 75 FR 14131 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Program AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... for the electronic submission of CCI projects under the Broadband Technology Opportunities Program...

  1. Nanophotonic Design for Broadband Light Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosten, Emily; Callahan, Dennis; Horowitz, Kelsey; Pala, Ragip; Atwater, Harry

    2014-10-13

    We describe nanophotonic design approaches for broadband light management including i) crossed-trapezoidal Si structures ii) Si photonic crystal superlattices, and iii) tapered and inhomogeneous diameter III-V/Si nanowire arrays.

  2. Broadband networks, smart grids and climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Noam, Eli M; Kranz, Johann J

    2015-01-01

    Noted scholars and professionals from the energy and telecommunications businesses explain in this volume how the convergence of broadband services and responsive 'smart' energy grids could help to mitigate climate change and boost corporation profits.

  3. Recording multiple holographic gratings in silver-doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -wave transmission gratings were stored in the same location of silver-doped photopolymer film using peristrophic multiplexing techniques. Constant and variable exposure scheduling methods were adopted for storing gratings in the film using ...

  4. Metal-dielectric composites for beam splitting and far-field deep sub-wavelength resolution for visible wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Changchun; Zhang, Dao Hua; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Dongdong; Fiddy, M A

    2010-07-05

    We report beam splitting in a metamaterial composed of a silver-alumina composite covered by a layer of chromium containing one slit. By simulating distributions of energy flow in the metamaterial for H-polarized waves, we find that the beam splitting occurs when the width of the slit is shorter than the wavelength, which is conducive to making a beam splitter in sub-wavelength photonic devices. We also find that the metamaterial possesses deep sub-wavelength resolution capabilities in the far field when there are two slits and the central silver layer is at least 36 nm in thickness, which has potential applications in superresolution imaging.

  5. Interferometric fiber Bragg grating shift demodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Karol; Jóźwik, Michalina; Nasilowski, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present a fiber Bragg grating shift demodulator with changeable resolution based on an unbalanced fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Preliminary research proves phase sensitivity to Bragg wavelength changes of 6,83 rad/mɛ. Phase sensitivity can be modified by changing the optical path difference witch is only limited by the coherence length of light reflected by the fiber Bragg grating. This solution can be used as a single sensor or as a part of a more complex system.

  6. Multiwavelength optical scatterometry of dielectric gratings

    KAUST Repository

    Yashina, Nataliya P.

    2012-08-01

    Modern scatterometry problems arising in the lithography production of periodic gratings are in the focus of the work. The performance capabilities of a novel theoretical and numerical modeling oriented to these problems are considered. The approach is based on rigorous solutions of 2-D initial boundary value problems of the gratings theory. The quintessence and advantage of the method is the possibility to perform an efficient analysis simultaneously and interactively both for steady state and transient processes of the resonant scattering of electromagnetic waves by the infinite and compact periodic structures. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  8. Ultra-broadband photonic internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, there is presented a review of our today's understanding of the ultimately broadband photonic Internet. A simple calculation is presented showing the estimate of the throughput of the core photonic network branches. Optoelectronic components, circuits, systems and signals, together with analogous electronic entities and common software layers, are building blocks of the contemporary Internet. Participation of photonics in development of the physical layer in the future Internet will probably increase. The photonics leads now to a better usage of the available bandwidth (increase of the spectral efficiency measured in Bit/s/Hz), increase in the transmission rate (from Gbps, via Tbps up to probably Pbps), increase in the transmission distance without signal regeneration (in distortion compensated active optical cables), increase in energy/power efficiency measured in W/Gbps, etc. Photonics may lead, in the future, to fully transparent optical networks and, thus, to essential increase in bandwidth and network reliability. It is expected that photonics (with biochemistry, electronics and mechatronics) may build psychological and physiological interface for humans to the future global network. The following optical signal multiplexing methods were considered, which are possible without O/E/O conversion: TDM-OTDM, FDM-CO-OFDM, OCDM-OCDMA, WDM-DWDM.

  9. Demonstration of three-port grating phase relations

    OpenAIRE

    Bunkowski, A.; Burmeister, O.; Danzmann, K.; Schnabel, R.; Clausnitzer, T; Kley, E.; Tünnermann, A.

    2006-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the phase relations of three-port gratings by investigating three-port coupled Fabry-Perot cavities. Two different gratings that have the same first-order diffraction efficiency but differ substantially in their second-order diffraction efficiency have been designed and manufactured. Using the gratings as couplers to Fabry-Perot cavities, we could validate the results of an earlier theoretical description of the phases at a three-port grating [Opt. Lett. 30, 1183...

  10. Transmission grating stretcher for contrast enhancement of high power lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunxin; Hooker, Chris; Chekhlov, Oleg; Hawkes, Steve; Collier, John; Rajeev, P P

    2014-12-01

    We propose, for the first time, a transmission grating stretcher for high power lasers and demonstrate its superiority over conventional, reflective gold grating stretchers in terms of pulse temporal quality. We show that, compared to a conventional stretcher with the same stretching factor, the transmission-grating based stretcher yields more than an order of magnitude improvement in the contrast pedestal. We have also quantitatively characterized the roughness of the grating surfaces and estimated its impact on the contrast pedestal.

  11. Laser-induced transient grating setup with continuously tunable period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Flick, A. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-Unidad Mérida, Carretera Antigua a Progreso Km 6, Cordemex, Mérida, Yucatán 97310 Mexico (Mexico); Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A., E-mail: kanelson@mit.edu [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Khanolkar, A.; Abi Ghanem, M.; Boechler, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Alvarado-Gil, J. J. [Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-Unidad Mérida, Carretera Antigua a Progreso Km 6, Cordemex, Mérida, Yucatán 97310 Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-12-15

    We present a modification of the laser-induced transient grating setup enabling continuous tuning of the transient grating period. The fine control of the period is accomplished by varying the angle of the diffraction grating used to split excitation and probe beams. The setup has been tested by measuring dispersion of bulk and surface acoustic waves in both transmission and reflection geometries. The presented modification is fully compatible with optical heterodyne detection and can be easily implemented in any transient grating setup.

  12. Slow light via a tapered grating: transfer matrix approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkering, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    Reflection properties of a nonuniform apodized Bragg grating connecting a homogeneous medium with a (half-infinite) uniform grating are investigated for system parameters such that the group velocity in the uniform grating is low. In particular a smooth polynomial transition of the index profile to

  13. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.147 Grated American cheese food. (a)(1) Grated American cheese food is...

  14. Design and development of long-period grating sensors for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Long Period Gratings (LPGs) have been developed using carbon diox- ide laser in a standard optical fibre. LPGs with a periodicity of 600 μm and grating length of 24 mm have been inscribed on standard single mode fibre. Such gratings have been used in designing temperature sensors and temperature is ...

  15. An angularly stable dual-broadband anisotropic cross polarization conversion metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Ismail; Tahir, Farooq A.

    2017-08-01

    A dual broadband anisotropic cross-polarization-conversion (CPC) metasurface is designed and tested. The unit cell of the proposed metasurface consists of a two-slit rectangular split-ring-resonator inside of which a metallic cross element is placed. The unit cell is printed on a dielectric substrate backed by a metallic plane. Excellent CPC is achieved in two wide frequency bands from 5 to 9.7 GHz (4.7 GHz bandwidth) and from 11.2 to 15 GHz (3.8 GHz bandwidth) for both normal and oblique incidences. The wide CPC bandwidth is due to the plasmonic resonances occurring at three distinct frequencies. The unique physical structure, sub-wavelength size, and electrically small substrate thickness make the response of the metasurface identical for both x and y polarizations and insensitive to incidence angles (up to 60°). The physical mechanism behind polarization conversion is also elucidated through surface current distribution and through the concept of a high impedance surface. The proposed design is validated by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements.

  16. Broadband near-infrared antireflection coatings fabricated by three-dimensional direct laser writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Fullager, D. B.; Angelbello, E.; Childers, D.; Boreman, G.; Hofmann, T.

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional direct laser writing via two photon polymerization is used to fabricate anti-reflective structured surfaces composed of sub-wavelength conicoid features optimized to operate over a wide bandwidth in the near-infrared range from 3700 cm$^{-1}$ to 6600 cm$^{-1}$ (2.7 to 1.52 $\\mu$m). Analytic Bruggemann effective medium calculations are used to predict nominal geometric parameters such as the fill factor of the constitutive conicoid features of the anti-reflective structured surfaces presented here. The performance of the anti-reflective structured surfaces was investigated experimentally using infrared transmission measurements. An enhancement of the transmittance by 1.35\\% to 2.14\\% over a broadband spectral range from 3700 cm$ ^{-1} $ to 6600 cm$^{-1}$ (2.7 to 1.52 $\\mu$m) was achieved. We further report on finite-element-based reflection and transmission data using three-dimensional model geometries for comparison. A good agreement between experimental results and the finite-element-based numerical analysis is observed once as-fabricated deviations from the nominal conicoid forms are included in the model. Three-dimensional direct laser writing is demonstrated here as an efficient method for the fabrication and optimization of anti-reflective structured surfaces designed for the infrared spectral range.

  17. Research on radiation characteristics of dipole antenna modulation by sub-wavelength inhomogeneous plasma layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Peiqi; Nie, Qiuyue; Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Binhao

    2018-02-01

    The modulation and enhancement effect of sub-wavelength plasma structures on compact antennas exhibits obvious technological advantage and considerable progress. In order to extend the availability of this technology under complex and actual environment with inhomogeneous plasma structure, a numerical simulation analysis based on finite element method has been conducted in this paper. The modulation function of the antenna radiation with sub-wavelength plasma layer located at different positions was investigated, and the inhomogeneous plasma layer with multiple electron density distribution profiles were employed to explore the effect of plasma density distribution on the antenna radiation. It has been revealed that the optical near-field modulated distance and reduced plasma distribution are more beneficial to enhance the radiation. On the basis above, an application-focused research about communication through the plasma sheath surrounding a hypersonic vehicle has been carried out aiming at exploring an effective communication window. The relevant results devote guiding significance in the field of antenna radiation modulation and enhancement, as well as the development of communication technology in hypersonic flight.

  18. Highly Efficient Colored Perovskite Solar Cells Integrated with Ultrathin Subwavelength Plasmonic Nanoresonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Jang, Ji-Yun; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Sung-Mo; Park, Sanghyuk; Park, Hui Joon

    2017-09-06

    Highly efficient colored perovskite solar cells that exploit localized surface plasmon resonances in ultrathin subwavelength plasmonic nanoresonators are demonstrated. Localized resonances in ultrathin metal nano-strip optical resonators consisting of an array of metallic subwavelength nanowires on a transparent substrate, fabricated by using low-cost nanoimprint lithography over a large area, lead to a sharp peak in a reflection spectrum for distinctive color generation with angle-insensitive property up to 60°, and simultaneously transmit the complementary spectrum of visible light that can be efficiently harvested by the perovskite solar cells for electric power generation. The plasmonic color filter-integrated perovskite solar cells provide 10.12%, 8.17% and 7.72% of power conversion efficiencies with capabilities of creating vivid reflective red, green and blue colors. The scheme described in this work could be applied to a variety of applications such as power-generating decorations, tandem cells, power-saving wearable devices and energy-efficient reflective display technologies.

  19. Directive metamaterial-based subwavelength resonant cavity antennas - Applications for beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourir, Abdelwaheb; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; Yahiaoui, Riad; de Lustrac, André

    2009-06-01

    This article presents the use of composite resonant metamaterials for the design of highly directive subwavelength cavity antennas. These metamaterials, composed of planar metallic patterns periodically organized on dielectric substrates, exhibit frequency dispersive phase characteristics. Different models of metamaterial-based surfaces (metasurfaces), introducing a zero degree reflection phase shift to incident waves, are firstly studied where the bandwidth and operation frequency are predicted. These surfaces are then applied in a resonant Fabry-Perot type cavity and a ray optics analysis is used to design different models of ultra-compact high-gain microstrip printed antennas. Another surface presenting a variable reflection phase by the use of a non-periodic metamaterial-based metallic strips array is designed for a passive low-profile steering beam antenna application. Finally, the incorporation of active electronic components on the metasurfaces, allowing an electronic control of the phase responses, is applied to an operation frequency reconfigurable cavity and a beam steering cavity. All these cavity antennas operate on subwavelength modes, the smallest cavity thickness being of the order of λ/60. To cite this article: A. Ourir et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  20. Electromagnetic diffraction radiation of a subwavelength-hole array excited by an electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shenggang; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yaxin; Li, Yuebao; Zhong, Renbin

    2009-09-01

    This paper explores the physics of the electromagnetic diffraction radiation of a subwavelength holes array excited by a set of evanescent waves generated by a line charge of electron beam moving parallel to the array. Activated by a uniformly moving line charge, numerous physical phenomena occur such as the diffraction radiation on both sides of the array as well as the electromagnetic penetration or transmission below or above the cut-off through the holes. As a result the subwavelength holes array becomes a radiation array. Making use of the integral equation with relevant Green's functions, an analytical theory for such a radiation system is built up. The results of the numerical calculations based on the theory agree well with that obtained by the computer simulation. The relation among the effective surface plasmon wave, the electromagnetic penetration or transmission of the holes and the diffraction radiation is revealed. The energy dependence of and the influence of the hole thickness on the diffraction radiation and the electromagnetic penetration or transmission are investigated in detail. Therefore, a distinct diffraction radiation phenomenon is discovered.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of subwavelength nanostructures on freestanding GaN slab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjin; Hu, Fangren; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Sameshima, Hidehisa; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2010-02-01

    We develop a novel way to fabricate subwavelength nanostructures on the freestanding GaN slab using a GaN-on-silicon system by combining self-assemble technique and backside thinning method. Silicon substrate beneath the GaN slab is removed by bulk silicon micromachining, generating the freestanding GaN slab and eliminating silicon absorption of the emitted light. Fast atom beam (FAB) etching is conducted to thin the freestanding GaN slab from the backside, reducing the number of confined modes inside the GaN slab. With self-assembled silica nanospheres acting as an etching mask, subwavelength nanostructures are realized on the GaN surface by FAB etching. The reflection losses at the GaN interfaces are thus suppressed. When the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) active layers are excited, the light extraction efficiency is significantly improved for the freestanding nanostructured GaN slab. This work provides a very practical approach to fabricate freestanding nanostructures on the GaN-on-silicon system for further improving the light extraction efficiency.

  2. Tunable dual-band subwavelength imaging with a wire medium slab loaded with nanostructured graphene metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Forouzmand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate that a wire medium slab loaded with graphene-nanopatch metasurfaces (GNMs enables the enhancement of evanescent waves for the subwavelength imaging at terahertz (THz frequencies. The analysis is based on the nonlocal homogenization model for wire medium with the additional boundary condition at the connection of wires to graphene. The physical mechanism behind this lens can be described as the surface plasmons excitement at the lower and upper GNMs which are coupled by an array of metallic wires. The dual nature (capacitive/inductive of the GNM is utilized in order to design a dual-band lens in which the unique controllable properties of graphene and the structural parameters of wire medium (WM slab provide more degrees of freedom in controlling two operating frequency bands. The lens can support the subwavelength imaging simultaneously at two tunable distinct frequencies with the resolution better than λ/6 even if the distance between GNMs is a significant fraction of wavelength (>λ/5.5. The major future challenges in the fabrication of the lens have been demonstrated and a promising approach for the practical configuration of the lens has been proposed.

  3. Refraction index sensor based on phase resonances in a subwavelength structure with double period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skigin, Diana C; Lester, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we numerically demonstrate a refraction index sensor based on phase resonance excitation in a subwavelength-slit structure with a double period. The sensor consists of a metal layer with subwavelength slots arranged in a bi-periodic form, separated from a high refraction index medium. Between the metallic structure and the incident medium, a dielectric waveguide is formed whose refraction index is going to be determined. Variations in the refraction index of the waveguide are detected as shifts in the peaks of transmitted intensity originated by resonant modes supported by the compound metallic structure. At normal incidence, the spectral position of these resonant peaks exhibits a linear or a quadratic dependence with the refraction index, which permits us to obtain the unknown refraction index value with a high precision for a wide range of wavelengths. Since the operating principle of the sensor is due to the morphological resonances of the slits' structure, this device can be scaled to operate in different wavelength ranges while keeping similar characteristics.

  4. Theory of optimal beam splitting by phase gratings. I. One-dimensional gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Louis A; Dickey, Fred M

    2007-08-01

    We give an analytical basis for the theory of optimal beam splitting by one-dimensional gratings. In particular, we use methods from the calculus of variations to derive analytical expressions for the optimal phase function.

  5. Plasmonic Transmission Gratings – Fabrication and Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sierant, Aleksandra; Jany, Benedykt; Bartoszek-Bober, Dobrosława

    the proposed plasmonic transmission gratings via near-field optical scanning microscopy (NSOM) and goniometric far field measurements. We support the evidence of our analyses with numerical calculations, carried out via rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) and finite-difference in time-domain (FDTD...

  6. Smart photogalvanic running-grating interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N. V.; Kukhtareva, T.; Edwards, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Photogalvanic effect produces actuation of periodic motion of macroscopic LiNbO3 crystal. This effect was applied to the development of an all-optical moving-grating interferometer usable for optical trapping and transport of algae chlorella microorganisms diluted in water with a concentration...

  7. Etched multimode fiber Bragg gratings based refractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Umesh; Kaushik, Siddharth

    2017-08-01

    A Multimode Fiber Bragg Gratings for refractive index sensing has been demonstrated experimentally. The fabrication of Bragg gratings in the Standard step-index multimode fiber with a core diameter of 50 μm and a numerical aperture of 0.20 is carried out by phase mask method. The period of the phase mask is 1064 nm. The etching of cladding portion of grating region (2 cm) is carried out by Hydrofluoric acid (48%) for 15 minutes. The etching process causes reduction of cladding diameter by 55 μm which further enhances the interaction of light propagating in core mode with higher cladding modes. Solutions of varied concentrations of glycerol were prepared having corresponding refractive index. Shift in wavelength in the reflection peak of high-order mode L1 is observed when glycerol solution is passed over the cladding surface of grating region. The proposed sensor with 1-pm resolution was successfully employed for sensing of different glycerol solutions. The sensitivity of proposed sensor is 15000 pm/RIU and it can be used as potential sensing platform for bio-chemical applications.

  8. Undergraduate Experiment with Fractal Diffraction Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsoriu, Juan A.; Furlan, Walter D.; Pons, Amparo; Barreiro, Juan C.; Gimenez, Marcos H.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple diffraction experiment with fractal gratings based on the triadic Cantor set. Diffraction by fractals is proposed as a motivating strategy for students of optics in the potential applications of optical processing. Fraunhofer diffraction patterns are obtained using standard equipment present in most undergraduate physics…

  9. Hybrid grating reflectors: Origin of ultrabroad stopband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gyeong Cheol; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Chung, Il-Sug, E-mail: ilch@fotonik.dtu.dk [DTU Fotonik, Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-04-04

    Hybrid grating (HG) reflectors with a high-refractive-index cap layer added onto a high contrast grating (HCG) provide a high reflectance close to 100% over a broader wavelength range than HCGs. The combination of a cap layer and a grating layer brings a strong Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance as well as a weak guided mode (GM) resonance. Most of the reflected power results from the FP resonance, while the GM resonance plays a key role in achieving a reflectance close to 100% as well as broadening the stopband. An HG sample with 7 InGaAlAs quantum wells included in the cap layer has been fabricated by directly wafer-bonding a III-V cap layer onto a Si grating layer. Its reflection property has been characterized. This heterogeneously integrated HG reflector may allow for a hybrid III-V on Si laser to be thermally efficient, which has promising prospects for silicon photonics light sources and high-speed operation.

  10. Fiber Bragg Grating Filter High Temperature Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Donald R.; Brass, Eric D.; Pencil, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a scaled-down method for determining high temperatures using fiber-based Bragg gratings. Bragg gratings are distributed along the length of the optical fiber, and have high reflectivities whenever the optical wavelength is twice the grating spacing. These spatially distinct Bragg regions (located in the core of a fiber) are sensitive to local temperature changes. Since these fibers are silica-based they are easily affected by localized changes in temperature, which results in changes to both the grating spacing and the wavelength reflectivity. We exploit the shift in wavelength reflectivity to measure the change in the local temperature. Note that the Bragg region (sensing area) is some distance away from where the temperature is being measured. This is done so that we can measure temperatures that are much higher than the damage threshold of the fiber. We do this by affixing the fiber with the Bragg sensor to a material with a well-known coefficient of thermal expansion, and model the heat gradient from the region of interest to the actual sensor. The research described in this paper will culminate in a working device as well as be the second portion of a publication pending submission to Optics Letters.

  11. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated cheeses. 133.146 Section 133.146 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... 101 and 130 of this chapter, except that: (1) Enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin may be...

  12. Broadband in schools: towards a definition and model of broadband for South African schools

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, Merryl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is about to provide broadband internet connectivity to all schools in the country via the implementation of the national broadband policy. The challenge is to ensure a balance between the schools’ demand-side usage and supply...

  13. A broadband, circular-polarization selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni Hasan Abadi, Seyed Mohamad Amin; Behdad, Nader

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a new technique for designing wideband circular-polarization selective surfaces (CPSSs) based on anisotropic miniaturized element frequency selective surfaces. The proposed structure is a combination of two linear-to-circular polarization converters sandwiching a linear polarizer. This CPSS consists of a number of metallic layers separated from each other by thin dielectric substrates. The metallic layers are in the form of two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength capacitive patches and inductive wire grids with asymmetric dimensions and a wire grid polarizer with sub-wavelength period. The proposed device is designed to offer a wideband circular-polarization selection capability allowing waves with left-hand circular polarization to pass through while rejecting those having right-hand circular polarization. A synthesis procedure is developed that can be used to design the proposed CPSS based on its desired band of operation. Using this procedure, a prototype of the proposed CPSS operating in the 12-18 GHz is designed. Full-wave electromagnetic simulations are used to predict the response of this structure. These simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed design concept and synthesis procedure and show that proposed CPSS operates within a fractional bandwidth of 40% with a co-polarization transmission discrimination of more than 15 dB. Furthermore, the proposed design is shown to be capable of providing an extremely wide field of view of ±60°.

  14. An adaptive metamaterial beam with hybrid shunting circuits for extremely broadband control of flexural wave (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangyang; Huang, Guoliang

    2017-04-01

    A great deal of research has been devoted to controlling the dynamic behaviors of phononic crystals and metamaterials by directly tuning the frequency regions and/or widths of their inherent band gaps. Here, we present a novel approach to achieve extremely broadband flexural wave/vibration attenuation based on tunable local resonators made of piezoelectric stacks shunted by hybrid negative capacitance and negative inductance circuits with proof masses attached on a host beam. First, wave dispersion relations of the adaptive metamaterial beam are calculated analytically by using the transfer matrix method. The unique modulus tuning properties induced by the hybrid shunting circuits are then characterized conceptually, from which the frequency dependent modulus tuning curves of the piezoelectric stack located within wave attenuation frequency regions are quantitatively identified. As an example, a flexural wave high-pass band filter with a wave attenuation region from 0 to 23.0 kHz is demonstrated analytically and numerically by using the hybrid shunting circuit, in which the two electric components are connected in series. By changing the connection pattern to be parallel, another super wide wave attenuation region from 13.5 to 73.0 kHz is demonstrated to function as a low-pass filter at a subwavelength scale. The proposed adaptive metamaterial possesses a super wide band gap created both naturally and artificially. Therefore, it can be used for the transient wave mitigation at extremely broadband frequencies such as blast or impact loadings. We envision that the proposed design and approach can open many possibilities in broadband vibration and wave control.

  15. Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zongfu

    2010-08-11

    We use a rigorous electromagnetic approach to analyze the fundamental limit of light-trapping enhancement in grating structures. This limit can exceed the bulk limit of 4n 2, but has significant angular dependency. We explicitly show that 2D gratings provide more enhancement than 1D gratings. We also show the effects of the grating profile’s symmetry on the absorption enhancement limit. Numerical simulations are applied to support the theory. Our findings provide general guidance for the design of grating structures for light-trapping solar cells.

  16. Fiber-bragg grating-loop ringdown method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuji [Starkville, MS

    2008-01-29

    A device comprising a fiber grating loop ringdown (FGLRD) system of analysis is disclosed. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) or Long-Period grating (LPG) written in a section of single mode fused silica fiber is incorporated into a fiber loop. By utilizing the wing areas of the gratings' bandwidth as a wavelength dependent attenuator of the light transmission, a fiber grating loop ringdown concept is formed. One aspect of the present invention is temperature sensing, which has been demonstrated using the disclosed device. Temperature measurements in the areas of accuracy, stability, high temperature, and dynamic range are also described.

  17. Metrology measurements for large-aperture VPH gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jessica R.; Gers, Luke; Heijmans, Jeroen

    2013-09-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES) for the Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) uses four large aperture, high angle of incidence volume phase holographic gratings (VPHG) for high resolution `Galactic archaeology' spectroscopy. The large clear aperture, the high diffraction efficiency, the line frequency homogeneity, and mosaic alignment made manufacturing and testing challenging. We developed new metrology systems at the AAO to verify the performance of these VPH gratings. The measured diffraction efficiencies and line frequency of the VPH gratings received so far meet the vendor's provided data. The wavefront quality for the Blue VPH grating is good but the Green and Red VPH gratings need to be post polishing.

  18. Role of shape ans localized resonances in extraordanary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Ecperiment and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, K.L.; Klein Koerkamp, K.J.; Enoch, S.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; van Hulst, N.F.; Kuipers, L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the aspect ratio of rectangular holes on the transmissivity of periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in optically thick metal films is investigated. The transmissivity is found to be highly dependent on the aspect ratio of the holes. Moreover, the wavelengths of maximum transmissivity

  19. Performance characteristics of continuously grated multicore sensor fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Paul S.; Kremp, Tristan; Feder, Kenneth S.; Ko, Wing; Monberg, Eric M.; Wu, Hongchao; Simoff, Debra A.; Shenk, Scott; Ortiz, Roy M.

    2017-04-01

    We describe the fabrication and performance of a continuously grated twisted multicore fiber sensor array. The grated fiber sensor comprises nearly continuous Bragg gratings along its entire length. The gratings are inscribed over lengths in excess of 10m in fibers with UV transparent coating using a flexible and scalable reel to reel processing system. The arrays are tested using optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). We report on automated analysis routines applied to these OFDR measurements that allow for characterization of 100s of individual grating exposures that make up a continuously grated fiber length. We also report on the spectral loss of the continuously grated fiber, showing that it is suitable for applications with sensors in excess of 100m. Finally, we report on the fiber sensing characteristics by performing measurements of fiber bend using a fiber shape reconstruction algorithm on OFDR traces obtained from four of the fiber cores.

  20. Identifying Broadband Rotational Spectra with Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Prozument, Kirill

    2017-06-01

    A typical broadband rotational spectrum may contain several thousand observable transitions, spanning many species. Identifying the individual spectra, particularly when the dynamic range reaches 1,000:1 or even 10,000:1, can be challenging. One approach is to apply automated fitting routines. In this approach, combinations of 3 transitions can be created to form a "triple", which allows fitting of the A, B, and C rotational constants in a Watson-type Hamiltonian. On a standard desktop computer, with a target molecule of interest, a typical AUTOFIT routine takes 2-12 hours depending on the spectral density. A new approach is to utilize machine learning to train a computer to recognize the patterns (frequency spacing and relative intensities) inherit in rotational spectra and to identify the individual spectra in a raw broadband rotational spectrum. Here, recurrent neural networks have been trained to identify different types of rotational spectra and classify them accordingly. Furthermore, early results in applying convolutional neural networks for spectral object recognition in broadband rotational spectra appear promising. Perez et al. "Broadband Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy for structure determination: The water heptamer." Chem. Phys. Lett., 2013, 571, 1-15. Seifert et al. "AUTOFIT, an Automated Fitting Tool for Broadband Rotational Spectra, and Applications to 1-Hexanal." J. Mol. Spectrosc., 2015, 312, 13-21. Bishop. "Neural networks for pattern recognition." Oxford university press, 1995.

  1. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    Poland joined the EU in 2004 and still has one of the Europe’s least developed information societies. Broadband penetration in Poland is still amongst the lowest in the EU and significantly below the EU average. Considering the present state of information technology, the key challenge for Poland...... will gradually change the previous balance of power. The specific problem of the Polish market is its very poor infrastructure development and the lack of competitors on the fixed market. This translates into limited access to services for end users particularly in the rural areas. A much lower level...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level...

  2. Service Differentiation in Residential Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias

    2004-01-01

    As broadband gains widespread adoption with residential users, revenue generating voice- and video-services have not yet taken off. This slow uptake is often attributed to lack of Quality of Service management in residential broadband networks. To resolve this and induce service variety, network...... access providers are implementing service differentiation in their networks where voice and video gets prioritised before data. This paper discusses the role of network access providers in multipurpose packet based networks and the available migration strategies for supporting multimedia services...... in digital subscriber line (DSL) based residential broadband networks. Four possible implementation scenarios and their technical characteristics and effects are described. To conclude, the paper discusses how network access providers can be induced to open their networks for third party service providers....

  3. Is European Broadband Ready for Smart Grid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kartheepan; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    In this short paper we compare the communication requirements for three Smart Grid scenarios with the availability of broadband and mobile communication networks in Europe. We show that only in the most demanding case - where data is collected and transmitted every second - a standard GSM/GPRS co....../GPRS connection is not enough. Whereas in the less demanding scenarios it is almost all of the European households that can be covered by a standard broadband technology for use with Smart Grid.......In this short paper we compare the communication requirements for three Smart Grid scenarios with the availability of broadband and mobile communication networks in Europe. We show that only in the most demanding case - where data is collected and transmitted every second - a standard GSM...

  4. Efficient vortex generation in sub-wavelength epsilon-near-zero slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We show that a homogeneous and isotropic slab, illuminated by a circularly polarized beam with no topological charge, produces vortices of order two in the opposite circularly polarized components of the reflected and transmitted fields, as a consequence of the difference between transverse magnetic and transverse electric dynamics. In the epsilon-near-zero regime, we find that vortex generation is remarkably efficient in sub-wavelength thick slabs up to the paraxial regime. This physically stems from the fact that a vacuum paraxial field can excite a nonparaxial field inside an epsilon-near-zero slab since it hosts slowly varying fields over physically large portion of the bulk. Our theoretical predictions indicate that epsilon-near-zero media hold great potential as nanophotonic elements for manipulating the angular momentum of the radiation, since they are available without resorting to complicated micro/nano fabrication processes and can operate even at very small (ultraviolet) wavelengths.

  5. Plasmon-enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via subwavelength-confined anisotropic Purcell factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Juanjuan; Chen, Hongyi; Gu, Ying; Zhao, Dongxing; Zhou, Haitao; Zhang, Junxiang; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity through anisotropic Purcell factors provided by plasmon nanostructures. In a three-level atomic system with crossing damping, larger anisotropism of Purcell factors leads to more enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in electromagnetically induced transparency windows. While for fixed anisotropic Purcell factors, Kerr nonlinearity with orthogonal dipole moments increases with the decrease of its crossing damping, and Kerr nonlinearity with nonorthogonal dipole moments is very sensitive to both the value of crossing damping and the orientation of the dipole moments. We design the non-resonant gold nanorods array, which only provides subwavelength-confined anisotropic Purcell factors, and demonstrate that the Kerr nonlinearity of cesium atoms close to the nanorods array can be modulated at the nanoscale. These findings should have potential application in ultracompact quantum logic devices.

  6. Subwavelength InSb-based Slot wavguides for THz transport: concept and practical implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Youqiao; Zhou, Jun; Pištora, Jaromír; Eldlio, Mohamed; Nguyen-Huu, Nghia; Maeda, Hiroshi; Wu, Qiang; Cada, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Seeking better surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguides is of critical importance to construct the frequency-agile terahertz (THz) front-end circuits. We propose and investigate here a new class of semiconductor-based slot plasmonic waveguides for subwavelength THz transport. Optimizations of the key geometrical parameters demonstrate its better guiding properties for simultaneous realization of long propagation lengths (up to several millimeters) and ultra-tight mode confinement (~λ2/530) in the THz spectral range. The feasibility of the waveguide for compact THz components is also studied to lay the foundations for its practical implementations. Importantly, the waveguide is compatible with the current complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication technique. We believe the proposed waveguide configuration could offer a potential for developing a CMOS plasmonic platform and can be designed into various components for future integrated THz circuits (ITCs).

  7. A subwavelength resolution microwave/6.3 GHz camera based on a metamaterial absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunsong; Fan, Xin; Chen, Yunpeng; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Xiao, John Q.

    2017-01-01

    The design, fabrication and characterization of a novel metamaterial absorber based camera with subwavelength spatial resolution are investigated. The proposed camera is featured with simple and lightweight design, easy portability, low cost, high resolution and sensitivity, and minimal image interference or distortion to the original field distribution. The imaging capability of the proposed camera was characterized in both near field and far field ranges. The experimental and simulated near field images both reveal that the camera produces qualitatively accurate images with negligible distortion to the original field distribution. The far field demonstration was done by coupling the designed camera with a microwave convex lens. The far field results further demonstrate that the camera can capture quantitatively accurate electromagnetic wave distribution in the diffraction limit. The proposed camera can be used in application such as non-destructive image and beam direction tracer.

  8. A subwavelength resolution microwave/6.3 GHz camera based on a metamaterial absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunsong; Fan, Xin; Chen, Yunpeng; Wilson, Jeffrey D; Simons, Rainee N; Xiao, John Q

    2017-01-10

    The design, fabrication and characterization of a novel metamaterial absorber based camera with subwavelength spatial resolution are investigated. The proposed camera is featured with simple and lightweight design, easy portability, low cost, high resolution and sensitivity, and minimal image interference or distortion to the original field distribution. The imaging capability of the proposed camera was characterized in both near field and far field ranges. The experimental and simulated near field images both reveal that the camera produces qualitatively accurate images with negligible distortion to the original field distribution. The far field demonstration was done by coupling the designed camera with a microwave convex lens. The far field results further demonstrate that the camera can capture quantitatively accurate electromagnetic wave distribution in the diffraction limit. The proposed camera can be used in application such as non-destructive image and beam direction tracer.

  9. Sub-Wavelength Resonances in Metamaterial-Based Multi-Cylinder Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    Sub-wavelength resonances known to exist in isolated metamaterial-based structures of circular cylindrical shape are investigated with the purpose of determining whether the individual resonances are retained when several of such resonant structures are grouped to form a new structure. To this end......, structures consisting of 1, 2 and 4 sets of metamaterial-based concentric cylinders excited by an electric line current are analyzed numerically. It is demonstrated that these structures recover the resonances of the individual structures even when the cylinders are closely spaced and the new structure...... is thus electrically small. The investigation is conducted through a detailed analysis of the electric near-field distribution as well as the radiation resistance in those cases where the individual structures are made of simple dielectric materials in conjunction with simple, but lossy and dispersive...

  10. Graphene coated subwavelength wires: a theoretical investigation of emission and radiation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    This work analyzes the emission and radiation properties of a single optical emitter embedded in a graphene-coated subwavelength wire. We discuss the modifications of the spontaneous emission rate and the radiation efficiency as a function of the position and orientation of the dipole inside the wire. Our results show that these quantities can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude when the emission frequency coincides with one of the resonance frequencies of the graphene-coated wire. In particular, high-order plasmon resonances are excited when the emitter is moved from the wire center. Modifications resulting from varying the orientation of the dipole in the near field distribution and in the far field intensities are shown.

  11. Asymmetric Fabry-Perot-inspired subwavelength phase shifters for tunable metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Colburn, Shane; Majumdar, Arka

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces with tunable spatial phase functions could benefit numerous applications. Currently, most approaches to tuning rely on mechanical stretching which cannot control phase locally, or by modulating the refractive index to exploit rapid phase changes with the drawback of also modulating amplitude. Here, we propose a method to realize phase modulation at subwavelength length scales while maintaining unity amplitude. Our device is inspired by an asymmetric Fabry-Perot resonator, with pixels comprising a scattering nanopost on top of a distributed Bragg reflector, capable of providing a nearly 2{\\pi} nonlinear phase shift with less than 2% refractive index modulation. Using the designed pixels, we simulate a tunable metasurface composed of an array of moderately coupled nanopost resonators, realizing axicons, vortex beam generators, and aspherical lenses with both variable focal length and in-plane scanning capability, achieving nearly diffraction-limited performance. The experimental feasibility of the ...

  12. Exploiting evanescent-wave amplification for subwavelength low-contrast particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S.; Pereira, S. F.; Urbach, H. P.; Wei, Xukang; El Gawhary, O.

    2017-07-01

    The classical problem of subwavelength particle detection on a flat surface is especially challenging when the refractive index of the particle is close to that of the substrate. We demonstrate a method to improve the detection ability several times for such a situation, by enhancing the "forbidden" evanescent waves in the substrate using the principle of super-resolution with evanescent waves amplification. The working mechanism of the system and experimental validation from a design with a thin single dielectric layer is presented. The resulting system is a simple but complete example of evanescent-wave generation, amplification, and the consequent modulation of the far field. This principle can have far reaching impact in the field of particle detection in several applications ranging from contamination control to interferometric scattering microscopy for biological samples.

  13. Ultradense, Deep Subwavelength Nanowire Array Photovoltaics As Engineered Optical Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Tham, Douglas

    2010-11-10

    A photovoltaic device comprised of an array of 20 nm wide, 32 nm pitch array of silicon nanowires is modeled as an optical material. The nanowire array (NWA) has characteristic device features that are deep in the subwavelength regime for light, which permits a number of simplifying approximations. Using photocurrent measurements as a probe of the absorptance, we show that the NWA optical properties can be accurately modeled with rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The densely structured NWAs behave as homogeneous birefringent materials into the ultraviolet with effective optical properties that are accurately modeled using the dielectric functions of bulk Si and SiO 2, coupled with a physical model for the NWA derived from ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  14. Strong coupling in the sub-wavelength limit using metamaterial nanocavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, A; Campione, S; Liu, S; Montaño, I; Klem, J F; Allerman, A; Wendt, J R; Sinclair, M B; Capolino, F; Brener, I

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between cavity modes and optical transitions leads to new coupled light-matter states in which the energy is periodically exchanged between the matter states and the optical mode. Here we present experimental evidence of optical strong coupling between modes of individual sub-wavelength metamaterial nanocavities and engineered optical transitions in semiconductor heterostructures. We show that this behaviour is generic by extending the results from the mid-infrared (~10 μm) to the near-infrared (~1.5 μm). Using mid-infrared structures, we demonstrate that the light-matter coupling occurs at the single resonator level and with extremely small interaction volumes. We calculate a mode volume of 4.9 × 10(-4) (λ/n)(3) from which we infer that only ~2,400 electrons per resonator participate in this energy exchange process.

  15. Strong coupling in the sub-wavelength limit using metamaterial nanocavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, A.; Campione, S.; Liu, S.; Montaño, I.; Klem, J.F.; Allerman, A; Wendt, J.R.; Sinclair, M.B.; Capolino, F.; Brener, I.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between cavity modes and optical transitions leads to new coupled light-matter states in which the energy is periodically exchanged between the matter states and the optical mode. Here we present experimental evidence of optical strong coupling between modes of individual sub-wavelength metamaterial nanocavities and engineered optical transitions in semiconductor heterostructures. We show that this behaviour is generic by extending the results from the mid-infrared (~10 μm) to the near-infrared (~1.5 μm). Using mid-infrared structures, we demonstrate that the light-matter coupling occurs at the single resonator level and with extremely small interaction volumes. We calculate a mode volume of 4.9 × 10−4 (λ/n)3 from which we infer that only ~2,400 electrons per resonator participate in this energy exchange process. PMID:24287692

  16. Diffraction theory of high numerical aperture subwavelength circular binary phase Fresnel zone plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoju; An, Hongchang; Zhang, Dong; Cui, Guihua; Ruan, Xiukai

    2014-11-03

    An analytical model of vector formalism is proposed to investigate the diffraction of high numerical aperture subwavelength circular binary phase Fresnel zone plate (FZP). In the proposed model, the scattering on the FZP's surface, reflection and refraction within groove zones are considered and diffraction fields are calculated using the vector Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral. The numerical results obtained by the proposed phase thick FZP (TFZP) model show a good agreement with those obtained by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method within the effective extent of etch depth. The optimal etch depths predicted by both methods are approximately equal. The analytical TFZP model is very useful for designing a phase and hybrid amplitude-phase FZP with high-NA and short focal length.

  17. Propagation of coherent transverse waves: Influence of the translational and rotational subwavelength resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valier-Brasier, Tony; Conoir, Jean-Marc

    2017-08-01

    The propagation of coherent transverse waves through a homogeneous elastic medium containing a set of spherical dense inclusions is an interesting topic. In such a material, in addition to the coherent longitudinal wave, two coherent transverse waves can propagate. The modeling used is based on the multiple scattering theory, which requires the scattering coefficients of the single scattering problem. These coefficients are calculated for moving rigid particles, leading to approximations of the two subwavelength dipolar resonances, one associated to a translational motion and the other to a rotational motion. Numerical simulations are carried out in order to compare the effective wavenumbers of the coherent elastic waves through the analysis of their phase velocity and attenuation. This comparison is performed for elastic and moving rigid spheres. It is shown that both dipolar resonances may have a great influence on the propagation of coherent transverse waves.

  18. Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single photon regime

    CERN Document Server

    Roger, Thomas; Bolduc, Eliot; Valente, Joao; Heitz, Julius J F; Jeffers, John; Soci, Cesare; Leach, Jonathan; Couteau, Christophe; Zheludev, Nikolay; Faccio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    The technologies of heating, photovoltaics, water photocatalysis and artificial photosynthesis depend on the absorption of light and novel approaches such as coherent absorption from a standing wave promise total dissipation of energy. Extending the control of absorption down to very low light levels and eventually to the single photon regime is of great interest yet remains largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate the coherent absorption of single photons in a deeply sub-wavelength 50% absorber. We show that while absorption of photons from a travelling wave is probabilistic, standing wave absorption can be observed deterministically, with nearly unitary probability of coupling a photon into a mode of the material, e.g. a localised plasmon when this is a metamaterial excited at the plasmon resonance. These results bring a better understanding of the coherent absorption process, which is of central importance for light harvesting, detection, sensing and photonic data processing applications.

  19. Far field subwavelength imaging and focusing using a wire medium based resonant metalens

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoult, Fabrice; Fink, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This is the second article in a series of two dealing with the concept of "resonant metalens" we introduced recently [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203901 (2010)]. It is a new type of lens capable of coding in time and radiating efficiently in the far field region sub-diffraction information of an object. A proof of concept of such a lens is performed in the microwave range, using a medium made out of a square lattice of parallel conducting wires with finite length. We investigate a sub-wavelength focusing scheme with time reversal and demonstrate experimentally spots with focal widths of {\\lambda}/25. Through a cross-correlation based imaging procedure we show an image reconstruction with a resolution of {\\lambda}/80. Eventually we discuss the limitations of such a lens which reside essentially in losses.

  20. Subwavelength Microstructures Fabrication by Self-Organization Processes in Photopolymerizable Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Denisyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes our research results on nanometers sizes subwavelength nanostructure fabrication by UV curing of special nanocomposite material with self-organization and light self-focusing effects. For this purpose, special UV curable nanocomposite material with a set of effects was developing: light self-focusing in the photopolymer with positive refractive index change, self-organization based on photo-induced nanoparticles transportation, and oxygen-based polymerization threshold. Both holographic and projection lithography writing methods application for microstructure making shows geometrical optical laws perturbation as result of nanocomposite self-organization effects with formation of nanometers-sized high-aspect-ratio structures. Obtained results will be useful for diffraction limit overcoming in projection lithography as well as for deep lithography technique.

  1. Femtosecond dynamics of the transmission of gold arrays of sub-wavelength holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halte, V.; Benabbas, A.; Guidoni, L.; Bigot, J.Y. [IPCMS-GONLO (UMR 7504 CNRS/ULP), 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France)

    2005-07-01

    We have studied the dynamics of arrays of sub-wavelength holes in a gold film using femtosecond pump-probe optical spectroscopy. The real and imaginary parts of the complex non linear dielectric function {epsilon} of the nanostructures strongly depend on the time-dependent redistribution of the electrons excited by the pump pulses. The dynamical behavior of {epsilon} allows us to explain the spectral broadening and the shift of the two resonances present in the linear transmission of the arrays. In addition, we present new experimental results allowing to compare the spectral behavior of the two transmission resonances as well as the transmission window of thick films near the interband transitions of gold. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Design of metamaterial surfaces with broadband absorbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chihhui; Shvets, Gennady

    2012-02-01

    A simple design paradigm for making broadband ultrathin plasmonic absorbers is introduced. The absorber's unit cell is composed of subunits of various sizes, resulting in nearly 100% absorbance at multiple adjacent frequencies and high absorbance over a broad frequency range. A simple theoretical model for designing broadband absorbers is presented. It uses a single-resonance model to describe the optical response of each subunit and employs the series circuit model to predict the overall response. Validity of the circuit model relies on short propagation lengths of the surface plasmons.

  3. Broadband Polarizers Based on Graphene Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Tianjing

    2016-01-01

    We present terahertz (THz) metasurfaces based on aligned rectangular graphene patches placed on top of a dielectric layer to convert the transmitted linearly polarized waves to circular or elliptical polarized radiation. Our results lead to the design of an ultrathin broadband THz quarter-wave plate. In addition, ultrathin metasurfaces based on arrays of L-shaped graphene periodic patches are demonstrated to achieve broadband cross-polarization transformation in reflection and transmission. The proposed metasurface designs have tunable responses and are envisioned to become the building blocks of several integrated THz systems.

  4. Temperature-independent broadband silicon modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H. X.; Li, T. T.; Zhang, J. L.; Wang, X. J.; Zhou, Z.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a 20 Gb/s temperature-independent silicon modulator based on symmetrical Mach-Zehnder Interferometer. The MMI coupler was used as splitter/combiner in symmetrical MZI for balanced propagation. The ±15 °C temperature-independent eye diagrams were measured at 10 Gb/s with over 15 dB extinction ratio. Based on over 30 nm flat optical bandwidth, the broadband modulation was demonstrated from 1530 nm to 1560 nm. The temperature-independent broadband silicon modulator is adaptable to interconnection and communication systems in practice.

  5. Graphical programming for broadband pulse NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, S.B. [Universidade do Estado (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletronica; Oliveira, I.S.; Guimaraes, A.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    In a broadband pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer we often need to sweep the excitation frequency over a wide range, and acquire the spin echo components in quadrature for further spectral analysis. Computer languages such as C or Pascal have been traditionally applied to the development of software control of laboratory equipment, and consequently, the automatization of NMR experiments. However, the use of graphical languages have proved to be a flexible and convenient way for experiment and data acquisition control. In our application we use the graphical language Labview for the automatic control of a broadband pulse NMR spectrometer, dedicated to the study of magnetic metal systems. (author) 2 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Participation in the broadband society in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to provide an empirical overview of broadband developments in Denmark. The overview includes sections on coverage and penetration, connection speeds, retail prices, competition, interconnection prices, and residential access to Internet. The documentation shows...... that Denmark is doing well in most international comparisons, but retail prices are still relatively high and connection speeds are lower than the best performing countries. In terms of households, approximately three quarters have broadband access. Denmark - and a number of other countries as well - has thus...

  7. Polarization insensitive, broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, James; Ma, Yong; Saha, Shimul; Khalid, Ata; Cumming, David R S

    2011-09-01

    We present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a polarization insensitive broadband resonant terahertz metamaterial absorber. By stacking metal-insulator layers with differing structural dimensions, three closely positioned resonant peaks are merged into one broadband absorption spectrum. Greater than 60% absorption is obtained across a frequency range of 1.86 THz where the central resonance frequency is 5 THz. The FWHM of the device is 48%, which is two and half times greater than the FWHM of a single layer structure. Such metamaterials are promising candidates as absorbing elements for bolometric terahertz imaging.

  8. Techno-Economics of Residential Broadband Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldor Matthias

    2007-01-01

    og kombinerer en solid teknisk viden om telenet og tjenester med økonomisk teori og teori for regulering af telekommunikation. På grundlag heraf opstilles en tekno-økonomisk omkostningsmodel, der simulerer kapitaludgifter og ydelser. Som et særligt element i modellen benyttes spilteori til......-Economics of Residential Broadband Deployment. It investigates the current market situation of broadband services, where the electricity companies challenge the incumbent telecom operators by extensive deployment of optical fibres to the end users. Very often the old telecom operators have a well-developed infrastructure...

  9. Optically resonant subwavelength films for tamper-indicating tags and seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    2015-05-23

    We present the design, modeling and performance of a proof-of-concept tamper indicating approach that exploits newly-developed subwavelength-patterned films. These films have a nanostructure-dependent resonant optical reflection that is wavelength, angle, and polarization dependent. As such, they can be tailored to fabricate overlay transparent films for tamper indication and authentication of sensitive or controlled materials not possible with currently-known technologies. An additional advantage is that the unique optical signature is dictated by the geometry and fabrication process of the nanostructures in the film, rather than on the material used. The essential structure unit in the subwavelength resonant coating is a nanoscale Open-Ring Resonator (ORR). This building block is fabricated by coating a dielectric nanoscale template with metal to form a hemispherical shell-like structure. This curved metallic shell structure has a cross-section with an intrinsic capacitance and inductance and is thus the optical equivalent to the well-known “LC” circuit where the capacitance and inductance are determined by the nanoshell dimensions. For structures with sub 100 nm scale, this resonance occurs in the visible electromagnetic spectrum, and in the IR for larger shells. Tampering of the film would be visible though misalignment of the angular dependence of the features in the film. It is additionally possible to add in intrinsic oxidation and strain sensitive matrix materials to further complicate tamper repair and counterfeiting. Cursory standoff readout would be relatively simple using a combination of a near-infrared (or visible) LED flashlight and polarizer or passively using room lighting illumination and a dispersive detector.

  10. Optical Properties of Topological Insulator Bragg Gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Crosse, J A

    2015-01-01

    Using the transfer matrix formalism, we study the transmission properties of a Bragg grating constructed from a layered axionic material. Such a material can be realized by a topological insulator subject to a time-symmetry breaking perturbation, such as an external magnetic field or surface magnetic impurities. Whilst the reflective properties of the structure are only negligibly changed by the presence of the axionic material, the grating induces Faraday and Kerr rotations in the transmitted and reflected light, respectively. These rotations are proportional to the number of layers and the strength of the time-symmetry breaking perturbation. In areas of low reflectivity the rotation angle of TE polarization decreases with increasing incidence angle while the TM polarization increases with increasing incidence angle with the converse occurring in areas of high reflectivity. The formalism and results will be useful in the development of optical and photonic devices based on topological insulators, devices whi...

  11. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  12. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  13. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  14. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  15. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  16. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  17. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  18. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  19. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  20. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  1. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  2. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  3. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  4. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  5. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  6. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  7. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block -12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  8. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  9. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  10. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  11. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  12. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  13. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  14. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  15. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block -12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  16. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  17. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  18. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  19. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  20. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  1. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  2. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  3. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  4. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  5. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  6. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  7. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  8. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  9. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  10. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  11. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  12. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  13. Novel gratings for next-generation instruments of astronomical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebizuka, N.; Okamoto, T.; Takeda, M.; Hosobata, T.; Yamagata, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Uomoto, M.; Shimatsu, T.; Sato, S.; Hashimoto, N.; Tanaka, I.; Hattori, T.; Ozaki, S.; Aoki, W.

    2017-05-01

    We will introduce current status of development of a birefringence volume phase holographic (B-VPH) grating, volume binary (VB) grating and reflector facet transmission (RFT) grating developing as the novel dispersive optical element for astronomical instruments for the 8.2m Subaru Telescope, for next generation 30 m class huge ground-based telescopes and for next generation large space-bone telescopes. We will also introduce a hybrid grism developed for MOIRCS (Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph) of the Subaru Telescope and a quasi-Bragg (QB) immersion grating. Test fabrication of B-VPH gratings with a liquid crystal (LC) of UV curable and normal LCs or a resin of visible light curable are performed. We successfully fabricated VB gratings of silicon as a mold with ridges of a high aspect ratio by means of the cycle etching process, oxidation and removal of silicon oxide. The RFT grating which is a surface-relief (SR) transmission grating with sawtooth shaped ridges of an acute vertex angle. The hybrid grism, as a prototype of the RFT grating, combines a high-index prism and SR transmission grating with sawtooth shape ridges of an acute vertex angle. The mold of the SR grating for the hybrid grism on to a work of Ni-P alloy of non-electrolysic plating successfully fabricated by using our ultra-precision machine and a single-crystal diamond bite. The QB immersion grating was fabricated by a combination of an inclined QB grating, Littrow prism and surface reflection mirror.

  14. A MANUALLY OPERATED CASSAVA GRATING MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1984-09-01

    Sep 1, 1984 ... shaft of this gear (D) is connected by a 1:2 chain drive ... of the handle produces half a rotation of gear (D). This means that for one rotation of the handle, the grating drum rotates. 115/(2x11) or 5.23 times. Fig. 1 Photograph of Prototype ... If the top surface of the wedge were projected to intersect the.

  15. 1550 nm high contrast grating VCSEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Christopher; Rao, Yi; Hofmann, Werner; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2010-07-19

    We demonstrate an electrically pumped high contrast grating (HCG) VCSEL operating at 1550 nm incorporating a proton implant-defined aperture. Output powers of >1 mW are obtained at room temperature under continuous wave operation. Devices operate continuous wave at temperatures exceeding 60 degrees C. The novel device design, which is grown in a single epitaxy step, may enable lower cost long wavelength VCSELs.

  16. Detailed Investigations of Load Coefficients on Grates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Frigaard, Peter

    In this report is presented the results of model tests carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, aalborg University (AAU) on behalf of DONG Energy A/S and Vattenfall A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was to investigate the load coefficient on different grates and a solid plate for designi...... offshore windmill access platforms against run-up generated forces with special attention to the influence of air entrainment and the angle of attack....

  17. Migration factors among broadband services: Panel data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shinohar, Sobee; Akematsu, Yuji; Tsuji, Masatsugu

    2012-01-01

    Providing nationwide deployment of broadband services has become an important national agenda. The U.S. announced a National Broadband Plan and EU a Digital Agenda for Europe, both of which aim at providing access to 100 Mbps broadband services by 2020 to substantial numbers of households. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the migration factors among broadband services, namely CATV (BB), DSL and FTTx, in OECD 30 countries. In so doing, we focus especially on migration from CATV (BB) and...

  18. Broadband Grounded Vertical Antennas for 30-180 MHZ (VHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    antennas are well known for their broadband gain (monocone, bicone ) but are never combined with a monopole. An eccentric combination of broadband...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Broadband Grounded Vertical Antennas For 30-180 MZH (VHF) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...18 Attorney Docket No. 102536 1 of 17 BROADBAND GROUNDED VERTICAL ANTENNAS FOR 30-180 MHZ (VHF) STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST

  19. Grating THz laser with optical pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Jed; Haji-saeed, Bahareh; Woods, Charles; Kierstead, John

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we present a design for a widely tunable solid-state optically and electrically pumped THz laser based on the Smith-Purcell free-electron laser. In the free-electron laser, an energetic electron beam pumps a metallic grating to generate surface plasmons. Our solid-state optically pumped design consists of a thin layer of dielectic, such as SiNx, sandwiched between a corrugated structure and a thin metal or semiconductor layer. The lower layer is for current streaming, and replaces the electron beam in the original design. The upper layer consists of one micro-grating for coupling the electromagnetic field in, another for coupling out, and a nano-grating for coupling with the current in the lower layer for electromagnetic field generation. The surface plasmon waves generated from the upper layer by an external electromagnetic field, and the lower layer by the applied current, are coupled. Emission enhancement occurs when the plasmonic waves in both layers are resonantly coupled.

  20. Grating Spectroscopes and How to Use Them

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Ken M

    2012-01-01

    Transmission grating spectroscopes look like simple filters and are designed to screw into place on the eyepiece tube of a telescope for visual use, or into a camera adapter for digicam or CCD imaging. They are relatively inexpensive and by far the easiest type of astronomical spectroscope to use, and so are the starting point for most beginners. Using the most popular commercially made filter gratings - from Rainbow Optics in the United States to Star Analyser in the United Kingdon - as examples, the book provides all the information needed to set up and use the grating to obtain stellar spectra. It also presents methods of analyzing the results. No heavy mathematics or formulas are involved, although a reasonable level of proficiency in using an astronomic telescope and, if relevant, imaging camera, is assumed. This book contains many practical hints and tips - something that is almost essential to success when starting out. It encourages new users to get quick results, and by following the worked examples,...

  1. Real-time broadband terahertz spectroscopic imaging by using a high-sensitivity terahertz camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Natsuki; Konishi, Kuniaki; Nemoto, Natsuki; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging has a strong potential for applications because many molecules have fingerprint spectra in this frequency region. Spectroscopic imaging in the THz region is a promising technique to fully exploit this characteristic. However, the performance of conventional techniques is restricted by the requirement of multidimensional scanning, which implies an image data acquisition time of several minutes. In this study, we propose and demonstrate a novel broadband THz spectroscopic imaging method that enables real-time image acquisition using a high-sensitivity THz camera. By exploiting the two-dimensionality of the detector, a broadband multi-channel spectrometer near 1 THz was constructed with a reflection type diffraction grating and a high-power THz source. To demonstrate the advantages of the developed technique, we performed molecule-specific imaging and high-speed acquisition of two-dimensional (2D) images. Two different sugar molecules (lactose and D-fructose) were identified with fingerprint spectra, and their distributions in one-dimensional space were obtained at a fast video rate (15 frames per second). Combined with the one-dimensional (1D) mechanical scanning of the sample, two-dimensional molecule-specific images can be obtained only in a few seconds. Our method can be applied in various important fields such as security and biomedicine.

  2. Field Studies of Broadband Aerosol Optical Extinction in the Ultraviolet Spectral Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Attwood, A.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols influence the Earth's radiative budget by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. The optical properties of aerosols vary as a function of wavelength, but few measurements have reported the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction cross sections and complex refractive indices. In the case of brown carbon, its wavelength-dependent absorption in the ultraviolet spectral region has been suggested as an important component of aerosol radiative forcing. We describe a new field instrument to measure aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength, using cavity enhanced spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The instrument consists of two broadband channels which span the 360-390 and 385-420 nm spectral regions using two light emitting diodes (LED) and a grating spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. We deployed this instrument during the Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment during Fall 2012 to measure biomass burning aerosol, and again during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study in summer 2013 to measure organic aerosol in the Southeastern U.S. In both field experiments, we determined aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength and can interpret this together with size distribution and composition measurements to characterize the aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing.

  3. Broadband: An Insight and Its Benefits | Devardhi | Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is viewed by some as a double-edged sword: networking could promote economic development, yet electronic commerce also has the potential to displace local businesses. The paper focuses on defining broadband, identifying and assessing the benefits of broadband technologies. Although broadband technologies are ...

  4. 75 FR 36071 - Framework for Broadband Internet Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... COMMISSION Framework for Broadband Internet Service AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice..., broadband Internet service. Recent developments--including a decision of the United States Court of Appeals... broadband Internet service. DATES: Comments must be submitted by July 15, 2010, and reply comments must be...

  5. Modelling and control of broadband traffic using multiplicative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Modelling of broadband network traffic has emerged as an active area in the last decade. This has been primarily ... that broadband network traffic exhibits statistical self-similarity triggered off an immense volume of ...... with CAC control techniques and adaptive prediction of delay for bandwidth management in broadband ...

  6. 77 FR 36903 - Accelerating Broadband Infrastructure Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... and wireless broadband infrastructure. The Federal Government controls nearly 30 percent of all land... their respective agencies, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Science and Technology... of all application and other requirements; ensuring consistent interpretation and application of all...

  7. Catalyzing Broadband Internet in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to inform policies that help marginalized groups in Africa, such as women and the poor, to take advantage of the social and economic opportunities of broadband Internet. Internet access is critical for social and economic development in developing countries. According to a 2009 World Bank study, a 10% ...

  8. Broadband Minimum Variance Beamforming for Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    A minimum variance (MV) approach for near-field beamforming of broadband data is proposed. The approach is implemented in the frequency domain, and it provides a set of adapted, complex apodization weights for each frequency subband. The performance of the proposed MV beamformer is tested on simu...

  9. Broadband Satellite Technologies and Markets Assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    1999-01-01

    The current usage of broadband (data rate greater than 64 kilobits per second (kbs)) for multimedia network computer applications is increasing, and the need for network communications technologies and systems to support this use is also growing. Satellite technology will likely be an important part of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the Global Information Infrastructure (GII) in the next decade. Several candidate communications technologies that may be used to carry a portion of the increased data traffic have been reviewed, and estimates of the future demand for satellite capacity have been made. A study was conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center to assess the satellite addressable markets for broadband applications. This study effort included four specific milestones: (1) assess the changing nature of broadband applications and their usage, (2) assess broadband satellite and terrestrial technologies, (3) estimate the size of the global satellite addressable market from 2000 to 2010, and (4) identify how the impact of future technology developments could increase the utility of satellite-based transport to serve this market.

  10. 75 FR 10455 - Broadband Initiatives Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service RIN 0572-ZA01 Broadband Initiatives Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service... fraud, waste and abuse, contact [email protected] for BIP. You may obtain additional...

  11. Broadband Interferometer for Measuring Transmitted Wavefronts of Optical Bandpass Filters for HST (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucarut, R. A.; Leviton, D. B.

    1998-01-01

    The transmitted wavefronts of optical filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) are characterized using the Wildly and Openly Modified Broadband Achromatic Twyman Green (WOMBAT) Interferometer developed in the NASA/GSFC Optics Branch's Diffraction Grating Evaluation Facility (DGEF). Because only four of thirty-three of ACS's optical bandpass filters transmit the 633 nm light of most commercial interferometers, a broadband interferometer is required to verify specified transmitted wavefront of ACS filters. WOMBAT's design is a hybrid of the BAT interferometer developed by JPL used for HST Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC-2) filters and a WYKO 400 phase shifting interferometer. It includes a broadband light source, monochromator, off-axis, parabolic collimating and camera mirrors, an aluminum-coated fused silica beam splitter, flat retroreflecting mirrors for the test and reference arms, and a LTV-sensitive CCD camera. An outboarded, piezo-electric phase shifter holds the flat mirror in the interferometer's reference arm. The interferometer is calibrated through interaction between the WYKO system's software and WONMAT hardware for the test wavelength of light entering the beam splitter. Phase-shifted interferograms of the filter mounted in the test arm are analyzed using WYKO's Vision' software. Filters as large as 90 mm in diameter have been measured over a wavelength range from 200 to 1100 nm with a sensitivity of lambda/200 rms at lambda = 633 nm. Results of transmitted wavefront measurements are shown for ACS fixed band pass and spatially-variable bandpass filters for a variety of wavelengths.

  12. Phasor analysis of binary diffraction gratings with different fill factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez, Antonio [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Optica y TecnologIa Electronica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain); Sanchez-Lopez, Ma del Mar [Instituto de BioingenierIa y Departamento de Fisica y Arquitectura de Computadores, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain); Moreno, Ignacio [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Optica y TecnologIa Electronica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain)

    2007-09-11

    In this work, we present a simple analysis of binary diffraction gratings with different slit widths relative to the grating period. The analysis is based on a simple phasor technique directly derived from the Huygens principle. By introducing a slit phasor and a grating phasor, the intensity of the diffracted orders and the grating's resolving power can be easily obtained without applying the usual Fourier transform operations required for these calculations. The proposed phasor technique is mathematically equivalent to the Fourier transform calculation of the diffraction order amplitude, and it can be useful to explain binary diffraction gratings in a simple manner in introductory physics courses. This theoretical analysis is illustrated with experimental results using a liquid crystal device to display diffraction gratings with different fill factors.

  13. The broadband debate: A documentary research on the broadband policy in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Against a current trend of investing in the next generation networks (NGNs) by using public funds, the Australian government has recently initiated a so-called National Broadband Networks (NBN) project to invest up to AUD$36 billion tax payer's money on building a national wide fibre broadband network aiming to cover 93 per cent Australian by 2020. As being the most costly infrastructure-building project in Australian history, the NBN project will use a public-private-partnership as the instr...

  14. Coherently controlling Raman-induced grating in atomic media

    OpenAIRE

    Arkhipkin, V. G.; Myslivets, S. A.; Timofeev, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    We consider dynamically controllable periodic structures, called Raman induced gratings, in three- and four-level atomic media, resulting from Raman interaction in a standing-wave pump. These gratings are due to periodic spatial modulation of the Raman nonlinearity and fundamentally differ from the ones based on electromagnetically induced transparency. The transmission and reflection spectra of such gratings can be simultaneously amplified and controlled by varying the pump field intensity. ...

  15. Diffraction Gratings for High-Intensity Laser Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britten, J

    2008-01-23

    The scattering of light into wavelength-dependent discrete directions (orders) by a device exhibiting a periodic modulation of a physical attribute on a spatial scale similar to the wavelength of light has been the subject of study for over 200 years. Such a device is called a diffraction grating. Practical applications of diffraction gratings, mainly for spectroscopy, have been around for over 100 years. The importance of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy for the measurement of myriad properties of matter can hardly be overestimated. Since the advent of coherent light sources (lasers) in the 1960's, applications of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy have further exploded. Lasers have opened a vast application space for gratings, and apace, gratings have enabled entirely new classes of laser systems. Excellent reviews of the history, fundamental properties, applications and manufacturing techniques of diffraction gratings up to the time of their publication can be found in the books by Hutley (1) and more recently Loewen and Popov (2). The limited scope of this chapter can hardly do justice to such a comprehensive subject, so the focus here will be narrowly limited to characteristics required for gratings suitable for high-power laser applications, and methods to fabricate them. A particular area of emphasis will be on maximally-efficient large-aperture gratings for short-pulse laser generation.

  16. Strong phase-controlled fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yisi; Dong, Liang; Pan, J. J.; Gu, Claire

    2003-05-01

    Dispersion-compensating fiber Bragg gratings with ~99.9% reflectivity that are made by continuous apodization and phase control are demonstrated. These strong dispersion-compensating gratings provide precision second-order, third-order, or even more complex dispersion compensation, as well as sufficient transmission isolation to be used at add-drop stages without additional filtering. A 99.84% grating with a constant -700-ps/nm dispersion and a 99.94% grating with dispersion varying linearly from 1000 to -1000 ps/nm are demonstrated.

  17. Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars Henning; Jensen, Jesper Bo; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2006-01-01

    -period grating it was possible to measure the thickness of the layer. The long-period gratings were inscribed in a large-mode area silica photonic crystal fiber with a CO2 laser. The thicknesses of a monolayer of poly-L-lysine and double-stranded DNA was measured using the device. We find that the grating has......We present experimental results showing that long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers can be used as sensitive biochemical sensors. A layer of biomolecules was immobilized on the sides of the holes of the photonic crystal fiber and by observing the shift in the resonant wavelength of a long...

  18. Fiber facet gratings for high power fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Martin; Vanis, Jan; Baravets, Yauhen; Todorov, Filip; Ctyroky, Jiri; Honzatko, Pavel

    2017-12-01

    We numerically investigated the properties of diffraction gratings designated for fabrication on the facet of an optical fiber. The gratings are intended to be used in high-power fiber lasers as mirrors either with a low or high reflectivity. The modal reflectance of low reflectivity polarizing grating has a value close to 3% for TE mode while it is significantly suppressed for TM mode. Such a grating can be fabricated on laser output fiber facet. The polarizing grating with high modal reflectance is designed as a leaky-mode resonant diffraction grating. The grating can be etched in a thin layer of high index dielectric which is sputtered on fiber facet. We used refractive index of Ta2O5 for such a layer. We found that modal reflectance can be close to 0.95 for TE polarization and polarization extinction ratio achieves 18 dB. Rigorous coupled wave analysis was used for fast optimization of grating parameters while aperiodic rigorous coupled wave analysis, Fourier modal method and finite difference time domain method were compared and used to compute modal reflectance of designed gratings.

  19. VCSELs and silicon light sources exploiting SOI grating mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    grating works as a highly-reflective mirror as well as routes light into a Si in-plane output waveguide connected to the grating. In the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) version, there is no in-plane output waveguide connected to the grating. Thus, light is vertically emitted through...... the Bragg reflector. Numerical simulations show that both the silicon light source and the VCSEL exploiting SOI grating mirrors have superior performances, compared to existing silicon light sources and long wavelength VCSELs. These devices are highly adequate for chip-level optical interconnects as well...

  20. Gratings for Increasing Solid-State Laser Gain and Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandson, A C; Britten, J A; Bonlie, J D

    2010-04-16

    We introduce new concepts for increasing the efficiency of solid state lasers by using gratings deposited on laser slabs or disks. The gratings improve efficiency in two ways: (1) by coupling out of the slab deleterious amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and (2) by increasing the absorption efficiency of pump light. The gratings also serve as antireflective coatings for the extracting laser beam. To evaluate the potential for such coatings to improve laser performance, we calculated optical properties of a 2500 groove/mm, tantala-silica grating on a 1cm x 4cm x 8cm titanium-doped sapphire slab and performed ray-trace calculations for ASE and pump light. Our calculations show substantial improvements in efficiency due to grating ASE-coupling properties. For example, the gratings reduce pump energy required to produce a 0.6/cm gain coefficient by 9%, 20% and 35% for pump pulse durations of 0.5 {micro}s, 1{micro}s and 3{micro}s, respectively. Gratings also increase 532-nm pump-light absorption efficiency, particularly when the product slab overall absorption is small. For example, when the single-pass absorption is 1 neper, absorption efficiency increases from 66%, without gratings, to 86%, when gratings are used.

  1. Bragg Fibers with Soliton-like Grating Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaychuk S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamical system corresponding to the optical holography in a nonlocal nonlinear medium with dissipation contains stable localized spatio-temporal states, namely the grid dissipative solitons. These solitons display a non-uniform profile of the grating amplitude, which has the form of the dark soliton in the reflection geometry. The transformation of the grating amplitude gives rise many new atypical effects for the beams diffracted on such grating, and they are very suitable for the fiber Brass gratings. The damped nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived that describes the properties of the grid dissipative soliton.

  2. Grating coupler on single-crystal lithium niobate thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihua; Wang, Yiwen; Jiang, Yunpeng; Kong, Ruirui; Hu, Hui

    2017-10-01

    The grating coupler on single-crystal lithium niobate thin film (lithium niobate on insulator, LNOI) was designed. A bottom reflector was added in the LNOI material to improve the coupling efficiency. The grating structure was optimized by FDTD method. The material parameters such as layer thickness of lithium niobate thin film, SiO2 thickness were discussed with respect to the coupling efficiency, and the tolerances of grating period, etch depth, groove width and fiber position were also studied systematically. The simulated maximum coupling efficiency from a grating coupler with (without) bottom reflector to a single-mode fiber is about 78% (40%) in z-cut LNOI for TE polarization.

  3. Management of broadband technology and innovation policy, deployment, and use

    CERN Document Server

    Choudrie, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    When one considers broadband, the Internet immediately springs to mind. However, broadband is impacting society in many ways. For instance, broadband networks can be used to deliver healthcare or community related services to individuals who don't have computers, have distance as an issue to contend with, or don't use the internet. Broadband can support better management of scarce energy resources with the advent of smart grids, enables improved teleworking capacity and opens up a world of new entertainment possibilities. Yet scholarly examinations of broadband technology have so far examin

  4. Increasing the field of view in grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging using stitched gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, J; Willner, M; Schröter, T; Hofmann, A; Rieger, J; Koch, F; Birnbacher, L; Schüttler, M; Kunka, D; Meyer, P; Faisal, A; Amberger, M; Duttenhofer, T; Weber, T; Hipp, A; Ehn, S; Walter, M; Herzen, J; Schulz, J; Pfeiffer, F; Mohr, J

    2016-03-17

    Grating based X-ray differential phase contrast imaging (DPCI) allows for high contrast imaging of materials with similar absorption characteristics. In the last years' publications, small animals or parts of the human body like breast, hand, joints or blood vessels have been studied. Larger objects could not be investigated due to the restricted field of view limited by the available grating area. In this paper, we report on a new stitching method to increase the grating area significantly: individual gratings are merged on a carrier substrate. Whereas the grating fabrication process is based on the LIGA technology (X-ray lithography and electroplating) different cutting and joining methods have been evaluated. First imaging results using a 2×2 stitched analyzer grating in a Talbot-Lau interferometer have been generated using a conventional polychromatic X-ray source. The image quality and analysis confirm the high potential of the stitching method to increase the field of view considerably.

  5. UV laser fabrication and modification of fiber Bragg gratings by stitching sub-gratings with in situ fluorescence monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yongzhang; Yun, Victor E; Goldhar, Julius

    2017-08-20

    We present a method for synthesizing complex fiber Bragg gratings using femtosecond UV laser pulses and image projection from a small phase mask. Fiber gratings with arbitrary spectral reflectivity can be achieved by stitching short grating segments with proper phases. The relative phase between neighboring sub-gratings is controlled using in situ UV-excited fluorescence monitoring. During the fabrication, we are able to monitor the amplitude and phase of each segment right after it was written. This is accomplished by scanning the phase mask with attenuated UV laser pulses and observing modulation in fluorescence. This information allows us to precisely set the position of fiber for the next segment. A fabricated grating segment can also be effectively erased with additional out-of-phase UV exposure. Bragg gratings over both telecom C-band and L-band can be conveniently achieved with this simple setup and a single phase mask.

  6. Local government broadband policies for areas with limited Internet access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Arai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their wide diffusion in developed countries, broadband services are still limited in areas where providing them is not profitable for private telecom carriers. To address this, many local governments in Japan have implemented broadband deployment projects subsidized by the national government. In this paper, we discuss local government broadband policies based on survey data collected from municipalities throughout the country. With the support of national promotion policies, broadband services were rapidly introduced to most local municipalities in Japan during the 2000s. Local government deployment policies helped to reduce the number of areas with no broadband access. A business model based on the Indefeasible Right of Use (IRU contract between a private telecom carrier and a local government has been developed in recent years. Even local governments without the technical capacity to operate a broadband business can introduce broadband services into their territory using the IRU business model.

  7. Modular sub-wavelength diffractive light modulator for high-definition holographic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Richard; Rochus, Veronique; Rottenberg, Xavier; Cosemans, Stefan; Haspeslagh, Luc; Severi, Simone; Van der Plas, Geert; Lafruit, Gauthier; Donnay, Stephane

    2013-02-01

    Holography is undoubtedly the ultimate 3D visualization technology, offering true 3D experience with all the natural depth cues, without the undesirable side-effects of current stereoscopic systems (uncomfortable glasses, strained eyes, fatiguing experience). Realization of a high-definition holographic display however requires a number of breakthroughs from existing prototypes. One of the main challenges lies in technology scaling, as holography is based on light diffraction and interference - to achieve wide viewing angles, the light-modulating pixels need to be spaced close to or below the wavelength of the used visible light. Furthermore, achieving high 3D image quality, hundreds of millions of such individually programmable pixels are needed. As a solution, we develop a modular sub-wavelength light modulator, consisting of three main sub-systems: the optical sub-system, comprising a 2D array of sub-wavelength pixels; the driver sub-system for individual pixel control, and the holographic computational engine. Based on conclusions from our state-of-the art studies, numerous experiments and holographic demonstrators, we have focused on reflective phase-modulating MEMS-based system and its scaling beyond 500nm pitch. We have devised a unique binary-programmable phase-modulating pixel architecture realizing vertical pixel displacement of up to 150nm at 500nm by 500nm pixel pitch, while sustaining low operating voltages compatible with CMOS driver circuitry. IMEC SiGe MEMS technology enables integration of the CMOS pixel-line drivers, scan-line drivers and I/O circuits underneath the 2D MEMS array, resulting in a compact and modular single-chip system design. Refresh rates of few hundred frames per second are achieved using our patented segmented driver-array architecture. Integrated circuits implementing parallel holographic computational engines can be added to the module using advanced 3D stacking technology. Herein we further report on our progress in realizing

  8. Computer simulation of multiple dynamic photorefractive gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben

    1998-01-01

    The benefits of a direct visualization of space-charge grating buildup are described. The visualization is carried out by a simple repetitive computer program, which simulates the basic processes in the band-transport model and displays the result graphically or in the form of numerical data....... The simulation sheds light on issues that are not amenable to analytical solutions, such as the spectral content of the wave forms, cross talk in three-beam interaction, and the range of applications of the band-transport model. (C) 1998 Optical Society of America....

  9. Low-Dispersion Fibre Bragg Gratings Written Using the Polarization Control Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deyerl, Hans Jürgen; Plougmann, Nikolai; Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2002-01-01

    We present two fibre Bragg gratings with reduced in-band dispersion for DWDM applications. The gratings were designed by the inverse scattering method and fabricated using the novel polarization control method for UV-writing of advanced gratings.......We present two fibre Bragg gratings with reduced in-band dispersion for DWDM applications. The gratings were designed by the inverse scattering method and fabricated using the novel polarization control method for UV-writing of advanced gratings....

  10. High-Resolution Broadband Spectral Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J

    2002-08-09

    We demonstrate solar spectra from a novel interferometric method for compact broadband high-resolution spectroscopy. The spectral interferometer (SI) is a hybrid instrument that uses a spectrometer to externally disperse the output of a fixed-delay interferometer. It also has been called an externally dispersed interferometer (EDI). The interferometer can be used with linear spectrometers for imaging spectroscopy or with echelle spectrometers for very broad-band coverage. EDI's heterodyning technique enhances the spectrometer's response to high spectral-density features, increasing the effective resolution by factors of several while retaining its bandwidth. The method is extremely robust to instrumental insults such as focal spot size or displacement. The EDI uses no moving parts, such as purely interferometric FTS spectrometers, and can cover a much wider simultaneous bandpass than other internally dispersed interferometers (e.g. HHS or SHS).

  11. Broadband active electrically small superconductor antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornev, V. K.; Kolotinskiy, N. V.; Sharafiev, A. V.; Soloviev, I. I.; Mukhanov, O. A.

    2017-10-01

    A new type of broadband active electrically small antenna (ESA) based on superconducting quantum arrays (SQAs) has been proposed and developed. These antennas are capable of providing both sensing and amplification of broadband electromagnetic signals with a very high spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR)—up to 100 dB (and even more)—with high sensitivity. The frequency band can range up to tens of gigahertz, depending on Josephson junction characteristic frequency, set by fabrication. In this paper we review theoretical and experimental studies of SQAs and SQA-based antenna prototypes of both transformer and transformer-less types. The ESA prototypes evaluated were fabricated using a standard Nb process with critical current density 4.5 kA cm-2. Measured device characteristics, design issues and comparative analysis of various ESA types, as well as requirements for interfaces, are reviewed and discussed.

  12. An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon modes that destructively interfere with the dipolar mode and generate electromagnetically induced absorption. (ii) The patterned graphene layers biased at different gate voltages backedup with dielectric substrates are stacked on top of each other. The resulting absorber is polarization dependent but has an ultra-broadband of operation. (iii) Graphene\\'s damping factor is increased by lowering its electron mobility to 1000cm 2=Vs. Indeed, numerical experiments demonstrate that with only three layers, bandwidth of 90% absorption can be extended upto 7THz, which is drastically larger than only few THz of bandwidth that can be achieved with existing metallic/graphene absorbers. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  13. Broadband luminescence in liquid-solid transition

    CERN Document Server

    Achilov, M F; Trunilina, O V

    2002-01-01

    Broadband luminescence (BBL) intensity behavior in liquid-solid transition in polyethyleneglycol-600 has been established. Oscillation of BBL intensity observed in liquid-polycrystal transition are not found to observed in liquid-amorphous solid transition. It is shown that application of the theory of electron state tails to interpretation of BBL spectral properties in liquids demands restriction. BBL spectroscopy may be applied for optimization of preparation of polymers with determined properties. (author)

  14. The design of broadband radar absorbing surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Go, Han Suk

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited There has been a growing and widespread interest in radar-absorbing material technology. As the name implies, radar absorbing materials or RAM's are coatings whose electric and magnetic properties have been selected to allow the absorption of microwave energy at discrete or broadband frequencies. In military applications low radar cross section (RCS) of a vehicle may be required in order to escape detection while a covert mission is being...

  15. Switched Broadband Services For The Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Don M.

    1990-01-01

    In considering the deployment of fiber optics to the residence, two critical questions arise: what are the leading services that could be offered to justify the required investment; and what is the nature of the business that would offer these services to the consumer ? This talk will address these two questions together with the related issue of how the "financial engine" of today's television distribution infrastructure - TV advertising - would be affected by an open access system based on fiber optics coupled with broadband switching. On the business side, the talk concludes that the potential for open ended capacity expansion, fair competition between service providers, and new interactive services inherent in an open access, switched broadband system are the critical items in differentiating it from existing video and TV distribution systems. On the question of broadband services, the talk will highlight several new opportunities together with some findings from recent market research conducted by BNR. The talk will show that there are variations on existing services plus many new services that could be offered and which have real consumer appeal. The postulated open access system discussed here is visualized as having ultimately 1,000 to 2,000 video channels available to the consumer. Although this may appear to hopelessly fragment the TV audience and destroy the current TV advertising infrastructure, the technology of open access, switched broadband will present many new advertising techniques, which have the potential to be far more effective than those available today. Some of these techniques will be described in this talk.

  16. Compact Bragg Gratings for Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Nikolajsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    By introducing periodic thickness-modulation of thin metal stripes embedded in a dielectric, we realize compact and efficient Bragg gratings for long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) operating around 1550 nm. We measure reflection and transmission spectra of the gratings having different...

  17. Holographic gratings in photorefractive polymers without external electric field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N.; Lyuksyutov, S.; Buchhave, Preben

    1997-01-01

    Using anomalous large diffusion we report a recording of reflection type gratings in a PVK-based photorefractive polymer without any external electric field. The diffraction efficiency of the gratings was measured to be 7%. An efficient modulation of beams during two-beam coupling up to 12...

  18. Transmission gratings for beam sampling and beam splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, E K; Loewen, E G; Neviére, M

    1996-06-01

    Transmission gratings have rarely been used for beam sampling because they require special properties from dielectric overcoatings, which, to the best of our knowledge, are described here for the first time. Although such gratings are often used as beam splitters, their nature can be modified along the same principles with thin metal coatings, which are described.

  19. Analysis of the optical parameters of phase holographic gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є.О. Тихонов

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available  Suitability of 2- wave approximation of the coupled waves theory tor description of holographic phase gratings recorded on photopolymer compound ФПК-488 is proved. Using the basic formulas of the theory, main grating optical parameters - a depth of modulation and finished thickness are not measured immediately are determined.

  20. Transversely loaded fiber optic grating strain sensors for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udd, Eric; Schulz, Whitten L.; Seim, John M.; Trego, Angela; Haugse, Eric D.; Johnson, Patrick E.

    2000-05-01

    Most fiber grating sensor technology that has been developed to support strain sensing involves the measurement of axial strain. Fiber grating sensors are however capable of monitoring transverse as well as axial strain. This paper reviews a series of applications of this technology that are of particular interest to aerospace applications.